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Sample records for horse breeds equus

  1. Population viability analysis on domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Bach, Lars; Loeschcke, Volker

    2009-01-01

    simulation package was used for the population viability analysis. First, we investigated the future viability of these breeds based on present demographic and environmental parameters. Second, a sensitivity analysis revealed the most important variables for the viability of these breeds. Third, we examined...... concerning reproduction of the mares had the greatest impact, with the number of mares actively breeding being the most influential on the population forecasts. The results suggest that closing the Knabstrupper studbooks can be done only if increasing the number of mares actively breeding counteracts...... the loss of genetic variation attributable to such a management strategy. It is recommended, based on these results, that the number of Frederiksborg and Knabstrupper mares actively breeding must be increased to approximately 30% in the 2 breeds that are presently using only 13%, while leaving the third...

  2. Immunocontraception in wild horses (Equus caballus extends reproductive cycling beyond the normal breeding season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra M V Nuñez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the physiological effects of immunocontraceptive treatment with porcine zona pellucida (PZP have been well studied, little is known about PZP's effects on the scheduling of reproductive cycling. Recent behavioral research has suggested that recipients of PZP extend the receptive breeding period into what is normally the non-breeding season. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine if this is the case, we compiled foaling data from wild horses (Equus caballus living on Shackleford Banks, North Carolina for 4 years pre- and 8 years post-contraception management with PZP (pre-contraception, n = 65 births from 45 mares; post-contraception, n = 97 births from 46 mares. Gestation lasts approximately 11-12 months in wild horses, placing conception at approximately 11.5 months prior to birth. Since the contraception program began in January 2000, foaling has occurred over a significantly broader range than it had before the contraception program. Foaling in PZP recipients (n = 45 births from 27 mares has consistently occurred over a broader range than has foaling in non-recipients (n = 52 births from 19 mares. In addition, current recipients of PZP foaled later in the year than did prior recipient and non-recipient mares. Females receiving more consecutive PZP applications gave birth later in the season than did females receiving fewer applications. Finally, the efficacy of PZP declined with increasing consecutive applications before reaching 100% after five consecutive applications. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For a gregarious species such as the horse, the extension of reproductive cycling into the fall months has important social consequences, including decreased group stability and the extension of male reproductive behavior. In addition, reproductive cycling into the fall months could have long-term effects on foal survivorship. Managers should consider these factors before enacting immunocontraceptive programs in new

  3. Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Ludovic; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Zhang, Guojie; Froese, Duane; Albrechtsen, Anders; Stiller, Mathias; Schubert, Mikkel; Cappellini, Enrico; Petersen, Bent; Moltke, Ida; Johnson, Philip L F; Fumagalli, Matteo; Vilstrup, Julia T; Raghavan, Maanasa; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Vogt, Josef; Szklarczyk, Damian; Kelstrup, Christian D; Vinther, Jakob; Dolocan, Andrei; Stenderup, Jesper; Velazquez, Amhed M V; Cahill, James; Rasmussen, Morten; Wang, Xiaoli; Min, Jiumeng; Zazula, Grant D; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Mortensen, Cecilie; Magnussen, Kim; Thompson, John F; Weinstock, Jacobo; Gregersen, Kristian; Røed, Knut H; Eisenmann, Véra; Rubin, Carl J; Miller, Donald C; Antczak, Douglas F; Bertelsen, Mads F; Brunak, Søren; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Ryder, Oliver; Andersson, Leif; Mundy, John; Krogh, Anders; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Kjær, Kurt; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Olsen, Jesper V; Hofreiter, Michael; Nielsen, Rasmus; Shapiro, Beth; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

    2013-07-04

    The rich fossil record of equids has made them a model for evolutionary processes. Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560-780 thousand years before present (kyr BP). Our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43 kyr BP), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus ferus caballus), a Przewalski's horse (E. f. przewalskii) and a donkey (E. asinus). Our analyses suggest that the Equus lineage giving rise to all contemporary horses, zebras and donkeys originated 4.0-4.5 million years before present (Myr BP), twice the conventionally accepted time to the most recent common ancestor of the genus Equus. We also find that horse population size fluctuated multiple times over the past 2 Myr, particularly during periods of severe climatic changes. We estimate that the Przewalski's and domestic horse populations diverged 38-72 kyr BP, and find no evidence of recent admixture between the domestic horse breeds and the Przewalski's horse investigated. This supports the contention that Przewalski's horses represent the last surviving wild horse population. We find similar levels of genetic variation among Przewalski's and domestic populations, indicating that the former are genetically viable and worthy of conservation efforts. We also find evidence for continuous selection on the immune system and olfaction throughout horse evolution. Finally, we identify 29 genomic regions among horse breeds that deviate from neutrality and show low levels of genetic variation compared to the Przewalski's horse. Such regions could correspond to loci selected early during domestication.

  4. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  5. Karyotypic relationships among Equus grevyi, Equus burchelli and domestic horse defined using horse chromosome arm-specific probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilova, P; Kubickova, S; Zrnova, E; Horin, P; Vahala, J; Rubes, J

    2007-01-01

    Using laser microdissection we prepared a set of horse chromosome arm-specific probes. Most of the probes were generated from horse chromosomes, some of them were derived from Equus zebra hartmannae. The set of probes were hybridized onto E. grevyi chromosomes in order to establish a genome-wide chromosomal correspondence between this zebra and horse. The use of arm-specific probes provided us with more information on the mutual arrangement of the genomes than we could obtain by means of whole-chromosome paints generated by flow sorting, even if we used reciprocal painting with probe sets from both species. By comparison of our results and results of comparative mapping in E. burchelli, we also established the chromosomal correspondence between E. grevyi and E. burchelli, providing evidence for a very close karyotypic relationship between these two zebra species. Establishment of the comparative map for E. grevyi contributes to the knowledge of the karyotypic phylogeny in the Equidae family.

  6. Short Communication Quick method for identifying horse (Equus caballus) and donkey (Equus asinus) hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, M M; Santos, J B F; Mendonça, A S; Silva, T C F; Antunes, R C; Melo, E O

    2016-09-23

    The domestication of the Equus genus 5000-6000 years ago has influenced the history of human civilization. As soon as horse and donkey species had been domesticated, they were crossbred, producing humanity's first documented attempt at animal genome manipulation. Since then, the mule (male donkey x female horse) and the reciprocal cross (the hinny, male horse x female donkey) have been the most common equine hybrids in the world. Due to their hybrid vigor, mules and hinnies have been intensively used for carrying loads and people and for tilling the land. Despite their importance, visual distinction of mules and hinnies is difficult due to high phenotypic resemblance. However, the distinction between these two hybrids is of pivotal importance for equid breeders and ranchers. In this study, an easy, low-cost, effective, and fast multiplex-polymerase chain reaction method was developed to distinguish the maternal origin of mules and hinnies, targeting the hyper-variable mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. This methodology can help breeders, ranchers, animal science professionals, and researchers manage their equine herds with more confidence and precision.

  7. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus: A Preliminary Investigation

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    Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1 in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available, 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition, and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available. The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2, the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research.

  8. Investigating determinants of yawning in the domestic ( Equus caballus) and Przewalski ( Equus ferus przewalskii) horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecka-Bruzda, Aleksandra; Fureix, Carole; Ouvrard, Anne; Bourjade, Marie; Hausberger, Martine

    2016-10-01

    Yawning is rare in herbivores which therefore may be an interesting group to disentangle the potential function(s) of yawning behaviour. Horses provide the opportunity to compare not only animals living in different conditions but also wild versus domestic species. Here, we tested three hypotheses by observing both domestic and Przewalski horses living in semi-natural conditions: (i) that domestic horses may show an elevated rate of yawning as a result of the domestication process (or as a result of life conditions), (ii) that individuals experiencing a higher level of social stress would yawn more than individuals with lower social stress and (iii) that males would yawn more often than females. The study involved 19 Przewalski horses (PHs) and 16 domestic horses (DHs) of different breeds living in large outdoor enclosures. The results showed that there was no difference between the PH and DH in yawning frequency (YF). PHs exhibited much higher levels of social interactions than DHs. There was a positive correlation between yawning frequency and aggressive behaviours in PHs, especially males, supporting the idea that yawning may be associated with more excitatory/stressful social situations. A correlation was found between yawning frequency and affiliative behaviours in DHs, which supports the potential relationship between yawning and social context. Finally, the entire males, but not castrated males, showed much higher levels of yawning than females in both species. The intensity (rather than the valence) of the interaction may be important in triggering yawning, which could therefore be a displacement activity that helps reduce tension.

  9. Mitochondrial D-loop sequence variation among Italian horse breeds

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    Zanotti Marta

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic variability of the mitochondrial D-loop DNA sequence in seven horse breeds bred in Italy (Giara, Haflinger, Italian trotter, Lipizzan, Maremmano, Thoroughbred and Sarcidano was analysed. Five unrelated horses were chosen in each breed and twenty-two haplotypes were identified. The sequences obtained were aligned and compared with a reference sequence and with 27 mtDNA D-loop sequences selected in the GenBank database, representing Spanish, Portuguese, North African, wild horses and an Equus asinus sequence as the outgroup. Kimura two-parameter distances were calculated and a cluster analysis using the Neighbour-joining method was performed to obtain phylogenetic trees among breeds bred in Italy and among Italian and foreign breeds. The cluster analysis indicates that all the breeds but Giara are divided in the two trees, and no clear relationships were revealed between Italian populations and the other breeds. These results could be interpreted as showing the mixed origin of breeds bred in Italy and probably indicate the presence of many ancient maternal lineages with high diversity in mtDNA sequences.

  10. Cognition and learning in horses (Equus caballus): What we know and why we should ask more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Lauren; Udell, Monique A R

    2016-05-01

    Horses (Equus caballus) have a rich history in their relationship with humans. Across different cultures and eras they have been utilized for work, show, cultural rituals, consumption, therapy, and companionship and continue to serve in many of these roles today. As one of the most commonly trained domestic animals, understanding how horses learn and how their relationship with humans and other horses impacts their ability to learn has implications for horse welfare, training, husbandry and management. Given that unlike dogs and cats, domesticated horses have evolved from prey animals, the horse-human relationship poses interesting and unique scientific questions of theoretical value. There is still much to be learned about the cognition and behaviour of horses from a scientific perspective. This review explores current research within three related areas of horse cognition: human-horse interactions, social learning and independent learning in horses. Research on these topics is summarized and suggestions for future research are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Domestic horses (Equus ferus caballus) fail to intuitively reason about object properties like solidity and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerli, Sarah; Thill, Corinne; Amici, Federica; Cacchione, Trix

    2018-05-01

    From early infancy, humans reason about the external world in terms of identifiable, solid, cohesive objects persisting in space and time. This is one of the most fundamental human skills, which may be part of our innate conception of object properties. Although object permanence has been extensively studied across a variety of taxa, little is known about how non-human animals reason about other object properties. In this study, we therefore tested how domestic horses (Equus ferus caballus) intuitively reason about object properties like solidity and height, to locate hidden food. Horses were allowed to look for a food reward behind two opaque screens, only one of which had either the proper height or inclination to hide food rewards. Our results suggest that horses could not intuitively reason about physical object properties, but rather learned to select the screen with the proper height or inclination from the second set of 5 trials.

  12. Phylogeny of horse chromosome 5q in the genus Equus and centromere repositioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, F M; Nergadze, S G; Poletto, V; Cerutti, F; Ryder, O A; Leeb, T; Raimondi, E; Giulotto, E

    2009-01-01

    Horses, asses and zebras belong to the genus Equus and are the only extant species of the family Equidae in the order Perissodactyla. In a previous work we demonstrated that a key factor in the rapid karyotypic evolution of this genus was evolutionary centromere repositioning, that is, the shift of the centromeric function to a new position without alteration of the order of markers along the chromosome. In search of previously undiscovered evolutionarily new centromeres, we traced the phylogeny of horse chromosome 5, analyzing the order of BAC markers, derived from a horse genomic library, in 7 Equus species (E. caballus, E. hemionus onager, E. kiang, E. asinus, E. grevyi, E. burchelli and E. zebra hartmannae). This analysis showed that repositioned centromeres are present in E. asinus (domestic donkey, EAS) chromosome 16 and in E. burchelli (Burchell's zebra, EBU) chromosome 17, confirming that centromere repositioning is a strikingly frequent phenomenon in this genus. The observation that the neocentromeres in EAS16 and EBU17 are in the same chromosomal position suggests that they may derive from the same event and therefore, E. asinus and E. burchelli may be more closely related than previously proposed; alternatively, 2 centromere repositioning events, involving the same chromosomal region, may have occurred independently in different lineages, pointing to the possible existence of hot spots for neocentromere formation. Our comparative analysis also showed that, while E. caballus chromosome 5 seems to represent the ancestral configuration, centric fission followed by independent fusion events gave rise to 3 different submetacentric chromosomes in other Equus lineages. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young

    horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity

    of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male

    reproduction. The study was

  14. Interspecific communication from people to horses (Equus ferus caballus) is influenced by different horsemanship training styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorey, Nicole R; Conover, Alicia M; Udell, Monique A R

    2014-11-01

    The ability of many domesticated animals to follow human pointing gestures to locate hidden food has led to scientific debate on the relative importance of domestication and individual experience on the origins and development of this capacity. To further explore this question, we examined the influence of different prior training histories/methods on the ability of horses (Equus ferus caballus) to follow a momentary distal point. Ten horses previously trained using one of two methods (Parelli™ natural horsemanship or traditional horse training) were tested using a standard object choice task. The results show that neither group of horses was initially able to follow the momentary distal point. However, after more experience with the point, horses previously trained using the Parelli natural horsemanship method learned to follow momentary distal points significantly faster than those previously trained with traditional methods. The poor initial performance of horses on distal pointing tasks, coupled with the finding that prior training history and experimental experience can lead to success on this task, fails to support the predictions of the domestication hypothesis and instead lends support to the two-stage hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burócziová, Monika; Riha, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2009), s. 375-377 ISSN 1234-1983 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Breed discrimination * Genetics diversity * Horse breeds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.324, year: 2009

  16. Evolutionary constraints on equid domestication: Comparison of flight initiation distances of wild horses (Equus caballus ferus) and plains zebras (Equus quagga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Alexali S; Coss, Richard G

    2015-11-01

    Habituation to humans was an essential component of horse (Equus caballus ferus) domestication, with the nondomestication of zebras (Equus quagga) possibly reflecting an adaptive constraint on habituation. We present the human hunting hypothesis, arguing that ancestral humans hunted African animals, including zebras, long enough to promote a persistent wariness of humans, whereas a briefer period of hunting horses in Central Asia influenced by glacial cycles was unlikely to produce an equally persistent wariness. An alternative habituation to humans hypothesis, prompted by field observations, posits that zebras can habituate well to nonthreatening humans given sufficient exposure. If so, other factors must account for zebra nondomestication. To examine these hypotheses, we compared the flight initiation distances (FIDs) of wild horses in the United States and plains zebras in Africa to a human approaching on foot (N = 87). We compared the flight behavior of both species at sites with low and high exposure to humans (mean humans/acre = .004 and .209, respectively). Analyses revealed a significant interaction (p = .0001) between equid species and level of human exposure. The mean FIDs of horses (146 m) and zebras (105 m) with low human exposure did not differ appreciably (p = .412), but these distances were substantially longer (p < .0001) than those of horses (17 m) and zebras (37 m) with high human exposure that did differ significantly (p < .0001). The finding that plains zebras habituate less completely to humans than horses do might reflect an adaptive response to historical hunting and partly explain their resistance to domestication. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Genetic analysis of three South African horse breeds

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    E.G. Cothran

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability at 7 blood-group and 10 biochemical genetic loci was examined in 3 South African horse breeds, the Nooitgedacht, Boerperd and Basuto Pony. Observed heterozygosity for these breeds was intermediate for domestic horses, with the highest heterozygosity in the Boerperd and the lowest in the Basuto Pony. The 3 breeds show greater genetic similarity to each other than to other domestic horse breeds. Compared to other breeds, the South African breeds show greater genetic similarity to breeds such as the Thoroughbred, Holstein, Trakehner and Hanovarian and also to North American breeds such as the Saddlebred, Standardbred and Morgan Horse.

  18. BREEDING AND UTILIZATION OF ARABIAN HORSE TODAY

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    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Arab horse raising has a hundred year old tradition. A real stud farm raising started by purchasing original reproductive material from Asia in 1895, 1897 and 1899. Apart from state stud in Goražde, Arab horse was also raised in several private stud farms, especially in Slavonia and Srijem region. By the end of the II World war Arab horse raising was restricted to only 2-3 stud farms, regardless the above mentioned oldest Arab stud farm Goražde. According to reports refering to end of 1940 in former Yugoslavia there were slightly more than 150 grown up thoroughbred Arab heads, stallions and mares in both private and public property. A number of well known stud farms was reduced, thus, Arab horse raising was limited only to stud farms Goražde, Inocens Dvor and Karađorđevo. Sires were mostly used in Bosnian-mountain horse breeding whereas in plain areas they were used for ceossing with heavy draft mares or raising of, in that time numerous represented, nonius breed. The year 1970 was characterized by Arab horses reduction, thereby raising stagnation. Horse raising was closed, so, 77 Sabich stallion, bought in Germany, started again Arab horse raising, firstly in Goražde. It was also attributed by raising establishment of agricultural economy Višnjica near Slatina. At the same time Arab horse raising increased slowly at individual raisers in Kutina, Vrbovsko, Istria, Čađavica and Zagreb vicinity. According to available data from 1999 there were approx. 132 stallions and mares due to horse raisers scattered throught Croatia. All male and female reproductive heads were mostly used as raising heads for thoroughbred raising or for crossing with other breeds which is justified by the data from the period 1930-1935. On the other hand one part of reproductive heads, especially males, were used as sports heads for gallop races and distance riding as Arab horses were used by their arrival to present areas and by Arab horse raising tradition.

  19. CROSSING OF HOLSTEIN HORSE BREED WITH SOME OTHER BREEDS

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    Josip Ljubešić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of crossing a heavier-weight semi-breed horse (Holstein with mares of Croatian Posavian type draft horse resulted in possibility of such further crossing. Attained product meets today’s market requirements: firstly as an export-meat category that meets Italian market requirements, since other markets are not well known, secondly, it can be used as a sport-tourist-recreation horse. It must be pointed out that all produced hybrids did not meet the needs of these two basic criteria. In spite of being potential slaughtery head with good utilization, each produced head can be, according to its exterial properties, used as a sporttourist animal that showed certain usable values and results proven by the experiment. The hybrids showed some hereditory draft horse properties shown on enclosed photos. In addition, exterier measures show that former knowledge on hybrids can respond the question of a horse raising on non-utilized pastures which they got used to very well. Thus these horses are able to be estimated by their body development just as our native draft Posavian type horse including possibility of using them as a sport-tourist-recreation horse.

  20. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Increasing Numbers of Horses of Undefined Breed on Horse Breeding in the Czech Republic

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    Iveta Bihuncová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyse the numbers and division of horses of undefined breed. At the present time this group is the most numerous in the entire population of horses. Horses of undefined breed do not come under any breeder union which would provide reports about these horses; these horses are only registered and breeders are informed only about their numbers. Our study is the first to deal with the problem of increasing numbers of horses of undefined breed. The database contained 22 211 horses not entered registered in any of the stud books. In the database we filed approved horses born between 1972 and 1 September 2012 and horses registered from 1987. The data were processed in the Excel programme and results were evaluated in graphs. The most frequent horse in this group was the warm-blood type (n = 9 303, pony type (n = 6 285, cold-blooded type (n = 2 663 and unlisted horses (n = 2 278. Since 2001 the number of registered horses of undefined breed has increased. The most numerous dams of horses of undefined breed is the Czech warm-blood with 1 912 offspring; dams of the English Thoroughbred with 552 offspring and mares of the utility Huzule horse with 492 offspring. In the group of registered horses of undefined breed the Czech warm-blood appears in the pedigree of 507 colts and the American Paint Horse in the pedigree of sires of 506 colts. Why the numbers of horses of undefined breed are increasing is the boom of leisure horsemanship and unqualified horse breeding.

  2. Differentiation of Meat Samples from Domestic Horses ( Equus caballus and Asiatic Wild Asses ( Equus hemionus Using a Species-Speci fi c Restriction Site in the Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Region

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    Ralph Kuehn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that Asiatic wild asses ( Equus hemionus are being increasingly poached in a commercial fashion. Part of the meat is believed to reach the meat markets in the capital Ulaanbaatar. To test this hypothesis, we collected 500 meat samples between February and May 2006. To differentiate between domestic horse ( Equus caballus and wild ass meat, we developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP assay based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. We ampli fi ed and sequenced a cytochrome b fragment (335 bp and carried out a multialignment of the generated sequences for the domestic horse, the Asiatic wild ass, the domestic donkey ( Equus asinus and the Przewalski’s horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii . We detected a species-speci fi c restriction site (AatII for the Asiatic wild ass, resulting in a speci fi c restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP band pattern. This RFLP assay represents a rapid and cost-effective method to detect wild ass meat. All of the 500 meat samples we collected and analysed within this pilot project proved to be domestic horsemeat as declared by the sales people. Thus, either the assumption that wild ass meat is sold as “cheap horse meat” is wrong, or we picked the wrong markets, products or season.

  3. Genetic diversity detection of the domestic horse (Equus caballus by genes associated with coat color

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    Luz Correa A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the population structure and genetic diversity in populations of domestic horse (Equus caballus in the municipality Cienaga de Oro-Córdoba (Colombia. Materials and methods. Random sampling were conducted between August and October 2013, in adult animals on farms seven districts, which was carried out phenotypic characterization of each animal, based on autosomal markers encoding morphological Extension (E , Agouti (A, Cream (C, White (W, Gray (G, Tobiano (TO, Overo (O and Roan (RN. Population genetic parameters: allele frequency, genetic diversity, gene flow, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and genetic distance were calculated through the program POPGENE 1.31; the genetic structure was assessed using the program FSTAT v. 2.9.3.2. Results. 341 individuals were analyzed in the seven populations studied, where the Extension gene Was the MOST faq frequently as the Overo and Tobiano genes showed the lowest values. Insignificant values of genetic variability and population recorded a global level, likewise, low genetic differentiation among populations, accompanied by a high gene flow was obtained; an excess of heterozygotes at population and global level was observed; to this is added the presence of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all populations relative to the markers studied and low genetic distance values were reported. Conclusions. The populations are highly genetically related, a situation that may result from the existing geographical proximity between them, favoring genetic exchange and the establishment of a metapopulation.

  4. Analysis of Horse Myostatin Gene and Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Breeds of Different Morphological Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Olio, Stefania; Fontanesi, Luca; Nanni Costa, Leonardo; Tassinari, Marco; Minieri, Laura; Falaschini, Adalberto

    2010-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative modulator of muscle mass. We characterized the horse (Equus caballus) MSTN gene and identified and analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in breeds of different morphological types. Sequencing of coding, untranslated, intronic, and regulatory regions of MSTN gene in 12 horses from 10 breeds revealed seven SNPs: two in the promoter, four in intron 1, and one in intron 2. The SNPs of the promoter (GQ183900:g.26T>C and GQ183900:g.156T>C, the latter located within a conserved TATA-box like motif) were screened in 396 horses from 16 breeds. The g.26C and the g.156C alleles presented higher frequency in heavy (brachymorphic type) than in light breeds (dolichomorphic type such as Italian Trotter breed). The significant difference of allele frequencies for the SNPs at the promoter and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) on haplotypes indicates that these polymorphisms could be associated with variability of morphology traits in horse breeds. PMID:20706663

  5. Analysis of Horse Myostatin Gene and Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Breeds of Different Morphological Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Dall'Olio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin (MSTN is a negative modulator of muscle mass. We characterized the horse (Equus caballus MSTN gene and identified and analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in breeds of different morphological types. Sequencing of coding, untranslated, intronic, and regulatory regions of MSTN gene in 12 horses from 10 breeds revealed seven SNPs: two in the promoter, four in intron 1, and one in intron 2. The SNPs of the promoter (GQ183900:g.26T>C and GQ183900:g.156T>C, the latter located within a conserved TATA-box like motif were screened in 396 horses from 16 breeds. The g.26C and the g.156C alleles presented higher frequency in heavy (brachymorphic type than in light breeds (dolichomorphic type such as Italian Trotter breed. The significant difference of allele frequencies for the SNPs at the promoter and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA on haplotypes indicates that these polymorphisms could be associated with variability of morphology traits in horse breeds.

  6. Genetic diversity and bottleneck studies in the Marwari horse breed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity within the Marwari breed of horses was evaluated using 26 different microsatellite pairs with 48 DNA samples from unrelated horses. This molecular characterisation was undertaken to evaluate the problem of genetic bottlenecks also, if any, in this breed. The estimated mean (± s.e.) allelic diversity was 5.9 ...

  7. Comparative endocrinological responses to short transportation of Equidae (Equus asinus and Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Esterina; Medica, Pietro; Cravana, Cristina; Aveni, Francesca; Ferlazzo, Adriana

    2013-03-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of short transportation on β-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol changes, 12 healthy stallions of Equidae (Equus asinus and Equus caballus) were studied before and after transportation of 50 km. Blood samples were collected 1 week before transportation in basal conditions, immediately before loading and after transportation and unloading, on their arrival at the breeding station. Compared to basal and before values, donkeys showed an increase in circulating ACTH (P donkeys. Horses facing forward (direction of travel) showed higher (P donkeys; horses facing backward (the opposite direction of travel) showed lower (P donkeys and only of cortisol in horses, suggesting that transportation for donkeys may be more stressful than horses. © 2012 The Authors Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Next Generation Semiconductor Based Sequencing of the Donkey (Equus asinus) Genome Provided Comparative Sequence Data against the Horse Genome and a Few Millions of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Francesca; Scimone, Concetta; Geraci, Claudia; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Utzeri, Valerio Joe; Chiofalo, Vincenzo; Fontanesi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Few studies investigated the donkey (Equus asinus) at the whole genome level so far. Here, we sequenced the genome of two male donkeys using a next generation semiconductor based sequencing platform (the Ion Proton sequencer) and compared obtained sequence information with the available donkey draft genome (and its Illumina reads from which it was originated) and with the EquCab2.0 assembly of the horse genome. Moreover, the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Analyzer was used to sequence reduced representation libraries (RRL) obtained from a DNA pool including donkeys of different breeds (Grigio Siciliano, Ragusano and Martina Franca). The number of next generation sequencing reads aligned with the EquCab2.0 horse genome was larger than those aligned with the draft donkey genome. This was due to the larger N50 for contigs and scaffolds of the horse genome. Nucleotide divergence between E. caballus and E. asinus was estimated to be ~ 0.52-0.57%. Regions with low nucleotide divergence were identified in several autosomal chromosomes and in the whole chromosome X. These regions might be evolutionally important in equids. Comparing Y-chromosome regions we identified variants that could be useful to track donkey paternal lineages. Moreover, about 4.8 million of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the donkey genome were identified and annotated combining sequencing data from Ion Proton (whole genome sequencing) and Ion Torrent (RRL) runs with Illumina reads. A higher density of SNPs was present in regions homologous to horse chromosome 12, in which several studies reported a high frequency of copy number variants. The SNPs we identified constitute a first resource useful to describe variability at the population genomic level in E. asinus and to establish monitoring systems for the conservation of donkey genetic resources. PMID:26151450

  9. Next Generation Semiconductor Based Sequencing of the Donkey (Equus asinus Genome Provided Comparative Sequence Data against the Horse Genome and a Few Millions of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bertolini

    Full Text Available Few studies investigated the donkey (Equus asinus at the whole genome level so far. Here, we sequenced the genome of two male donkeys using a next generation semiconductor based sequencing platform (the Ion Proton sequencer and compared obtained sequence information with the available donkey draft genome (and its Illumina reads from which it was originated and with the EquCab2.0 assembly of the horse genome. Moreover, the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Analyzer was used to sequence reduced representation libraries (RRL obtained from a DNA pool including donkeys of different breeds (Grigio Siciliano, Ragusano and Martina Franca. The number of next generation sequencing reads aligned with the EquCab2.0 horse genome was larger than those aligned with the draft donkey genome. This was due to the larger N50 for contigs and scaffolds of the horse genome. Nucleotide divergence between E. caballus and E. asinus was estimated to be ~ 0.52-0.57%. Regions with low nucleotide divergence were identified in several autosomal chromosomes and in the whole chromosome X. These regions might be evolutionally important in equids. Comparing Y-chromosome regions we identified variants that could be useful to track donkey paternal lineages. Moreover, about 4.8 million of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the donkey genome were identified and annotated combining sequencing data from Ion Proton (whole genome sequencing and Ion Torrent (RRL runs with Illumina reads. A higher density of SNPs was present in regions homologous to horse chromosome 12, in which several studies reported a high frequency of copy number variants. The SNPs we identified constitute a first resource useful to describe variability at the population genomic level in E. asinus and to establish monitoring systems for the conservation of donkey genetic resources.

  10. Injection-Site Reactions in Wild Horses (Equus caballus) Receiving an Immunocontraceptive Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, James E.; Ransom, Jason I.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Bureau of Land Management are conducting research on the efficacy of the immunocontraceptive agent porcine zona pellucida (PZP) in reducing fertility of wild horses (Equus caballus). As an antigen, PZP stimulates antibody production when injected into many mammalian species. These antibodies bind to the external surface of the ovum, preventing fertilization. By itself, PZP is only weakly immunogenic and is therefore delivered with an adjuvant, most commonly one of the Freund adjuvants, designed to further stimulate antibody production. Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) in particular is known to be very effective, but may also be associated with undesirable side effects such as formation of abscesses at injection sites. Such reactions may be exacerbated when accompanied by the additional trauma of a remotely delivered dart. Because horses in our three study herds were individually identifiable by color markings and harem association, we were able to monitor mares for injection-site reactions (abscesses, nodules, swelling, and stiffness) following inoculation with PZP. In 100 injections delivered by hand we observed a single nodule, two instances of swelling, and no other reactions. In two herds that received remotely delivered (dart) injections, the frequency of reactions was about 1 and 6 percent for abscesses, 25 percent for nodules (both herds), 11 and 33 percent for swelling, and 1 and 12 percent for stiffness. Abscesses were too infrequent to allow meaningful analysis of the relation to covariates, but for the other types of reactions we used logistic regression to examine the relation of occurrence to the delivery method (rifle or CO2-powered blowgun), adjuvant (FCA, Freund's modified adjuvant, and Freund's incomplete adjuvant), dart trauma (normal or abnormal), and age of mare. Abnormal dart trauma included cases where the dart hit bone or the needle broke off. We found strong evidence (odds ratio = 5.023, P = 0.001) for a

  11. Characterization of a novel variant of amino acid transport system asc in erythrocytes from Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, D A; Ellory, J C; Young, J D

    1992-08-01

    In thoroughbred horses, red blood cell amino acid transport activity is Na(+)-independent and controlled by three codominant genetic alleles (h, l, s), coding for high-affinity system asc1 (L-alanine apparent Km for influx at 37 degrees C congruent to 0.35 mM), low-affinity system asc2 (L-alanine Km congruent to 14 mM), and transport deficiency, respectively. The present study investigated amino acid transport mechanisms in red cells from four wild species: Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii), Hartmann's zebra (Zebra hartmannae), Grevy's zebra (Zebra grevyi), and onager (Equus hemonius). Red blood cell samples from different Przewalski's horses exhibited uniformly high rates of L-alanine uptake, mediated by a high-affinity asc1-type transport system. Mean apparent Km and Vmax values (+/- SE) for L-alanine influx at 37 degrees C in red cells from 10 individual animals were 0.373 +/- 0.068 mM and 2.27 +/- 0.11 mmol (L cells.h), respectively. As in thoroughbreds, the Przewalski's horse transporter interacted with dibasic as well as neutral amino acids. However, the Przewalski asc1 isoform transported L-lysine with a substantially (6.4-fold) higher apparent affinity than its thoroughbred counterpart (Km for influx 1.4 mM at 37 degrees C) and was also less prone to trans-stimulation effects. The novel high apparent affinity of the Przewalski's horse transporter for L-lysine provides additional key evidence of functional and possible structural similarities between asc and the classical Na(+)-dependent system ASC and between these systems and the Na(+)-independent dibasic amino acid transport system y+. Unlike Przewalski's horse, zebra red cells were polymorphic with respect to L-alanine transport activity, showing high-affinity or low-affinity saturable mechanisms of L-alanine uptake. Onager red cells transported this amino acid with intermediate affinity (apparent Km for influx 3.0 mM at 37 degrees C). Radiation inactivation analysis was used to estimate the target

  12. Low plasma cortisol and fecal cortisol metabolite measures as indicators of compromised welfare in domestic horses (Equus caballus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Pawluski

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response to chronic stress is far from straight forward, particularly with regards to animal welfare. There are reports of no effect as well as both decreases and increases in cortisol after chronic stressors. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to determine how measures of compromised welfare, such as chronic pain and haematological anomalies, related to cortisol levels in domestic horses (Equus caballus. Domestic horses are an informative model to investigate the impact of chronic stress (due to environment, pain, work, housing conditions… on the HPA axis. The second aim was to determine whether levels of fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM may be used as an indicator of welfare measures. The present study used fifty-nine horses (44 geldings and 15 mares, from three riding centres in Brittany, France. The primary findings show that horses whose welfare was clearly compromised (as indicated by an unusual ears backward position, presence of vertebral problems or haematological anomalies, e.g. anaemia also had lower levels of both FCM and plasma cortisol. This work extends our previous findings showing that withdrawn postures, indicators of depressive-like behavior in horses, are associated with lower plasma cortisol levels. We also found that evening plasma cortisol levels positively correlated with FCM levels in horses. Future research aims to determine the extent to which factors of influence on welfare, such as living conditions (e.g. single stalls versus group housing in pasture or paddocks, early life factors, and human interaction, act as mediators of cortisol levels in horses.

  13. Evaluation of the conformation of stallions of selected horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Petlachová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the conformation of stallions of the breeds American Quarter Horse (AQH, American Paint Horse (APH, Appaloosa (Appa, the Lipizzaner horse (LH and the Old Kladruby horse (OKH. Representatives of these breeds are characterized as the descendants of horses on the base of the Arab-Berber blood. Western breeds (AQH, APH, Appa due to different environmental conditions, nutrition and the other structure under the influence of a different type of use, type of riding demands differed considerably from the original Spanish-type horses. It was measured a total of 24 body dimensions. Representatives of The American western breeds are statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 in 23 of the 24 observed effects. To be precise, they are: smaller wither height as measured by stick, lower at the tail-set, longer neck, narrower chest, longer oblique body length, wider front pelvis length, longer pelvis bones, longer femur bones, shorter hind cannons.A statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 was found in the length of the humerus, where the Old Kladruby Horse has a humerus that is longer by 2.34 cm than that of the APH. The Lipizzaner horse differs statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 from the Appaloosa and Old Kladruby horse in the tape length of its head.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA genetic variations among four horse populations in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-12-01

    It is concluded that sequence analysis of mtDNA control region is still the most informative tool for the identification of genetic biodiversity and phylogeny of different horse breeds and populations. The horse populations reared in Egypt possess low genetic diversity and all of them are belonged to Equus caballus breed.

  15. Investigating attentional processes in depressive-like domestic horses (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochais, C; Henry, S; Fureix, C; Hausberger, M

    2016-03-01

    Some captive/domestic animals respond to confinement by becoming inactive and unresponsive to external stimuli. Human inactivity is one of the behavioural markers of clinical depression, a mental disorder diagnosed by the co-occurrence of symptoms including deficit in selective attention. Some riding horses display 'withdrawn' states of inactivity and low responsiveness to stimuli that resemble the reduced engagement with their environment of some depressed patients. We hypothesized that 'withdrawn' horses experience a depressive-like state and evaluated their level of attention by confronting them with auditory stimuli. Five novel auditory stimuli were broadcasted to 27 horses, including 12 'withdrawn' horses, for 5 days. The horses' reactions and durations of attention were recorded. Non-withdrawn horses reacted more and their attention lasted longer than that of withdrawn horses on the first day, but their durations of attention decreased over days, but those of withdrawn horses remained stable. These results suggest that the withdrawn horses' selective attention is altered, adding to already evidenced common features between this horses' state and human depression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. BREEDING AND UTILIZATION OF ARABIAN HORSE TODAY

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasta Mandić; Josip Ljubešić; Tomo Rastija; Živko Bošnjak

    2000-01-01

    Arab horse raising has a hundred year old tradition. A real stud farm raising started by purchasing original reproductive material from Asia in 1895, 1897 and 1899. Apart from state stud in Goražde, Arab horse was also raised in several private stud farms, especially in Slavonia and Srijem region. By the end of the II World war Arab horse raising was restricted to only 2-3 stud farms, regardless the above mentioned oldest Arab stud farm Goražde. According to reports refering to en...

  17. Genetic diversity in German draught horse breeds compared with a group of primitive, riding and wild horses by means of microsatellite DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberle, K S; Hamann, H; Drögemüller, C; Distl, O

    2004-08-01

    We compared the genetic diversity and distance among six German draught horse breeds to wild (Przewalski's Horse), primitive (Icelandic Horse, Sorraia Horse, Exmoor Pony) or riding horse breeds (Hanoverian Warmblood, Arabian) by means of genotypic information from 30 microsatellite loci. The draught horse breeds included the South German Coldblood, Rhenish German Draught Horse, Mecklenburg Coldblood, Saxon Thuringa Coldblood, Black Forest Horse and Schleswig Draught Horse. Despite large differences in population sizes, the average observed heterozygosity (H(o)) differed little among the heavy horse breeds (0.64-0.71), but was considerably lower than in the Hanoverian Warmblood or Icelandic Horse population. The mean number of alleles (N(A)) decreased more markedly with declining population sizes of German draught horse breeds (5.2-6.3) but did not reach the values of Hanoverian Warmblood (N(A) = 6.7). The coefficient of differentiation among the heavy horse breeds showed 11.6% of the diversity between the heavy horse breeds, as opposed to 21.2% between the other horse populations. The differentiation test revealed highly significant genetic differences among all draught horse breeds except the Mecklenburg and Saxon Thuringa Coldbloods. The Schleswig Draught Horse was the most distinct draught horse breed. In conclusion, the study demonstrated a clear distinction among the German draught horse breeds and even among breeds with a very short history of divergence like Rhenish German Draught Horse and its East German subpopulations Mecklenburg and Saxon Thuringa Coldblood.

  18. Research on the Morphological Characteristics Variability of Three Horse Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Cătălin Prisacaru; Ancuţa Elena Coşuleanu; Ioan Gîlcă; Vasile Ujică

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was the characterization of some morphological parameters of some horse population improvedwith stallion of Arab, Hucul and English thoroughbred breeds. The biological material was represented by thestallions belonging to the three breeds and the population improved with them. Measurements have been made inorder to determine the height at withers, oblique length of the trunk, cannon girth and weight. The height at witherspresented smaller dimensions at the Arab and Engli...

  19. Genetic diversity and bottleneck studies in the Marwari horse breed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    [Gupta A. K., Chauhan M., Tandon S. N. and Sonia 2005 Genetic diversity and bottleneck studies in the Marwari horse breed. J. Genet. 84, 295–301] ... developed to carry out studies of genetic variation (Brad- ley et al. 1996; Canon et al. ..... 1996 Mitochondrial diversity and the origins of African and. European cattle. Proc.

  20. Visual attention, an indicator of human-animal relationships? A study of domestic horses (Equus caballus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline eRochais

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As visual attention is an intrinsic part of social relationships, and because relationships are built on a succession of interactions, their establishment involves learning and attention. The emotional, rewarding or punishing, content can modulate selective attention. In horses, the use of positive/negative reinforcement during training determines short and long-term human-horse relationships. In a recent study in horses, where either food or withers’ grooming were used as a reward, it appeared that only the food-rewarded horses learned the task and show better relationship with humans. In the present study, we hypothesized that this differential effect of grooming/food rewards on learning performances could be due to attentional processes. Monitoring, gazes and behaviors directed towards the trainer revealed that the use of a food reward (FR as positive reinforcement increased horses’ selective attention towards their trainer. Conversely, horses trained with grooming reward (GR expressed more inattentive responses and did not show a decrease of agitated behavior. However, individual plotting of attention versus rate of learning performances revealed a complex pattern. Thus, while all FR horses showed a window of attention related to faster learning performances, GR horses’ pattern followed an almost normal curve where the extreme animals (i.e. highest and lowest attention had the slowest learning performances. On the other hand, learning was influenced by attention: at the end of training, the more attentive horses had also better learning performances. This study, based on horses, contributes to the general debates on the place of attentional processes at the interface of emotion and cognition and open new lines of thought about individual sensitivities (only individuals can tell what an appropriate reward is, attentional processes and learning.

  1. Analysis of the 227 bp short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of the promoter of the myostatin (MSTN) gene in different horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Olio, Stefania; Scotti, Emilio; Fontanesi, Luca; Tassinari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The myostatin (MSTN) gene encodes a protein known to be a negative regulator of muscle mass in mammalian species. Different polymorphisms of the horse (Equus caballus) MSTN gene have been identified, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of 227 bp within the promoter of the gene. The SINE insertion has been associated with performance traits in Thoroughbred racehorses and it was proposed as a predictor of optimum racing distance. The aims of this study were to perform in silico analysis to identify putative gains or abrogation of transcription-factor binding sites (TFBSs) generated by the SINE allele of the promoter and to analyse the frequency of the SINE insertion in horses used for racing (gallop and trot) and other purposes. The SINE insertion was genotyped in 227 horses from 10 breeds belonging to different morphological types (brachimorphic, mesomorphic, meso-dolichomorphic and dolichomorphic). The presence of the insertion was confirmed in the Quarter Horse (SINE allele frequency of 0.81) and in the Thoroughbred (0.51), whereas the SINE allele did not segregate in any of the other analysed breeds. As the SINE MSTN gene polymorphism may be population or breed specific, it is not a useful marker for association studies in all breeds.

  2. Analysis of the 227 bp short interspersed nuclear element (SINE insertion of the promoter of the myostatin (MSTN gene in different horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Dall'Olio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The myostatin (MSTN gene encodes a protein known to be a negative regulator of muscle mass in mammalian species. Different polymorphisms of the horse (Equus caballus MSTN gene have been identified, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE insertion of 227 bp within the promoter of the gene. The SINE insertion has been associated with performance traits in Thoroughbred racehorses and it was proposed as a predictor of optimum racing distance. The aims of this study were to perform in silico analysis to identify putative gains or abrogation of transcription-factor binding sites (TFBSs generated by the SINE allele of the promoter and to analyse the frequency of the SINE insertion in horses used for racing (gallop and trot and other purposes. The SINE insertion was genotyped in 227 horses from 10 breeds belonging to different morphological types (brachimorphic, mesomorphic, meso-dolichomorphic and dolichomorphic. The presence of the insertion was confirmed in the Quarter Horse (SINE allele frequency of 0.81 and in the Thoroughbred (0.51, whereas the SINE allele did not segregate in any of the other analysed breeds. As the SINE MSTN gene polymorphism may be population or breed specific, it is not a useful marker for association studies in all breeds.

  3. Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Zhang, Guojie

    2013-01-01

    The rich fossil record of equids has made them a model for evolutionary processes. Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560-780 thousand years before present (kyr bp). Our data represent the oldest full genome sequen...

  4. Behavioral and Transcriptomic Fingerprints of an Enriched Environment in Horses (Equus caballus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Lansade

    Full Text Available The use of environmental enrichment (EE has grown in popularity over decades, particularly because EE is known to promote cognitive functions and well-being. Nonetheless, little is known about how EE may affect personality and gene expression. To address this question in a domestic animal, 10-month-old horses were maintained in a controlled environment or EE for 12 weeks. The control horses (n = 9 lived in individual stalls on wood shaving bedding. They were turned out to individual paddocks three times a week and were fed three times a day with pellets or hay. EE-treated horses (n = 10 were housed in large individual stalls on straw bedding 7 hours per day and spent the remainder of the time together at pasture. They were fed three times a day with flavored pellets, hay, or fruits and were exposed daily to various objects, odors, and music. The EE modified three dimensions of personality: fearfulness, reactivity to humans, and sensory sensitivity. Some of these changes persisted >3 months after treatment. These changes are suggestive of a more positive perception of the environment and a higher level of curiosity in EE-treated horses, explaining partly why these horses showed better learning performance in a Go/No-Go task. Reduced expression of stress indicators indicated that the EE also improved well-being. Finally, whole-blood transcriptomic analysis showed that in addition to an effect on the cortisol level, the EE induced the expression of genes involved in cell growth and proliferation, while the control treatment activated genes related to apoptosis. Changes in both behavior and gene expression may constitute a psychobiological signature of the effects of enrichment and result in improved well-being. This study illustrates how the environment interacts with genetic information in shaping the individual at both the behavioral and molecular levels.

  5. Behavioral and Transcriptomic Fingerprints of an Enriched Environment in Horses (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansade, Léa; Valenchon, Mathilde; Foury, Aline; Neveux, Claire; Cole, Steve W; Layé, Sophie; Cardinaud, Bruno; Lévy, Frédéric; Moisan, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The use of environmental enrichment (EE) has grown in popularity over decades, particularly because EE is known to promote cognitive functions and well-being. Nonetheless, little is known about how EE may affect personality and gene expression. To address this question in a domestic animal, 10-month-old horses were maintained in a controlled environment or EE for 12 weeks. The control horses (n = 9) lived in individual stalls on wood shaving bedding. They were turned out to individual paddocks three times a week and were fed three times a day with pellets or hay. EE-treated horses (n = 10) were housed in large individual stalls on straw bedding 7 hours per day and spent the remainder of the time together at pasture. They were fed three times a day with flavored pellets, hay, or fruits and were exposed daily to various objects, odors, and music. The EE modified three dimensions of personality: fearfulness, reactivity to humans, and sensory sensitivity. Some of these changes persisted >3 months after treatment. These changes are suggestive of a more positive perception of the environment and a higher level of curiosity in EE-treated horses, explaining partly why these horses showed better learning performance in a Go/No-Go task. Reduced expression of stress indicators indicated that the EE also improved well-being. Finally, whole-blood transcriptomic analysis showed that in addition to an effect on the cortisol level, the EE induced the expression of genes involved in cell growth and proliferation, while the control treatment activated genes related to apoptosis. Changes in both behavior and gene expression may constitute a psychobiological signature of the effects of enrichment and result in improved well-being. This study illustrates how the environment interacts with genetic information in shaping the individual at both the behavioral and molecular levels.

  6. Non-surgical sterilisation methods may offer a sustainable solution to feral horse (Equus caballus) overpopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sally Elizabeth; Nixon, Brett; Aitken, R John

    2017-09-01

    Feral horses are a significant pest species in many parts of the world, contributing to land erosion, weed dispersal and the loss of native flora and fauna. There is an urgent need to modify feral horse management strategies to achieve public acceptance and long-term population control. One way to achieve this is by using non-surgical methods of sterilisation, which are suitable in the context of this mobile and long-lived species. In this review we consider the benefits of implementing novel mechanisms designed to elicit a state of permanent sterility (including redox cycling to generate oxidative stress in the gonad, random peptide phage display to target non-renewable germ cells and the generation of autoantibodies against proteins essential for conception via covalent modification) compared with that of traditional immunocontraceptive approaches. The need for a better understanding of mare folliculogenesis and conception factors, including maternal recognition of pregnancy, is also reviewed because they hold considerable potential in providing a non-surgical mechanism for sterilisation. In conclusion, the authors contend that non-surgical measures that are single shot and irreversible may provide a sustainable and effective strategy for feral horse control.

  7. Influence of sexually transmitted infections in a horse breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent problems in horses reproduction are generally divided into those of infectious and non infectious etiology. Common causes of infectious diseases are usual­ly viruses and bacteria, and less frequently protozoa, mykoplasma and fungi. In this work there are presented the most important fact about sexually transmitted diseases, their clinical picture, risk factors, preventive measures as well as measures to prevent and eradicate the diseases. The biggest risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases in horses are breeding stallions, both in natural mating and in artificial insemination. Therefore, in order to prevent genital infections in horses, it is essential that the stallions used for breeding are healthy (non-infected. That can be determined with certainty only if the stallions are examined (tested just before the breeding season on most frequent sexually transmitted diseases (CEM,EAV. It is well known that in most cases the clinical picture of sexually transmitted diseses is not manifested on genitals. As well, variations in clinical picture can be expected also in mares, depending on the stage of the disease and its etiology. Harms arising from sexually transmitted diseases can be divided into direct and indirect. Direct damage occurs in the form of endometritis, miscarriage, stillbirths and births of weak foals, and indirect in restricting the traffic of infected and suspicios animals, isolation of the infected ones as well as medical treatment and interrupting mating.

  8. Identification of equine influenza virus infection in Asian wild horses (Equus przewalskii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Lu, Gang; Guo, Wei; Qi, Ting; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Chao; Zhao, Shihua; Pan, Jialiang; Xiang, Wenhua

    2014-05-01

    An outbreak of equine influenza was observed in the Asian wild horse population in Xinjiang Province, China, in 2007. Nasal swabs were collected from wild horses and inoculated into 9-10-day SPF embryonated eggs. The complete genome of the isolate was sequenced. A comparison of the amino acid sequence revealed that the isolate was an equine influenza virus strain, which we named A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007. Each gene of the virus was found to have greater than 99 % homology to equine influenza virus strains of the Florida-2 sublineage, which were circulating simultaneously in China, and a lesser amount of homology was found to the strain A/equine/Qinghai/1/1994 (European lineage), which was isolated during the last outbreak in China. These observations were confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence of the neuraminidase of the A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007 strain was identical to that of A/equine/California/8560/2002, an American isolate, and was found to be similar to those of Florida-2 strains found in other countries by comparing them with nine other field strains that were isolated in China from 2007 to 2008. It is suggested that the neuraminidase segment of A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007 may have been obtained from equine influenza virus strains from other countries. We report for the first time an outbreak of equine influenza in the Asian wild horse population, and the complete genome of the virus is provided and analyzed.

  9. CYTOLOGY PULMONARY IN HORSES (EQUUS CABALLUS MAINTAINED THE FIELD OR STABLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Fortes Júnior

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tracheobronchial secretion was collected by endoscopy (Welch-AllynÒ, 200cm long and 9mm diameter, from equines with different ages, races and sex, for posterior cytological analysis. Thirty-six equines were divided into two groups (Group I = stabled, n = 18; Group II = field regimen, n = 18. Animals of Group I (age = 3.5 years were lodged in the Tarumã´s Jockey Club in Curitiba, Parana State. The equines of Group II always were maintained at field condition (never were stabled, in the farm located in Jacarezinho, Paraná State. Following endoscopic exams, tracheobronchial secretion smears were stained by Pappenhein´s method and submitted to cytological analysis. Group I had higher frequency of tracheal discharge than Group II. The cytological analysis showed more presence of macrophages (58.8%, foamy cells (2.3%, body giant cells (0.2%, neutrophils (4.57%, eosinophils (0.7% and Curshmann´s spirals (0.04% on 3 of the 18 animals. The cytological analysis of Group II showed higher frequency of ciliated epithelial cells than Group I, and no Curshmann´s spirals were observed. In conclusion, data showed that horses stabled had more cytological alterations than the animals maintained at field, therefore more tracheobronchial complications. Thus, the care of place where horse are stabled have influence on development of respiratory diseases, may predispose to affections as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage, as well athletic horses may be never reach their full respiratory potential.

  10. Przewalski’ s Horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii Re-intr oduction in the Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area: from Species to Ecosystem Conservation

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    P. Kaczensky

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Przewalski’s horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii Po ljakov , 1881, or “T akhi” in Mongolian, became extinct in the wild by the mid 1960’ s. The last recorded sightings of Przewalski’s horses occurred in the Dzungarian Gobi desert in SW Mo ngolia, today’s Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area (SP A. A re - introduction program was initiated in 1992 and the fi rs t group of captive-born Przewalski’s horses was airlifted to the SPA. Given the logistical challenges associated with such a venture, the initial project focus has been on transport logistics and the well-being of the re-introduced horses. Tod ay, conservation efforts are spread over the entire protected area. Present day ef forts include other mammals, vegetation and the local people. Due to its important symbolic value in Mongolian culture, the Przewalski’ s horse became an important fl agship species for the protected area’s conservation and management.

  11. Horse domestication and conservation genetics of Przewalski's horse inferred from sex chromosomal and autosomal sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Allison N; Peng, Lei; Goto, Hiroki; Chemnick, Leona; Ryder, Oliver A; Makova, Kateryna D

    2009-01-01

    Despite their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, there is continued disagreement about the genetic relationship of the domestic horse (Equus caballus) to its endangered wild relative, Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii). Analyses have differed as to whether or not Przewalski's horse is placed phylogenetically as a separate sister group to domestic horses. Because Przewalski's horse and domestic horse are so closely related, genetic data can also be used to infer domestication-specific differences between the two. To investigate the genetic relationship of Przewalski's horse to the domestic horse and to address whether evolution of the domestic horse is driven by males or females, five homologous introns (a total of approximately 3 kb) were sequenced on the X and Y chromosomes in two Przewalski's horses and three breeds of domestic horses: Arabian horse, Mongolian domestic horse, and Dartmoor pony. Five autosomal introns (a total of approximately 6 kb) were sequenced for these horses as well. The sequences of sex chromosomal and autosomal introns were used to determine nucleotide diversity and the forces driving evolution in these species. As a result, X chromosomal and autosomal data do not place Przewalski's horses in a separate clade within phylogenetic trees for horses, suggesting a close relationship between domestic and Przewalski's horses. It was also found that there was a lack of nucleotide diversity on the Y chromosome and higher nucleotide diversity than expected on the X chromosome in domestic horses as compared with the Y chromosome and autosomes. This supports the hypothesis that very few male horses along with numerous female horses founded the various domestic horse breeds. Patterns of nucleotide diversity among different types of chromosomes were distinct for Przewalski's in contrast to domestic horses, supporting unique evolutionary histories of the two species.

  12. Research on the Morphological Characteristics Variability of Three Horse Breeds

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    Marian Cătălin Prisacaru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the characterization of some morphological parameters of some horse population improvedwith stallion of Arab, Hucul and English thoroughbred breeds. The biological material was represented by thestallions belonging to the three breeds and the population improved with them. Measurements have been made inorder to determine the height at withers, oblique length of the trunk, cannon girth and weight. The height at witherspresented smaller dimensions at the Arab and English thoroughbred breeds and at the Hucul breed the stallions had aheight at withers of 140 cm and the improved population 143.80 cm. Oblique length of the trunk presented valuesslightly lower at the improved horses in comparison with the stallions used at mount. The English thoroughbredpresented a value of 21.50 cm of the cannon girth at the improved population in comparison with the value of 19.5cm obtained at the mount stallions. The weight has been lower at the improved populations than the one of thestallions. Most of the morphological characteristics of the improved population are close to the ones if the stallionsused at mount.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of German heavy draught horse breeds inferred from mitochondrial DNA D-loop variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberle, K S; Hamann, H; Drögemüller, C; Distl, O

    2007-04-01

    We analysed a 610-bp mitochondrial (mt)DNA D-loop fragment in a sample of German draught horse breeds and compared the polymorphic sites with sequences from Arabian, Hanoverian, Exmoor, Icelandic, Sorraia and Przewalski's Horses as well as with Suffolk, Shire and Belgian horses. In a total of 65 horses, 70 polymorphic sites representing 47 haplotypes were observed. The average percentage of polymorphic sites was 11.5% for the mtDNA fragment analysed. In the nine different draught horse breeds including South German, Mecklenburg, Saxon Thuringa coldblood, Rhenisch German, Schleswig Draught Horse, Black Forest Horse, Shire, Suffolk and Belgian, 61 polymorphic sites and 24 haplotypes were found. The phylogenetic analysis failed to show monophyletic groups for the draught horses. The analysis indicated that the draught horse populations investigated consist of diverse genetic groups with respect to their maternal lineage.

  14. Molecular characterization and differentiation of five horse breeds raised in Algeria using polymorphic microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, N; Gaouar, S; Leroy, G; Kdidi, S; Tabet Aouel, N; Saïdi Mehtar, N

    2014-10-01

    In this study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on five horse breeds raised in Algeria (Barb, Arab-Barb, Arabian, Thoroughbred and French Trotter). All microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all the breeds. A total of 123 alleles from 14 microsatellite loci were detected in 201 horses. The average number of alleles per locus was the highest in the Arab-Barb horses (7.86) and lowest in the thoroughbred breed (5.71), whereas the observed and expected heterozygosities per breed ranged from 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.752 (Barb) and 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.77 (Arab-Barb), respectively. The genetic differentiation between the breeds was significant (p horse populations and the other breeds. The Barb and Arab-Barb breeds seem to be the most genetically related and support the decision to consider the breeds as same population. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Equine viral arteritis in breeding and sport horses in central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Lopez, Fatima; Newton, Richard; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Ana; Ireland, Joanne; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Moreno, Miguel A; Fores, Paloma

    2017-12-01

    Equine viral arteritis (EVA) may have a high economic impact on breeding stud farms due to the occurrence of EVA-associated abortion outbreaks and the ability of the virus to persist in carrier stallions. While the consequences of EVA in premises with sport horses are usually less severe, the first confirmed outbreak of EVA in Spain occurred in a riding club in Barcelona, but no data on the seroprevalence of EVA in sport horses have been reported in Spain. Given the importance of both Spanish Purebred (SP) breeding horses and sport horses for Spain's equine industry, the aim of this study was to determine and compare the seroprevalence of EVA in these two horse populations in central Spain. Serum samples from 155 SP breeding horses residing in 16 stud farms and 105 sport horses of different breeds housed in 12 riding clubs, collected between September 2011 and November 2013, were tested using a commercial EVA antibody ELISA test with a 100% sensitivity, and confirmed by seroneutralisation (SN) test. EVA seroprevalence in SP breeding horses was higher 21.1% (95% CI 15.3-26.8%) than that in sport horses (6.7%, 95% CI 1.89-11.45%). However, the primary use (breeding vs. sport) was not significantly associated with seropositivity to Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV), suggesting that different management factors do not affect EVA circulation in these two horse populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Morphometric Survey among Three Iranian Horse Breeds with Multivariate Analysis

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    M. Hosseini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three Iranian horse breeds, Turkoman, Caspian, and Kurdish, are the most important Iranian horse breeds which are well known in all around of the world because of their beauty, versatility, great stamina, and  intelligence. Phenotypic characterization was used to identify and document the diversity within and between distinct breeds, based on their observable attributes. Phenotypic characterization and body biometric in 23 traits were measured in 191 purebred horses belonging to three breeds, i.e. Turkoman (70 horses, Kurdish (77 horses, and Caspian (44 horses.  Caspian breed was  sampled from the Provinces of Alborz and Gilan. Kurdish breed was sampled from the Provinces of Kurdistan, Kermanshah, and Hamadan. Turkoman breed was sampled from the Provinces of Golestan, Markazi, and Isfahan. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was implemented. In addition, Canonical Discriminate Analysis (CDA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and Custer analysis were executed for assessing the relationship among the breeds. All statistical analysis was executed by SAS statistical program. The results of our investigation represented the breeds classification into 3 different classes (Caspian, Turkoman, and Kurdish based on different morphometrical traits. Caspian breed with smaller size in most variables was detached clearly from the others with more distance than Kurdish and Turkoman breeds. The result showed that the most variably trait for classification was Hind Hoof Length. Adaptation with different environments causes difference in morphology and difference among breeds. We can identify and classify domestic population using PCA, CDA, and cluster analysis.

  17. Cheek tooth morphology and ancient mitochondrial DNA of late Pleistocene horses from the western interior of North America: Implications for the taxonomy of North American Late Pleistocene Equus.

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    Christina I Barrón-Ortiz

    Full Text Available Horses were a dominant component of North American Pleistocene land mammal communities and their remains are well represented in the fossil record. Despite the abundant material available for study, there is still considerable disagreement over the number of species of Equus that inhabited the different regions of the continent and on their taxonomic nomenclature. In this study, we investigated cheek tooth morphology and ancient mtDNA of late Pleistocene Equus specimens from the Western Interior of North America, with the objective of clarifying the species that lived in this region prior to the end-Pleistocene extinction. Based on the morphological and molecular data analyzed, a caballine (Equus ferus and a non-caballine (E. conversidens species were identified from different localities across most of the Western Interior. A second non-caballine species (E. cedralensis was recognized from southern localities based exclusively on the morphological analyses of the cheek teeth. Notably the separation into caballine and non-caballine species was observed in the Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of ancient mtDNA as well as in the geometric morphometric analyses of the upper and lower premolars. Teeth morphologically identified as E. conversidens that yielded ancient mtDNA fall within the New World stilt-legged clade recognized in previous studies and this is the name we apply to this group. Geographic variation in morphology in the caballine species is indicated by statistically different occlusal enamel patterns in the specimens from Bluefish Caves, Yukon Territory, relative to the specimens from the other geographic regions. Whether this represents ecomorphological variation and/or a certain degree of geographic and genetic isolation of these Arctic populations requires further study.

  18. Differences in the electrocardiographic QT interval of various breeds of athletic horses during rest and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Juul; Karlsson, Madeleine; Madsen, Mette Flethøj

    2016-01-01

    is influenced to some extent by heart rate, age, body weight (BW), sex, autonomic tone, and environment. In horses, there is substantial inter-breed variation in size and training, and the aims of this study were therefore to determine the best model describing the QT to RR relationship in breeds of various...... athletic horses and to test for differences in the QT interval. ANIMALS: Ten Icelandic horses, 10 Arabian horses, 10 Thoroughbreds, 10 Standardbreds, six Coldblood trotters, 10 Warmbloods (dressage) and 10 Warmbloods (show jumping). All horses were geldings. METHODS: QT intervals were measured from resting...

  19. Differences in exterior conformation between primitive, Half-bred, and Thoroughbred horses: anatomic-breeding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komosa, M; Frackowiak, H; Purzyc, H; Wojnowska, M; Gramacki, A; Gramacki, J

    2013-04-01

    The study included 249 horses belonging to 3 horse breeds. Konik horses, comprising the first group, is an example of a breed similar to the extinct Tarpan. In our study, these horses were taken to be a primitive anatomical model of the horse body. The other groups comprised the Polish Half-bred horse and Thoroughbred horse. The biometric characteristics of the horses were compared based on 24 indices. The aim of the paper was to find a reduced set of indices that can be used to determine group membership of the horses. To do this, we used statistical methods to find the most important indices that best discriminate breeds from each other. Chi-squared statistics, linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, and 1-way ANOVA showed that the discrimination among groups of horses is connected with these 5 indices: scapula, smaller trunk (distance between tubercle of humerus and coxal tuber), greater trunk (distance between tubercle of humerus and ischial tuberosity), metacarpus circumference, and hind autopodium-smaller trunk. Thoroughbred and Half-bred horses are clearly different in exterior conformation from Konik horses. The differences between Thoroughbred and Half-bred horses are more subtle. The conformation of Thoroughbreds is jointly determined by relatively small differences in a range of features.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence variation among 5 maternal lines of the Zemaitukai horse breed

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    E. Gus Cothran

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation in Zemaitukai horses was investigated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequencing. The study was performed on 421 bp of the mitochondrial DNA control region, which is known to be more variable than other sections of the mitochondrial genome. Samples from each of the remaining maternal family lines of Zemaitukai horses and three random samples for other Lithuanian (Lithuanian Heavy Draught, Zemaitukai large type and ten European horse breeds were sequenced. Five distinct haplotypes were obtained for the five Zemaitukai maternal families supporting the pedigree data. The minimal difference between two different sequence haplotypes was 6 and the maximal 11 nucleotides in Zemaitukai horse breed. A total of 20 nucleotide differences compared to the reference sequence were found in Lithuanian horse breeds. Genetic cluster analysis did not shown any clear pattern of relationship among breeds of different type.

  1. Genetic structure of three Croatian horse breeds: implications for their conservation strategy

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    Miljenko Konjačić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability for a sample of 107 animals from three autochthonous Croatian horse breeds was estimated using 20 microsatellites. The average number of alleles per locus (6.3 and proportion of heterozygosity (0.732 indicated a moderate variability. The expected heterozygosity was similar among all breeds and ranged between 0.724 in the Posavina horse, and 0.737 in the Croatian Coldblood and Murinsulaner horse. The inbreeding coefficient FIS was low and non-significant over the three populations. The genetic differentiation among the three populations was low (FST=0.026, suggesting that only 2.6% of the total genetic variability was due to differences between the breeds, and 97% to individual differences. The results of pairwise genetic differentiation suggest that the Posavina horse and the Croatian Coldblood were the most closely related populations (FST=0.016. These results are confirmed by Nei’s genetic distances with the highest value observed between the Posavina horse and the Murinsulaner (0.082 and the lowest between the Posavina horse and the Croatian Coldblood (0.044. An assignment test correctly assigned 82% of individuals to the correct breed. Strategies for preserving the original native genes in the Croatian native horse breeds should be considered in order to prevent these breeds from becoming extinct and include them in the future breeding programmes.

  2. Genome-wide detection of copy number variations among diverse horse breeds by array CGH.

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    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available Recent studies have found that copy number variations (CNVs are widespread in human and animal genomes. CNVs are a significant source of genetic variation, and have been shown to be associated with phenotypic diversity. However, the effect of CNVs on genetic variation in horses is not well understood. In the present study, CNVs in 6 different breeds of mare horses, Mongolia horse, Abaga horse, Hequ horse and Kazakh horse (all plateau breeds and Debao pony and Thoroughbred, were determined using aCGH. In total, seven hundred CNVs were identified ranging in size from 6.1 Kb to 0.57 Mb across all autosomes, with an average size of 43.08 Kb and a median size of 15.11 Kb. By merging overlapping CNVs, we found a total of three hundred and fifty-three CNV regions (CNVRs. The length of the CNVRs ranged from 6.1 Kb to 1.45 Mb with average and median sizes of 38.49 Kb and 13.1 Kb. Collectively, 13.59 Mb of copy number variation was identified among the horses investigated and accounted for approximately 0.61% of the horse genome sequence. Five hundred and eighteen annotated genes were affected by CNVs, which corresponded to about 2.26% of all horse genes. Through the gene ontology (GO, genetic pathway analysis and comparison of CNV genes among different breeds, we found evidence that CNVs involving 7 genes may be related to the adaptation to severe environment of these plateau horses. This study is the first report of copy number variations in Chinese horses, which indicates that CNVs are ubiquitous in the horse genome and influence many biological processes of the horse. These results will be helpful not only in mapping the horse whole-genome CNVs, but also to further research for the adaption to the high altitude severe environment for plateau horses.

  3. Comparison of Milk Oligosaccharides Pattern in Colostrum of Different Horse Breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Difilippo, E.; Willems, H.A.M.; Vendrig, J.C.; Fink-Gremmels, J.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Colostrum oligosaccharides are known to exhibit prebiotic and immunomodulatory properties. Oligosaccharide composition is species-specific, and equine colostrum has been reported to contain unique oligosaccharides. Therefore, equine oligosaccharides (EMOS) from colostrum from different horse breeds

  4. Characterization of a Full-Length Endogenous Beta-Retrovirus, EqERV-Beta1, in the Genome of the Horse (Equus caballus

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    Antoinette C. van der Kuyl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on endogenous retroviruses fixed in the horse (Equus caballus genome is scarce. The recent availability of a draft sequence of the horse genome enables the detection of such integrated viruses by similarity search. Using translated nucleotide fragments from gamma-, beta-, and delta-retroviral genera for initial searches, a full-length beta-retrovirus genome was retrieved from a horse chromosome 5 contig. The provirus, tentatively named EqERV-beta1 (for the first equine endogenous beta-retrovirus, was 10434 nucleotide (nt in length with the usual retroviral genome structure of 5’LTR-gag-pro-pol-env-3’LTR. The LTRs were 1361 nt long, and differed approximately 1% from each other, suggestive of a relatively recent integration. Coding sequences for gag, pro and pol were present in three different reading-frames, as common for beta-retroviruses, and the reading frames were completely open, except that the env gene was interrupted by a single stopcodon. No reading frame was apparent downstream of the env gene, suggesting that EqERV-beta1 does not encode a superantigen like mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV. A second proviral genome of EqERV-beta1, with no stopcodon in env, is additionally integrated on chromosome 5 downstream of the first virus. Single EqERV-beta1 LTRs were abundantly present on all chromosomes except chromosome 24. Phylogenetically, EqERV-beta1 most closely resembles an unclassified retroviral sequence from cattle (Bos taurus, and the murine beta-retrovirus MMTV.

  5. Practical Bias Correction in Aerial Surveys of Large Mammals: Validation of Hybrid Double-Observer with Sightability Method against Known Abundance of Feral Horse (Equus caballus) Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubow, Bruce C; Ransom, Jason I

    2016-01-01

    Reliably estimating wildlife abundance is fundamental to effective management. Aerial surveys are one of the only spatially robust tools for estimating large mammal populations, but statistical sampling methods are required to address detection biases that affect accuracy and precision of the estimates. Although various methods for correcting aerial survey bias are employed on large mammal species around the world, these have rarely been rigorously validated. Several populations of feral horses (Equus caballus) in the western United States have been intensively studied, resulting in identification of all unique individuals. This provided a rare opportunity to test aerial survey bias correction on populations of known abundance. We hypothesized that a hybrid method combining simultaneous double-observer and sightability bias correction techniques would accurately estimate abundance. We validated this integrated technique on populations of known size and also on a pair of surveys before and after a known number was removed. Our analysis identified several covariates across the surveys that explained and corrected biases in the estimates. All six tests on known populations produced estimates with deviations from the known value ranging from -8.5% to +13.7% and corrected by our statistical models. Our results validate the hybrid method, highlight its potentially broad applicability, identify some limitations, and provide insight and guidance for improving survey designs.

  6. Analysis of lines and breeds of sires in the breeding of the Czech warmblood horses based on grading their offspring in rearing facilities for testing young horses (RFT

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    Hana Černohorská

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the breed of sire and line of sire on grading of the body conformation and performance of colts of warmblood horses in rearing facilities for testing young horses (RFT. The groundwork database contained data from 2001 to 2011 from nine RFT’s. The database was processed statistically using the GLM method to assess the statistical significance of the effect of the breed of the sire and line of the sire on body conformation and performance of the colts. By multiple comparisons of the individual effects using the Tukey-B method we discovered statistically significant differences in the body conformation and performance of colts of sires among the respective breeds and lines. The performance of the offspring of Dutch warmblood, Hanoverian horse and Holsteiner horse sires is better than of the offspring of sires of the Thoroughbred, Czech warmblood and Selle Francais. The conformation of the offspring by sires of the Holsteiner horse and Hanoverian horse breeds is superior to that of offspring by sires of the Selle Francais and Czech warmblood. The mechanics of movement of the offspring of the 2300 Shagya XVIII-Báb. line is inferior to the offspring of the following lines: 3100 Adeptus xx, 67 Dark Ronald, 1000 Der Lowe xx, 3250 Dwinger 3257, 4800 Ladykiller xx, Orange Peel xx – Alme Z, 1100 Przedswit VI-Rad., 4900 Rantzau xx – Cor De La Bryere, 4600 Rittersporn xx – Ramzes 4028, 60 St. Simon and 88 Teddy. The effect of the line of the sires on the body conformation of colts has not been proved.

  7. IHH gene polymorphism among three horse breeds and its application for association test in horses with osteochondrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabek, T; Golonka, P; Fornal, A; Semik, E

    2013-06-01

    Genetic polymorphism of IHH gene were investigated in Angloarabian, Polish Coldblood and Polish Halfbred horses with the inclusion of a group of Polish Halfbreds affected by osteochondrosis. IHH is a good candidate gene for association study of developmental disorders mainly affecting skeleton development. DNA sequence spanning IHH gene annotated in the horse genome and its putative promoter were investigated using SANGER sequencing. Analysis of genetic variability at polymorphic sites in the IHH gene body and the promoter region confirmed genetic differences between warmblood and coldblood horse breeds. A test for allelic and genotypic association at particular SNP sites revealed no association with osteochondrosis in investigated group of Polish Halfbreds. It was concluded that participation of different warmblood breeds in pedigrees of Polish Halfbreds make it difficult to search for genetic variants being associated with this complex disorder in this breed. IHH gene polymorphism investigated among three different horse populations would be valuable for further studies on equine bone developmental disorders. © 2013 The Authors.

  8. Integration of genomic information into sport horse breeding programs for optimization of accuracy of selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, A M; König von Borstel, U; Simianer, H; König, S

    2012-09-01

    Reliable selection criteria are required for young riding horses to increase genetic gain by increasing accuracy of selection and decreasing generation intervals. In this study, selection strategies incorporating genomic breeding values (GEBVs) were evaluated. Relevant stages of selection in sport horse breeding programs were analyzed by applying selection index theory. Results in terms of accuracies of indices (r(TI) ) and relative selection response indicated that information on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes considerably increases the accuracy of breeding values estimated for young horses without own or progeny performance. In a first scenario, the correlation between the breeding value estimated from the SNP genotype and the true breeding value (= accuracy of GEBV) was fixed to a relatively low value of r(mg) = 0.5. For a low heritability trait (h(2) = 0.15), and an index for a young horse based only on information from both parents, additional genomic information doubles r(TI) from 0.27 to 0.54. Including the conventional information source 'own performance' into the before mentioned index, additional SNP information increases r(TI) by 40%. Thus, particularly with regard to traits of low heritability, genomic information can provide a tool for well-founded selection decisions early in life. In a further approach, different sources of breeding values (e.g. GEBV and estimated breeding values (EBVs) from different countries) were combined into an overall index when altering accuracies of EBVs and correlations between traits. In summary, we showed that genomic selection strategies have the potential to contribute to a substantial reduction in generation intervals in horse breeding programs.

  9. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of domestic horses reveals incorporation of extensive wild horse diversity during domestication

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    Lippold Sebastian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73% already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the

  10. Retrospective and statistical analysis of breeding management on the Italian Heavy Draught Horse breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, R; Sartori, C; Pigozzi, G

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated some aspects of breeding management in the Italian Heavy Draught Horse breed, aiming at improving its efficiency at stud farm level. A first aim was to evaluate the risk of unsuccessful reproduction in mares after an early (3 years) or normal (4 years) age at first foaling, in interaction with different stud rearing systems. A second objective was the examination of the mean time length in which young 2-year-old stallions maintain a genetic superiority on older proven stallions, identifying a 'genetic lifespan' in which young stallions can be safely used for reducing the cost of services. Reproductive performance at first and second foaling of 1513 mares were used. Mares had a normal first foal at 3 (n = 745) or 4 years of age (n = 768) in stud farms on the basis of stable (n = 488), feral (n = 345) or semi-feral (n = 680) rearing systems. Logistic regression analysis was performed by modeling the risk of unsuccessful reproduction in the subsequent season (i.e., results at second foaling), as affected by the interaction of age at first foaling × rearing system (six classes). Genetic lifespan of young stallions was estimated by regressing the least square means from a mixed model analysis for repeated measures of individual differences in 'total merit' estimated breeding values (EBVs) between young stallions (mean no. of 45/year) and the mean EBV of all proven stallions in a given year of genetic evaluation (mean no. of 483/year). Young stallions born between 1999 and 2005 were used, following each generation (i.e., birth year) from 2 to 7 subsequent yearly genetic evaluations. In comparison with the best reproductive success of second foaling at 4 years in stable systems, the greatest risk of unsuccessful reproduction was at 3 years in feral (+167%) and 3 years in semi-feral conditions (+91%). Young stallions showed a 0.50 s.d. greater EBV at the first evaluation than proven stallions, with a mean annual decrease in EBV of 0.07 s.d./year on

  11. Diversity and effective population size of four horse breeds from microsatellite DNA markers in South-Central Mexico

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    J. F. Vázquez-Armijo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The South-Central region of Mexico has experienced a sizeable introduction of purebred horses for recreational aims. A study was designed to assess effective population sizes and genetic diversity and to verify the genetic integrity of four horse breeds. Using a 12-microsatellite panel, Quarter Horse, Azteca, Thoroughbred and Creole (CRL horses were sampled and analysed for diversity and genetic structure. Genetic diversity parameters showed high numbers of heterozygous horses but small effective population sizes in all breeds. Population structure results suggested some degree of admixture of CRL with the other reference breeds. The highly informative microsatellite panel allowed the verification of diversity in introduced horse populations and the confirmation of small effective population sizes, which suggests a risk for future breed integrity.

  12. Identification of copy number variants in horses

    KAUST Repository

    Doan, R.

    2012-03-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds.

  13. Dimensions of temperament modulate cue-controlled behavior: a study on Pavlovian to instrumental transfer in horses (Equus caballus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Lansade

    Full Text Available Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT is a central factor in how cues influence animal behavior. PIT refers to the capacity of a Pavlovian cue that predicts a reward to elicit or increase a response intended to obtain the same reward. In the present study, using an equine model, we assessed whether PIT occurs in hoofed domestic animals and whether its efficacy can be modulated by temperamental dimensions. To study PIT, horses were submitted to Pavlovian conditioning whereby an auditory-visual stimulus was repeatedly followed by food delivery. Then, horses were submitted to instrumental conditioning during which they learned to touch with their noses an object signaled by the experimenter in order to obtain the same reward. During the PIT test, the Pavlovian conditioned stimulus was presented to the animal in the absence of reward. At the end of the experiment, a battery of behavioral tests was performed on all animals to assess five temperamental dimensions and investigate their relationships with instrumental performance. The results indicate that PIT can be observed in horses and that its efficacy is greatly modulated by individual temperament. Indeed, individuals with a specific pattern of temperamental dimensions (i.e., higher levels of gregariousness, fearfulness, and sensory sensitivity exhibited the strongest PIT. The demonstration of the existence of PIT in domesticated animals (i.e., horses is important for the optimization of its use by humans and the improvement of training methods. Moreover, because PIT may be implicated in psychological phenomena, including addictive behaviors, the observation of relationships between specific temperamental dimensions and PIT efficacy may aid in identifying predisposing temperamental attributes.

  14. Genealogical analyses in open populations: the case of three Arab-derived Spanish horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, I; Gutiérrez, J P; Molina, A; Goyache, F; Valera, M

    2009-10-01

    This research assesses the genetic composition of three Arab-derived Spanish horse breeds as an example to highlight the major shortcomings related to genealogical analyses in open populations and to propose approaches useful to deal with this task. The studbooks of three Spanish Arab (SA)-derived horse breeds, Spanish Anglo-Arab (dAA), Hispano-Arab (dHA) and Spanish Sport Horse (dSSH) and those of their parental breeds SA, Spanish Purebred (SPB) and Thoroughbred (TB), totalling 211 754 individuals, were available. The genealogies of the dAA, dHA and dSSH were analysed not only using the corresponding studbook (breed exclusive dataset) but also including the genealogies of the founders from parental breeds (completed dataset). Coancestry analyses revealed that the present SA-derived populations share more genes with the Arab than with the other parental breeds. Effective population size was computed by accounting for migration rates to obtain an equivalent closed-population effective size ((eq)N(e)) of 39.2 for the dAA, 56.3 for dHA and 114.1 for dSSH. The essayed methodologies were useful for characterising populations involving migration. The consequences of the management of the analysed breeds are discussed. The results emphasize the need to include the complete genealogies of the individuals to attain reliable genealogical parameters.

  15. Genetic diversity of a large set of horse breeds raised in France assessed by microsatellite polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The genetic diversity and structure of horses raised in France were investigated using 11 microsatellite markers and 1679 animals belonging to 34 breeds. Between-breed differences explained about ten per cent of the total genetic diversity (Fst = 0.099). Values of expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.43 to 0.79 depending on the breed. According to genetic relationships, multivariate and structure analyses, breeds could be classified into four genetic differentiated groups: warm-blooded, draught, Nordic and pony breeds. Using complementary maximisation of diversity and aggregate diversity approaches, we conclude that particular efforts should be made to conserve five local breeds, namely the Boulonnais, Landais, Merens, Poitevin and Pottok breeds. PMID:19284689

  16. Genetic diversity of a large set of horse breeds raised in France assessed by microsatellite polymorphism

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    Mériaux Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic diversity and structure of horses raised in France were investigated using 11 microsatellite markers and 1679 animals belonging to 34 breeds. Between-breed differences explained about ten per cent of the total genetic diversity (Fst = 0.099. Values of expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.43 to 0.79 depending on the breed. According to genetic relationships, multivariate and structure analyses, breeds could be classified into four genetic differentiated groups: warm-blooded, draught, Nordic and pony breeds. Using complementary maximisation of diversity and aggregate diversity approaches, we conclude that particular efforts should be made to conserve five local breeds, namely the Boulonnais, Landais, Merens, Poitevin and Pottok breeds.

  17. Capture and Anaesthesia of Wild Mongolian Equids – the Przewalski’s Horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii and Khulan ( E. hemionus

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    Chris Walzer

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Science-based conservation efforts in general, and wide-ranging equid conservation speci fi cally, of- ten require capture and subsequent handling of the subject animal. Safe and animal-welfare appropriate wild equid capture and anaesthesia is a complex operation necessitating a multitude of skills that require appropriate veterinary training. The agent of choice for wild equid capture and anaesthesia is the potent opiate ethorphine in combination with speci fi c opiate antagonists that allow for the complete reversal of the anaesthetic effects. The recommended dosage for a healthy, wild adult Przewalski’s horse is 2.5- 3.0 mg ethorphine, 10 mg of the alpha2-agonist detomidine and 10 mg of the opioid agonist-antagonist butorphanol. In Przewalski’s horses ethorphine is reversed with the opioid antagonist naltrexone (200 mg. In khulan procedures anaesthesia was induced with a combination of 4.4 mg Ethorphine, 10 mg Detomidine and 10 mg Buthorphanol. Anaesthesia was reversed with the opioid antagonist-agonist di- prenorphine or a combination of 200 mg naltrexone and the alpha2-antagonist 20 mg atipamezole. All equids were standing and alert approximately two minutes following administration of the antagonists.

  18. Equine viral arteritis in breeding and sport horses in central Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Lopez, Fatima; Newton, Richard; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Ana; Ireland, Joanne; Mughini-Gras, Lapo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413306046; Moreno, Miguel A; Fores, Paloma

    2017-01-01

    Equine viral arteritis (EVA) may have a high economic impact on breeding stud farms due to the occurrence of EVA-associated abortion outbreaks and the ability of the virus to persist in carrier stallions. While the consequences of EVA in premises with sport horses are usually less severe, the first

  19. Autosomal genetic diversity in non-breed horses from eastern Eurasia provides insights into historical population movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmuth, Vera; Manica, Andrea; Eriksson, Anders; Barker, Graeme; Bower, Mim

    2013-02-01

    Many events in the history of eastern Eurasia, including the process of domestication itself, the initial spread of domestic horses and subsequent movements, are believed to have affected the genetic structure of domestic horse populations in this area. We investigated levels of within- and between-population genetic diversity in 'non-breed horses' (working horses sampled in remote areas) from 17 locations in Asia and parts of Eastern Europe, using 26 autosomal microsatellite loci. Non-breed horses have not been subject to the same intensity of artificial selection and closed breeding as have most breed animals and are thus expected to better reflect the population history of domestic horses. Despite geographic distances of between 300 and 7000 km between sampling locations, pairwise F (ST) was very low (range: <0.001 to -0.033), suggesting historically high levels of gene flow. Our analyses of non-breed horses revealed a pattern of isolation by distance and a significant decline in genetic diversity (expected heterozygosity and allelic richness) from east to west, consistent with a westward expansion of horses out of East Asia. Although the timing of this putative expansion is unclear, our results highlight the benefit of studying animals that do not belong to particular breeds when investigating aspects of a population's history. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  20. Recent developments in cattle, pig, sheep and horse breeding - a review

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    Alena Svitáková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to summarize new genetic approaches and techniques in the breeding of cattle, pigs, sheep and horses. Often production and reproductive traits are treated separately in genetic evaluations, but advantages may accrue to their joint evaluation. A good example is the system in pig breeding. Simplified breeding objectives are generally no longer appropriate and consequently becoming increasingly complex. The goal of selection for improved animal performance is to increase the profit of the production system; therefore, economic selection indices are now used in most livestock breeding programmes. Recent developments in dairy cattle breeding have focused on the incorporation of molecular information into genetic evaluations and on increasing the importance of longevity and health in breeding objectives to maximize the change in profit. For a genetic evaluation of meat yield (beef, pig, sheep, several types of information can be used, including data from performance test stations, records from progeny tests and measurements taken at slaughter. The standard genetic evaluation method of evaluation of growth or milk production has been the multi-trait animal model, but a test-day model with random regression is becoming the new standard, in sheep as well. Reviews of molecular genetics and pedigree analyses for performance traits in horses are described. Genome – wide selection is becoming a world standard for dairy cattle, and for other farm animals it is under development.

  1. Genetic diversity within and among four South European native horse breeds based on microsatellite DNA analysis: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, A; Jugo, B M; Mériaux, J C; Iriondo, M; Mazón, L I; Aguirre, A I; Vicario, A; Estomba, A

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on four Basque-Navarrese semiferal native horse breeds. In total, 417 animals were genotyped for 12 microsatellite markers. Mean heterozygosity was higher than in other horse breeds, surely as a consequence of management. Although the population size of some of these breeds has declined appreciably in the past century, no genetic bottleneck was detected in any of the breeds, possibly because it was not narrow enough to be detectable. In the phylogenetic tree, the Jaca Navarra breed was very similar to the Pottoka, but appeared to stand in an intermediate position between this and the meat breeds. Assuming that Pottoka is the breed less affected by admixture, the others gradually distanced themselves from it through varying influences from outside breeds, among other factors. In a comparative study with other breeds, the French breeds Ardanais, Comtois, and Breton were the closest to the four native breeds. Three different approaches for evaluating the distribution of genetic diversity were applied. The high intrabreed variability of Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia (EHMZ) was pointed out in these analyses. In our opinion, cultural, economic, and scientific factors should also be considered in the management of these horse breeds.

  2. Morphological evolution and heritability estimates for some biometric traits in the Murgese horse breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dario, C; Carnicella, D; Dario, M; Bufano, G

    2006-06-30

    A data set concerning 1,816 subjects entered in the Italian Horse Registry from 1925 to 2002 was analyzed to investigate the morphological evolution of the Murgese horse and to obtain useful elements to enhance breeding practices. Three basic body measurements (height at withers, chest girth, and cannon bone circumference) were considered for each subject. Heritabilities were calculated for each parameter to infer the growth and development traits of this breed. Over the past 20 years the Murgese horse has undergone considerable changes, passing from a typical mesomorphic structure (height at withers: 156.30 and 151.04 cm; chest girth: 185.80 and 176.11 cm; cannon bone: 21.10 and 19.82 cm for males and females, respectively) to a mesodolichomorphic structure (height at withers: 160.31 and 156.44 cm; chest girth: 187.89 and 182.48 cm; cannon bone: 21.07 and 20.37 cm, for males and females, respectively). Due to these changes and to its characteristic strength and power, the Murgese, which was once used in agriculture and for meat production (at the end of its life), is now involved in sports, mainly in trekking and equestrian tourism. The heritability estimates for the three body measurements were found to be 0.24, 0.39 and 0.44.

  3. Genetic variability within french race and riding horse breeds from genealogical data and blood marker polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Moureaux, Sophie; Verrier, Etienne; Ricard, Anne; Meriaux, J-Claude

    1996-01-01

    The genetic variability of five horse breeds raised in France was analysed: Thoroughbred, Trotteur Français, Arab, Anglo-Arab and Selle Français. Genealogical data and genotypes at seven blood group and nine protein loci were used. Paternal family sizes were found to be unbalanced, especially in Trotteur français, Selle Franqais and Thoroughbred. Average coefficients of inbreeding for offspring born from 1989 to 1992 were 1.02 (Thoroughbred), 1.86 (Trotteur Français), 3.08 (Arab), 1.17 (...

  4. Analysis of upstream promoter region and corresponding 5’ UTR of glucokinase (GCK gene in horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Minieri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A region of glucokinase (GCK gene was sequenced in 14 horses of 14 different breeds. The resulting GCK nucleotide sequence (GenBank number EF136885 showed 77% homology with human GCK gene portion containing the upstream promoter region and the corresponding 5’ UTR of the exon 1. Conserved regulatory sequences near the putative transcriptional start site were identified. The obtained sequences were aligned to detect polymorphism. A new C>T transition within the 5’ UTR of exon 1 was found. Allele frequencies of this polymorphism were studied by PCR-RFLP in 193 horses of 14 breeds (Bardigiano, 21; Esperia Pony, 5; Haflinger, 10; Italian Heavy Draught Horse, 28; Italian Saddle, 25; Italian Trotter, 16; Lipizzan, 12; Maremmano, 15; Murgese, 14; Norico, 10; Salernitano, 12; Thoroughbred, 10; Tolfetano, 7 and Ventasso Horse, 8. The polymorphism was found in all breeds and differences in allelic frequencies among the breeds were observed. The new SNP identified within a regulative region of GCK gene, which plays an important role in insulin secretion and feeding behaviour, could be used for association studies with performance traits of the horses.

  5. First evidence of autochthonous cases of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in horse (Equus caballus) in the Americas and mixed infection of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Isabel R; Silva, Soraia O; Moreira, Filipe Moraghi; Prado, Luan Gavião; Fantini, Priscila; Maranhão, Renata de Pino Albuquerque; da Silva Filho, José Monteiro; Melo, Maria Norma; Palhares, Maristela S

    2013-11-08

    This study reports the first evidence of infection by Leishmania infantum in Equus caballus in Americas and the first mixed infection of L. infantum/Leishmania braziliensis on this mammalian species in the world. The diagnoses was based on presence of parasites in lesions and bone marrow aspirates, their identification by using specific primers for L. infantum and L. braziliensis complexes and also serological methods IFAT and ELISA. The analysis of the PCR products suggested mixed infection in three animals. Further studies involving equine leishmaniasis are carrying out in order to clarify the dynamic of Leishmania sp. in this mammalian specie and their role in the transmission of those parasites in urban endemic area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Blood Evaluation Of Cl and Na Concentration In Crioulo Breed Horses Using NAA: Comparison With Humans Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose Agostinho G. de; Marcelino, Jose R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Monica G.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.

  7. Reference values in blood elements in crioula breed horses by nuclear methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Tatyana Spinosa

    2010-01-01

    In this study the reference value for Br (0,0008 - 0,0056 gL -1 ), Ca (0,089 - 0,369 gL -1 ), Cl (2,10 - 3,26 gL -1 ), Fe (0,381 - 0,689 gL -1 ), I (0,00018 - 0,00266 gL -1 ), K (1,14 - 2,74 gL -1 ), Mg (0,030 - 0,074 gL -1 ), Na (1,36 - 2,80 gL -1 ), P ( -1 ), S (0,99 - 2,79 gL -1 ) and Zn (0,0012 - 0,0048 gL -1 ) as well as the correlation matrix in blood of Crioulo breed horses were determined using nuclear methodology (Neutron Activation Analysis Technique). These data allowed to identifying physiological alterations related to the sex and regime of exercise (hyperimmune sera production at Butantan Institute, Sao Paulo, Brasil). To perform these analyses was used 20 adult horses (8 males and 12 females), with average mass 350 kg, without clinical signs of disease, 1-3 years old, kept on pasture in Sao Joaquim Farm at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city). Other group just immunized, composed by 6 equines males (same age and weight), were also analyzed. These data are an important support to understand the physiological functions of these elements in blood during the process of sera production. (author)

  8. Evaluation of glucose and insulin response to haylage diets with different content of nonstructural carbohydrates in 2 breeds of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindåse, S; Müller, C; Nostell, K; Bröjer, J

    2018-04-09

    Information about the effect of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) in forage on the postprandial glucose and insulin response in horses is scarce. This is of interest as postprandial hyperinsulinemia in horses is a risk factor for laminitis. In addition, insulin sensitivity (IS) differs between breeds. The aim was to evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin response to haylage diets with different NSC content in horses of 2 different breeds and to evaluate the relationship between the postprandial insulin response and measures of IS derived from a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT). Standardbreds (n = 9) and Icelandic horses (n = 9) with a mean body condition score of 5.5 ± 0.6 (scale 1-9) were studied. Horses were clinically healthy at the start of the study and had no history of endocrinopathic laminitis. The experiment was conducted as a replicate 3 × 3 Latin square, in which horses were fed haylage diets with low (4.2%), medium (13.6%), and high (18.2%) NSC content of dry matter. Blood sampling was performed before feeding and every 30 min until 300 min after feeding. An FSIGTT was also performed in all horses. The early (first 60 min) and the total (300 min) postprandial glucose and insulin response (area under the curve [AUC]) was higher after a meal of both medium and high NSC haylage in comparison with low NSC haylage when both breeds were combined (P ≤ 0.02). There was a main effect of breed for the early (P ≤ 0.004) but not for the total (P > 0.12) postprandial glucose and insulin response. The IS index was comparable between breeds (P = 0.75). The natural logarithm of the peak concentration, the AUC for the first 60 min and the total AUC for insulin, after a meal of medium and high NSC haylage, were moderately negatively correlated (P haylage with low NSC content (P > 0.054). This study demonstrates that the postprandial insulin response is affected by both the NSC content of haylage and the horse's IS. However

  9. Pedigree analysis in the Austrian Noriker draught horse: genetic diversity and the impact of breeding for coat colour on population structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, T; Baumung, R; Sölkner, J

    2009-10-01

    The pedigree of the current Austrian Noriker draught horse population comprising 2808 horses was traced back to the animals considered as founders of this breed. In total, the number of founders was 1991, the maximum pedigree length was 31 generations, with an average of 12.3 complete generations. Population structure in this autochthonous Austrian draught horse breed is defined by seven breeding regions (Carinthia, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Upper Austria and Vorarlberg) or through six coat colour groups (Bay, Black, Chestnut, Roan, Leopard, Tobiano). Average inbreeding coefficients within the breeding regions ranged from 4.5% to 5.5%; for the colour groups, the coefficients varied from 3.5% to 5.9%. Other measures of genetic variability like the effective number of founders, ancestors and founder genomes revealed a slightly different genetic background of the subpopulations. Average co-ancestries between and within breeding areas showed that the Salzburg population may be considered as the nucleus or original stock whereas all other subpopulations showed high relationship to horses from Salzburg. The target of draught horse breeding in the 21st century does not meet the breeding concept of maximizing genetic gains any more. Stabilizing selection takes place. In this study, we show that demographic factors as well as structure given by different coat colours helped to maintain genetic diversity in this endangered horse breed.

  10. Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and domestic horse (Equus caballus) hindgut microflora demonstrate similar fermentation responses to grape seed extract supplementation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, N F; Naumann, H D; Kenny, A L; Kerley, M S

    2017-10-01

    The domestic horse is used as a nutritional model for rhinoceros maintained under human care. The validity of this model for browsing rhinoceros has been questioned due to high prevalence of iron overload disorder (IOD) in captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Iron chelators, such as tannins, are under investigation as dietary supplements to ameliorate or prevent IOD in prone species. Polyphenolic compounds variably affect microbial fermentation, so the first objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE; a concentrated source of condensed tannins; CT) on black rhinoceros hindgut fermentation. Equine nutrition knowledge is used to assess supplements for rhinoceros; therefore, the second objective was to evaluate the domestic horse model for black rhinoceros fermentation and compare fermentation responses to GSE using a continuous single-flow in vitro culture system. Two replicated continuous culture experiments were conducted using horse and black rhinoceros faeces as inoculum sources comparing four diets with increasing GSE inclusion (0.0%, 1.3%, 2.7% and 4.0% of diet dry matter). Diet and GSE polyphenolic compositions were determined, and sodium sulphite effect on neutral detergent fibre extraction of CT-containing forages was tested. Increasing GSE inclusion stimulated microbial growth and fermentation, and proportionally increased diet CT concentration and iron-binding capacity. Horse and black rhinoceros hindgut microflora nutrient digestibility and fermentation responses to GSE did not differ, and results supported equine fermentation as an adequate model for microbial fermentation in the black rhinoceros. Interpretation of these results is limited to hindgut fermentation and further research is needed to compare foregut digestibility and nutrient absorption between these two species. Supplementation of GSE in black rhinoceros diets up to 4% is unlikely to

  11. Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... young children or people with very little riding experience who are living in the household. Research how to properly care for your horse before purchase. Ask your veterinarian about the proper food, care, ...

  12. Placentation in the plains zebra (Equus quagga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W R Twink; Stansfield, Fiona; Wilsher, Sandra

    2017-10-01

    The placenta and fetal gonads of 12 pregnant plains zebra (Equus quagga), estimated to be between 81 and 239 days of gestation, were examined. The diffuse, microcotyledonary zebra placenta appeared, developmentally, to be 3-4 weeks behind its counterpart in horse pregnancy and this, together with the presence of small and long-lived endometrial cups, low levels of zebra chorionic gonadotrophin in maternal serum and few accessory corpora lutea in the maternal ovaries during the first half of gestation, made zebra pregnancy more similar to donkey than horse pregnancy. Zebra fetal gonads enlarged after 80 days of gestation and their interstitial cells stained positively for 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17,20 lyase steroid enzymes while the trophoblast stained for aromatase. This confirmed that zebra fetal gonads, like those of the horse and donkey, can synthesise C19 androgens, which can then be aromatised by the placenta to C18 oestrogens. It is remarkable that such unusual feto-placental mechanisms of production of gonadotrophic and steroid hormones has persisted unchanged within the genus Equus despite the many physical adaptations and the considerable loss of chromosomes that have occurred during the evolution of its member species.

  13. STUDY OF WITHERS HEIGHT AVERAGE PERFORMANCES IN HUCUL HORSE BREED – HROBY BLOODLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MAFTEI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Study of average performances in a population have a huge importance because, regarding a population, the average of phenotypic value is equal with average of genotypic value. So, the studies of the average value of characters offer us an idea about the population genetic level. The biological material is represented by 177 hucul horse from Hroby bloodline divided in 6 stallion families (tab. 1 analyzed at 18, 30 and 42 months old, owned by Lucina hucul stood farm. The average performances for withers height are presented in tab. 2. We can observe here that the average performances of the character are between characteristic limits of the breed. Both sexes have a small grade of variability with a decreasing tendency in the same time with ageing. We can observe a normal evolution in time for growth process with significant differences only at age of 42 months. We can say in this condition that the average performances for withers height have different values, influenced by the age, with a decreasing tendency.

  14. STUDY OF WITHERS HEIGHT AVERAGE PERFORMANCES IN HUCUL HORSE BREED –GORAL BLOODLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MAFTEI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Study of average performances in a population have a huge importance because, regarding a population, the average of phenotypic value is equal with average of genotypic value. So, the studies of the average value of characters offer us an idea about the population genetic level. The biological material is represented by 87 hucul horse from Goral bloodline divided in 5 stallion families (tab. 1 analyzed at 18, 30 and 42 months old, owned by Lucina hucul stood farm. The average performances for withers height are presented in tab. 2. We can observe here that the average performances of the character are between characteristic limits of the breed. Both sexes have a small grade of variability with a decreasing tendency in the same time with ageing. We can observe a normal evolution in time for growth process with significant differences only at age of 42 months. We can say in this condition that the average performances for withers height have different values, influenced by the age, with a decreasing tendency.

  15. Presence of the glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) mutation causing type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy in continental European draught horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J D; Valberg, S J; Anderson, S M; McCue, M E; Mickelson, J R

    2010-11-13

    The purpose of this study was to determine which continental European draught horse breeds harbour a mutation in the glycogen synthase 1 gene (GYS1) that is known to be responsible for type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy in quarter horses and North American draught horses. Of a non-random selection of continental European draught horses belonging to 13 breeds, 62 per cent (250 of 403) tested were found to carry the mutant allele. The horses were located in Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. The mutation was identified in animals from each of the breeds examined. In the breeds in which more than 15 animals were available for testing, the highest percentages of GYS1-positive horses were found in the Belgian trekpaard (92 per cent; 35 of 38 horses tested), Comtois (80 per cent; 70 of 88), Netherlands trekpaard (74 per cent; 17 of 23), Rheinisch-Deutsches kaltblut (68 per cent; 30 of 44) and Breton (64 per cent; 32 of 51).

  16. Performances of local poultry breed fed black soldier fly larvae reared on horse manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Moula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In poultry, feed based on maggots, like larvae of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens is an attractive option to substitute current ingredients which are expensive and often in direct or indirect competition with human food. Little information is currently available on the utility of these larvae in poultry feed, so goals of this study were to determine whether larvae could be reared on horse manure under traditional farming conditions and to evaluate the growth performances of a local poultry fed these larvae and the fatty acids profiles of their meat. After freezing and thawing, larvae were introduced in the feed of Ardennaise chickens between 30 and 80 days of age. Birds in the control group received a commercial standard feed, while those in the treatment group received the same commercial feed in which 8% was substituted with whole fresh larvae corresponding to 2% on a dry matter basis. Means ± standard errors of larval length and weight were 20.67 ± 2.21 mm and 0.14 ± 0.02 g, respectively. Mean larval percentages of dry matter and of substances extractable in diethyl ether were 24.6% and 23.1%, respectively. Larval fatty acids profiles were predominantly composed of lauric acid (28.1% and palmitic acid (22.0%. Least squares means of weekly weights of chicken, adjusted for the effects of sex, replication and initial weights, were significantly higher (P < 0.05 by 77.03 ± 53.37 g in larvae-fed than in control chickens. All other measurements were not statistically different between larvae-fed and control chicken, including fatty acid profiles, protein content and ω6/ω3 ratio. Keywords: Insect farming, Chicken, Local breed, Growth performance, Meat quality, Fatty acid profile

  17. First evidence of Equus asinus L. in the Chalcolithic disputes the Phoenicians as the first to introduce donkeys into the Iberian Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, João L.; Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup; Eisenmann, Véra

    2013-01-01

    Two equid species have been documented in the Pleistocene of the Iberian Peninsula, the horse Equus caballus, and the Eurasian hemione Equus hydruntinus. While the former survived the Holocene–Pleistocene until now, the timing for the extinction of the latter is unclear. Scarce, fragmented archae...

  18. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the genus Equus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M; Ryder, O A

    1986-11-01

    Employing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction-endonuclease maps as the basis of comparison, we have investigated the evolutionary affinities of the seven species generally recognized as the genus Equus. Individual species' cleavage maps contained an average of 60 cleavage sites for 16 enzymes, of which 29 were invariant for all species. Based on an average divergence rate of 2%/Myr, the variation between species supports a divergence of extant lineages from a common ancestor approximately 3.9 Myr before the present. Comparisons of cleavage maps between Equus przewalskii (Mongolian wild horse) and E. caballus (domestic horse) yielded estimates of nucleotide sequence divergence ranging from 0.27% to 0.41%. This range was due to intraspecific variation, which was noted only for E. caballus. For pairwise comparisons within this family, estimates of sequence divergence ranged from 0% (E. hemionus onager vs. E. h. kulan) to 7.8% (E. przewalskii vs. E. h. onager). Trees constructed according to the parsimony principle, on the basis of 31 phylogenetically informative restriction sites, indicate that the three extant zebra species represent a monophyletic group with E. grevyi and E. burchelli antiquorum diverging most recently. The phylogenetic relationships of E. africanus and E. hemionus remain enigmatic on the basis of the mtDNA analysis, although a recent divergence is unsupported.

  19. Validation of models for analysis of ranks in horse breeding evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricard Anne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ranks have been used as phenotypes in the genetic evaluation of horses for a long time through the use of earnings, normal score or raw ranks. A model, ("underlying model" of an unobservable underlying variable responsible for ranks exists. Recently, a full Bayesian analysis using this model was developed. In addition, in reality, competitions are structured into categories according to the technical level of difficulty linked to the technical ability of horses (horses considered to be the "best" meet their peers. The aim of this article was to validate the underlying model through simulations and to propose a more appropriate model with a mixture distribution of horses in the case of a structured competition. The simulations involved 1000 horses with 10 to 50 performances per horse and 4 to 20 horses per event with unstructured and structured competitions. Results The underlying model responsible for ranks performed well with unstructured competitions by drawing liabilities in the Gibbs sampler according to the following rule: the liability of each horse must be drawn in the interval formed by the liabilities of horses ranked before and after the particular horse. The estimated repeatability was the simulated one (0.25 and regression between estimated competing ability of horses and true ability was close to 1. Underestimations of repeatability (0.07 to 0.22 were obtained with other traditional criteria (normal score or raw ranks, but in the case of a structured competition, repeatability was underestimated (0.18 to 0.22. Our results show that the effect of an event, or category of event, is irrelevant in such a situation because ranks are independent of such an effect. The proposed mixture model pools horses according to their participation in different categories of competition during the period observed. This last model gave better results (repeatability 0.25, in particular, it provided an improved estimation of average

  20. A mutation in the LAMC2 gene causes the Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB in two French draft horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guérin Gérard

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidermolysis bullosa (EB is a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases characterised by skin blistering and fragility. In humans, one of the most severe forms of EB known as Herlitz-junctional EB (H-JEB, is caused by mutations in the laminin 5 genes. EB has been described in several species, like cattle, sheep, dogs, cats and horses where the mutation, a cytosine insertion in exon 10 of the LAMC2 gene, was very recently identified in Belgian horses as the mutation responsible for JEB. In this study, the same mutation was found to be totally associated with the JEB phenotype in two French draft horse breeds, Trait Breton and Trait Comtois. This result provides breeders a molecular test to better manage their breeding strategies by genetic counselling.

  1. Genetic diversity of Brazilian Pantaneiro horse and relationships among horse breeds Diversidade genética do cavalo Pantaneiro e relações com outras raças de eqüinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Tavares Pires de Souza Sereno

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Brazilian Pantaneiro horse by microsatellite markers, investigate the effect of genetic bottlenecks and estimate genetic differentiation among four horse breeds. Genetic variation was estimated through allele frequencies and mean breed heterozygosity. Nei's genetic distances among the breeds Pantaneiro, Thoroughbred, Arabian, Spanish Pure Breed (Andalusian, and Uruguay Creole were calculated, and it was used to construct an UPGMA dendrogram. Clustering at different K values was calculated to infer population structure and assign individuals to populations. Nei's distances showed a minimum distance between Pantaneiro horse and Spanish Pure Breed (0.228, and similar distances from Spanish Pure Breed to Thoroughbred and to Arabian (0.355 and 0.332. It was observed a great level of diversity, clear distance from Pantaneiro horse to other breeds, and genetic uniformity within breed. It was verified a certain level of substructure of Pantaneiro horse showing no influences from the other studied breeds.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade genética do cavalo Pantaneiro, por meio de marcadores microssatélites, investigar o efeito genético de "bottlenecks" e estimar a variação genética entre quatro raças de cavalo. A diversidade genética foi estimada por meio da freqüência de alelos e da média de heterozigosidade por raças. A distância genética de Nei foi calculada para as raças Pantaneiro, Puro Sangue Inglês, Árabe, Puro Sangue Espanhol e Crioulo Uruguaio. O agrupamento em diferentes valores de K foi calculado para inferir a estrutura da população e determinar indivíduos às populações. A distância de Nei mostrou distância mínima entre o cavalo Pantaneiro e o Puro Sangue Espanhol (0,228, e entre o Puro Sangue Espanhol e o Puro Sangue Inglês e o Árabe (0,355 e 0,332, respectivamente. Foi observada grande diversidade genética dentro da ra

  2. Frequent occurrence of nonprimate hepacivirus infections in Thoroughbred breeding horses - A cross-sectional study for the occurrence of infections and potential risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Claudia; Campe, Amely; Walter, Stephanie; Pfaender, Stephanie; Welsch, Kathrin; Ruddat, Inga; Sieme, Harald; Feige, Karsten; Steinmann, Eike; Cavalleri, Jessika M V

    2017-05-01

    Recently, several new hepaciviruses have been identified of which the nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV) - the closest relative to hepatitis C virus (HCV) discovered to date - is highly prevalent in horses. However, potential risk factors for the transmission of NPHV among horses remain still unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of NPHV infections in Thoroughbreds in northern and western Germany and to identify potential risk factors associated with NPHV infections. Using a cross-sectional study design, a total of 733 serum samples from Thoroughbred broodmares and stallions from northern and western Germany were analyzed for the presence of anti-NPHV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) antibodies and NPHV RNA using the luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) and a quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Information regarding signalment, stud farm, breeding history and international transportation history of each horse were collected and evaluated. A frequent occurrence of NPHV was found in the study population with 453 seropositive horses (61.8%) and 134 horses (18.3%) carrying NPHV RNA. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed that the probability of being infected decreased for horses with a transportation history with increasing age by 20% each year. For horses that stayed in Germany no association between age and infection could be observed. In conclusion, the high occurrence of NPHV infections in breeding Thoroughbreds suggests circulating NPHV infections, endemic herds or persistent shedding in these animals and revealed the association of age and international transportation as risk factor for NPHV infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Zonadhesin D3-polypeptides vary among species but are similar in Equus species capable of interbreeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Steve; Brady, Heidi A; Breazeale, Kelly R; Bi, Ming; Thompson, Leslie D; Bruemmer, Jason E; Bailey, Laura B; Hardy, Daniel M

    2010-02-01

    Zonadhesin is a rapidly evolving protein in the sperm acrosome that confers species specificity to sperm-zona pellucida adhesion. Though structural variation in zonadhesin likely contributes to its species-specific function, the protein has not previously been characterized in organisms capable of interbreeding. Here we compared properties of zonadhesin in several animals, including the horse (Equus caballus), donkey (E. asinus), and Grevy's zebra (E. grevyi) to determine if variation in zonadhesin correlates with ability of gametes to cross-fertilize. Zonadhesin localized to the apical acrosomes of spermatozoa from all three Equus species, similar to its localization in other animals. Likewise, in horse and donkey testis, zonadhesin was detected only in germ cells, first in the acrosomal granule of round spermatids and then in the developing acrosomes of elongating spermatids. Among non-Equus species, D3-domain polypeptides of mature, processed zonadhesin varied markedly in size and detergent solubility. However, zonadhesin D3-domain polypeptides in horse, donkey, and zebra spermatozoa exhibited identical electrophoretic mobility and detergent solubility. Equus zonadhesin D3-polypeptides (p110/p80 doublet) were most similar in size to porcine and bovine zonadhesin D3-polypeptides (p105). Sequence comparisons revealed that the horse zonadhesin precursor's domain content and arrangement are similar to those of zonadhesin from other large animals. Partial sequences of horse and donkey zonadhesin were much more similar to each other (>99% identity) than they were to orthologous sequences of human, pig, rabbit, and mouse zonadhesin (52%-72% identity). We conclude that conservation of zonadhesin D3-polypeptide properties correlates with ability of Equus species to interbreed.

  4. Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, J. L.; Zhao, Y. P.; Shiraigol, W.; Li, B.; Bai, D. Y.; Ye, W. X.; Daidiikhuu, D.; Yang, L. H.; Jin, Brqqg; Zhao, Q. A.; Gao, Y. H.; Wu, J.; Bao, Wydl; Li, A. A.; Zhang, Y. H. Percival

    2014-01-01

    Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3 M bp) and Mongolian horse (2 M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsoni...

  5. Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jinlong; Zhao, Yiping; Shiraigol, Wunierfu; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Ye, Weixing; Daidiikhuu, Dorjsuren; Yang, Lihua; Jin, Burenqiqige; Zhao, Qinan; Gao, Yahan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Li, Anaer; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-01-01

    Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3 M bp) and Mongolian horse (2 M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsoni...

  6. The prevalence and transmission to exotic equids (Equus quagga antiquorum, Equus przewalskii, Equus africanus) of intestinal nematodes in contaminated pasture in two wild animal parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epe, C; Kings, M; Stoye, M; Böer, M

    2001-06-01

    Wild equids maintained in large enclosures may suffer from helminth diseases because common hygiene practices have only limited effects on parasite populations. Weekly monitoring of helminth prevalences and pasture infestation was performed for 1 yr in several extensive maintenance systems of two wildlife parks with similar climates to determine when veterinary intervention to control parasites would be useful. We also sought evidence of natural immunogenic reactions among herds of Chapman zebras (Equus quagga antiquorum), Przewalski's horses (Equus przewalskii) and dwarf donkeys (Equus asinus africanus). Fecal and vegetation samples and cultures for third-stage larvae revealed permanent egg shedding in the three species and pasture infestation during the warm, moist periods (July-September) in all enclosures. Stable social structure and low equid population density may be sufficient to make prophylaxis unnecessary in adults, whereas biotic and abiotic environmental factors such as crowding, animal transfers, social integration of subadults, and weaning stress may facilitate temporary severe infections of individuals. Biweekly helminth monitoring is a useful diagnostic tool for extensive management of exotic equids.

  7. A study of some hormones concentrations in horses: Influences of reproductive status and breed differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niveen M. Daoud

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The knowledge of the normal and abnormal metabolic and sex hormones concentrations will help us to understand the role of these hormones in reproductive physiological and additionally, potential diagnostic and prognostic uses in both human and veterinary medicine, and will provide information for further research on this equine breeds as well as in human diseases.

  8. Sennar Jacks (Equus asinus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with an objective of evaluating the breeding soundness and sexual behavior of Sennar jackasses. ... score of 7 for the breeding and 4.8 for the working jacks. The mean (iSE) of height at wither,the ..... Equine Reproductive Physiology, Breeding and Stud Manage- ment, 2ndEdn. Farming Press ...

  9. De Novo Assembly of the Donkey White Blood Cell Transcriptome and a Comparative Analysis of Phenotype-Associated Genes between Donkeys and Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng-Yun; Feng, Yu-Long; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Yun-Feng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yin-Chao; Shen, Wei; Pan, Qing-Jie; Yin, Shen; Sun, Yu-Jiang; Ma, Jun-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the mechanization of agriculture and labor-intensive tasks, humans used donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) for farm work and packing. However, as mechanization increased, donkeys have been increasingly raised for meat, milk, and fur in China. To maintain the development of the donkey industry, breeding programs should focus on traits related to these new uses. Compared to conventional marker-assisted breeding plans, genome- and transcriptome-based selection methods are more efficient and effective. To analyze the coding genes of the donkey genome, we assembled the transcriptome of donkey white blood cells de novo. Using transcriptomic deep-sequencing data, we identified 264,714 distinct donkey unigenes and predicted 38,949 protein fragments. We annotated the donkey unigenes by BLAST searches against the non-redundant (NR) protein database. We also compared the donkey protein sequences with those of the horse (E. caballus) and wild horse (E. przewalskii), and linked the donkey protein fragments with mammalian phenotypes. As the outer ear size of donkeys and horses are obviously different, we compared the outer ear size-associated proteins in donkeys and horses. We identified three ear size-associated proteins, HIC1, PRKRA, and KMT2A, with sequence differences among the donkey, horse, and wild horse loci. Since the donkey genome sequence has not been released, the de novo assembled donkey transcriptome is helpful for preliminary investigations of donkey cultivars and for genetic improvement.

  10. De Novo Assembly of the Donkey White Blood Cell Transcriptome and a Comparative Analysis of Phenotype-Associated Genes between Donkeys and Horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yun Xie

    Full Text Available Prior to the mechanization of agriculture and labor-intensive tasks, humans used donkeys (Equus africanus asinus for farm work and packing. However, as mechanization increased, donkeys have been increasingly raised for meat, milk, and fur in China. To maintain the development of the donkey industry, breeding programs should focus on traits related to these new uses. Compared to conventional marker-assisted breeding plans, genome- and transcriptome-based selection methods are more efficient and effective. To analyze the coding genes of the donkey genome, we assembled the transcriptome of donkey white blood cells de novo. Using transcriptomic deep-sequencing data, we identified 264,714 distinct donkey unigenes and predicted 38,949 protein fragments. We annotated the donkey unigenes by BLAST searches against the non-redundant (NR protein database. We also compared the donkey protein sequences with those of the horse (E. caballus and wild horse (E. przewalskii, and linked the donkey protein fragments with mammalian phenotypes. As the outer ear size of donkeys and horses are obviously different, we compared the outer ear size-associated proteins in donkeys and horses. We identified three ear size-associated proteins, HIC1, PRKRA, and KMT2A, with sequence differences among the donkey, horse, and wild horse loci. Since the donkey genome sequence has not been released, the de novo assembled donkey transcriptome is helpful for preliminary investigations of donkey cultivars and for genetic improvement.

  11. Aerial population estimates of wild horses (Equus caballus) in the adobe town and salt wells creek herd management areas using an integrated simultaneous double-count and sightability bias correction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubow, Bruce C.; Ransom, Jason I.

    2007-01-01

    An aerial survey technique combining simultaneous double-count and sightability bias correction methodologies was used to estimate the population of wild horses inhabiting Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas, Wyoming. Based on 5 surveys over 4 years, we conclude that the technique produced estimates consistent with the known number of horses removed between surveys and an annual population growth rate of 16.2 percent per year. Therefore, evidence from this series of surveys supports the validity of this survey method. Our results also indicate that the ability of aerial observers to see horse groups is very strongly dependent on skill of the individual observer, size of the horse group, and vegetation cover. It is also more modestly dependent on the ruggedness of the terrain and the position of the sun relative to the observer. We further conclude that censuses, or uncorrected raw counts, are inadequate estimates of population size for this herd. Such uncorrected counts were all undercounts in our trials, and varied in magnitude from year to year and observer to observer. As of April 2007, we estimate that the population of the Adobe Town /Salt Wells Creek complex is 906 horses with a 95 percent confidence interval ranging from 857 to 981 horses.

  12. Casein number variability of mare milk from Haflinger and Italian Saddle Horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mariani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mare’s milk is the most important nutritional resource for the foal during the initial weeks of life. Since centuries, in Central Asia, it is the basic staple for the Koumiss production (Savini, 1946; Storch, 1985. Because of its peculiar chemical and nutritional characteristics (Malacarne et al., 2002, recently mare’s milk is utilised also in human nutrition and for cosmetics (Drogoul et al., 1992. This arouses new interest for the study of mare’s milk, in particular concerning the effect of genetic, physiological and feeding factors on organic and inorganic milk components (Doreau and Boulot, 1989; Mariani et al., 1993; Doreau, 1994. The effects of breed and physiological state are not yet well defined (Minieri and Intrieri 1970; Bouwman and van der Schee, 1978; Doreau et al., 1992; Mariani et al., 2000; Pinto et al., 2001; Martuzzi et al., 2002, in particular concerning the percentage repartition of the nitrogen fractions (Doreau et al., 1990...

  13. Breed and species comparison of amino acid transport variation in equine erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, D A; Young, J D; Mason, D K; Collins, E A; Snow, D H

    1985-05-01

    The amino acid permeability of red blood cells from Equus caballus (thoroughbred, Arab, shire and pony), E przewalskii (Przewalski's horse), E asinus (donkey and mule) and E burchelli (common or plains zebra) was measured. Individual animals exhibited stable but widely differing rates of L-[U-14C]alanine uptake in the range 5 to 1554 mumol (litre cells)-1 h-1 (0.2 mM extracellular L-alanine, 37 degrees C). Of the thoroughbreds tested, 30 per cent had red blood cells which were essentially impermeable to L-alanine (5 to 10 mumol (litre cells)-1 h-1, giving transport rates similar to those found previously in amino acid transport-deficient sheep erythrocytes. In contrast, only 3 per cent of the ponies tested had red blood cells impermeable to L-alanine. No cases of erythrocyte amino acid transport deficiency were found in the other horse breeds and species tested.

  14. Stable isotopes reveal diet shift from pre-extinction to reintroduced Przewalski's horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczensky, Petra; Burnik Šturm, Martina; Sablin, Mikhail V; Voigt, Christian C; Smith, Steve; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Balint, Boglarka; Walzer, Chris; Spasskaya, Natalia N

    2017-07-20

    The Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), the only remaining wild horse within the equid family, is one of only a handful of species worldwide that went extinct in the wild, was saved by captive breeding, and has been successfully returned to the wild. However, concerns remain that after multiple generations in captivity the ecology of the Przewalski's horse and / or the ecological conditions in its former range have changed in a way compromising the species' long term survival. We analyzed stable isotope chronologies from tail hair of pre-extinction and reintroduced Przewalski's horses from the Dzungarian Gobi and detected a clear difference in the isotopic dietary composition. The direction of the dietary shift from being a mixed feeder in winter and a grazer in summer in the past, to a year-round grazer nowadays, is best explained by a release from human hunting pressure. A changed, positive societal attitude towards the species allows reintroduced Przewalski's horses to utilize the scarce, grass-dominated pastures of the Gobi alongside local people and their livestock whereas their historic conspecifics were forced into less productive habitats dominated by browse.

  15. Zonadhesin D3-Polypeptides Vary among Species but Are Similar in Equus Species Capable of Interbreeding1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Steve; Brady, Heidi A.; Breazeale, Kelly R.; Bi, Ming; Thompson, Leslie D.; Bruemmer, Jason E.; Bailey, Laura B.; Hardy, Daniel M.

    2009-01-01

    Zonadhesin is a rapidly evolving protein in the sperm acrosome that confers species specificity to sperm-zona pellucida adhesion. Though structural variation in zonadhesin likely contributes to its species-specific function, the protein has not previously been characterized in organisms capable of interbreeding. Here we compared properties of zonadhesin in several animals, including the horse (Equus caballus), donkey (E. asinus), and Grevy's zebra (E. grevyi) to determine if variation in zonadhesin correlates with ability of gametes to cross-fertilize. Zonadhesin localized to the apical acrosomes of spermatozoa from all three Equus species, similar to its localization in other animals. Likewise, in horse and donkey testis, zonadhesin was detected only in germ cells, first in the acrosomal granule of round spermatids and then in the developing acrosomes of elongating spermatids. Among non-Equus species, D3-domain polypeptides of mature, processed zonadhesin varied markedly in size and detergent solubility. However, zonadhesin D3-domain polypeptides in horse, donkey, and zebra spermatozoa exhibited identical electrophoretic mobility and detergent solubility. Equus zonadhesin D3-polypeptides (p110/p80 doublet) were most similar in size to porcine and bovine zonadhesin D3-polypeptides (p105). Sequence comparisons revealed that the horse zonadhesin precursor's domain content and arrangement are similar to those of zonadhesin from other large animals. Partial sequences of horse and donkey zonadhesin were much more similar to each other (>99% identity) than they were to orthologous sequences of human, pig, rabbit, and mouse zonadhesin (52%–72% identity). We conclude that conservation of zonadhesin D3-polypeptide properties correlates with ability of Equus species to interbreed. PMID:19794156

  16. RELATION OF INBREEDING OF HORSES OF THOROUGHBRED BREED WITH DEGREE OF HOMOZYGOSITY OF MICROSATELLITE LOCI OF DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk О.V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The degree of homozygosity of some 39 Thoroughbred horses was estimated from microsatellite analysis data. The power of inbreeding was detected towards horse pedigree. We suggested the use of genetic analysis of microsatellite loci of DNA for the determination of actual level of inbreeding.

  17. Normal values of bone mineral density of the accessory carpus bone in Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH) horse breed using optical densitometry in radiographic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, C.L.B. de; Vulcano, L.C.; Santos, F.A.M.; Soares, J.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Physiologic values of the bone mineral density (BMD) of the accessory carpal bone in Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH) horse breed were determined by radiographic optic densitometry (ROD), expressed in milimiters of alumminun (mmAl). Lateromedial radiographs of the carpus were taken from 12 intact males and 12 females, from 20 and up to 30 months of age. No significant difference was found in the average mineral bone density of the accessory carpal bone between males (4.7 ± 0.1mmAl) and females (4.,6 ± 0,1mmAl) from 20 to 30 months of age [pt

  18. Mapping of Vegetation with the Geoinformation System and Determining of Carrying Capacity of the Pre-Urals Steppe area for a Newly Establishing Population of the Przewalski Horse Equus ferus przewalskii at the Orenburg State Nature Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, N. I.; Mikhailenko, O. I.; Zharkikh, T. L.; Bakirova, R. T.

    2018-01-01

    Mapping of the vegetation (1:25000) of the Pre-Urals Steppe area at the Orenburg State Nature Reserve was completed in 2016. A map created with the geoinformation system contains 1931 simple and complex polygons for 25 types of vegetation. In a drought year, the average stock of palatable vegetation of the whole area is estimated at 8380 tons dry weight. The estimation is based on the size of areas covered by different types of vegetation, their grass production, the correction coefficients for decreasing of pasture forage stocks in winter and decreasing of production of grass communities in dry years. Based on pasture forage stocks the area could tolerate the maximum population size of 1769 individuals of the Przewalski horse, their average density could be 0.11 horse per ha. Yet, as watering places for animals are limited in Pre-Urals Steppe, grazing pressures on the vegetation next to the water sources may increase in dry years. That is why the above-mentioned calculated maximum population size and density must be reduced at least by half until some additional watering places are established and monitoring of the grazing effect on the vegetation next to the places is carried out regularly. Thus, the maximum size of the population is estimated at 800 to 900 individuals, which is almost 1.5 times more than necessary to establish a self-sustained population of the Przewalski horse.

  19. Evolutionary Genomics and Conservation of the Endangered Przewalski’s Horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Schubert, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    Przewalski’s horses (PHs, Equus ferus ssp. przewalskii) were discovered in the Asian steppes in the 1870s and represent the last remaining true wild horses. PHs became extinct in the wild in the 1960s but survived in captivity, thanks to major conservation efforts. The current population is still...

  20. ATTEMPTS FOR OPTIMIZATION THE GENETIC IMPROVEMENT ACTIONS IN HORSE POPULATIONS OF NONIUS VARIETY AND ARDENNES BREED FROM THE IZVIN STUD, TIMIŞ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. DRONCA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Researches were carried out on horse populations of Nonius variety and Ardennes breedfrom Izvin Stud, farm that belongs to the Forestry Direction Timiş. In Romania, Noniusvariety built up at the Mezohegyes Stud in Hungary was imported at Bonţida and Ruşeţu inyear 1920. In year 1940, the two types of Nonius were blended and were raised together atthe Parţa Stud, called later Pădureni Stud. There stayed until year 1967 when the horsepopulation was moved to the Izvin Stud, where is raised together with the Ardennes horseimported from Hungary as well. The aim of the present study was to attempt to optimize thegenetic improvement actions of the horse population from Nonius variety and Ardennesbreed raised at the Izvin Stud. For Nonius variety the main genetic improvement objectiveswere set up as being the improvement of the reproduction traits, correction of the gait inhorses, increasing the energetic capacity, temperament and nervous impulse, as well asother conformation traits. For the Ardennes breed the main genetic improvement objectiveswere considered to be the increase of the constitutional strength, correction of the gait andimprovement of the reproduction indices. The study was ended with a number ofconclusions and recommendations.

  1. Standing sedation in captive zebra (Equus grevyi and Equus burchellii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Mark; de Jong, Sara; Verstappen, Frank; Wolters, Marno

    2012-03-01

    Nine Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and three Burchell's zebras (Equus burchellii) were immobilized in a standing position a total of 70 times for minor, nonpainful procedures over a 9-yr period. Standing sedation was successfully obtained with a combination of detomidine and butorphanol on 47 occasions (67.1%). Detomidine i.m. (median 0.10 mg/kg; range: 0.07-0.21) was administered by dart, followed 10 min later by butorphanol i.m. (median 0.13 mg/kg; range 0.04-0.24). The dosages were varied depending on the initial demeanor of the animal. On 23 occasions (32.9%), small amounts of etorphine (median 2.5 microg/kg; range 1.1-12.3 microg/kg) plus acepromazine (median 10 microg/kg; range 4.4-50 microg/kg) (as in Large Animal-Immobilon) had to be administered i.m. to gain sufficient sedation. In these latter cases, the animals were either excited or known for their aggressive character. The zebras were sufficiently immobilized for the length of most procedures (<45 min) without supplementation. At the end of the procedure, the animals were given atipamezole (2 mg per 1 mg detomidine used) and naltrexone (0.1 mg/kg) to reverse the sedative effects, irrespective of whether etorphine was used or not. Standing sedation, using the combination of the alpha-2 agonist detomidine and the partial agonist-antagonist opioid butorphanol (in some cases supplemented with etorphine + acepromazine), proved to be a very efficacious and safe method to be used in zebras under zoo conditions for short-lasting, nonpainful procedures.

  2. Zonadhesin D3-Polypeptides Vary among Species but Are Similar in Equus Species Capable of Interbreeding1

    OpenAIRE

    Tardif, Steve; Brady, Heidi A.; Breazeale, Kelly R.; Bi, Ming; Thompson, Leslie D.; Bruemmer, Jason E.; Bailey, Laura B.; Hardy, Daniel M.

    2009-01-01

    Zonadhesin is a rapidly evolving protein in the sperm acrosome that confers species specificity to sperm-zona pellucida adhesion. Though structural variation in zonadhesin likely contributes to its species-specific function, the protein has not previously been characterized in organisms capable of interbreeding. Here we compared properties of zonadhesin in several animals, including the horse (Equus caballus), donkey (E. asinus), and Grevy's zebra (E. grevyi) to determine if variation in zona...

  3. Formação e estrutura populacional do eqüino Brasileiro de Hipismo Formation and population structure of the Brasileiro de Hipismo horse breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.G. Dias

    2000-12-01

    the 20 breeds used in the formation of the BH horse, the most important were: Thoroughbred (15.0%, Hanoverian (8.1%, Westphalian (5.2%, Holsteiner (4.8%, Trakehner (4.1%, graded BH (22.5% and unknown pedigree animals (21.9%. The records came from 14 states and 76% of the animals were registered in São Paulo State. The maximum number of generations was 3.12 (one animal, with 59.7% of the horses in the first generation and 24.1% in generation 1.5. Generation interval was 9.7 years, 10.4 for males and 9.3 for females. The Ne was 253 animals, and the inbreeding coefficient was close to zero.

  4. Reference values in blood elements in crioula breed horses by nuclear methodology; Valores de referencia de elementos em sangue de cavalos da raca crioula via metodologia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Tatyana Spinosa

    2010-07-01

    In this study the reference value for Br (0,0008 - 0,0056 gL{sup -1}), Ca (0,089 - 0,369 gL{sup -1}), Cl (2,10 - 3,26 gL{sup -1}), Fe (0,381 - 0,689 gL{sup -1}), I (0,00018 - 0,00266 gL{sup -1}), K (1,14 - 2,74 gL{sup -1}), Mg (0,030 - 0,074 gL{sup -1}), Na (1,36 - 2,80 gL{sup -1}), P (<1,99 gL{sup -1}), S (0,99 - 2,79 gL{sup -1}) and Zn (0,0012 - 0,0048 gL{sup -1}) as well as the correlation matrix in blood of Crioulo breed horses were determined using nuclear methodology (Neutron Activation Analysis Technique). These data allowed to identifying physiological alterations related to the sex and regime of exercise (hyperimmune sera production at Butantan Institute, Sao Paulo, Brasil). To perform these analyses was used 20 adult horses (8 males and 12 females), with average mass 350 kg, without clinical signs of disease, 1-3 years old, kept on pasture in Sao Joaquim Farm at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city). Other group just immunized, composed by 6 equines males (same age and weight), were also analyzed. These data are an important support to understand the physiological functions of these elements in blood during the process of sera production. (author)

  5. Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinlong; Zhao, Yiping; Shiraigol, Wunierfu; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Ye, Weixing; Daidiikhuu, Dorjsuren; Yang, Lihua; Jin, Burenqiqige; Zhao, Qinan; Gao, Yahan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Li, Anaer; Zhang, Yuhong; Han, Haige; Bai, Haitang; Bao, Yanqing; Zhao, Lele; Zhai, Zhengxiao; Zhao, Wenjing; Sun, Zikui; Zhang, Yan; Meng, He; Dugarjaviin, Manglai

    2014-05-14

    Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3 M bp) and Mongolian horse (2 M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsonian translocation event through the wild horse's chromosomes 23 and 24, which contained sequences that were highly homologous with those on the domestic horse's chromosome 5. The four main types of rearrangement, insertion of unknown origin, inserted duplication, inversion, and relocation, are not evenly distributed on all the chromosomes, and some chromosomes, such as the X chromosome, contain more rearrangements than others, and the number of inversions is far less than the number of insertions and relocations in the horse genome. Furthermore, we discovered the percentages of LINE_L1 and LTR_ERV1 are significantly increased in rearrangement regions. The analysis results of the two representative Equus species genomes improved our knowledge of Equus chromosome rearrangement and karyotype evolution.

  6. Genetic diversity of piroplasms in plains zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) and Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoora, Raksha; Buss, Peter; Guthrie, Alan J; Penzhorn, Barend L; Collins, Nicola E

    2010-11-24

    Seventy EDTA blood samples collected from plains zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) and Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) were screened for the presence of piroplasm parasite DNA using quantitative T. equi-specific and B. caballi-specific TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) tests. T. equi parasite DNA was detected in 60 samples, 19 of which were also positive for B. caballi. Approximately 1480bp of the piroplasm 18S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced from 17 samples, while the V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced from 31 samples. BLASTN analysis revealed that all of the sequences obtained were most similar to T. equi genotypes and not B. caballi genotypes. Although Babesia parasites were present in some of these samples, as indicated by qPCR, the parasitaemia may have been too low to allow detection by cloning of PCR products from a mixed infection. Sequence analyses of both the full-length and the V4 hypervariable region of the T. equi 18S rRNA gene revealed the existence of 13 new T. equi sequences from zebra, confirming the existence of sequence heterogeneity in the rRNA genes of the parasites that cause equine piroplasmosis, and further suggesting that there may be additional, as yet unidentified, T. equi and B. caballi 18S rRNA sequences present in the horse and zebra populations in South Africa. The occurrence of previously unrecognized sequence variation could pose a potential problem in the implementation of diagnostic tests targeting the 18S rRNA gene. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic variability in the brazilian criollo horse breed Variabilidade genética de cavalos da raça crioula no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Elizabeth Vinocur

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Allelic frequencies of 7 blood groups and 8 protein systems were determined in 6 herds of Criollo horse breed raised in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Analysis of these frequencies showed a significant isolation component (Fst = 0.0866; pAs freqüências alélicas de sete sistemas de grupos sangüíneos e oito sistemas protéicos foram determinadas em seis rebanhos de cavalos Crioulos criados no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A análise destas freqüências indicou que os rebanhos apresentaram um significativo componente devido ao isolamento (Fst = 0,0866; p<0,01 e esta diferença foi confirmada a partir do dendograma construído, utilizando-se a distância de Nei. Na medição da variabilidade genética, utilizando os 15 sistemas de tipagem sangüínea, os valores mais altos encontrados foram heterozigose média: 0.4631; número total de alelos :87 e probabilidade de exclusão de um parentesco indicado: 98%. Quando todas os rebanhos foram considerada na análise, o nível de endocruzamento (Fis foi zero. Estes resultados indicam que os cavalos Crioulos apresentam ampla variabilidade genética.

  8. Horse in the Turkmen Culture

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    Tuna BEŞEN DELİCE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Horses have provided speed and mobility for Turkish people in steppes. Through war capability and skil ls of riding horse they were successful against resident communities in different geographies throughout history and when circumstances became difficult they migrated to convenient land riding horses. They benefited from horse's milk and meat as well as it s power and speed. In feast and festivals they compete with each other using horses, even if they played on horseback. This indicates that horses were how important for Turks in the political, civil, economic, social and cultural fields. Horse was located in the center of the lives of Turks throughout history. Such that, robbing a horse conneted was capital offence as well as rebellion, treason, murder, adultery according to the criminal law of the former Turks. Horse still has not lost its importance in t he present Turkish regions, especially Central Asian geography. Horse is so important for Turkmens that horse figure has taken place in the state coat of arms of Turkmenistan and the last sunday in April is celebrated as a feast in Turkmenistan. Ahal - Teke which is most exclusive horse breed of the word is brought up in Turkmenistan. Horse has also an important place in the vocabulary. In this work, it would be determine horse’s important in social and cultural life of Turkmens as following both language and non - language indicators.

  9. Brazilian donkeys (Equus asinus) have a low exposure to Neospora spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Cynthia Maria Morais de Queiroz; Rezende-Gondim, Mariana Marrega; Chaves, Ana Carla Rodrigues; Schares, Gereon; Ribas, Jorge Raimundo Lins; Gondim, Luís Fernando Pita

    2015-01-01

    Donkeys (Equus asinus) are closely related to horses and are known to be infected by several equine pathogens. Neospora caninum and Neospora hughesi are protozoan parasites that infect horses, but they were not confirmed in donkeys up to this date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of donkeys (Equus asinus) to Neospora spp. using tachyzoites of N. caninum as antigen and employing two common serologic methods, IFAT and immunoblot. Sera from 500 donkeys were obtained from 30 municipalities in Bahia state and tested by IFAT. Two of 500 sera were positive for Neospora spp. by IFAT with antibody titers of 100, and recognized a 37kDa antigen in immunoblot. Approximately 22% of the samples showed strong apical reactions and/or incomplete fluorescence, what may cause confusion in the interpretation of IFAT. We concluded that Neospora spp. are possibly of minor importance for Brazilian donkeys. Future studies are necessary to prove that Neospora spp. can naturally infect donkeys.

  10. Brazilian donkeys (Equus asinus have a low exposure to Neospora spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Maria Morais de Queiroz Galvão

    Full Text Available Donkeys (Equus asinus are closely related to horses and are known to be infected by several equine pathogens. Neospora caninum and Neospora hughesi are protozoan parasites that infect horses, but they were not confirmed in donkeys up to this date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of donkeys (Equus asinus to Neospora spp. using tachyzoites of N. caninum as antigen and employing two common serologic methods, IFAT and immunoblot. Sera from 500 donkeys were obtained from 30 municipalities in Bahia state and tested by IFAT. Two of 500 sera were positive for Neospora spp. by IFAT with antibody titers of 100, and recognized a 37kDa antigen in immunoblot. Approximately 22% of the samples showed strong apical reactions and/or incomplete fluorescence, what may cause confusion in the interpretation of IFAT. We concluded that Neospora spp. are possibly of minor importance for Brazilian donkeys. Future studies are necessary to prove that Neospora spp. can naturally infect donkeys.

  11. Poor horse traders: large mammals trade survival for reproduction during the process of feralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Sophie; Duncan, Patrick; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    We investigated density dependence on the demographic parameters of a population of Camargue horses (Equus caballus), individually monitored and unmanaged for eight years. We also analysed the contributions of individual demographic parameters to changes in the population growth rates. The decrease in resources caused a loss of body condition. Adult male survival was not affected, but the survival of foals and adult females decreased with increasing density. Prime-aged females maintained high reproductive performance at high density, and their survival decreased. The higher survival of adult males compared with females at high density presumably results from higher investment in reproduction by mares. The high fecundity in prime-aged females, even when at high density, may result from artificial selection for high reproductive performance, which is known to have occurred in all the major domestic ungulates. Other studies suggest that feral ungulates including cattle and sheep, as these horses, respond differently from wild ungulates to increases in density, by trading adult survival for reproduction. As a consequence, populations of feral animals should oscillate more strongly than their wild counterparts, since they should be both more invasive (as they breed faster), and more sensitive to harsh environmental conditions (as the population growth rate of long-lived species is consistently more sensitive to a given proportional change in adult survival than to the same change in any other vital rate). If this principle proves to be general, it has important implications for management of populations of feral ungulates. PMID:19324787

  12. Esophageal Dysfunction in Friesian Horses: Morphological Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.; Grone, A.; Saey, V.; Bruijn, de C.M.; Back, W.; Weeren, van P.R.; Scheideman, W.; Picavet, T.; Ducro, B.J.; Wijnberg, I.; Delesalle, C.

    2015-01-01

    Megaesophagus appears to be more common in Friesian horses than in other breeds. A prevalence of approximately 2% was observed among Friesian horses presented to the Wolvega Equine Clinic and the Utrecht University Equine Clinic. In this study, morphologic changes in the esophagi of Friesian horses

  13. Genetic analysis of the Venezuelan Criollo horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, E G; Canelon, J L; Luis, C; Conant, E; Juras, R

    2011-10-07

    Various horse populations in the Americas have an origin in Spain; they are remnants of the first livestock introduced to the continent early in the colonial period (16th and 17th centuries). We evaluated genetic variability within the Venezuelan Criollo horse and its relationship with other horse breeds. We observed high levels of genetic diversity within the Criollo breed. Significant population differentiation was observed between all South American breeds. The Venezuelan Criollo horse showed high levels of genetic diversity, and from a conservation standpoint, there is no immediate danger of losing variation unless there is a large drop in population size.

  14. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm in...

  15. Comparison of body conformation of Moravian warm-blooded horse and Sarvar horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šamková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 7 body measures and 6 indices of body conformation on 34 breeding individuals of Moravian warm-blooded horse and 19 of Sarvar horse (Leutstettener were used to analyse the effect of country of origin (Czech Republik, Germany, sire lines or breed (Furioso, Przedswit, English thoroughbred, Sarvar, Others and age (4 classes. All horses were measured by one person. Measures and indexes were analysed by GLM procedure. Significant differences were found between both Czech and German population only in index of body frame. Sarvar horses are longer to their height than Moravian warm-blooded horses. The shorter body frame have the horses by English thoroughbred, the longer by Furioso. The younger horses are higher than the older. According to results of Linear Description of Body Conformation we found out, that population of Sarvar horse is more balanced than population of Moravian warm-blooded horse.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study among Four Horse Breeds Identifies a Common Haplotype Associated with In Vitro CD3+ T Cell Susceptibility/Resistance to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Yun Young; Bailey, Ernest; Cook, Deborah G.; Coleman, Stephen J.; MacLeod, James N.; Chen, Kuey-Chu; Timoney, Peter J.; Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that horses could be divided into susceptible and resistant groups based on an in vitro assay using dual-color flow cytometric analysis of CD3+ T cells infected with equine arteritis virus (EAV). Here, we demonstrate that the differences in in vitro susceptibility of equine CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection have a genetic basis. To investigate the possible hereditary basis for this trait, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to compare susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Testing of 267 DNA samples from four horse breeds that had a susceptible or a resistant CD3+ T lymphocyte phenotype using both Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip and Sequenom's MassARRAY system identified a common, genetically dominant haplotype associated with the susceptible phenotype in a region of equine chromosome 11 (ECA11), positions 49572804 to 49643932. The presence of a common haplotype indicates that the trait occurred in a common ancestor of all four breeds, suggesting that it may be segregated among other modern horse breeds. Biological pathway analysis revealed several cellular genes within this region of ECA11 encoding proteins associated with virus attachment and entry, cytoskeletal organization, and NF-κB pathways that may be associated with the trait responsible for the in vitro susceptibility/resistance of CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection. The data presented in this study demonstrated a strong association of genetic markers with the trait, representing de facto proof that the trait is under genetic control. To our knowledge, this is the first GWAS of an equine infectious disease and the first GWAS of equine viral arteritis. PMID:21994447

  17. Evolutionary movement of centromeres in horse, donkey, and zebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Lucia; Nergadze, Solomon G; Magnani, Elisa; Misceo, Doriana; Francesca Cardone, Maria; Roberto, Roberta; Bertoni, Livia; Attolini, Carmen; Francesca Piras, Maria; de Jong, Pieter; Raudsepp, Terje; Chowdhary, Bhanu P; Guérin, Gérard; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Rocchi, Mariano; Giulotto, Elena

    2006-06-01

    Centromere repositioning (CR) is a recently discovered biological phenomenon consisting of the emergence of a new centromere along a chromosome and the inactivation of the old one. After a CR, the primary constriction and the centromeric function are localized in a new position while the order of physical markers on the chromosome remains unchanged. These events profoundly affect chromosomal architecture. Since horses, asses, and zebras, whose evolutionary divergence is relatively recent, show remarkable morphological similarity and capacity to interbreed despite their chromosomes differing considerably, we investigated the role of CR in the karyotype evolution of the genus Equus. Using appropriate panels of BAC clones in FISH experiments, we compared the centromere position and marker order arrangement among orthologous chromosomes of Burchelli's zebra (Equus burchelli), donkey (Equus asinus), and horse (Equus caballus). Surprisingly, at least eight CRs took place during the evolution of this genus. Even more surprisingly, five cases of CR have occurred in the donkey after its divergence from zebra, that is, in a very short evolutionary time (approximately 1 million years). These findings suggest that in some species the CR phenomenon could have played an important role in karyotype shaping, with potential consequences on population dynamics and speciation.

  18. Asian horses deepen the MSY phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkel, S; Vogl, C; Rigler, D; Jagannathan, V; Leeb, T; Fries, R; Neuditschko, M; Rieder, S; Velie, B; Lindgren, G; Rubin, C-J; Schlötterer, C; Rattei, T; Brem, G; Wallner, B

    2018-02-01

    Humans have shaped the population history of the horse ever since domestication about 5500 years ago. Comparative analyses of the Y chromosome can illuminate the paternal origin of modern horse breeds. This may also reveal different breeding strategies that led to the formation of extant breeds. Recently, a horse Y-chromosomal phylogeny of modern horses based on 1.46 Mb of the male-specific Y (MSY) was generated. We extended this dataset with 52 samples from five European, two American and seven Asian breeds. As in the previous study, almost all modern European horses fall into a crown group, connected via a few autochthonous Northern European lineages to the outgroup, the Przewalski's Horse. In total, we now distinguish 42 MSY haplotypes determined by 158 variants within domestic horses. Asian horses show much higher diversity than previously found in European breeds. The Asian breeds also introduce a deep split to the phylogeny, preliminarily dated to 5527 ± 872 years. We conclude that the deep splitting Asian Y haplotypes are remnants of a far more diverse ancient horse population, whose haplotypes were lost in other lineages. © 2018 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  19. Horse size and domestication: Early equid bones from the Czech Republic in the European context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, René; Peške, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2016), s. 15-39 ISSN 0761-3032 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Horse (Equus) * E. hydruntinus * osteometry * domestication * Czech Republic * Bohemia * Neolithic * Copper Age * Bronze Age * LSI Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2016

  20. Wolf Predation Among Reintroduced Przewalski Horses in Hustai National Park, Mongolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyne, van C.; Ras, E.; Vos, de A.E.W.; Boer, de W.F.; Henkens, R.J.H.G.; Usukhjargal, D.

    2009-01-01

    Depredation by wolves (Canis lupus) could threaten survival of reintroduced wild Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in Hustai National Park (HNP), Mongolia. We conducted scat analysis, spatial analyses of kills, and interviews to study prey species selection and temporal and spatial factors

  1. Mechanics of evolutionary digit reduction in fossil horses (Equidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHorse, Brianna K; Biewener, Andrew A; Pierce, Stephanie E

    2017-08-30

    Digit reduction is a major trend that characterizes horse evolution, but its causes and consequences have rarely been quantitatively tested. Using beam analysis on fossilized centre metapodials, we tested how locomotor bone stresses changed with digit reduction and increasing body size across the horse lineage. Internal bone geometry was captured from 13 fossil horse genera that covered the breadth of the equid phylogeny and the spectrum of digit reduction and body sizes, from Hyracotherium to Equus To account for the load-bearing role of side digits, a novel, continuous measure of digit reduction was also established-toe reduction index (TRI). Our results show that without accounting for side digits, three-toed horses as late as Parahippus would have experienced physiologically untenable bone stresses. Conversely, when side digits are modelled as load-bearing, species at the base of the horse radiation through Equus probably maintained a similar safety factor to fracture stress. We conclude that the centre metapodial compensated for evolutionary digit reduction and body mass increases by becoming more resistant to bending through substantial positive allometry in internal geometry. These results lend support to two historical hypotheses: that increasing body mass selected for a single, robust metapodial rather than several smaller ones; and that, as horse limbs became elongated, the cost of inertia from the side toes outweighed their utility for stabilization or load-bearing. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Morphological evolution of Bardigiano horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Catalano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bardigiano horse is a local breed of the province of Parma. Since the institution of the Stud Book in 1977, the breed has improved its diffusion and is currently present with 110 stallions and over 1700 mares in 43 provinces in Italy and beyond that in Germany, Switzerland and Hungary.

  3. The origin of ambling horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutke, Saskia; Andersson, Leif; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariana B; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-08-08

    Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called 'gaited' horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1]. In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1]. Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2]. Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9(th)-11(th) century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and the primary structure of equine alpha-lactalbumin B and C (Equus caballus, Perissodactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godovac-Zimmermann, J; Shaw, D; Conti, A; McKenzie, H

    1987-04-01

    The presence of two new alpha-lactalbumins has been demonstrated in the colostrum of a single mare (Equus caballus, Persian Arab). They have been designated equine alpha-lactalbumin B and C, and that isolated previously from the milk of Australian horses (English Thoroughbred) as alpha-lactalbumin A. The primary structures of B/C have been determined by automatic Edman degradation of enzymatic cleavage of the oxidized protein. Cyanogen bromide cleavage of S-carbamoyl-methylated protein provided necessary overlapping peptides. Comparison of the sequences of B and C with that of A indicates 3 and 4 amino-acid exchanges, respectively. The phylogenetic difference of equine alpha-lactalbumin B/C from bovine alpha-lactalbumin B is indicated by 39 and 40 amino-acid exchanges, respectively. The structure-function relationship, calcium binding sites and variants of alpha-lactalbumin are discussed.

  5. Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

  6. Copy number variation in the horse genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Ghosh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches.

  7. Effects of feral free-roaming horses on semi-arid rangeland ecosystems: an example from the sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) are viewed as a symbol of freedom and power; however, they are also a largely unmanaged, non-native grazer in North America, South America, and Australia. Information on their influence on vegetation and soil characteristics in semi-arid rangelands has been limited by ...

  8. Genetic variability of Italian Heavy Draught Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Maretto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the genetic variability of the Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH breed using a panel of 23 microsatellite markers. We also compared the population structure of the IHDH to other two unrelated breeds (Italian Haflinger, IH and Quarter Horse, QH. The IHDH showed a genetic variability comparable with other European heavy draught horse breeds and with the IH and QH breeds analyzed. Clustering analyses using a posterior Bayesian approach clearly differentiated the three breeds; it also showed a fragmentation of the IHDH in three subpopulations that need to be further investigated. These findings are an indicator of the present situation of the IHDH and will contribute to the conservation and implementation of the selection programme for this breed.

  9. Composição de fibras musculares esqueléticas de eqüinos jovens da raça Brasileiro de Hipismo Composition of skeletal muscle fibers of young Brasileiro de Hipismo horse breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H.F. D’Angelis

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to typify the skeletal striated fibers of the gluteus medius muscle of young Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH horses by means of histochemical analysis with m-ATPase and NADH-TR according to the sex and the biopsy depth. It was observed that the frequency (F;% and the relative cross sectional area (RCSA;% of the fibers type IIX were greater than the fibers type IIA, which F and RCSA were greater than the fibers type I. The comparison between sex and muscles depht, showed no significant difference in F and RCSA in the three types of fibers. The results of morphometry showed that the gluteus medius muscle has greater glycolitic metabolism and anaerobic capacity because of the presence of large proportion of type IIX fibers. This may be justified by the genetic influence of Thoroughbred in the formation of Brasileiro de Hipismo breed.

  10. Stress and its effects on horses reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal M. AboEl-Maaty

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 90 mares and horses were subjected to blood sampling for determining the effect of management (farm, reproductive condition, sex, age, breed and month of the year during breeding on circulating levels of cortisol and sex hormones. Blood samples were collected from December to the following June from four farms. Blood sera underwent testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol assaying using ELISA kits. Cortisol levels were significantly low in lactating mares during their foal heat but significantly high levels were recorded in both repeat breeder mares and horses used for racing. High and significant testosterone and estradiol levels were recorded in both stallions used for breeding especially after semen collection and early pregnant mares. Similar testosterone levels were recorded in both early pregnant mares and racing horses but high levels were recorded in stallions. Estradiol was high in both early pregnant and mares with endometritis but the highest levels were observed in stallions. Horses held in private farms had high cortisol levels compared to those of governmental farms. In contrast to mares, horses had low cortisol and high estradiol levels. Cortisol levels were high from April to June (Spring and early summer compared to its levels from December to March (Winter. Arab horses had low cortisol compared to native and imported foreign breeds. In conclusion, environmental condition, exercise, breed, management and the purpose of raising horses all are affecting its cortisol levels.

  11. Identification of factors associated with the development of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den R.; Ducro, B.J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    An Internet-based questionnaire among horse owners was carried out to identify factors affecting the incidence of insect bite hypersensitivity (IBHI) among horses in the Netherlands. Information was obtained for 794 horses of various breeds, but the breed distribution was not representative for the

  12. Ancient feeding ecology inferred from stable isotopic evidence from fossil horses in South America over the past 3 Ma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberdi María T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stable isotope ratios (13C/12C and 18O/16O in fossil teeth and bone provide key archives for understanding the ecology of extinct horses during the Plio-Pleistocene in South America; however, what happened in areas of sympatry between Equus (Amerhippus and Hippidion is less understood. Results Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in 67 fossil tooth and bone samples for seven species of horses from 25 different localities to document the magnitude of the dietary shifts of horses and ancient floral change during the Plio-Pleistocene. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of both genera of horses present in South America document dietary separation and environmental changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3/C4 transitions. Stable isotope data demonstrate changes in C4 grass consumption, inter-species dietary partitioning and variation in isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders with latitudinal gradient. Conclusions The data for Hippidion indicate a preference varying from C3 plants to mixed C3-C4 plants in their diet. Equus (Amerhippus shows three different patterns of dietary partitioning Equus (A. neogeus from the province of Buenos Aires indicate a preference for C3 plants in the diet. Equus (A. andium from Ecuador and Equus (A. insulatus from Bolivia show a preference for to a diet of mixed C3-C4 plants, while Equus (A. santaeelenae from La Carolina (sea level of Ecuador and Brazil are mostly C4 feeders. These results confirm that ancient feeding ecology cannot always be inferred from dental morphology. While the carbon isotope composition of horses skeletal material decreased as latitude increased, we found evidence of boundary between a mixed C3/C4 diet signal and a pure C4 signal around 32° S and a change from a mixed diet signal to an exclusively C3 signal around 35°S. We found that the horses living at high altitudes and at low to middle latitude still have a C4 component in their

  13. Adaptive evolution of the mitochondrial ND6 gene in the domestic horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, T; Xiao, H; Li, J; Hua, S; Zhang, Y P

    2010-01-26

    Mitochondria play a crucial role in energy metabolism through oxidative phosphorylation. Organisms living at high altitudes are potentially influenced by oxygen deficits and cold temperatures. The severe environmental conditions can impact on metabolism and direct selection of mitochondrial DNA. As a wide-ranging animal, the domestic horse (Equus caballus) has developed various morphological and physiological characteristics for adapting to different altitudes. Thus, this is a good species for studying adaption to high altitudes at a molecular level. We sequenced the complete NADH dehydrogenase 6 gene (ND6) of 509 horses from 24 sampling locations. By comparative analysis of three horse populations living at different altitudes (>2200 m, 1200-1700 m, and horses was found distributed on the selected branches. We conclude that the high-altitude environment has directed adaptive evolution of the mitochondrial ND6 gene in the plateau horse.

  14. Determining Home Range and Preferred Habitat of Feral Horses on the Nevada National Security Site Using Geographic Information Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Ashley V. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States)

    2014-05-30

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) are free-roaming descendants of domesticated horses and legally protected by the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971, which mandates how feral horses and burros should be managed and protected on federal lands. Using a geographic information system to determine the home range and suitable habitat of feral horses on the federally managed Nevada National Security Site can enable wildlife biologists in making best management practice recommendations. Home range was estimated at 88.1 square kilometers. Site suitability was calculated for elevation, forage, slope, water presence and horse observations. These variables were combined in successive iterations into one polygon. Suitability rankings established that 85 square kilometers are most suitable habitat, with 2,052 square kilometers of good habitat 1,252 square kilometers of fair habitat and 122 square kilometers of least suitable habitat.

  15. Economic benefit of fertility control in wild horse populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, J.

    2007-01-01

    I projected costs for several contraceptive treatments that could be used by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage 4 wild horse (Equus caballus) populations. Potential management alternatives included existing roundup and selective removal methods combined with contraceptives of different duration and effectiveness. I projected costs for a 20-year economic life using the WinEquus?? wild horse population model and state-by-state cost estimates reflecting BLM's operational expenses. Findings revealed that 1) currently available 2-year contraceptives in most situations are capable of reducing variable operating costs by 15%, 2) experimental 3-year contraceptives may be capable of reducing costs by 18%, and 3) combining contraceptives with modest changes to herd sex ratio (e.g., 55-60% M) could trim costs by 30%. Predicted savings can increase when contraception is applied in conjunction with a removal policy that targets horses aged 0-4 years instead of 0-5 years. However, reductions in herd size result in greater variation in annual operating expenses. Because the horse program's variable operating costs make up about half of the total program costs (which include other fixed costs), contraceptive application and management can only reduce total costs by 14%, saving about $6.1 million per year. None of the contraceptive options I examined eliminated the need for long-term holding facilities over the 20-year period simulated, but the number of horses held may be reduced by about 17% with contraceptive treatment. Cost estimates were most sensitive to the oldest age adoptable and per-day holding costs. The BLM will experience significant cost savings as carefully designed contraceptive programs become widespread in the wild horse herds it manages.

  16. European domestic horses originated in two holocene refugia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Warmuth

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both.

  17. Unraveling the sequence and structure of the protein osteocalcin from a 42 ka fossil horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Peggy H.; Gandhi, Hasand; Strahler, John R.; Walker, Angela K.; Andrews, Philip C.; Leykam, Joseph; Stafford, Thomas W.; Kelly, Robert L.; Walker, Danny N.; Buckley, Mike; Humpula, James

    2006-04-01

    We report the first complete amino acid sequence and evidence of secondary structure for osteocalcin from a temperate fossil. The osteocalcin derives from a 42 ka equid bone excavated from Juniper Cave, Wyoming. Results were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and Edman sequencing with independent confirmation of the sequence in two laboratories. The ancient sequence was compared to that of three modern taxa: horse ( Equus caballus), zebra ( Equus grevyi), and donkey ( Equus asinus). Although there was no difference in sequence among modern taxa, MALDI-MS and Edman sequencing show that residues 48 and 49 of our modern horse are Thr, Ala rather than Pro, Val as previously reported (Carstanjen B., Wattiez, R., Armory, H., Lepage, O.M., Remy, B., 2002. Isolation and characterization of equine osteocalcin. Ann. Med. Vet.146(1), 31-38). MALDI-MS and Edman sequencing data indicate that the osteocalcin sequence of the 42 ka fossil is similar to that of modern horse. Previously inaccessible structural attributes for ancient osteocalcin were observed. Glu 39 rather than Gln 39 is consistent with deamidation, a process known to occur during fossilization and aging. Two post-translational modifications were documented: Hyp 9 and a disulfide bridge. The latter suggests at least partial retention of secondary structure. As has been done for ancient DNA research, we recommend standards for preparation and criteria for authenticating results of ancient protein sequencing.

  18. SOME SLAUGHTER-HOUSE RATES OF HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays horses are raised and used almost only for sport and recreation and, of course, for meat production. With the possibility of buying fresh horse meat and products based on horse meat, new eating habits have been acquired. The number of horses in the Republic of Croatia has been decreasing continually, which can result in import rather than in export of horse meat, unless a proper and a good breeding plan for horse meat production is made soon. In existing small private slaughter-houses, together with other animals, horses are slaughtered but in a very small number (just to meet the needs of the market. As those horses are of different genetic bases, (mostly cold blooded and cross-bred as well as of different age, sex and physical shape, the slaughter-house yield greatly varies. Due to some injuries, blindenss or lameness horses are killed coercively as to gain minimal profit. In distinction from other animals where the percentage of carcass yield is very high, sloughter-house yield of horse carcass is not high due to a small number of killed animals

  19. Genetic Correlations between Young Horse and Dressage Competition Results in Danish Warmblood Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Lina Johanna Maria; Christiansen, Karina; Holm, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    .13˗0.48) than the breeding goal trait of dressage competition results (0.16). Young horse results showed medium high to high genetic correlations to dressage competition results (0.32˗0.91) where most recorded young horse gait- and conformation scores contributed with considerable information to future dressage...... competition results. If considering both accuracy of each young horse trait and genetic correlation to dressage competition results, as rg×rIA, the best young horse indicator traits for future performance were capacity, trot, canter, and rideability, all under own rider. Most important conformation traits...

  20. Electrocardiography of Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Debbie A; Citino, Scott; Mitchell, Mark A

    2008-09-01

    Electrocardiograms (ECGs) are a good baseline test for assessing cardiac rhythm. ECGs have not been reported in any zebra species and in very few Perissodactyla species. Standard limb, six-lead ECGs were recorded in 23 anesthetized Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi). Heart rate, RR interval, P-wave duration, RR maximum/minimum, PR interval, QRS duration, QT interval, ST segment deviation, P-wave amplitude, QRS amplitude, and T-wave amplitude were measured and calculated from lead II ECGs from these Grevy's zebras. Several variables were tested, including gender, age (0-24, 24-48, 48-180, and >180 mo), weight (350 kg), pregnancy status, and anesthetic differences (standard dose or supplemented dose), to see if they affected ECG values in these animals. There were no significant differences in any of the ECG parameters between genders. RR and QT intervals were longer in older zebras; heart rates were faster in younger zebras. The RR and PR intervals, as well as the QRS duration, were greater in heavier zebras; heart rates were faster in lighter zebras. The RR interval was significantly longer in pregnant zebras. There were no significant differences in any of the ECG parameters for zebras anesthetized with a standardized dose of the drug combination etorphine-detomidine-acepromazine compared to those receiving additional supplements of these drugs and/or ketamine. All other parameters were not significantly different among groups, except where noted previously. The results of this research indicate that differences in ECG parameters in zebras may occur between animals of different ages, weights, and pregnancy status and that these factors should be considered when interpreting the respective ECGs of these zebras.

  1. Low genetic diversity of the endangered Indian wild ass Equus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DEVENDRA KHAIRE

    (Equus hemionus khur) belongs to an endangered wild species/subspecies of wild ... species of the Asiatic wild asses, E. hemionus and E. kiang, have been described on .... 57.9. Tseng et al. (2010). 5 -TCA CCC ACT AAA TCT CAA ATC C-3.

  2. Genetic diversity of Syrian Arabian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarzook, S; Reissmann, M; Arends, D; Brockmann, G A

    2017-08-01

    Although Arabian horses have been bred in strains for centuries and pedigrees have been recorded in studbooks, to date, little is known about the genetic diversity within and between these strains. In this study, we tested if the three main strains of Syrian Arabian horses descend from three founders as suggested by the studbook. We examined 48 horses representing Saglawi (n = 18), Kahlawi (n = 16) and Hamdani (n = 14) strains using the Equine SNP70K BeadChip. For comparison, an additional 24 Arabian horses from the USA and three Przewalski's horses as an out group were added. Observed heterozygosis (H o ) ranged between 0.30 and 0.32, expected heterozygosity (H e ) between 0.30 and 0.31 and inbreeding coefficients (F is ) between -0.02 and -0.05, indicating high genetic diversity within Syrian strains. Likewise, the genetic differentiation between the three Syrian strains was very low (F st  horses. Among Arabian horses, we found three clusters containing either horses from the USA or horses from Syria or horses from Syria and the USA together. Individuals from the same Syrian Arabian horse strain were spread across different sub-clusters. When analyzing Syrian Arabian horses alone, the best population differentiation was found with three distinct clusters. In contrast to expectations from the studbook, these clusters did not coincide with strain affiliation. Although this finding supports the hypothesis of three founders, the genetic information is not consistent with the currently used strain designation system. The information can be used to reconsider the current breeding practice. Beyond that, Syrian Arabian horses are an important reservoir for genetic diversity. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. The effects of age, rank and neophobia on social learning in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Konstanze; Farmer, Kate; Heinze, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Social learning is said to meet the demands of complex environments in which individuals compete over resources and cooperate to share resources. Horses (Equus caballus) were thought to lack social learning skills because they feed on homogenously distributed resources with few reasons for conflict. However, the horse's social environment is complex, which raises the possibility that its capacity for social transfer of feeding behaviour has been underestimated. We conducted a social learning experiment using 30 socially kept horses of different ages. Five horses, one from each group, were chosen as demonstrators, and the remaining 25 horses were designated observers. Observers from each group were allowed to watch their group demonstrator opening a feeding apparatus. We found that young, low-ranking and more exploratory horses learned by observing older members of their own group, and the older the horse, the more slowly it appeared to learn. Social learning may be an adaptive specialisation to the social environment. Older animals may avoid the potential costs of acquiring complex and potentially disadvantageous feeding behaviours from younger group members. We argue that horses show social learning in the context of their social ecology and that research procedures must take such contexts into account. Misconceptions about the horse's sociality may have hampered earlier studies.

  4. Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in feral horses on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Collins, Gail H.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    We screened 1,397 feral horses (Equus caballus) on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States, for IgM and IgG against flavivirus during 2004–2006, 2008, and 2009. Positive serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). One animal was positive for antibody against WNV in 2004, but all others tested in 2004–2006 were negative. In 2008 and 2009, we found evidence of increasing seropositive horses with age, whereas seroprevalence of WNV decreased from 19% in 2008 to 7.2% in 2009. No horses were positive for antibody against SLEV. Being unvaccinated, feral horses can be useful for WNV surveillance.

  5. Leisure riding horses: research topics versus the needs of stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczarek, Iwona; Wilk, Izabela

    2017-07-01

    Horses intended for leisure riding do not undergo any selection and most often retired sports horses or defective horses are chosen, as a low selling price determines their purchase by a leisure riding center. Unfortunately, horses bought at low prices usually have low utility value, are difficult to handle, require a special or individual approach and do not provide satisfaction in riding. However, neither modern horse breeding nor scientific research address the need to breed horses for leisure activities. There is no clear definition of a model leisure horse and criteria or information for its selection are not readily available in scientific publications. A wide spectrum of research methods may be used to evaluate various performance traits in horses intended for leisure activities. The fact that the population of recreational horses and their riders outnumber sporting horses should attract the special attention of scientific research. Their utility traits need to be determined with modern technology and methods in the same way they are for sporting horses. Such a system of evaluation would be very helpful for riders. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. The legacy of Columbus in American horse populations assessed by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, O; Dunner, S; Gama, L T; Martínez, A M; Delgado, J V; Ginja, C; Jiménez, L M; Jordana, J; Luis, C; Oom, M M; Sponenberg, D P; Zaragoza, P; Vega-Pla, J L

    2017-08-01

    Criollo horse populations descend from horses brought from the Iberian Peninsula over the period of colonization (15th to 17th century). They are spread throughout the Americas and have potentially undergone genetic hybridization with other breeds in the recent past. In this study, 25 autosomal microsatellites were genotyped in 50 horse breeds representing Criollo populations from 12 American countries (27 breeds), breeds from the Iberian Peninsula (19), one breed each from France and Morocco and two cosmopolitan horse breeds (Thoroughbred and Arabian). The genetic relationships among breeds identified five clusters: Celtic; Iberian; North American with Thoroughbred influence; most Colombian breeds; and nearly all other Criollo breeds. The group of "all other Criollo breeds" had the closest genetic relationship with breeds originating from the Iberian Peninsula, specifically with the Celtic group. For the whole set of Criollo breeds analysed, the estimated genetic contribution from other breeds was approximately 50%, 30% and 20% for the Celtic, Iberian and Arab-Thoroughbred groups, respectively. The spatial distribution of genetic diversity indicates that hotspots of genetic diversity are observed in populations from Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil, Paraguay and western United States, possibly indicating points of arrival and dispersion of Criollo horses in the American continent. These results indicate that Criollo breeds share a common ancestry, but that each breed has its own identity. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Xenophon on Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Cedilnik

    2013-07-01

    horses not only eased his difficult journey but helped him stay alive. Of this he was well aware: as he admonishes horse owners in his work On Horsemanship, the master entrusts his life to the horse in times of danger, and the one who neglects his horse practically neglects himself. Xenophon’s chequered and adventurous life brought him in close contact with horses, affording him a wealth of personal experience and knowledge of these animals. His writings, On Horsemanship in particular, are thus a mine of information on their breeding, grooming, training, feeding and general treatment, as well as on what can be expected of them when they are suitably groomed and treated. While this paper omits a detailed account of Xenophon’s advice on horse treatment, it does examine more closely those instructions which reflect most clearly the author’s attitude to the noble animals.

  8. A note on the heritability of reactivity assessed at field tests for Danish Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothmann, Janne; Christensen, Ole F.; Søndergaard, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Temperament traits in horses, especially reactivity, are an important trait in relation to human–horse accidents and the welfare of the horses. However, so far, temperament is often not included in many horse breeding programs. Most of the behavioral genetic studies in horses have been based on i......, a high standard error was untainted. Nevertheless, results suggested a genetic variation of reactivity when assessed at field tests, but further research is needed before reactivity can be incorporated as a selection criteria into a breeding program....

  9. [Development and application of real-time PCR for identification and detection of horse meat in animal-origin products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Jiahui; Shen, Qing; Han, Chunhui; Zhang, Jing; Li, Fengqin; Xu, Jin; Jiang, Tao

    2013-11-01

    To develop a real-time PCR method for identification and detection of domestic horse meat (Equus caballus) in animal-origin products. The primer and TaqMan-probe was designed and synthesized according to the EU reference laboratory and 87 bp fragments was amplified for horse ingredients. The specificity and sensitivity was tested by artificially spiked horse meat into other domestic meat, such as cattle, sheep, pork, chicken, duck and rabbit. 122 samples of cattle and sheep products were random collected in Beijing market and the detection of horse meat was carried out. The real-time PCR in this study has high specificity and sensitivity for horse meat. No cross-reaction was observed between the horse and sheep, pork, chicken, duck and rabbit meat. There was little cross reaction between horse and cattle when the CT value reach 33. 81. The method can detect 0.1% of horse meat mixed with other domestic animal-origin products. No horse meat ingredients were detected in 122 samples in this survey. There was no horse meat mixed into cattle and sheep products in Beijing marked.

  10. The evolution and anatomy of the horse manus with an emphasis on digit reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danowitz, Melinda; Stachtiaris, Elizabeth; Khurana, Abhilasha; Araim, Marwan; Sayegh, Marc; Natale, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    We revisit digit reduction in the horse and propose that all five digits are partially present in the modern adult forelimb. Osteological descriptions of selected tetradactyl, tridactyl and monodactyl equids demonstrate the evolution of the forelimb. Histological, osteological and palaeontological evidence suggest that the Equus distal forelimb is more complex than traditionally conceived. The current understanding is that the horse distal forelimb consists of one complete digit (III) and two reduced splint metacarpals (II and IV). Metacarpals II and IV each exhibit a ventral ridge, which we suggest represents the undifferentiated digits I and V. These ridges are present in the tridactyl Mesohippus, but are absent in the tetradactyl Hyracotherium. The carpal articulations of the five metacarpals match those of pentadactyl taxa. Distally, the frog, a V-shaped structure on the ventral hoof represents digits II and IV, and the wings and hoof cartilages of the distal phalanx are digits I and V. We relate this revised interpretation of the Equus forelimb to Laetoli footprints, and suggest the Hipparion side impressions are created from the hooves of I and V, rather than from II and IV. We show shades of pentadactyly within the Equus manus. PMID:29410871

  11. Mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan wild ass (Equus kiang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongjun; Chen, Yu; Liu, Fuyu; Jiang, Chunhua; Gao, Yuqi

    2011-02-01

    The Tibetan wild ass, or kiang (Equus kiang) is endemic to the cold and hypoxic (4000-7000 m above sea level) climates of the montane and alpine grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the E. kiang mitochondrial genome. Our results show that E. kiang mitochondrial DNA is 16,634 bp long, and predicted to encode all the 37 genes that are typical for vertebrates.

  12. Genetic Structure and Gene Flows within Horses: A Genealogical Study at the French Population Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Pirault, Pauline; Danvy, Sophy; Verrier, Etienne; Leroy, Gr?goire

    2013-01-01

    Since horse breeds constitute populations submitted to variable and multiple outcrossing events, we analyzed the genetic structure and gene flows considering horses raised in France. We used genealogical data, with a reference population of 547,620 horses born in France between 2002 and 2011, grouped according to 55 breed origins. On average, individuals had 6.3 equivalent generations known. Considering different population levels, fixation index decreased from an overall species FIT of 1.37%...

  13. Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot?

    OpenAIRE

    Rendo, Fernando; Iriondo, Mikel; Manzano, Carmen; Estonba, Andone

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phe...

  14. The Ventasso Horse: genetic characterization by microsatellites markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blasi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic structure of Ventasso Horse (VH was investigated using 12 microsatellites. The analyses were carried out on 117 VH individuals and the results were compared with those obtained analysing 11 other breeds reared in Italy. All microsatellites were polymorphic in VH and in the other breeds. A total of 124 alleles (from 6 to 19 alleles per microsatellite were detected. Average heterozygosity was 0.743 in VH and ranged from 0.613 to 0.759 in the other breeds. The mean FST value had an average value of 0.0932. Genetic distances were calculated using Nei’s standard genetic distance (Ds. The smallest Ds values were found between VH and Anglo-Arab, Thoroughbred, Maremmano and Lipizzan horse breeds. Phylogenetic trees constructed using neighbour-joining method showed two clear separate clusters: the first includes Bardigiano, Haflinger and Italian Heavy Draught Horse, the second contains the other 9 breeds.

  15. Using magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose nondisplaced fractures of the second phalanx in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podadera, J M; Bell, R J; Dart, A J

    2010-11-01

    Two horses presented with a history of severe lameness that was localised to the area around the second phalanx (P2) of one forelimb. Radiographs of the second phalanx of both horses were unremarkable, apart from some smooth periosteal new bone production on the dorsum of P2. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a non-displaced fracture of P2 in both horses. One horse was euthanased because of a poor prognosis for racing, but the second horse was treated conservatively and salvaged for breeding. Magnetic resonance imaging is a newer imaging modality in horses and may be useful in diagnosing cases of obscure lameness.

  16. Demographics of Australian horses: results from an internet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, G B; Dagley, K

    2016-03-01

    To obtain information on the types of Australian horses, how they are kept and their activities. An invitation to participate in an opt-in, internet-based survey was sent to 7000 people who had registered an email address to receive information from the Australian Horse Industry Council Inc. There were 3377 (48%) useable responses from owners of 26,548 horses. Most horses were kept on small properties (usually 2-8 ha) in paddocks in rural areas of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. Most horses were female or geldings and the most common of 54 different activities was breeding. Owners reported 19,291 horses were used in different activities and 6037 (23%) horses were not kept for any stated purpose or activity. Owners used an average of 1.95 horses in 2.9 different types of activities. The most common of the 43 breeds were Thoroughbred, Australian Stock Horse and Australian Quarter Horse. Only 1% of the total numbers of Thoroughbreds and Standardbreds in this survey were used in horse racing, indicating there is a demand for these breeds in non-racing activities. Microchip was the most favoured method of horse identification and 36% favoured compulsory registration of horses. Most respondents reported owning some other animal species. There is a wide variation in horse breeds used in different activities by Australian horse owners. There are regional differences in various management systems. There needs to be considerable improvement in the collection and recording of information to improve the validity and reliability of horse industry data. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Relation between type and local of orthopedic injuries with physical activity in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa,Nicole Ruas de; Luna,Stelio Pacca Loureiro; Pizzigatti,Dietrich; Martins,Mayra Teixeira Alas; Possebon,Fabio Sossai; Aguiar,Adriana Cristina Saldanha

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Equine sport modalities influence the prevalence and predisposition of musculoskeletal injuries in horses. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of location and type of orthopedic injuries of horses undergoing various physical activities. Data from 116 horses of different breeds and ages was analyzed. Physical activities included dressage, racing, polo pony, jumping, work and western performance. All horses had history of orthopedic lameness diagnosed by radiographs and/or ult...

  18. Chromosomal assignment of six genes (EIF4G3, HSP90, RBBP6, IL8, TERT, and TERC) in four species of the genus Equus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, Pamela; Piras, Francesca M; Nergadze, Solomon G; Bertoni, Livia; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Adelson, David; Guérin, Gérard; Giulotto, Elena

    2011-01-01

    We mapped six genes (EIF4G3, HSP90, RBBP6, IL8, TERT, and TERC) on the chromosomes of Equus caballus, Equus asinus, Equus grevyi, and Equus burchelli by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Our results add six type I markers to the cytogenetic map of these species and provide new information on the comparative genomics of the genus Equus. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  19. Genetic diversity of Halla horses using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Hee Seo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently about 26,000 horses are breeding in Korea and 57.2% (14,776 horses of them are breeding in Jeju island. According to the statistics published in 2010, the horses breeding in Jeju island are subdivided into Jeju horse (6.1%, Thoroughbred (18.8% and Halla horse (75.1%. Halla horses are defined as a crossbreed between Jeju and Thoroughbred horses and are used for horse racing, horse riding and horse meat production. However, little research has been conducted on Halla horses because of the perception of crossbreed and people’s weighted interest toward Jeju horses. Method Using 17 Microsatellite (MS Markers recommended by International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG, genomic DNAs were extracted from the hair roots of 3,880 Halla horses breeding in Korea and genetic diversity was identified by genotyping after PCR was performed. Results and conclusion In average, 10.41 alleles (from 6 alleles in HTG7 to 17 alleles in ASB17 were identified after the analysis using 17 MS Markers. The mean value of Hobs was 0.749 with a range from 0.612(HMS1 to 0.857(ASB2. Also, it was found that Hexp and PIC values were lowest in HMS1 (0.607 and 0.548, respectively, and highest in LEX3(0.859 and 0.843, respectively, and the mean value of Hexp was 0.760 and that of PIC was 0.728. 17 MS markers used in this studies were considered as appropriate markers for the polymorphism analysis of Halla horses. The frequency for the appearance of identical individuals was 5.90 × 10−20 when assumed as random mating population and when assumed as half-sib and full-sib population, frequencies were 4.08 × 10−15 and 3.56 × 10−8, respectively. Based on these results, the 17 MS markers can be used adequately for the Individual Identification and Parentage Verification of Halla horses. Remarkably, allele M and Q of ASB23 marker, G of HMS2 marker, H and L of HTG6 marker, L of HTG7 marker, E of LEX3 marker were the specific alleles

  20. Subluxation of the Carpus in Thirteen Horses

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, J.V.; Barber, S.M.; Fretz, P.B.; Jacobs, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    The records of 13 horses of various breeds with subluxation of the radiocarpal, intercarpal or carpometacarpal joint, or combinations of these were reviewed. Subluxation was most common at the carpometacarpal joint (n = 10) and concomitant fractures of individual carpal bones or metacarpus II and IV were seen (n = 12).

  1. Influences of immunocontraception on time budgets, social behavior, and body condition in feral horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, J.I.; Cade, B.S.; Hobbs, N.T.

    2010-01-01

    Managers concerned with shrinking habitats and limited resources for wildlife seek effective tools for limiting population growth in some species. Fertility control is one such tool, yet little is known about its impacts on the behavioral ecology of wild, free-roaming animals. We investigated influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on individual and social behavior in bands of feral horses (Equus caballus) in three discrete populations and used 14 hierarchical mixed effect models to gain insight into the influences of PZP treatment on feral horse behavior. A model of body condition was the strongest predictor of feeding, resting, maintenance, and social behaviors, with treated females allocating their time similarly to control females. Time spent feeding declined 11.4% from low condition to high condition females (F1,154 = 26.427, P modifications in feral horses.

  2. Quantifying Equid Behavior - A Research Ethogram for Free-Roaming Feral Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Cade, Brian S.

    2009-01-01

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) are globally distributed in free-roaming populations on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide range of habitats including forest, grassland, desert, and montane environments. The largest populations occur in Australia and North America and have been the subject of scientific study for decades, yet guidelines and ethograms for feral horse behavioral research are largely absent in the scientific literature. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center conducted research on the influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on feral horse behavior from 2003-2006 in three discrete populations in the American west. These populations were the Little Book Cliffs Wild Horse Range in Colorado, McCullough Peaks Herd Management Area in Wyoming, and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range in Montana; the research effort included over 1,800 hours of behavioral observations of 317 adult free-roaming feral horses. An ethogram was developed during the course of this study to facilitate accurate scientific data collection on feral horse behavior, which is often challenging to quantify. By developing this set of discrete behavioral definitions and a set of strict research protocols, scientists were better able to address both applied questions, such as behavioral changes related to fertility control, and theoretical questions, such as understanding networks and dominance hierarchies within social groups of equids.

  3. Sport horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, Gabriel Alejandro

    The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection, competition performan....... Constructing separate selection indexes would allow for optimal weighting of information sources such as studbook-entry inspection traits in accordance to the breeding goal of each sports discipline....

  4. Genetic characterization of Zanskari breed of horse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    known for their ability to survive on scarce food in the win- ter snow-bound months and yet ... liability, are the markers of choice for evaluation of genetic diversity of a ... cant heterozygotic excess in both infinite allele model (IAM) and sequential ...

  5. Distribution of coat-color-associated alleles in the domestic horse population and Przewalski's horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissmann, Monika; Musa, Lutfi; Zakizadeh, Sonia; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-11-01

    Considering the hidden mode of inheritance of some coat-color-associated alleles, we investigated the presence/absence of coat-color-associated alleles in 1093 domestic horses of 55 breeds and 20 specimens of Przewalski's horse. For coat-color genotyping, allele specific PCR, pyrosequencing and Li-Cor analyses were conducted on 12 coat-color-associated alleles of five genes. Our data provide deep insight into the distribution of coat-color-associated alleles within breeds. We found that the alleles for the basic colorations (bay, black, and chestnut) are widely distributed and occur in nearly all breeds. Alleles leading to dilutions or patterns are rare in domestic breeds and were not found in Przewalski's horse. Higher frequencies of these alleles are only found in breeds that are selected for their expressed phenotypes (e.g., Kinsky horse, Lewitzer, Tinker). Nevertheless, our study produced strong evidence that molecular testing of the coat color is necessary for well-defined phenotyping to avoid unexpected colorations of offspring that can result in legal action.

  6. The impact of herpesviruses on reproductive performance in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulman, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The thesis addresses the largely-undefined influence of the equine herpesviruses (EHVs) and in particular EHV-1 and -4 on reproductive performance in horse-breeding systems. These pathogens cause significant losses to the international equine breeding industry primarily through infectious abortion

  7. Challenging Friesian horse diseases : aortic rupture and megaesophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aortic rupture is quite rare in Warmblood horses and is best known as an acute and fatal rupture of the aortic root in older breeding stallions. It has now become clear that aortic rupture, which is diagnosed around an age of 4 years, is more frequent in the Friesian breed than in others. The high

  8. Retrospective analysis of factors associated with outcome of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 82 horses including Warmblood and Thoroughbred sport horses and Quarter Horses (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herthel, T D; Rick, M C; Judy, C E; Cohen, N D; Herthel, D J

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes associated with arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in Quarter Horses used for Western performance activities are well documented but little is known regarding outcomes for other types of horses. To identify factors associated with outcomes, including breed and activity, after arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods, Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Retrospective case series. Surgical case records of 82 Quarter Horses principally engaged in Western performance and Thoroughbred or Warmblood breeds principally engaged in showing, showjumping and dressage, with arthrodesis of the PIP joint were reviewed. Arthrodesis was performed with either 3 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, a dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, or a locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion. Demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical technique, post operative treatment and complications were recorded. Long-term follow-up was obtained for all 82 horses. Osteoarthritis of the PIP joint was the most common presenting condition requiring arthrodesis, which was performed with either the 3 screw technique (n = 41), DCP fixation (n = 22), or LCP fixation (n = 19). Post operatively, 23/31 (74%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 44/51 (87%) Quarter Horses achieved successful outcomes. Thirteen of 23 (57%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 24 of 38 (63%) Quarter Horses, used for athletic performance, returned to successful competition. Within this subgroup of horses engaged in high-level activity, regardless of breed type, horses undergoing hindlimb arthrodesis were significantly more likely to return to successful competition (73%; 33/45) than those with forelimb arthrodesis (25%; 4/16, P = 0.002). Arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses results in a favourable outcome for return to

  9. The Evolutionary Origin and Genetic Makeup of Domestic Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librado, Pablo; Fages, Antoine; Gaunitz, Charleen; Leonardi, Michela; Wagner, Stefanie; Khan, Naveed; Hanghøj, Kristian; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped advance our understanding of the genetic foundation of domestic horses. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Research on Donkey Populations (Equus Asinus in Banat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Research has been made in what concerns the bodily development of donkeys (Equus asinus in Banat, on a number of 94 specimens. The results have shown a great variety in body measures, colours and hues. The Banat Donkey comes from different areas in Romania, Europe or Levant. In 2010 in Banat there were approx. 1000 donkey specimens, 98% of which pertained to shepherds. In the case of this species the mating occurs naturally, and a selection has never been made. Their meat and milk are only rarely consumed by some communities, even if their milk is highly appreciated in the European Union.

  11. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  12. Desarrollo de resistencia a la insulina en caballos (Equus caballus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandarillas, Mónica; Matus, José Tomás; Márquez-Hernández, Roberto I.

    2015-01-01

    In horses, insulin resistance is associated with several comorbidities such as obesity, laminitis, colic and osteochondrosis. The multifactorial causes of insulin resistance in horses have been addressed, which include genetic and environmental factors. As a consequence of these factors, the cell...

  13. Esteatosis en un burro (Equus asinus. Primer reporte en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cardona Á.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de esteatosis en un burro (Equus asinus, castrado, de 15 años de edad, procedente del municipio de San Antero (Córdoba, Colombia, al cual se le detectó ligamento nucal engrosado, duro y doloroso, dando la impresión de un doble cuello y edemas subcutáneos indurados en pared costal, abdominal y pectoral. Tambiénpresentó masas duras en la unión de músculos semimembranoso y semitendinoso. Por todo lo anterior, mostró dificultad para realizar movimientos coordinados del cuello, nuca y de traslado. Estos hallazgos obedecen principalmente a una deficiencia de selenio y vitamina E, sirviendo como parámetro diagnóstico para la identificación de esta enfermedad en equinos, por lo cual se determinó la actividad eritrocitica de la enzima glutatión peroxidada (GSH-Px, arrojando resultados muy bajos. Este cuadro es también conocido en equinos como enfermedad de la grasa amarilla o esteatitis, que produce degeneración del tejido adiposo, siendo reemplazado por tejido conectivo con depósitos de calcio. Puede estar asociada a miodegeneración nutricional o distrófica (enfermedad del músculo blanco. Es el primer reporte de esta enfermedad en burros(Equus asinus que se hace en Colombia.

  14. Thoroughbred Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database: HSDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Ho Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetics is important for breeding and selection of horses but there is a lack of well-established horse-related browsers or databases. In order to better understand horses, more variants and other integrated information are needed. Thus, we construct a horse genomic variants database including expression and other information. Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database (HSDB (http://snugenome2.snu.ac.kr/HSDB provides the number of unexplored genomic variants still remaining to be identified in the horse genome including rare variants by using population genome sequences of eighteen horses and RNA-seq of four horses. The identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were confirmed by comparing them with SNP chip data and variants of RNA-seq, which showed a concordance level of 99.02% and 96.6%, respectively. Moreover, the database provides the genomic variants with their corresponding transcriptional profiles from the same individuals to help understand the functional aspects of these variants. The database will contribute to genetic improvement and breeding strategies of Thoroughbreds.

  15. Injuries in group kept horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdell, C.M.; Jorgensen, G.M.; Keeling, L.

    2014-01-01

    developed and validated a scoring system for external injuries in horses to be able to record the severity of a lesion in a standardized and simple way under field conditions. The scoring system has five categories from insignificant loss of hair to severe, life threatening injuries. It was used...... of different breeds, age and gender. Most injuries occurred the day after mixing. Injuries of the more severe categories 4 and 5, which normally would necessitate veterinary care and/or loss of function for some time, were not observed at all. The minor injuries categorized as 1-2 counted for 99% of the total...

  16. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of dermal elastin of draught horses with chronic progressive lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, H E V; Van Brantegem, L; Affolter, V K; Oosterlinck, M; Ferraro, G L; Ducatelle, R

    2009-01-01

    Chronic progressive lymphoedema (CPL) in horses, a disease of certain draught breeds, is associated with altered elastin metabolism. The characteristic lesions are seen in the skin of the lower (distal) limbs. This study was based on horses of susceptible breeds, with and without CPL, and on horses of a non-susceptible breed. Skin samples were obtained for examination from the neck (considered a non-affected region) and from the distal limb. The skin lesions were characterized histologically and the dermal elastic fibres were evaluated morphologically and quantitatively. In all horses the mean elastin concentrations were highest in the superficial dermis, gradually decreasing in the mid-dermis and deep dermis. As compared with horses of a non-susceptible breed, affected horses had increased amounts of dermal elastin in both the distal limb and neck, while non-affected horses of a susceptible breed had decreased amounts. The findings support an earlier hypothesis that CPL of horses is a generalized disease. Reduced efficiency of the elastic network in supporting the dermal lymphatics may explain the development of CPL.

  17. Radiographic closure time of appendicular growth plates in the Icelandic horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huse-Olsen Lisel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Icelandic horse is a pristine breed of horse which has a pure gene pool established more than a thousand years ago, and is approximately the same size as living and extinct wild breeds of horses. This study was performed to compare the length of the skeletal growth period of the "primitive" Icelandic horse relative to that reported for large horse breeds developed over the recent centuries. This information would provide practical guidance to owners and veterinarians as to when the skeleton is mature enough to commence training, and would be potentially interesting to those scientists investigating the pathogenesis of osteochondrosis. Interestingly, osteochondrosis has not been documented in the Icelandic horse. Methods The radiographic closure time of the appendicular growth plates was studied in 64 young Icelandic horses. The results were compared with previously published closure times reported for other, larger horse breeds. The radiographs were also examined for any signs of developmental orthopaedic diseases. In order to describe further the growth pattern of the Icelandic horse, the total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was determined and the height at the withers was measured. Results Most of the examined growth plates were fully closed at the age of approximately three years. The horses reached adult height at this age; however ALP activity was still mildly increased over baseline values. The growth plates in the digits were the first to close at 8.1 to 8.5 months of age, and those in the regions of the distal radius (27.4 to 32.0 months, tuber olecrani (31.5 to 32.2 months, and the stifle (27.0 to 40.1 months were the last to close. No horse was found to have osteochondrosis type lesions in the neighbouring joints of the evaluated growth plates. Conclusion The Icelandic horse appears to have similar radiographic closure times for most of the growth plates of its limbs as reported for large new breeds of

  18. Welfare issues of horses: an overview and practical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Canali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest proportion of the world’s horses are still used for work in agriculture and traction, however in the western countries they are increasingly kept for recreational and social purposes, breeding, sport and competition. It is often assumed that horses enjoys better farming conditions than other species, yet they have specific needs which should be fulfilled in order to have a proper welfare. This paper will review the main welfare issues of horses and the following aspects will be considered: nutrition, housing and management, clinical problems, behaviour problems, training and riding, transportation, measuring welfare. Horses are social animals that live in groups in close contact with conspecifics. They spend most of their waking hours moving at walk, grazing and eating grass. Some of the constraints imposed on horses during the last centuries conflict to their naturally evolved behaviour. Effective and humane handling of horses positively affects many important aspects like the safety of man, the performance level and the welfare of horses. It is an essential condition for keeping horses that handlers, riders, trainers, farriers and veterinarians have proper knowledge of the behaviour of the horse in order to fulfil their natural needs and guarantee their welfare.

  19. The brain of the horse: weight and cephalization quotients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Bruno; Povinelli, Michele; Ballarin, Cristina; Granato, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The horse is a common domestic animal whose anatomy has been studied since the XVI century. However, a modern neuroanatomy of this species does not exist and most of the data utilized in textbooks and reviews derive from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here, we report information on the brain of Equus caballus obtained by sampling 131 horses, including brain weight (as a whole and subdivided into its constituents), encephalization quotient (EQ), and cerebellar quotient (CQ), and comparisons with what is known about other relevant species. The mean weight of the fresh brains in our experimental series was 598.63 g (SEM ± 7.65), with a mean body weight of 514.12 kg (SEM ± 15.42). The EQ was 0.78 and the CQ was 0.841. The data we obtained indicate that the horse possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a weight similar to that of other hoofed species of like mass. However, the shape of the brain, the noteworthy folding of the neocortex, and the peculiar longitudinal distribution of the gyri suggest an evolutionary specificity at least partially separate from that of the Cetartiodactyla (even-toed mammals and cetaceans) with whom Perissodactyla (odd-toed mammals) are often grouped.

  20. Variability of albumin in blood serum as a possible reflection of evolutional influence of diluvial horses on population of native mountain horse in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trailović Ružica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Native mountain horse is an autochthonous ungulata with a domicile extending to the whole mountaneous region of Serbia, south of the Sava and Danube rivers. Along with native horses of other Balkan countries it is classified as Mediterranean pony, but unlike Balkan horses such as Skiros, Pinea, Pindos, Karakachan, Bosnian mountineous horse etc., mountineous horses in Serbia neither have been morphologically described nor were of concern to the scientific community till the end of the twentieth century. Investigations of albumin polymorphism in blood serum of native mountain horse were taken within a comprehensive reserch on morphologic, physiologic and genetic structure of this autochtonous ungulata breed. On the basis of the results obtained by electrophoretic separation of albumine types in native mountaneous horse blood serum, there were determined four albumine phenotypes: AA, AB, BB and BI which are inherited by three autosomal alleles AlA, Alb, All . The appearance of All allele in native mountaneous horse population points out to diluvial forest horse impact on process of microevolution of autochtonous native mountaneous horse. Occidental- specific albumin isoforms presence indicate the necessity of thorough study of evolution position and historic influence of different ancestors, and especially occidental horses on native mountain horse population in Serbia.

  1. The War Horse: A Bibliography of Periodical Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    breeding," AMCAVJ, 55:62, Nov 1946. 10. "Artillery, Chestnut Stallion , 16 hands, 7 years old; weight, 1100 lbs.," FAJ, 1:51, Apr 1911. 11. "The...Licart. "The Barb ," CAVJ, 38:559-579, 1929. 142. McClure, Albert N. "Military horses in General and Cavalry Horses in Particular," CAVJ, 24:567-573

  2. Halicephalobus gingivalis (Nematoda) infection in a Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaza, R; Schiller, C A; Stover, J; Smith, P J; Greiner, E C

    2000-03-01

    A 6-yr-old female Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) with a disseminated rhabditiform nematode infection is described. Antemortem clinical signs were limited to blindness and abnormal behavior believed to be caused by a recurrent nematode-induced uveitis. Histologic examination of the kidneys, heart, eyes, uterus, and lymph nodes revealed granulomas containing multiple sections of rhabditiform nematodes. Most of the recovered nematodes were larval stages with only a few adult females noted. The adults measured 243-297 microm x 11-16 microm (x = 269 x 14 microm). The distinctive rhabditiform esophagi had corpus:isthmus:bulb proportions of 19:11:5. On the basis of adult morphology, the nematode was identified as Halicephalobus gingivalis. This is the first report of this parasite in a zebra and indicates that this parasitic granulomatous disease should be considered in zebras with neurologic disease.

  3. HEpD: a database describing epigenetic differences between Thoroughbred and Jeju horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Jeong-An; Lee, Sugi; Kim, Dae-Soo; Jeong, Kwang-Seuk; Hong, Chang Pyo; Bae, Jin-Han; Moon, Jae-Woo; Choi, Yong-Seok; Cho, Byung-Wook; Cho, Hwan-Gue; Bhak, Jong; Kim, Heui-Soo

    2015-04-10

    With the advent of next-generation sequencing technology, genome-wide maps of DNA methylation are now available. The Thoroughbred horse is bred for racing, while the Jeju horse is a traditional Korean horse bred for racing or food. The methylation profiles of equine organs may provide genomic clues underlying their athletic traits. We have developed a database to elucidate genome-wide DNA methylation patterns of the cerebrum, lung, heart, and skeletal muscle from Thoroughbred and Jeju horses. Using MeDIP-Seq, our database provides information regarding significantly enriched methylated regions beyond a threshold, methylation density of a specific region, and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) for tissues from two equine breeds. It provided methylation patterns at 784 gene regions in the equine genome. This database can potentially help researchers identify DMRs in the tissues of these horse species and investigate the differences between the Thoroughbred and Jeju horse breeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The evolutionary origin and genetic makeup of domestic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Pablo Librado; Fages, Antoine Alphonse; Gaunitz, Charleen

    2016-01-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circ......The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude...... of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped...

  5. Genetic structure and gene flows within horses: a genealogical study at the french population scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Pirault

    Full Text Available Since horse breeds constitute populations submitted to variable and multiple outcrossing events, we analyzed the genetic structure and gene flows considering horses raised in France. We used genealogical data, with a reference population of 547,620 horses born in France between 2002 and 2011, grouped according to 55 breed origins. On average, individuals had 6.3 equivalent generations known. Considering different population levels, fixation index decreased from an overall species FIT of 1.37%, to an average [Formula: see text] of -0.07% when considering the 55 origins, showing that most horse breeds constitute populations without genetic structure. We illustrate the complexity of gene flows existing among horse breeds, a few populations being closed to foreign influence, most, however, being submitted to various levels of introgression. In particular, Thoroughbred and Arab breeds are largely used as introgression sources, since those two populations explain together 26% of founder origins within the overall horse population. When compared with molecular data, breeds with a small level of coancestry also showed low genetic distance; the gene pool of the breeds was probably impacted by their reproducer exchanges.

  6. Genetic structure and gene flows within horses: a genealogical study at the french population scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirault, Pauline; Danvy, Sophy; Verrier, Etienne; Leroy, Grégoire

    2013-01-01

    Since horse breeds constitute populations submitted to variable and multiple outcrossing events, we analyzed the genetic structure and gene flows considering horses raised in France. We used genealogical data, with a reference population of 547,620 horses born in France between 2002 and 2011, grouped according to 55 breed origins. On average, individuals had 6.3 equivalent generations known. Considering different population levels, fixation index decreased from an overall species FIT of 1.37%, to an average [Formula: see text] of -0.07% when considering the 55 origins, showing that most horse breeds constitute populations without genetic structure. We illustrate the complexity of gene flows existing among horse breeds, a few populations being closed to foreign influence, most, however, being submitted to various levels of introgression. In particular, Thoroughbred and Arab breeds are largely used as introgression sources, since those two populations explain together 26% of founder origins within the overall horse population. When compared with molecular data, breeds with a small level of coancestry also showed low genetic distance; the gene pool of the breeds was probably impacted by their reproducer exchanges.

  7. A new record of Equus (Mammalia: Equidae from the Late Pleistocene of central-south Chile Un nuevo registro de Equus (Mammalia: Equidae para el Pleistoceno Superior de Osorno, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMAR P RECABARREN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen dental and bone parts of a horse excavated from the Pilauco paleontological site, Osorno (40°39' S-73°07' W are analysed and interpreted. This site was formed in association with a peat bog located on the banks of the old Damas River and has conserved abundant late Pleistocene mammalian fauna and flora materials. A date of 11457 ± 140 14C yrs B.P. was obtained from a molar and agrees with our stratigraphic age model. We have identified the fossils as pertaining to the species Equus (Amerhippus andium, which confirms its presence in central-south Chile. Furthermore, the recorded geographic location indicate that the metapodial adaptations of the specimens previously described agree with the reconstructed late Pleistocene landscape of Pilauco, dominated by soft volcanic soils and isolated forest patches over large extensions of grasslands.Se analizan e interpretan 14 fósiles correspondientes a dientes y huesos de caballo registrados en el sitio Pilauco, Osorno (40°39' S-73°07' W. El sitio se formó asociado a un pantano en un borde del antiguo río Damas; en él se ha conservado abundante material de mastofauna y flora pleistocénica. Una fecha radiocarbónica de 11457 ± 140 A.P obtenida de un molar, es concordante con el modelo de edad del sitio. La identificación taxonómica permite asociar a los fósiles a la especie Equus (Amerhippus andium, lo que confirma la presencia de la especie en el centro-sur de Chile. Por otra parte, la posición geográfica de los hallazgos y la reconstrucción del paisaje indicarían que se trata de ejemplares cuyas adaptaciones en los metapodios son concordantes para el paisaje pleistocénico de Pilauco dominado por suelos volcánicos blandos, con presencia de bosquetes dispersos en grandes extensiones de praderas de gramíneas.

  8. SEROPREVALENCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN HORSES IN AND AROUND FAISALABAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. WADOOD, M. AHMAD, A. KHAN1, S. T. GUL1 AND N. REHMAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT and Serum Agglutination test (SAT were used to monitor the seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses in and around Faisalabad, Pakistan. Sera were screened by RBPT and positive or doubtful sera were further processed by SAT for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses was 20.7 and 17.7% by RBPT and SAT, respectively. Source wise seroprevalence of brucellosis was 19.8, 25.5, 2.9 and 0% in horses of Remount Area Faisalabad, Remount Area Toba Tek Singh, private and Livestock Management Department University of Agriculture Faisalabad, respectively. Sex wise seroprevalence in horses was 9.67 and 17.7% in male and female, respectively. In relation to age, seroprevalence was 12.9, 16.5, 14.8 and 20.6%, in horses of 1-5, 6-10, 11-15 and above 15 years of age, respectively. Highest seroprevalence was recorded in horses of above 15 years of age. Depending upon the body condition, the seroprevalence was 9.7, 13, and 20% in poor fair, and good body conditioned horses, respectively. Seroprevalence of brucellosis on the basis of parity was 19.2, 20.9, 18.7, 16.6, and 21.1% in 0, 1, 2, 3 and above 3 foaling females, respectively. Prevalence of brucellosis in different breeds of horses was 22.4, 17.1, 25.7 and 0.0% in Desi, Thoroughbred, Crossbred and Arabian horses, respectively. However, statistically, in relation to various factors like source, sex, body condition, parity and breed of horses, a non significant difference was observed among various groups. Statistically a significant difference (P<0.001 in seroprevalence was observed with respect to age, only.

  9. Prehistoric genomes reveal the genetic foundation and cost of horse domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Mikkel; Jáónsson, Hákon; Chang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    genetics alone. We therefore sequenced two complete horse genomes, predating domestication by thousands of years, to characterize the genetic footprint of domestication. These ancient genomes reveal predomestic population structure and a significant fraction of genetic variation shared with the domestic...... breeds but absent from Przewalski’s horses. We find positive selection on genes involved in various aspects of locomotion, physiology, and cognition. Finally, we show that modern horse genomes contain an excess of deleterious mutations, likely representing the genetic cost of domestication....

  10. Welfare of Aged Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McGowan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Horses form a unique and special part of their owners’ lives and aged horses are no exception. This review considers the health and management of aged horses, including the role of the owner and their perceptions of aged horses, potential threats or risks to their welfare and finally, factors affecting quality of life and euthanasia of aged horses. Owners of aged horses are concerned about the health, welfare and quality of life of their aged animals. Yet surveys of management and preventive healthcare reflect that there may be some limitations to what owners are actually achieving in practice. They show declining management as horses age, particularly for the retired horse and insufficient appropriate preventive healthcare via veterinary surgeons. The veterinary surgeon plays an essential and influential role in preventive healthcare, management of diseases and disorders and ultimately in the decision making process for euthanasia of aged horses at the end of their lives. The value of aged horses should not be underestimated by veterinarians and others working with them and the continuing care of aged horses should be regarded with the same importance as the care of younger horses with more obvious monetary value.

  11. Heritability of foot conformation and its relationship to sports performance in a Dutch warmblood horse population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.; Bovenhuis, H.; Back, W.

    2009-01-01

    Reasons for performing study: Warmblood horse studbooks aim to breed horses with a conformation that will enable elite future performance, but reduce the risk of injuries and lameness. Negative conformational traits, such as asymmetrical or 'uneven' forefeet would possibly diminish performance.

  12. An ethological study of young horses

    OpenAIRE

    Pavla Šišková; Iva Jiskrová; Vladimír Mikule

    2006-01-01

    In the present study called “An Ethological Study of Young Horses” we focused on the behaviour of foals from their birth to separation from their mother. We observed and analysed their behaviour and daily activities, and from the achieved results we drew conclusions for practical horse breeding. We studied the following forms of behaviour of the foals: feeding behaviour (sucking, drinking, eating roughage and concentrates, gleaning, coprophagia), defecation and micturition, comfortable behavi...

  13. The ability of horses to learn an instrumental task through social observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Line Peerstrup; Christensen, Janne Winther; Ladewig, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The ability of horses to learn through social observation may ease the implementation of new management systems, because the use of automatic feeders etc. by naive horses could be facilitated by observation of experienced horses. However, previous studies found no documentation for observational...... in ten successive demonstrations, where a trained Demonstrator opened an operant device by pushing a sliding lid aside with the muzzle in order to obtain a food reward. Immediately after the demonstrations the Observer horses were given the opportunity to operate the device alone. Control horses (n = 11.......15). Analysis of investigative behaviour showed, however, that the demonstrations increased the motivation of the Observer horses to investigate the device. Subsequently, a similar experiment was performed in a practical setting with 44 test horses (mixed age, gender and breed). We used the same operant device...

  14. Behavior of feral horses in response to culling and GnRH immunocontraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Powers, Jenny G.; Garbe, Heidi M.; Oehler, Michael W.; Nett, Terry M.; Baker, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife management actions can alter fundamental behaviors of individuals and groups,which may directly impact their life history parameters in unforeseen ways. This is especially true for highly social animals because changes in one individual’s behavior can cascade throughout its social network. When resources to support populations of social animals are limited and populations become locally overabundant, managers are faced with the daunting challenge of decreasing population size without disrupting core behavioral processes. Increasingly, managers are turning to fertility control technologies to supplement culling in efforts to suppress population growth, but little is quantitatively known about how either of these management tools affects behavior. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is a small neuropeptide that performs an obligatory role in mammalian reproduction and has been formulated into the immunocontraceptive GonaCon-BTM. We investigated the influences of this vaccine on behavior of feral horses (Equus caballus) at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, USA, for a year preceding and a year following nonlethal culling and GnRH-vaccine treatment. We observed horses during the breeding season and found only minimal differences in time budget behaviors of free-ranging female feral horses treated with GnRH and those treated with saline. The differences observed were consistent with the metabolic demands of pregnancy and lactation. We observed similar social behaviors between treatment groups, reflecting limited reproductive behavior among control females due to high rates of pregnancy and suppressed reproductive behavior among treated females due to GnRH-inhibited ovarian activity. In the treatment year, band stallion age was the only supported factor influencing herding behavior (P < 0.001), harem-tending behavior (P < 0.001), and agonistic behavior (P = 0.02). There was no difference between the mean body condition of control females (4

  15. Slave Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Sutch, Richard

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical work on slave breeding in the ante-bellum United States. Slave breeding consisted of interference in the sexual life of slaves by their owners with the intent and result of increasing the number of slave children born. The weight of evidence suggests that slave breeding occurred in sufficient force to raise the rate of growth of the American slave population despite evidence that only a minority of slave-owners engaged in such practices.

  16. A Nordic survey of management practices and owners' attitudes towards keeping horses in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, E; Bøe, K E; Christensen, J W; Hyyppä, S; Jansson, H; Jørgensen, G H M; Ladewig, J; Mejdell, C M; Norling, Y; Rundgren, M; Särkijärvi, S; Søndergaard, E; Keeling, L J

    2015-09-01

    Keeping horses in groups is widely recommended but limited information is available about how this is implemented in practice. The aim of this survey was to describe how horses are kept in the Nordic countries in relation to sex, age, breed, and equestrian discipline and to assess owners' attitudes toward keeping horses in groups. Horse owners in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were approached using a web-based questionnaire, which was translated into 4 languages and distributed online via equestrian forums, organizations, and social media. The number of respondents was 3,229, taking care of 17,248 horses. Only 8% of horses were never kept in groups, 47% were permanently grouped for 24 h/d, and 45% were stabled singly but grouped during turnout. Yearlings were most often permanently kept in groups (75%), mares and geldings more commonly during parts of the day (50 and 51%, respectively), and stallions were often kept alone (38%). Icelandic horses were more likely to be permanently kept in groups (36%) than warmbloods (16%) and ponies (15%). Twice as many competition horses (51%) were never grouped compared with horses used for breeding (20%) or leisure purposes (15%). The majority of respondents (86%) strongly agreed that group housing benefits horse welfare and that it is important for horses to have the company of conspecifics (92%). Nevertheless, not all horses were kept in groups, showing that attitudes toward group housing may not necessarily reflect current management. The risk of injury was a concern of many respondents (45%), as was introducing unfamiliar horses into already established groups (40%) and challenges in relation to feeding in groups (44%). Safety of people (23%) and difficulties handling group-kept horses (19%) were regarded as less problematic. Results suggest that the majority of horses have the possibility to freely interact with other horses, either as fulltime members of a group during 24 h/d or during turnout. Future research should

  17. Four loci explain 83% of size variation in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouh Makvandi-Nejad

    Full Text Available Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication.

  18. Cardiac evaluation of anesthetized Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adin, Darcy B; Maisenbacher, Herbert W; Ojeda, Nyurka; Fiorello, Christine V; Estrada, Amara H; Prosek, Robert; Citino, Scott B

    2007-02-01

    To determine ECG and echocardiographic measurements in healthy anesthetized Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi). 20 healthy zebras. Auscultation, base-apex ECG, and echocardiography were performed on anesthetized zebras. Low-grade systolic murmurs were detected in the left basilar region in 4 of 20 zebras. Evaluation of ECGs from 19 zebras revealed sinus rhythm with a predominantly negative QRS complex and a mean +/- SD heart rate of 67 +/- 10 beats/min. Echocardiograms of sufficient image quality were obtained for 16 zebras. Interventricular septal thickness in diastole, left ventricular chamber in diastole and systole, left atrial diameter, and left ventricular mass were significantly and moderately correlated with estimated body weight (r values ranged from 0.650 to 0.884). Detectable swirling of blood in the right and sometimes the left ventricles was detected in 9 of 16 zebras, whereas physiologic regurgitation of blood was detected for the aortic valve in 3 zebras, pulmonary valve in 2 zebras, mitral valve in 2 zebras, and tricuspid valve in 1 zebra. Results of this study provide reference information for use in the cardiac evaluation of anesthetized Grevy's zebras.

  19. Serological diagnosis of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, SallyAnne L; Schares, Gereon; Peters-Kennedy, Jeanine; Mittel, Linda D; Dubey, Jitender P; Bowman, Dwight D; Mohammed, Hussni O; Divers, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Besnoitiosis is an emerging infectious disease of donkeys (Equus asinus) in the United States for which there are currently no serologic methods of diagnosis. A study was performed to evaluate physical examination findings and 3 serologic assays for the detection of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys. A prospective study of 416 donkeys from 6 privately owned herds across 5 U.S. states (New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Oregon, and Washington) was performed. Donkeys were examined for clinical lesions suggestive of besnoitiosis and evaluated for antibodies against B. bennetti using a fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and 2 immunoblot assays specific for bradyzoite and tachyzoite antigens, respectively. Donkeys were confirmed to be infected with B. bennetti by histology (cases; n = 32) and were compared to those with no clinical signs of besnoitiosis (controls; n = 384). Identifying clinical lesions in 2 or more locations correctly identified infected donkeys 83% of the time. Donkeys with besnoitiosis had significantly higher FAT titers (P donkeys. The sensitivity and specificity of the serologic assays for detecting besnoitiosis was 88% and 96% for FAT, 81% and 91% for bradyzoite immunoblot, and 91% and 92% for tachyzoite immunoblot, respectively. Fluorescent antibody and immunoblot assays are effective at identifying donkeys with besnoitiosis and provide a more efficient and less invasive diagnostic alternative to histology. © 2014 The Author(s).

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Korean native horse from Jeju Island: uncovering the spatio-temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Jaemin; Shin, Donghyun; Cho, Seoae; Kwak, Woori; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Park, Kyoung-Do; Kim, Heebal

    2017-04-01

    The Korean native horse (Jeju horse) is one of the most important animals in Korean historical, cultural, and economical viewpoints. In the early 1980s, the Jeju horse was close to extinction. The aim of this study is to explore the phylogenomics of Korean native horse focusing on spatio-temporal dynamics. We determined complete mitochondrial genome sequences for the first Korean native (n = 6) and additional Mongolian (n = 2) horses. Those sequences were analyzed together with 143 published ones using Bayesian coalescent approach as well as three different phylogenetic analysis methods, Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and neighbor-joining methods. The phylogenomic trees revealed that the Korean native horses had multiple origins and clustered together with some horses from four European and one Middle Eastern breeds. Our phylogenomic analyses also supported that there was no apparent association between breed or geographic location and the evolution of global horses. Time of the most recent common ancestor of the Korean native horse was approximately 13,200-63,200 years, which was much younger than 0.696 My of modern horses. Additionally, our results showed that all global horse lineages including Korean native horse existed prior to their domestication events occurred in about 6000-10,000 years ago. This is the first study on phylogenomics of the Korean native horse focusing on spatio-temporal dynamics. Our findings increase our understanding of the domestication history of the Korean native horses, and could provide useful information for horse conservation projects as well as for horse genomics, emergence, and the geographical distribution.

  1. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  2. A Nordic survey of management practices and owners’ attitudes towards keeping horses in groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, E.; Bøe, K.E.; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-01-01

    Keeping horses in groups is widely recommended but limited information is vailable about how this is implemented in practice. The aim of this survey was to describe how horses are kept in the Nordic countries in relation to sex, age, breed, and equestrian discipline and to assess owners’ attitudes...... widespread, such as it is the case for most farm animals, future research could focus on solving some of the reoccurring problems perceived with keeping horses in groups. The dissemination of evidence-based information on all aspects around keeping horses in groups can ultimately stimulate further positive...

  3. In vitro production of horse embryos: fundamental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Tremoleda, Jordi

    2003-01-01

    Developments in assisted reproduction have provided valuable tools for sub-fertility treatment and for selective breeding in animals. In horses, techniques such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer are used successfully to aid genetic progress but the commercial application of other

  4. A study of patrilineal genetic diversity in Iranian indigenous horse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These studies display evolutionary events that happened in both sexes or only in females. ... The lack of polymorphisms could be as a result of lower contribution of stallions to the gene pools of the domestic horses compared to the mares because a sex bias is towards females due to a special breeding strategy (in which a ...

  5. Unwanted horses: The role of nonprofit equine rescue and sanctuary organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, K E; Stull, C L; Kass, P H

    2010-12-01

    Closure of US equine slaughter facilities in 2007 along with the concomitant economic recession have contributed to a sharp increase in the number of unwanted horses throughout the United States, with estimates totaling 100,000 horses per year. The objective of the study was to obtain comprehensive data regarding nonprofit organizations caring for unwanted horses, along with the characteristics and outcome of horses relinquished to these organizations. Nonprofit organizations that accept relinquished equines were contacted to participate in a 90-question survey. Responding organizations (144 of 326 eligible) in 37 states provided information on 280 cases representative of the 7,990 horses relinquished between 2007 and 2009. Data collected characterized these organizations as being in existence for 6 yr, financially supported through donations and personal funds, dedicated to the care of only 10 to 20 horses on a property of just over 30 acres, and reliant on volunteers for help. Funding was the greatest challenge to continued operation of nonprofit equine organizations, with maintenance costs for the care of a relinquished horse averaging $3,648 per year. Financial hardship, physical inability, or lack of time to care for the horses by owners were the most common reasons for relinquishment, followed by seizure through law enforcement agencies for alleged neglect or abuse. Relinquished horses consisted of mostly light horse breeds (79.3%), with Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses as the most represented breeds. The age of relinquished horses ranged from 3 d to 42 yr old (12.4 ± 0.5 yr). About one-half of the horses entered in the survey were considered unhealthy due to illness, injury, lameness, or poor body condition. For every 4 horses relinquished to a nonprofit organization, only 3 horses were adopted or sold between 2006 and 2009, and many organizations had refused to accept additional horses for lack of resources. The estimated maximum capacity for the 326

  6. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals.

  7. Some maternal lineages of domestic horses may have origins in East Asia revealed with further evidence of mitochondrial genomes and HVR-1 sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Ma

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives There are large populations of indigenous horse (Equus caballus in China and some other parts of East Asia. However, their matrilineal genetic diversity and origin remained poorly understood. Using a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and hypervariable region (HVR-1 sequences, we aim to investigate the origin of matrilineal inheritance in these domestic horses. Methods To investigate patterns of matrilineal inheritance in domestic horses, we conducted a phylogenetic study using 31 de novo mtDNA genomes together with 317 others from the GenBank. In terms of the updated phylogeny, a total of 5,180 horse mitochondrial HVR-1 sequences were analyzed. Results Eightteen haplogroups (Aw-Rw were uncovered from the analysis of the whole mitochondrial genomes. Most of which have a divergence time before the earliest domestication of wild horses (about 5,800 years ago and during the Upper Paleolithic (35–10 KYA. The distribution of some haplogroups shows geographic patterns. The Lw haplogroup contained a significantly higher proportion of European horses than the horses from other regions, while haplogroups Jw, Rw, and some maternal lineages of Cw, have a higher frequency in the horses from East Asia. The 5,180 sequences of horse mitochondrial HVR-1 form nine major haplogroups (A-I. We revealed a corresponding relationship between the haplotypes of HVR-1 and those of whole mitochondrial DNA sequences. The data of the HVR-1 sequences also suggests that Jw, Rw, and some haplotypes of Cw may have originated in East Asia while Lw probably formed in Europe. Conclusions Our study supports the hypothesis of the multiple origins of the maternal lineage of domestic horses and some maternal lineages of domestic horses may have originated from East Asia.

  8. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  10. Genetic variability in local Brazilian horse lines using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A C M; Paiva, S R; Albuquerque, M S M; Egito, A A; Santos, S A; Lima, F C; Castro, S T; Mariante, A S; Correa, P S; McManus, C M

    2012-04-10

    Genetic variability at 11 microsatellite markers was analyzed in five naturalized/local Brazilian horse breeds or genetic groups. Blood samples were collected from 328 animals of the breeds Campeira (Santa Catarina State), Lavradeira (Roraima State), Pantaneira (Pantanal Mato-Grossense), Mangalarga Marchador (Minas Gerais State), as well as the genetic group Baixadeiro (Maranhão State), and the exotic breeds English Thoroughbred and Arab. We found significant genetic variability within evaluated microsatellite loci, with observed heterozygosis varying between 0.426 and 0.768 and polymorphism information content values of 0.751 to 0.914. All breeds showed high inbreeding coefficients and were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The smallest genetic distance was seen between the Pantaneira and Arab breeds. The principal component analyzes and Bayesian approach demonstrated that the exotic breeds have had a significant influence on the genetic formation of the local breeds, with introgression of English Throroughbred in Pantaneira and Lavradeira, as well as genetic proximity between the Arab, Pantaneira and Mangalarga Marchador populations. This study shows the need to conserve traits acquired by naturalized horse breeds over centuries of natural selection in Brazil due to the genetic uniqueness of each group, suggesting a reduced gene flow between them. These results reinforce the need to include these herds in animal genetic resource conservation programs to maximize the genetic variability and conserve useful allele combinations.

  11. Genetic characterization of the Bardigiano horse using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at investigating the genetic structure of the Bardigiano horse and its relationships with the Haflinger, Maremmano and Arabian breeds using 11 microsatellite markers. A total of 94 alleles were detected across the breeds, with a mean of 8.5 alleles per locus and a mean observed heterozygosity of 0.69. Compared to the other breeds, the Bardigiano horse showed quite a high genetic variability, as indicated by the mean number of alleles (7.0 vs 6.1÷7.6 and by the observed heterozygosity (0.72 vs 0.66÷0.71. Moreover, the genotype distributions in the Bardigiano groups of different sex and age were not significantly different. The overall FST value showed that the genetic differences among breeds accounted for 7.8% (P=0.001 of the total variation, and the pairwise FST values were all significant. The assignment test allocated between 96.8 and 98.9% of the individuals to the population they were collected from, with a mean probability of assignment of about 97% for all breeds, except for the Arabian, where it approached 100%. The results have highlighted that the Bardigiano breed has a high within and between breed variability, which is considerably more than could be expected by looking at its evolution history. This justifies the need for the development of additional breeding strategies to preserve the existing genetic variability.

  12. Peeling back the evolutionary layers of molecular mechanisms responsive to exercise-stress in the skeletal muscle of the racing horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeongmin; Lee, Taeheon; Park, Woncheoul; Lee, Jin Woo; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Bo-Young; Ahn, Hyeonju; Moon, Sunjin; Cho, Seoae; Do, Kyoung-Tag; Kim, Heui-Soo; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Kong, Hong-Sik; Yang, Young-Mok; Park, Jongsun; Kim, Hak-Min; Kim, Byung Chul; Hwang, Seungwoo; Bhak, Jong; Burt, Dave; Park, Kyoung-Do; Cho, Byung-Wook; Kim, Heebal

    2013-06-01

    The modern horse (Equus caballus) is the product of over 50 million yrs of evolution. The athletic abilities of the horse have been enhanced during the past 6000 yrs under domestication. Therefore, the horse serves as a valuable model to understand the physiology and molecular mechanisms of adaptive responses to exercise. The structure and function of skeletal muscle show remarkable plasticity to the physical and metabolic challenges following exercise. Here, we reveal an evolutionary layer of responsiveness to exercise-stress in the skeletal muscle of the racing horse. We analysed differentially expressed genes and their co-expression networks in a large-scale RNA-sequence dataset comparing expression before and after exercise. By estimating genome-wide dN/dS ratios using six mammalian genomes, and FST and iHS using re-sequencing data derived from 20 horses, we were able to peel back the evolutionary layers of adaptations to exercise-stress in the horse. We found that the oldest and thickest layer (dN/dS) consists of system-wide tissue and organ adaptations. We further find that, during the period of horse domestication, the older layer (FST) is mainly responsible for adaptations to inflammation and energy metabolism, and the most recent layer (iHS) for neurological system process, cell adhesion, and proteolysis.

  13. Comparison of grass haylage digestibility and metabolic plasma profile in Icelandic and Standardbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsson, S; Jansson, A

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare digestibility and metabolic response in Icelandic and Standardbred horses fed two grass haylages harvested at different stages of maturity. Six horses of each breed were used in a 24-day change-over design. A total collection of faeces was made on days 15-17 and 22-24. Blood samples were collected on day 24 of each period and analysed for total plasma protein (TPP), plasma urea, non-esterified fatty acids, cortisol and insulin concentration. There were no differences in digestibility coefficients of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre or energy between breeds but organic matter digestibility was higher in the Standardbred horses. On both haylages, the Icelandic horses gained weight whereas the Standardbred horses lost weight. The Icelandic horses had higher TPP, plasma insulin and lower plasma urea concentrations. Our results indicate that the Icelandic horse may be more prone to maintain positive energy balance in relation to the Standardbred horse, but there were no indication of a better digestive capacity in the Icelandic horses. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Number, causes and destinations of horses leaving the Australian Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, P C; Hayek, A R; Jones, B; Evans, D L; McGreevy, P D

    2014-08-01

    Significant proportions of horses leave the Australian Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing industries, which has ramifications for both the economic sustainability and the public perception of racing. The aim of this study was to quantify potential horse wastage, describe the destinations of exiting horses and identify risk factors for horses going to these destinations. Questionnaires were sent to 1258 selected Thoroughbred and 981 Standardbred trainers, with response rates of 30% and 32%, respectively. The survey investigated the role of various risk factors for wastage, including horse age, sex and number of years in training. The destination of departing horses was also examined in relation to these risk factors. Total horse exit rates for the 2002-03 official race year were 39.7% and 38.7% for the Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing industries, respectively. Reasons for leaving included 'poor performance/slow' (36.5% Thoroughbreds, 35.2% Standardbreds), 'illness/injury' (31.0%, 27.1%), 'to breed' (9.4%, 10.1%), 'unsuitable temperament/behaviour' (6.4%, 6.4%) and 'other' (16.8%, 21.2%). Statistically significant (P Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing horses included whether the trainer owned the horses, sex, age and reasons for leaving. In addition, some factors were specific to one breed or the other. Improved behaviour training and early identification of the causes of poor performance could assist in reducing wastage. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Right dorsal colon ultrasonography in normal adult ponies and miniature horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Agnieszka; Baron, Monika; Cylna, Marta; Borowicz, Hieronim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the normal location, wall thickness and motility of the right dorsal colon in adult ponies and miniature horses. The abdominal ultrasonography examination was performed in a study group consisting of 23 ponies and miniature horses and in a control group comprising ten Thoroughbred horses. The procedure was performed in unsedated standing animals. The location and the thickness of the right dorsal colonic wall was examined on the right side of the abdomen between the 10th and the 14th intercostal space. The contractility was recorded in the 12th intercostal space. A comparative analysis between the study group and control group was carried out using the Student’s t-test. Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient was used to calculate the correlation between the thickness of the colonic wall as well as the number of peristaltic movements and age, wither height and body mass of the animals. The right dorsal colon was identified in all the horses in the 12th intercostal space. In all the intercostal spaces the mean ± standard deviation (SD) wall thickness of the right dorsal colon was 0.27 ± 0.03 cm in the horses from the study group and 0.37 ± 0.03 cm in the control horses. The mean number of peristaltic contractions was 4.05 ± 1.07 per minute in the animals from the study group and 1.7 ± 0.46 contractions per minute in the control group. The values of the ultrasonographic wall thickness and peristaltic motility in small breed horses in the present study were different from the values obtained for large breed horses. The study also found that the right dorsal colon in small breed horses is physiologically located in the 12th intercostal space. This suggests that different reference values should be used in small horse breeds when performing an ultrasound examination. PMID:29065146

  16. Diagnostic value of computed tomography, radiography and ultrasonography in metacarpophalangeal joint disorders in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.V. Machado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In modern society the work and athletic performance of horses has led to a very important animal production sector in which Brazil possesses the third largest horse stock. Among all equine lesions described, metacarpophalangeal (fetlock joint lesions are considered one of the main causes of lameness. Consequently, there is a need to improve the understanding and diagnosis of these injuries. The most efficient imaging diagnostic methods for the fetlock region are computed tomography, radiography and ultrasound. Imaging studies of the anatomical structures involving this joint are extremely important to obtain a more precise diagnose. The present study was performed in order to evaluate the capacity of different imaging diagnostic modalities to detect a variety of lesions in different fetlock structures. Twenty horses (Equus caballus used for horsemanship activities were referred to the Department of Animal Reproduction and Veterinary Radiology of São Paulo State University, Botucatu campus, with clinical signs of metacarpophalangeal joint injuries. Horses were submitted to radiographic and ultrasonographic exam and computed tomography scan. Image analysis revealed a significant capacity of these methods to characterize lesions in this region. However, computed tomography provided broader and better evaluation of lesions in bones and adjacent structures, because it allows the analysis to be performed on three-dimensional projections, with attenuation coefficients (window selections and tissue density measurement through Hounsfield Units (HU.

  17. Evaluating the impact of domestication and captivity on the horse gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Song, Se Jin; Morton, James T; Weiss, Sophie; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Joly, Frédéric; Feh, Claudia; Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Amir, Amnon; Willerslev, Eske; Knight, Rob; McKenzie, Valerie; Orlando, Ludovic

    2017-11-14

    The mammal gut microbiome, which includes host microbes and their respective genes, is now recognized as an essential second genome that provides critical functions to the host. In humans, studies have revealed that lifestyle strongly influences the composition and diversity of the gastrointestinal microbiome. We hypothesized that these trends in humans may be paralleled in mammals subjected to anthropogenic forces such as domestication and captivity, in which diets and natural life histories are often greatly modified. We investigated fecal microbiomes of Przewalski's horse (PH; Equus ferus przewalskii), the only horses alive today not successfully domesticated by humans, and herded, domestic horse (E. f. caballus) living in adjacent natural grasslands. We discovered PH fecal microbiomes hosted a distinct and more diverse community of bacteria compared to domestic horses, which is likely partly explained by different plant diets as revealed by trnL maker data. Within the PH population, four individuals were born in captivity in European zoos and hosted a strikingly low diversity of fecal microbiota compared to individuals born in natural reserves in France and Mongolia. These results suggest that anthropogenic forces can dramatically reshape equid gastrointestinal microbiomes, which has broader implications for the conservation management of endangered mammals.

  18. Adapting craniosacral therapy to treat horses

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    Weronika Kanik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniosacral therapy is an acknowledged therapeutic method used for treating humans. It derives from osteopathy, being a manual technique which uses a very gentle touch. It consists in balancing the fluctuation of cerebrospinal fluid by applying appropriate holds that make it possible for the patientŐs organism to release tensions which have formed in tissues. The aim of the present work was to depict the possibility to adapt the method of craniosacral therapy used in humans to the therapy of horses. Thirteen therapeutic holds proposed for the treatment of horses were described and interpreted graphically on the basis of therapy of 62 horses with different disorders. A total of 241 craniosacral therapy treatments were performed. The adaptation of presented craniosacral therapy holds to equine therapy was developed by the first author on the basis of relevant holds used in the biodynamic craniosacral therapy in humans and in own therapeutic practice. The effects of own practice and data available in literature suggest that craniosacral therapy seems to be an effective method of improving the state of health of horses suffering from different complaints that may cause major difficulties in sport, breeding or private use of the animals. The use of thermography made it possible to record the effects of therapy and some processes accompanying it, which had been impossible before.

  19. LESIONES CUTANEAS PARASITARIAS EN EL ASNO EQUUS ASINUS DE CHORONI, ESTADO ARAGUA, VENEZUELA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales, Abelardo; Garcia, Francisco; Rossini, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Three donkeys (Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758), two males and a female sex, between 5-8 years of old, in athletic shape, in Choroni, Aragua, Venezuela were examined. Clinical examination evidenced hirsute hair and moderate body condition. Nodular dermatitis like skin lesions showed crusted erythemat...

  20. Ultrastructure of Sarcocystis bertrami sarcocysts from naturally infected donkey (Equus asinus) from Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is considerable confusion concerning Sarcocystis species in equids. Little is known of Sarcocystis infections in donkeys (Equus asinus). Here we describe the structure of Sarcocystis bertrami-like from the donkey by light and transmission electron microscopy (LM, TEM). Nineteen sarcocysts fro...

  1. Antibodies to elastin peptides in sera of Belgian Draught horses with chronic progressive lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brantegem, L; de Cock, H E V; Affolter, V K; Duchateau, L; Hoogewijs, M K; Govaere, J; Ferraro, G L; Ducatelle, R

    2007-09-01

    Chronic progressive lymphoedema (CPL) is a recently recognised disease of the lymphatic system characterised by lesions in the skin of the lower legs in several draught horse breeds, including the Belgian Draught hourse. Clinical signs slowly progress and result in severe disfigurement of the limbs. Ideally, supportive treatment should be started early in the disease process. However early diagnosis and monitoring progression of CPL is still a challenge. Elastin changes, characterised by morphological alterations as well as increased desmosine levels, in the skin of the distal limbs of horses affected with CPL are probably associated with a marked release of elastin degradation products, which elicit production of circulating anti-elastin antibodies (AEAbs) in the serum. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum AEAbs may document elastin breakdown. An ELISA technique was used to evaluate levels of AEAbs in sera of 97 affected Belgian Draught horses that were clinically healthy except for possible skin lesions, associated with CPL in their distal limbs. The horses were divided into 5 groups according to the severity of these skin lesions: normal horses (Group 1, n = 36), horses with mild lesions (Group 2, n = 43), horses with moderate lesions (Group 3, n = 8), horses with severe lesions (Group 4, n = 10) and, as a control, healthy Warmblood horses, unaffected by the disease (Group 5, n = 83). Horses with clinical signs of CPL had significantly higher AEAb levels compared to clinically normal Belgian Draught horses and to healthy Warmblood horses. These levels correlated with severity of lesions. CPL in draught horses is associated with an increase of serum AEAbs. Evaluation of serum levels of AEAbs by ELISA might be a useful diagnostic aid for CPL. Pathological degradation of elastic fibres, resulting in deficient support of the distal lymphatics, is proposed as a contributing factor for CPL in Belgian Draught horses.

  2. An ethological study of young horses

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    Pavla Šišková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study called “An Ethological Study of Young Horses” we focused on the behaviour of foals from their birth to separation from their mother. We observed and analysed their behaviour and daily activities, and from the achieved results we drew conclusions for practical horse breeding. We studied the following forms of behaviour of the foals: feeding behaviour (sucking, drinking, eating roughage and concentrates, gleaning, coprophagia, defecation and micturition, comfortable behaviour and mutual comfort behaviour, manifestations of relaxation (resting posture, lying down, movement manifestations, playful behaviour, stereotype behaviour, other manifestations (acoustic, olfactory etc.As a result we recommended several changes in the technology, e.g. larger stables, salt-lick out of reach of the foals, more frequent exchange of bedding, shelter for horses grazing in the open.

  3. The Responses of Young Domestic Horses to Human-Given Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proops, Leanne; Rayner, Jenny; Taylor, Anna M.; McComb, Karen

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the process of domestication, at least in some species, has led to an innate predisposition to be skilled at reading human communicative and attentional cues. Adult domestic horses (Equus caballus) are highly sensitive to subtle bodily cues when determining if a person is attending to them but they are less adept at using human communicative cues in object choice tasks. Here we provide the first study into the ontogeny of such skills in order to gain insights into the mechanisms underlying these abilities. Compared with adult horses, youngsters under the age of three could use body orientation but not more subtle cues such as head movement and open/closed eyes to correctly choose an attentive person to approach for food. Across two object choice experiments, the performance of young horses was comparable to that of adult horses – subjects were able to correctly choose a rewarded bucket using marker placement, pointing and touching cues but could not use body orientation, gaze, elbow pointing or tapping cues. Taken together these results do not support the theory that horses possess an innate predisposition to be particularly skilled at using human cues. Horses' ability to determine whether humans are attending to them using subtle body cues appears to require significant experience to fully develop and their perhaps less remarkable use of limited cues in object choice tasks, although present at a much earlier age, is likely to reflect a more general learning ability related to stimulus enhancement rather than a specific ‘human-reading’ skill. PMID:23840572

  4. Foaling rates in feral horses treated with the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, J.I.; Roelle, J.E.; Cade, B.S.; Coates-Markle, L.; Kane, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Locally abundant feral horses (Equus caballus) can rapidly deplete available resources. Fertility control agents present promising nonlethal tools for reducing their population growth rates. We tested the effect of 2 forms of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on foaling rates in 3 populations of feral horses in the western United States. A liquid form requiring annual boosters was administered at Little Book Cliffs Wild Horse Range, Mesa County (CO), and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, Bighorn County (WY) and Carbon County (MT), and a time-release pellet form designed to produce 2 yr of infertility was administered at McCullough Peaks Herd Management Area, Park County (WY). Average foaling rates (foals born/mare-yr) from direct observation of untreated and treated female horses (mares), 2004-2008, were 60.1% (n = 153 mare-yr) versus 6.6% (n = 91 mare-yr) at Little Book Cliffs, and 62.8% (n = 129 mare-yr) versus 17.7% (n = 79 mare-yr) at Pryor Mountain, respectively. At McCullough Peaks, mean annual foaling rates from 2006 to 2008 were 75.0% (n = 48 mare-yr) for untreated mares and 31.7% (n = 101 mare-yr) for treated mares. Controlling for age of mares and pretreatment differences in fertility, PZP reduced foaling rates in all 3 herds. The pellets used at McCullough Peaks (produced by cold evaporation) were less effective than pellets used in a previous trial and produced by heat extrusion. Immunocontraception with PZP may be a useful tool in reducing fertility rates in some western United States feral horse herds, but population growth reduction will depend on timely access to mares for inoculation and the proportion of mares that can be successfully treated. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  5. Association analysis of KIT, MITF, and PAX3 variants with white markings in Spanish horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, S; Imsland, F; Valera, M; Molina, A; Solé, M; Andersson, L

    2017-06-01

    Several variants in the KIT, PAX3 and MITF genes have previously been associated with white markings in horses. In this study, we examined eight variants of these genes in 70 Menorca Purebred horses (PRMe, only black solid-coloured horses) and 70 Spanish Purebred horses (PRE, different coat colour patterns) that were scored for the extent of white markings. A maximum-likelihood chi-square test, logistic regression model and ridge regression analyses showed that a missense mutation (p.Arg682His) in KIT was associated with white facial markings (P horses. The relative contribution of this variant to white markings in PRMe horses was estimated at 47.6% (head) and 43.4% (total score). In PRE horses, this variant was also associated with hindlimb scores (P T intronic variant located 29.9 kb downstream from the transcription start site of the MITF gene was associated with less white markings on forelimbs (P horses, with a relative contribution of 63.9%, whereas in PRE horses this variant was associated with white facial markings (P horses, providing breeders with an opportunity to use genetic testing to aid in breeding for their desired level of white markings. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  6. Horse trichinellosis, an unresolved puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozio E.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of routine controls to detect Trichinella larvae in horse-meat, human infections due to horse-meat consumption continue to occur in France and Italy, The epidemiology of horse trichinellosis since its discovery in 1975 is outlined, addressing the possible modes of natural transmission to horses, the need to develop more sensitive methods for detecting Trichinella larvae in horses, and the economic impact of horse trichinellosis. Investigations of human outbreaks due to horse-meat consumption have implicated single cases of inadequate veterinary controls on horses imported from non-European Union countries. In particular, most cases of human infection have been attributed to horses imported from Eastern Europe, where pig trichinellosis is re-emerging and the main source of infection in horses.

  7. Fechamento epifisário da extremidade distal do rádio de eqüinos da raça Brasileira de Hipismo (BH Distal radius physeal closure in the Brasileiro de Hipismo horse breed (BH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lice Buchmann de Godoy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a idade de fechamento epifisário da raça Brasileira de Hipismo (BH, um grupo de 24 cavalos, 12 machos inteiros e 12 fêmeas, teve a região epifisária da extremidade distal do rádio radiografada, mês a mês, em projeção crânio-caudal, a partir dos 18 meses de idade até o fechamento completo. Os dados do experimento foram analisados pelo método ANOVA de uma via, utilizando-se o teste "t" de Student para comparação entre as médias. Concluiu-se que o fechamento epifisário completo ocorreu aos 25,83 ± 1,58 meses nas fêmeas e aos 28,16 ± 1,40 meses nos machos (pTwenty-four Brasileiro de Hipismo horses (BH, 12 intact males and 12 females, were used in this study to determine the closure time of the distal radial physis. Craniocaudal radiographs of the distal radius were taken at 18 months of age and until the fusion of the physis. Data were analysed by One-way ANOVA and Student t-test to compare means between groups. The closure time of the distal radial physis occurred at 25.83 ± 1.58 months of age in females and 28.16 ± 1.40 months in males (p<0.001.

  8. Candidate genes for performance in horses, including monocarboxylate transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaê Cristina Regatieri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Some horse breeds are highly selected for athletic activities. The athletic potential of each animal can be measured by its performance in sports. High athletic performance depends on the animal capacity to produce energy through aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways, among other factors. Transmembrane proteins called monocarboxylate transporters, mainly the isoform 1 (MCT1 and its ancillary protein CD147, can help the organism to adapt to physiological stress caused by physical exercise, transporting lactate and H+ ions. Horse breeds are selected for different purposes so we might expect differences in the amount of those proteins and in the genotypic frequencies for genes that play a significant role in the performance of the animals. The study of MCT1 and CD147 gene polymorphisms, which can affect the formation of the proteins and transport of lactate and H+, can provide enough information to be used for selection of athletic horses increasingly resistant to intense exercise. Two other candidate genes, the PDK4 and DMRT3, have been associated with athletic potential and indicated as possible markers for performance in horses. The oxidation of fatty acids is highly effective in generating ATP and is controlled by the expression of PDK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 in skeletal muscle during and after exercise. The doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3 gene encodes an important transcription factor in the setting of spinal cord circuits controlling movement in vertebrates and may be associated with gait performance in horses. This review describes how the monocarboxylate transporters work during physical exercise in athletic horses and the influence of polymorphisms in candidate genes for athletic performance in horses.

  9. The course of some bone remodelling plasma metabolites in healthy horses and in horses offered a calcium-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Behr, V; Daron, D; Gabriel, A; Remy, B; Dufrasne, I; Serteyn, D; Istasse, L

    2003-04-01

    An inquiry was carried out to assess the concentrations of plasma metabolites related to bone remodelling in 21 saddle horses of Warmblood breed aged 4-26 years, five draught horses of Ardennes breed aged 4-10 years, and 10 Ardennes foals aged 9-11 months. They were fed according to normal feeding practice in Belgium. The changes in some bone remodelling plasma metabolite concentrations were studied when an unbalanced diet was offered and later corrected for four Warmblood horses. Bone formation was evaluated by bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and osteocalcin (bone gla-protein, OC). Bone resorption was assessed by hydroxyproline (HYP). Total calcium, ionized calcium, phosphorus (P) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25-(OH)D] concentrations were more or less constant. The comparison of four bone remodelling factors between the Ardennes and Warmblood horses showed higher concentrations in the Ardennes breed. Bone marker concentrations decreased according to age. The correction of the unbalanced Ca : P diet induced inconsistent effects at plasma level. The interpretation of the different bone parameters appeared to be difficult if not associated with other parameters such as a complete anamnesis and clinical examination of the animal in addition to dietary evaluation.

  10. Congenital hypotrichosis in a Percheron draught horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, B A; Hedstrom, O R; Miller, W H; Scott, D W; Mathies, S

    2001-08-01

    A blue roan Percheron foal was born with poorly circumscribed patchy alopecia of the trunk and legs. Teeth and hoof development were normal. Alopecia was progressive, becoming almost complete by 1 year of age. Histopathological findings in a skin biopsy obtained at 7 months of age were consistent with severe follicular hypoplasia. Sebaceous glands, epitrichial sweat glands and arrector pilae muscles were normal. The horse is alive and otherwise well at 6 years of age, although adult stature is considered small for this breed. The clinical history and histopathological findings are most consistent with a form of congenital hypotrichosis.

  11. Differences in extracellular matrix proteins between Friesian horses with aortic rupture, unaffected Friesians and Warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, M; Gröne, A; van de Lest, C H A; Saey, V; Duchateau, L; Wolsein, P; Chiers, K; Ducatelle, R; van Weeren, P R; de Bruijn, M; Delesalle, C

    2017-09-01

    Unlike in Warmblood horses, aortic rupture is quite common in Friesian horses, in which a hereditary trait is suspected. The aortic connective tissue in affected Friesians shows histological changes such as medial necrosis, elastic fibre fragmentation, mucoid material accumulation and fibrosis with aberrant collagen morphology. However, ultrastructural examination of the collagen fibres of the mid-thoracic aorta has been inconclusive in further elucidating the pathogenesis of the disease. To assess several extracellular matrix (ECM) components biochemically in order to explore a possible underlying breed-related systemic ECM defect in Friesians with aortic rupture. Cadaver study. Tissues from affected Friesians (n = 18), unaffected Friesians (n = 10) and Warmblood horses (n = 30) were compared. Samples were taken from the thoracic aorta at the level of the rupture site, from two locations caudal to the rupture and from the deep digital flexor tendon. Total collagen content, post-translational modifications of collagen formation including lysine hydroxylation, and hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), lysylpyridinoline (LP) and pyrrole cross-links were analysed. Additionally, elastin cross-links, glycosaminoglycan content and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were assessed. Significantly increased MMP activity and increased LP and HP cross-linking, lysine hydroxylation and elastin cross-linking were found at the site of rupture in affected Friesians. These changes may reflect processes involved in healing and aneurysm formation. Unaffected Friesians had less lysine hydroxylation and pyrrole cross-linking within the tendons compared with Warmblood horses. No differences in the matrix of the aorta were found between normal Warmbloods and Friesian horses. Small sample size. The differences in collagen parameters in tendon tissue may reflect differences in connective tissue metabolism between Friesians and Warmblood horses. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in an equine patient population: part I--adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, M; Holliday, T A; Nieto, J E; Williams, D C

    2014-01-01

    Brainstem auditory evoked response has been an underused diagnostic modality in horses as evidenced by few reports on the subject. To describe BAER findings, common clinical signs, and causes of hearing loss in adult horses. Study group, 76 horses; control group, 8 horses. Retrospective. BAER records from the Clinical Neurophysiology Laboratory were reviewed from the years of 1982 to 2013. Peak latencies, amplitudes, and interpeak intervals were measured when visible. Horses were grouped under disease categories. Descriptive statistics and a posthoc Bonferroni test were performed. Fifty-seven of 76 horses had BAER deficits. There was no breed or sex predisposition, with the exception of American Paint horses diagnosed with congenital sensorineural deafness. Eighty-six percent (n = 49/57) of the horses were younger than 16 years of age. The most common causes of BAER abnormalities were temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO, n = 20/20; abnormalities/total), congenital sensorineural deafness in Paint horses (17/17), multifocal brain disease (13/16), and otitis media/interna (4/4). Auditory loss was bilateral and unilateral in 74% (n = 42/57) and 26% (n = 15/57) of the horses, respectively. The most common causes of bilateral auditory loss were sensorineural deafness, THO, and multifocal brain disease whereas THO and otitis were the most common causes of unilateral deficits. Auditory deficits should be investigated in horses with altered behavior, THO, multifocal brain disease, otitis, and in horses with certain coat and eye color patterns. BAER testing is an objective and noninvasive diagnostic modality to assess auditory function in horses. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Endoscopic findings of the stomach in pleasure horses in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ulcers in the gastric squamous and glandular mucosa in Polish pleasure horses. Study design Medical records from gastroscopic examinations of 108 pleasure horses of different breeds were reviewed. The study population consisted of two groups; group I (n = 48) with horses that expressed mild clinical signs of gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) including poor appetite, slight weight loss or poor body condition, and group II (n = 60) with horses that had no signs of gastrointestinal problems. The age range was 4–10 years, including 5 males, 34 castrated males (geldings) and 69 mares. The prevalence, distribution and severity of gastric ulcers were recorded. Lesions involving the squamous mucosa and the glandular mucosa of the antrum and pylorus were graded and compared between groups. Results Significant difference was found in the presence and severity of gastric ulcers between the two groups of horses. The overall prevalence of gastric ulcers in the first group of horses (n = 48) was 59% while in the group of clinically healthy horses (n = 60) the prevalence of gastric lesion was 40% (P = 0.004). Almost 19% of horses from group I had between 6–10 lesions (EGUS score III) and nearly 19% had either >10 localized lesions or very large diffuse lesions (EGUS number score IV). The number of ulcerations in affected horses were significantly lower in group II compared to group I (P = 0.016) as 10% of horses had 6–10 lesions (EGUS number score III) and nearly 14% had either >10 localized lesions or very large diffuse lesions (EGUS number score IV). Gastroscopy revealed that nearly 32% of horses from the second group had an ulceration EGUS score ≥ II. Discussion and conclusions This study confirms that gastric ulcerations can be prevalent in apparently clinically normal pleasure horses and a complete gastroscopic examination including the examination of the pylorus is advisable

  14. Epidemiological survey of equine influenza in horses in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavadiya, S V; Raval, S K; Mehta, S A; Kanani, A N; Vagh, A A; Tank, P H; Patel, P R

    2012-12-01

    A highly contagious virus infection in horses, influenza is the single most important equine respiratory disease in the world. This paper presents details of a one-year study (1 June 2008 to 31 May 2009) to determine the prevalence of equine influenza in the horses of Gujarat State in India. The prevalence of equine influenza A/equi-2 was 12.02%, but none of the samples were positive for equine influenza A/equi-1. The prevalence of equine influenza (A/equi-2) was 15.38%, 11.94%, 10.18%, and 9.09% in horses of the Kathiyawari breed, a non-descript breed, the Marwari breed and the Indian Thoroughbred breed, respectively. The highest prevalence of influenza was observed in yearlings (17.48%) and prevalence was at its highest in the month of April (28.89%). The prevalence rate in males, females and geldings was 11.95%, 10.38% and 8.47%, respectively. The mortality rate and case fatality rate were 1.28% and 10.64%, respectively.

  15. Seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) and isolation of T. gondii from farm cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Ness, S L; Kwok, O C H; Choudhary, S; Mittel, L D; Divers, T J

    2014-01-17

    Donkeys (Equus asinus) are used as both companion and working animals throughout the world and in some countries, their meat and milk are used for human consumption. Here we report the first serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys in the United States. Serum samples from 373 donkeys from eight farms in five states were tested for T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Twenty-four of 373 (6.4%) of donkeys were seropositive, with MAT titers ranging from 25 to ≥ 200. All seropositive donkeys were Miniature breed. Seropositivity prevalence was 7.0% in female donkeys (20/282) and 4.1% in male donkeys (4/91). No donkeys less than 24 months of age (129) were seropositive, suggesting postnatal transmission of infection. Domestic cats were present on six of the eight farms. Three cats from one farm had MAT titers of 200. Viable T. gondii was isolated from the hearts of two cats, but not from brain tissues. Genotyping of isolate DNA extracted from culture-derived tachyzoites using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, L358 and Apico loci) revealed that both isolates were clonal Type II (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1). This is the first serological survey for T. gondii in donkeys in the United States, and suggests that donkey milk and meat should be considered as a potential source for human infection. The role of barn cats in the transmission of T. gondii to donkeys on farms warrents further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Does work affect personality? A study in horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hausberger

    Full Text Available It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as "interpersonal" conflicts or "suppressed emotions". An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food, were of the same sex (geldings, and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile. Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be

  17. Does work affect personality? A study in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausberger, Martine; Muller, Christine; Lunel, Christophe

    2011-02-09

    It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as "interpersonal" conflicts or "suppressed emotions". An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food), were of the same sex (geldings), and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile). Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be given to work

  18. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT IN 1018 ASYMPTOMATIC HORSES: A MULTI-INSTITUTION STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, James L; Kneissl, Sibylle; Rawlinson, Jennifer E; Zwick, Timo; Zekas, Lisa; Ohlerth, Stefanie; Bienert-Zeit, Astrid

    2016-05-01

    Published descriptions of nonseptic arthritis of the equine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are rare and large studies investigating variations in the TMJ for asymptomatic horses are lacking. The objectives of this cross-sectional, retrospective, multi-institutional study were to describe anatomical variations in the TMJ detected using computed tomography (CT) in an equid population asymptomatic for TMJ disease and determine whether these variations were associated with patient signalment, reason for CT examination, or CT slice width. Medical records at eight hospitals were searched for horses that had head/neck CT scans and no clinical signs of TMJ disease. Age, breed, sex, clinical presentation, and CT slice width data were recorded. Alterations in CT contour and density of the mandibular condyles, mandibular fossae, and TMJ intra-articular discs were described for each horse. Generalized logistic regression was used to test associations between anatomical variations and horse age. A total of 1018 horses were sampled. Anatomical variations were found in TMJ CT images for 40% of horses and 29% of joints. These were dichotomous with regard to age. Horses horses commonly had spherical hypodensities within the mandibular condyles consistent with bone cysts; and hyperdense regions of the intra-articular disc consistent with dystrophic mineralization. Findings indicated that TMJ anatomic variations were common in CT images of younger and older horses asymptomatic for TMJ disease. Future studies are needed to more definitively characterize these CT variations using gross pathology and histopathology. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  19. First Blindness Cases of Horses Infected with Setaria Digitata (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jihun; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Kim, Ha-Jung; Jeong, Hak-Sub; Kim, Byung-Su; Choi, Eunsang; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2017-12-01

    Ocular setariases of cattle were reported but those of equine hosts have never been reported in the Republic of Korea (Korea). We found motile worms in the aqueous humor of 15 horses (Equus spp.) from 12 localities in southern parts of Korea between January 2004 and November 2017. After the affected animals were properly restrained under sedation and local anesthesia, 10 ml disposable syringe with a 16-gauge needle was inserted into the anterior chamber of the affected eye to successfully remove the parasites. The male worm that was found in 7 of the cases showed a pair of lateral appendages near the posterior terminal end of the body. The papillar arrangement was 3 pairs of precloacal, a pair of adcloacal, and 3 pairs of postcloacal papillae, plus a central papilla just in front of the cloaca. The female worms found in the eyes of 8 horses were characterized by the tapering posterior terminal end of the body with a smooth knob. Worms were all identified as Setaria digitata (von Linstow, 1906) by the morphologic characteristics using light and electron microscopic observations. This is the first blindness cases of 15 horses infected with S. digitata (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Korea.

  20. Comparison between morphometric measurements os current herd Mangalarga Marchador males and breed champions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Martins Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Equines morphometric analysis is an important method of selection related to functionality of the species. Mangalarga Marchador is the most important horse Brazilian breed and its evolution can be observed in specialized exhibition where owners expase their herd with the breed exponents, adopting them as selection parameters. In this context the study aimed to compare the morphometric measures of Mangalarga Marchador males herd with the champions of breed, using as parameters breed standards and Eclectic System of Proportions for saddle horse. Experimental design was completely randomized and treatments were the Mangalarga Marchador male herd, represented by all horses registered from 2000 to 2012, wich had measurements stored in Associação Brasileira de Criadores do Cavalo Mangalarga Marchador (ABCCMM service studbook database, totaling 15,482 animals, and the champions of breed, represented by 222 horses champions who participated of the 29th, 30th or 31th Exposição Nacional do Cavalo Mangalarga Marchador. Variables evaluated were height at withers and at rump, length of the head, neck, dorse, rump, shoulder and body, width of head and of rump, thoracic perimeter and cannon perimeter. Average linear measurements were related to length of head, according to Eclectic System of Proportions for saddle horse. Results were submitted to variance analysis and averages were compared by Fisher test (p<0.05. Regarding the current herd of males Mangalarga Marchador, the champions of the race showed greater length of neck, dorse, rump and body, height at withers and at rump, width of rump, cannon perimeter and shorter length of the shoulder. It was concluded that although larger, the champions horses Mangalarga Marchador are proportionally similar to current herd. Mangalarga Marchador horses have not yet reached the height considered ideal by breed standard and their proportions are different from those recommended by Eclectic System of Proportions for

  1. Lecithin containing diets for the horse :acceptance, digestibility, and effects on behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Janice Lee

    1994-01-01

    Lecithins may improve the digestibility of high fat diets and the tractability of horses. Experiments were conducted to determine the acceptability, digestibility and effects on behavior of lecithin-containing diets. Seven young horses of light breeds were used for the studies. The four concentrates consisted of corn, oats, beet pulp, trace mineralized salt, dried sugar cane molasses plus 10% added fat: corn oil (CO);soy lecithin-corn oil (SL\\CO); soy lecithin-soybean ...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or... Losses § 1.1231-2 Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes. (a)(1) In the case of cattle, horses, or other livestock acquired by the taxpayer after December 31, 1969, section 1231 applies...

  3. Male harassment influences female movements and associations in Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi)

    OpenAIRE

    Siva R. Sundaresan; Ilya R. Fischhoff; DI Rubenstein

    2007-01-01

    In traditional models for social organization, female movements and association patterns track resource distribution, whereas males track females. More recently, this model has been expanded to include feedback effects of male behavior, especially sexual harassment, on female decisions. In Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi), males defend territories containing resources attractive to females, who form unstable groups. Past research has explained female behavior based on resource distribution and ne...

  4. Environmental impact on faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi)

    OpenAIRE

    Yarnell, K; Walker, SL

    2017-01-01

    The non-invasive nature of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) assessment means that sample collection is on an opportunistic basis and samples cannot always be collected immediately upon defection during field studies. Faeces that have been exposed to heat and moisturemay not accurately reflect levels of FGM. Our study exposed male (n=3) and female (n=3) Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) faeces to six environmental conditions to simulate a range of weather and seasonal patterns (temperate clim...

  5. Seroepidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi infections in domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) in Durango, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Howe, Daniel K.; Yeargan, Michelle R.; Alvarado-Esquivel, Domingo; Alfredo Zamarripa-Barboza, Jos?; Dubey, Jitender P.

    2017-01-01

    There is currently no information regarding Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi infections in donkeys in Mexico. Here, we determined the presence of antibodies against S. neurona and N. hughesi in donkeys in the northern Mexican state of Durango. Serum samples of 239 domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) were assayed for S. neurona and N. hughesi antibodies using home-made enzyme-linked immunoassays; six (2.5%) of the 239 donkeys tested seropositive for S. neurona. The seroprevalence of S. neu...

  6. The MC1R and ASIP Coat Color Loci May Impact Behavior in the Horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Lauren N.; Staiger, Elizabeth A.; Albright, Julia D.

    2016-01-01

    Shared signaling pathways utilized by melanocytes and neurons result in pleiotropic traits of coat color and behavior in many mammalian species. For example, in humans polymorphisms at MC1R cause red hair, increased heat sensitivity, and lower pain tolerance. In deer mice, rats, and foxes, ASIP polymorphisms causing black coat color lead to more docile demeanors and reduced activity. Horse (Equus caballus) base coat color is primarily determined by polymorphisms at the Melanocortin-1 Receptor (MC1R) and Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP) loci, creating a black, bay, or chestnut coat. Our goal was to investigate correlations between genetic loci for coat color and temperament traits in the horse. We genotyped a total of 215 North American Tennessee Walking Horses for the 2 most common alleles at the MC1R (E/e) and ASIP (A/a) loci using previously published PCR and RFLP methods. The horses had a mean age of 10.5 years and comprised 83 geldings, 25 stallions, and 107 mares. To assess behavior, we adapted a previously published survey for handlers to score horses from 1 to 9 on 20 questions related to specific aspects of temperament. We utilized principle component analysis to combine the individual survey scores into 4 factors of variation in temperament phenotype. A factor component detailing self-reliance correlated with genotypes at the ASIP locus; black mares (aa) were more independent than bay mares (A_) (P = 0.0063). These findings illuminate a promising and novel animal model for future study of neuroendocrine mechanisms in complex behavioral phenotypes. PMID:26884605

  7. LINE CONSTRUCTION OF NONIUS BREED IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  8. Uncoupling of satellite DNA and centromeric function in the genus Equus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Francesca M; Nergadze, Solomon G; Magnani, Elisa; Bertoni, Livia; Attolini, Carmen; Khoriauli, Lela; Raimondi, Elena; Giulotto, Elena

    2010-02-12

    In a previous study, we showed that centromere repositioning, that is the shift along the chromosome of the centromeric function without DNA sequence rearrangement, has occurred frequently during the evolution of the genus Equus. In this work, the analysis of the chromosomal distribution of satellite tandem repeats in Equus caballus, E. asinus, E. grevyi, and E. burchelli highlighted two atypical features: 1) several centromeres, including the previously described evolutionary new centromeres (ENCs), seem to be devoid of satellite DNA, and 2) satellite repeats are often present at non-centromeric termini, probably corresponding to relics of ancestral now inactive centromeres. Immuno-FISH experiments using satellite DNA and antibodies against the kinetochore protein CENP-A demonstrated that satellite-less primary constrictions are actually endowed with centromeric function. The phylogenetic reconstruction of centromere repositioning events demonstrates that the acquisition of satellite DNA occurs after the formation of the centromere during evolution and that centromeres can function over millions of years and many generations without detectable satellite DNA. The rapidly evolving Equus species gave us the opportunity to identify different intermediate steps along the full maturation of ENCs.

  9. Uncoupling of satellite DNA and centromeric function in the genus Equus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Piras

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we showed that centromere repositioning, that is the shift along the chromosome of the centromeric function without DNA sequence rearrangement, has occurred frequently during the evolution of the genus Equus. In this work, the analysis of the chromosomal distribution of satellite tandem repeats in Equus caballus, E. asinus, E. grevyi, and E. burchelli highlighted two atypical features: 1 several centromeres, including the previously described evolutionary new centromeres (ENCs, seem to be devoid of satellite DNA, and 2 satellite repeats are often present at non-centromeric termini, probably corresponding to relics of ancestral now inactive centromeres. Immuno-FISH experiments using satellite DNA and antibodies against the kinetochore protein CENP-A demonstrated that satellite-less primary constrictions are actually endowed with centromeric function. The phylogenetic reconstruction of centromere repositioning events demonstrates that the acquisition of satellite DNA occurs after the formation of the centromere during evolution and that centromeres can function over millions of years and many generations without detectable satellite DNA. The rapidly evolving Equus species gave us the opportunity to identify different intermediate steps along the full maturation of ENCs.

  10. Multiple maternal origins of native modern and ancient horse populations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, C Z; Su, R; Bower, M A; Edwards, C J; Wang, X B; Weining, S; Liu, L; Xie, W M; Li, F; Liu, R Y; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, C M; Chen, H

    2009-12-01

    To obtain more knowledge of the origin and genetic diversity of domestic horses in China, this study provides a comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequence diversity from nine horse breeds in China in conjunction with ancient DNA data and evidence from archaeological and historical records. A 247-bp mitochondrial D-loop sequence from 182 modern samples revealed a total of 70 haplotypes with a high level of genetic diversity. Seven major mtDNA haplogroups (A-G) and 16 clusters were identified for the 182 Chinese modern horses. In the present study, nine 247-bp mitochondrial D-loop sequences of ancient remains of Bronze Age horse from the Chifeng region of Inner Mongolia in China (c. 4000-2000a bp) were used to explore the origin and diversity of Chinese modern horses and the phylogenetic relationship between ancient and modern horses. The nine ancient horses carried seven haplotypes with rich genetic diversity, which were clustered together with modern individuals among haplogroups A, E and F. Modern domestic horse and ancient horse data support the multiple origins of domestic horses in China. This study supports the argument that multiple successful events of horse domestication, including separate introductions of wild mares into the domestic herds, may have occurred in antiquity, and that China cannot be excluded from these events. Indeed, the association of Far Eastern mtDNA types to haplogroup F was highly significant using Fisher's exact test of independence (P = 0.00002), lending support for Chinese domestication of this haplogroup. High diversity and all seven mtDNA haplogroups (A-G) with 16 clusters also suggest that further work is necessary to shed more light on horse domestication in China.

  11. Relation between type and local of orthopedic injuries with physical activity in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Ruas de Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Equine sport modalities influence the prevalence and predisposition of musculoskeletal injuries in horses. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of location and type of orthopedic injuries of horses undergoing various physical activities. Data from 116 horses of different breeds and ages was analyzed. Physical activities included dressage, racing, polo pony, jumping, work and western performance. All horses had history of orthopedic lameness diagnosed by radiographs and/or ultrasound scans. The effect of sport on the affected anatomical site and type of lesion was performed using Fisher's exact test. Desmitis was more prevalent in animals that performed western sports than in the working ones. The number of fractures was greater in racing and polo pony animals than in working horses. Stifle lesions were more prevalent in dressage horses than working horses and had lower occurrence of shoulder injuries than jumping horses. Hind limb tendon injuries were lower in jumping than in dressage and western horses. We conclude that there is a relationship between location and type of injury and physical activities. In racing horses there is a predominance of young animals and higher prevalence of orthopedic injuries from traumatic events such as tendonitis, desmitis and fractures. In physical activities that require longer training and that animals were used for longer periods, eg. jumping, polo pony, dressage and work, age-related degenerative, such as joint disease, were predominant. In western sport animals the most common lesion was desmitis. Regarding limbs, forelimb injures were more often observed in racing horses, polo pony, jumping and working animals; whereas, dressage and Western sports horses presented more injuries in hind limbs.

  12. Species Identification, Strain Differentiation, and Antifungal Susceptibility of Dermatophyte Species Isolated From Clinically Infected Arabian Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Damaty, Hend M; Tartor, Yasmine H; Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Arabian horses, the eldest equine breeds, have great economic and social significance for its long, unique, and storied history. Molecular characterization of dermatophyte species affecting Arabian horses is a crucial necessity for epidemiologic and therapeutic purposes. The objective of this study...... are more effective against T. mentagrophytes and T. verrucosum. In conclusion, PCR-RFLP technique is a reliable tool for the identification of dermatophyte species from Arabian horses. Internal transcribed spacer sequencing provides a precise and useful technique for the identification and differentiation...

  13. GENETIC DIVERSITY IN CZECH HAFLINGER HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Vostrý

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Haflinger as a small moutain horse breed originated from the South Tyrol district as a cross of Alpen Mountain breeds with Araber. This breed was expanding to Czech Republic during the last 25 years. The aim of this study was to analyse genetic diversity within the population using microsatellite markers. A total of 95 alleles have been detected. The highest frequency 88.18% showed allele 101 (HTG 6. The heterosigosity varied from 0.25 (HTG 6 to 0.84 (VHL 20, genetic diversity reached 0.6–0.8. The heterozygosity of the whole population studied is FIS= -0.013. The average effective number of allele per locus was 2.93 with standard deviation 1.54, with minimal and maximal level 1.30 and 7.83, respectively. Average polymorphism information content per locus was 0.608 with standard derivation 0.146, with minimal and maximal level 0.208 and 0.824, respectively. The results showed that breeding program of Czech Haflinger is optimal, including optimized mating strategies. The diversity of the population Czech Haflinger, based on a small number of microsatellites, seems to be sufficient.

  14. The effect of the English Thoroughbred on the sport performance of horses in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Jiskrová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the importance of the English Thoroughbred in sport horse breeding in the Czech Republic. Basic data were taken from the survey of sport horses in the Czech Republic in the years 2005–2008 which contains sport competition results of horses. The sport performance is expressed by the PPB value. We used the GLM method for statistical elaboration. Using the method of multiple comparisons by Tukey-B we defined the differences between the breeds, gender, age, sport seasons and the number of starts in competitions. Statistically highly significant effect was discovered of all the studied effects on the jumping sports performance of the horses. Basing on statistical evaluations we found out that the highest PPB value (3.356 was reached by group 5 (sport horses without a significant share of the English Thoroughbred. Group 5 was also the most numerous one. The best values according to the gender were reached by stallions (4168 and the most numerous group included mares (4766. We also discovered that the highest values were reached by the horses that compete at the age of 12 years (3.5414 and the highest average values were achieved in the 2008 season (3.999. The highest PPB value was achieved by horses with a high number of starts.

  15. Comparison of prevalence factors in horses with and without seropositivity to Neospora hughesi and/or Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Tamez-Trevino, Eva; White, Alexandria; Vangeem, Joshua; Packham, Andrea; Conrad, Patricia A; Kass, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a commonly diagnosed neurological disease of horses in North America and is caused by infection with Sarcocystis neurona or Neospora hughesi. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence factors among horses seropositive or seronegative to N. hughesi and/or S. neurona. A total of 3123 submissions were included in the study, with horses originating from 49 States. Thirty-eight animals from 21 States tested seropositive for N. hughesi only, 840 horses from 40 States were seropositive for S. neurona only, 25 horses from 14 States were seropositive for both protozoa, and 2220 horses from 49 States tested seronegative for both parasites. Significant associations were found between geographical location (State), month of submission, breed and serological status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Epidemiology of exertional rhabdomyolysis susceptibility in standardbred horses reveals associated risk factors and underlying enhanced performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cajsa M Isgren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome is recognised in many athletic horse breeds and in recent years specific forms of the syndrome have been identified. However, although Standardbred horses are used worldwide for racing, there is a paucity of information about the epidemiological and performance-related aspects of the syndrome in this breed. The objectives of this study therefore were to determine the incidence, risk factors and performance effects of exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome in Standardbred trotters and to compare the epidemiology and genetics of the syndrome with that in other breeds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A questionnaire-based case-control study (with analysis of online race records was conducted following identification of horses that were determined susceptible to exertional rhabdomyolysis (based on serum biochemistry from a total of 683 horses in 22 yards. Thirty six exertional rhabdomyolysis-susceptible horses were subsequently genotyped for the skeletal muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1 mutation responsible for type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy. A total of 44 susceptible horses was reported, resulting in an annual incidence of 6.4 (95% CI 4.6-8.2% per 100 horses. Female horses were at significantly greater risk than males (odds ratio 7.1; 95% CI 2.1-23.4; p = 0.001 and nervous horses were at a greater risk than horses with calm or average temperaments (odds ratio 7.9; 95% CI 2.3-27.0; p = 0.001. Rhabdomyolysis-susceptible cases performed better from standstill starts (p = 0.04 than controls and had a higher percentage of wins (p = 0.006. All exertional rhabdomyolysis-susceptible horses tested were negative for the R309H GYS1 mutation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome in Standardbred horses has a similar incidence and risk factors to the syndrome in Thoroughbred horses. If the disorder has a genetic basis in Standardbreds, improved performance in susceptible animals may be

  17. Polyuria and polydipsia in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Erica C

    2007-12-01

    Polyuria and polydipsia provide a diagnostic challenge for the equine clinician. This article describes the various known causes of polyuria and polydipsia in horses and provides a description of a systematic diagnostic approach for assessing horses with polyuria and polydipsia to delineate the underlying cause. Treatment and management strategies for addressing polyuria and polydipsia in horses are also described.

  18. Lymphoscintigraphy of draught horses with chronic progressive lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cock, H E V; Affolter, V K; Wisner, E R; Larson, R F; Ferraro, G L

    2006-03-01

    Early diagnosis of chronic progressive lymphoedema (CPL) may result in more effective interventions and provide a basis for further investigation of whether early diagnosis could be used as a means of eliminating potential genetic influences by cessation of breeding from affected individuals. Lymphoscintigraphy may be useful in draught horses to differentiate early lesions of CPL from other conditions in the pastern region. Forelimbs of 2 normal and 5 CPL-affected draught horses were evaluated with lymphoscintigraphy. Lymphoscintigraphy showed clearly the presence of interstitial fluid stasis and delayed lymphatic drainage in the affected extremities of diseased animals in contrast to normal animals of these breeds. The rate of decreased clearance of a particulate radiopharmaceutical from the tissues was related positively to the severity of clinical signs. Our findings support the hypothesis that lymph stasis is probably responsible for the progressive swelling and concurrent skin lesions observed in association with CPL in draught horses. Lymphoscintigraphy should also prove useful in diagnosis of CPL in draught horses, even in the mild stages of the disease; such early diagnosis may result in more effective intervention.

  19. Genetic variability of Pantaneiro horse using RAPD-PCR markers

    OpenAIRE

    Egito,Andréa Alves do; Fuck,Beatriz Helena; McManus,Concepta; Paiva,Samuel Rezende; Albuquerque,Maria do Socorro Maués; Santos,Sandra Aparecida; Abreu,Urbano Gomes Pinto de; Silva,Joaquim Augusto da; Sereno,Fabiana Tavares Pires de Souza; Mariante,Arthur da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Blood samples were collected from Pantaneiro Horses in five regions of Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso States. Arabian, Mangalarga Marchador and Thoroughbred were also included to estimate genetic distances and the existing variability among and within these breeds by RAPD-PCR (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA - Polymerase Chain Reaction) molecular markers. From 146 primers, 13 were chosen for amplification and 44 polymorphic bands were generated. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA)...

  20. Equine metabolic syndrome in Colombian creole horse: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, C.A.; Jaramillo, C.; Loaiza, M.J.; Blanco, R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The equine metabolic syndrome is a condition that can be recognized because of obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis. Genetic factors could play a role in the occurrence of this syndrome. Certain breeds such as ponies (including the South American creole horses) have a lower sensibility to insulin and a higher prevalence of hyperinsulinemia. The environment and management conditions, such as overfeeding and lack of exercise are factors that bring a propensity for obesity. The adi...

  1. Genetic connections between dressage and show-jumping horses in Dutch Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, Gabriel; Madsen, Per; Norberg, Elise

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the breeding practice within the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN) has resulted in an increasing specialisation of horses into show-jumping (JH) and dressage (DH). The objective of this study was to describe the effect of the specialisation on the connectedness between...... and within subpopulations were analysed in three periods of time to describe changes in genetic connectedness between subpopulations. A decline in GS (0.97–0.45), GC0.5 (0.69–0.13) and r (0.018–0.014) in the recent years was observed. Both subpopulations have a common genetic pool; however...

  2. Serum lipid and lipoprotein patterns of Iranian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, F; Asadian, P; Shahriari, A; Pourkabir, M; Kazemi, A

    2011-12-01

    Patterns of serum biochemical parameters vary among horse breeds. The objective of the present study was to compare serum lipoproteins of Iranian Caspian ponies with those of other horses (Arabs and Thoroughbreds) in the Iranian region. Serum lipoprotein values were determined by agar-agarose gel electrophoresis and measured by scan densitometry. Moreover, serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were determined and the results were analysed by one-way analysis of variance. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol values were 1.13 +/- 0.23 and 2.38 +/- 0.18 mmol/l in Caspian ponies, 1.96 +/- 0.49 and 1.92 +/- 0.25 mmol/l in Arab horses and 1.38 +/- 0.26 and 2.17 +/- 0.53 mmol/l in Thoroughbred horses. The relative percentages of alpha- (72.63 +/- 17.76%) and beta-lipoproteins (29.10 +/- 5.49%) in serum electrophoretic tracings from Caspian ponies were not significantly different from those of other horses (p > 0.05). The lipoprotein phenotype in Caspian ponies may be useful for evaluating metabolic diseases.

  3. PERFORMANCE OF COLD-BLOODED HORSES IN SLOVAKIA

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    JURAJ MLYNEK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse breeding program is based on an assessment of their exterior, and is largely influenced by the performance. The objective of the work was to analyze the performance characteristics of cold-blooded horses in Slovakia using test of performance characteristics through carriage race. By evaluating the higher forms of utility control we concluded that scores in individual disciplines were very balanced during 2005-2008, which was due to a steady track of the horses involved and the carriagers. By increasing the number of new horses and new competitors in 2009 the average value of scores marked substantial deterioration, but this cannot be seen as degradation of performance of studied horses. By analysis of the factors affecting the score we found out, that gender as the only factor, did not have any significant impact on the studied disciplines of utility control. Carriager and the year of competition were amongst the factors mostly influencing the score. As the most successful line, whose representatives were most frequently and best ranked on the carriage races, we can choose the line of Bayard de Heredia. Its seven representatives participated in the period 2005-2011 altogether for 141-times and their average ranking ranged from 2.2 to 5.4.

  4. Genetic parameters for chronic progressive lymphedema in Belgian Draught Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyser, K; Janssens, S; Peeters, L M; Foqué, N; Gasthuys, F; Oosterlinck, M; Buys, N

    2014-12-01

    Genetic parameters for chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL)-associated traits in Belgian Draught Horses were estimated, using a multitrait animal model. Clinical scores of CPL in the four limbs/horse (CPLclin ), skinfold thickness and hair samples (hair diameter) were studied. Due to CPLclin uncertainty in younger horses (progressive CPL character), a restricted data set (D_3+) was formed, excluding records from horses under 3 years from the complete data set (D_full). Age, gender, coat colour and limb hair pigmentation were included as fixed, permanent environment and date of recording as random effects. Higher CPLclin certainty (D_3+) increased heritability coefficients of, and genetic correlations between traits, with CPLclin heritabilities (SE) for the respective data sets: 0.11 (0.06) and 0.26 (0.05). A large proportion of the CPLclin variance was attributed to the permanent environmental effect in D_full, but less in D_3+. Date of recording explained a proportion of variance from 0.09 ± 0.03 to 0.61 ± 0.08. Additive genetic correlations between CPLclin and both skinfold thickness and hair diameter showed the latter two traits cannot be used as a direct diagnostic aid for CPL. Due to the relatively low heritability of CPLclin , selection should focus on estimated breeding values (from repeated clinical examinations) to reduce CPL occurrence in the Belgian Draught Horse. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: undergraduate student outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Sarah L

    2012-12-01

    Equine teaching and research programs are popular but expensive components of most land grant universities. External funding for equine research, however, is limited and restricts undergraduate research opportunities that enhance student learning. In 1999, a novel undergraduate teaching and research program was initiated at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. A unique aspect of this program was the use of young horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue but of relatively low value. The media interest in such horses was utilized to advantage to obtain funding for the program. The use of horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs held the risks of attracting negative publicity, potential of injury while training previously unhandled young horses, and uncertainty regarding re-sale value; however, none of these concerns were realized. For 12 years the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program received extensive positive press and provided invaluable learning opportunities for students. Over 500 students, at least 80 of which were minorities, participated in not only horse management and training but also research, event planning, public outreach, fund-raising, and website development. Public and industry support provided program sustainability with only basic University infrastructural support despite severe economic downturns. Student research projects generated 25 research abstracts presented at national and international meetings and 14 honors theses. Over 100 students went on to veterinary school or other higher education programs, and more than 100 others pursued equine- or science-related careers. Laudatory popular press articles were published in a wide variety of breed/discipline journals and in local and regional newspapers each year. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses yielded positive outcomes for all, especially the undergraduate students.

  6. SNPs within the beta myosin heavy chain (MYH7 and the pyruvate kinase muscle (PKM2 genes in horse

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    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two highly expressed skeletal muscle genes (the MYH7 gene encoding the myosin heavy chain slow/β-cardiac isoform and the PKM2 gene encoding the pyruvate kinase muscle isoforms were investigated with the objective to identify DNA markers in horses. A panel of DNA samples from different horse breeds was analysed using a PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP approach. Four and two alleles were identified for the MYH7 and PKM2 loci, respectively. Mendelian inheritance of alleles of the two investigated genes was confirmed analysing horse families. Sequencing of PCR products obtained from the MYH7 and PKM2 genes made it possible to characterise two SSCP alleles for each gene. The polymorphisms found in the MYH7 and PKM2 genes were further studied in 61 and 68 horses of three (Italian Heavy Draught Horse, Italian Saddler and Murgese and five (Franches-Montagnes, Haflinger, Italian Heavy Draught Horse, Murgese and Standardbred breeds, respectively. Allele frequencies of the two loci varied among the considered breeds. The SNPs discovery in MYH7 and PKM2 genes makes it possible to locate new molecular markers to ECA1. The identified markers could be used in association analysis with performance traits in horses.

  7. Feed, energy and protein intakes of horses - A review of Finnish feeding trials

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    Markku Saastamoinen

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feed, energy and protein intakes of horses engaged in different performances by reviewing results and data concerning feed consumption in 17 feeding trials with a total 356 horses, conducted between 1972 and 1992. The dry matter intake was found to average 1.6-1.8% of body weight for working horses and pregnant mares, and 2-3.5% for lactating mares. According to the results most of the exercising horses could be fed with energy and protein amounts currently recommended for moderate work. In Standardbred trotters, the average energy intake corresponded to the current requirements for light work. The individual variation in energy consumption among horses engaged in work of the same intensity was considerable, and seemed to be larger for Finnhorses than for warmblooded horses. The establishment of new nutrient requirements and feeding recommendations separately for trotters and riding horses of these two breeds, i.e. Finnhorses and warmblooded horses, seems justified.

  8. Readability of branding symbols in horses and histomorphological alterations at the branding site.

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    Aurich, J E; Wohlsein, P; Wulf, M; Nees, M; Baumgärtner, W; Becker-Birck, M; Aurich, C

    2013-03-01

    Identification of horses has traditionally been facilitated by hot iron branding, but the extent by which branding symbols and numbers can be identified has not been investigated. The local pathological changes induced by branding are also unknown. This study analysed the readability of branding symbols and histomorphological alterations at the branding sites. A total of 248 horses in an equestrian championship were available for identification of symbols and numbers. A further 28 horses, euthanased for other reasons, provided histological examination of the branding site. All except one horse had evidence of histological changes at the brand site, including epidermal hyperplasia, increase of dermal collagenous fibrous tissue and loss of adnexal structures. In two foals, an ulcerative to necrotizing dermatitis was observed and interpreted as a complication of recent branding lesions. Despite the fact that hot iron branding caused lesions compatible with third degree thermal injury, it did not allow unambiguous identification of a large proportion of older horses. While the breed-specific symbol was consistently identified by three independent investigators in 84% of the horses, the double-digit branding number was read correctly by all three investigators in less than 40%. In conclusion, hot iron branding in horses causes lesions compatible with third degree thermal injury but does not always allow identification of horses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seroprevalence and factors associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 in Spanish Purebred horses in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, F; Fores, P; Mughini-Gras, L; Ireland, J; Moreno, M A; Newton, J R

    2016-04-16

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and type 4 (EHV-4) have a worldwide distribution and cause respiratory disease, abortion, neonatal death and myeloencephalopathy in susceptible horses. Given the scarcity of serological EHV-1/EHV-4 data in Spain, the objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the seroprevalence of EHV-1/EHV-4 and to identify potential horse-level and stud farm-level factors associated with EHV-1/EHV-4 in the breeding Spanish Purebred (SP) horse population in central Spain. Serum samples from 334 SP unvaccinated horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 at 30 stud farms, were tested using a commercially available EHV-1/EHV-4 antibody ELISA and seroneutralisation as the World Organisation for Animal Health reference confirmation test. Data on factors putatively associated with seropositivity to EHV-1/EHV-4 were collected via a questionnaire and examined using logistic regression analysis. EHV-1/EHV-4 seroprevalence in the SP breeding population in central Spain, standardised for the sex distribution of the reference horse population, was 53.9 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval 44.0 per cent to 63.8 per cent). Increasing age, southern location of the stud farm, temperate climate during the summer, and a smaller surface area used for breeding activities in the farm were associated with increased odds for EHV-1/EHV-4 seropositivity, whereas EHV-1/EHV-4 vaccination of other resident horses and separation of breeding mares from youngsters were protective factors. British Veterinary Association.

  10. Comparison of Fecal Microbiota of Mongolian and Thoroughbred Horses by High-throughput Sequencing of the V4 Region of the 16S rRNA Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiping; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Huang, Jinlong; Shiraigo, Wunierfu; Yang, Lihua; Zhao, Qinan; Ren, Xiujuan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Dugarjaviin, Manglai

    2016-09-01

    The hindgut of horses is an anaerobic fermentative chamber for a complex and dynamic microbial population, which plays a critical role in health and energy requirements. Research on the gut microbiota of Mongolian horses has not been reported until now as far as we know. Mongolian horse is a major local breed in China. We performed high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes V4 hypervariable regions from gut fecal material to characterize the gut microbiota of Mongolian horses and compare them to the microbiota in Thoroughbred horses. Fourteen Mongolian and 19 Thoroughbred horses were used in the study. A total of 593,678 sequence reads were obtained from 33 samples analyzed, which were found to belong to 16 phyla and 75 genera. The bacterial community compositions were similar for the two breeds. Firmicutes (56% in Mongolian horses and 53% in Thoroughbred horses) and Bacteroidetes (33% and 32% respectively) were the most abundant and predominant phyla followed by Spirochaete, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, and Fibrobacteres. Of these 16 phyla, five (Synergistetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, TM7, and Chloroflexi) were significantly different (phorses vs 29% in Thoroughbred horses), followed by Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, and Anaeroplasma, which were detected in higher distribution proportion in Mongolian horses than in Thoroughbred horses. In contrast, Oscillibacter, Fibrobacter, Methanocorpusculum, and Succinivibrio levels were lower in Mongolian horses. Among 75 genera, 30 genera were significantly different (phorse gut microbiota. These findings provide novel information about the gut microbiota of Mongolian horses and a foundation for future investigations of gut bacterial factors that may influence the development and progression of gastrointestinal disease in horses.

  11. Status of Groundwater Levels and Storage Volume in the Equus Beds Aquifer Near Wichita, Kansas, January 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Cristi V.

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in the 1940s, the Wichita well field was developed in the Equus Beds aquifer in southwestern Harvey County and northwestern Sedgwick County to supply water to the city of Wichita (Williams and Lohman, 1949). In addition to supplying drinking water to the largest city in Kansas, the other primary use of water from the Equus Beds aquifer is to irrigate crops in this agriculture-dominated part of south-central Kansas (Rich Eubank, Kansas Department of Agriculture, Division of Water Resources, oral commun., 2008). The decline of water levels in the aquifer were noted soon after the development of the Wichita well field began (Williams and Lohman, 1949). As water levels in the aquifer decline, the volume of water stored in the aquifer decreases and less water is available to supply future needs. For many years the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Wichita, has monitored these changes in water levels and the resulting changes in storage volume in the Equus Beds aquifer as part of Wichita's effort to effectively manage this resource. In 2007, the city of Wichita began using Phase I of the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) project for large-scale artificial recharge of the Equus Beds aquifer. The ASR project uses water from the Little Arkansas River - either pumped from the river directly or from wells in the riverbank that obtain their water from the river by induced infiltration - as the source of artificial recharge to the Equus Beds aquifer (City of Wichita, 2009).

  12. Genetic analysis of maternal and paternal lineages in Kabardian horses by uniparental molecular markers

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    Aliy-bek D. Khaudov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA as well as the non-recombining part of the Y chromosome help to understand the origin and distribution of maternal and paternal lineages. The Kabardian horse from Northern Caucasia which is well-known for strength, stamina and endurance in distance riding has a large gap in its breeding documentation especially in the recent past. A 309 bp fragment of the mitochondrial D-loop (156 Kabardian horses and six mutations in Y chromosome (49 Kabardian stallions, respectively, were analyzed to get a better insight into breeding history, phylogenetic relationship to related breeds, maternal and paternal diversity and genetic structure. We found a high mitochondrial diversity represented by 64 D-loop haplotypes out of 14 haplogroups. The most frequent haplogroups were G (19.5%, L (12.3%, Q (11.7%, and B (11.0%. Although these four haplogroups are also frequently found in Asian riding horses (e.g. Buryat, Kirghiz, Mongolian, Transbaikalian, Tuvinian the percentage of the particular haplogroups varies sometimes remarkable. In contrast, the obtained haplogroup pattern from Kabardian horse was more similar to that of breeds reared in the Middle East. No specific haplotype cluster was observed in the phylogenetic tree for Kabardian horses. On Kabardian Y chromosome, two mutations were found leading to three haplotypes with a percentage of 36.7% (haplotype HT1, 38.8% (haplotype HT2 and 24.5% (haplotype HT3, respectively. The high mitochondrial and also remarkable paternal diversity of the Kabardian horse is caused by its long history with a widely spread maternal origin and the introduction of Arabian as well as Thoroughbred influenced stallions for improvement. This high genetic diversity provides a good situation for the ongoing breed development and performance selection as well as avoiding inbreeding.

  13. Seroprevalence and factors associated with seropositivity to equine arteritis virus in Spanish Purebred horses in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, F; Fores, P; Mughini-Gras, L; Ireland, J; Moreno, M A; Newton, R

    2016-09-01

    Equine viral arteritis (EVA), a disease caused by infection with the equine arteritis virus (EAV), is present in many European countries. In Spain, the last confirmed outbreak was reported in 1992 and there is a paucity of seroprevalence studies. The disease has a major impact on the equine breeding industry, which is mainly represented by Spanish Purebred (SP) horses in Spain. To estimate the seroprevalence of EAV in the breeding SP horse population in central Spain and identify potential horse and studfarm level factors associated with seropositivity to EAV. Cross-sectional study. Individual serum samples from 555 SP horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 at 35 studfarms, were tested using a commercially available EAV antibody ELISA and seroneutralisation as the World Organisation for Animal Health reference confirmation test for samples with positive and equivocal results. Data on factors putatively associated with seropositivity to EAV were collected via a questionnaire and examined using random effects logistic regression for analysis of clustered data. Equine arteritis virus seroprevalence in the SP breeding population in central Spain standardised for the sex distribution of the reference horse population, was estimated to be 16.8% (95% confidence interval 5.2-28.5%). Increasing numbers of breeding mares on the studfarm and increasing percentage of mares with reproductive problems during the last 12 months were identified as being positively associated with EAV seropositivity. Mares vaccinated against Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) and/or -4 (EHV-4) were also positively associated with EAV seropositivity. These findings are of importance to ensure appropriate biosecurity measures for studfarms are carried out and may help facilitate the development of an EVA surveillance programme in the SP breeding horse population. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Age-Related Changes in Locomotor Performance Reveal a Similar Pattern for Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus domesticus, Canis familiaris, Equus caballus, and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marck, Adrien; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Foulonneau, Vincent; Marc, Andy; Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Noirez, Philippe; Bronikowski, Anne M; Morgan, Theodore J; Garland, Theodore; Carter, Patrick A; Hersen, Pascal; Di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2017-04-01

    Locomotion is one of the major physiological functions for most animals. Previous studies have described aging mechanisms linked to locomotor performance among different species. However, the precise dynamics of these age-related changes, and their interactions with development and senescence, are largely unknown. Here, we use the same conceptual framework to describe locomotor performances in Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus domesticus, Canis familiaris, Equus caballus, and Homo sapiens. We show that locomotion is a consistent biomarker of age-related changes, with an asymmetrical pattern throughout life, regardless of the type of effort or its duration. However, there is variation (i) among species for the same mode of locomotion, (ii) within species for different modes of locomotion, and (iii) among individuals of the same species for the same mode of locomotion. Age-related patterns are modulated by genetic (such as selective breeding) as well as environmental conditions (such as temperature). However, in all cases, the intersection of the rising developmental phase and the declining senescent phase reveals neither a sharp transition nor a plateau, but a smooth transition, emphasizing a crucial moment: the age at peak performance. This transition may define a specific target for future investigations on the dynamics of such biological interactions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Microsporidia and Cryptosporidium in horses and donkeys in Algeria: detection of a novel Cryptosporidium hominis subtype family (Ik) in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatamna, Abd Elkarim; Wagnerová, Pavla; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Xiao, Lihua; Rost, Michael; McEvoy, John; Saadi, Ahmed Rachid; Aissi, Meriem; Kváč, Martin

    2015-03-15

    A total of 219 and 124 individual fecal samples of horses and donkeys, respectively, were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., Encephalitozoon spp., and Enterocytozoon bieneusi DNA by genus-specific nested PCR. Isolates were genotyped by sequence analysis of SSU rRNA, GP60, TRAP-C1, COWP, and HSP70 loci in Cryptosporidium, and the ITS region in microsporidia. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected on 3/18 horse farms and 1/15 farms where donkeys were kept. Overall, five (2.3%) horse and two (1.6%) donkey specimens were PCR positive for Cryptosporidium. Genotyping at SSU and GP60 loci revealed that three isolates from horses and donkeys were C. parvum subtype family IIaA16G1R1, one isolate from a horse was, C. muris RN66, and one isolate from a donkey was C. muris TS03. An isolate from a horse shared 99.4% and 99.3% similarity with Cryptosporidium hominis and C. cuniculus, respectively, at the SSU locus. This isolate shared 100% identity with C. hominis at the TRAP-C1, COWP, and HSP70 loci, and it was from the novel gp60 subtype family IkA15G1. Microsporidia were found on 6/18 horse and 2/15 donkey farms. E. bieneusi was identified in 6.8% (15/219) and 1.6% (2/124), and Encephalitozoon cuniculi was identified in 1.8% (4/219) and 1.6% (2/124), of horses and donkeys, respectively. Three genotypes of E. cuniculi (I, II and III) were detected in horses, and E. cuniculi genotype II was detected in donkeys. Four genotypes of E. bieneusi (horse1, horse 2, CZ3, D) were described in horses. An additional five horses and two donkeys were positive for E. bieneusi, but the isolated were not genotyped. Neither Cryptosporidium nor microsporidia prevalence were affected by sex, age, type of breeding, or whether the host was a horse or a donkey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fossil isotope records of seasonal climate and ecology: Straight from the horse's mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Z. D.; Cerling, T. E.

    1998-03-01

    Isotope analysis of a bulk fossil tooth gives a “snapshot” impression of paleoclimatic conditions—a single point in time. However, hypsodont teeth grow over a period of a year or more, so that stable carbon and oxygen isotope variations along their length are a “tape recorder” of short-term seasonal variations from the distant past. We have used a new in situ micro-laser sampling method to determine submillimeter carbon and oxygen isotope variations in the enamel of individual fossil horse teeth to assess ancient annual meteoric water variations and feeding patterns. The δ18O values from a 6.8 Ma fossil horse tooth (Astrohippus ansae) from Texas vary cyclically along the 6 cm length of the tooth with a smoothed amplitude of >4‰, similar to the monthly averaged amplitude measured in modern meteoric waters from the region. The seasonal δ18O values are ˜3‰ to 4‰ higher than those calculated from modern meteoric water data, suggesting either a higher local meteoric water value in the Miocene of Texas, or that the animal received a high proportion of its dietary water from plants or highly evaporated water. A Holocene horse tooth from the shores of Glacial Lake Agassiz, North Dakota (Equus sp.), also has isotopic variations with the same 35 mm periodicity, but a smoothed amplitude of only 2‰. This horse most likely had a buffered drinking supply. The calculated δ18O of the water in equilibrium with this tooth is the same as the modern measured annual average. The variations within a single tooth can be as large as those generally observed in entire stratigraphic sections of fossil teeth analyzed by bulk methods. The new method provides an important technique for evaluating fossil diagenesis; conventional bulk analyses of teeth fragments may not be representative of the whole tooth, thus explaining analytical scatter that has been previously attributed to diagenesis.

  17. The major horse satellite DNA family is associated with centromere competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Federico; Gamba, Riccardo; Mazzagatti, Alice; Piras, Francesca M; Cappelletti, Eleonora; Belloni, Elisa; Nergadze, Solomon G; Raimondi, Elena; Giulotto, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The centromere is the specialized locus required for correct chromosome segregation during cell division. The DNA of most eukaryotic centromeres is composed of extended arrays of tandem repeats (satellite DNA). In the horse, we previously showed that, although the centromere of chromosome 11 is completely devoid of tandem repeat arrays, all other centromeres are characterized by the presence of satellite DNA. We isolated three horse satellite DNA sequences (37cen, 2P1 and EC137) and described their chromosomal localization in four species of the genus Equus. In the work presented here, using the ChIP-seq methodology, we showed that, in the horse, the 37cen satellite binds CENP-A, the centromere-specific histone-H3 variant. The 37cen sequence bound by CENP-A is GC-rich with 221 bp units organized in a head-to-tail fashion. The physical interaction of CENP-A with 37cen was confirmed through slot blot experiments. Immuno-FISH on stretched chromosomes and chromatin fibres demonstrated that the extension of satellite DNA stretches is variable and is not related to the organization of CENP-A binding domains. Finally, we proved that the centromeric satellite 37cen is transcriptionally active. Our data offer new insights into the organization of horse centromeres. Although three different satellite DNA families are cytogenetically located at centromeres, only the 37cen family is associated to the centromeric function. Moreover, similarly to other species, CENP-A binding domains are variable in size. The transcriptional competence of the 37cen satellite that we observed adds new evidence to the hypothesis that centromeric transcripts may be required for centromere function.

  18. Estimation of genetic parameters for morphological and functional traits in a Menorca horse population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Solé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional conformation and performance in Classic and Menorca Dressage are the main selection criteria in the Menorca Horse breeding program. Menorca Dressage is an alternative Classical Dressage discipline which is exclusive of the Menorca Island, but including a series of movements that the animals perform in the traditional festivities called “Jaleo Menorquín”. One of these movements involves the horse raising its forelimbs and standing or walking on its hindlimbs, which is called “el bot”. To make the Menorca horse breed more competitive in the equestrian market, it is necessary to understand the genetic background that characterizes the aptitude for Menorca Dressage and its relationship with conformation traits. The analysed data consisted of 15 conformation traits from 347 Menorca horses (200 males and 147 females, with 1,550 performance records in Menorca Dressage competitions. Genetic parameters were estimated using linear and threshold animal models. The heritabilities for heights and lengths were high (0.45-0.76, those for angulations and binary conformation traits were low to moderate (0.10-0.36 as were the scores for dressage performance (0.13-0.21. The results suggest that the analyzed traits could be used as an efficient tool for selecting breeding horses.

  19. Estimation of genetic parameters for morphological and functional traits in a Menorca horse population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, M.; Cervantes, I.; Gutierrez, J. P.; Gomez, M. D.; Valera, M.

    2014-06-01

    Functional conformation and performance in Classic and Menorca Dressage are the main selection criteria in the Menorca Horse breeding program. Menorca Dressage is an alternative Classical Dressage discipline which is exclusive of the Menorca Island, but including a series of movements that the animals perform in the traditional festivities called Jaleo Menorquin. One of these movements involves the horse raising its forelimbs and standing or walking on its hindlimbs, which is called el bot. To make the Menorca horse breed more competitive in the equestrian market, it is necessary to understand the genetic background that characterizes the aptitude for Menorca Dressage and its relationship with conformation traits. The analysed data consisted of 15 conformation traits from 347 Menorca horses (200 males and 147 females), with 1,550 performance records in Menorca Dressage competitions. Genetic parameters were estimated using linear and threshold animal models. The heritabilities for heights and lengths were high (0.45-0.76), those for angulations and binary conformation traits were low to moderate (0.10-0.36) as were the scores for dressage performance (0.13-0.21). The results suggest that the analyzed traits could be used as an efficient tool for selecting breeding horses. (Author)

  20. Genetic conditions of joint Nordic genetic evaluations of lifetime competition performance in warmblood sport horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viklund, Å; Furre, S; Eriksson, S; Vangen, O; Philipsson, J

    2015-08-01

    Breeding programmes for warmblood sport horses are similar in the Nordic countries Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway, and stallions of same origin are used. The aim was to investigate whether a joint Nordic genetic evaluation based on lifetime competition performance is feasible and beneficial for breeding competitive sport horses in the Nordic countries. Results for almost 45,000 horses in show jumping and 30,000 horses in dressage were available. The larger populations in Sweden and Denmark contributed with 85% of the results. Heritabilities and genetic correlations between performances in the different countries were estimated, and comparisons of accuracies of estimated breeding values (EBVs) and number of stallions with EBVs based on national or joint data were studied. The heritabilities ranged between 0.25 and 0.42 for show jumping and between 0.14 and 0.55 for dressage. The genetic correlations between competition performances in the Nordic countries were estimated to 0.63-1.00. EBVs based on joint data increased accuracies for EBVs for stallions by 38-81% and increased the number of available stallions with EBVs by 40-288%, compared to EBVs based on national data only. A joint Nordic genetic evaluation for sport horses is recommended. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Horses for courses: a DNA-based test for race distance aptitude in thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Emmeline W; Ryan, Donal P; MacHugh, David E

    2012-12-01

    Variation at the myostatin (MSTN) gene locus has been shown to influence racing phenotypes in Thoroughbred horses, and in particular, early skeletal muscle development and the aptitude for racing at short distances. Specifically, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the first intron of MSTN (g.66493737C/T) is highly predictive of best race distance among Flat racing Thoroughbreds: homozygous C/C horses are best suited to short distance races, heterozygous C/T horses are best suited to middle distance races, and homozygous T/T horses are best suited to longer distance races. Patent applications for this gene marker association, and other linked markers, have been filed. The information contained within the patent applications is exclusively licensed to the commercial biotechnology company Equinome Ltd, which provides a DNA-based test to the international Thoroughbred horse racing and breeding industry. The application of this information in the industry enables informed decision making in breeding and racing and can be used to assist selection to accelerate the rate of change of genetic types among distinct populations (Case Study 1) and within individual breeding operations (Case Study 2).

  2. Presumptive red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis in Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M; Miller, R E

    1997-03-01

    Two female Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi), one juvenile and one adult, were treated for hemolytic anemia. The juvenile survived, but the adult animal, which also had methemoglobinemia, was euthanized after it failed to recover from anesthesia. Significant pathologic findings in the adult zebra included generalized icterus, hemoglobinuric nephrosis, and paracentral hepatic necrosis. Serum titers for known infectious causes of anemia were negative. Examination of the zebra holding areas revealed two hybrid red maple (Acer sp.) trees. There was no known exposure to other hemolytic agents. This is the first report of probable red maple-induced hemolysis in zebra.

  3. The systematic position of Equus hydruntinus, an extinct species of Pleistocene equid⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ariane; Eisenmann, Vera; Ambler, Graeme K.

    2003-05-01

    Palaeolithic people commonly hunted Equus hydruntinus, an extinct species of equid whose cursorial body proportions suggest an adaptation to semi-arid conditions. Despite the frequency with which it is encountered in fossil deposits, only partial cranial remains have been reported until now. As a result, the systematic affiliation of the species remains a subject of controversy. Two nearly complete E. hydruntinus crania are presented here for the first time. These skulls show that E. hydruntinus is a distinct species, more closely related to the hemiones (Asiatic asses) than to any other equid. This suggests that the social organisation of E. hydruntinus followed one of two known equid sociotypes: resource defense territoriality.

  4. DNA polymorphism of Arabian, Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab horses in Morocco. Application to identification and parentage verification of individual horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouragh, L.

    2005-01-01

    New techniques of molecular biology used in analysing DNA polymorphism give access to the whole genetic variability of a given individual, while traditional blood typing (red cell typing and biochemical polymorphisms) gives access only to the transcribed Fraction, which is then translated to protein. In addition, this fraction represents only a tiny part (5 to 10%) of the genome's coding fraction. One of the newer testing methods in identifying horses is a DNA-based test using microsatellite marker analysis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of this new technology in the identification and parentage verification of Arabian, Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab horses in Morocco. The Anglo-Arab horse is a crossbreed between Arabian and Thoroughbred. Three samples from the three breeds were analysed for 12 microsatellites (HMS2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG6, HTG7, AHT4, AHTS, VHL20, HTGlO and ASB2). Blood samples were gathered from a total of 1541 horses: 804 Arabians, 559 Thoroughbreds and 178 Anglo-Arabs. Allelic frequencies of the 12 loci studied were calculated in the three groups. The results allowed the determination of intra-population genetic parameters: heterozygosity ratio (h), probability of identification (P i ) and probability of exclusion (P e ). Based on mean heterozygosity values, variability was relatively lower in Thoroughbred horse (0.7036), while it was almost the same in Arabian and Anglo-Arab horses (respectively 0.7217 and 0.7232). Probabilities of exclusion obtained with the 12 systems were greater than 99.9% for the three populations studied, and probabilities of identification of individual horses were 15.4 x 10 -12 , 3 .5 x 10 -12 and 3.2 x 10 -12 in the Thoroughbred, Arabian and Anglo-Arab breeds, respectively. These results indicate that the test using microsatellite marker analysis constitutes a highly efficient and reliable alternative for the identification and parentage verification of individual horses and so it is a

  5. Ocular fungal flora from healthy horses in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, A R; Nikaein, D; Sharifzadeh, A; Gharagozlou, F

    2014-03-01

    This study was carried out in order to isolate and identify the normal conjunctival fungal flora from Caspian miniature, Thoroughbred, Turkmen and Persian Arab breeds in Tehran, Iran. A total of seventy-two adult healthy horses were studied. Ocular samples were collected from right and left eyes by using sterile cotton swabs; samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated at 30°C for 7-10 days. Molds and yeasts were identified using macro and micro-morphological and physiological characteristics. Number of fungal colonies per eye varied between 0 and 123 colony forming units (CFUs). The most predominant fungal isolates were Aspergillus (19.9%), Rhizopus (15.9%) and Penicillium (15.1%). No significant differences were observed between types of eye fungal floras in different breeds. Caspian miniature horses had significantly the highest number of fungal isolates in compare with other breeds (P<0.001), however no significant difference was observed among other breeds under study. The fungal isolates were almost the same as with studies performed in other countries, although differences in species isolated could be related to geographic and climate difference. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic diversity and bottleneck studies in the Marwari horse breed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    models, as revealed from Sign, Standardized differences and Wilcoxon sign rank tests as well as non-significant M ra- .... GT system 30 × 38 cm (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules,. USA). ..... variation at microsatellite loci in Spanish sheep.

  7. Initial study of wild horse and burro demography: determination of pregnancy and lactation rates in various herds. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, M.L.; Ellis, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Blood serum concentrations of reproductive hormones were used to estimate pregnancy rates in 558 wild and free-roaming horses (Equus caballus) from Nevada, Oregon, and Wyoming; and 165 burros from California. Levels of progesterone, pregnant mares' serum gonadotropin (PMSG), and estradiol 17B were determined by radioimmunoassay procedures. Based on comparison with the results of pregnancy diagnosis from rectal palpations (n =124), the following endocrine concentrations were established as criteria sufficient to indicate pregnancy: progesterone, 0.05 ng/ml; and/or PMSG, 3.0 mg/ml; and/or estradiol, 300 pg/ml. Estimated accuracy of pregnancy diagnoses from endocrine criteria was 80 to 85 percent. The mean incidence of pregnancy among mares sampled from Nevada, Oregon, and Wyoming was 58.4 percent, 69.2 percent, and 85.3 percent respectively

  8. Oral disorders in Chilean rodeo horses submitted for dental evaluation between 2010 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Guerra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental disorders are common in horses. The objetive of the study was determined the frequency of dental problems in Chilean Rodeo Horses and described the most common dental treatments used in Chile. Oral examinations were performed on 456 Chilean rodeo horses and the disorders were observed as follows: Oral soft tissues, 259 horses (56% presented lacerations and/or ulcers. Regarding the first premolar, it was present in 32% of the horses, all maxillary positioned. In canines, 245 (54% were present and overlong tooth. Disorders found in incisors show supererupted (Tooth overlong in 147 (32%; ventral curvature in 116 (25%, nevertheless 102 (22% horses showed no abnormalities. About the diseases found in cheek teeth (premolars and molars, the more prevalent ones was enamel points in 426 (93%, rostral or caudal hooks in 354 (78%, and ramps in 231 (51%. Confidence intervals between all dental diseases found in the study showed no statistical significance when was analyzed for age or gender. When age groups were made, statistical significance appear X² Pearson (p=0,01, were mostly malocclusion type I was the more common in young, mature and geriatric horses. Other disorders such as problems at the time of eruption, development and periodontal disease are statiscally similar X² (p=0,07. About the treatments it is important to mention that in 453 (99% horses received odontoplasty and 147 (32% first premolar extraction. This study shows that Chilean rodeo horses have dental disorders similar to other horse breeds, except by small increase in soft tissue damage and incisors problems.

  9. Is leadership a reliable concept in animals? An empirical study in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourjade, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Hausberger, Martine; Petit, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is commonly invoked when accounting for the coordination of group movements in animals, yet it remains loosely defined. In parallel, there is increased evidence of the sharing of group decisions by animals on the move. How leadership integrates within this recent framework on collective decision-making is unclear. Here, we question the occurrence of leadership in horses, a species in which this concept is of prevalent use. The relevance of the three main definitions of leadership--departing first, walking in front travel position, and eliciting the joining of mates--was tested on the collective movements of two semi-free ranging groups of Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii). We did not find any leader capable of driving most group movements or recruiting mates more quickly than others. Several group members often displayed pre-departure behaviours at the same time, and the simultaneous departure of several individuals was common. We conclude that the decision-making process was shared by several group members a group movement (i.e., partially shared consensus) and that the leadership concept did not help to depict individual departure and leading behaviour across movements in both study groups. Rather, the different proxies of leadership produced conflicting information about individual contributions to group coordination. This study discusses the implications of these findings for the field of coordination and decision-making research.

  10. Is leadership a reliable concept in animals? An empirical study in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bourjade

    Full Text Available Leadership is commonly invoked when accounting for the coordination of group movements in animals, yet it remains loosely defined. In parallel, there is increased evidence of the sharing of group decisions by animals on the move. How leadership integrates within this recent framework on collective decision-making is unclear. Here, we question the occurrence of leadership in horses, a species in which this concept is of prevalent use. The relevance of the three main definitions of leadership--departing first, walking in front travel position, and eliciting the joining of mates--was tested on the collective movements of two semi-free ranging groups of Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii. We did not find any leader capable of driving most group movements or recruiting mates more quickly than others. Several group members often displayed pre-departure behaviours at the same time, and the simultaneous departure of several individuals was common. We conclude that the decision-making process was shared by several group members a group movement (i.e., partially shared consensus and that the leadership concept did not help to depict individual departure and leading behaviour across movements in both study groups. Rather, the different proxies of leadership produced conflicting information about individual contributions to group coordination. This study discusses the implications of these findings for the field of coordination and decision-making research.

  11. Taurine protects DNA of lymphocytes against oxidative alteration in riding horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokól, Janusz Leszek; Sawosz, Ewa; Niemiec, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluation the effect of dietary supplement of taurine on the oxidation-reduction status in riding horses, and especially on the extent of oxidative DNA degradation in lymphocytes. Ten Thoroughbred and half-bred geldings aged 6-13 years were classified according to breed...... and amount of work done into two groups - control (C, n=5) and experimental (E, n=5), the latter fed the diet with addition of 40 g taurine/horse/day. Blood samples were withdrawn from the horses' jugular vein before commencing the riding season and then after 30 days of working. In the blood some selected....... The addition of taurine to feed caused smaller oxidative stress, manifested by lower concentration of TBA-RS in plasma and of 8-oxo-dG in lymphocytes. The taurine lowered the lipid peroxidation intensity that occurred in horses due to the oxidative stress caused by physical effort. Furthermore, taurine...

  12. Characteristics of Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse racehorses that sustained a complete scapular fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, S A; Case, J T; Entwistle, R C; Kinde, H; Barr, B C; Moore, J; Anderson, M L; Arthur, R M; Stover, S M

    2012-07-01

    To determine if scapular fractures occur in racehorses with distinctive characteristics. To test the hypothesis that Thoroughbred (TB) and Quarter Horse (QH) racehorses with a scapular fracture have similar characteristics that are different from those of their respective racetrack populations. Necropsy findings, case details, last race information and career earnings for TB and QH racehorses that had a scapular fracture in California between 1990 and 2008 were retrospectively compared between breeds. Horse signalment, career earnings, career starts and race characteristics were obtained for all California racehorses. Comparisons were made between affected horses, other racehorses that died, and all horses that raced, in California during the 19 year period. Seventy-three TB and 28 QH racehorses had a similar, complete comminuted scapular fracture with an articular component, and right forelimb predilection. The QHs had a higher incidence of scapular fracture incurred during racing than TBs (0.98 vs. 0.39/1000 starters). The TB and QH incident rates for musculoskeletal deaths incurred racing were 20.5 and 17.5/1000 starters, respectively; however, a greater proportion of TB musculoskeletal deaths occurred training (40% vs. 8%). Horses with a scapular fracture were more likely to be male and aged 2 or ≥ 5 years than the racetrack population. Most affected QHs (64%) were 2-year-olds; most TBs (74%) were aged ≥ 3 years. Scapular fractures occurred more commonly during racing in QHs (70%) than TBs (44%). Race-related scapular fracture was more likely to occur in a Maiden race than in a non-Maiden race. Horses with a scapular fracture had fewer career starts than the racetrack population. Despite breed differences for signalment and exercise distances, both breeds incur a complete scapular fracture that is more likely to occur in the right scapula of young and older, male racehorses, early in their race career or after few races. Quarter Horses sustain a

  13. Chronic progressive lymphoedema in draught horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keyser, K; Janssens, S; Buys, N

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this review was to summarise and evaluate the current state of knowledge about chronic progressive lymphoedema in draught horses. Clinical signs of this multifactorial disorder are mainly restricted to the lower limbs, comprising progressively deteriorating skin, swelling and deformation. Although typical lesions were first reported at the beginning of the 20th century, chronic progressive lymphoedema was recognised as a specific syndrome only in 2003, and since then research has driven forward. Despite the high prevalence in some breeds and the serious economic impact, the pathogenesis is not fully understood, and the available treatment options remain symptomatic and noncurative. There is a need to improve diagnostic techniques and to develop selection tools. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Common variable immunodeficiency in horses is characterized by B cell depletion in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaminio, M Julia B F; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Salles-Gomes, Cristina O M; Matychak, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) in horse patients is characterized by late-onset B cell lymphopenia or depletion, hypo- or agammaglobulinemia, impaired humoral response to tetanus toxoid vaccination, and recurrent fevers and bacterial infections. This study describes the clinical and immunologic findings of 14 affected horses (average age 10.7 +/- 4.4 years) of both genders (six females, eight males) and different breeds (eight Thoroughbreds, four Quarter Horses, one Warmblood, one Pony). Serial immunological testing in peripheral blood revealed persistent, severe B cell lymphopenia (mean 1.3 +/- 2.3% positive cells) in all patients. Serum IgG (range horses. Serum IgA concentrations declined with time. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed absence of lymphoid follicles and B cells in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues. CVID is a cause of recurrent pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis in adult horses and has a grave prognosis for clinical management and survival.

  15. Immunological, clinical, haematological and oxidative responses to long distance transportation in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, Barbara; Raidal, Sharanne Lee; Carter, Nicole; Celi, Pietro; Muscatello, Gary; Jeffcott, Leo; de Silva, Kumudika

    2017-12-01

    Horses are transported frequently and often over long distances. Transportation may represent a physiological stressor with consequential health and welfare implications. This study reports the effects of a long distance journey on immunological, clinical, haematological, inflammatory and oxidative parameters in an Experimental Group (EG) of ten horses, comparing them with six horses of similar age and breed used as a non-transported Control Group (CG). Clinical examination and blood sampling were performed twice on all horses: immediately after unloading for the EG, and at rest on the same day for the CG (day 1); at rest on the same day one week later for both groups (day 7). On day 1 EG horses showed increased heart and respiratory rates (Ptransportation induced an acute phase response impairing the cell-mediated immune response. Clinical examinations, including assessing CRT and body weight loss, and the monitoring of redox balance may be useful in evaluating the impact of extensive transport events on horses. A better understanding of the link between transportation stress, the immune system and the acute phase response is likely to inform strategies for enhancing the welfare of transported horses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolic changes in four beat gaited horses after field marcha simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderley, E K; Manso Filho, H C; Manso, H E C C C; Santiago, T A; McKeever, K H

    2010-11-01

    Mangalarga-Marchador is a popular 4-gaited Brazilian horse breed; however, there is little information about their metabolic and physiological response to exercise. To measure physiological and metabolic responses of the Mangalarga-Marchador to a simulated marcha field test and to compare these responses between 2 types of marcha gaits (picada and batida). Thirteen horses were used in the study and randomly assigned to either the picada or batida gait for the simulated marcha field test (speed ∼ 3.2 m/s; 30 min; load ∼ 80 kg). Included body composition, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), glucose (GLUC), lactate (LACT), packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma protein (TPP), albumin, urea, creatinine, total and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, creatine kinase, alanine, glutamate and glutamine (GLN). Measurements were obtained pretest (control/fasting), immediately after simulation (T(0)), and 15 (T(15)), 30 (T(30)) and 240 (T(240)) min after the simulation. Lactate (LACT) was measured at T(0), T(15) and T(30). Data were analysed using ANOVA, Tukey's test and t tests with significance set at P marcha types and time of sampling for HR, RF, PCV, and [LACT] (P marcha horses, with some degree of dehydration during recovery period. Also, it was demonstrated that picada horses spend more energy when compared with batida horses at the the same speed. Batida horses spend less energy when compared with picada horses, which will need special attention in their training and nutritional management. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Breeds of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.

  18. Prevalence of exertional rhabdomyolysis in endurance horses in the Pacific Northwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberger, M S; McKenzie, E C; Payton, M E; Rigas, J D; Valberg, S J

    2015-03-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is a reported syndrome in competing endurance horses; however, the prevalence and cause of ER in this population have not been defined. To determine the prevalence of ER in a sample of endurance racing horses and investigate factors, including relevant genetic defects, contributing to the occurrence of rhabdomyolysis in this group. Prospective clinical study. Riders of 101 horses participating in one of four 50-mile (80.5 km) distance races completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding the medical history, management and performance of their horse. Serum creatine kinase activity (CK) was measured before and 4 h after completion of exercise. Hair samples were analysed by PCR for the R309H mutation in the glycogen synthase gene (GYS1) responsible for type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) and the C7360G mutation in the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene causing malignant hyperthermia (MH). Samples were obtained from 68 Arabians, 20 half-Arabians and 13 horses of other breeds. Serum CK was above the resting reference interval (145-633 u/l) in 38 horses after racing (median 883 u/l, range 658-3739) but was compatible with values previously reported in apparently healthy endurance horses. Pathological ER was suspected to occur in 4 horses with serum CK activities exceeding 10,000 u/l 4 h after racing (median 84,825 u/l; range 10,846-381,790) including 3 Arabians and one half-Arabian horse. GYS1 and RYR1 mutations were not present in hair samples from any horses. Exertional rhabdomyolysis occurred at a prevalence of 4.0% in a sample of horses participating in 50 mile distance events and all affected horses were Arabian or half-Arabian. The cause of ER in the endurance horse population remains unknown; however, ER in competing Arabian endurance horses is unlikely to be due to type 1 PSSM or MH. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  19. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to influenza vaccination in equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Sarah; Reedy, Stephanie; Barker, Virginia D; Chambers, Thomas M; Adams, Amanda A

    2018-05-01

    Obesity is an increasing problem in the equine population with recent reports indicating that the percentage of overweight horses may range anywhere from 20.6-51%. Obesity in horses has been linked to more serious health concerns such as equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). EMS is a serious problem in the equine industry given its defining characteristics of insulin dysregualtion and obesity, as well as the involvement of laminitis. Little research however has been conducted to determine the effects of EMS on routine healthcare of these horses, in particular how they respond to vaccination. It has been shown that obese humans and mice have decreased immune responses to vaccination. EMS may have similar effects on vaccine responses in horses. If this is the case, these animals may be more susceptible to disease, acting as unknown disease reservoirs. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EMS on immune responses to routine influenza vaccination. Twenty-five adult horses of mixed-sex and mixed-breed (8-21 years old) horses; 13 EMS and 12 non-EMS were selected. Within each group, 4 horses served as non-vaccinate saline controls and the remaining horses were vaccinated with a commercially available equine influenza vaccine. Vaccination (influenza or saline) was administered on weeks 0 and 3, and peripheral blood samples taken on week 0 prior to vaccination and on weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 post vaccination. Blood samples were used to measure hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers and equine influenza specific IgGa, IgGb, and IgGT levels. Blood samples were also used to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) for analysis of cell mediated immune (CMI) responses via real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All horses receiving influenza vaccination responded with significant increases (P equine influenza specific antibodies following vaccination compared to saline controls. EMS did not significantly affect (P > 0.05) humoral immune responses as measured

  20. Comparison of serum concentrations of environmental allergen-specific IgE in atopic and healthy (nonatopic) horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkołek, P; Sitkowski, W; Szczepanik, M; Adamek, Ł; Pluta, M; Taszkun, I; Gołyński, M; Malinowska, A

    2017-12-01

    Allergic responses in humans, horses and other species are mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. Serum testing to detect allergen-specific IgE antibodies has been developed for dogs, cats and horses; this allows for the identification of allergens and determination of appropriate allergen- specific immunotherapies. This study compared serum allergen-specific IgE concentrations in atopic and healthy horses. The study was performed on Malopolski breed atopic (n=21) and nonatopic (n=21) clinically healthy horses. Allergen-specific IgE serum concentrations were measured in summer seasons of 2008-2015 using a monoclonal anti-IgE antibody. A Northern and Central European allergen panel containing mite, insect, mould and plant pollen allergens, including 15 tests of individual allergens and 5 tests of allergen mixtures was used. The mean allergen-specific IgE concentrations in the atopic and normal horse populations were compared. Among the atopic horses, the strongest positive reactions occurred against the storage mites Tyrophagus putrescentiae and the domestic mite Dermatophagoides farinae. The atopic horses also demonstrated high IgE concentrations against insects, particularly Tabanus sp., the plant pollens colza, cultivated rye and the mould pollen mixture Aspergillus/Penicillium. No horses in the atopic group were IgE-negative. Among all mite, insect, mould and some plant allergen groups the differences in mean specific IgE concentrations between allergic and healthy horses were significant. The mean IgE concentrations for most allergen groups were significantly higher in the atopic horses than in the healthy animals. However, a high incidence of positive reactions was observed in both healthy and allergic horses. Our results showed a high frequency of polysensitization in atopic horses. Copyright© by the Polish Academy of Sciences.

  1. Diversity of equine major histocompatiblity complex class II DRA locus in Posavina and Croatian Coldblood horse: a new polymorphism detected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ino Curik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic equidae display polymorphism within ELA-DRA locus which is not characteristic for other species. We characterised sequence polymorphism present at ELADRA locus exon 2 and estimated allele frequencies in two autochthonous breeds, Posavina and Croatian Coldblood. In 88 horses, four different alleles were found, one of them not reported before in horses. The new allele shows non-synonymous mutation at position 65 (T→A causing amino acid change (Phe→Tyr in antigen binding site and synonymous mutation at position 105 (C→T. Our findings emphasize the importance of DRA polymorphism among equids and some specific DRA frequency pattern potentially specific in draught horses.

  2. Groundwater-level and storage-volume changes in the Equus Beds aquifer near Wichita, Kansas, predevelopment through January 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisnant, Joshua A.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Eslick, Patrick J.

    2015-10-01

    Development of the Wichita well field began in the 1940s in the Equus Beds aquifer to provide the city of Wichita, Kansas, a new water-supply source. After development of the Wichita well field began, groundwater levels began to decline. Extensive development of irrigation wells that began in the 1970s also contributed to substantial groundwater-level declines. Groundwater-level declines likely enhance movement of brine from past oil and gas production near Burrton, Kansas, and natural saline water from the Arkansas River into the Wichita well field. Groundwater levels reached a historical minimum in 1993 because of drought conditions, irrigation, and the city of Wichita’s withdrawals from the aquifer. In 1993, the city of Wichita adopted the Integrated Local Water Supply Program to ensure that Wichita’s water needs would be met through the year 2050 and beyond as part of its efforts to manage the part of the Equus Beds aquifer Wichita uses. A key component of the Integrated Local Water Supply Program was the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery project. The Aquifer Storage and Recovery project’s goal is to store and eventually recover groundwater and help protect the Equus Beds aquifer from oil-field brine water near Burrton, Kansas, and saline water from the Arkansas River. Since 1940, the U.S. Geological Survey has monitored groundwater levels and storage-volume changes in the Equus Beds aquifer to provide data to the city of Wichita in order to better manage its water supply.

  3. The American Quarter Horse: Population Structure and Relationship to the Thoroughbred

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A breed known for its versatility, the American Quarter Horse (QH), is increasingly bred for performance in specific disciplines. The impact of selective breeding on the diversity and structure of the QH breed was evaluated using pedigree analysis and genome-wide SNP data from horses representing 6 performance groups (halter, western pleasure, reining, working cow, cutting, and racing). Genotype data (36 037 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) from 36 Thoroughbreds were also evaluated with those from the 132 performing QHs to evaluate the Thoroughbred’s influence on QH diversity. Results showed significant population structure among all QH performance groups excepting the comparison between the cutting and working cow horses; divergence was greatest between the cutting and racing QHs, the latter of which had a large contribution of Thoroughbred ancestry. Significant coancestry and the potential for inbreeding exist within performance groups, especially when considering the elite performers. Relatedness within performance groups is increasing with popular sires contributing disproportionate levels of variation to each discipline. Expected heterozygosity, inbreeding, F ST, cluster, and haplotype analyses suggest these QHs can be broadly classified into 3 categories: stock, racing, and pleasure/halter. Although the QH breed as a whole contains substantial genetic diversity, current breeding practices have resulted in this variation being sequestered into subpopulations. PMID:24293614

  4. Inoculação experimental de Equus asinus com Leishmania chagasi Cunha & Chagas, 1937 Experimental infection of Equus asinus with Leishmania chagasi Cunha & Chagas, 1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elúzio José Lima Cerqueira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Quatro Equus asinus foram inoculados com promastigotas de Leishmania chagasi Cunha & Chagas, 1937 e acompanhados durante 12 meses através de: pesquisa de amastigotas em esfregaços e culturas de sangue periférico em fragmentos de tecido do lábio inferior, medula óssea, baço e fígado e de testes de ELISA e TRALd. Estes foram positivos nos 8º, 10º e 12º meses após a inoculação. O exame histopatológico pós necropsia, demonstrou discreto número de amastigotas no fígado de dois dos eqüídeos inoculados. Apesar de desafiados com elevado número de promastigotas, os animais não desenvolveram infecções patentes e não infectaram experimentalmente a vetora Lutzomya longipalpis. Os resultados induzem a acreditar que os eqüídeos são desprovidos de importância como reservatórios na cadeia de transmissão da leishmaniose visceral, embora sirvam como boa fonte de alimentação sangüínea e proliferação da vetora Lutzomyia longipalpis.Four Equus asinus were challenged with promastigotes of Leishmania chagasi Cunha & Chagas, 1937, and followed up for 12 months. They were observed by means of direct testing for promastigotes in smears and culture of peripheral blood, fragments from inferior lip, bone marrow, spleen and liver and the immunological assays ELISA and TRALd. The post-necropsy histological examination demonstrated a small number of amastigotes in the liver of two animals. ELISA and TRALd tests were positive at the 8th, 10th and 12th month after inoculation. The results suggest that the donkeys were able to overcome the experimental leishmanial infection and did not infect the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis in the laboratory. Consequently they can not be considered an important reservoir in the epidemiological chain of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis, although they represent an important blood source for the vector and its proliferation.

  5. Improvement of maturation and conversion of horse chestnut androgenic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalić-Dragosavac, D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae is a relict species of the tertiary flora and endemit of Balkan peninsula. It has enormous horticultular and medical important. Horse chestnut trees are native to the Balkan peninsula, but grow as ornamental trees in parks and avenues throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Because of the slow and difficult reproduction of great importance to be fast and cheap in vitro multiplication. Possible solution is regenerated by androgenesis. Microspore culture has been used in recent years as a tool for producing haploid plants in a varyety of higher plants, but the low frequencies of microspore-derived plants restrict the use of the technique in plant breeding.

  6. Equine metabolic syndrome in Colombian creole horse: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Castillo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The equine metabolic syndrome is a condition that can be recognized because of obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis. Genetic factors could play a role in the occurrence of this syndrome. Certain breeds such as ponies (including the South American creole horses have a lower sensibility to insulin and a higher prevalence of hyperinsulinemia. The environment and management conditions, such as overfeeding and lack of exercise are factors that bring a propensity for obesity. The adipose tissue works as an endocrine organ producing hormones (adipokines or adipocytokines that affect the horse´s metabolism. The objective of this report is to describe the first case report of a Colombian creole mare with a metabolic syndrome, diagnosed by means of the combined test of glucose-insulin and clinical signs. Early diagnosis of this entity and an adequate treatment are useful for improving the life and the zootechnical conditions of the patient.

  7. Cephalic morphology in the Cavall Pirinenc Català breed

    OpenAIRE

    Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-five metric parameters were taken on 19 skulls belonging to adult Cavall Pirinenc Català horse breed and were subjected to a Principal Component Analysis. Parameters related with neurocranium width, ventral lengths and those related with ocular orbit are poorly discriminants. On the other hand, parameters related with viscerocranium are strongly discriminant. Our study strengths the importance in using parameters linked to viscerocranium, and frontal length, in equine racial studies on...

  8. Towards an Ethological Animal Model of Depression? A Study on Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fureix, Carole; Jego, Patrick; Henry, Séverine; Lansade, Léa; Hausberger, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent reviews question current animal models of depression and emphasise the need for ethological models of mood disorders based on animals living under natural conditions. Domestic horses encounter chronic stress, including potential stress at work, which can induce behavioural disorders (e.g. “apathy”). Our pioneering study evaluated the potential of domestic horses in their usual environment to become an ethological model of depression by testing this models’ face validity (i.e. behavioural similarity with descriptions of human depressive states). Methodology/Principal Findings We observed the spontaneous behaviour of 59 working horses in their home environment, focusing on immobility bouts of apparent unresponsiveness when horses displayed an atypical posture (termed withdrawn hereafter), evaluated their responsiveness to their environment and their anxiety levels, and analysed cortisol levels. Twenty-four percent of the horses presented the withdrawn posture, also characterized by gaze, head and ears fixity, a profile that suggests a spontaneous expression of “behavioural despair”. When compared with control “non-withdrawn” horses from the same stable, withdrawn horses appeared more indifferent to environmental stimuli in their home environment but reacted more emotionally in more challenging situations. They exhibited lower plasma cortisol levels. Withdrawn horses all belonged to the same breed and females were over-represented. Conclusions/Significance Horse might be a useful potential candidate for an animal model of depression. Face validity of this model appeared good, and potential genetic input and high prevalence of these disorders in females add to the convergence. At a time when current animal models of depression are questioned and the need for novel models is expressed, this study suggests that novel models and biomarkers could emerge from ethological approaches in home environments. PMID:22761752

  9. Towards an ethological animal model of depression? A study on horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Fureix

    Full Text Available Recent reviews question current animal models of depression and emphasise the need for ethological models of mood disorders based on animals living under natural conditions. Domestic horses encounter chronic stress, including potential stress at work, which can induce behavioural disorders (e.g. "apathy". Our pioneering study evaluated the potential of domestic horses in their usual environment to become an ethological model of depression by testing this models' face validity (i.e. behavioural similarity with descriptions of human depressive states.We observed the spontaneous behaviour of 59 working horses in their home environment, focusing on immobility bouts of apparent unresponsiveness when horses displayed an atypical posture (termed withdrawn hereafter, evaluated their responsiveness to their environment and their anxiety levels, and analysed cortisol levels. Twenty-four percent of the horses presented the withdrawn posture, also characterized by gaze, head and ears fixity, a profile that suggests a spontaneous expression of "behavioural despair". When compared with control "non-withdrawn" horses from the same stable, withdrawn horses appeared more indifferent to environmental stimuli in their home environment but reacted more emotionally in more challenging situations. They exhibited lower plasma cortisol levels. Withdrawn horses all belonged to the same breed and females were over-represented.Horse might be a useful potential candidate for an animal model of depression. Face validity of this model appeared good, and potential genetic input and high prevalence of these disorders in females add to the convergence. At a time when current animal models of depression are questioned and the need for novel models is expressed, this study suggests that novel models and biomarkers could emerge from ethological approaches in home environments.

  10. Variability of Heart Rate in Primitive Horses and Their Relatives as an Indicator of Stress Level, Behavioural Conduct Towards Humans and Adaptation to Living in Wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pluta Michał

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using heart rate (HR as a metric parameter that can be used for the characterisation of behaviour of primitive horses and their relatives, related to reactions to the stress resulting from the contact with humans and adaptation to living in various conditions, including natural environment. This characterisation served the authors to expand the knowledge of such behaviour of primitive horses, and to assess the impact of the environmental and genetic factors. Studies were conducted in three populations of horses: two herds of Polish Konik and one herd of Biłgoraj horses. The studies were performed between 1993 and 2010. They concerned the behaviour of horses during grooming - breeding procedures (hooves clearing, body measurements performed cyclically and the daily observations when HR was monitored continuously. HR results for the respective age categories, during particular grooming - breeding procedures and reserve observations indicate that Polish Konik horses, closely related to the primitive Tarpan breed, are genetically better adapted to living in conditions similar to the natural (reserve than the Biłgoraj horses. They show less stress symptoms, which are evidenced by HR values noted during inhabiting the natural environment.

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Neospora spp. and Toxoplasma gondii infections among horses and donkeys in Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártová, Eva; Sedlák, Kamil; Kobédová, Kateřina; Budíková, Marie; Joel Atuman, Yakubu; Kamani, Joshua

    2017-09-26

    Neospora spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are considered to be a globally distributed parasites affecting wide range of warm-blooded animals. Neosporosis has caused clinical illness in horses and consumption of horse meat has been epidemiologically linked to clinical toxoplasmosis in humans. This study was conducted to determine Neospora spp. and T. gondii antibodies and risk factors of infection in horses and donkeys from three states of Nigeria. A total of 144 samples were collected from clinically healthy animals (120 horses and 24 donkeys). The sera were tested for antibodies to Neospora spp. and T. gondii by indirect fluorescence antibody test, a titer ≥ 50 was considered positive. Seroprevalence data were statistically analyzed, considering the variables of gender, age, use, state, origin of breed and type of management. Antibodies to Neospora spp. and T. gondii were detected in 8% horses with titers 50 and in 24% horses with titers 50-800, respectively. Co-infection of both parasites was proved in three horses (3%). Statistical differences were found only for T. gondii seroprevalence in horses with different use, locality, origin and management (p-value ≤ 0.05). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in four (17%) of 24 donkeys with statistical difference (p-value ≤ 0.05) in animals of different use; antibodies to Neospora spp. were not proved in any of the donkeys. This is the first seroprevalence study of Neospora spp. and T. gondii in equids from Nigeria.

  12. AHP 47: RAG DRUG: A FAITHFUL HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lcags so lhun 'grub ལྕགས་སོ་ལྷུན་འགྲུབ། (Klu sgrub ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had three horses in 2016, but when I was about five years old (2006 we had seven horses. Over time, we sold four horses to people living in other communities. We do not want to sell horses to Chinese and Muslim businessmen because Father says, "They take the horses directly to big slaughterhouses and kill them." Instead, we prefer to sell our livestock, including sheep, yaks, and goats to Tibetans, even though the payment is less. ...

  13. Morphological evolution of the Haflinger horse

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    M. Pasquini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Haflinger horse has certainly a lot of success, considering its popularity not only in its native region, South Tyrol, but also worldwide. Therefore, for its preservation and mainly for a larger diffusion of these horses, Haflinger horse’ breeders thought it could be useful to change, with an appropriated selection, the functional type, originally a pack-horse and a horse for agricultural work, into a saddle horse for riding purpose (Pagnacco, 1994...

  14. Morphological evolution of the Haflinger horse

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pasquini; S. Rizzi; A. Falaschini

    2011-01-01

    The Haflinger horse has certainly a lot of success, considering its popularity not only in its native region, South Tyrol, but also worldwide. Therefore, for its preservation and mainly for a larger diffusion of these horses, Haflinger horse’ breeders thought it could be useful to change, with an appropriated selection, the functional type, originally a pack-horse and a horse for agricultural work, into a saddle horse for riding purpose (Pagnacco, 1994)...

  15. Mutations in MITF and PAX3 Cause “Splashed White” and Other White Spotting Phenotypes in Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, Marlis; Brooks, Samantha A.; Burger, Dominik; Drögemüller, Cord; Gerber, Vincent; Henke, Diana; Janda, Jozef; Jude, Rony; Magdesian, K. Gary; Matthews, Jacqueline M.; Poncet, Pierre-André; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Tozaki, Teruaki; Wilkinson-White, Lorna; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Rieder, Stefan; Leeb, Tosso

    2012-01-01

    During fetal development neural-crest-derived melanoblasts migrate across the entire body surface and differentiate into melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells. Alterations in this precisely regulated process can lead to white spotting patterns. White spotting patterns in horses are a complex trait with a large phenotypic variance ranging from minimal white markings up to completely white horses. The “splashed white” pattern is primarily characterized by an extremely large blaze, often accompanied by extended white markings at the distal limbs and blue eyes. Some, but not all, splashed white horses are deaf. We analyzed a Quarter Horse family segregating for the splashed white coat color. Genome-wide linkage analysis in 31 horses gave a positive LOD score of 1.6 in a region on chromosome 6 containing the PAX3 gene. However, the linkage data were not in agreement with a monogenic inheritance of a single fully penetrant mutation. We sequenced the PAX3 gene and identified a missense mutation in some, but not all, splashed white Quarter Horses. Genome-wide association analysis indicated a potential second signal near MITF. We therefore sequenced the MITF gene and found a 10 bp insertion in the melanocyte-specific promoter. The MITF promoter variant was present in some splashed white Quarter Horses from the studied family, but also in splashed white horses from other horse breeds. Finally, we identified two additional non-synonymous mutations in the MITF gene in unrelated horses with white spotting phenotypes. Thus, several independent mutations in MITF and PAX3 together with known variants in the EDNRB and KIT genes explain a large proportion of horses with the more extreme white spotting phenotypes. PMID:22511888

  16. Growth characteristics of fibroblasts isolated from the trunk and distal aspect of the limb of horses and ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C B; Wilson, D A; Keegan, K G; Kreeger, J M; Adelstein, E H; Ganjam, V K

    2000-01-01

    To determine if there is a difference in in vitro growth of fibroblasts isolated from the trunk and distal aspect of the limb of horses and ponies. To determine the effects of a corticosteroid and monokine on in vitro growth of fibroblasts isolated from the trunk and distal aspect of the limb of horses and ponies. Growth of fibroblasts from tissues harvested from the trunk and limb were compared from horse and pony samples grown in control media and control media with triamcinolone or monokine added. Dermal and subcutaneous tissue from 22 horses and 17 ponies of various ages and breeds. Fibroblast growth was assessed by tritiated thymidine uptake using standard cell culture techniques. The effect of a monokine or triamcinolone plus control media were compared with control media for fibroblast growth. Fibroblast growth from tissues isolated from the horse limb was significantly less than growth from the horse trunk and the limb and trunk of ponies. Monokine was more effective than triamcinolone in suppressing fibroblast growth from tissues isolated from the trunk and limb in both horses and ponies. There are growth differences in fibroblasts isolated from the limb of horses compared with those isolated from the trunk and from the limb and trunk of ponies. The difference in fibroblast growth from tissues isolated from the trunk and limb of horses and ponies may provide evidence for the difference reported in the healing characteristics of limb wounds in horses and ponies. Influencing fibroblast growth may provide a key to controlling the development of exuberant granulation tissue in horses and ponies.

  17. History of Lipizzan horse maternal lines as revealed by mtDNA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovč Peter

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sequencing of the mtDNA control region (385 or 695 bp of 212 Lipizzans from eight studs revealed 37 haplotypes. Distribution of haplotypes among studs was biased, including many private haplotypes but only one haplotype was present in all the studs. According to historical data, numerous Lipizzan maternal lines originating from founder mares of different breeds have been established during the breed's history, so the broad genetic base of the Lipizzan maternal lines was expected. A comparison of Lipizzan sequences with 136 sequences of domestic- and wild-horses from GenBank showed a clustering of Lipizzan haplotypes in the majority of haplotype subgroups present in other domestic horses. We assume that haplotypes identical to haplotypes of early domesticated horses can be found in several Lipizzan maternal lines as well as in other breeds. Therefore, domestic horses could arise either from a single large population or from several populations provided there were strong migrations during the early phase after domestication. A comparison of Lipizzan haplotypes with 56 maternal lines (according to the pedigrees showed a disagreement of biological parentage with pedigree data for at least 11% of the Lipizzans. A distribution of haplotype-frequencies was unequal (0.2%–26%, mainly due to pedigree errors and haplotype sharing among founder mares.

  18. Organic breeding: New trend in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenji Janoš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic breeding is a new trend in plant breeding aimed at breeding of organic cultivars adapted to conditions and expectations of organic plant production. The best proof for the need of organic cultivars is the existence of interaction between the performances of genotypes with the kind of production (conventional or organic (graph. 1. The adaptation to low-input conditions of organic production by more eddicient uptake and utilization of plant nutrients is especially important for organic cultivars. One of the basic mechanism of weed control in organic production is the competition of organic cultivars and weeds i.e. the enhanced ability of organic cultivars to suppress the weeds. Resistance/tolerance to diseases and pests is among the most important expectations toward the organic cultivars. In comparison with the methods of conventional plant breeding, in case of organic plant breeding limitations exist in choice of methods for creation of variability and selection classified as permitted, conditionally permitted and banned. The use of genetically modified organisms and their derivated along with induced mutations is not permitted in organic production. The use of molecular markers in organic plant breeding is the only permitted modern method of biotechnology. It is not permitted to patent the breeding material of organic plant breeding or the organic cultivars. .

  19. Apparent in vivo nutrient digestibility of maize silages in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PÍŠOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to analyzed coefficients of digestibility of the maize silage nutrients in horse feeding. Horses of Slovak warmblood breed engaged in the research were 2.5 ± 0.5 years old. Horses in boxes without bedding to avoid eating it and excrement contamination were stabled. Horses individually with ad libitum access to water were housed. The boxes with trough for corn silage were equiped. The corn silage contained 362.3 g of dry matter, 74.1 g of crude protein, 27.1 g of crude fat and 948.2 g of organic matter in kg of dry matter. The feed twice a day, in the morning and in the evening was given. The feed intake and leftovers were weighed every day. Excrements immediately after excreting to avoid urine contamination into plastic containers were collected and weighed. The content of nutrients in the feed intake and in the excrements were analysed. In analysed samples the gravimetric dry matter amount by drying at 103 ± 2 °C, crude protein content by Kjeldahl method, fat content by extraction method according to Soxhlett – Henkel, ash content by burning the sample at 530 ± 20 °C in muffle furnace and organic matter content by calculation were determined. Coefficients of apparent digestibility in percent from taken in and excreted nutrients were calculated. In maize silage for horse feeding an average coefficient of digestibility of dry matter 61.94%, of crude protein 56.03%, of crude fat 72.34% and of organic matter 65.19% was found.

  20. Uneven distribution of enamel in the tooth crown of a Plains Zebra (Equus quagga

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    Daniela E. Winkler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unworn teeth of herbivorous mammals are not immediately functional. They have to be partially worn to expose enamel ridges which can then act as shear-cutting blades to break the food down. We use the Plains Zebra (Equus quagga as a hypsodont, herbivorous model organism to investigate how initial wear of the tooth crown is controlled by underlying structures. We find that the enamel proportion is smaller at the apical half of the tooth crown in all upper tooth positions and suggest that lower enamel content here could promote early wear. Besides this uneven enamel distribution, we note that the third molar has a higher overall enamel content than any other tooth position. The M3 is thus likely to have a slightly different functional trait in mastication, resisting highest bite forces along the tooth row and maintaining functionality when anterior teeth are already worn down.

  1. Uneven distribution of enamel in the tooth crown of a Plains Zebra (Equus quagga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Daniela E; Kaiser, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Unworn teeth of herbivorous mammals are not immediately functional. They have to be partially worn to expose enamel ridges which can then act as shear-cutting blades to break the food down. We use the Plains Zebra (Equus quagga) as a hypsodont, herbivorous model organism to investigate how initial wear of the tooth crown is controlled by underlying structures. We find that the enamel proportion is smaller at the apical half of the tooth crown in all upper tooth positions and suggest that lower enamel content here could promote early wear. Besides this uneven enamel distribution, we note that the third molar has a higher overall enamel content than any other tooth position. The M3 is thus likely to have a slightly different functional trait in mastication, resisting highest bite forces along the tooth row and maintaining functionality when anterior teeth are already worn down.

  2. Genetic analysis of the Hungarian draft horse population using partial mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background The Hungarian draft is a horse breed with a recent mixed ancestry created in the 1920s by crossing local mares with draught horses imported from France and Belgium. The interest in its conservation and characterization has increased over the last few years. The aim of this work is to contribute to the characterization of the endangered Hungarian heavy draft horse populations in order to obtain useful information to implement conservation strategies for these genetic stocks. Methods To genetically characterize the breed and to set up the basis for a conservation program, in the present study a hypervariable region of the mitochrondial DNA (D-loop) was used to assess genetic diversity in Hungarian draft horses. Two hundred and eighty five sequences obtained in our laboratory and 419 downloaded sequences available from Genbank were analyzed. Results One hundred and sixty-four haplotypes and thirty-six polymorphic sites were observed. High haplotype and nucleotide diversity values (Hd = 0.954 ± 0.004; π = 0.028 ± 0.0004) were identified in Hungarian population, although they were higher within than among the different populations (Hd = 0.972 ± 0.002; π = 0.03097 ± 0.002). Fourteen of the previously observed seventeen haplogroups were detected. Discussion Our samples showed a large intra- and interbreed variation. There was no clear clustering on the median joining network figure. The overall information collected in this work led us to consider that the genetic scenario observed for Hungarian draft breed is more likely the result of contributions from ‘ancestrally’ different genetic backgrounds. This study could contribute to the development of a breeding plan for Hungarian draft horses and help to formulate a genetic conservation plan, avoiding inbreeding while. PMID:29404201

  3. Detection probability in aerial surveys of feral horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.

    2011-01-01

    Observation bias pervades data collected during aerial surveys of large animals, and although some sources can be mitigated with informed planning, others must be addressed using valid sampling techniques that carefully model detection probability. Nonetheless, aerial surveys are frequently employed to count large mammals without applying such methods to account for heterogeneity in visibility of animal groups on the landscape. This often leaves managers and interest groups at odds over decisions that are not adequately informed. I analyzed detection of feral horse (Equus caballus) groups by dual independent observers from 24 fixed-wing and 16 helicopter flights using mixed-effect logistic regression models to investigate potential sources of observation bias. I accounted for observer skill, population location, and aircraft type in the model structure and analyzed the effects of group size, sun effect (position related to observer), vegetation type, topography, cloud cover, percent snow cover, and observer fatigue on detection of horse groups. The most important model-averaged effects for both fixed-wing and helicopter surveys included group size (fixed-wing: odds ratio = 0.891, 95% CI = 0.850–0.935; helicopter: odds ratio = 0.640, 95% CI = 0.587–0.698) and sun effect (fixed-wing: odds ratio = 0.632, 95% CI = 0.350–1.141; helicopter: odds ratio = 0.194, 95% CI = 0.080–0.470). Observer fatigue was also an important effect in the best model for helicopter surveys, with detection probability declining after 3 hr of survey time (odds ratio = 0.278, 95% CI = 0.144–0.537). Biases arising from sun effect and observer fatigue can be mitigated by pre-flight survey design. Other sources of bias, such as those arising from group size, topography, and vegetation can only be addressed by employing valid sampling techniques such as double sampling, mark–resight (batch-marked animals), mark–recapture (uniquely marked and

  4. Comparative anatomy and muscle architecture of selected hind limb muscles in the Quarter Horse and Arab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wakeling, J M; Wilson, A M; Payne, R C

    2008-02-01

    The Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance) are situated at either end of the equine athletic spectrum. Studies into the form and function of the leg muscles in human sprint and endurance runners have demonstrated that differences exist in their muscle architecture. It is not known whether similar differences exist in the horse. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab fresh hind limb cadavers were dissected to gain information on the muscle mass and architecture of the following muscles: gluteus medius; biceps femoris; semitendinosus; vastus lateralis; gastrocnemius; tibialis cranialis and extensor digitorum longus. Specifically, muscle mass, fascicle length and pennation angle were quantified and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and maximum isometric force were estimated. The hind limb muscles of the Quarter Horse were of a significantly greater mass, but had similar fascicle lengths and pennation angles when compared with those of the Arab; this resulted in the Quarter Horse hind limb muscles having greater PCSAs and hence greater isometric force potential. This study suggests that Quarter Horses as a breed inherently possess large strong hind limb muscles, with the potential to accelerate their body mass more rapidly than those of the Arab.

  5. Presencia de Hippidion y Equus (Amerhippus (Mammalia, Perissodactyla y su distribución en el Pleistoceno superior de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frassinetti, D.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Fossil remains belonging to Equidae fram Chilean localities are described and taxonomically determined. Equus (Amerhippus and Hippidion species are identified; its geographic distribution in Chile and relations with others South American Equidae are given; a Late Pleistocene age is regarded for them. Stratigraphic and paleoecological considerations are also included.Se describen y sitúan taxonómicamente los restos de équidos de las localidades chilenas. Se identifican distintas especies de Equus (Amerhippus e Hippidion, señalando su distribución geográfica y relaciones con otros équidos sudamericanos, además de referirlos al Pleistoceno superior. Se analiza su situación estratigráfica así como consideraciones de tipo paleoecológico.

  6. Status of groundwater levels and storage volume in the Equus Beds aquifer near Wichita, Kansas, January 2006 to January 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Cristi V.; Aucott, Walter R.

    2010-01-01

    A part of the Equus Beds aquifer in southwestern Harvey County and northwestern Sedgwick County was developed to supply water to residents of Wichita and for irrigation in south-central Kansas. Groundwater pumping for city and agricultural use caused water levels to decline in a large part of the aquifer northwest of Wichita. In 1965, the city of Wichita began using water from Cheney Reservoir in addition to water from the Equus Beds aquifer to meet the city's increasing demand for water. Irrigation pumpage in the area increased substantially during the 1970s and 1980s and contributed to the water-level declines. Water-level declines reached their maximum to date in October 1992.

  7. Horse Shampoo for Human Hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac Anca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lately, a new idea has caught the attention of young people of both genders, being debated in consultation rooms, during classes, and especially on social media: is using horse shampoo for human hair wrong or not?

  8. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.; Rolfs, C.; Typel, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross sections in nuclear reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed and recent applications are presented

  9. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) in Durango, Mexico slaughtered for human consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Alvarado-Esquivel, Domingo; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-01-01

    Background Nothing is known about Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in donkeys in Mexico. Meat from donkey is consumed by humans in Mexico and also exported to other countries. We sought to determine the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in 239 domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) for slaughter in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Donkeys were sampled in four premises (trade centers) where donkeys were gather for shipment to abattoirs in other Mexican states. Results A...

  10. A Novel Non-Invasive Selection Criterion for the Preservation of Primitive Dutch Konik Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Davis, Sharon; Brown, Wendy Y; Shorter, Kathleen; Vermeulen, Zefanja; Butler, Raquel; Koekkoek, Marianne

    2018-02-01

    The Dutch Konik is valued from a genetic conservation perspective and also for its role in preservation of natural landscapes. The primary management objective for the captive breeding of this primitive horse is to maintain its genetic purity, whilst also maintaining the nature reserves on which they graze. Breeding selection has traditionally been based on phenotypic characteristics consistent with the breed description, and the selection of animals for removal from the breeding program is problematic at times due to high uniformity within the breed, particularly in height at the wither, colour (mouse to grey dun) and presence of primitive markings. With the objective of identifying an additional non-invasive selection criterion with potential uniqueness to the Dutch Konik, this study investigates the anatomic parameters of the distal equine limb, with a specific focus on the relative lengths of the individual splint bones. Post-mortem dissections performed on distal limbs of Dutch Konik ( n = 47) and modern domesticated horses ( n = 120) revealed significant differences in relation to the length and symmetry of the 2nd and 4th Metacarpals and Metatarsals. Distal limb characteristics with apparent uniqueness to the Dutch Konik are described which could be an important tool in the selection and preservation of the breed.

  11. The earliest horse harnessing and milking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, Alan K; Stear, Natalie A; Bendrey, Robin; Olsen, Sandra; Kasparov, Alexei; Zaibert, Victor; Thorpe, Nick; Evershed, Richard P

    2009-03-06

    Horse domestication revolutionized transport, communications, and warfare in prehistory, yet the identification of early domestication processes has been problematic. Here, we present three independent lines of evidence demonstrating domestication in the Eneolithic Botai Culture of Kazakhstan, dating to about 3500 B.C.E. Metrical analysis of horse metacarpals shows that Botai horses resemble Bronze Age domestic horses rather than Paleolithic wild horses from the same region. Pathological characteristics indicate that some Botai horses were bridled, perhaps ridden. Organic residue analysis, using delta13C and deltaD values of fatty acids, reveals processing of mare's milk and carcass products in ceramics, indicating a developed domestic economy encompassing secondary products.

  12. Equus quagga

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIGURE 3. 0. Family composition of 4 zebra populations. Solid line: total family size; .... stable, had a common sleeping ground where they stayed for the night and ..... because of a certain amount of segregation of stallion groups and families.

  13. Aloe vera-based formula as emollient on horses' hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Pereira Simonato

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at developing an Aloe vera-based formula for topical use on horse hoof and evaluating whether the treatment affects hooves growth and balance. Six healthy male horses between the ages of 3 and 17 years (12±5.25 were used, all semi-confined animals for breeding purposes. Before beginning A. vera treatment, animals underwent two trimming procedures with a 45 days-interval. After the second trimming, one of the forelimbs and one of the hindlimbs of 4 horses was weekly treated by topical application of the glycolic extract of A. vera at 20%. The contralateral limb, randomly chosen, received the extract at 50%. The hooves of the other animals were treated with propylene glycol. Treatment was done for 225 days and, during this time, animals underwent periodic trimming. Variables related to growth and balance of the hooves were measured before and after trimming. Data were analyzed using chi-square test and regression analysis at 5% significance. Growth rate of the hooves was not related to treatment. On the other hand, the 50% extract was related to the majority of the hooves in balance (p<0.05. Results suggest that a weekly topical treatment with A. vera glycolic extract does not improve the growth rate of the hooves; however, when applied at a high concentration, it improves their balance.

  14. Meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid composition of Catria Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Maria Federica; Nocelli, Francesco; Pasquini, Marina

    2017-08-01

    In order to extend scientific knowledge on autochthonous Italian equine meat, the physical-chemical parameters of Catria Horse Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle and its nutritional characteristics have been investigated. Ten steaks of Catria foal raised at pasture and fattened indoors for 2 months were dissected, and LT muscle was analyzed for chemical composition, total iron, drip loss, colorimetric characteristics, intramuscular fat, fatty acid profile and nutritional indexes. Steak dissection showed that LT muscle accounted for 36.78% and fat accounted for 9.19% of weight of steak. Regarding chemical composition, protein and fat content was 20.31% and 2.83%, respectively. Total iron content (1.95 mg/100 g) was lower than data reported in the literature. Color parameters showed a luminous and intense red hue muscle. The sum of unsaturated fatty acid composition (50.3%) was higher than the sum of saturated fatty acids (46.64 %). The fatty acid profile and nutritional values of Catria Horse meat could be modified adopting extensive rearing systems and grazing. The data suggests that further investigation on the composition of Catria Horse meat should be carried out to valorize this autochthonous breed, reared in sustainable livestock systems, and its meat in local short-chain systems. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Validity and repeatability of goniometry in normal horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Henry S; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Levine, David

    2016-07-19

    To assess validity and inter- and intra-tester reliability of equine goniometry and to establish values for carpal, metacarpophalangeal, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal flexion and extension in horses. Seventeen healthy equine subjects of varied breeds were used. Three investigators blindly and independently measured in triplicate the extension and flexion of carpal, metacarpophalangeal, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints of 17 horses after sedation. Radiographs of these joints in flexion and extension were acquired while under sedation. Goniometric and radiographic measurements were compared statistically and were correlated. A Bland-Altman plot was constructed. Inter- and intra-tester repeatability of goniometry were evaluated by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Mean flexion and extension of carpal, metacarpophalangeal, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints were calculated. Goniometric and radiographic measurements did not differ statistically and were significantly correlated (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.59 - 0.89). The mean difference between goniometric and radiographic measurements was 0.4°. Triplicate measurements collected by the three raters did not differ significantly within raters (ICC ranging from 0.950 - 0.995) and between raters (ICC ranging from 0.942 - 0.989). Goniometry is a valid and repeatable tool for evaluation of the range of motion of carpal, metacarpophalangeal, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints in standing, sedated healthy horses.

  16. Cranial Mesenteric Arterial Obstruction Due To Strongylus vulgaris Larvae in a Donkey (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borji, Hassan; Moosavi, Zahra; Ahmadi, Fatemeh

    2014-09-01

    Arteritis due to Strongylus vulgaris is a well-known cause of colic in horses and donkeys. The current report describes a fatal incidence of arterial obstruction in cranial mesenteric artery caused by S. vulgaris infection in an adult donkey in which anthelmintic treatment was not regularly administered. Necropsy findings of the abdominal cavity revealed a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to larvae of S. vulgaris, causing severe colic. To the authors' knowledge, a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to verminous arteritis has rarely been described in horses and donkeys. Based on recent reports of fatal arterial obstruction due to S. vulgaris infection in donkeys, it may be evident to consider acute colic caused by this pathogenic parasite a re-emerging disease in donkeys and horses.

  17. Cranial Mesenteric Arterial Obstruction Due To Strongylus vulgaris Larvae in a Donkey (Equus asinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Borji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Arteritis due to Strongylus vulgaris is a well-known cause of colic in horses and donkeys. The current report describes a fatal incidence of arterial obstruction in cranial mesenteric artery caused by S. vulgaris infection in an adult donkey in which anthelmintic treatment was not regularly administered. Necropsy findings of the abdominal cavity revealed a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to larvae of S. vulgaris, causing severe colic. To the authors' knowledge, a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to verminous arteritis has rarely been described in horses and donkeys. Based on recent reports of fatal arterial obstruction due to S. vulgaris infection in donkeys, it may be evident to consider acute colic caused by this pathogenic parasite a re-emerging disease in donkeys and horses.

  18. A GYS1 gene mutation is highly associated with polysaccharide storage myopathy in Cob Normand draught horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herszberg, B; McCue, M E; Larcher, T; Mata, X; Vaiman, A; Chaffaux, S; Chérel, Y; Valberg, S J; Mickelson, J R; Guérin, G

    2009-02-01

    Glycogen storage diseases or glycogenoses are inherited diseases caused by abnormalities of enzymes that regulate the synthesis or degradation of glycogen. Deleterious mutations in many genes of the glyco(geno)lytic or the glycogenesis pathways can potentially cause a glycogenosis, and currently mutations in fourteen different genes are known to cause animal or human glycogenoses, resulting in myopathies and/or hepatic disorders. The genetic bases of two forms of glycogenosis are currently known in horses. A fatal neonatal polysystemic type IV glycogenosis, inherited recessively in affected Quarter Horse foals, is due to a mutation in the glycogen branching enzyme gene (GBE1). A second type of glycogenosis, termed polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM), is observed in adult Quarter Horses and other breeds. A severe form of PSSM also occurs in draught horses. A mutation in the skeletal muscle glycogen synthase gene (GYS1) was recently reported to be highly associated with PSSM in Quarter Horses and Belgian draught horses. This GYS1 point mutation appears to cause a gain-of-function of the enzyme and to result in the accumulation of a glycogen-like, less-branched polysaccharide in skeletal muscle. It is inherited as a dominant trait. The aim of this work was to test for possible associations between genetic polymorphisms in four candidate genes of the glycogen pathway or the GYS1 mutation in Cob Normand draught horses diagnosed with PSSM by muscle biopsy.

  19. A magyar lóversenyek világa az Osztrák–Magyar Monarchiában - Horse Races in the Austro–Hungarian Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KÓSA, Maja

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As the well-known proverb reads: Hungarians are born to ride horses. Our centuries-old equestrian culture had many different stages, but the time of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was a decisive epoch when the Hungarian horse breeding could prosper. In this article I discuss this era through the efforts of Count István Széchenyi and Baron Mikós Wesselényi for horse breeding. With a detailed description of the horse races I intend to highlight the versatility of this era. People of different status could reach a consensus during the turf which became an important scene of politics, economy and community life. It was the world of wealthy stable owners where the most prominent beasts of the internationally renowned horse breeding competed, where the members of the petite bourgeoisie found amusement in their bets; it meant self-denial for jockeys and fashion for ladies. Horse races simultaneously dissolved and deepened social contradictions while they involved many political and economic opportunities.

  20. Cross-validation analysis for genetic evaluation models for ranking in endurance horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ballesteros, S; Varona, L; Valera, M; Gutiérrez, J P; Cervantes, I

    2018-01-01

    Ranking trait was used as a selection criterion for competition horses to estimate racing performance. In the literature the most common approaches to estimate breeding values are the linear or threshold statistical models. However, recent studies have shown that a Thurstonian approach was able to fix the race effect (competitive level of the horses that participate in the same race), thus suggesting a better prediction accuracy of breeding values for ranking trait. The aim of this study was to compare the predictability of linear, threshold and Thurstonian approaches for genetic evaluation of ranking in endurance horses. For this purpose, eight genetic models were used for each approach with different combinations of random effects: rider, rider-horse interaction and environmental permanent effect. All genetic models included gender, age and race as systematic effects. The database that was used contained 4065 ranking records from 966 horses and that for the pedigree contained 8733 animals (47% Arabian horses), with an estimated heritability around 0.10 for the ranking trait. The prediction ability of the models for racing performance was evaluated using a cross-validation approach. The average correlation between real and predicted performances across genetic models was around 0.25 for threshold, 0.58 for linear and 0.60 for Thurstonian approaches. Although no significant differences were found between models within approaches, the best genetic model included: the rider and rider-horse random effects for threshold, only rider and environmental permanent effects for linear approach and all random effects for Thurstonian approach. The absolute correlations of predicted breeding values among models were higher between threshold and Thurstonian: 0.90, 0.91 and 0.88 for all animals, top 20% and top 5% best animals. For rank correlations these figures were 0.85, 0.84 and 0.86. The lower values were those between linear and threshold approaches (0.65, 0.62 and 0.51). In

  1. Development of an index based on ultrasonographic measurements for the objective appraisal of body condition in Andalusian horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Gimenez, T.; Aguirre-Pascasio, C.N.; Blas, I. De

    2017-07-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is an indirect measure of the level of subcutaneous fat; however, by measuring the subcutaneous fat thicknesses (SFT), the precision of the degree of fatness assessment is improved. The aims were: 1) to develop an alternative body fat scoring index (BFSI) based on ultrasonographic measurements; 2) to assess the agreement between BCS and the new index applied to Andalusian horses; 3) to adjust the BCS cut-off values (if necessary) for overweight and obesity in this breed. One hundred and sixty-six Andalusian horses were included in this cross sectional study. On each horse, BCS, body fat percentage (BF%) and ultrasonography of SFT at localized deposits were evaluated. According to BFSI five possible body categories were established. Only one horse (0.6%) was classified as emaciated, 9.0% as thin, 74.7% as normal, 11.4% as overweight and 4.2% as obese. Despite higher BCS and SFT values were observed compared to other breeds, most of the horses evaluated presented a normal body condition under the new BFSI. BCS and BFSI were significantly associated (p<0.001), however, the concordance was low (weighted Cohen’s kappa coefficient, 0.262 ± 0.071; p=0.004). Using BFSI, obese horses had significantly greater BF% than the rest of categories (p<0.001). BCS showed a good diagnostic accuracy for detection overweight (AUC = 0.759 ± 0.055; p<0.001) and obese (AUC = 0.878 ± 0.050; p=0.001) horses; redefining the cut-off values for overweight and obesity condition as 7.5/9 and 8.5/9 respectively in Andalusian horses.

  2. Maternal phylogenetic relationships and genetic variation among Arabian horse populations using whole mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanshour, Anas M; Cothran, Ernest Gus

    2013-09-13

    Maternal inheritance is an essential point in Arabian horse population genetics and strains classification. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing is a highly informative tool to investigate maternal lineages. We sequenced the whole mtDNA D-loop of 251 Arabian horses to study the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Arabian populations and to examine the traditional strain classification system that depends on maternal family lines using native Arabian horses from the Middle East. The variability in the upstream region of the D-loop revealed additional differences among the haplotypes that had identical sequences in the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1). While the American-Arabians showed relatively low diversity, the Syrian population was the most variable and contained a very rare and old haplogroup. The Middle Eastern horses had major genetic contributions to the Western horses and there was no clear pattern of differentiation among all tested populations. Our results also showed that several individuals from different strains shared a single haplotype, and individuals from a single strain were represented in clearly separated haplogroups. The whole mtDNA D-loop sequence was more powerful for analysis of the maternal genetic diversity in the Arabian horses than using just the HVR1. Native populations from the Middle East, such as Syrians, could be suggested as a hot spot of genetic diversity and may help in understanding the evolution history of the Arabian horse breed. Most importantly, there was no evidence that the Arabian horse breed has clear subdivisions depending on the traditional maternal based strain classification system.

  3. Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken

    Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011.......Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011....

  4. Four Legged Healers: Horse Culture as Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Plume, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    For tribal communities to overcome the health disparities that plague them, they need to honor Indigenous healthcare paradigms. The Horse Nation Initiative at Nueta Hidatsa Sahnish College embraces the people's historical connection to the horse as an avenue to wellness.

  5. Genetic polymorphism of horse serum protein 3 (SP3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, R K; Sandberg, K; Kuryl, J; Gahne, B

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional agarose gel (pH 8.6)-horizontal polyacrylamide gel (pH 9.0) electrophoresis of horse serum samples, followed by general protein staining, revealed genetic polymorphism of an unidentified protein tentatively designated serum protein 3 (SP3). The SP3 fractions appeared distinctly when a 14% concentration of acrylamide was used in the separation gels. The 2-D mobilities of SP3 fractions were quite similar to that of albumin. Family data were consistent with the hypothesis that the observed SP3 phenotypes were controlled by four co-dominant, autosomal alleles (D, F, I, S). Evidence was provided that the F allele can be further divided into two alleles (F1 and F2); the mobilities of F1 and F2 variants were very similar. Each of the SP3 alleles gave rise to one fraction and each of the heterozygous types showed two fractions. More than 600 horses representing five different breeds (Swedish Trotter, North-Swedish Trotter, Thoroughbred, Arab and Polish Tarpan) were typed for SP3, and allele frequency estimates were calculated. SP3 was highly polymorphic in all breeds studied.

  6. Anatoliy Safinov, Cattle Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Churyumova, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    In his childhood Anatoliy looked after sheep. He recalls how he as a boy suckled lambs and how older people sheared sheep’s wool and weaved socks. Later his weaving skills helped Anatoliy in Siberia where he made socks out of dog hair. In his childhood Anatoliy’s family lived in the kolkhoz of the 3rd Internatsional in Tsoros. The kolkhoz kept horses. When in 1943 the Germans occupied the kolkhoz, they left four limping horses with the villagers. Anatoliy and his friends looked after these ho...

  7. Horse Husbandry and Preventive Health Practices in Australia: An Online Survey of Horse Guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly R; Clarkson, Larissa; Riley, Christopher B; van den Berg, Mariette

    2018-02-08

    Little is known about the horse health management practices of Australian horse caregivers (owners). This article presents findings from a convenience sample of 505 horse owners who participated in an online survey. No large-scale welfare issues were identified, but there were some areas of potential concern, including owners who did not regularly deworm their horses (4%), a lack of strategic parasite control (3.1%), and a lack of regular dental care (11%). Several participants did not have their horse's hooves regularly shod or trimmed (2%), and 14% had an unqualified person maintain their horse's hooves. One in five owners (19%) did not vaccinate their horses against tetanus. The findings are discussed in relation to current Australian horse health guidelines and traditional sources of horse health information, together with recommendations for providing horse owners with relevant information in relevant forms.

  8. Periorbital skull fractures in five horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, J.P.; Barber, S.M.; Bailey, J.V.; Fretz, P.B.; Pharr, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Periorbital skull fractures were diagnosed in 5 horses, and were associated with ophthalmic complications including corneal ulceration, uveitis, and entrapment of the eye by retrobulbar bone fragments. Physical examination was of greater diagnostic use than radiography. Surgical repair was performed on all horses and was associated with a more favorable postoperative appearance in horses treated acutely; however, the cosmetic results were considered acceptable in all horses. Major postoperative complications were not observed

  9. Mitochondrial variability in the D-loop of four equine breeds shown by PCR-SSCP analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirol Patricia M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A fragment of 466 base pairs from a highly variable peripheral region of the mitochondrial D-loop of horses was amplified and analyzed by single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP. Fourteen distinct SSCP variants were detected in 100 horses belonging to four breeds (Arabian, ARB; Thoroughbred, TB; Argentinian Creole, ARC; and Peruvian Paso from Argentina, PPA. Each breed showed four to eight SSCP variants, many of which were shared between two or three of the studied breeds. Arabian horses were the most variable (eigth variants, with three variants unique to the breed. PPA and ARC showed two and one characteristic SSCP variants, respectively, while TB shared all its variants with at least one of the other breeds. An analysis based on the presence/absence of the variants revealed a closer relationship between PPA and TB, which was not completely unexpected considering the mixed ancestry of the PPA mares. The results also confirm the efficiency of SSCP to detect variability in horse mitochondrial DNA.

  10. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in two horse populations in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schurink Anouk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect bite hypersensitivity is a common allergic disease in horse populations worldwide. Insect bite hypersensitivity is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. However, little is known about genes contributing to the genetic variance associated with insect bite hypersensitivity. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify and quantify genomic associations with insect bite hypersensitivity in Shetland pony mares and Icelandic horses in the Netherlands. Methods Data on 200 Shetland pony mares and 146 Icelandic horses were collected according to a matched case–control design. Cases and controls were matched on various factors (e.g. region, sire to minimize effects of population stratification. Breed-specific genome-wide association studies were performed using 70 k single nucleotide polymorphisms genotypes. Bayesian variable selection method Bayes-C with a threshold model implemented in GenSel software was applied. A 1 Mb non-overlapping window approach that accumulated contributions of adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms was used to identify associated genomic regions. Results The percentage of variance explained by all single nucleotide polymorphisms was 13% in Shetland pony mares and 28% in Icelandic horses. The 20 non-overlapping windows explaining the largest percentages of genetic variance were found on nine chromosomes in Shetland pony mares and on 14 chromosomes in Icelandic horses. Overlap in identified associated genomic regions between breeds would suggest interesting candidate regions to follow-up on. Such regions common to both breeds (within 15 Mb were found on chromosomes 3, 7, 11, 20 and 23. Positional candidate genes within 2 Mb from the associated windows were identified on chromosome 20 in both breeds. Candidate genes are within the equine lymphocyte antigen class II region, which evokes an immune response by recognizing many foreign molecules. Conclusions The genome-wide association

  11. Paediatric horse-related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Jane E; Theodore, Sigrid G; Stockton, Kellie A; Kimble, Roy M

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective cohort study reported on the epidemiology of horse-related injuries for patients presenting to the only tertiary paediatric trauma hospital in Queensland. The secondary outcome was to examine the use of helmets and adult supervision. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was examined in relation to helmet use. Morbidity and mortality were also recorded. Included were all patients presenting with any horse-related trauma to the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane from January 2008 to August 2014. Data were retrospectively collected on patient demographics, hospital length of stay (LOS), mechanism of injury (MOI), safety precautions taken, diagnoses and surgical procedures performed. Included in the analysis were 187 incidents involving 171 patients. Most patients were aged 12-14 years (36.9%) and female (84.5%). The most common MOI were falls while riding horses (97.1%). Mild TBI (24.6%) and upper limb fractures (20.9%) were common injuries sustained. Patients who wore helmets had significantly reduced hospital LOS and severity of TBI when compared with those who did not wear helmets (P horses, in addition to being a compulsory requirement whilst horse riding. Prompts in documentation may assist doctors to record the use of safety attire and adult supervision. This will allow future studies to further investigate these factors in relation to clinical outcomes. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits...... it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid...

  13. Occurrence and distribution of Malassezia species on skin and external ear canal of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Malassezia species from the body skin and external ear canal of healthy horses. The samples were obtained by scraping the skin surface from the nose, groin and dorsum and swabbing from the external ear canal of 163 animals, and then incubated on sabouraud dextrose agar and modified Dixon agar. Malassezia species were isolated from 34.9% of horses. The percentages of Malassezia species were 64.3% for Arab, 35.7% for Persian, 35.4% for Thoroughbred and 27.1% for Turkmen breeds. The greatest abundance of Malassezia species was found in the external ear canal (47.7%, representing significant difference with other sites), followed by nose (26.3%), groin (15.8%) and dorsum (10.5%) (P horses varies by body site and age but not by breed and gender, representing M. pachydermatis as the most prevalent species on horse skin. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Clinical presentation and biochemical profile of horses during induction and treatment of hypocalcemia

    OpenAIRE

    Barrêto-Júnior, Raimundo A.; Minervino, Antonio H.; Rodrigues, Federico A.; Meira Júnior, Enoch B.; Lima, Alessandra; Sousa, Rejane; Mori, Clara; Araújo, Carolina A.; R.Fernandes, Wilson; Ortolani, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the clinical presentation, biochemical profile and response to treatment among horses with experimentally-induced hypocalcemia. Twelve adult, mixed breed mares were used. A 5% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium (Na2EDTA) solution was infused into all the mares until the animals presented clinical signs of hypocalcemia, at which point they were divided into a control group (n = 5) and a treatment group (n = 7). The treated group received an ...

  15. OAS1 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to West Nile encephalitis in horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Rios

    Full Text Available West Nile virus, first identified within the United States in 1999, has since spread across the continental states and infected birds, humans and domestic animals, resulting in numerous deaths. Previous studies in mice identified the Oas1b gene, a member of the OAS/RNASEL innate immune system, as a determining factor for resistance to West Nile virus (WNV infection. A recent case-control association study described mutations of human OAS1 associated with clinical susceptibility to WNV infection. Similar studies in horses, a particularly susceptible species, have been lacking, in part, because of the difficulty in collecting populations sufficiently homogenous in their infection and disease states. The equine OAS gene cluster most closely resembles the human cluster, with single copies of OAS1, OAS3 and OAS2 in the same orientation. With naturally occurring susceptible and resistant sub-populations to lethal West Nile encephalitis, we undertook a case-control association study to investigate whether, similar to humans (OAS1 and mice (Oas1b, equine OAS1 plays a role in resistance to severe WNV infection. We identified naturally occurring single nucleotide mutations in equine (Equus caballus OAS1 and RNASEL genes and, using Fisher's Exact test, we provide evidence that mutations in equine OAS1 contribute to host susceptibility. Virtually all of the associated OAS1 polymorphisms were located within the interferon-inducible promoter, suggesting that differences in OAS1 gene expression may determine the host's ability to resist clinical manifestations associated with WNV infection.

  16. Founder-specific inbreeding depression affects racing performance in Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Evelyn T; Ho, Simon Y W; Thomson, Peter C; Ang, Rachel A; Velie, Brandon D; Hamilton, Natasha A

    2018-04-18

    The Thoroughbred horse has played an important role in both sporting and economic aspects of society since the establishment of the breed in the 1700s. The extensive pedigree and phenotypic information available for the Thoroughbred horse population provides a unique opportunity to examine the effects of 300 years of selective breeding on genetic load. By analysing the relationship between inbreeding and racing performance of 135,572 individuals, we found that selective breeding has not efficiently alleviated the Australian Thoroughbred population of its genetic load. However, we found evidence for purging in the population that might have improved racing performance over time. Over 80% of inbreeding in the contemporary population is accounted for by a small number of ancestors from the foundation of the breed. Inbreeding to these ancestors has variable effects on fitness, demonstrating that an understanding of the distribution of genetic load is important in improving the phenotypic value of a population in the future. Our findings hold value not only for Thoroughbred and other domestic breeds, but also for small and endangered populations where such comprehensive information is not available.

  17. Lyme neuroborreliosis in 2 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, D M; Barr, B C; Daft, B; Bertone, J J; Feng, S; Hodzic, E; Johnston, J M; Olsen, K J; Barthold, S W

    2011-11-01

    Lyme neuroborreliosis--characterized as chronic, necrosuppurative to nonsuppurative, perivascular to diffuse meningoradiculoneuritis--was diagnosed in 2 horses with progressive neurologic disease. In 1 horse, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification of B burgdorferi sensu stricto-specific gene targets (ospA, ospC, flaB, dbpA, arp). Highest spirochetal burdens were in tissues with inflammation, including spinal cord, muscle, and joint capsule. Sequence analysis of ospA, ospC, and flaB revealed 99.9% sequence identity to the respective genes in B burgdorferi strain 297, an isolate from a human case of neuroborreliosis. In both horses, spirochetes were visualized in affected tissues with Steiner silver impregnation and by immunohistochemistry, predominantly within the dense collagenous tissue of the dura mater and leptomeninges.

  18. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

  19. Seroepidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi infections in domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Howe, Daniel K; Yeargan, Michelle R; Alvarado-Esquivel, Domingo; Alfredo Zamarripa-Barboza, José; Dubey, Jitender P

    2017-01-01

    There is currently no information regarding Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi infections in donkeys in Mexico. Here, we determined the presence of antibodies against S. neurona and N. hughesi in donkeys in the northern Mexican state of Durango. Serum samples of 239 domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) were assayed for S. neurona and N. hughesi antibodies using home-made enzyme-linked immunoassays; six (2.5%) of the 239 donkeys tested seropositive for S. neurona. The seroprevalence of S. neurona infection was comparable among donkeys regardless of their origin, health status, or sex. Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity to S. neurona was associated with increased age (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.11-7.82; p = 0.02). Antibodies to N. hughesi were found in two (0.8%) of the 239 donkeys. Both exposed donkeys were healthy, 3- and 6-year-old females. This is the first evidence of S. neurona and N. hughesi infections in donkeys in Mexico. © C. Alvarado-Esquivel et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  20. Seroepidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi infections in domestic donkeys (Equus asinus in Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado-Esquivel Cosme

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no information regarding Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi infections in donkeys in Mexico. Here, we determined the presence of antibodies against S. neurona and N. hughesi in donkeys in the northern Mexican state of Durango. Serum samples of 239 domestic donkeys (Equus asinus were assayed for S. neurona and N. hughesi antibodies using home-made enzyme-linked immunoassays; six (2.5% of the 239 donkeys tested seropositive for S. neurona. The seroprevalence of S. neurona infection was comparable among donkeys regardless of their origin, health status, or sex. Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity to S. neurona was associated with increased age (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.11–7.82; p = 0.02. Antibodies to N. hughesi were found in two (0.8% of the 239 donkeys. Both exposed donkeys were healthy, 3- and 6-year-old females. This is the first evidence of S. neurona and N. hughesi infections in donkeys in Mexico.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed low genetic diversity in the endangered Indian wild ass Equus hemionus khur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Devendra; Atkulwar, Ashwin; Farah, Sameera; Baig, Mumtaz

    2017-09-01

    The Indian wild ass Equus hemionus khur, belonging to ass-like equid branch, inhabits the dry and arid desert of the Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat. The E. h. khur is the sole survivor of Asiatic wild ass species/subspecies in South Asia. To provide first ever insights into the genetic diversity, phylogeny, and demography of the endangered Indian wild ass, we sampled 52 free-ranging individuals from the Little Rann of Kutch by using a non-invasive methodology. The sequencing of 230 bp in cytochrome b (Cyt b) and displacement loop (D-loop) region revealed that current ∼4000 extant population of Indian wild ass harbours low genetic diversity. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that E. h. khur, E. h. onager, and E. h. kulan belong to a single strict monophyletic clade. Therefore, we suggest the delimitation of the five E. hemionus subspecies in vogue to a single species E. hemionus. The application of molecular clock confirmed that the Asiatic wild ass had undergone diversification 0.65 Million years ago. Demographic measurements assessed using a Bayesian skyline plot demonstrated decline in the maternal effective population size of the Indian wild ass during different periods; these periods coincided with the origin and rise of the Indus civilization in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent during the Neolithic. In conclusion, maintaining high genetic diversity in the existing isolated population of 4000 Indian wild asses inhabiting the wild ass sanctuary is important compared with subspecies preservation alone.

  2. Host social rank and parasites: plains zebra (Equus quagga) and intestinal helminths in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazzola, M C; Stancampiano, L

    2012-08-13

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the social hierarchy of plain zebra, Equus quagga, and the level of parasitism. For the study 141 fecal samples from the same number of animals were collected within the two major populations of E. quagga of Uganda (Lake Mburo Conservation Area and Kidepo Valley National Park). Quantitative (eggs per gram of feces) and qualitative parasite assessment were performed with standard methods. The relationship between parasite burden and individual host features was analyzed using Generalized Linear Models. Strongyles, cestodes, Strongyloides sp. and oxiurids where present in the examined samples. Social rank and age class significantly affect all parasites' abundance with dominant individuals being less parasitized than subordinate individuals, regardless of the parasite groups excluding oxiurids. Sex could not been shown to be related with any of the found parasites. Age was positively related with strongyles and oxiurids abundance and negatively related with cestodes and Strongyloides sp. The main result of the present study was the evidence that social status influences parasite level with dominant zebras shedding less parasite eggs than subordinate ones. Social rank appears, therefore, as an important factor giving rise to parasite aggregation in plain zebras. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Proximate and fatty acid composition of zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) muscle and subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Louwrens C; Geldenhuys, Greta; Cawthorn, Donna-Mareè

    2016-08-01

    The meat from African game species is healthy, naturally produced and increasingly popular with consumers. Among these species, zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) are growing in number in South Africa, with the meat from surplus animals holding potential to contribute to food security and economic stability. Despite being consumed locally and globally, little information exists on the composition of zebra meat. This study aimed to determine the proximate composition of zebra meat as well as the fatty acid composition of the intramuscular (IMF) and subcutaneous (SCF) fat. Zebra longissimus lumborum muscle was shown to have a high mean protein content (22.29 g per 100 g) and low mean fat content (1.47 g per 100 g). High proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in the IMF (41.15%) and SCF (37.71%), mainly comprising α-linolenic (C18:3n-3) and linoleic (C18:2n-6) acids. Furthermore, the IMF and SCF had favourable PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios (>0.4) and omega-6/omega-3 ratios (<4), indicating that both components are healthy lipid food sources. This study has shed new light on the nutritional value of zebra meat, which will not only be important for food product labelling, nutritional education and incorporation into food composition databases, but will also be indispensable for marketing and export purposes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The presence of Giardia intestinalis in donkeys, Equus asinus, in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhang, Fu-Kai; Li, Fa-Cai; Hou, Jun-Ling; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Du, Shuai-Zhi; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-01-03

    Giardia intestinalis is one of the most important zoonotic enteric parasites. As no information regarding prevalence and genotype of G. intestinalis in donkeys (Equus asinus) in China is available, 181 faecal samples from 48 donkeys from Jilin Province, from 104 from Shandong Province and from 29 from Liaoning Province were examined between May and December 2015. Twenty-eight (15.47%) out of 181 donkey samples were tested G. intestinalis-positive by nested amplification of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene. The prevalence in different regional groups varied from 10.42 to 18.27%. The prevalence in adult and young donkeys was 14.29 and 22.92%, respectively. Otherwise, the prevalence was 11.69% in summer and 18.27% in winter. However, no statistically significant differences were found in relation to region or age group. Sequence analysis of the tpi, glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and beta giardin (bg) loci identified 4, 1 and 3 subtypes of assemblage B, respectively. Moreover, four novel multilocus genotypes (MLGs novel-1 to novel-4) were identified in assemblage B. This first report of G. intestinalis in donkeys in China indicates that further studies of nation-wide molecular epidemiology and geographical distribution of Giardia in donkeys are warranted. Effective strategies should be implemented to control G. intestinalis infection in donkeys, other animals and humans.

  5. Frequency of Gastric Pathologies in Donkeys (Equus africanus asinus in Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Cardona Álvarez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the frequency of gastric pathologies in donkeys (Equus africanus asinus in the department of Córdoba, Colombia. Stomachs of 137 donkeys (73 intact males, 16 castrated males, and 48 females, aged between 1 to 25 years, were examined, characterized and photographed post mortem. Data on sex, age and pathology were reported on the respective forms and then digitized. Of the total population (137 donkeys, stomach ulcers and associated gastritis were found in 100% of the samples, antral edema in 56.9%, parasites (Trichostrongylus axei in 10.2%, and impaction in 5.8%. Furthermore, Hemomelasma gastric was found in one stomach (0.7%. As a conclusion, 100% of the evaluated animals presented at least some kind of gastric pathology. Acute gastritis was the most frequent type (71.5%, followed in a smaller proportion by chronic gastritis (28.4%. The study showed a significant statistical dependence between age and the degree of injury to the glandular mucosa (p < 0.05. Thus, it evidenced a high incidence of gastric pathologies in donkeys in different livestock holdings in Córdoba, among which squamous ulcers are the most frequent ones, followed by acute gastritis and antral edema. For this reason, it is necessary to do more research and to raise awareness about the treatment of these pathologies in these animals.

  6. Lunar cycles at mating do not influence sex ratio at birth in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J J; Cuervo-Arango, J; Santa Juliana, L

    2015-02-01

    It is scientifically demonstrated that lunar cycles have important effects on several biological events. Controversy exists about the lunar influence on human and animal parturition. In addition, in the horse industry, especially in Polo Horse breeders of Argentina and around the world there is a higher demand for female offspring than for males. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a significant association between the lunar phase at the time of mating and the sex ratio at birth in horses. The Argentinean Stud Book provided information related to all matings registered for Thoroughbred and Arab horses between 2003 and 2011. Statistical associations were tested between dates of matings at different lunar phases or days and sex ratio at birth. A total of 65.535 gestations were studied. Overall, sex ratio at birth resulted in 33.396 fillies (50.96%) and 32.139 colts (49.04%). The percentages of males and females at birth were not statistically different amongst the different lunar phases or days. We can strongly conclude that managing the breeding dates in relation to lunar cycles in order to manipulate the sex ratio of the offspring is not a viable option in horses.

  7. Efficacy of a Feed Dispenser for Horses in Decreasing Cribbing Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mazzola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cribbing is an oral stereotypy, tends to develop in captive animals as a means to cope with stress, and may be indicative of reduced welfare. Highly energetic diets ingested in a short time are one of the most relevant risk factors for the development of cribbing. The aim of this study was to verify whether feeding cribbing horses through a dispenser that delivers small quantities of concentrate when activated by the animal decreases cribbing behaviour, modifies feeding behaviour, or induces frustration. Ten horses (mean age 14 y, balanced for sex, breed, and size (mean height 162 cm, were divided into two groups of 5 horses each: Cribbing and Control. Animals were trained to use the dispenser and videorecorded continuously for 15 consecutive days from 1 h prior to feeding to 2 h after feeding in order to measure their behaviours. The feed dispenser, Quaryka®, induced an increase in time necessary to finish the ration in both groups of horses (P<0.05. With Quaryka, cribbers showed a significant reduction of time spent cribbing (P<0.05. After removal of the feed dispenser (Post-Quaryka, cribbing behaviour significantly increased. The use of Quaryka may be particularly beneficial in horses fed high-energy diets and ingesting the food too quickly.

  8. Factors associated with fecal-shedding of Salmonella spp by horses on US operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losinger W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-sectional national study that included 972 operations with > 3 horses on 1/1/98 in 28 states in the USA, 8,417 fecal specimens were collected from horses and cultured to test for the presence of Salmonella spp. Operations were characterized as Salmonella spp-positive if at least one fecal specimen tested positive for Salmonella spp. Percentages of Salmonella spp-positive operations were computed by management and other factors (collected from operation-level questionnaires that were hypothesized to be related to fecal shedding of Salmonella spp. A logistic-regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with horses? shedding Salmonella spp in feces on an operation. The odds of an operation being Salmonella spp positive increased as the number of resident horses increased. In addition, the following factors were found to be associated with increased odds of an operation being Salmonella spp positive: horses were used primarily for breeding; operation cleanliness was characterized as poor by the data collector; and new resident equids had been added to the operation without routine quarantine.

  9. An Approach of Estimating Individual Growth Curves for Young Thoroughbred Horses Based on Their Birthdays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONODA, Tomoaki; YAMAMOTO, Ryuta; SAWAMURA, Kyohei; MURASE, Harutaka; NAMBO, Yasuo; INOUE, Yoshinobu; MATSUI, Akira; MIYAKE, Takeshi; HIRAI, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We propose an approach of estimating individual growth curves based on the birthday information of Japanese Thoroughbred horses, with considerations of the seasonal compensatory growth that is a typical characteristic of seasonal breeding animals. The compensatory growth patterns appear during only the winter and spring seasons in the life of growing horses, and the meeting point between winter and spring depends on the birthday of each horse. We previously developed new growth curve equations for Japanese Thoroughbreds adjusting for compensatory growth. Based on the equations, a parameter denoting the birthday information was added for the modeling of the individual growth curves for each horse by shifting the meeting points in the compensatory growth periods. A total of 5,594 and 5,680 body weight and age measurements of Thoroughbred colts and fillies, respectively, and 3,770 withers height and age measurements of both sexes were used in the analyses. The results of predicted error difference and Akaike Information Criterion showed that the individual growth curves using birthday information better fit to the body weight and withers height data than not using them. The individual growth curve for each horse would be a useful tool for the feeding managements of young Japanese Thoroughbreds in compensatory growth periods. PMID:25013356

  10. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  11. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  12. indigenous cattle breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received 31 August 1996; accepted 20 March /998. Mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns from representative animals of the Afrikaner and Nguni sanga cattle breeds, indigenous to Southern Africa, were compared to the mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns of the Brahman (zebu) and the Jersey. (taurine) cattle breeds.

  13. Demography of the Pryor Mountain wild horses, 1993-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, James E.; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Ransom, Jason I.; Coates-Markle, Linda; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2010-01-01

    Wild horses (Equus caballus) at Pryor Mountain were studied by direct observation from 1993 through 2007. All horses present were individually identifiable on the basis of coat coloration, head and leg markings, gender, and band associations. Of the 609 horses either present prior to foaling in 1993 or born since, ages were precisely known for 491 (observed as a foal). Ages for 52 horses were estimated through tooth eruption and wear patterns, and for the remaining 66 horses through body size, morphology, and anecdotal evidence concerning when they were present on the range. At varying intensities, never less than 30 days per year, all horses were inventoried and their band associations noted. Foals were paired with dams based on observations of attachment during the early days and weeks of life. Year of death was determined by identification of the carcass where possible. In the absence of finding a carcass, an animal that was not observed for 2 years was considered to have died in the year that it went missing. Animals that were removed from the herd and mares that were part of a contraception study were excluded from calculations of survival and foaling rates, respectively, as appropriate. The average prefoaling population over the 15 years of the study was 148.8 animals (range = 120-187), and the annual foal crop averaged 32.1 (range = 23-40). Large removals (19-60 animals) in four years helped maintain the herd at this level; apparent growth rate (calculated as though removals had not occurred) was 9.6 percent annually (? = 1.096, range = 0.977-1.220). This annual growth rate is relatively low compared to that for many western horse herds, at least in part because of a decline in foal survival. Sex ratio of the foal crop varied widely among years, but pooled across years did not differ from 50:50. Sex ratio in the herd changed mostly as a result of removals. The average age of both males and females in the herd increased during the course of the study. Annual

  14. Water quality of the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds Aquifer before and concurrent with large-scale artificial recharge, south-central Kansas, 1995-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappa, Daniel J.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.; Klager, Brian J.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    The city of Wichita artificially recharged about 1 billion gallons of water into the Equus Beds aquifer during 2007–2012 as part of Phase I recharge of the Artificial Storage and Recovery project. This report, prepared in cooperation by the U.S. Geological Survey and the city of Wichita, Kansas, summarizes Little Arkansas River (source-water for artificial recharge) andEquus Beds aquifer water quality before (1995–2006) and during (2007–2012) Artificial Storage and Recovery Phase I recharge. Additionally, aquifer water-quality distribution maps are presented and water-quality changes associated with Phase I recharge timing are described.

  15. Tritium breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Billone, M.; Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Mori, S.; Kuroda, T.; Maki, K.; Takatsu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Raffray, A.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Simbolotti, G.; Shatalov, G.

    1991-01-01

    The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Estudio clínico e histopatológico del Sarcoide Fibroblastico en burros (Equus Asinus) en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona Álvarez, José; Vargas Viloria, Marlene; Perdomo Ayola, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los aspectos clínicos e histopatológicos del sarcoide fibroblástico (SF) en burros (Equus asinus) del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Dicho estudio fue de tipo descriptivo, no probabilístico, en animales de conveniencia. Se utilizaron siete burros con SF diagnosticados clínica e histopatológicamente en diferentes explotaciones ganaderas del Departamento. Al describir las lesiones se observó apariencia exofítica fibrovascular, pa...

  17. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  18. Invisible Trojan-horse attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance...

  19. Cranial Mesenteric Arterial Obstruction Due To Strongylus vulgaris Larvae in a Donkey (Equus asinus).

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Borji; Zahra Moosavi; Fatemeh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Arteritis due to Strongylus vulgaris is a well-known cause of colic in horses and donkeys. The current report describes a fatal incidence of arterial obstruction in cranial mesenteric artery caused by S. vulgaris infection in an adult donkey in which anthelmintic treatment was not regularly administered. Necropsy findings of the abdominal cavity revealed a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to larvae of S. vulgaris, causing severe colic. To the authors? knowledge, a complete...

  20. Genetic diversity in Spanish donkey breeds using microsatellite DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Jordi

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic diversity at 13 equine microsatellite loci was compared in five endangered Spanish donkey breeds: Andaluza, Catalana, Mallorquina, Encartaciones and Zamorano-Leonesa. All of the equine microsatellites used in this study were amplified and were polymorphic in the domestic donkey breeds with the exception of HMS1, which was monomorphic, and ASB2, which failed to amplify. Allele number, frequency distributions and mean heterozygosities were very similar among the Spanish donkey breeds. The unbiased expected heterozygosity (HE over all the populations varied between 0.637 and 0.684 in this study. The low GST value showed that only 3.6% of the diversity was between breeds (P A distance matrix showed little differentiation between Spanish breeds, but great differentiation between them and the Moroccan ass and also with the horse, used as an outgroup. These results confirm the potential use of equine microsatellite loci as a tool for genetic studies in domestic donkey populations, which could also be useful for conservation plans.

  1. A SEROLOGIC AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION SURVEY OF EQUINE HERPESVIRUS IN BURCHELL'S ZEBRAS (EQUUS QUAGGA), HARTMANN'S MOUNTAIN ZEBRAS (EQUUS ZEBRA HARTMANNAE), AND THOMSON'S GAZELLES (EUDORCAS THOMSONII) IN A MIXED SPECIES SAVANNAH EXHIBIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Karen M; Fleming, Gregory J; Mylniczenko, Natalie D

    2016-12-01

    Reports of equine herpesvirus (EHV) 1 and EHV-9 causing clinical disease in a wide range of species have been well documented in the literature. It is thought that zebras are the natural hosts of EHV-9 both in the wild and in captive collections. Concerns about potential interspecies transmission of EHV-1 and EHV-9 in a mixed species savannah exhibit prompted serologic and polymerase chain reaction surveys. Eighteen Burchell's zebras ( Equus quagga ), 11 Hartmann's mountain zebras ( Equus zebra hartmannae), and 14 Thomson's gazelles ( Eudorcas thomsonii ) cohabitating the same exhibit were examined for EHV-1 virus neutralization titers, and evidence of virus via EHV 1-5 polymerase chain reactions. None of the animals had previous exposure to vaccination with EHV-1 or EHV-4. All tested zebras had positive EHV-1 titers, ranging from 4 to 384. All zebras and Thomson's gazelles had negative polymerase chain reaction results for all targeted equine herpesviruses. EHV-9-specific assays are not available but EHV-1, EHV-4, and EHV-9 cross-react serologically. Positive serology results indicate a potential latent equine herpesvirus in the zebra population, which prompted initiation of an equine herpesvirus vaccine protocol, changes in pregnant zebra mare management, and equine herpesvirus polymerase chain reaction screening prior to shipment to or from the study site.

  2. Parasite-mediated selection drives an immunogenetic tradeoff in plains zebra (Equus quagga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L.; Turner, Wendy C.; Küsters, Martina; Getz, Wayne M.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen evasion of the host immune system is a key force driving extreme polymorphism in genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although this gene family is well characterized in structure and function, there is still much debate surrounding the mechanisms by which MHC diversity is selectively maintained. Many studies have investigated relationships between MHC variation and specific pathogens, and have found mixed support for and against the hypotheses of heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent or fluctuating selection. Few, however, have focused on the selective effects of multiple parasite types on host immunogenetic patterns. Here, we examined relationships between variation in the equine MHC gene, ELA-DRA, and both gastrointestinal (GI) and ectoparasitism in plains zebras (Equus quagga). Specific alleles present at opposing population frequencies had antagonistic effects, with rare alleles associated with increased GI parasitism and common alleles with increased tick burdens. These results support a frequency-dependent mechanism, but are also consistent with fluctuating selection. Maladaptive GI parasite ‘susceptibility alleles’ were reduced in frequency, suggesting that these parasites may play a greater selective role at this locus. Heterozygote advantage, in terms of allele mutational divergence, also predicted decreased GI parasite burden in genotypes with a common allele. We conclude that an immunogenetic trade-off affects resistance/susceptibility to parasites in this system. Because GI and ectoparasites do not directly interact within hosts, our results uniquely show that antagonistic parasite interactions can be indirectly modulated through the host immune system. This study highlights the importance of investigating the role of multiple parasites in shaping patterns of host immunogenetic variation.

  3. Plains zebra (Equus quagga) adrenocortical activity increases during times of large aggregations in the Serengeti ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, P A; Franz, M; Dehnhard, M; Ganswindt, A; Greenwood, A D; East, M L

    2018-04-20

    Adverse environmental stimuli (stressors) activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and contribute to allostatic load. This study investigates the contribution of environmental stressors and life history stage to allostatic load in a migratory population of plains zebras (Equus quagga) in the Serengeti ecosystem, in Tanzania, which experiences large local variations in aggregation. We expected higher fGCM response to the environmental stressors of feeding competition, predation pressure and unpredictable social relationships in larger than in smaller aggregations, and in animals at energetically costly life history stages. As the study was conducted during the 2016 El Niño, we did not expect food quality of forage or a lack of water to strongly affect fGCM responses in the dry season. We measured fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) targeting 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone and validated its reliability in captive plains zebras. Our results revealed significantly higher fGCM concentrations 1) in large aggregations than in smaller groupings, and 2) in band stallions than in bachelor males. Concentrations of fGCM were not significantly higher in females at the energetically costly life stage of late pregnancy/lactation. The higher allostatic load of stallions associated with females, than bachelor males is likely caused by social stressors. In conclusion, migratory zebras have elevated allostatic loads in large aggregations that probably result from their combined responses to increased feeding competition, predation pressure and various social stressors. Further research is required to disentangle the contribution of these stressors to allostatic load in migratory populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Parasite-mediated selection drives an immunogenetic trade-off in plains zebras (Equus quagga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L; Turner, Wendy C; Küsters, Martina; Getz, Wayne M

    2014-05-22

    Pathogen evasion of the host immune system is a key force driving extreme polymorphism in genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although this gene family is well characterized in structure and function, there is still much debate surrounding the mechanisms by which MHC diversity is selectively maintained. Many studies have investigated relationships between MHC variation and specific pathogens, and have found mixed support for and against the hypotheses of heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent or fluctuating selection. Few, however, have focused on the selective effects of multiple parasite types on host immunogenetic patterns. Here, we examined relationships between variation in the equine MHC gene, ELA-DRA, and both gastrointestinal (GI) and ectoparasitism in plains zebras (Equus quagga). Specific alleles present at opposing population frequencies had antagonistic effects, with rare alleles associated with increased GI parasitism and common alleles with increased tick burdens. These results support a frequency-dependent mechanism, but are also consistent with fluctuating selection. Maladaptive GI parasite 'susceptibility alleles' were reduced in frequency, suggesting that these parasites may play a greater selective role at this locus. Heterozygote advantage, in terms of allele mutational divergence, also predicted decreased GI parasite burden in genotypes with a common allele. We conclude that an immunogenetic trade-off affects resistance/susceptibility to parasites in this system. Because GI and ectoparasites do not directly interact within hosts, our results uniquely show that antagonistic parasite interactions can be indirectly modulated through the host immune system. This study highlights the importance of investigating the role of multiple parasites in shaping patterns of host immunogenetic variation.

  5. Social Class and Group Size as Predictors of Behavior in Male Equus kiang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prameek M. Kannan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethograms provide a systematic approach to identify and quantify the repertoire of behaviors of an organism. This information may assist animal welfare in zoos, increase awareness of conservation needs, and help curb high-risk behaviors during human-wildlife conflict. Our primary objective was to utilize an equid ethogram to produce activity budgets for Equus kiang males, a social ungulate that is among the least-studied mammals worldwide, and unknown to the ethological literature. We recently reported the existence of three social classes of this species; Territorial males, Bachelor males and ‘Transient’ males. Therefore, our secondary objective was to compare activity budgets in each of these three groups. We found that kiang spent >70% of their time performing six behaviors: vigilance (34%, locomotion (24.2%, resting (14.2%, mixed foraging (12.5%, browsing (5.1%, and antagonism (1.1%. Over 2% of the total behavioral investment was spent on olfactory investigations (genital sniffing, sniffing proximity and flehmen. Eleven of the eighteen behaviors differed by class. Habitat selection differed strongly by each group, with Territorial males favoring mesic sites with greater vegetation abundance. Vigilance also differed according to habitat selection, but not group size. Animals in the xeric, least vegetation-rich area were far less vigilant than animals at more attractive sites. We found that the full repertoire of behaviors, and relative investments in each, differ according to social class. These findings are a reminder that researchers should make every effort to disambiguate social class among ungulates– and other taxa where behaviors are class-dependent.

  6. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual

  7. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  8. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in donkeys (Equus asinus) from the U.S.A. and isolation of T. gondii from cats on donkey farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkeys (Equus asinus) are used as companion animals, in leisure activities as working animals, for onotherapy, and their meat and milk is used for human consumption in certain countries. Here we report first serological survey for Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys in the U.S.A. Serum samples were collec...

  9. Training young horses to social separation: Effect of a companion horse on training efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, E.; Christensen, Janne Winther; Keeling, LJ

    2011-01-01

    : To investigate whether the initial presence of a familiar companion horse modifies responses to separation from the group, lowers stress levels (as measured by heart rate) and increases training efficiency. Hypothesis: Habituation to separation proceeds more quickly if the horse is first trained with a companion......Reasons for performing study: The intensity with which a horse responds to separation from its group and subsequently to being alone is relevant for both horse and handler safety. Identification of training methods that may reduce responses to separation would be useful in practice. Objectives......, and heart rate is lower when the horse is subsequently trained alone, compared to control horses trained individually from the start. Methods: Young mares (n = 32), kept in groups of 4 were exposed to social separation: 2 horses of the group were trained singly (S1, n = 16) and the remaining 2 horses (n...

  10. [Stomach ulcers in the horse--clinical and gastroscopic findings in 12 horses (1989-1990)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, M; Deegen, E

    1991-08-01

    Twelve horses with clinical symptoms of a gastric disorder were studied by gastroscopy. Symptoms of gastric disorders were periprandial colic, bruxism, ructus and reflux. Preliminary to gastroscopy the horses were fasted for 24 h. Access to water was not restricted. The gastroscopy could be conducted easily using a fiberscope 2.5 m in length and 11 mm in outer diameter. While ulcers were present in the squamous fundus of all horses only one horse showed ulceration of the glandular fundus. Solitary ulcers near the margo plicatus were found in horses with mild clinical symptoms. In contrast, diffuse gastroesophageal ulceration was accompanied by severe clinical symptoms. Four horses were affected by an acute gastroesophageal ulceration with gastric reflux and subsequent aspiration pneumonia. Two of those horses suffered from acute gastric ulceration 3-4 days following laparatomy. All horses were treated with cimetidine (5 mg/kg bwt/q.i.d.) until clinical symptoms ceased.

  11. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  12. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  13. Entomologic evaluation of insect hypersensitivity in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, E C

    1995-04-01

    Potential methods of incriminating insects as the cause of insect hypersensitivity are presented. A listing of the biting midges known to attack horses in North America is presented also. An example of how species may be determined to be the cause of the hypersensitivity is given using data from a recent study in Florida. Light trap collections indicated the temporal and geographic distribution of potential contributing species and collections made by vacuuming horses further delineated species by proving they feed on horses and the correct locations on the horses to match lesion distribution. Culicoides hypersensitivity in horses in Florida seems to be caused by a series of species active and feeding on the horses at different times of the year.

  14. Keeping horses in groups: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Although husbandry conditions for horses have improved over the last decades, many horses are still kept singly with limited or no physical contact to other horses. This is surprising, given the fact that keeping horses in groups is recognised best to fulfil their physical and behavioural needs......, especially their need for social contact with conspecifics, as well as to have a beneficial effect on horse–human interactions during training. Group housing of farm animals is widely applied in practice. As a consequence, scientists have investigated numerous aspects of group housing to help further improve...... animal welfare and human–animal interactions under these conditions. However, compared to this literature available in farm animals, and the plentiful studies conducted of feral horse populations, there is much less done when it comes to the management of horses kept in groups in the domestic environment...

  15. Alternatives to conventional evaluation of rideability in horse performance tests: suitability of rein tension and behavioural parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König von Borstel, Uta; Glißman, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Rideability, i.e. the ease and comfort with which a horse can be ridden, is considered to be one of the most important traits in riding horses. However, at present rideability is evaluated rather subjectively in breeding horse performance tests. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role horse behaviour as well as degree and quality of rein tension might play in judges' evaluation of horses' rideability. Mares (n=33) and stallions (n=13) from two different mare- and one stallion-testing station were observed twice during their performance test dressage training. During these rides, rein tension was measured continuously, and frequency of behaviour patterns such as head-tossing, tail swishing, and snorting was recorded. Rein tension parameters showed reasonable repeatabilities within horse-rider pairs (e.g. mean rein tension: r(2)=0.61 ± 0.11; variance of rein tension: r(2)=0.52 ± 0.14). Regression analysis revealed that a larger proportion of variance in rideability scores could be explained by maximum (17%), mean (16%) and variance (15%) of rein tension compared to horses' or riders' behavioural parameters (tail-swishing: 5% and rider's use of hands: 5%, respectively). According to mixed model analysis, rideability scores dropped (all Prein tension (e.g. -0.37 ± 0.14 scores per additional 10 Newton in mean tension). However, mean rein tension differed between testing stations (Prein tension is either directly or indirectly an important factor for judges to derive rideability scores. Given the importance of rein tension parameters to both rider comfort and horse welfare, potentially, measurements of rein tension along with behaviour observations assessing the quality of rein contact (e.g. distinguishing a light contact from attempts to evade contact) might be used to make the assessment of rideability more impartial.

  16. Population ecology of feral horses in an era of fertility control management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    Management of wildlife often requires intervention to regulate growth of populations that would otherwise become overabundant. Controlling fecundity using contraceptives has become an increasingly popular tool for attempting to manage locally overabundant wildlife species, but the population-level effects of such applications are largely unknown. Contraceptive treatments can produce unexpected feedbacks that act on births, survival, immigration, and emigration. Such feedbacks may considerably influence our ability to regulate populations using fertility control. I followed feral horses (Equus caballus) in three intensively managed populations to assess longitudinal treatment effects on demography. The transient contraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) produced longer duration of infertility than intended. Repeated PZP vaccinations of females extended the duration of infertility far beyond the targeted management period, with time to first post-treatment parturition increasing 411days for every annual inoculation received. When these animals did conceive and give birth, parturition was later in the year and temporally asynchronous with forage abundance. An average of 30% (range=11–77%) of females were contracepted annually during the treatment period in all three populations and apparent annual population growth rate was 4–9% lower in the post-treatment years as compared to pretreatment years. Population growth was positive, however, and increased steadily every year that a management removal did not occur. The observed number of births was 33% fewer than the expected number of births, based on number of treated females, individual efficacy of treatment, and number of untreated females and their age-specific fecundity rates. Only half of this difference was explained by the apparent residual effect of treatment. Birth rate in the youngest untreated females (age 2–5 years old) was reduced in years when their conspecifics were treated, enhancing the effects of

  17. Environmental Assessment for Wild Horse Gathering Inside and Outside Wild Horse Herd Management Areas

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management

    1999-01-01

    Enclosed you will find the Environmental Assessment (EA) which describes the impacts of gathering wild horses in the Rock Springs Field Office area. Gathering wild horses would take place in the Great Divide Basin, White Mountain, Little Colorado, and Salt Wells Creek Wild Horse Herd Management Areas (HMA) and in an area known as the North Baxter/Jack Morrow area (outside the HMAs).

  18. Relationship of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle with obesity and obesity-associated hyperinsulinemia in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, Heidi E; Frank, Nicholas; Kwong, Grace P S; McFarlane, Dianne

    2015-10-01

    In horses, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance (insulin dysregulation) are associated with the development of laminitis. Although obesity is associated with insulin dysregulation, the mechanism of obesity-associated insulin dysregulation remains to be established. We hypothesized that oxidative stress in skeletal muscle is associated with obesity-associated hyperinsulinemia in horses. Thirty-five light breed horses with body condition scores (BCS) of 3/9 to 9/9 were studied, including 7 obese, normoinsulinemic (BCS ≥ 7, resting serum insulin obese, hyperinsulinemic (resting serum insulin ≥ 30 μIU/mL) horses. Markers of oxidative stress (oxidative damage, mitochondrial function, and antioxidant capacity) were evaluated in skeletal muscle biopsies. A Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to determine relationships between markers of oxidative stress and BCS. Furthermore, to assess the role of oxidative stress in obesity-related hyperinsulinemia, markers of antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage were compared among lean, normoinsulinemic (L-NI); obese, normoinsulinemic (O-NI); and obese, hyperinsulinemic (O-HI) horses. Increasing BCS was associated with an increase in gene expression of a mitochondrial protein responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis (estrogen-related receptor alpha, ERRα) and with increased antioxidant enzyme total superoxide dismutase (TotSOD) activity. When groups (L-NI, O-NI, and O-HI) were compared, TotSOD activity was increased and protein carbonyls, a marker of oxidative damage, decreased in the O-HI compared to the L-NI horses. These findings suggest that a protective antioxidant response occurred in the muscle of obese animals and that obesity-associated oxidative damage in skeletal muscle is not central to the pathogenesis of equine hyperinsulinemia.

  19. Occurrence of Wounds in Nigerian Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agina, Onyinyechukwu A; Ihedioha, John I

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of wounds in Nigerian horses. The study population was 1,621 horses sold at the Obollo Afor horse lairage in Enugu State, Nigeria, during a 6-month period: 3 months of dry season and 3 months of rainy season (February-April and June-August 2012). A total of 207 horses were systematically sampled and subjected to a comprehensive physical examination. Those with wounds were marked, recorded, and clinically examined. Of the 207 horses sampled, 21 (10.1%) had wounds. The body distribution of the wounds was 9.5% head, 9.5% forelimbs, 19.1% hind limbs, 4.8% tail, 14.3% flank, 9.5% loin, 19.1% hip, 9.5% barrel, and 4.8% croup. The occurrence of the wounds was not significantly associated with sex or season, but the occurrence in adults was significantly (p horses. It was concluded that the occurrence of wounds is relatively high (10.1%), and mainly the hind limbs, hip, and flank of adult horses are affected. It was recommended that horse guardians and handlers should be properly educated on the care of horses.

  20. Discospondylitis in an adult horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillyer, M.H.; Innes, J.F.; Patteson, M.W.; Barr, A.R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Discospondylitis, of presumed bacterial origin, was diagnosed in an adult thoroughbred racehorse. The clinical signs were vague and associated with abnormal mobility of the neck and forelimbs. Clinical pathology showed only a non-specific inflammatory response. A scintigraphic examination revealed the site of the lesion and the diagnosis was confirmed by the identification of radiographic changes affecting two thoracic vertebrae. A prolonged course of antimicrobial agents produced a complete recovery and the horse returned to full athletic use

  1. Copper sulphate poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M

    1975-01-01

    In the archives of the Clinic for Internal Diseases of Domestic Animals at the Veterinary Faculty of Zagreb University some thirty cases of horse disease diagnosed as copper sulphate poisoning were noted. The data correspond in many respects to the clinical findings of copper sulphate poisoning in other domestic animals. A series of experimental horse poisonings were undertaken in order to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate. The research results are as follows: Horses are sensitive to copper sulphate. Even a single application of 0.125 g/kg body weight in 1% concentration by means of incubation into the stomach causes stomach and gut disturbances and other poisoning symptoms. Poisoning occurs in two types: acute and chronic. The former appears after one to three applications of copper sulphate solution and is characterized by gastroenteritis, haemolysis, jaundice and haemoglobinuria with signs of consecutive damage of kidney, liver and other organs. The disease, from the first application to death lasts for two weeks. Chronic poisoning is caused by ingestion of dry copper sulphate in food (1% solution dried on hay or clover) for two or more months. There are chronic disturbances of stomach and gut and loss of weight, and consecutive (three to four) haemolytic crises similar to those of acute poisoning. From the beginning of poisoning to death six or more months can elapse.

  2. Genetic parameters of eventing horse competition in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanu Isabelle

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic parameters of eventing horse competitions were estimated. About 13 000 horses, 30 000 annual results during 17 years and 110 000 starts in eventing competitions during 8 years were recorded. The measures of performance were logarithmic transformations of annual earnings, annual earnings per start, and annual earnings per place, and underlying variables responsible for ranks in each competition. Heritabilities were low (0.11/0.17 for annual results, 0.07 for ranks. Genetic correlations between criteria were high (greater than 0.90 except between ranks and earnings per place (0.58 or per start (0.67. Genetic correlations between ages (from 5 to 10 years old were also high (more than 0.85 and allow selection on early performances. The genetic correlation between the results in different levels of competition (high/international and low/amateur was near 1. Genetic correlations of eventing with other disciplines, which included partial aptitude needed for eventing, were very low for steeplechase races (0.18 and moderate with sport: jumping (0.45, dressage (0.58. The results suggest that selection on jumping performance will lead to some positive correlated response for eventing performance, but much more response could be obtained if a specific breeding objective and selection criteria were developed for eventing.

  3. Phenotypic diagnosis of dwarfism in six Friesian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, W; van der Lugt, J J; Nikkels, P G J; van den Belt, A J M; van der Kolk, J H; Stout, T A E

    2008-05-01

    An extreme form of abnormal development, dwarfism, is common in man and some animals, but has not been officially reported in horses. Within the Friesian horse breed, congenital dwarfism has been recognised for many years, but no detailed report exists on its phenotype. The most salient feature of the dwarf syndrome is the physeal growth retardation in both limbs and ribs. Affected animals have approximately 25% shorter fore- and hindlimbs and approximately 50% reduced bodyweight. Postnatal growth is still possible in these animals, albeit at a slower rate: the head and back grow faster than the limbs and ribs leading to the characteristic disproportional growth disturbance. Thus, adult dwarfs exhibit a normal, but a relatively larger head conformation, a broader chest with narrowing at the costochondral junction, a disproportionally long back, abnormally short limbs, hyperextension of the fetlocks and narrow long-toed hooves. Furthermore, a dysplastic metaphysis of the distal metacarpus and metatarsus is radiographically evident. Microscopic analysis of the growth plates at the costochondral junction shows an irregular transition from cartilage to bone, and thickening and disturbed formation of chondrocyte columns, which is similar to findings in osteochondrodysplasia.

  4. Frequency of and risk factors for epistaxis associated with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in horses: 251,609 race starts (1992-1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Hiraga, A; Ohmura, H; Kai, M; Jones, J H

    2001-05-01

    To determine the frequency of epistaxis during or after racing among racehorses and identify factors associated with development of epistaxis. Retrospective study. 247,564 Thoroughbred and 4,045 Anglo-Arab race starts. Race start information (breed, age, sex, racing distance, and race type) was obtained for Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab horses racing in Japan Racing Association-sanctioned races between 1992 and 1997. All horses that raced were examined by a veterinarian within 30 minutes of the conclusion of the race; any horse that had blood at the nostrils was examined with an endoscope. If blood was observed in the trachea, epistaxis related to exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) was diagnosed. Epistaxis related to EIPH was identified following 369 race starts (0.15%). Frequency of EIPH-related epistaxis was significantly associated with race type, age, distance, and sex. Epistaxis was more common following steeplechase races than following flat races, in older horses than in horses that were 2 years old, following races horses that had an episode of epistaxis, the recurrence rate was 4.64%. Results suggested that frequency of EIPH-related epistaxis in racehorses is associated with the horse's age and sex, the type of race, and the distance raced. The higher frequency in shorter races suggests that higher intensity exercise of shorter duration may increase the probability of EIPH.

  5. The effect of rider weight and additional weight in Icelandic horses in tölt: part II. Stride parameters responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, V; Stefánsdóttir, G J; Jansson, A; Roepstorff, L

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of rider weight in the BW ratio (BWR) range common for Icelandic horses (20% to 35%), on stride parameters in tölt in Icelandic horses. The kinematics of eight experienced Icelandic school horses were measured during an incremental exercise test using a high-speed camera (300 frames/s). Each horse performed five phases (642 m each) in tölt at a BWR between rider (including saddle) and horse starting at 20% (BWR20) and increasing to 25% (BWR25), 30% (BWR30), 35% (BWR35) and finally 20% (BWR20b) was repeated. One professional rider rode all horses and weight (lead) was added to saddle and rider as needed. For each phase, eight strides at speed of 5.5 m/s were analyzed for stride duration, stride frequency, stride length, duty factor (DF), lateral advanced placement, lateral advanced liftoff, unipedal support (UPS), bipedal support (BPS) and height of front leg action. Stride length became shorter (Y=2.73-0.004x; P0.05). In conclusion, increased BWR decreased stride length and increased DF proportionally to the same extent in all limbs, whereas BPS increased at the expense of decreased UPS. These changes can be expected to decrease tölt quality when subjectively evaluated according to the breeding goals for the Icelandic horse. However, beat, symmetry and height of front leg lifting were not affected by BWR.

  6. Freedom from equine infectious anaemia virus infection in Spanish Purebred horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fatima; Fores, Paloma; Ireland, Joanne; Moreno, Miguel A.; Newton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction No cases of equine infectious anaemia (EIA) have been reported in Spain since 1983. Factors that could increase the risk of reintroducing equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) into Spain include the recent occurrence of the disease in Europe and the absence of compulsory serological testing before importation into Spain. Aims and objectives Given the importance of the Spanish Purebred (SP) horse breeding industry in Spain, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to provide evidence of freedom from EIAV in SP stud farms in Central Spain. Materials and methods Serum samples from 555 SP horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013, were tested using a commercially available EIAV ELISA with a published sensitivity of 100 per cent. Results All 555 samples were negative for antibody to EIAV, providing evidence of a true EIAV seroprevalence between 0 per cent and 0.53 per cent (95% CIs of the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA technique used Q10 were 100 per cent and 99.3 per cent, respectively) among the SP breeding population in Central Spain. Conclusions These findings should serve to increase confidence when exporting SP horses to other countries. PMID:26392894

  7. To pace or not to pace: a pilot study of four- and five-gaited Icelandic horses homozygous for the DMRT3 'Gait Keeper' mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäderkvist Fegraeus, K; Hirschberg, I; Árnason, T; Andersson, L; Velie, B D; Andersson, L S; Lindgren, G

    2017-12-01

    The Icelandic horse is a breed known mainly for its ability to perform the ambling four-beat gait 'tölt' and the lateral two-beat gait pace. The natural ability of the breed to perform these alternative gaits is highly desired by breeders. Therefore, the discovery that a nonsense mutation (C>A) in the DMRT3 gene was the main genetic factor for horses' ability to perform gaits in addition to walk, trot and canter was of great interest. Although several studies have demonstrated that homozygosity for the DMRT3 mutation is important for the ability to pace, only about 70% of the homozygous mutant (AA) Icelandic horses are reported to pace. The aim of the study was to genetically compare four- and five-gaited (i.e. horses with and without the ability to pace) AA Icelandic horses by performing a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis. All horses (n = 55) were genotyped on the 670K Axiom Equine Genotyping Array, and a GWA analysis was performed using the genabel package in r. No SNP demonstrated genome-wide significance, implying that the ability to pace goes beyond the presence of a single gene variant. Despite its limitations, the current study provides additional information regarding the genetic complexity of pacing ability in horses. However, to fully understand the genetic differences between four- and five-gaited AA horses, additional studies with larger sample materials and consistent phenotyping are needed. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  8. Vertebral body osteomyelitis in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, M.D.; Madigan, J.E.; Lichtensteiger, C.A.; Large, S.M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical signs, laboratory data, results of nuclear scintigraphy and radiographic examination of five horses with vertebral body osteomyelitis are described together with response to treatment. Three horses were less than five months of age. Four horses demonstrated hindlimb paresis and in three a focus of pain in the thoracolumbar region could be identified. An umbilical abscess, a caudal lobe lung abscess and a patent urachus were considered primary niduses of infection in each of three horses. Leucocytosis, neutrophilia, anaemia and elevated fibrinogen were the most consistent laboratory abnormalities. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed in three horses and identified the site of the vertebral lesion which was subsequently evaluated radiographically. In the other two horses radiographic examination in the region of areas of focal pain identified a lesion. Radiographic abnormalities included compression fractures of vertebral bodies (two), proliferative new bone (three) and soft tissue swelling ventral to a vertebral body (one). Two horses, including one with a compression fracture of the second lumbar vertebra, received parenteral antimicrobial therapy for 40 and 74 days, respectively. When re-examined six months later they showed no neurological abnormalities. The other three horses failed to respond to antimicrobial treatment and were humanely destroyed. The horse with a lung abscess also had an abscess cranial to the right tuber coxae which extended into the vertebral bodies of the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae from which Streptococcus zooepidemicus was cultured. A horse with proliferative new bone on the ventral aspect of the fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae had a mediastinal mass associated with these vertebrae and fungal granulomas, from which Aspergillus species was cultured, in the heart and aorta, trachea, spleen and kidney. The horse with a patent urachus and soft tissue swelling ventral to the vertebral body of the 12th thoracic vertebra

  9. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-11-12

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  10. Factors affecting prevalence and abundance of A.perfoliata infections in horses from south-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Grzybek, Maciej; Szczepaniak, Klaudiusz; Studzińska, Maria; Demkowska-Kutrzepa, Marta; Roczeń-Karczmarz, Monika; Abbass, Zahrai Abdulhammza; Kostro, Krzysztof; Junkuszew, Andrzej

    2017-11-15

    Equine Anoplocephalosis constitute a significant problem in horses worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyse intrinsic (host age and sex) and extrinsic (management type, pasture type and moisture) factors that influence the prevalence and FEC of A. perfoliata infections. Faecal samples were collected from 994 horses managed in studs or individually between 2012 and 2014. The Sedimentation-flotation method was applied for coproscopic analysis, and faecal egg counts were calculated. The overall prevalence was 25.1% (21.4-29.0) with the highest prevalence (36.1% [28.1-44.8]) found in horses 10-20 years old. The individuals kept in studs showed three times higher A. perfoliata prevalence compared to the ones managed individually. The prevalence significantly differed between pasture types, with individuals kept in studs (37.6% [34.3-40.9]) showing four times higher prevalence than horses kept individually (9.2% [4.8-16.5]). More horses kept on watery (42.0% [36.6-47.6]) and semi-watery (35.9% [31.3-40.7]) pastures were infected than those on dry (6.6% [4.6-9.2]) pastures. The overall A. perfoliata FEC in all examined individual was 2.67 and differed within sex, with mares showing 4.3 - times higher FEC of infection than stallions. Horses bred in studs (3.65±0.289) showed higher FEC than these bred individually (1.28±0.198). There was the effect of pasture type on A. perfoliata FEC, with horses kept on joint pastures (4.06±0.29) showing higher FEC than individuals kept individually (0.88±0.23). Pasture moisture significantly affected A. perfoliata FEC with the highest FECs in horses from watery pastures. Horses bred on dry pastures showed 16 times lower FEC than horses bred on watery pastures. Host age also significantly affected A. perfoliata FEC, with the oldest individuals showing the highest mean FEC. The presented analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic factors may help to overcome A. perfoliata infections in horses in different breeding systems

  11. Adaptive molecular evolution of the Major Histocompatibility Complex genes, DRA and DQA, in the genus Equus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L; Getz, Wayne M

    2011-05-18

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes are central to vertebrate immune response and are believed to be under balancing selection by pathogens. This hypothesis has been supported by observations of extremely high polymorphism, elevated nonsynonymous to synonymous base pair substitution rates and trans-species polymorphisms at these loci. In equids, the organization and variability of this gene family has been described, however the full extent of diversity and selection is unknown. As selection is not expected to act uniformly on a functional gene, maximum likelihood codon-based models of selection that allow heterogeneity in selection across codon positions can be valuable for examining MHC gene evolution and the molecular basis for species adaptations. We investigated the evolution of two class II MHC genes of the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen (ELA), DRA and DQA, in the genus Equus with the addition of novel alleles identified in plains zebra (E. quagga, formerly E. burchelli). We found that both genes exhibited a high degree of polymorphism and inter-specific sharing of allele lineages. To our knowledge, DRA allelic diversity was discovered to be higher than has ever been observed in vertebrates. Evidence was also found to support a duplication of the DQA locus. Selection analyses, evaluated in terms of relative rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations (dN/dS) averaged over the gene region, indicated that the majority of codon sites were conserved and under purifying selection (dN

  12. Adaptive molecular evolution of the Major Histocompatibility Complex genes, DRA and DQA, in the genus Equus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getz Wayne M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes are central to vertebrate immune response and are believed to be under balancing selection by pathogens. This hypothesis has been supported by observations of extremely high polymorphism, elevated nonsynonymous to synonymous base pair substitution rates and trans-species polymorphisms at these loci. In equids, the organization and variability of this gene family has been described, however the full extent of diversity and selection is unknown. As selection is not expected to act uniformly on a functional gene, maximum likelihood codon-based models of selection that allow heterogeneity in selection across codon positions can be valuable for examining MHC gene evolution and the molecular basis for species adaptations. Results We investigated the evolution of two class II MHC genes of the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen (ELA, DRA and DQA, in the genus Equus with the addition of novel alleles identified in plains zebra (E. quagga, formerly E. burchelli. We found that both genes exhibited a high degree of polymorphism and inter-specific sharing of allele lineages. To our knowledge, DRA allelic diversity was discovered to be higher than has ever been observed in vertebrates. Evidence was also found to support a duplication of the DQA locus. Selection analyses, evaluated in terms of relative rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations (dN/dS averaged over the gene region, indicated that the majority of codon sites were conserved and under purifying selection (dN dS. However, the most likely evolutionary codon models allowed for variable rates of selection across codon sites at both loci and, at the DQA, supported the hypothesis of positive selection acting on specific sites. Conclusions Observations of elevated genetic diversity and trans-species polymorphisms supported the conclusion that balancing selection may be acting on these loci. Furthermore, at the DQA, positive selection was

  13. Pre- and postnatal growth phenomena of Burchell's Zebra Equus Burchelli Antiquorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Smuts

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Between 1969 and 1972 growth data were collected from 175 zebra Equus burchelli antiquorum and 138 zebra embryos and foetuses from the Central District of the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa. Statistical analysis of data indicated no significant difference between body mass of adult stallions (range == 267,3 to 373,3 kg; mean = 318,5 kg; n = 57 and adult non-pregnant mares (range = 272,6 to 386,9 kg; mean = 321,6 kg; n = 51 (t = 0,587. The heaviest zebra had a body mass of 429,4 kilogram. This was a pregnant mare carrying a 35,2 kg foetus. Von Bertalanffy growth curves indicated that shoulder heights in young zebra may reach the adult range by one year of age, the adult body mass range is, however, only attained after three years of age. These curves also showed that age classification of free roaming zebra is only reliable up to the age of about two years, after which individual variation is too great. Stallions were significantly taller at the shoulder than mares (mean = 1,8 cm (t = 2,032 and neck thickness was the only body dimension showing visible sexual dimorphism in adults. Here the stallion had a neck girth on average 8,1 cm greater than the mare. Regression equations for estimating body mass from body dimensions were calculated by using a standard logarithmic transformation and fitting a linear regression by the method of least squares and also by undertaking standard straight line linear regression analyses. Exponential curves obtained by the first method indicated that growth was not isometric (not linear and that the ratios of any of the dimensions of length to body mass were con- stantly changing, i.e. growth is allometric. Marked allometric growth differences existed between the two sexes except in the case of the heart girth-body mass relationship. Comparison of growth data from E. b. antiquorum with that of E. b. boehmi from Tanzania (Sachs 1967, indicates that E. b. antiquorum is considerably larger. Body masses

  14. Genetic Variability of Show Jumping Attributes in Young Horses Commencing Competing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Próchniak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to select traits that may constitute a prospective criterion for breeding value prediction of young horses. The results of 1,232 starts of 894 four-, five-, six-, and seven-year-old horses, obtained during jumping championships for young horses which had not been evaluated in, alternative to championships, training centres were analyed. Nine traits were chosen of those recorded: ranking in the championship, elimination (y/n, conformation, rating of style on day one, two, and three, and penalty points on day one, two, and three of a championship. (Covariance components were estimated via the Gibbs sampling procedure and adequate (covariance component ratios were calculated. Statistical classifications were trait dependent but all fitted random additive genetic and permanent environment effects. It was found that such characteristics as penalty points and jumping style are potential indicators of jumping ability, and the genetic variability of the traits was within the range of 14% to 27%. Given the low genetic correlations between the conformation and other results achieved on the parkour, the relevance of assessment of conformation in four-years-old horses has been questioned.

  15. Influence of functional nutrients on insulin resistance in horses with equine metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marycz, Eberhard Moll and Jakub Grzesiak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The obesity is a rising health problem both in veterinary and human medicine. In equine medicine excessive body weight is frequently related to insulin resistance and laminitis as is defined as equine metabolic syndrome (EMS. The dietetic management is considered as the crucial part of treatment strategy in the course of EMS. The main feeding recommendation is to administer the low energy diet in order to restore insulin efficiency and to lower body weight. In this study 14 horses of different breed, both sexes and different ages with diagnosed equine metabolic syndrome were fed, concurrently, with oats (3g/kg bw, hay (15g/kg bw and experimental dietary supplement containing selected herbs, aminoacids, butyric acid derivative, biotin and selected dietetic plant like artichoke. The influence of above dietary protocol on body weight, insulin level, and adipose tissue morphometry was investigated in horses from group A. Horses from group B fed only with oats (3g/kg bw and hay (15g/kg bw served as a control. Results of the experiment indicated that tested supplement could improve insulin efficiency and reduce body mass in experimental horses group.

  16. [Analysis of the population structure of the Black Forest Draught Horse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberle, Kerstin; Wrede, Jörn; Distl, Ottmar

    2003-01-01

    Gene contributions of foreign populations as well as coefficients of inbreeding and relationship were evaluated in 699 Black Forest Draught horses of Baden-Württemberg actually registered in the year 2002. Based on nearly complete 5-generation-pedigrees and after taking into account the remaining incompleteness, the mean coefficient of inbreeding for the total population was 6.5%. The recently by incrossing with different breeds newly established lines of stallions showed significantly lower mean coefficients of inbreeding. High rates of inbreeding of about 1.6% in the last five generations could also be faced by incrossing stallions of foreign coldblooded populations what resulted in a decrease of inbreeding in the last generation. In the total population the mean degree of relationship was 16%. The mean degree of relationships within lines of stallions was between 18.3 and 26.8%. The coefficients of relationships between lines of stallions varied between 5.1 and 16.6%. Especially, the newly established lines of stallions showed a lower mean degree of relationships to the other different lines of stallions. The proportion of purebred Black Forest Draught horses in the total population was nearly 70%. Assuming that most animals of unknown origin were purebred, the proportion of purebred Black Forest Draught horses reached about 90%. Austrian Noric, Swiss Freiberg and South German Coldblood stallions were the most important contributors to the Black Forest Draught horse population.

  17. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all.

  18. Assessment of modified Forssell’s myectomy success rate in the treatment of crib biting in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Krisová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the success rate of Forssell’s modified myectomy – surgical treatment of crib biting on 33 horses of various breeds identified as stereotypical cribbers which were referred to the Equine Clinic in Brno between January 2001 and December 2010. The long term outcome was available for all horses. The overall success of the surgery without considering influencing factors was 61%. Thirteen horses (39% returned to the stereotypical behaviour sooner or later after the surgery. In this retrospective study we confirmed the dependence of success of the surgery on the necessity of early treatment of the problem (up to 6 months after the appearance of initial signs, with the significance level of P = 0.037. Any connection between age, breed or sex, and positive outcome of the surgery were not confirmed during statistical evaluation. When the horses were diagnosed early enough, an 80% success rate in surgical treatment performed within 6 months from the initial signs of crib biting was recorded, which seems to be very promising. It can be concluded that surgical treatment of crib biting by modified Forsell’s myectomy is the recommended option in the therapy of this oral stereotype.

  19. EVOLUTION OF MORPHOMETRIC MEASURES IN THE MANGALARGA MARCHADOR BREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANO MARTINS SANTIAGO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mangalarga Marchador breed accounts for the largest horse herd in Brazil and has been experiencing national and international expansion. Nevertheless, there is little scientific production on the evolution of this breed and there are no studies on the morphometric transformations that took place during its formation. In this context, the present study aimed to assess the evolution in morphometric measures of the Mangalarga Marchador breed between 1970 and 2010. The research used information archived at the Brazilian Association of Mangalarga Marchador Breeders from 23,148 males and 92,980 females in a completely randomized experimental design. The six treatments consisted of the animals measured between 1970 and 1979, 1980 and 1989, 1990 and 1994, 1995 and 1999, 2000 and 2004, and 2005 and 2010, respectively. The measures assessed were: height at withers and croup, length of the head, neck, back, croup, shoulder, and body, width of the head and croup, thoracic circumference, and cannon circumference Over the period analyzed, males and females experienced a reduction in thoracic circumference, in the lengths of the head, back, croup, and shoulder, and in the widths of the head and croup. In the males, neck length and cannon circumference also decreased, while body length increased in females. Over time, breed selection led to smaller head, higher stature, and shorter trunk length. However, important measures for the breed’s functionality, such as shoulder length and thoracic circumference, decreased.

  20. Incomplete linear tibial fractures in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.J.; Allhands, R.V.; Baker, G.J.; Boero, M.J.; Foreman, J.H.; Hyyppa, T.; Huhn, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Incomplete linear tibial fractures were identified in two horses with the aid of scintigraphy. Both horses were treated successfully by strict stall confinement, and both returned to normal athletic activity. Scintigraphy can be used to facilitate the generally difficult diagnosis of incomplete tibial fractures

  1. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    However, to solve the simultaneous equations the ... The aggregate breeding value represents a fundamental concept, the breeding objective, which is ..... Two properties characterise a linear programming problem. The first is additivity, ...

  2. Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi as well as the identification of associated ticks in sympatric Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Elaine; Kock, Richard; McKeever, Declan; Gakuya, Francis; Musyoki, Charles; Chege, Stephen M; Mutinda, Mathew; Kariuki, Edward; Davidson, Zeke; Low, Belinda; Skilton, Robert A; Njahira, Moses N; Wamalwa, Mark; Maina, Elsie

    2015-01-01

    The role of equine piroplasmosis as a factor in the population decline of the Grevy's zebra is not known. We determined the prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in cograzing Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya and identified the associated tick vectors. Blood samples were taken from 71 donkeys and 16 Grevy's zebras from March to May 2011. A nested PCR reaction using 18s ribosomal (r)RNA primers on 87 blood spots showed 72% (51/71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 60.4-81.0%) of donkeys and 100% (16/16; 95% CI, 77.3-100%) of Grevy's zebras were T. equi positive. No samples were positive for B. caballi. Sequence comparison using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's basic local alignment search tool identified homologous 18s rRNA sequences with a global geographic spread. The T. equi-derived sequences were evaluated using Bayesian approaches with independent Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo runs. The sequences clustered with those found in Sudan, Croatia, Mongolia, and the US, with statistical support greater than 80% for the two main clades. Hyalomma tick species were found on both donkeys and Grevy's zebras, whereas Rhipicephalus pulchellus was found exclusively on Grevy's zebras and Hyalomma marginatum rupfipes on donkeys. The prevalence of T. equi was 100% in Grevy's zebras and 72% in donkeys with common tick vectors identified. Our results suggest that donkeys and Grevy's zebras can be asymptomatic carriers and that piroplasmosis is endemic in the study area.

  3. Treatment of medial condylar fractures of the third metatarsus in three horses with fibreglass casts under standing neuroleptanalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, D; Johanson, C; Phillips, T J

    2008-05-03

    Minimally displaced condylar fractures propagating into the third metatarsal diaphysis were treated conservatively in one thoroughbred and two Arabian racehorses. In each case a neuroleptanalgesic protocol provided adequate pain relief for a rigid fibreglass cast to be applied in a weight-bearing position. The fractures healed completely and the three horses recovered uneventfully. Two of them returned successfully to racing and the third was used for breeding.

  4. Exploring the virome of diseased horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Giannitti, Federico; Low, Jason; Keyes, Casey; Ullmann, Leila S.; Deng, Xutao; Aleman, Monica; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Pusterla, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics was used to characterize viral genomes in clinical specimens of horses with various organ-specific diseases of unknown aetiology. A novel parvovirus as well as a previously described hepacivirus closely related to human hepatitis C virus and equid herpesvirus 2 were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of horses with neurological signs. Four co-infecting picobirnaviruses, including an unusual genome with fused RNA segments, and a divergent anellovirus were found in the plasma of two febrile horses. A novel cyclovirus genome was characterized from the nasal secretion of another febrile animal. Lastly, a small circular DNA genome with a Rep gene, from a virus we called kirkovirus, was identified in the liver and spleen of a horse with fatal idiopathic hepatopathy. This study expands the number of viruses found in horses, and characterizes their genomes to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases. PMID:26044792

  5. Round-bale feeder design affects hay waste and economics during horse feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, K; Wilson, J; Cleary, K; Lazarus, W; Thomas, W; Hathaway, M

    2012-03-01

    Many horse owners find round bales convenient, less labor intensive, and more affordable than other hay types, but report an inability to control horse BW gain and excessive hay waste. The objectives were to compare hay waste, hay intake, and payback of 9 round-bale feeders and a no-feeder control when used during horse feeding. Nine round-bale feeders were tested: Cinch Net, Cone, Covered Cradle, Hayhut, Hay Sleigh, Ring, Tombstone, Tombstone Saver, and Waste Less. Each feeder design was placed on the ground in a dirt paddock. Five groups of 5 horses were fed in rotation for a 4-d period with each feeder. Every fourth day, groups were rotated among paddocks and a new round bale was placed in each feeder. In the 5 paddocks used, 5 feeders were installed for d 1 through 20, and the remaining 4 feeders and no-feeder control were installed for d 21 through 40. Groups of horses were sequentially assigned to feeders using two 5 × 5 Latin squares, the first for d 1 through 20, the second for d 21 through 40. Horse groups of similar age, BW, breed, and sex were formed from 25 Quarter Horse and Thoroughbred geldings and open mares (means: 11 yr; 541 kg of BW). Hay on the ground surrounding the feeder was collected daily, dried, and weighed. The total amount of hay removed around each feeder for a 4-d period was considered waste. Dry matter intake was estimated as the difference between hay disappearance and waste. Number of months for the reduction in waste to repay feeder cost (payback) were calculated using hay valued at $110/t, and improved feeder efficiency over the control. Feeder design did not affect hay intake (P > 0.05); all feeders resulted in an estimated hay intake of 2.0 to 2.4% BW; the no-feeder control resulted in a reduced intake of 1.3% BW (P = 0.001). Mean percentage of hay waste differed among feeders (P feeder control, 57%. Feeder design also affected payback (P feeder design affected hay waste and payback, but not estimated hay intake or BW change

  6. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  7. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great

  8. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental chang...... and provide important information for conservation management of migratory birds....

  9. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  10. Mutation breeding in mangosteen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Mohd Zain

    2002-01-01

    Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)

  11. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  12. Occurrence of Strongylidae (Nematoda: Strongyloidea) in Polish horses "tarpans" from Popielne Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawor, J

    2000-01-01

    The study was performed to evaluate intensity of strongylid infection in stabled tarpans using the method of collecting worms after anthelmintic treatment and in wild tarpans from Popielne reserve on the basis of faecal examination. After treatment with ivermectin 12 cyathostomes and one large strongyle species were recovered from the faeces of two tarpans. The most abundant cyathostome species were C. catinatum, C. pateratum, C. longibursatum, C. nassatum and C. coronatus. A higher intensity of infections with small strongyles (cyathostomes) was found in stabled group than in the group from the reserve. Large strongyles were more prevalent in wild tarpans, with Strongylus vulgaris as most common species (66.7%), but the intensity of infection was low. The present results are compared with earlier studies of horses in Poland and other countries. The results confirm the stability of cyathostomes in different breed of horses over the world.

  13. Blood phagocyte activity after race training sessions in Thoroughbred and Arabian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cywinska, Anna; Szarska, Ewa; Degorski, Andrzej; Guzera, Maciej; Gorecka, Renata; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester; Schollenberger, Antoni; Winnicka, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Intensive exercise and exertion during competition promote many changes that may result in the impairment of immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of "the first line of defense": neutrophils and monocytes in racing Thoroughbred and Arabian horses after routine training sessions. Twenty-three (12 Thoroughbred and 11 Arabian) horses were examined. Routine haematological (number of red blood cells - RBC, haemoglobin concentration - HGB, haematocrit - HCT, total number of white blood cells - WBC), biochemical (creatine phosphokinase activity - CPK and total protein concentration - TP) parameters, cortisol concentration as well as phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes were determined. The values of basic parameters and the activity of phagocytes differed between breeds and distinct patterns of exercise-induced changes were observed. The training sessions did not produce the decrease in phagocyte activity that might lead to the suppression of immunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic diversity of the Ethiopian Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) populations that includes a unique population of the Alledeghi Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Fanuel; Rosenbom, Sonia; Khalatbari, Leili; Moehlman, Patricia D; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Bekele, Afework

    2016-01-01

    The endangered Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi) is confined to the Horn of Africa, specifically Ethiopia and Kenya. It is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation due to human encroachment of historic range. Knowledge of population genetics is essential for the development of appropriate conservation actions and management. The focus of this study was to assess the heterogeneity and genetic distinctiveness of the two Grevy's zebra populations in Ethiopia. Non-invasive fecal samples (N = 120) were collected during 2009-2010 from Grevy's zebra populations in the Alledeghi Wildlife Reserve and the Sarite area, Ethiopia. Analyses of a 329 bp of the mtDNA control region of 47 sequences, revealed the existence of two unreported haplotypes in the northern population of Alledeghi, that were not shared with the southern population of Sarite. The Sarite population is contiguous with the Grevy's zebra population in Kenya. The nucleotide diversity levels found in both the populations are extremely low.

  15. Culicoides species attracted to horses with and without insect hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijt, van der R.; Boom, van den R.; Jongema, Y.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (1) which species of Culicoides is most commonly attracted to horses, (2) whether horses suffering insect hypersensitivity attract more Culicoides spp. than unaffected horses, and (3) the times when Culicoides spp. are most active. Horses affected by insect

  16. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be landed...

  17. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person other...

  18. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other person...

  19. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  20. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  1. Effect of early training on the jumping technique of horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santamaría, Susana; Bobbert, Maarten F.; Back, Willem; Barneveld, Ab; van Weeren, P. Rene

    Objective - To investigate the effects of early training for jumping by comparing the jumping technique of horses that had received early training with that of horses raised conventionally. Animals - 40 Dutch Warmblood horses. Procedure - The horses were analyzed kinematically during free jumping at

  2. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico shall be inspected as provided in §§ 93.306 and 93.323; shall be accompanied by a...

  3. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.

    2008-01-01

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure astrophysical reaction rates in laboratory. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is unique indirect technique allowing one measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the main application of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S b (E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U e for several two body processes are discussed

  5. DMRT3 is associated with gait type in Mangalarga Marchador horses, but does not control gait ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, L; Staiger, E A; Brooks, S A

    2015-04-01

    The Mangalarga Marchador (MM) is a Brazilian horse breed known for a uniquely smooth gait. A recent publication described a mutation in the DMRT3 gene that the authors claim controls the ability to perform lateral patterned gaits (Andersson et al. 2012). We tested 81 MM samples for the DMRT3 mutation using extracted DNA from hair bulbs using a novel RFLP. Horses were phenotypically categorized by their gait type (batida or picada), as recorded by the Brazilian Mangalarga Marchador Breeders Association (ABCCMM). Statistical analysis using the plink toolset (Purcell, 2007) revealed significant association between gait type and the DMRT3 mutation (P = 2.3e-22). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests that selective pressure for gait type is altering allele frequencies in this breed (P = 1.00e-5). These results indicate that this polymorphism may be useful for genotype-assisted selection for gait type within this breed. As both batida and picada MM horses can perform lateral gaits, the DMRT3 mutation is not the only locus responsible for the lateral gait pattern. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities

  7. Incomplete longitudinal fractures and fatigue injury of the proximopalmar medial aspect of the third metacarpal bone in 55 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R; Dyson, S

    2012-01-01

    Previous descriptions of incomplete longitudinal fractures and fatigue injury of the proximopalmar aspect of the third metacarpal bone (McIII) have focused on diagnostic imaging findings, especially in racehorses. To document the case details, clinical features, response to diagnostic analgesia, diagnostic imaging findings and follow-up data in a large group of horses with an incomplete longitudinal fracture or fatigue injury of the proximopalmar medial aspect of the McIII. Horses were included in the study if pain was localised to the proximopalmar aspect of the metacarpal region, with radiological evidence of an incomplete longitudinal fracture or generalised increased radiopacity in the proximopalmar medial aspect of the McIII, or focal increased radiopharmaceutical uptake (IRU) in the proximopalmar aspect of the McIII. Age, breed, gender, height, bodyweight, work discipline, work history, duration of lameness, clinical signs and responses to diagnostic analgesia were recorded. Radiographic and scintigraphic images were assessed subjectively and objectively. There were 55 horses representing a broad spectrum of ages and work disciplines, 73% of which had radiological abnormalities. The majority had no localising clinical signs, although 73% of horses with radiological abnormalities showed a characteristic pattern of lameness. Lameness was generally worse in straight lines than in circles. Increased radiopharmaceutical uptake ranged from mild to intense in the lame limb; 14% of nonlame limbs had mild IRU. Of horses for which long-term follow-up was available, 98% returned to full athletic function. Incomplete longitudinal fractures and fatigue injury of the proximopalmar medial aspect of the McIII may occur in horses of many types and sports disciplines, and are not confined to immature performance horses. They should be considered an important differential diagnosis for proximal metacarpal region pain. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Diagnosis of hoof diseases in horses using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, M.; Nowak, M.; Kaufels, N.; Tambur, Z.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes findings of computed tomography investigations at the Bergische Equine Clinic (Bergische Tierklinik), Germany, of 39 horses with hoof diseases. The most frequently findings were the navicular syndrome (eight horses), laminitis (seven horses), keratnoma (six horses) and ossification of collateral cartilages in the distal phalanx (four horses). The special value of the computed tomography is in evaluating the size and courses fracture/fissure of the navicular and koffin bones, which were diagnose in five horses. In four of horses no pathologic changes of the hoof were determined by computed tomography

  9. Distal phalanx fractures in horses: a survey of 274 horses with radiographic assessment of healing in 36 horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honnas, C.M.; O'Brien, T.R.; Linford, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The case records of 274 horses with fractures of the distal phalanx were reviewed. Fifty-two horses had bilateral forelimb fractures, for a total of 326 distal phalanx fractures. The fractures were classified into one of five previously described types, based on the radiographic anatomic configuration of the fracture. Solar margin fractures, which have been briefly described in other reports and previously classified as type V fractures, were identified in 132 horses. This type of fracture is distinct from other distal phalanx fractures. Due to the high incidence of solar margin fractures, these fractures were classified as a separate type (type VI). Follow-up radiographic examinations to assess fracture healing were available for 36 horses. Twenty-two horses with distal phalanx fractures (three type I, nine type II, two type III, one type IV, one type V, and six type VI) had radiographic evidence of complete bony union of the fracture at a mean of 11 months after injury. Eight horses with conplete type II fractures involving the articular surface had bony union of the body and solar margin, but not the subchondral bone at the articular surface, a mean of 11 months after injury. Six horses (four type II and two type IV) had little radiographic evidence of bony healing during the follow-up period. All fractures that eventually healed had evidence of progression toward bony union by 6 months after injury

  10. A comparative antibody study of the potential susceptibility of Thoroughbred and non-Thoroughbred horse populations in Ireland to equine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, Sarah; Arkins, Sean; Cullinane, Ann

    2010-11-01

    In Ireland, horses may be protected against equine influenza virus (EIV) as a result of natural exposure or vaccination. Current mandatory vaccination programmes are targeted at highly mobile horses. A correlation between antibody levels as measured by single radial haemolysis (SRH) and protective immunity against EIV has been established. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of selected populations of horses by quantifying their antibodies to EIV. Blood samples were collected from Thoroughbred weanlings, yearlings, racehorses and broodmares, teaser stallions and non-Thoroughbred horses. Antibodies against EIV H3N8 and H7N7 were measured by SRH. The order of susceptibility to Equine Influenza (EI) in the populations examined in Ireland was as follows: Thoroughbred weanlings > teasers > non-Thoroughbred horses and ponies > Thoroughbred yearlings > Thoroughbred horses in training > Thoroughbred broodmares. The H3N8 antibody levels of the weanlings, yearlings, broodmares and horses in training were similar to their H7N7 antibody levels, suggesting that their antibodies were primarily vaccinal in origin. The teasers and non-Thoroughbreds had higher H3N8 antibody levels than H7N7 antibody levels, suggesting that the majority of seropositive horses in these populations had been exposed to H3N8 by natural infection. Weanlings, teasers and non-Thoroughbred horses were identified as most susceptible to EIV. The results suggest that it would be advisable that weanlings are vaccinated prior to attendance at public sales, that teaser stallions are vaccinated prior to each breeding season and that mandatory vaccination be implemented for participation in non-Thoroughbred events. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, and its breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Alhaddad

    Full Text Available Domestic cats have a unique breeding history and can be used as models for human hereditary and infectious diseases. In the current era of genome-wide association studies, insights regarding linkage disequilibrium (LD are essential for efficient association studies. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent of LD in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, particularly within its breeds. A custom illumina GoldenGate Assay consisting of 1536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs equally divided over ten 1 Mb chromosomal regions was developed, and genotyped across 18 globally recognized cat breeds and two distinct random bred populations. The pair-wise LD descriptive measure (r(2 was calculated between the SNPs in each region and within each population independently. LD decay was estimated by determining the non-linear least-squares of all pair-wise estimates as a function of distance using established models. The point of 50% decay of r(2 was used to compare the extent of LD between breeds. The longest extent of LD was observed in the Burmese breed, where the distance at which r(2 ≈ 0.25 was ∼380 kb, comparable to several horse and dog breeds. The shortest extent of LD was found in the Siberian breed, with an r(2 ≈ 0.25 at approximately 17 kb, comparable to random bred cats and human populations. A comprehensive haplotype analysis was also conducted. The haplotype structure of each region within each breed mirrored the LD estimates. The LD of cat breeds largely reflects the breeds' population history and breeding strategies. Understanding LD in diverse populations will contribute to an efficient use of the newly developed SNP array for the cat in the design of genome-wide association studies, as well as to the interpretation of results for the fine mapping of disease and phenotypic traits.

  12. Reproductive phenology of Creole horses in Ecuador in the absence of photoperiod variation: The effects of forage availability and flooding affecting body condition of mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Juan; Yoong, Washington A; Mateos, Concha; Caño Vergara, Belén; Gómez, Chian L; Macías, Verónica

    2017-12-01

    Horse reproduction tends to be seasonal. The main adjusting factor in their original temperate ranges is photoperiod variation, although it is absent in equatorial areas where horses were introduced by European colonizers. Hence, dates of reproduction in these areas may be influenced by factors affecting mares' conditions and the success of foaling. Here we study reproductive timing in Creole horses in Ecuador reared in an extensive production system. We found that foaling peaked in August. Mares' conditions showed one peak in June-July, before the start of the breeding season, and another in December, and it was highly variable along the year. Mares' conditions increased after a period of vegetation growth and thus appeared negatively associated with the increment of grass greenness (normalized difference vegetation index data). Seasonal flooding of some pasturelands during March and April appeared to seriously impair mares' conditions and probably influenced the timing of foaling toward the dry season. Our results evidenced that horse breeding in these equatorial areas tended to be seasonal and point to some key factors that influence phenology by affecting body condition of mares, which may have implications for horse biology and management. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Santoshi, John Ashutosh; Leshem, Lall

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small...

  14. A clinical survey on the prevalence and types of cheek teeth disorders present in 400 Zamorano-Leonés and 400 Mirandês donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, J B; Dixon, P M; Bastos, E; San Roman, F; Viegas, C

    2013-12-14

    Dental disease is now recognised as a major but often unrecognised disorder of equids, including horses and donkeys. However, very few large clinical studies have documented the prevalence and type of dental disease present in different equid populations and no dental studies have been reported in Zamorano-Leonés or Mirandês donkeys, two endangered donkey breeds. Clinical and detailed oral examinations were performed in 400 Mirandês and 400 Zamorano-Leonés donkeys in Portugal and Spain. It was found that just 4.5 per cent had ever received any previous dental care. Cheek teeth (CT) disorders were present in 82.8 per cent of these donkeys, ranging from a prevalence of 29.6 per cent in the 25-year-old group. These CT disorders included enamel overgrowths (73.1 per cent prevalence but with just 6.3 per cent having associated soft tissue injuries), focal overgrowths (37.3 per cent), periodontal disease (23.5 per cent) and diastemata (19.9 per cent). Peripheral caries was present in 5.9 per cent of cases, but inexplicably, infundibular caries was very rare (1.3 per cent prevalence); this may have been due to their almost fully foraged diet. The high prevalence of enamel overgrowths in these donkeys, most which never received concentrates, also raises questions about the aetiology of this disorder. This very high prevalence of CT disorders, especially in older donkeys, was of great welfare concern in some cases and emphasises the need for routine dental care in these cases on welfare grounds and in order to help preserve these unique breeds.

  15. Axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament in the hindlimb of Friesian horses: review of 12 cases (2002-2012) and post-mortem analysis of the bone-ligament interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Harold; Voermans, Margreet; Veraa, Stefanie; van den Belt, Antoon J M; van der Toorn, Annette; Ploeg, Margreet; Gröne, Andrea; Back, Willem

    2014-11-19

    Axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament has been described in Friesian horses as well as in other breeds. The objectives of this study were to review the outcome of clinical cases of this disease in Friesian horses and analyse the pathology of the bone-ligament interface. Case records of Friesian horses diagnosed with axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament in the period 2002-2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Post-mortem examination was performed on horses that were euthanized (n = 3) and included macroscopic necropsy (n = 3), high-field (9.4 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging (n = 1) and histopathology (n = 2). Twelve horses were included, aged 6.8 ± 2.7 years. The hindlimb was involved in all cases. Lameness was acute in onset and severe, with a mean duration of 1.9 ± 1.0 months. Three horses were euthanized after diagnosis; 9 horses underwent treatment. Two horses (22%) became sound for light riding purposes, 2 horses (22%) became pasture sound (comfortable at pasture, but not suitable for riding), 5 horses (56%) remained lame. In addition to bone resorption at the proximo-axial margin of the proximal sesamoid bones, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology showed osteoporosis of the peripheral compact bone and spongious bone of the proximal sesamoid bones and chronic inflammation of the intersesamoidean ligament. Axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament in the hindlimb of Friesian horses carries a poor prognosis. Pathological characterization (inflammation, proximo-axial bone resorption and remodelling of the peripheral compact bone and spongious bone of the proximal sesamoid bones) may help in unravelling the aetiology of this disease.

  16. Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

    1993-05-01

    Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed each to provide the delivery of a tactile stimulus, a repetitive light tapping, at different locations (spaced 10.0 cm apart) along the horse's back. Two preliminary steps were necessary before generalization testing: training a measurable response (lip pressing) and training on several reinforcement schedules in the presence of a training stimulus (tapping by one of the solenoids). We then gave each horse two generalization test sessions. Results indicated that the horses' behavior was effectively controlled by the training stimulus. Horses made the greatest number of responses to the training stimulus, and the tendency to respond to the other test stimuli diminished as the stimuli became farther away from the training stimulus. These findings are discussed in the context of behavioral principles and their relevance to the training of horses.

  17. SUPPORTS FOR LOCAL BREEDS IN THE EUROPEAN REGION – AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Bojkovski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the incentives for conservation of local breeds in 35 European countries, with the particular reference to the situation in Slovenia. In order to collect all necessary data in different countries, detailed questionnaire was developed and sent out to National coordinators for Animal Genetic Resources in the European Region. Data were edited and analysed using MS Excel program where basic descriptive statistics was performed to show differences among countries in incentive payments. Incentives for local breeds in Slovenia were paid from the Agri-environmental payments. The amount of payment for one livestock unit was 89.38 € per year. Subsidies for adult cattle and horses of local breeds were therefore 89.38 € per animal, while for pigs there were 44.69 € per animal and for sheep and goats 13.41 € per animal. Comparing data from different countries, the highest subsides were received for cattle ranging from 45 € to 520 € for bulls. From all 35 countries, 16 countries have subsidies for horses. Despite two breeds of sheep and one breed of goat in Slovenia highly endangered, the level of subsides for sheep and goats for local breeds included in the environmental payments were equal i.e., 13.41 € per animal. Compared to 21 countries reported the financial support for sheep, only two countries had lower support than in Slovenia. The EC Regulations can explain differences in payments where the Member States are free when determining the payments level. Another reason could be since out of 35 countries, eleven are not EU members. National coordinators from all countries agreed that financial support per head is very important tool for breed conservation and such a practice should be continued. However, the current level of support does not compensate loss of income due to lower productivity.

  18. [Verrucous pastern dermatitis syndrome in heavy draught horses. Part II: Clinical findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geburek, F; Deegen, E; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Ohnesorge, B

    2005-07-01

    In the present field study the skin of the feet of 37 heavy draught horses of different breeds showing verrucous pastern dermatitis was examined clinically. Included were the degree of severity of the disease and the prevalence of anatomically normal structures associated with the skin: fetlock tufts of hair ("feathering"), ergots, chestnuts, bulges in the pastern region, cannon circumference. Each horse was examined for Chorioptes sp. skin mites. Information was also collected on the development of the skin alterations and housing conditions and feeding. These individual data were correlated with the clinical degree of severity of verrucous pastern dermatitis, which was evaluated using a numerical code (scoring system). In addition, punch biopsies were taken from the diseased skin of the feet and from healthy skin of the neck for comparative patho-histological examination (see Part III). Verrucous pastern dermatitis is a chronic disease which can be divided into four groups: scaling (group I), hyperkeratotic and hyperplastic plaque-like lesions (group II), tuberous skin masses (group III), and verrucous skin lesions with rugged surfaces (group IV). No correlation was found between the clinical degree of severity of the skin lesions and sex, breed, amount of work, use of stallions for breeding, grooming condition of the hair, white markings in the foot region, or Chorioptes sp. infestation. In regard to feeding it was found that the amount of maize and oats fed had some influence on the clinical degree of severity. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between the clinical degree of severity and the age, the grooming condition of the hooves, and the mean cannon circumference. The prevalence of fetlock tufts of hair, chestnuts, ergots, and anatomically normal bulges in the pastern region also increased significantly with the clinical degree of severity. Furthermore the study revealed that the clinical degree of severity depended on the hygienic

  19. Experimental transmission of equine hepacivirus in horses as a model for hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Joshua D; Evanoff, Ryan; Wilkinson, Tom E; Divers, Thomas J; Knowles, Donald P; Mealey, Robert H

    2015-05-01

    Equine hepacivirus (EHCV; nonprimate hepacivirus) is a hepatotropic member of the Flaviviridae family that infects horses. Although EHCV is the closest known relative to hepatitis C virus (HCV), its complete replication kinetics in vivo have not been described, and direct evidence that it causes hepatitis has been lacking. In this study, we detected EHCV in 2 horses that developed post-transfusion hepatitis. Plasma and serum from these horses were used to experimentally transmit EHCV to 4 young adult Arabian horses, two 1-month-old foals (1 Arabian and 1 Arabian-pony cross), and 2 foals (1 Arabian and 1 Arabian-pony cross) with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Our results demonstrated that EHCV had infection kinetics similar to HCV and that infection was associated with acute and chronic liver disease as measured by elevations of liver-specific enzymes and/or by histopathology. Although most of these animals were coinfected with equine pegivirus (EPgV), also a flavivirus, EPgV viral loads were much lower and often undetectable in both liver and blood. Three additional young adult Arabian-pony crosses and 1 SCID foal were then inoculated with plasma containing only EHCV, and evidence of mild hepatocellular damage was observed. The different levels of liver-specific enzyme elevation, hepatic inflammation, and duration of viremia observed during EHCV infection suggested that the magnitude and course of liver disease was mediated by the virus inoculum and/or by host factors, including breed, age, and adaptive immune status. This work documents the complete infection kinetics and liver pathology associated with acute and chronic EHCV infection in horses and further justifies it as a large animal model for HCV. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  20. Enterocin M and its Beneficial Effects in Horses-a Pilot Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, Andrea; Styková, Eva; Kubašová, Ivana; Gancarčíková, Soňa; Plachá, Iveta; Mudroňová, Dagmar; Kandričáková, Anna; Miltko, Renata; Belzecki, Grzegorz; Valocký, Igor; Strompfová, Viola

    2018-02-07

    Probiotic bacteria or their antimicrobial proteinaceous substances called bacteriocins (enterocins) hold promising prophylactic potential for animal breeding. This study present the results achieved after application of Enterocin M in horses. Enterocin M has never been applied to horses before. Clinically healthy horses (10) were involved in this pilot experiment. They were placed in the stables of the University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, Košice, Slovakia, with the approval of the University Ethics Committee. The animals were fed twice a day with hay and oats, or alternatively grazed with access to water ad libitum. The experiment lasted 6 weeks. Sampling was performed at the start of the experiment, at day 0-1, at day 21 (3 weeks of Enterocin M application), and at day 42 (3 weeks of cessation). Feces were sampled directly from the rectum and blood from the vena jugularis; the samples were immediately treated and/or stored for analyses. Each horse itself represented a control animal (compared to its status at the start of the experiment, day 0-1). After initial sampling, the horses were administered 100 μl of Ent M (precipitate, 12,800 AU/ml) in a small feed bolus to ensure it was consumed; Ent M was applied for 3 weeks (21 days). Fecal samples were treated using the standard microbial dilution method; phagocytic activity was assessed with standard and flow cytometry; biochemistry and metabolic profiles were tested using commercial kits and standard methods. Administration of Ent M led to mathematical reduction of coliforms, campylobacters ( ab P < 0.05), and significant reduction of Clostridium spp. ( ab P < 0.001, bc P < 0.001); increase of PA values was noted (P < 0.05, P < 0.0001); no negative influence on hydrolytic enzyme profile or biochemical blood parameters was noted.

  1. Prevalência de anticorpos antivírus da arterite dos eqüinos em cavalos criados no Estado de São Paulo Prevalence of equine arteritis virus specific antibodies in horses of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.C.S.H. Lara

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se a prova de soroneutralização em microplacas para detecção de anticorpos antivírus da arterite dos eqüinos em 659 amostras de soro sangüíneo de animais criados no Estado de São Paulo. A prevalência de anticorpos na população estudada foi igual a 18,2%. A raça Mangalarga foi a que apresentou maior taxa de prevalência, 33,3%. Animais na faixa etária de 6 a 24 meses de idade apresentaram a maior taxa de prevalência, 30,4%, e as fêmeas apresentaram prevalência de 22, 9%, mais alta do que nos machos.With the purpose of studying the prevalence of equine viral arteritis in horses raised in São Paulo State, Brazil, by the standard microtiter serum neutralization test, 659 serum samples were investigated. The prevalence of antibodies in the horse population was 18.2%, which was significantly higher in Mangalarga horses (33.3% than in any other breed (Thoroughbred, Arab, Quarter Horse, mixed breeds and others. The distribuition of horses by age showed that horses between 6 to 24 months of age (30.4% had a higher prevalence (30.4% rate than others. The female horses prevalence rate of 22.9% was significantly higher than in male horses.

  2. Mutation breeding in peas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaranowski, J [Institute of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Academy of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland); Micke, A [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1985-02-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  3. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaranowski, J.; Micke, A.

    1985-01-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  4. Influence of primitive Biłgoraj horses on the glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus)-dominated understory in a mixed coniferous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klich, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Changes in the understory dominated by glossy buckthorn Frangula alnus via the influence of primitive horses were analyzed in a 28-year-old enclosure in the village of Szklarnia at the Biłgoraj Horse-Breeding Centre near Janów Lubelski (eastern Poland). The analysis was conducted in 20 circular plots (30 m2) defined in adjacent, similar forest stands (enclosed and control). Disturbance by the horses, mainly through trampling, caused numerous paths to form within the glossy buckthorn-dominated understory and led to a decrease in density of stems of lower height classes (30-80 and 81-130 cm, respectively). An increase in species diversity at the expense of glossy buckthorn density was also observed. The horses' trampling caused an increase in Padus avium density and the encroachment of other woody plant species that were less shade-tolerant and grew well in soils rich in nutrients. An increase in the density of woody plants over 180 cm above ground was observed within the enclosure, which was probably the result of the horses' excretion of feces. The results presented here provide new insight into the ecological role that horses play in forest-meadow landscape mosaics, which, via altering the development of vegetation, may contribute to an increase in biodiversity within forest habitats.

  5. Stable isotopes suggest differences in diet between historic and reintroduced Przewalskís horses in the Gobi desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Spasskaya, Natalia N.; Sablin, Mikhail V.; Voigt, Christian C.; Kaczensky, Petra

    2016-04-01

    In historic times, two wild equid species, the Przewalski᾽s horse (PH; Equus ferus przewalskii) and the Asiatic wild ass (khulan, KH; Equus hemionus), roamed the Eurasian steppes. By the end of the 1960s, PHs had been driven to extinction in the wild and the range of KHs became severely restricted to the least productive habitats. However, PHs survived in captivity and reintroductions since the 1990s have brought the species back to parts of its native range in Mongolia and northern China where they again overlap with KHs. Ecological research on PHs and KHs has increased in recent years, but very little information is available on the ecology of the original PHs prior to extinction in the wild. We applied stable isotope analysis (13C, 15N, and 2H) of segmentally cut tail hair of PHs and KHs, collected during expeditions in NW China and SW Mongolia in 1889-1899, to draw inferences about the species feeding ecology. We compared tail hair isotope patterns of historic individuals to those of their extant counterparts from the Mongolian Gobi. A previous study of isotopic tail hair signatures of extant PHs (N=6) and KHs (N=6) suggested species specific differences in diet, with PHs being year-round grazers, but KHs switching between being grazers in summer and mixed feeders in winter (Burnik Šturm et al., in prep.). The comparison of isotope patterns of extant with historic samples confirms diet seasonality in historic KHs (N=3), but detects the same seasonality in five out of six PHs, suggesting that historic PHs had a different isotopic dietary niche than extant PHs. While we are still unable to fully understand the underlying reasons for this change in PHs, our results clearly suggest that the isotopic dietary niche of PHs was wider in the past, suggesting a higher diet flexibility, and overlapped with that of KHs, suggesting a high competition potential over Gobi pastures between the two equid species in historic times. Reference: Burnik Šturm, M., Ganbaatar, O

  6. Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski's horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunitz, Charleen; Fages, Antoine; Hanghøj, Kristian; Albrechtsen, Anders; Khan, Naveed; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Owens, Ivy J; Felkel, Sabine; Bignon-Lau, Olivier; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Mittnik, Alissa; Mohaseb, Azadeh F; Davoudi, Hossein; Alquraishi, Saleh; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Crubézy, Eric; Benecke, Norbert; Olsen, Sandra; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Massy, Ken; Pitulko, Vladimir; Kasparov, Aleksei; Brem, Gottfried; Hofreiter, Michael; Mukhtarova, Gulmira; Baimukhanov, Nurbol; Lõugas, Lembi; Onar, Vedat; Stockhammer, Philipp W; Krause, Johannes; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Undrakhbold, Sainbileg; Erdenebaatar, Diimaajav; Lepetz, Sébastien; Mashkour, Marjan; Ludwig, Arne; Wallner, Barbara; Merz, Victor; Merz, Ilja; Zaibert, Viktor; Willerslev, Eske; Librado, Pablo; Outram, Alan K; Orlando, Ludovic

    2018-04-06

    The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5500 years ago, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient-horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient- and modern-horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski's horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4000 years ago to present only show ~2.7% of Botai-related ancestry. This indicates that a massive genomic turnover underpins the expansion of the horse stock that gave rise to modern domesticates, which coincides with large-scale human population expansions during the Early Bronze Age. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. Distortion effects in Trojan Horse applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Irgaziev, B.; Bertulani, C. A.; Spitaleri, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN , Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Texas A and M University, College Station (United States); Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Taskent University, Taskent (Uzbekistan); Texas A and M University, Commerce (United States); Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy)

    2012-11-20

    Deuteron induced quasi-free scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades. This was done not only for nuclear structure and processes study but also for the important astrophysical implication (Trojan Horse Method, THM). In particular the width of the neutron momentum distribution in deuteron will be studied as a function of the transferred momentum. The same will be done for other nuclides of possible use as Trojan Horse particles. Trojan horse method applications will also be discussed because the momentum distribution of the spectator particle inside the Trojan horse nucleus is a necessary input for this method. The impact of the width (FWHM) variation on the extraction of the astrophysical S(E)-factor is discussed.

  8. EFFECT OF TWO PROTOCOLS OF CRYOPRESERVATION ON FERTILIZING CAPACITY OF STALLION (Equus caballus SEMEN EFECTO DE DOS PROTOCOLOS DE CRIOPRESERVACIÓN SOBRE LA CAPACIDAD FECUNDANTE DE SEMEN EQUINO (Equus caballus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Restrepo Betancur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Semen cryopreservation is a fundamental process for the development of biotechnologies for assisted reproduction in horses. The use of cryopreservation techniques with changes in concentrations and the nature of the cryoprotectant, as well as, the different types of vials for storage of semen, have become an alternative to improve the protocols used. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of two protocols of cryopreservation (freezing and vitrification on the fertilizing capacity of stallion semen. The study was conducted with horses of the Criollo Colombiano breed. For freezing was used a extender supplemented with egg yolk (4% and dimethyl formamide (5%, and 0.5 mL straws as vials, whereas for vitrification, the extender was supplemented with egg yolk (8% and dimethyl formamide (8%, and cryovials were used as carriers. As post thaw parameters were evaluated: progressive motility, vitality, normal morphology and integrity of the plasma membrane through the hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS. For statistical evaluation was fitted a generalized linear model (GLM and means were compared by the Tukey test. Were found average percentages of progressive motility, vitality, normal morphology and HOS of 41.6 ± 11.8 and 37 ± 8.5, 54.3 ± 10.2 and 52.3 ± 7.8, 83.1 ± 5.4 and 83.6 ± 5.8, 41.7 ± 9.8 and 38.9 ± 3.6, for cryopreserved semen by freezing and vitrification, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 between treatments for any of the parameters evaluated. The fertilizing capacity of equine semen cryopreserved by vitrification is comparable to that obtained by conventional freezing.Resumen. La criopreservación de semen es un proceso fundamental en el desarrollo de biotecnologías para la reproducción asistida en equinos. El uso de diferentes técnicas de criopreservación con cambios en las concentraciones y la naturaleza de los crioprotectores, así como en los diferentes tipos de

  9. Invisible Trojan-horse attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin; Makarov, Vadim

    2017-08-21

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance against Scarani-Ac´ın-Ribordy-Gisin (SARG04) QKD protocol at 1924 nm versus that at 1536 nm. The attack strategy was proposed earlier but found to be unsuccessful at the latter wavelength, as reported in N. Jain et al., New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014). However at 1924 nm, we show experimentally that the noise response of the detectors to bright pulses is greatly reduced, and show by modeling that the same attack will succeed. The invisible nature of the attack poses a threat to the security of practical QKD if proper countermeasures are not adopted.

  10. Refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred horse: a comparison with the Crossbred horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull-Cotrina, Jorge; Molleda, Jose M; Gallardo, José; Martín-Suárez, Eva

    2013-01-01

    To assess the refractive state of the equine eye utilizing retinoscopy. To compare the refractive state of Spanish Thoroughbred horses with the refractive state of Crossbred horses. The refractive state of 135 horses (264 eyes) was assessed utilizing streak retinoscopy. Two perpendicular meridians were examined in order to assess astigmatism at a working distance of approximately 67 cm. A group of 81 Spanish Thoroughbred horses was compared with a group of 54 Crossbred horses. Cyclopentolate ophthalmic solution was instilled in the eyes of a group of 18 horses to determine if accommodation has any influence on the assessment of the refractive state.   Mean ± SE refractive state of all horses examined was -0.17 ± 0.04 D. The mean refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred was -0.28 ± 0.06 D while that of the Crossbred was -0.01 ± 0.05 D. The refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred was found to be statistically different to that of the Crossbred. The most prevalent refractive state was emmetropia in all cases, followed by hyperopia for the Crossbred, and myopia for the Spanish Thoroughbred. Astigmatism ≥0.50 D present in both eyes from the same individual was found in 21.7% of all horses examined. Anisometropia ≥1.00 D was diagnosed in 4 out of 129 horses with both visual eyes. Cycloplegia did not statistically affect the refractive state of the evaluated eyes. The equine eye has a refractive state close to emmetropia. Myopia is higher among Spanish Thoroughbred horses than among Crossbred horses. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  11. Miscellaneous neurologic or neuromuscular disorders in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Monica

    2011-12-01

    NMD is an important cause of morbidity in horses. Signs of dysfunction could be variable depending on the specific area affected. NM disease can go unrecognized if a thorough evaluation is not performed in diseased horses. Electrodiagnostic testing is an area that has the potential to document and improve our understanding of NM disease yet is uncommonly performed. Keeping an open and observant mind will enhance our ability to search and find answers.

  12. Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

    1993-01-01

    Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed...

  13. Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

  14. Vascular Dysfunction in Horses with Endocrinopathic Laminitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A Morgan

    Full Text Available Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing's disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6 and horses with EL (n = 6 destined for euthanasia were recruited. We studied vessels from the hooves (laminar artery, laminar vein and the facial skin (facial skin arteries by small vessel wire myography. The response to vasoconstrictors phenylephrine (10-9-10-5M and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; 10-9-10-5M and the vasodilator acetylcholine (10-9-10-5M was determined. In comparison with healthy controls, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was dramatically reduced in all intact vessels from horses with EL (% relaxation of healthy laminar arteries 323.5 ± 94.1% v EL 90.8 ± 4.4%, P = 0.01, laminar veins 129.4 ± 14.8% v EL 71.2 ± 4.1%, P = 0.005 and facial skin arteries 182.0 ± 40.7% v EL 91.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.01. In addition, contractile responses to phenylephrine and 5HT were increased in intact laminar veins from horses with EL compared with healthy horses; these differences were endothelium-independent. Sensitivity to phenylephrine was reduced in intact laminar arteries (P = 0.006 and veins (P = 0.009 from horses with EL. Horses with EL exhibit significant vascular dysfunction in laminar vessels and in facial skin arteries. The systemic nature of the abnormalities suggest this dysfunction is associated with the underlying endocrinopathy and not local changes to the hoof.

  15. Spine fractures caused by horse riding

    OpenAIRE

    Siebenga, Jan; Segers, Michiel J. M.; Elzinga, Matthijs J.; Bakker, Fred C.; Haarman, Henk J. T. M.; Patka, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective study and review of literature. Objectives: Study of demographic data concerning spinal fractures caused by horse riding, classification of fractures according to the AO and Load Sharing classifications, evaluation of mid-term radiological results and long-term functional results. Methods: A review of medical reports and radiological examinations of patients presented to our hospital with horse riding-related spine fractures over a 13-year period; long-term functio...

  16. Do horses generalise between objects during habituation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tatjana; Ladevig, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Habituation to frightening stimuli plays an important role in horse training. To investigate the extent to which horses generalise between different visual objects, 2-year-old stallions were habituated to feeding from a container placed inside a test arena and assigned as TEST (n = 12) or REFERENCE...... horses (n = 12). In Experiment 1, TEST horses were habituated to six objects (ball, barrel, board, box, cone, cylinder) presented in sequence in a balanced order. The objects were of similar size but different colour. Each object was placed 0.5 m in front of the feed container, forcing the horses to pass...... the object to get to the food. TEST horses received as many 2 min exposures to each object as required to meet a habituation criterion. We recorded behavioural reactions to the object, latency to feed, total eating time, and heart rate (HR) during all exposures. There was no significant decrease in initial...

  17. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified

  18. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as primary blanket materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and secondary blanket materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified. (orig.)

  19. Equine peripheral dental caries: An epidemiological survey assessing prevalence and possible risk factors in Western Australian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, K; Kelty, E; Tennant, M

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral dental caries is defined as macroscopic destruction of the calcified dental tissues and can cause considerable dental pathology and pain. It appears to occur at a high prevalence in Western Australian horses. At present, risk factors for the condition are poorly understood, making treatment and prevention difficult. To assess the prevalence of and potential risk factors for peripheral caries in Western Australian horses. Cross-sectional, epidemiological study. A survey of 500 Western Australian horses was administered in two sections. The first section was completed by the owner and referred to the horse's signalment, diet and husbandry conditions. The second section was completed by veterinarians and focused on the horse's oral health. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors associated with peripheral caries. Peripheral caries was present in 58.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 54.5-63.1%) of surveyed horses. Breed was significantly associated with peripheral caries, with Warmbloods (odds ratio [OR] 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.82; P = 0.009) and Western breeds (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.19-0.78; P = 0.008) being less likely to have peripheral caries than Thoroughbreds. Dietary risk factors included oaten hay (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.87-4.53; P<0.001). A meadow hay-based diet was protective (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27-0.80; P = 0.005). Horses with access to quality pasture all year were less likely to have peripheral caries than horses without access to grazing (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.15-0.66; P = 0.002), as were horses on groundwater compared with horses on rainwater (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.65-6.78; P = 0.001), drinking water (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.14-3.62; P = 0.016) or dam water (OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.08-11.53; P = 0.037). Peripheral caries was positively correlated with periodontal disease (OR 4.53, 95% CI 2.91-7.06; P<0.001) and feed packing (feed present between the teeth without significant periodontal pocketing) (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.32-2.85; P = 0.001). Not

  20. Identification of Novel Equine (Equus caballus Tendon Markers Using RNA Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Kuemmerle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although several tendon-selective genes exist, they are also expressed in other musculoskeletal tissues. As cell and tissue engineering is reliant on specific molecular markers to discriminate between cell types, tendon-specific genes need to be identified. In order to accomplish this, we have used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq to compare gene expression between tendon, bone, cartilage and ligament from horses. We identified several tendon-selective gene markers, and established eyes absent homolog 2 (EYA2 and a G-protein regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 3 (GPRIN3 as specific tendon markers using RT-qPCR. Equine tendon cells cultured as three-dimensional spheroids expressed significantly greater levels of EYA2 than GPRIN3, and stained positively for EYA2 using immunohistochemistry. EYA2 was also found in fibroblast-like cells within the tendon tissue matrix and in cells localized to the vascular endothelium. In summary, we have identified EYA2 and GPRIN3 as specific molecular markers of equine tendon as compared to bone, cartilage and ligament, and provide evidence for the use of EYA2 as an additional marker for tendon cells in vitro.