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Sample records for horn diaphragm based

  1. Design-based modeling of magnetically actuated soft diaphragm materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaneththi, V. R.; Aw, K. C.; McDaid, A. J.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic polymer composites (MPC) have shown promise for emerging biomedical applications such as lab-on-a-chip and implantable drug delivery. These soft material actuators are capable of fast response, large deformation and wireless actuation. Existing MPC modeling approaches are computationally expensive and unsuitable for rapid design prototyping and real-time control applications. This paper proposes a macro-scale 1-DOF model capable of predicting force and displacement of an MPC diaphragm actuator. Model validation confirmed both blocked force and displacement can be accurately predicted in a variety of working conditions i.e. different magnetic field strengths, static/dynamic fields, and gap distances. The contribution of this work includes a comprehensive experimental investigation of a macro-scale diaphragm actuator; the derivation and validation of a new phenomenological model to describe MPC actuation; and insights into the proposed model’s design-based functionality i.e. scalability and generalizability in terms of magnetic filler concentration and diaphragm diameter. Due to the lumped element modeling approach, the proposed model can also be adapted to alternative actuator configurations, and thus presents a useful tool for design, control and simulation of novel MPC applications.

  2. Dynamic performance analysis of diaphragm coupling base on ABAQUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Wen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Base on the diaphragm coupling of driving system of a rotation testing machine,FEA software ABAQUS is used to simulate the force which the coupling gets when it is working,to obtain the stress and stain during the coupling with axial misalignment and degree misalignment and to find where the maximal stress is as well as its distribution.Then the nature frequency of the coupling is calculated by use of finite element software and rotor dynamics and compared with the date of misalignment and maximum speed from the manufacture,which verifies the correctness of the model and the reliability of the calculation method.

  3. Design of Diaphragm Based MEMS Pressure Sensor with Sensitivity Analysis for Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nallathambi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Micro-electromechanical System (MEMS diaphragm based pressure sensor for environmental applications is discussed. The main focus of this paper is to design, simulate and analyze the sensitivity of MEMS based diaphragm using different structures to measure the low and high pressure values. The simulation is done through the finite element tool and specifications related the maximum convinced stress; deflection and sensitivity of the diaphragms have been analyzed using the software INTELLISUITE 8.7v. The change in pressure is to bending of the diaphragm that modifies the measured displacement between the substrate and the diaphragm. This change in displacement gives the measure of the pressure in that environment. The design of these studies can be used to improve the sensitivity of these devices. Here the diaphragm based pressure sensor produced better displacement, sensitivity and stress output responses are obtained from the square diaphragm. The pressure range from 0.6 MPa to 25 MPa and its maximum displacement is accordingly 59 mm over a pressure range of 0 to 2 MPa. Its sensitivity is therefore 2.35 [10E-12/Pa].

  4. Horn clause verification with convex polyhedral abstraction and tree automata-based refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations...... underlying the Horn clauses. Experiments using linear constraint problems and the abstract domain of convex polyhedra show that the refinement technique is practical and that iteration of abstract interpretation with tree automata-based refinement solves many challenging Horn clause verification problems. We...... compare the results with other state-of-the-art Horn clause verification tools....

  5. Temperature Compensation Fiber Bragg Grating Pressure Sensor Based on Plane Diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Minfu; Fang, Xinqiu; Ning, Yaosheng

    2018-03-01

    Pressure sensors are the essential equipments in the field of pressure measurement. In this work, we propose a temperature compensation fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pressure sensor based on the plane diaphragm. The plane diaphragm and pressure sensitivity FBG (PS FBG) are used as the pressure sensitive components, and the temperature compensation FBG (TC FBG) is used to improve the temperature cross-sensitivity. Mechanical deformation model and deformation characteristics simulation analysis of the diaphragm are presented. The measurement principle and theoretical analysis of the mathematical relationship between the FBG central wavelength shift and pressure of the sensor are introduced. The sensitivity and measure range can be adjusted by utilizing the different materials and sizes of the diaphragm to accommodate different measure environments. The performance experiments are carried out, and the results indicate that the pressure sensitivity of the sensor is 35.7 pm/MPa in a range from 0 MPa to 50 MPa and has good linearity with a linear fitting correlation coefficient of 99.95%. In addition, the sensor has the advantages of low frequency chirp and high stability, which can be used to measure pressure in mining engineering, civil engineering, or other complex environment.

  6. Temperature Compensation Fiber Bragg Grating Pressure Sensor Based on Plane Diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Minfu; Fang, Xinqiu; Ning, Yaosheng

    2018-06-01

    Pressure sensors are the essential equipments in the field of pressure measurement. In this work, we propose a temperature compensation fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pressure sensor based on the plane diaphragm. The plane diaphragm and pressure sensitivity FBG (PS FBG) are used as the pressure sensitive components, and the temperature compensation FBG (TC FBG) is used to improve the temperature cross-sensitivity. Mechanical deformation model and deformation characteristics simulation analysis of the diaphragm are presented. The measurement principle and theoretical analysis of the mathematical relationship between the FBG central wavelength shift and pressure of the sensor are introduced. The sensitivity and measure range can be adjusted by utilizing the different materials and sizes of the diaphragm to accommodate different measure environments. The performance experiments are carried out, and the results indicate that the pressure sensitivity of the sensor is 35.7 pm/MPa in a range from 0 MPa to 50 MPa and has good linearity with a linear fitting correlation coefficient of 99.95%. In addition, the sensor has the advantages of low frequency chirp and high stability, which can be used to measure pressure in mining engineering, civil engineering, or other complex environment.

  7. A monitoring device for pressurised-air-driven diaphragm-based artificial heart assist devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeben, F.P.; Hoeben, F.P.; de Mul, F.F.M.; Stokkink, J.S.D.; Stokkink, H.S.D.; Koelink, M.H.; Koelink, M.H.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    A non-invasive device has been developed to monitor the diaphragm position and the blood flow in artificial heart assist devices equipped with a pressurised-air-driven diaphragm. Light scattering from the diaphragm is used as a mechanism for measuring. Information about the position of several

  8. GND-PCA-based statistical modeling of diaphragm motion extracted from 4D MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastika, Windra; Masuda, Yoshitada; Xu, Rui; Kido, Shoji; Chen, Yen-Wei; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed a statistical model of diaphragm motion using regular principal component analysis (PCA) and generalized N-dimensional PCA (GND-PCA). First, we generate 4D MRI of respiratory motion from 2D MRI using an intersection profile method. We then extract semiautomatically the diaphragm boundary from the 4D-MRI to get subject-specific diaphragm motion. In order to build a general statistical model of diaphragm motion, we normalize the diaphragm motion in time and spatial domains and evaluate the diaphragm motion model of 10 healthy subjects by applying regular PCA and GND-PCA. We also validate the results using the leave-one-out method. The results show that the first three principal components of regular PCA contain more than 98% of the total variation of diaphragm motion. However, validation using leave-one-out method gives up to 5.0 mm mean of error for right diaphragm motion and 3.8 mm mean of error for left diaphragm motion. Model analysis using GND-PCA provides about 1 mm margin of error and is able to reconstruct the diaphragm model by fewer samples.

  9. Proof mass effects on spiral electrode d33 mode piezoelectric diaphragm-based energy harvester

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Zhiyuan; Liu, Shuwei; Miao, Jianmin; Woh, Lye Sun; Wang, Zhihong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the characterization of an energy harvester using a piezoelectric diaphragm as the vibration energy conversion microstructure. The diaphragm containing the spiral electrode operates in the d33 mode. The energy harvesting performance of the diaphragm was characterized. The optimal resistance load and the working frequency were characterized. The resonance tuning and the energy harvesting enhancement due to a proof mass were verified. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Thermal Stresses Analysis and Optimized TTP Processes to Achieved CNT-Based Diaphragm for Thin Panel Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Min Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial companies popularly used the powder coating, classing, and thermal transfer printing (TTP technique to avoid oxidation on the metallic surface and stiffened speaker diaphragm. This study developed a TTP technique to fabricate a carbon nanotubes (CNTs stiffened speaker diaphragm for thin panel speaker. The self-developed TTP stiffening technique did not require a high curing temperature that decreased the mechanical property of CNTs. In addition to increasing the stiffness of diaphragm substrate, this technique alleviated the middle and high frequency attenuation associated with the smoothing sound pressure curve of thin panel speaker. The advantage of TTP technique is less harmful to the ecology, but it causes thermal residual stresses and some unstable connections between printed plates. Thus, this study used the numerical analysis software (ANSYS to analyze the stress and thermal of work piece which have not delaminated problems in transfer interface. The Taguchi quality engineering method was applied to identify the optimal manufacturing parameters. Finally, the optimal manufacturing parameters were employed to fabricate a CNT-based diaphragm, which was then assembled onto a speaker. The result indicated that the CNT-based diaphragm improved the sound pressure curve smoothness of the speaker, which produced a minimum high frequency dip difference (ΔdB value.

  11. Fault-tolerant Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox based on non-Abelian anyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong-Ling; Wu, Chunfeng; Chen, Jing-Ling; Oh, C H

    2010-08-06

    We propose a scheme to test the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox based on braidings of non-Abelian anyons, which are exotic quasiparticle excitations of topological states of matter. Because topological ordered states are robust against local perturbations, this scheme is in some sense "fault-tolerant" and might close the detection inefficiency loophole problem in previous experimental tests of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox. In turn, the construction of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox reveals the nonlocal property of non-Abelian anyons. Our results indicate that the non-Abelian fractional statistics is a pure quantum effect and cannot be described by local realistic theories. Finally, we present a possible experimental implementation of the scheme based on the anyonic interferometry technologies.

  12. Micromachined ultrasonic droplet generator based on a liquid horn structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, J. M.; Ejimofor, C.; Kumar, S.; Degertekin, F. L.; Fedorov, A. G.

    2004-05-01

    A micromachined ultrasonic droplet generator is developed and demonstrated for drop-on-demand fluid atomization. The droplet generator comprises a bulk ceramic piezoelectric transducer for ultrasound generation, a reservoir for the ejection fluid, and a silicon micromachined liquid horn structure as the nozzle. The nozzles are formed using a simple batch microfabrication process that involves wet etching of (100) silicon in potassium hydroxide solution. Device operation is demonstrated by droplet ejection of water through 30 μm orifices at 1.49 and 2.30 MHz. The finite-element simulations of the acoustic fields in the cavity and electrical impedance of the device are in agreement with the measurements and indicate that the device utilizes cavity resonances in the 1-5 MHz range in conjunction with acoustic wave focusing by the pyramidally shaped nozzles to achieve low power operation.

  13. The Combination of Micro Diaphragm Pumps and Flow Sensors for Single Stroke Based Liquid Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Jenke

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the combination of micropumps and flow sensors, highly accurate and secure closed-loop controlled micro dosing systems for liquids are possible. Implementing a single stroke based control mode with piezoelectrically driven micro diaphragm pumps can provide a solution for dosing of volumes down to nanoliters or variable average flow rates in the range of nL/min to μL/min. However, sensor technologies feature a yet undetermined accuracy for measuring highly pulsatile micropump flow. Two miniaturizable in-line sensor types providing electrical readout—differential pressure based flow sensors and thermal calorimetric flow sensors—are evaluated for their suitability of combining them with mircopumps. Single stroke based calibration of the sensors was carried out with a new method, comparing displacement volumes and sensor flow volumes. Limitations of accuracy and performance for single stroke based flow control are described. Results showed that besides particle robustness of sensors, controlling resistive and capacitive damping are key aspects for setting up reproducible and reliable liquid dosing systems. Depending on the required average flow or defined volume, dosing systems with an accuracy of better than 5% for the differential pressure based sensor and better than 6.5% for the thermal calorimeter were achieved.

  14. The Combination of Micro Diaphragm Pumps and Flow Sensors for Single Stroke Based Liquid Flow Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Christoph; Pallejà Rubio, Jaume; Kibler, Sebastian; Häfner, Johannes; Richter, Martin; Kutter, Christoph

    2017-04-03

    With the combination of micropumps and flow sensors, highly accurate and secure closed-loop controlled micro dosing systems for liquids are possible. Implementing a single stroke based control mode with piezoelectrically driven micro diaphragm pumps can provide a solution for dosing of volumes down to nanoliters or variable average flow rates in the range of nL/min to μL/min. However, sensor technologies feature a yet undetermined accuracy for measuring highly pulsatile micropump flow. Two miniaturizable in-line sensor types providing electrical readout-differential pressure based flow sensors and thermal calorimetric flow sensors-are evaluated for their suitability of combining them with mircopumps. Single stroke based calibration of the sensors was carried out with a new method, comparing displacement volumes and sensor flow volumes. Limitations of accuracy and performance for single stroke based flow control are described. Results showed that besides particle robustness of sensors, controlling resistive and capacitive damping are key aspects for setting up reproducible and reliable liquid dosing systems. Depending on the required average flow or defined volume, dosing systems with an accuracy of better than 5% for the differential pressure based sensor and better than 6.5% for the thermal calorimeter were achieved.

  15. Implementation of Linus Programme Based on the Model of Van Meter and Van Horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Nazariyah bt; Idris, Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the understanding of school leaders on the implementation of LINUS programme that based on the features contained in the Implementation Model of Van Meter and Van Horn (1975). The study was carried out in the form of qualitative method and particularly, the multiple case studies that were conducted in four…

  16. Comment on 'Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fei; Guo Fenzhuo; Wen Qiaoyan; Zhu Fuchen

    2005-01-01

    In a recent paper [S. Bagherinezhad and V. Karimipour, Phys. Rev. A 67, 044302 (2003)], a quantum secret sharing protocol based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states was proposed. However, in this Comment, it is shown that this protocol is insecure if Eve employs a special strategy to attack

  17. Improved vibration-based energy harvesting by annular mass configuration of piezoelectric circular diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yangyiwei; Li, Yuanbo; Guo, Yaqian; Xu, Bai-Xiang; Yang, Tongqing

    2018-03-01

    Vibration-based energy harvesting using piezoelectric circular diaphragms (PCDs) with a structure featuring the central mass (C-mass) configuration has drawn much attention in recent decades. In this work, we propose a new configuration with the annular proof mass (A-mass) where an improved energy harvesting is promised. The numerical analysis was employed using the circuit-coupled piezoelectric simulation, and the experimental validation was implemented using PCDs with the even-width annular electrodes. Samples with the different mass configurations as well as structural parameters ϖ 1 and ϖ 2, which indicate the ratio between the inner boundary radius and piezoelectric ceramic radius as well as the ratio between outer boundary radius and the substrate radius, respectively, were prepared and tested. The impedance-matched output power of full-electrode PCDs was also collected, and some distinct improvement was measured on samples with the certain structural parameters. The power increases from 14.1 mW to 19.0 mW after changing the configuration from C-mass to A-mass with the same parameters (ϖ 1, ϖ 2) = (0.16, 0.9), showing the considerable improvement in energy harvesting by using A-mass configuration.

  18. D33 mode piezoelectric diaphragm based acoustic transducer with high sensitivity

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Zhiyuan; Lu, Jingyu; Tan, Cheewee; Miao, Jianmin; Wang, Zhihong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of an acoustic transducer using a piezoelectric freestanding bulk diaphragm as the sensing element. The diaphragm bearing the spiral electrode operates in d 33 mode, which allows the in-plane deformation of the diaphragm to be converted to the out-of-plane deformation and generates an acoustic wave in the same direction. A finite element code is developed to reorient the material polarization distribution according to the poling field calculated. The first four resonance modes have been simulated and verified by impedance and velocity spectra. The sensitivity and the sound pressure level of the transducer were characterized. The realized sensitivity of 126.21 μV/Pa at 1 kHz is nearly twenty times of the sensitivity of a sandwich d31 mode transducer. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  19. New Stethoscope With Extensible Diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashina, Tsunekazu; Shimizu, Masashi; Muratake, Torakazu; Mayuzumi, Syuichi

    2016-08-25

    This study compared the diagnostic efficacy of the common suspended diaphragm stethoscope (SDS) with a new extensible diaphragm stethoscope (EDS) for low-frequency heart sounds. The EDS was developed by using an ethylene propylene diene monomer diaphragm. The results showed that the EDS enhanced both the volume and quality of low-frequency heart sounds, and improved the ability of examiners to auscultate such heart sounds. Based on the results of the sound analysis, the EDS is more efficient than the SDS. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2047-2049).

  20. Hydrogel based sensor arrays (2 × 2) with perforated piezoresistive diaphragms for metabolic monitoring (in vitro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthner, M P; Lin, G; Avula, M; Buetefisch, S; Magda, J; Rieth, L W; Solzbacher, F

    2010-03-19

    This report details the first experimental results from novel hydrogel sensor array (2 × 2) which incorporates analyte diffusion pores into a piezoresistive diaphragm for the detection of hydrogel swelling pressures and hence chemical concentrations. The sensor assembly was comprised of three components, the active four sensors, HPMA/DMA/TEGDMA (hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA), N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMA) and crosslinker tetra-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA)) hydrogel, and backing plate. Each of the individual sensors of the array can be used with various hydrogels used to measure the presence of a number of stimuli including pH, ionic strength, and glucose concentrations. Ideally, in the future, these sensors will be used for continuous metabolic monitoring applications and implanted subcutaneously. In this paper and to properly characterize the sensor assembly, hydrogels sensitive to changes ionic strength were synthesized using hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA), N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMA) and crosslinker tetra-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and inserted into the sensor assembly. This hydrogel quickly and reversibly swells when placed environments of physiological buffer solutions (PBS) with ionic strengths ranging from 0.025 to 0.15 M, making it ideal for proof-of-concept testing and initial characterization. The assembly was wire bonded to a printed circuit board and coated with 3 ± 0.5 μm of Parylene-C using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to protect the sensor and electrical connections during ionic strength wet testing. Two versions of sensors were fabricated for comparison, the first incorporated diffusion pores into the diaphragm, and the second used a solid diaphragm with perforated backing plate. This new design (perforated diaphragm) was shown to have slightly higher sensitivity than solid diaphragm sensors with separate diffuse backing plates when coupled with the hydrogel. The sensitivities for the 1 mm

  1. Generation of Atomic Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States Based on Faraday Rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Honghui; Li Xinghua

    2010-01-01

    Based on the input-output relation of the cavity and the Faraday Rotation mechanism, we propose a scheme for generating the n-atom Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. In the scheme, the n-atom trapped respectively in n spatially separate cavities would be entangled with the photons going through the atom-cavity system. The successful probabilities of our protocol approach unity in the ideal case. What is more, no requirement for separately addressing further lowers experimental difficulties. (general)

  2. On the equivalence of the Clauser–Horne and Eberhard inequality based tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei; Ramelow, Sven; Ursin, Rupert; Wittmann, Bernhard; Kofler, Johannes; Basieva, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the results of the first experimental test for entangled photons closing the detection loophole (also referred to as the fair sampling loophole) were published (Vienna, 2013). From the theoretical viewpoint the main distinguishing feature of this long-aspired to experiment was that the Eberhard inequality was used. Almost simultaneously another experiment closing this loophole was performed (Urbana-Champaign, 2013) and it was based on the Clauser–Horne inequality (for probabilities). The aim of this note is to analyze the mathematical and experimental equivalence of tests based on the Eberhard inequality and various forms of the Clauser–Horne inequality. The structure of the mathematical equivalence is nontrivial. In particular, it is necessary to distinguish between algebraic and statistical equivalence. Although the tests based on these inequalities are algebraically equivalent, they need not be equivalent statistically, i.e., theoretically the level of statistical significance can drop under transition from one test to another (at least for finite samples). Nevertheless, the data collected in the Vienna test implies not only a statistically significant violation of the Eberhard inequality, but also of the Clauser–Horne inequality (in the ratio-rate form): for both a violation >60σ. (paper)

  3. Tree automata-based refinement with application to Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivation...... compare the results with other state of the art Horn clause verification tools....

  4. Generation of concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type entangled coherent state based on linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhou, Lan; Gu, Shi-Pu; Wang, Xing-Fu; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-03-01

    The concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state is a new type of multipartite entangled state, which has potential application in future quantum information. In this paper, we propose a protocol of constructing arbitrary C-GHZ entangled state approximatively. Different from previous protocols, each logic qubit is encoded in the coherent state. This protocol is based on the linear optics, which is feasible in experimental technology. This protocol may be useful in quantum information based on the C-GHZ state.

  5. Generalized free-space diffuse photon transport model based on the influence analysis of a camera lens diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueli; Gao, Xinbo; Qu, Xiaochao; Chen, Duofang; Ma, Xiaopeng; Liang, Jimin; Tian, Jie

    2010-10-10

    The camera lens diaphragm is an important component in a noncontact optical imaging system and has a crucial influence on the images registered on the CCD camera. However, this influence has not been taken into account in the existing free-space photon transport models. To model the photon transport process more accurately, a generalized free-space photon transport model is proposed. It combines Lambertian source theory with analysis of the influence of the camera lens diaphragm to simulate photon transport process in free space. In addition, the radiance theorem is also adopted to establish the energy relationship between the virtual detector and the CCD camera. The accuracy and feasibility of the proposed model is validated with a Monte-Carlo-based free-space photon transport model and physical phantom experiment. A comparison study with our previous hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem based model demonstrates the improvement performance and potential of the proposed model for simulating photon transport process in free space.

  6. Convex polyhedral abstractions, specialisation and property-based predicate splitting in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach to constrained Horn clause (CHC) verification combining three techniques: abstract interpretation over a domain of convex polyhedra, specialisation of the constraints in CHCs using abstract interpretation of query-answer transformed clauses, and refinement by splitting...... in conjunction with specialisation for propagating constraints it can frequently solve challenging verification problems. This is a contribution in itself, but refinement is needed when it fails, and the question of how to refine convex polyhedral analyses has not been studied much. We present a refinement...... technique based on interpolants derived from a counterexample trace; these are used to drive a property-based specialisation that splits predicates, leading in turn to more precise convex polyhedral analyses. The process of specialisation, analysis and splitting can be repeated, in a manner similar...

  7. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states-based blind quantum computation with entanglement concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Weng, Jian; Lu, Wei; Li, Xiaochun; Luo, Weiqi; Tan, Xiaoqing

    2017-09-11

    In blind quantum computation (BQC) protocol, the quantum computability of servers are complicated and powerful, while the clients are not. It is still a challenge for clients to delegate quantum computation to servers and keep the clients' inputs, outputs and algorithms private. Unfortunately, quantum channel noise is unavoidable in the practical transmission. In this paper, a novel BQC protocol based on maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states is proposed which doesn't need a trusted center. The protocol includes a client and two servers, where the client only needs to own quantum channels with two servers who have full-advantage quantum computers. Two servers perform entanglement concentration used to remove the noise, where the success probability can almost reach 100% in theory. But they learn nothing in the process of concentration because of the no-signaling principle, so this BQC protocol is secure and feasible.

  8. Effect of flexure beam geometry and material on the displacement of piezo actuated diaphragm for micropump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopa, R.; Navin Karanth, P.; Kulkarni, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present a COMSOL analysis of flexure diaphragm for piezo actuated valveless micropump. Diaphragms play an important role in micropumps, till now plane diaphragms are commonly used in micropumps. Use of compliant flexure hinges in diaphragm and other MEMS application is one of the new approach to achieving high deflection in diaphragm at low operating voltage. Flexures hinges in diaphragm acts as simply supported beam. Out-off plane compliance value and stiffness is considered for the selection of proper flexure for diaphragm. Diaphragm material also plays an important role in the diaphragm central deflection. Factor considered for diaphragm material selection is resilience; it is the ratio of yield stress to static modulus. Higher is the resilience will leads to higher deflection generated, it also imparts good compliance. Based on the resilience beryllium copper, stainless steel and brass materials are selected for diaphragm analysis. Simulations have been performed using COMSOL multiphysics. This study reports the effect of flexure hinge geometry and diaphragm material on the central deflection of diaphragms and compared with existing plane diaphragm. Simulation results illustrates that the deflection of three flexure diaphragm with 2mm width and 2mm length flexure is 6.75µm for stainless steel, 10.89 for beryllium copper and 12.10µm for brass, at 140V which is approximately twice that of plane diaphragm deflection. The maximum in both plane and three flexure diaphragm deflection is obtained for brass diaphragm compared to stainless steel and beryllium copper.

  9. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of the microbiome associated with the horn fly, Haematobia irritans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhahianambi Palavesam

    Full Text Available The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the most economically important pests of cattle. Insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns with insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticides, are serious issues for the livestock industry. Alternative horn fly control methods offer the promise to decrease the use of insecticides and reduce the amount of insecticide residues on livestock products and give an impetus to the organic livestock farming segment. The horn fly, an obligatory blood feeder, requires the help of microflora to supply additional nutrients and metabolize the blood meal. Recent advancements in DNA sequencing methodologies enable researchers to examine the microflora diversity independent of culture methods. We used the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP method to carry out the classification analysis of bacterial flora in adult female and male horn flies and horn fly eggs. The bTEFAP method identified 16S rDNA sequences in our samples which allowed the identification of various prokaryotic taxa associated with the life stage examined. This is the first comprehensive report of bacterial flora associated with the horn fly using a culture-independent method. Several rumen, environmental, symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria associated with the horn fly were identified and quantified. This is the first report of the presence of Wolbachia in horn flies of USA origin and is the first report of the presence of Rikenella in an obligatory blood feeding insect.

  10. Neutrino horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    View of the new neutrino horn installed in its blockhouse from the target end. Protons pass through the 2mm hole in the centre of the small fluorescent screen, hitting the target immediately behind it. The circular tubes carry pressurized cooling water.

  11. SU-G-BRA-08: Diaphragm Motion Tracking Based On KV CBCT Projections with a Constrained Linear Regression Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, J [City College of New York, New York, NY (United States); Chao, M [The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a novel strategy to extract the respiratory motion of the thoracic diaphragm from kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections by a constrained linear regression optimization technique. Methods: A parabolic function was identified as the geometric model and was employed to fit the shape of the diaphragm on the CBCT projections. The search was initialized by five manually placed seeds on a pre-selected projection image. Temporal redundancies, the enabling phenomenology in video compression and encoding techniques, inherent in the dynamic properties of the diaphragm motion together with the geometrical shape of the diaphragm boundary and the associated algebraic constraint that significantly reduced the searching space of viable parabolic parameters was integrated, which can be effectively optimized by a constrained linear regression approach on the subsequent projections. The innovative algebraic constraints stipulating the kinetic range of the motion and the spatial constraint preventing any unphysical deviations was able to obtain the optimal contour of the diaphragm with minimal initialization. The algorithm was assessed by a fluoroscopic movie acquired at anteriorposterior fixed direction and kilovoltage CBCT projection image sets from four lung and two liver patients. The automatic tracing by the proposed algorithm and manual tracking by a human operator were compared in both space and frequency domains. Results: The error between the estimated and manual detections for the fluoroscopic movie was 0.54mm with standard deviation (SD) of 0.45mm, while the average error for the CBCT projections was 0.79mm with SD of 0.64mm for all enrolled patients. The submillimeter accuracy outcome exhibits the promise of the proposed constrained linear regression approach to track the diaphragm motion on rotational projection images. Conclusion: The new algorithm will provide a potential solution to rendering diaphragm motion and ultimately

  12. SU-G-BRA-08: Diaphragm Motion Tracking Based On KV CBCT Projections with a Constrained Linear Regression Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J; Chao, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a novel strategy to extract the respiratory motion of the thoracic diaphragm from kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections by a constrained linear regression optimization technique. Methods: A parabolic function was identified as the geometric model and was employed to fit the shape of the diaphragm on the CBCT projections. The search was initialized by five manually placed seeds on a pre-selected projection image. Temporal redundancies, the enabling phenomenology in video compression and encoding techniques, inherent in the dynamic properties of the diaphragm motion together with the geometrical shape of the diaphragm boundary and the associated algebraic constraint that significantly reduced the searching space of viable parabolic parameters was integrated, which can be effectively optimized by a constrained linear regression approach on the subsequent projections. The innovative algebraic constraints stipulating the kinetic range of the motion and the spatial constraint preventing any unphysical deviations was able to obtain the optimal contour of the diaphragm with minimal initialization. The algorithm was assessed by a fluoroscopic movie acquired at anteriorposterior fixed direction and kilovoltage CBCT projection image sets from four lung and two liver patients. The automatic tracing by the proposed algorithm and manual tracking by a human operator were compared in both space and frequency domains. Results: The error between the estimated and manual detections for the fluoroscopic movie was 0.54mm with standard deviation (SD) of 0.45mm, while the average error for the CBCT projections was 0.79mm with SD of 0.64mm for all enrolled patients. The submillimeter accuracy outcome exhibits the promise of the proposed constrained linear regression approach to track the diaphragm motion on rotational projection images. Conclusion: The new algorithm will provide a potential solution to rendering diaphragm motion and ultimately

  13. magnetic horn

    CERN Document Server

    Neutrinos and antineutrinos are ideal for probing the weak force because it is effectively the only force they feel. How were they made? Protons fired into a metal target produce a tangle of secondary particles. A magnetic horn like this one, invented by Simon Van der Meer, selected pions and focused them into a sharp beam. Pions decay into muons and neutrinos or antineutrinos. The muons were stopped in a wall of 3000 tons of iron and 1000 tons of concrete, leaving the neutrinos or antineutrinos to reach the Gargamelle bubble chamber. A simple change of magnetic field direction on the horn flipped between focusing positively- or negatively-charged pion beams, and so between neutrinos and antineutrinos.

  14. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  15. Design of pressure-sensing diaphragm for MEMS capacitance diaphragm gauge considering size effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Li, Detian; Cheng, Yongjun; Sun, Wenjun; Han, Xiaodong; Wang, Chengxiang

    2018-03-01

    MEMS capacitance diaphragm gauge with a full range of (1˜1000) Pa is considered for its wide application prospect. The design of pressure-sensing diaphragm is the key to achieve balanced performance for this kind of gauges. The optimization process of the pressure-sensing diaphragm with island design of a capacitance diaphragm gauge based on MEMS technique has been reported in this work. For micro-components in micro scale range, mechanical properties are very different from that in the macro scale range, so the size effect should not be ignored. The modified strain gradient elasticity theory considering size effect has been applied to determine the bending rigidity of the pressure-sensing diaphragm, which is then used in the numerical model to calculate the deflection-pressure relation of the diaphragm. According to the deflection curves, capacitance variation can be determined by integrating over the radius of the diaphragm. At last, the design of the diaphragm has been optimized based on three parameters: sensitivity, linearity and ground capacitance. With this design, a full range of (1˜1000) Pa can be achieved, meanwhile, balanced sensitivity, resolution and linearity can be kept.

  16. The Stress and Stiffness Analysis of Diaphragm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Dongyue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diaphragm coupling with its simple structure, small size, high reliability, which can compensate for its input and output displacement deviation by its elastic deformation, is widely used in aerospace, marine, and chemical etc. This paper uses the ANSYS software and its APDL language to analysis the stress distribution when the diaphragm under the load of torque, axial deviation, centrifugal force, angular deviation and multiple loads. We find that the value of maximum stress usually appears in the outer or inner transition region and the axial deviation has a greater influence to the distribution of the stress. Based on above, we got three kinds of stiffness for axial, angular and torque, which the stiffness of diaphragm is nearly invariable. The results can be regard as an important reference for design and optimization of diaphragm coupling.

  17. Horn antenna design studies. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstract data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    These citations from the international literature describe the antenna radiation patterns, polarization characteristics, wave propagation, noise temperature, wave diffraction, and wideband communication of various horn antennas. This updated bibliography contains 217 citations, 63 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  18. Materials for Slack Diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Traute

    1940-01-01

    This report deals with systematic experiments carried out on five diaphragm materials with different pretreatment, for the purpose of ascertaining the suitability of such materials for slack diaphragms. The relationship of deflection and load, temperature and moisture, was recorded. Of the explored materials, synthetic leather, balloon cloth, goldbeaters skin, Igelit and Buna, synthetic leather treated with castor oil is the most suitable material for the small pressure range required. Balloon cloth is nearly as good, while goldbeaters skin, Igelit and Buna were found to be below the required standards.

  19. Universal Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-state analyzer based on two-photon polarization parity detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jun; Feng Xunli; Gong Shangqing

    2005-01-01

    We present a universal analyzer for the three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states with quantum nondemolition parity detectors and linear-optics elements. In our scheme, all of the three-photon GHZ states can be discriminated with nearly unity probability in the regime of weak nonlinearity feasible at the present state of the art experimentally. We also show that our scheme can be easily extended to the analysis of the multi-particle GHZ states

  20. Near-field characteristics of radiating-wave simulator antenna based on TEM horn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Chunming; Ge Debiao

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel antenna of NEMP (nuclear electromagnetic pulse) radiating-wave simulator, which is analyzed and optimized using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. The intense voltage pulse is fed as the source to this antenna by the coaxial line. The parallel plate transmission line and the size of the transverse electromagnetic horn are optimized. The near field of antenna is analyzed, and the effects of the size on the near field are also given. The antenna designed in this paper can well satisfy the requirement for studying the EMP effects

  1. Microfluidic Pumps Containing Teflon [Trademark] AF Diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Peter; White, Victor; Grunthaner, Frank; Ikeda, Mike; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic pumps and valves based on pneumatically actuated diaphragms made of Teflon AF polymers are being developed for incorporation into laboratory-on-a-chip devices that must perform well over temperature ranges wider than those of prior diaphragm-based microfluidic pumps and valves. Other potential applications include implanted biomedical microfluidic devices, wherein the biocompatability of Teflon AF polymers would be highly advantageous. These pumps and valves have been demonstrated to function stably after cycling through temperatures from -125 to 120 C. These pumps and valves are intended to be successors to similar prior pumps and valves containing diaphragms made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) [commonly known as silicone rubber]. The PDMS-containing valves ae designed to function stably only within the temperature range from 5 to 80 C. Undesirably, PDMS membranes are somwehat porous and retain water. PDMS is especially unsuitable for use at temperatures below 0 C because the formation of ice crystals increases porosity and introduces microshear.

  2. Radial Field Piezoelectric Diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, R. G.; Effinger, R. T., IV; Copeland, B. M., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    A series of active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated and patterned with several geometrically defined Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE" and Interdigitated Ring Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is a radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezoceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field). Unlike other piezoelectric bender actuators, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements (several times that of the equivalent Unimorph) while maintaining a constant circumference. One of the more intriguing aspects is that the radial strain field reverses itself along the radius of the RFD while the tangential strain remains relatively constant. The result is a Z-deflection that has a conical profile. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of the 5 cm. (2 in.) diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic thickness, electrode type and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage at low frequencies. The unique features of these RFDs include the ability to be clamped about their perimeter with little or no change in displacement, the environmentally insulated packaging, and a highly repeatable fabrication process that uses commodity materials.

  3. Improved drought monitoring in the Greater Horn of Africa by combining meteorological and remote sensing based indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F; Kurnik, Blaz; Barbosa, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    , and therefore to better trigger timely and appropriate actions on the field. In this study, meteorological and remote sensing based drought indicators were compared over the Greater Horn of Africa in order to better understand: (i) how they depict historical drought events ; (ii) if they could be combined...... distribution. Two remote sensing based indicators were tested: the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) derived from SPOT-VEGETATION and the Global Vegetation Index (VGI) derived form MERIS. The first index is sensitive to change in leaf water content of vegetation canopies while the second is a proxy...... of the amount and vigour of vegetation. For both indexes, anomalies were estimated using available satellite archives. Cross-correlations between remote sensing based anomalies and SPI were analysed for five land covers (forest, shrubland, grassland, sparse grassland, cropland and bare soil) over different...

  4. Improved security detection strategy in quantum secure direct communication protocol based on four-particle Green-Horne-Zeilinger state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian; Nie, Jin-Rui; Li, Rui-Fan [Beijing Univ. of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing (China). School of Computer; Jing, Bo [Beijing Univ. of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing (China). School of Computer; Beijing Institute of Applied Meteorology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Computer Science

    2012-06-15

    To enhance the efficiency of eavesdropping detection in the quantum secure direct communication protocol, an improved quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a four-particle Green-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is presented. In the protocol, the four-particle GHZ state is used to detect eavesdroppers, and quantum dense coding is used to encode the message. In the security analysis, the method of entropy theory is introduced, and two detection strategies are compared quantitatively by using the constraint between the information that the eavesdroppers can obtain and the interference that has been introduced. If the eavesdropper wants to obtain all the information, the detection rate of the quantum secure direct communication using an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair block will be 50% and the detection rate of the presented protocol will be 87%. At last, the security of the proposed protocol is discussed. The analysis results indicate that the protocol proposed is more secure than the others. (orig.)

  5. A GIS based assessment of hydropower potential in Hornád basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    �ofia Kuzevičová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of efficient use of hydropower, ones of the available renewable resources is currently in the process of sustainable development of each country, often addressing the issue. Incite multiple aspects. It is now seen just growing interest in exploiting the potential of hydropower. On the basis of active efforts are developed to map the total quantity of usability hydropower at basin level in Slovakia. GIS as a powerful and sophisticated tool for processing spatially localized information and offers support for renewable energy sources (not excluding the field of hydropower. Through the integration of spatial data allows assessing the real problems and thus contributing effectively to make rational decisions. Especially in the field of hydropower projects have GIS well founded importance. Of course is important to mention that the potential for hydroelectric power is useless without the operation of hydropower that converts water into electrical energy. For the needs of administrators of watercourses and operators of water systems, the proposed model can be an important tool for decision-making in relation to its implementation activities. Contribution to the design solutions for potential hydropower will address river basin Hornád.

  6. A high performance micro-pressure sensor based on a double-ended quartz tuning fork and silicon diaphragm in atmospheric packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Rongjun; Li, Cun; Zhao, Yulong; Li, Bo; Tian, Bian

    2015-01-01

    A resonant micro-pressure sensor based on a double-ended quartz tuning fork (DEQTF) and bossed silicon diaphragm in atmospheric packaging is presented. To achieve vacuum-free packaging with a high quality factor, the DEQTF is designed to resonate in an anti-phase vibration mode in a plane that is under the effect of slide-film damping. The feasibility is demonstrated by theoretical analysis and a finite element simulation. The dimensions of the DEQTF and diaphragm are optimized in accordance with the principles of improving sensitivity and minimizing energy dissipation. The sensor chip is fabricated using quartz and silicon micromachining technologies, and simply packaged in a stainless steel shell with standard atmosphere. The experimental setup is established for the calibration, where an additional sensor prototype without a pressure port is introduced as a frequency reference. By detecting the frequency difference of the tested sensor and reference sensor, the influences of environmental factors such as temperature and shocks on measuring accuracy are eliminated effectively. Under the action of a self-excitation circuit, static performance is obtained. The sensitivity of the sensor is 299 kHz kPa −1 in the operating range of 0–10 kPa at room temperature. Testing results shows a nonlinearity of 0.0278%FS, a hysteresis of 0.0207%FS and a repeatability of 0.0375%FS. The results indicate that the proposed sensor has favorable features, which provides a cost-effective and high-performance approach for low pressure measurement. (paper)

  7. Three techniques for the fabrication of high precision, mm-sized metal components based on two-photon lithography, applied for manufacturing horn antennas for THz transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standaert, Alexander; Brancato, Luigi; Lips, Bram; Ceyssens, Frederik; Puers, Robert; Reynaert, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel packaging solution which integrates micro-machined 3D horn antennas with millimeter-wave and THz tranceivers. This packaging solution is shown to be a valid competitor to existing technologies like metallic split-block waveguides and low temperature cofired ceramics. Three different fabrication methods based on two-photon lithography are presented to form the horn antennas. The first uses two-photon lithography to form the bulk of the antenna. This structure is then metalised through physical vapor deposition (PVD) and copper plating. The second fabrication method makes use of a soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold to easily replicate structures and the third method forms the horn antenna through electroforming. A prototype is accurately positioned on top of a 400 GHz 28 nm CMOS transmitter and glued in place with epoxy, thus providing a fully packaged solution. Measurement results show a 12 dB increase in the antenna gain when using the packaged solution. The fabrication processes are not limited to horn antennas alone and can be used to form a wide range of mm-sized metal components.

  8. Road traffic noise prediction model for heterogeneous traffic based on ASJ-RTN Model 2008 with consideration of horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustim, M.; Arifin, Z.; Aly, S. H.; Ramli, M. I.; Zakaria, R.; Liputo, A.

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to predict the noise produced by the traffic in the road network in Makassar City using ASJ-RTN Model 2008 by calculating the horn sound. Observations were taken at 37 survey points on road side. The observations were conducted at 06.00 - 18.00 and 06.00 - 21.00 which research objects were motorcycle (MC), light vehicle (LV) and heavy vehicle (HV). The observed data were traffic volume, vehicle speed, number of horn and traffic noise using Sound Level Meter Tenmars TM-103. The research result indicates that prediction noise model by calculating the horn sound produces the average noise level value of 78.5 dB having the Pearson’s correlation and RMSE of 0.95 and 0.87. Therefore, ASJ-RTN Model 2008 prediction model by calculating the horn sound is said to be sufficiently good for predicting noise level.

  9. Diaphragm Dysfunction in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supinski, Gerald S; Morris, Peter E; Dhar, Sanjay; Callahan, Leigh Ann

    2018-04-01

    The diaphragm is the major muscle of inspiration, and its function is critical for optimal respiration. Diaphragmatic failure has long been recognized as a major contributor to death in a variety of systemic neuromuscular disorders. More recently, it is increasingly apparent that diaphragm dysfunction is present in a high percentage of critically ill patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In these patients, diaphragm weakness is thought to develop from disuse secondary to ventilator-induced diaphragm inactivity and as a consequence of the effects of systemic inflammation, including sepsis. This form of critical illness-acquired diaphragm dysfunction impairs the ability of the respiratory pump to compensate for an increased respiratory workload due to lung injury and fluid overload, leading to sustained respiratory failure and death. This review examines the presentation, causes, consequences, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders that result in acquired diaphragm dysfunction during critical illness. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev: results and conclusions 2000/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I. [NERI, Dept. of Coastal Zone Ecology, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the combined results of two years of base-line investigations of birds performed during August 1999 - April 2001 in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 13 aerial surveys, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers occurring on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although the common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affects less than 1% of the different species, except divers of which 1.65% will be affected. If the birds avoid the wind farm area and an adjacent 4 km zone (worst case scenario), it is estimated to affect 11% of the common scoter, 10% of the gannet, 7-9% of the divers, alcids and velvet scoter and 0-6% of the remaining species. The seasonal occurrence of the recorded species was fully comparable to the seasonal occurrence of these species recorded at Blaevandshuk since 1963. Year-to-year variation in abundance between the seasons August 1999 - April 2000 and August 2000 - April 2001 was mainly found in species that migrate through the Horns Rev area (terns, gannet, kittiwake), and with less pronounced variation in

  11. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev: results and conclusions 2000/2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the combined results of two years of base-line investigations of birds performed during August 1999 - April 2001 in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 13 aerial surveys, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers occurring on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although the common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affects less than 1% of the different species, except divers of which 1.65% will be affected. If the birds avoid the wind farm area and an adjacent 4 km zone (worst case scenario), it is estimated to affect 11% of the common scoter, 10% of the gannet, 7-9% of the divers, alcids and velvet scoter and 0-6% of the remaining species. The seasonal occurrence of the recorded species was fully comparable to the seasonal occurrence of these species recorded at Blaevandshuk since 1963. Year-to-year variation in abundance between the seasons August 1999 - April 2000 and August 2000 - April 2001 was mainly found in species that migrate through the Horns Rev area (terns, gannet, kittiwake), and with less pronounced variation in

  12. Horn belief change: A contraction core

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available , and counterfactuals’, Artificial Intelligence, 57(2–3), 227–270, (1992). [5] S.O. Hansson, ‘Kernel contraction’, Journal of Symbolic Logic, 59(3), 845–859, (1994). [6] M. Langlois, R. Sloan, B. Szo¨re´nyi, and G. Thra´n, ‘Horn complements: Towards Horn... e-contractions. The argument is based on the observation that the convexity result for full propositional logic [2, Proposition 2.1] does not hold for Horn logic. Example 1 Let H = CnHL(fp! q; q ! rg). Then, for the e- contraction of H with p ! r...

  13. Association Between Carotid Bulb Diaphragm and Ischemic Stroke in Young Afro-Caribbean Patients: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joux, Julien; Boulanger, Marion; Jeannin, Severine; Chausson, Nicolas; Hennequin, Jean-Luc; Molinié, Vincent; Smadja, Didier; Touzé, Emmanuel; Olindo, Stephane

    2016-10-01

    Carotid bulb diaphragm (CBD) has been described in young carotid ischemic stroke (CIS) patients, especially in blacks. However, the prevalence of CBD in CIS patients is unknown, and whether CBD is a risk factor for CIS remains unclear. We assessed the association between CBD and incident CIS in a population-based study. We selected all young (young (stroke-free patients admitted for a road crash who routinely had computed tomographic angiography. Odds ratio (ORs) were calculated by conditional logistic regression adjusted for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes and smoking. CIS associated with ipsilateral CBD incidence was 3.8 per 100 000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 1.4-6.1). Prevalence of ipsilateral CBD was 23% in all CIS and 37% in undetermined CIS patients. When restricted to undetermined CIS, CBD prevalence was 24 times higher than that in controls (adjusted OR, 24.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-325.6). CBD is associated with an increased risk of ipsilateral CIS in young Afro-Caribbean population. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Solid state silicon based condenser microphone for hearing aid, has transducer chip and IC chip between intermediate chip and openings on both sides of intermediate chip, to allow sound towards diaphragm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    towards diaphragm. Surface of the chip (2) has electrical conductors (14) to connect chip with IC chip (3). USE - For use in miniature electroacoustic devices such as hearing aid. ADVANTAGE - Since sound inlet is covered by filter, dust, moisture and other impurities do not obstruct interior and sound...... inlet of microphone. External electrical connection can be made economically reliable and the thermal stress is avoided with the small size solid state silicon based condenser microphone....

  15. Solving non-linear Horn clauses using a linear Horn clause solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that checking satisfiability of a set of non-linear Horn clauses (also called a non-linear Horn clause program) can be achieved using a solver for linear Horn clauses. We achieve this by interleaving a program transformation with a satisfiability checker for linear Horn...... clauses (also called a solver for linear Horn clauses). The program transformation is based on the notion of tree dimension, which we apply to a set of non-linear clauses, yielding a set whose derivation trees have bounded dimension. Such a set of clauses can be linearised. The main algorithm...... dimension. We constructed a prototype implementation of this approach and performed some experiments on a set of verification problems, which shows some promise....

  16. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological–economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the socioeconomic drivers of poaching, based on data collected from 1990 to 2013, and to project the total number of rhinoceroses likely to be illegally killed from 2014 to 2023. Rhinoceros population dynamics were then modeled under 8 different policy scenarios that could be implemented to control poaching. We also estimated the economic costs and benefits of each scenario under enhanced enforcement only and a legal trade in rhinoceros horn and used a decision support framework to rank the scenarios with the objective of maintaining the rhinoceros population above its current size while generating profit for local stakeholders. The southern white rhinoceros population was predicted to go extinct in the wild El Grano de los Datos de Costo Económico con Referencia Espacial y de Beneficio a la Biodiversidad y la Efectividad de una Estrategia de Determinación de Costos Resumen Entre 1990 y 2007, en promedio fueron cazados ilegalmente cada año 15 rinocerontes sureños blancos (Ceratotherium simum simum) y negros (Diceros bicornis) en Sudáfrica. Desde 2007 la caza ilegal de rinocerontes sureños blancos por su cuerno ha escalado a más de 950 individuos al año en 2013. Llevamos a cabo un análisis ecológico-económico para determinar si el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte sureño blanco podría facilitar la protección del rinoceronte. Se usaron modelos lineales generalizados para examinar a los conductores socio-económicos de la caza furtiva, con base en datos colectados

  17. Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Tae; Kim, Sung Jin; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Kil Sun; Kim, Jin Hee; Yim, Se Hwan

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility of the known CT signs of the traumatic rupture of the diaphragm. CT scans and chest radiographs were retrospectively reviewed in 13 patients who had diaphragmatic rupture confirmed by surgery. On chest radiographs the elevation of the diaphragm was evaluated. On CT, 1) discontinuity of the diaphragm, 2) lack of depiction of the diaphragm surrounding the herniated intraabdominal organs (absent diaphragm sign), and 3) fat seen lateral to the diaphragm (fat sign) were evaluated. Chest radiographs showed the elevation of the diaphragm in 11 patients (85%). CT scan showed absent diaphragm sign in 11 patients (85%), discontinuity of the diaphragm in 8 (62%), and fat sign in 7 (54%). All of 12 patients who had the left diaphragmatic rupture had one or more of the above findings. Discontinuity of the diaphragm, absent diaphragm sign, and fat sign may be helpful CT findings in the diagnosis of the traumatic rupture of the left diaphragm

  18. Fast generation of three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state based on the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants in coupled cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Bin; Chen, Ye-Hong; Wang, Zhe

    2016-05-24

    In this paper, we propose an efficient scheme to fast generate three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state by constructing shortcuts to adiabatic passage (STAP) based on the "Lewis-Riesenfeld (LR) invariants" in spatially separated cavities connected by optical fibers. Numerical simulations illustrate that the scheme is not only fast, but robust against the decoherence caused by atomic spontaneous emission, cavity losses and the fiber photon leakages. This might be useful to realize fast and noise-resistant quantum information processing for multi-qubit systems.

  19. Prurigo Nodularis With Cutaneous Horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeus Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous horns are rare horny excrescences which occur in various dermatoses. We report a girl with prurigo nodularis who developed a horn on one of the nodules. This unique association has not been reported so far.

  20. Giant flexoelectric polarization in a micromachined ferroelectric diaphragm

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhihong

    2012-08-14

    The coupling between dielectric polarization and strain gradient, known as flexoelectricity, becomes significantly large on the micro- and nanoscale. Here, it is shown that giant flexoelectric polarization can reverse remnant ferroelectric polarization in a bent Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48) O3 (PZT) diaphragm fabricated by micromachining. The polarization induced by the strain gradient and the switching behaviors of the polarization in response to an external electric field are investigated by observing the electromechanical coupling of the diaphragm. The method allows determination of the absolute zero polarization state in a PZT film, which is impossible using other existing methods. Based on the observation of the absolute zero polarization state and the assumption that bending of the diaphragm is the only source of the self-polarization, the upper bound of flexoelectric coefficient of PZT film is calculated to be as large as 2.0 × 10-4 C m -1. The strain gradient induced by bending the diaphragm is measured to be on the order of 102 m-1, three orders of magnitude larger than that obtained in the bulk material. Because of this large strain gradient, the estimated giant flexoelectric polarization in the bent diaphragm is on the same order of magnitude as the normal remnant ferroelectric polarization of PZT film. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, and results from the year of construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2003-01-01

    The present report presents the base-line investigations of birds conducted during August 1999-April 2001 in relation to construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, 14 km west-south-west of Blaevandshuk, in the Danish North Sea. The report also presents data collected during the period September 2001-April 2002, when construction of the wind farm was in progress. The wind farm will consist of 80 wind turbines, each of 2 MW, and cover an area of c. 20 km 2 . The eastern part of the North Sea constitutes major staging and wintering grounds for huge numbers of water- and seabirds. The area is also known to be an important site for migrating birds, which especially in autumn pass in large numbers. As Denmark has obligations to protect and maintain the bird populations it was laid down in the approval for erection of the wind farm that the impact on birds should be investigated. According to the 1% criteria defined in the Ramsar Convention, the eastern part of the North Sea including the wind farm area is of international importance to divers, Common Tern, and Sandwich Tern. A number of other species, e.g. Common Eider, Common Scoter, Guillemot and Razorbill, are present in the area in significant numbers as well, though these numbers do not make up 1% of the populations. Detailed distributions of birds in the area around and at Horns Rev were virtually unknown until initiation of this project. Previous bird counts in this area have been carried out almost exclusively from the coast and detailed knowledge exists concerning the numbers of roosting at and migrating birds from the westernmost point of Jutland, Blaevandshuk. To describe the numbers and distributions of birds staging and wintering in the Horns Rev area, bird investigations were initiated in 1999 by using standardised transect counts from aircraft. Up to April 2002, 18 aerial counts have been carried out over an area of c. 1,700 km 2 centred on the Horns Rev project area. (au)

  2. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, and results from the year of construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2003-04-15

    The present report presents the base-line investigations of birds conducted during August 1999-April 2001 in relation to construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, 14 km west-south-west of Blaevandshuk, in the Danish North Sea. The report also presents data collected during the period September 2001-April 2002, when construction of the wind farm was in progress. The wind farm will consist of 80 wind turbines, each of 2 MW, and cover an area of c. 20 km{sup 2}. The eastern part of the North Sea constitutes major staging and wintering grounds for huge numbers of water- and seabirds. The area is also known to be an important site for migrating birds, which especially in autumn pass in large numbers. As Denmark has obligations to protect and maintain the bird populations it was laid down in the approval for erection of the wind farm that the impact on birds should be investigated. According to the 1% criteria defined in the Ramsar Convention, the eastern part of the North Sea including the wind farm area is of international importance to divers, Common Tern, and Sandwich Tern. A number of other species, e.g. Common Eider, Common Scoter, Guillemot and Razorbill, are present in the area in significant numbers as well, though these numbers do not make up 1% of the populations. Detailed distributions of birds in the area around and at Horns Rev were virtually unknown until initiation of this project. Previous bird counts in this area have been carried out almost exclusively from the coast and detailed knowledge exists concerning the numbers of roosting at and migrating birds from the westernmost point of Jutland, Blaevandshuk. To describe the numbers and distributions of birds staging and wintering in the Horns Rev area, bird investigations were initiated in 1999 by using standardised transect counts from aircraft. Up to April 2002, 18 aerial counts have been carried out over an area of c. 1,700 km{sup 2} centred on the Horns Rev project area. (au)

  3. Integrated electrochromic aperture diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, T.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, the triumphal march of handheld electronics with integrated cameras has opened amazing fields for small high performing optical systems. For this purpose miniaturized iris apertures are of practical importance because they are essential to control both the dynamic range of the imaging system and the depth of focus. Therefore, we invented a micro optical iris based on an electrochromic (EC) material. This material changes its absorption in response to an applied voltage. A coaxial arrangement of annular rings of the EC material is used to establish an iris aperture without need of any mechanical moving parts. The advantages of this device do not only arise from the space-saving design with a thickness of the device layer of 50μm. But it also benefits from low power consumption. In fact, its transmission state is stable in an open circuit, phrased memory effect. Only changes of the absorption require a voltage of up to 2 V. In contrast to mechanical iris apertures the absorption may be controlled on an analog scale offering the opportunity for apodization. These properties make our device the ideal candidate for battery powered and space-saving systems. We present optical measurements concerning control of the transmitted intensity and depth of focus, and studies dealing with switching times, light scattering, and stability. While the EC polymer used in this study still has limitations concerning color and contrast, the presented device features all functions of an iris aperture. In contrast to conventional devices it offers some special features. Owing to the variable chemistry of the EC material, its spectral response may be adjusted to certain applications like color filtering in different spectral regimes (UV, optical range, infrared). Furthermore, all segments may be switched individually to establish functions like spatial Fourier filtering or lateral tunable intensity filters.

  4. Contraction core for horn belief change: preliminary report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors continue recent investigations into belief change for Horn logic. The main contribution is a result which shows that the construction method for Horn contraction for belief sets based on infraremainder sets, as recently...

  5. Magnetic Focusing Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This magnetic focusing horn was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Its development was an important step towards using CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider. This eventually led to the discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983. Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  6. Is Diaphragm Motion a Good Surrogate for Liver Tumor Motion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Juan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Cai, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Wang, Hongjun [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Chang, Zheng; Czito, Brian G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Bashir, Mustafa R. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Palta, Manisha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yin, Fang-Fang, E-mail: fangfang.yin@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between liver tumor motion and diaphragm motion. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (10 of 14) or liver metastases (4 of 14) undergoing radiation therapy were included in this study. All patients underwent single-slice cine–magnetic resonance imaging simulations across the center of the tumor in 3 orthogonal planes. Tumor and diaphragm motion trajectories in the superior–inferior (SI), anterior–posterior (AP), and medial–lateral (ML) directions were obtained using an in-house-developed normalized cross-correlation–based tracking technique. Agreement between the tumor and diaphragm motion was assessed by calculating phase difference percentage, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis (Diff). The distance between the tumor and tracked diaphragm area was analyzed to understand its impact on the correlation between the 2 motions. Results: Of all patients, the mean (±standard deviation) phase difference percentage values were 7.1% ± 1.1%, 4.5% ± 0.5%, and 17.5% ± 4.5% in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.98 ± 0.02, 0.97 ± 0.02, and 0.08 ± 0.06 in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean Diff values were 2.8 ± 1.4 mm, 2.4 ± 1.1 mm, and 2.2 ± 0.5 mm in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. Tumor and diaphragm motions had high concordance when the distance between the tumor and tracked diaphragm area was small. Conclusions: This study showed that liver tumor motion had good correlation with diaphragm motion in the SI and AP directions, indicating diaphragm motion in the SI and AP directions could potentially be used as a reliable surrogate for liver tumor motion.

  7. Radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary tumors near the diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, T; Hiraki, T; Gobara, H; Fujiwara, H; Sakurai, J; Matsui, Y; Mitsuhashi, T; Toyooka, S; Kanazawa, S

    To retrospectively evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of lung tumors located near the diaphragm. A total of 26 patients (15 men, 11 women; mean age, 61.5 years±13.0 [SD]) with a total of 29 lung tumors near the diaphragm (i.e., distance<10mm) were included. Mean tumor diameter was 11.0mm±5.3 (SD) (range, 2-23mm). Efficacy of RFA, number of adverse events and number of adverse events with a grade≥3, based on the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0, were compared between patients with lung tumors near the diaphragm and a control group of patients with more distally located lung tumors (i.e., distance≥10mm). RFA was technically feasible for all tumors near the diaphragm. Four grade 3 adverse events (1 pneumothorax requiring pleurodesis and 3 phrenic nerve injuries) were observed. No grade≥4 adverse events were reported. The median follow-up period for tumors near the diaphragm was 18.3 months. Local progression was observed 3.3 months after RFA in 1 tumor. The technique efficacy rates were 96.2% at 1 year and 96.2% at 2 years and were not different, from those observed in control subjects (186 tumors; P=0.839). Shoulder pain (P<0.001) and grade 1 pleural effusion (P<0.001) were more frequently observed in patients with lung tumor near the diaphragm. The rates of grade≥3 adverse events did not significantly differ between tumors near the diaphragm (4/26 sessions) and the controls (7/133 sessions) (P=0.083). RFA is a feasible and effective therapeutic option for lung tumors located near the diaphragm. However, it conveys a higher rate of shoulder pain and asymptomatic pleural effusion by comparison with more distant lung tumors. Copyright © 2017 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluid structure interaction in piston diaphragm pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rijswick, R.; Van Rhee, C.

    2013-01-01

    Piston diaphragm pumps are used world-wide for the transport of aggressive and/or abrasive fluids in the chemical, mining and mineral processing industries. Figure 1 shows a cross section of a piston diaphragm pump as is used in the mining and mineral processing industries for the transport of

  9. Fluid structure interaction in piston diaphragm pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswick, R.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Piston diaphragm pumps are used world-wide to transport abrasive and/or aggressive slurries against high discharge pressures in the mining, mineral processing and power industries. Limitation of excessive deformation of the diaphragm is of utmost importance for eliminating fatigue failures of the

  10. To detect anomalies in diaphragm walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, R.

    2015-01-01

    Diaphragm walls are potentially ideal retaining walls for deep excavations in densely built-up areas, as they cause no vibrations during their construction and provide structural elements with high strength and stiffness. In the recent past, however, several projects using diaphragm walls as soil

  11. Design and analysis of diaphragms in dynamic microphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Gui Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Most contemporary high-end microphones are dynamic microphones, adopting the most basic electromagnetic transduction principles. This study investigated the diaphragm structures of dynamic microphones. The diaphragms were composed of polyimide material, and the boundary settings required for actual operation were provided using finite element model analysis software. The characteristic frequencies caused by grooving variations on the three-dimensional diaphragm were analyzed for the various groove shapes and number. The groove angles and width variations were examined based on the optimal groove shape selected in the aforementioned analysis, and the effects of these shapes were determined based on the analytical results. Acoustic waves cause thin films to vibrate, forming the working principle behind dynamic microphones. The thin film drives a coil to vibrate in a magnetic field and cuts the line of magnetic force, subsequently producing a voltage on both ends of the coil. This audio-frequency-inducted voltage represents an acoustic wave message. The finite element model analysis software was used to conduct electromagnetic induction simulations; the sound source was fed to the diaphragm to drive the coil. The coil vibrations caused the line of magnetic force to be cut, and the final voltages produced were examined and compared.

  12. Fuzzy reasoning on Horn Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Fang, K.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical study in fuzzy reasoning on Horn Set is presented in this paper. The authors first introduce the concepts of λ-Horn Set of clauses and λ-Input Half Lock deduction. They then use the λ-resolution method to discuss fuzzy reasoning on λ-Horn set of clauses. It is proved that the proposed λ-Input Half Lock resolution method is complete with the rules in certain format

  13. Eventration of diaphragm with a rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shafiq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eventration of the diaphragm is a rare anomaly of unknown origin characterized by a permanent high position of one or rarely both the leaflets of the diaphragm, providing a potential space for the displacement of abdominal viscera on the affected side(s. The etiology, diagnosis, and management of this condition remains a controversial subject. We report a rare case of infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in a patient with eventration of the diaphragm and gastric volvulus who presented to us with retrosternal discomfort. To the best of our knowledge, this rare association has not been reported in the literature, although one case of esophageal adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett′s esophagus in association with eventration of the diaphragm has been reported previously. This case again emphasis the varied associations of an eventration of the diaphragm.

  14. Fully automatic algorithm for segmenting full human diaphragm in non-contrast CT Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Elham; Gaede, Stewart; Lee, Ting-Yim; Samani, Abbas

    2015-03-01

    The diaphragm is a sheet of muscle which separates the thorax from the abdomen and it acts as the most important muscle of the respiratory system. As such, an accurate segmentation of the diaphragm, not only provides key information for functional analysis of the respiratory system, but also can be used for locating other abdominal organs such as the liver. However, diaphragm segmentation is extremely challenging in non-contrast CT images due to the diaphragm's similar appearance to other abdominal organs. In this paper, we present a fully automatic algorithm for diaphragm segmentation in non-contrast CT images. The method is mainly based on a priori knowledge about the human diaphragm anatomy. The diaphragm domes are in contact with the lungs and the heart while its circumference runs along the lumbar vertebrae of the spine as well as the inferior border of the ribs and sternum. As such, the diaphragm can be delineated by segmentation of these organs followed by connecting relevant parts of their outline properly. More specifically, the bottom surface of the lungs and heart, the spine borders and the ribs are delineated, leading to a set of scattered points which represent the diaphragm's geometry. Next, a B-spline filter is used to find the smoothest surface which pass through these points. This algorithm was tested on a noncontrast CT image of a lung cancer patient. The results indicate that there is an average Hausdorff distance of 2.96 mm between the automatic and manually segmented diaphragms which implies a favourable accuracy.

  15. Radial-Electric-Field Piezoelectric Diaphragm Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Working, Dennis C.; Mossi, Karla; Castro, Nicholas D.; Mane, Pooma

    2009-01-01

    In a recently invented class of piezoelectric diaphragm pumps, the electrode patterns on the piezoelectric diaphragms are configured so that the electric fields in the diaphragms have symmetrical radial (along-the-surface) components in addition to through-the-thickness components. Previously, it was accepted in the piezoelectric-transducer art that in order to produce the out-of-plane bending displacement of a diaphragm needed for pumping, one must make the electric field asymmetrical through the thickness, typically by means of electrodes placed on only one side of the piezoelectric material. In the present invention, electrodes are placed on both sides and patterned so as to produce substantial radial as well as through-the-thickness components. Moreover, unlike in the prior art, the electric field can be symmetrical through the thickness. Tests have shown in a given diaphragm that an electrode configuration according to this invention produces more displacement than does a conventional one-sided electrode pattern. The invention admits of numerous variations characterized by various degrees of complexity. Figure 1 is a simplified depiction of a basic version. As in other piezoelectric diaphragm pumps of similar basic design, the prime mover is a piezoelectric diaphragm. Application of a suitable voltage to the electrodes on the diaphragm causes it to undergo out-of-plane bending. The bending displacement pushes a fluid out of, or pulls the fluid into, a chamber bounded partly by the diaphragm. Also as in other diaphragm pumps in general, check valves ensure that the fluid flows only in through one port and only out through another port.

  16. Investigation of PVdF active diaphragms for synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailo, Kelly C.; Brei, Diann E.; Calkins, Frederick T.

    2000-06-01

    Current research has shown that aircraft can gain significant aerodynamic performance benefits by employing active flow control (AFC). One of the enabling technologies of AFC is the synthetic jet. Synthetic jets, also known as zero-net-mass flux actuators, act as bi-directional pumps injecting high momentum air into the local aerodynamic flow. Previous work has concentrated on high frequency synthetic jets based on piezoelectric active diaphragms such as Thunder actuators. Low frequency synthetic jets present a unique challenge requiring large displacements, which current technology has difficulty meeting. Boeing is investigating novel shaped low frequency synthetic jets that can modify the flow over fixed aircraft wings. This paper present the initial study of two promising active diaphragm concepts: a crescent shape and an opposing bender shape. These active diaphragms were numerically modeled utilizing the general-purpose finite element code ABAQUS. Using the ABAQUS results, the dynamic volume change within each jet was calculated and incorporated into an analytical linear Bernoulli model to predict the velocities and pressures at the nozzle. Simulations were performed to determine trends to assist in selection of prototype configurations. Prototypes of both diaphragm concepts were constructed from polyvinylidene fluoride and experimentally tested at Boeing with promising results.

  17. Horn installed in CNGS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The horn is installed for the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) project. Protons collide with a graphite target producing charged particles that are focussed by the magnetic field in the horn. These particles will then pass into a decay tube where they decay into neutrinos, which travel towards a detector at Gran Sasso 732 km away in Italy.

  18. Diaphragms obtained by radiochemical grafting in PTFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenner, T.; Fahrasmane, A.

    1984-01-01

    Diaphragms for alkaline water electrolysis are prepared by radiochemical grafting of PTFE fabric with styrene, which is later on sulfonated, or with acrylic acid. The diaphragms obtained are mechanically resistant to potash at temperatures up to 200 0 C, but show some degrafting, which limits the lifetime. The sulfonated styrene group has been found to be more stable in electrolysis than the acrylic acid. In both cases, the incorporation of a cross-linking agent like divinyl benzene improves the lifetime of the diaphragms. Electrolysis during 500 hours at 120 0 C and 10 kAm 2 could be performed. (author)

  19. DOUBLE BOSS SCULPTURED DIAPHRAGM EMPLOYED PIEZORESISTIVE MEMS PRESSURE SENSOR WITH SILICON-ON-INSULATOR (SOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. SINDHANAISELVI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the detailed study on the measurement of low pressure sensor using double boss sculptured diaphragm of piezoresistive type with MEMS technology in flash flood level measurement. The MEMS based very thin diaphragms to sense the low pressure is analyzed by introducing supports to achieve linearity. The simulation results obtained from Intellisuite MEMS CAD design tool show that very thin diaphragms with rigid centre or boss give acceptable linearity. Further investigations on very thin diaphragms embedded with piezoresistor for low pressure measurement show that it is essential to analyse the piezoresistor placement and size of piezoresistor to achieve good sensitivity. A modified analytical modelling developed in this study for double boss sculptured diaphragm results were compared with simulated results. Further the enhancement of sensitivity is analyzed using non uniform thickness diaphragm and Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI technique. The simulation results indicate that the double boss square sculptured diaphragm with SOI layer using 0.85μm thickness yields the higher voltage sensitivity, acceptable linearity with Small Scale Deflection.

  20. Convergence of pattern generator outputs on a common mechanism of diaphragm motor unit recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Carlos B; Seven, Yasin B; Sieck, Gary C

    2014-01-01

    Motor units are the final element of neuromotor control. In manner analogous to the organization of neuromotor control in other skeletal muscles, diaphragm motor units comprise phrenic motoneurons located in the cervical spinal cord that innervate the diaphragm muscle, the main inspiratory muscle in mammals. Diaphragm motor units play a primary role in sustaining ventilation but are also active in other nonventilatory behaviors, including coughing, sneezing, vomiting, defecation, and parturition. Diaphragm muscle fibers comprise all fiber types. Thus, diaphragm motor units display substantial differences in contractile and fatigue properties, but importantly, properties of the motoneuron and muscle fibers within a motor unit are matched. As in other skeletal muscles, diaphragm motor units are recruited in order such that motor units that display greater fatigue resistance are recruited earlier and more often than more fatigable motor units. The properties of the motor unit population are critical determinants of the function of a skeletal muscle across the range of possible motor tasks. Accordingly, fatigue-resistant motor units are sufficient to generate the forces necessary for ventilatory behaviors, whereas more fatigable units are only activated during expulsive behaviors important for airway clearance. Neuromotor control of diaphragm motor units may reflect selective inputs from distinct pattern generators distributed according to the motor unit properties necessary to accomplish these different motor tasks. In contrast, widely distributed inputs to phrenic motoneurons from various pattern generators (e.g., for breathing, coughing, or vocalization) would dictate recruitment order based on intrinsic electrophysiological properties. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analytical investigation of bidirectional ductile diaphragms in multi-span bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaone; Bruneau, Michel

    2018-04-01

    In the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Seismic Bridge Design Provisions, ductile diaphragms are identified as Permissible Earthquake-Resisting Elements (EREs), designed to help resist seismic loads applied in the transverse direction of bridges. When adding longitudinal ductile diaphragms, a bidirectional ductile diaphragm system is created that can address seismic excitations acting along both the bridge's longitudinal and transverse axes. This paper investigates bidirectional ductile diaphragms with Buckling Restrained Braces (BRBs) in straight multi-span bridge with simply supported floating spans. The flexibility of the substructures in the transverse and longitudinal direction of the bridge is considered. Design procedures for the bidirectional ductile diaphragms are first proposed. An analytical model of the example bridge with bidirectional ductile diaphragms, designed based on the proposed methodology, is then built in SAP2000. Pushover and nonlinear time history analyses are performed on the bridge model, and corresponding results are presented. The effect of changing the longitudinal stiffness of the bidirectional ductile diaphragms in the end spans connecting to the abutment is also investigated, in order to better understand the impact on the bridge's dynamic performance.

  2. First reported experience with intramuscular diaphragm pacing in replacing positive pressure mechanical ventilators in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onders, Raymond P; Ponsky, Todd A; Elmo, MaryJo; Lidsky, Karen; Barksdale, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Diaphragm pacing (DP) has been shown to successfully replace mechanical ventilators for adult tetraplegic patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency. This is the first report of DP in ventilator-dependent children. This was a prospective interventional experience under institutional review board approval. Diaphragm pacing involves outpatient laparoscopic diaphragm motor point mapping to identify the site where stimulation causes maximum diaphragm contraction with implantation of 4 percutaneous intramuscular electrodes. Diaphragm conditioning ensues to wean the child from the ventilator. Six children were successfully implanted ranging from 5 to 17 years old with the smallest 15 kg in weight. Length of time on mechanical ventilation ranged from 11 days to 7.6 years with an average of 3.2 years. In all patients, DP provided tidal volumes above basal needs. Five of the patients underwent a home-based weaning program, whereas one patient who was implanted only 11 days post spinal cord injury never returned to the ventilator with DP use. Another patient was weaned from the ventilator full time but died of complications of his underlying brain stem tumor. The remaining patients weaned from the ventilator for over 14 hours a day and/or are actively conditioning their diaphragms. Diaphragm pacing successfully replaced mechanical ventilators, which improves quality of life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  4. Diaphragm adaptations in patients with COPD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenheijm, C.A.C.; Heunks, L.M.A.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2008-01-01

    Inspiratory muscle weakness in patients with COPD is of major clinical relevance. For instance, maximum inspiratory pressure generation is an independent determinant of survival in severe COPD. Traditionally, inspiratory muscle weakness has been ascribed to hyperinflation-induced diaphragm

  5. A Director's Guide to High School Horns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Collen

    1998-01-01

    Conveys that the horn (French horn) is the most difficult instrument for band and orchestra directors to teach because playing the horn requires students to have very strong aural skills. Identifies the horn specific techniques students should know, such as hand positions, alternate fingerings, and transposition. Provides different methods for…

  6. Verification on reliability of diaphragm seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Sakuta, Yoshiyuki; Hanawa, Yoshio; Tsuji, Tomoyuki; Tsuboi, Kazuaki; Nagao, Yoshiharu; Miyazawa, Masataka

    2009-06-01

    The main body of the JMTR is composed of reactor pressure vessel, core and reactor pool. At the bottom of the reactor pool, the Diaphragm-seal (2.6m outer diameter, 2m inner diameter, thickness 1.5mm) of the JMTR made of stainless steel is installed to prevent the water leak of the reactor pool and to absorb the expansion of the reactor pressure vessel due to pressure and temperature changes. In the long-term maintenance plans drawn up in 2004, it is required that the visual inspection for the diaphragm-seal should be carried out in 2007 and that the inspection should be carried out every around five-year. Therefore, prior to the refurbishment of the JMTR, the inspection device which is a deposition-collection apparatus with underwater-camera was developed, and the visual inspection was carried out to confirm the soundness of the diaphragm-seal. As a result, harmful flaws and/or corrosions were not inspected in the visual inspection, and the soundness of the diaphragm seal was confirmed. In future, the long-term integrity of the diaphragm-seal will could be achieved by conducting the periodic inspection. (author)

  7. Congenital duodenal diaphragm in eight children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Akhtar; Matta, Hilal; Jacobsz, Alic; Al-Salem, Ahmad H.; Trad, Omar

    2004-01-01

    Congenital duodenal obstruction (CDO) is common and usually easy to diagnose cause of intestinal obstruction in the newborn, except when the cause of the obstruction is duodenal diaphragm. We describe our experience with eight children who had intrinsic duodenal obstruction secondary to a duodenal diaphragm. The medical record of 22 children with the diagnosis of congenital intrinsic duodenal were reviewed for age, sex, gestation, birth weight, clinical features, associated anomalies, method of diagnosis, treatment and outcome. Operative findings and procedures were obtained from the operative notes. Eight of 22 children (36.4%) had congenital duodenal diaphragm (CDD). In all children, the diagnosis was made from the plain abdominal X-ray, which showed the classic double-bubble appearence, and barium meal, which showed duodenal obstruction. Four patients had associated anomalies, including two with Down's syndrome intraoperatively, five patients were found to have duodenal diaphragm with a central hole, while the other three had complete duodenal diaphragms. Postoperatively, all patients did well. Six required total parenteral nutrition. The 100% survival rate among these children is comparable to that in Western countries, and can be attributed to the lack of major associated abnormalities, good perioperative management, and the availability of total parenteral nutrition. (author)

  8. Ultrasonic horn design for ultrasonic machining technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naď M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many of industrial applications and production technologies are based on the application of ultrasound. In many cases, the phenomenon of ultrasound is also applied in technological processes of the machining of materials. The main element of equipments that use the effects of ultrasound for machining technology is the ultrasonic horn – so called sonotrode. The performance of ultrasonic equipment, respectively ultrasonic machining technologies depends on properly designed of sonotrode shape. The dynamical properties of different geometrical shapes of ultrasonic horns are presented in this paper. Dependence of fundamental modal properties (natural frequencies, mode shapes of various sonotrode shapes for various geometrical parameters is analyzed. Modal analyses of the models are determined by the numerical simulation using finite element method (FEM design procedures. The mutual comparisons of the comparable parameters of the various sonotrode shapes are presented.

  9. Hierarchical State Machines as Modular Horn Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Loïc Garoche

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In model based development, embedded systems are modeled using a mix of dataflow formalism, that capture the flow of computation, and hierarchical state machines, that capture the modal behavior of the system. For safety analysis, existing approaches rely on a compilation scheme that transform the original model (dataflow and state machines into a pure dataflow formalism. Such compilation often result in loss of important structural information that capture the modal behaviour of the system. In previous work we have developed a compilation technique from a dataflow formalism into modular Horn clauses. In this paper, we present a novel technique that faithfully compile hierarchical state machines into modular Horn clauses. Our compilation technique preserves the structural and modal behavior of the system, making the safety analysis of such models more tractable.

  10. Combating Rhino Horn Trafficking: The Need to Disrupt Criminal Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Haas

    Full Text Available The onslaught on the World's wildlife continues despite numerous initiatives aimed at curbing it. We build a model that integrates rhino horn trade with rhino population dynamics in order to evaluate the impact of various management policies on rhino sustainability. In our model, an agent-based sub-model of horn trade from the poaching event up through a purchase of rhino horn in Asia impacts rhino abundance. A data-validated, individual-based sub-model of the rhino population of South Africa provides these abundance values. We evaluate policies that consist of different combinations of legal trade initiatives, demand reduction marketing campaigns, increased anti-poaching measures within protected areas, and transnational policing initiatives aimed at disrupting those criminal syndicates engaged in horn trafficking. Simulation runs of our model over the next 35 years produces a sustainable rhino population under only one management policy. This policy includes both a transnational policing effort aimed at dismantling those criminal networks engaged in rhino horn trafficking-coupled with increases in legal economic opportunities for people living next to protected areas where rhinos live. This multi-faceted approach should be the focus of the international debate on strategies to combat the current slaughter of rhino rather than the binary debate about whether rhino horn trade should be legalized. This approach to the evaluation of wildlife management policies may be useful to apply to other species threatened by wildlife trafficking.

  11. Computer simulation analysis of normal and abnormal development of the mammalian diaphragm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodenstein Lawrence

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH is a birth defect with significant morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of diaphragm morphogenesis and the aberrations leading to CDH is limited. Although classical embryologists described the diaphragm as arising from the septum transversum, pleuroperitoneal folds (PPF, esophageal mesentery and body wall, animal studies suggest that the PPF is the major, if not sole, contributor to the muscular diaphragm. Recently, a posterior defect in the PPF has been identified when the teratogen nitrofen is used to induce CDH in fetal rodents. We describe use of a cell-based computer modeling system (Nudge++™ to study diaphragm morphogenesis. Methods and results Key diaphragmatic structures were digitized from transverse serial sections of paraffin-embedded mouse embryos at embryonic days 11.5 and 13. Structure boundaries and simulated cells were combined in the Nudge++™ software. Model cells were assigned putative behavioral programs, and these programs were progressively modified to produce a diaphragm consistent with the observed anatomy in rodents. Homology between our model and recent anatomical observations occurred under the following simulation conditions: (1 cell mitoses are restricted to the edge of growing tissue; (2 cells near the chest wall remain mitotically active; (3 mitotically active non-edge cells migrate toward the chest wall; and (4 movement direction depends on clonal differentiation between anterior and posterior PPF cells. Conclusion With the PPF as the sole source of mitotic cells, an early defect in the PPF evolves into a posteromedial diaphragm defect, similar to that of the rodent nitrofen CDH model. A posterolateral defect, as occurs in human CDH, would be more readily recreated by invoking other cellular contributions. Our results suggest that recent reports of PPF-dominated diaphragm morphogenesis in the rodent may not be strictly applicable to man. The ability to

  12. Computer simulation analysis of normal and abnormal development of the mammalian diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jason C; Bodenstein, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Background Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a birth defect with significant morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of diaphragm morphogenesis and the aberrations leading to CDH is limited. Although classical embryologists described the diaphragm as arising from the septum transversum, pleuroperitoneal folds (PPF), esophageal mesentery and body wall, animal studies suggest that the PPF is the major, if not sole, contributor to the muscular diaphragm. Recently, a posterior defect in the PPF has been identified when the teratogen nitrofen is used to induce CDH in fetal rodents. We describe use of a cell-based computer modeling system (Nudge++™) to study diaphragm morphogenesis. Methods and results Key diaphragmatic structures were digitized from transverse serial sections of paraffin-embedded mouse embryos at embryonic days 11.5 and 13. Structure boundaries and simulated cells were combined in the Nudge++™ software. Model cells were assigned putative behavioral programs, and these programs were progressively modified to produce a diaphragm consistent with the observed anatomy in rodents. Homology between our model and recent anatomical observations occurred under the following simulation conditions: (1) cell mitoses are restricted to the edge of growing tissue; (2) cells near the chest wall remain mitotically active; (3) mitotically active non-edge cells migrate toward the chest wall; and (4) movement direction depends on clonal differentiation between anterior and posterior PPF cells. Conclusion With the PPF as the sole source of mitotic cells, an early defect in the PPF evolves into a posteromedial diaphragm defect, similar to that of the rodent nitrofen CDH model. A posterolateral defect, as occurs in human CDH, would be more readily recreated by invoking other cellular contributions. Our results suggest that recent reports of PPF-dominated diaphragm morphogenesis in the rodent may not be strictly applicable to man. The ability to recreate a CDH defect

  13. Improving the Performance of Two-Stage Gas Guns By Adding a Diaphragm in the Pump Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, D. W.; Miller, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Herein, we study the technique of improving the gun performance by installing a diaphragm in the pump tube of the gun. A CFD study is carried out for the 0.28 in. gun in the Hypervelocity Free Flight Radiation (HFF RAD) range at the NASA Ames Research Center. The normal, full-length pump tube is studied as well as two pump tubes of reduced length (approximately 75% and approximately 33% of the normal length). Significant improvements in performance are calculated to be gained for the reduced length pump tubes upon the addition of the diaphragm. These improvements are identified as reductions in maximum pressures in the pump tube and at the projectile base of approximately 20%, while maintaining the projectile muzzle velocity or as increases in muzzle velocity of approximately 0.5 km/sec while not increasing the maximum pressures in the gun. Also, it is found that both guns with reduced pump tube length (with diaphragms) could maintain the performance of gun with the full length pump tube without diaphragms, whereas the guns with reduced pump tube lengths without diaphragms could not. A five-shot experimental investigation of the pump tube diaphragm technique is carried out for the gun with a pump tube length of 75% normal. The CFD predictions of increased muzzle velocity are borne out by the experimental data. Modest, but useful muzzle velocity increases (2.5 - 6%) are obtained upon the installation of a diaphragm, compared to a benchmark shot without a diaphragm.

  14. A modified SILCS contraceptive diaphragm for long-term controlled release of the HIV microbicide dapivirine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Ian; Boyd, Peter; Kilbourne-Brook, Maggie; Saxon, Gene; Cohen, Jessica; Malcolm, R Karl

    2013-07-01

    There is considerable interest in developing new multipurpose prevention technologies to address women's reproductive health needs. This study describes an innovative barrier contraceptive device--based on the SILCS diaphragm--that also provides long-term controlled release of the lead candidate anti-HIV microbicide dapivirine. Diaphragm devices comprising various dapivirine-loaded polymer spring cores overmolded with a nonmedicated silicone elastomer sheath were fabricated by injection molding processes. In vitro release testing, thermal analysis and mechanical characterization were performed on the devices. A diaphragm device containing a polyoxymethylene spring core loaded with 10% w/w dapivirine provided continuous and controlled release of dapivirine over a 6-month period, with a mean in vitro daily release rate of 174 mcg/day. The mechanical properties of the new diaphragm were closely matched to the SILCS diaphragm. The study demonstrates proof of concept for a dapivirine-releasing diaphragm with daily release quantities potentially capable of preventing HIV transmission. In discontinuous clinical use, release of dapivirine may be readily extended over 1 or more years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Stein, Deborah M. [University of Maryland, Department of Surgery, Shock Trauma Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Alexander, Melvin [National Study Center for Trauma and Emergency Medical Systems, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  16. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A.; Stein, Deborah M.; Alexander, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  17. Diaphragm walling for Sizewell B sets records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The first phase of construction of the Sizewell-B nuclear reactor has been completed. This was the building of a diaphragm wall around the site. It is one of the largest and deepest diaphragm walls to be installed in Europe. The site can be pumped dry of groundwater and the foundations constructed in the dry. The specifications of the wall and its construction, using two Hydrofraise excavation rigs, are described. The excavated material is brought up as a slurry and the (bentonite) slurry is cleaned and desanded. Most of the wall has been formed using a plastic concrete but reinforced concrete has been used for some stretches. The diaphragm wall, which is 1258m long and 55m deep on average, was built in 19 weeks. (U.K.)

  18. Parametric study of roof diaphragm stiffness requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.D.; Tenbus, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    A common assumption made in performing a dynamic seismic analysis for a building is that the roof/floor system is open-quotes rigidclose quotes. This assumption would appear to be reasonable for many of the structures found in nuclear power plants, since many of these structures are constructed of heavily reinforced concrete having floor/roof slabs at least two feet in thickness, and meet the code requirements for structural detailing for seismic design. The roofs of many Department of Energy (DOE) buildings at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, have roofs constructed of either metal, precast concrete or gypsum plank deck overlaid with rigid insulation, tar and gravel. In performing natural phenomena hazard assessments for one such facility, it was assumed that the existing roof performed first as a flexible diaphragm (zero stiffness) and then, rigid (infinitely stiff). For the flexible diaphragm model it was determined that the building began to experience significant damage around 0.09 g's. For the rigid diaphragm model it was determined that no significant damage was observed below 0.20 g's. A Conceptual Design Report has been prepared for upgrading/replacing the roof of this building. The question that needed to be answered here was, open-quotes How stiff should the new roof diaphragm be in order to satisfy the rigid diaphragm assumption and, yet, be cost effective?close quotes. This paper presents a parametric study of a very simple structural system to show that the design of roof diaphragms needs to consider both strength and stiffness (frequency) requirements. This paper shows how the stiffness of a roof system affects the seismically induced loads in the lateral, vertical load resisting elements of a building and provides guidance in determining how open-quotes rigidclose quotes a roof system should be in order to accomplish a cost effective design

  19. Free Piston Double Diaphragm Shock Tube

    OpenAIRE

    OGURA, Eiji; FUNABIKI, Katsushi; SATO, Shunichi; ABE, Takashi; 小倉, 栄二; 船曳, 勝之; 佐藤, 俊逸; 安部, 隆士

    1997-01-01

    A free piston double diaphragm shock tube was newly developed for generation of high Mach number shock wave. Its characteristics was investigated for various operation parameters; such as a strength of the diaphragm at the end of the comparession tube, an initial pressure of low pressure tube, an initial pressure of medium pressure tube and the volume of compression tube. Under the restriction of fixed pressures for the driver high pressure tube (32×10^5Pa) and the low pressure tube (40Pa) in...

  20. Treating traumatic injuries of the diaphragm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwivedi Sankalp

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic diaphragmatic injury (DI is a unique clinical entity that is usually occult and can easily be missed. Their delayed presentation can be due to the delayed rupture of the diaphragm or delayed detection of diaphragmatic rupture, making the accurate diagnosis of DI challenging to the trauma surgeons. An emergency laparotomy and thorough exploration followed by the repair of the defect is the gold standard for the management of these cases. We report a case of blunt DI in an elderly gentleman and present a comprehensive overview for the management of traumatic injuries of the diaphragm.

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Diaphragm Pneumatic Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtášek Kamil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic diaphragm motors belong to the group of motors with elastic working parts. This part is usually made of rubber with a textile insert and it is deformed under the pressure of a compressed air or from the external mass load. This is resulting in a final working effect. In this type of motors are in contact two different elastic environments – the compressed air and the esaltic part. These motors are mainly the low-stroke and working with relatively large forces. This paper presents mathematical modeling static properties of diaphragm motors.

  2. Quantifying the predictability of diaphragm motion during respiration with a noninvasive external marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedam, S.S.; Kini, V.R.; Keall, P.J.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Mostafavi, H.; Mohan, R.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify the ability to predict intrafraction diaphragm motion from an external respiration signal during a course of radiotherapy. The data obtained included diaphragm motion traces from 63 fluoroscopic lung procedures for 5 patients, acquired simultaneously with respiratory motion signals (an infrared camera-based system was used to track abdominal wall motion). During these sessions, the patients were asked to breathe either (i) without instruction, (ii) with audio prompting, or (iii) using visual feedback. A statistical general linear model was formulated to describe the relationship between the respiration signal and diaphragm motion over all sessions and for all breathing training types. The model parameters derived from the first session for each patient were then used to predict the diaphragm motion for subsequent sessions based on the respiration signal. Quantification of the difference between the predicted and actual motion during each session determined our ability to predict diaphragm motion during a course of radiotherapy. This measure of diaphragm motion was also used to estimate clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margins for conventional, gated, and proposed four-dimensional (4D) radiotherapy. Results from statistical analysis indicated a strong linear relationship between the respiration signal and diaphragm motion (p<0.001) over all sessions, irrespective of session number (p=0.98) and breathing training type (p=0.19). Using model parameters obtained from the first session, diaphragm motion was predicted in subsequent sessions to within 0.1 cm (1 σ) for gated and 4D radiotherapy. Assuming a 0.4 cm setup error, superior-inferior CTV-PTV margins of 1.1 cm for conventional radiotherapy could be reduced to 0.8 cm for gated and 4D radiotherapy. The diaphragm motion is strongly correlated with the respiration signal obtained from the abdominal wall. This correlation can be used to predict diaphragm

  3. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  4. The earliest history of diaphragm physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, J P; Debru, A; Grassino, A E; Whitelaw, W A

    1994-12-01

    The diaphragm was recognized as a distinct anatomical structure in the earliest Greek writings. However, the precise description of wounds suffered by warriors during the Trojan war by Homer was not tied to any particular function. The diaphragm was assimilated to the region that harbours thought. The first physiologic explanations of respiration by Empedocles in the 5th century BC and the concepts introduced by Plato and Hippocrates did not include a significant participation of the diaphragm. Aristole was the first to link respiration to a particular organ and a specific movement of the thorax. However, he considered that it was the heart which caused the lungs to expand by heating them, and the lungs in turn forced the thorax to dilate, a concept which was to survive until the 17th century. As in Aristole's theory the diaphragm played no role in respiration and was just a fence separating the thorax from the abdomen. A major break through occurred in Alexandria in the 4th and 3rd century BC: Herophilus was the first to recognize that muscles were the agents of movement and Erasistratus performed animal experiments which showed that the respiratory muscles were the agents of respiratory movements, thus opening the way to the later discoveries of Galen.

  5. Kamillo Horn und das Melodram

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bajgarová, Jitka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010), s. 229-237 ISSN 1212-1193. [Zdeněk Fibich, středoevropský skladatel konce 19. století. Olomouc, 19.05.2010–21.05.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : Kamillo Horn * concert melodrama Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  6. Diaphragm users should follow 13 tips for best effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, M; Hatcher, R A

    1984-11-01

    The following 13 tips should be presented by family planning practitioners to diaphragm users: 1) the client must be able to feel her cervix; 2) the diaphragm should be checked for tears or holes before each use; 3) it should always be used with contraceptive jelly or cream; 4) petroleum products should not be used with the diaphragm; 5) the device should be inserted in plentyof time before intercourse; 6) it should be used at every intercourse; 7) to insert the diaphragm, use 1 hand to hold the cup down and the dome up, fold the diaphragm in half, push it toward the back of the vagina, and tuck the front rim behind the pubic bone; 8) check placement of the diaphragm by ensuring that the soft rubber dome covers the cervix and the front rim is firmly behind the pubic bone; 9) be aware that the diaphragm is probably not in the correct position if it causes discomfort; 10) do not douche with the diaphragm in place; 11) leave the device in place for a least 6 hours after intercourse; 12) remove the diaphragm by hooking the index finger behind the front rim and pulling down and out, being careful not to puncture the diaphragm; and 13) wash the diaphragm with mild soap and water and store it in a platic container away from heat. If patients gain or lose more than 10 pounds, have a pregnancy or pelvic surgery, suspect that their diaphragm is too large or too small, or are experiencing discomfort or pain, they should have the fit checked. Finally, since several cases of toxic shock syndrome have occured in diaphragm users, patients should avoid leaving the diaphragm in place more than 24 hours and avoid its use during menstruation.

  7. Novel diaphragm for electrolytic cells. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic intent of these studies is to produce a diaphragm permeable to two types of ions, which have properties which are similar to those of asbestos. PTFE in the form of fabric is rendered hydrophilic by grafting monomer acrylic acid by a radio-chemical technique; two methods were utilized to do this: - Direct radio-chemical method under radiation - Pre-irradiation method in air under radiation and accelerated electronic radiation. The monomer acrylic acid was grafted in the presence or non-presence of cross-linking agents, the latter before developing a resistance derived from the diaphragms obtained at the agressivity of the medium in which they would be utilized

  8. Assessing breathing motion by shape matching of lung and diaphragm surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschler, Martin; Bischof, Horst

    2005-04-01

    Studying complex thorax breating motion is an important research topic for accurate fusion of functional and anatomical data, radiotherapy planning or reduction of breathing motion artifacts. We investigate segmented CT lung, airway and diaphragm surfaces at several different breathing states between Functional Residual and Total Lung Capacity. In general, it is hard to robustly derive corresponding shape features like curvature maxima from lung and diaphragm surfaces since diaphragm and rib cage muscles tend to deform the elastic lung tissue such that e.g. ridges might disappear. A novel registration method based on the shape context approach for shape matching is presented where we extend shape context to 3D surfaces. The shape context approach was reported as a promising method for matching 2D shapes without relying on extracted shape features. We use the point correspondences for a non-rigid thin-plate-spline registration to get deformation fields that describe the movement of lung and diaphragm. Our validation consists of experiments on phantom and real sheep thorax data sets. Phantom experiments make use of shapes that are manipulated with known transformations that simulate breathing behaviour. Real thorax data experiments use a data set showing lungs and diaphragm at 5 distinct breathing states, where we compare subsets of the data sets and qualitatively and quantitatively asses the registration performance by using manually identified corresponding landmarks.

  9. An Interview with Michael Horn: Blending Education for High-Octane Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Blended learning holds the potential of improving the way we educate students and of making them more motivated. Blended education--the melding of information technology based distance learning with school attendance--is perhaps the best way to educate students for 21st century skills, says Michael Horn in a "Kappan" interview. Horn points out…

  10. Aviation Fuel Gauging Sensor Utilizing Multiple Diaphragm Sensors Incorporating Polymer Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, C. A. F.; Pospori, A.; Saez-Rodriguez, D.

    2016-01-01

    A high-performance fuel gauging sensor is described that uses five diaphragm-based pressure sensors, which are monitored using a linear array of polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings. The sensors were initially characterized using water, revealing a sensitivity of 98 pm/cm for four of the sensors...... of sensors manufactured with a polyurethane-based diaphragm showed no measurable deterioration over a three month period immersed in fuel. These sensors exhibited a sensitivity of 39 pm/cm, which is less than the silicone rubber devices due to the stiffer nature of the polyurethane material used....

  11. Diaphragm Pump With Resonant Piezoelectric Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Kline-Schoder, Robert J.; Shimko, Martin A.

    2007-01-01

    A diaphragm pump driven by a piezoelectric actuator is undergoing development. This pump is intended to be a prototype of lightweight, highly reliable pumps for circulating cooling liquids in protective garments and high-power electronic circuits, and perhaps for some medical applications. The pump would be highly reliable because it would contain no sliding seals or bearings that could wear, the only parts subject to wear would be two check valves, and the diaphragm and other flexing parts could be designed, by use of proven methods, for extremely long life. Because the pump would be capable of a large volumetric flow rate and would have only a small dead volume, its operation would not be disrupted by ingestion of gas, and it could be started reliably under all conditions. The prior art includes a number piezoelectrically actuated diaphragm pumps. Because of the smallness of the motions of piezoelectric actuators (typical maximum strains only about 0.001), the volumetric flow rates of those pumps are much too small for typical cooling applications. In the pump now undergoing development, mechanical resonance would be utilized to amplify the motion generated by the piezoelectric actuator and thereby multiply the volumetric flow rate. The prime mover in this pump would be a stack of piezoelectric ceramic actuators, one end of which would be connected to a spring that would be part of a spring-and-mass resonator structure. The mass part of the resonator structure would include the pump diaphragm (see Figure 1). Contraction of the spring would draw the diaphragm to the left, causing the volume of the fluid chamber to increase and thereby causing fluid to flow into the chamber. Subsequent expansion of the spring would push the diaphragm to the right, causing the volume of the fluid chamber to decrease, and thereby expelling fluid from the chamber. The fluid would enter and leave the chamber through check valves. The piezoelectric stack would be driven electrically to

  12. Miniature all-silica optical fiber pressure sensor with an ultrathin uniform diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhui; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei

    2010-04-26

    This paper presents an all-silica miniature optical fiber pressure/acoustic sensor based on the Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometric principle. The endface of the etched optical fiber tip and silica thin diaphragm on it form the FP structure. The uniform and thin silica diaphragm was fabricated by etching away the silicon substrate from a commercial silicon wafer that has a thermal oxide layer. The thin film was directly thermally bonded to the endface of the optical fiber thus creating the Fabry-Perot cavity. Thin films with a thickness from 1microm to 3microm have been bonded successfully. The sensor shows good linearity and hysteresis during measurement. A sensor with 0.75 microm-thick diaphragm thinned by post silica etching was demonstrated to have a sensitivity of 11 nm/kPa. The new sensor has great potential to be used as a non-intrusive pressure sensor in a variety of sensing applications.

  13. Fabry-Perot Diaphragm Fiber Optic Sensor (DFOS for Acoustic Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan SUN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A diaphragm fiber optic sensor (DFOS solely based on Fabry-Perot multiple beam interference has been designed and fabricated with micro-electric mechanical system (MEMS technology. The silicon diaphragm with an embossed center was designed with an interference gap width kept accurately. The DFOS was verified to be a truly and purely Fabry-Perot device via a critical test. Parallel testing with a Piezoelectric (PZT sensor showed that the DFOS had high sensitivity. The Fabry-Perot DFOS also demonstrated excellent performance in on-line monitoring of Partial Discharge (PD in power transformers.

  14. Ultrasonographic Assessment of Diaphragm Function in Critically Ill Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrello, Michele; Formenti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The majority of patients admitted to the ICU require mechanical ventilation as a part of their process of care. However, mechanical ventilation itself or the underlying disease can lead to dysfunction of the diaphragm, a condition that may contribute to the failure of weaning from mechanical ventilation. However, extended time on the ventilator increases health-care costs and greatly increases patient morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, symptoms and signs of muscle disease in a bedridden (or bed rest-only) ICU patient are often difficult to assess because of concomitant confounding factors. Conventional assessment of diaphragm function lacks specific, noninvasive, time-saving, and easily performed bedside tools or requires patient cooperation. Recently, the use of ultrasound has raised great interest as a simple, noninvasive method of quantification of diaphragm contractile activity. In this review, we discuss the physiology and the relevant pathophysiology of diaphragm function, and we summarize the recent findings concerning the evaluation of its (dys)function in critically ill patients, with a special focus on the role of ultrasounds. We describe how to assess diaphragm excursion and diaphragm thickening during breathing and the meaning of these measurements under spontaneous or mechanical ventilation as well as the reference values in health and disease. The spread of ultrasonographic assessment of diaphragm function may possibly result in timely identification of patients with diaphragm dysfunction and to a potential improvement in the assessment of recovery from diaphragm weakness. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  15. Process engineering and economic evaluations of diaphragm and membrane chlorine cell technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The chlor-alkali manufacturing technologies of (1), diaphragm cells (2), current technology membrane cells (3), catalytic cathode membrane cells (4), oxygen-cathode membrane cells and to a lesser extent several other related emerging processes are studied. Comparisons have been made on the two bases of (1) conventional industrial economics, and (2) energy consumption. The current diaphragm cell may have a small economic advantage over the other technologies at the plant size of 544 metric T/D (600 T/D). The three membrane cells all consume less energy, with the oxygen-cathode cell being the lowest. The oxygen-cathode cell appears promising as a low energy chlor-alkali cell where there is no chemical market for hydrogen. Federal funding of the oxygen-cathode cell has been beneficial to the development of the technology, to electrochemical cell research, and may help maintain the US's position in the international chlor-alkali technology marketplace. Tax law changes inducing the installation of additional cells in existing plants would produce the quickest reduction in power consumption by the chlor-alkali industry. Alternative technologies such as the solid polymer electrolyte cell, the coupling of diaphragm cells with fuel cells and the dynamic gel diaphragm have a strong potential for reducing chloralkali industry power consumption. Adding up all the recent and expected improvements that have become cost-effective, the electrical energy required to produce a unit of chlorine by 1990 should be only 50% to 60% of that used in 1970. In the United States the majority of the market does not demand salt-free caustic. About 75% of the electrolytic caustic is produced in diaphragm cells and only a small part of that is purified. This study indicates that unless membrane cell costs are greatly reduced or a stronger demand develops for salt-free caustic, the diaphragm cells will remain competitive. (WHK)

  16. Development of diaphragm automatic homing equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Yamada, Koji; Moriya, Shinichi; Koike, Jiro; Okabe, Masao; Oyama, Akihiro.

    1996-01-01

    In steam-turbine overhaul inspection, one of the most important processes is to remove rust and deposited contaminants on the surface of turbine parts, while the turbine is in operation, to recover thermal efficiency and prepare good surface conditions for color penetrant inspection. These processes generally are done by dry honing, but this generates dust. To protect laborers against these conditions, Hitachi, Ltd. has developed automatic honing equipment for the diaphragms of the nuclear steam turbine. This equipment was first used in the first annual inspection and overhaul of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plant No.4 of Chubu Electric Power Inc. (author)

  17. WE-G-18C-06: Is Diaphragm Motion a Good Surrogate for Liver Tumor Motion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Cai, J; Zheng, C; Czito, B; Palta, M; Yin, F [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Wang, H [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Bashir, M [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether diaphragm motion is a good surrogate for liver tumor motion by comparing their motion trajectories obtained from cine-MRI. Methods: Fourteen patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (10/14) or liver metastases (4/14) undergoing radiation therapy were included in this study. All patients underwent single-slice 2D cine-MRI simulations across the center of the tumor in three orthogonal planes. Tumor and diaphragm motion trajectories in the superior-inferior (SI), anteriorposterior (AP), and medial-lateral (ML) directions were obtained using the normalized cross-correlation based tracking technique. Agreement between tumor and diaphragm motions was assessed by calculating the phase difference percentage (PDP), intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland-Altman analysis (Diffs) and paired t-test. The distance (D) between tumor and tracked diaphragm area was analyzed to understand its impact on the correlation between tumor and diaphragm motions. Results: Of all patients, the means (±standard deviations) of PDP were 7.1 (±1.1)%, 4.5 (±0.5)% and 17.5 (±4.5)% in the SI, AP and ML directions, respectively. The means of ICC were 0.98 (±0.02), 0.97 (±0.02), and 0.08 (±0.06) in the SI, AP and ML directions, respectively. The Diffs were 2.8 (±1.4) mm, 2.4 (±1.1) mm, and 2.2 (±0.5) mm in the SI, AP and ML directions, respectively. The p-values derived from the paired t-test were < 0.02 in SI and AP directions, whereas were > 0.58 in ML direction primarily due to the small motion in ML direction. Tumor and diaphragmatic motion had high concordance when the distance between the tumor and tracked diaphragm areas was small. Conclusion: Preliminary results showed that liver tumor motion had good correlations with diaphragm motion in the SI and AP directions, indicating diaphragm motion in the SI and AP directions could potentially be a reliable surrogate for liver tumor motion. NIH (1R21CA165384-01A1), Golfers Against Cancer (GAC

  18. Effects of cartap on isolated mouse phrenic nerve diaphragm and its related mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, J W; Kang, J J; Liu, S H; Jeng, C R; Cheng, Y W; Hu, C M; Tsai, S F; Wang, S C; Pang, V F

    2000-06-01

    +), with subsequent induction of muscular contracture in the isolated mouse phrenic nerve diaphragm. Based on these findings, we propose that the acute death of rabbits following ocular exposure to cartap might have resulted from respiratory failure secondary to diaphragm contracture.

  19. Evaluation of Effective Diaphragm Area for Pneumatic Actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Hogeun; Han, Bongsub; Seon, Juhyoung

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to calculate the exact effective diaphragm area using the results of diagnostic test to be performed in the evaluation of air operated valve performance. By using this developed methodology in pneumatic actuator performance evaluation, it can be reduce the possible errors arising from effective diaphragm area in the evaluation of performance of air operated valves. The performance assessment for the operability and structural integrity of air operated valves for the domestic nuclear power plant is in progress. One of the important parameters that determine the performance of the air operated valves is the effective diaphragm area of diaphragm type actuator. The effective diaphragm area is the actual area which the air pressure acting on the diaphragm. In general, the effective diaphragm area used for the performance evaluation of pneumatic actuator is provided by the manufacture or the actuator drawing. Flat type diaphragm was showed the difference between the measured value of EDA and the manufacture’s value, in the case of convoluted type diaphragm has showed that the measured value of EDA and manufacture’s value is almost the same. When evaluate a performance of a diaphragm actuator, accurate EDA is to be used because it is an important variable affecting the actuator performance. Particularly in the case of flat type diaphragm which EDA is changed in accordance with the stroke position, by using the EDA evaluation methodology developed in this study to minimize a possible error due to EDA when evaluating the performance of the air actuator

  20. Evaluation of Effective Diaphragm Area for Pneumatic Actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Hogeun; Han, Bongsub; Seon, Juhyoung [SOOSAN INDUSTRIES, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to calculate the exact effective diaphragm area using the results of diagnostic test to be performed in the evaluation of air operated valve performance. By using this developed methodology in pneumatic actuator performance evaluation, it can be reduce the possible errors arising from effective diaphragm area in the evaluation of performance of air operated valves. The performance assessment for the operability and structural integrity of air operated valves for the domestic nuclear power plant is in progress. One of the important parameters that determine the performance of the air operated valves is the effective diaphragm area of diaphragm type actuator. The effective diaphragm area is the actual area which the air pressure acting on the diaphragm. In general, the effective diaphragm area used for the performance evaluation of pneumatic actuator is provided by the manufacture or the actuator drawing. Flat type diaphragm was showed the difference between the measured value of EDA and the manufacture’s value, in the case of convoluted type diaphragm has showed that the measured value of EDA and manufacture’s value is almost the same. When evaluate a performance of a diaphragm actuator, accurate EDA is to be used because it is an important variable affecting the actuator performance. Particularly in the case of flat type diaphragm which EDA is changed in accordance with the stroke position, by using the EDA evaluation methodology developed in this study to minimize a possible error due to EDA when evaluating the performance of the air actuator.

  1. Movement of the diaphragm during radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Masayuki; Fujioka, Tomio; Sakurai, Makoto; Nakajima, Toshifumi; Onoyama, Yasuto.

    1991-01-01

    Movement of the target volume during the exposure to radiation results in decreased accuracy in radiotherapy. We carried out the quantitative evaluation of the movement of the diaphragm during the radiation therapy. Seventy seven patients, who received radiation therapy for lung cancer from December 1988 to February 1990 at the Osaka-prefectural Habikino Hospital, were studied. The movement was recorded with a sonoprinter at the time of treatment planning for radiotherapy, and the length of movement was evaluated at 6 points on the diaphragm. In a study of 402 points in 77 patients, the average movement was 12 mm, and the maximum movement was 40 mm. At the 17% of the points, the movement exceeded 20 mm. The largest movement was observed at the outer point of the right lung. Movement was greater in men than in women. Performance status was not related to the degree of movement. We concluded that in chest and abdominal irradiation, movement caused by respiration is not negligible, and synchronized radiotherapy should be developed in the future. (author)

  2. Inhalation of Budesonide/Formoterol Increases Diaphragm Muscle Contractility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiyohiko Shindoh

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: BUD/FORM inhalation has an inotropic effect on diaphragm muscle, protects diaphragm muscle deterioration after endotoxin injection, and inhibits NO production. Increments in muscle contractility with BUD/FORM inhalation are induced through a synergistic effect of an anti-inflammatory agent and 02-agonist.

  3. Hypoxia-induced dysfunction of rat diaphragm: role of peroxynitrite.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.; Heunks, L.M.A.; Versteeg, E.M.M.; Heijden, E. van der; Ennen, L.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Vina, J.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2005-01-01

    Oxidants may play a role in hypoxia-induced respiratory muscle dysfunction. In the present study we hypothesized that hypoxia-induced impairment in diaphragm contractility is associated with elevated peroxynitrite generation. In addition, we hypothesized that strenuous contractility of the diaphragm

  4. Detecting defects in diaphragm walls prior to excavation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, R.; Hopman, V.; Van Tol, A.F.; Broere, W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent incidents with leaking diaphragm walls during construction of subway lines in Amsterdam and Rotterdam (Netherlands) have led to reconsideration of the diaphragm wall as a retaining wall construction for deep excavations. In our opinion the joints between the panels are the weak spot. During

  5. Diaphragm disease of the small intestine: an interesting case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Ajab, Shereen; Rao, Rajashekhar; Raghunathan, Girish; DaCosta, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Diaphragm disease of small intestine usually presents with nonspecific clinical features. Radiological investigations often fail to differentiate it from small intestinal tumors and inflammatory bowel disease. It is therefore diagnosed on final histology after surgical resection. We hereby report an interesting case of a suspected small bowel tumor later diagnosed as diaphragm disease on histology. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Experimental investigation of solar powered diaphragm and helical pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    For several years, many types of solar powered water pumping systems were evaluated, and in this paper, diaphragm and helical solar photovoltaic (PV) powered water pumping systems are discussed. Data were collected on diaphragm and helical pumps which were powered by different solar PV arrays at mul...

  7. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Continuation from 8010293: Finally, the sandwich line with the horn is placed on the ground, for the horn to be inspected and, if needed, exchanged for a new one. The whole procedure was trained with several members of the AA team, for quick and safe handling, and to share the radiation dose amongst them.

  8. Non-communicating Rudimentary Uterine Horn Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Upadhyaya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is an extremely rare form of ectopic gestation. The rudimentary horn may or may not communicate with the uterine cavity with the majority of cases being non-communicating. The patient exhibits features of acute abdomen and carries a high risk of maternal death. Even modern scans remain elusive whereas laparatomy remains the confi rmatory procedure for the diagnosis. Because of the varied muscular constitution in the thickness and distensibility of the wall of the rudimentary horn, pregnancy is accommodated for a variable period of gestation. Here, we report three cases of pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn of the uterus in different periods of gestation, their outcome and a review of the available literature. Keywords: Mullerian anomalies, non-communicating rudimentary horn pregnancy, surgical management.

  9. Horn Clauses for Communicating Timed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hojjat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Languages based on the theory of timed automata are a well established approach for modelling and analysing real-time systems, with many applications both in industrial and academic context. Model checking for timed automata has been studied extensively during the last two decades; however, even now industrial-grade model checkers are available only for few timed automata dialects (in particular Uppaal timed automata, exhibit limited scalability for systems with large discrete state space, or cannot handle parametrised systems. We explore the use of Horn constraints and off-the-shelf model checkers for analysis of networks of timed automata. The resulting analysis method is fully symbolic and applicable to systems with large or infinite discrete state space, and can be extended to include various language features, for instance Uppaal-style communication/broadcast channels and BIP-style interactions, and systems with infinite parallelism. Experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the method.

  10. Dexmedetomidine May Produce Extra Protective Effects on Sepsis-induced Diaphragm Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to evaluate the protective effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX, a selective agonist of α2-adrenergic receptor, on sepsis-induced diaphragm injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Data Sources: The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed articles published in English from 1990 to 2015. Study Selection: Clinical or basic research articles were selected mainly according to their level of relevance to this topic. Results: Sepsis could induce severe diaphragm dysfunction and exacerbate respiratory weakness. The mechanism of sepsis-induced diaphragm injury includes the increased inflammatory cytokines and excessive oxidative stress and superfluous production of nitric oxide (NO. DEX can reduce inflammatory cytokines, inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathways, suppress the activation of caspase-3, furthermore decrease oxidative stress and inhibit NO synthase. On the basis of these mechanisms, DEX may result in a shorter period of mechanical ventilation in septic patients in clinical practice. Conclusions: Based on this current available evidence, DEX may produce extra protective effects on sepsis-induced diaphragm injury. Further direct evidence and more specific studies are still required to confirm these beneficial effects.

  11. Method of production of a diaphragm for instruments in particle optics and diaphragm fabricated by this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrik, J.; Krohne, P.

    1975-01-01

    The production method of, e.g., a circular diaphragm for an electron microscope is based on copper plate as supporting material. A light-sensitive, electrically insulating layer is coated on this. After exposing and freeing the positions of this layer, e.g., the circular interior as well as the cross-piece to the exterior of the diaghragm, a galvanic building-up of a noble metal layer follows, e.g. gold, on these now free positions. After freeing the remaining non-exposed material, an etching-protective lacquer is coated on the positions of the supporting material which are to be maintained. The remaining parts of the supporting material are then removed by positive etching. (DG/LH) [de

  12. Horn of Africa food crisis

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    YOU ARE WONDERFUL, THANK YOU! As we have indicated previously, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than half a million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. At the beginning of August we opened an account to receive your donations. We are pleased to announce that the funds received are 30’500 CHF, the total sum of which will be transferred to UNICEF. We would like to thank all those who have contributed to this important cause. Rolf Heuer Director-General Michel Goossens President of the Staff Association

  13. The audiological health of horn players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wayne J; O'Brien, Ian; Bradley, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Among orchestral musicians, horn players are one of the most at-risk groups for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). To investigate this group further, pure tone audiometry and a 14-item questionnaire were used to assess the hearing health, as well as attitudes and practices regarding hearing conservation, among 142 French horn players attending an international horn conference in Brisbane, Australia. Of this study's French horn players, 11.1% to 22.2%, and 17.7% to 32.9% of those aged ≤40 years, showed some form of hearing loss (corrected for age and gender) typical of NIHL, using conservative versus lenient criteria, respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed no obvious predictor of hearing loss in this study's participants. Of the 18% of participants who reported using hearing protection, 81% used this protection "sometimes" and 50% used generic, foam, or other inferior forms of protection. Continued efforts to better manage the hearing health of horn players is warranted particularly as any hearing loss will affect a horn player's ability to perform and therefore his or her livelihood. Managing the hearing health of horn players will be challenging, however, with no simple predictor of NIHL loss being identified in this study's sample.

  14. Analytical model for an electrostatically actuated miniature diaphragm compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathe, Abhijit A; Groll, Eckhard A; Garimella, Suresh V

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new analytical approach for quasi-static modeling of an electrostatically actuated diaphragm compressor that could be employed in a miniature scale refrigeration system. The compressor consists of a flexible circular diaphragm clamped at its circumference. A conformal chamber encloses the diaphragm completely. The membrane and the chamber surfaces are coated with metallic electrodes. A potential difference applied between the diaphragm and the chamber pulls the diaphragm toward the chamber surface progressively from the outer circumference toward the center. This zipping actuation reduces the volume available to the refrigerant gas, thereby increasing its pressure. A segmentation technique is proposed for analysis of the compressor by which the domain is divided into multiple segments for each of which the forces acting on the diaphragm are estimated. The pull-down voltage to completely zip each individual segment is thus obtained. The required voltage for obtaining a specific pressure rise in the chamber can thus be determined. Predictions from the model compare well with other simulation results from the literature, as well as to experimental measurements of the diaphragm displacement and chamber pressure rise in a custom-built setup

  15. Free-Standing β-Ga2O3 Thin Diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xu-Qian; Lee, Jaesung; Rafique, Subrina; Han, Lu; Zorman, Christian A.; Zhao, Hongping; Feng, Philip X.-L.

    2018-02-01

    Free-standing, very thin, single-crystal β-gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) diaphragms have been constructed and their dynamical mechanical properties characterized by noncontact, noninvasive optical measurements harnessing the multimode nanomechanical resonances of these suspended nanostructures. We synthesized single-crystal β-Ga2O3 using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) on a 3C-SiC epilayer grown on Si substrate at temperature of 950°C for 1.5 h. The synthesized single-crystal nanoflakes had widths of ˜ 2 μm to 30 μm and thicknesses of ˜ 20 nm to 140 nm, from which we fabricated free-standing circular drumhead β-Ga2O3 diaphragms with thicknesses of ˜ 23 nm to 73 nm and diameters of ˜ 3.2 μm and ˜ 5.2 μm using a dry stamp-transfer technique. Based on measurements of multiple flexural-mode mechanical resonances using ultrasensitive laser interferometric detection and performing thermal annealing at 250°C for 1.5 h, we quantified the effects of annealing and adsorption of atmospheric gas molecules on the resonant characteristics of the diaphragms. Furthermore, we studied the effects of structural nonidealities on these free-standing β-Ga2O3 nanoscale diaphragms. We present extensive characterization of the mechanical and optical properties of free-standing β-Ga2O3 diaphragms, paving the way for realization of resonant transducers using such nanomechanical structures for use in applications including gas sensing and ultraviolet radiation detection.

  16. Global Proteome Changes in the Rat Diaphragm Induced by Endurance Exercise Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt J Sollanek

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life-saving intervention for many critically ill patients. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of diaphragmatic atrophy and weakness. Importantly, endurance exercise training results in a diaphragmatic phenotype that is protected against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and weakness. The mechanisms responsible for this exercise-induced protection against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic atrophy remain unknown. Therefore, to investigate exercise-induced changes in diaphragm muscle proteins, we compared the diaphragmatic proteome from sedentary and exercise-trained rats. Specifically, using label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed a proteomics analysis of both soluble proteins and mitochondrial proteins isolated from diaphragm muscle. The total number of diaphragm proteins profiled in the soluble protein fraction and mitochondrial protein fraction were 813 and 732, respectively. Endurance exercise training significantly (P<0.05, FDR <10% altered the abundance of 70 proteins in the soluble diaphragm proteome and 25 proteins of the mitochondrial proteome. In particular, key cytoprotective proteins that increased in relative abundance following exercise training included mitochondrial fission process 1 (Mtfp1; MTP18, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MPST, microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3 (Mgst3; GST-III, and heat shock protein 70 kDa protein 1A/1B (HSP70. While these proteins are known to be cytoprotective in several cell types, the cyto-protective roles of these proteins have yet to be fully elucidated in diaphragm muscle fibers. Based upon these important findings, future experiments can now determine which of these diaphragmatic proteins are sufficient and/or required to promote exercise-induced protection against inactivity-induced muscle atrophy.

  17. Pollution chronology of the Golden Horn sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teksoez, G.; Yetis, U.; Tuncel, G.; Balkas, T.I.

    1990-01-01

    Sediment accumulation in the Golden Horn has been established by means of a useful geochronological technique; 210 Pb Radiometric Dating Method. The 210 Pb dating technique revealed a sediment accumulation rate of 3.5 cm yr -1 which is very reasonable given the characteristics of the Golden Horn. The 210 Pb profile also revealed three distinct levels in the sediments of the Golden Horn: a surface layer with nearly uniform activities, an exponential decay interval and a lower region with almost constant low activity. (author)

  18. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The magnetic horn, focusing the antiprotons emanating from the target, was affixed to a sandwich line through which the 150 kA pulses were supplied. Expecting to have to change from time to time the fragile horn (inner conductor only 0.7 mm thick), the assembly was designed for quick exchange. At the lower end of the sandwich line we see the connectors for the high-current cables, at the upper end the magnet horn. It has just been lifted from the V-supports which held it aligned downstream of the target. Continue with 8010293.

  19. An Annotated Guide and Interactive Database for Solo Horn Repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Given the horn's lengthy history, it is not surprising that many scholars have examined the evolution of the instrument from the natural horn to the modern horn and its expansive repertoire. Numerous dissertations, theses, and treatises illuminate specific elements of the horn's solo repertoire; however, no scholar has produced a…

  20. Assembly of the magnetic horns under way

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Ahmed Cherif of the EST Division's Metrology Service checks the straightness of the inner conductor of the first magnetic horn for CNGS. The tolerance is less than one millimetre over a length of approximately 6.5 metres.

  1. Next steps in propositional horn contraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available not opted for this choice.) Our start- ing point for defining Horn e-contraction is in terms of Del- grande’s definition of e-remainder sets. Definition 3.1 (Horn e-Remainder Sets) For a belief setH , X ∈ H ↓e Φ iff (i) X ⊆ H , (ii) X 6|= Φ, and (iii...) for every X ′ s.t. X ⊂ X ′ ⊆ H , X ′ |= Φ. We refer to the elements of H ↓eΦ as the Horn e-remainder sets of H w.r.t. Φ. It is easy to verify that all Horn e-remainder sets are belief sets. Also, H ↓eΦ = ∅ iff |= Φ. We now proceed to define selection...

  2. Documentation of diaphragmal paralysis with digital subtraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggershauser, T.; Muenchen Univ.; Buente, E.; Muenchen Univ.; Kohz, P.; Muenchen Univ.; Fink, U.; Muenchen Univ.

    1992-01-01

    The causative factors for a paresis of the diaphragm are primarily subsequent to operations on lesions of the phrenic nerve or on such mediastinal tumors as lyphomas which result in compression or infiltration of the nerves. (orig.) [de

  3. Acquired relaxation of the right half of the diaphragm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmachev, V.V.; Romadanov, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Case is described of the development of complete relaxation of the right half of diaphragm following inflammatory respiratory disease accompanied by infections neuritis involving right phrenic nerve. Results of biomedical radiography and computerized tomography in dynamics are presented

  4. Assessing the need for intermediate diaphragms in prestressed concrete bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Reinforced concrete intermediate diaphragms (IDs) are currently being used in prestressed concrete (PC) girder bridges in Louisiana. Some of the advantages of providing IDs are disputed in the bridge community; the use of IDs increases the cost and t...

  5. Stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with corrugated diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Takashiro; Asao, Hideaki; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with a corrugated palylene diaphragm, which prevent debris from jamming into the sensor without significant degradation of sensitivity and bandwidth, was reported. A new fabrication process using a lost-foil method to make the corrugated diaphragm on a 3-axis piezoresistive force sensor at wafer level has been developed. The texture sensor could detect the surface microstructure as small as about 10 \

  6. Hyperglycemia-induced diaphragm weakness is mediated by oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A major consequence of ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is diaphragm weakness, which prolongs the duration of mechanical ventilation. Hyperglycemia (HG) is a risk factor for ICUAW. However, the mechanisms underlying HG-induced respiratory muscle weakness are not known. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) injure multiple tissues during HG, but only one study suggests that excessive ROS generation may be linked to HG-induced diaphragm weakness. We hypothesized that HG-induced diaphragm dysfunction is mediated by excessive superoxide generation and that administration of a specific superoxide scavenger, polyethylene glycol superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD), would ameliorate these effects. Methods HG was induced in rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg intravenously) and the following groups assessed at two weeks: controls, HG, HG + PEG-SOD (2,000U/kg/d intraperitoneally for seven days), and HG + denatured (dn)PEG-SOD (2000U/kg/d intraperitoneally for seven days). PEG-SOD and dnPEG-SOD were administered on day 8, we measured diaphragm specific force generation in muscle strips, force-pCa relationships in single permeabilized fibers, contractile protein content and indices of oxidative stress. Results HG reduced diaphragm specific force generation, altered single fiber force-pCa relationships, depleted troponin T, and increased oxidative stress. PEG-SOD prevented HG-induced reductions in diaphragm specific force generation (for example 80 Hz force was 26.4 ± 0.9, 15.4 ± 0.9, 24.0 ± 1.5 and 14.9 ± 0.9 N/cm2 for control, HG, HG + PEG-SOD, and HG + dnPEG-SOD groups, respectively, P hyperglycemia-induced diaphragm dysfunction. This new mechanistic information could explain how HG alters diaphragm function during critical illness. PMID:24886999

  7. Paper-thinned diaphragm: CT sign of diaphragmatic eventration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan; Shim, Young Soo

    1990-01-01

    CT findings of total left hemidiaphragmatic eventration in two adult patients are described. Chest radiograph showed elevated left hemidiaphragm and left hilum. Paper-thinned muscular portion of the diseased diaphragm was clearly demonstrated with CT scan. With demonstration of paper-thinned diaphragm by CT scan, differentiation of the diaphragmatic eventration from recent onset phrenic nerve paralysis by tumor invasion or from post-traumatic diaphragmatic hernia can be made

  8. Paper-thinned diaphragm: CT sign of diaphragmatic eventration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan; Shim, Young Soo [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    CT findings of total left hemidiaphragmatic eventration in two adult patients are described. Chest radiograph showed elevated left hemidiaphragm and left hilum. Paper-thinned muscular portion of the diseased diaphragm was clearly demonstrated with CT scan. With demonstration of paper-thinned diaphragm by CT scan, differentiation of the diaphragmatic eventration from recent onset phrenic nerve paralysis by tumor invasion or from post-traumatic diaphragmatic hernia can be made.

  9. Wave power plant at Horns Rev. Screening[Denmark]; Boelgekraftanlaeg ved Horns Rev. Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Hans C.; Nielsen, Kim; Steenstrup, P.R.; Friis-Madsen, E.; Wigant, L.

    2005-12-15

    The objective for the analysis has been to establish data for the sea at Horns Rev wind farm in the North Sea in order to assess the opportunity for using the site as test site for demonstration of wave energy devices exemplified by three different devices under development in Denmark. For comparison alternative sites like Hanstholm, Samsoe and Nissum Bredning are also assessed as well as the test centre EMEC at the Orkney Islands and the proposed test site Wave Hub at the north coast of Cornwall. The analysis shows that it is possible without major technical problems to connect 2-4 MW power generated by 3 different wave energy devices (AquaBuOY, Wave Star Energy and Wave Dragon) to the wind farm at Horns Rev (www.hornsrev.dk). The expenses for connection and regulation within the wind farm is about 200,000 DKK (30,00 EURO). On top of this comes the cost for individual sub sea cable connection to the wave devices, pull in of the sub sea cable through the existing J-tube in turbine T04 and the necessary regulation/control system in the individual wave devices to avoid damaging the power system in case of too high production. The analysis of the co-production of wind and wave power is dealt with in a separate report which shows that over a time period of half to one hour the time variation for wind generated electricity is 3 times as large as for wave energy generated power based on the actual measurement at Horns Rev. Further on the analysis shows that the wave generated power is more predictable than wind energy generated power as the power from the waves first is present about 2 hours after the wind is acting and last for 3 to 6 hours after the wind dies out; 6 to 12 hours with wind from west. The time is off course strongly depending of the direction of the wind i.e. the fetch. As this special report has a more general scope than the analysis as such it is reported in English (Annex Report II). The analysis shows that it is up to the individual device developer

  10. Mechanics of the canine diaphragm in pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Troyer, André; Leduc, Dimitri; Cappello, Matteo; Gevenois, Pierre Alain

    2012-09-01

    Pleural effusion is a complicating feature of many diseases of the lung and pleura, but its effects on the mechanics of the diaphragm have not been assessed. In the present study, radiopaque markers were attached along muscle bundles in the midcostal region of the diaphragm in anesthetized dogs, and the three-dimensional location of the markers during relaxation before and after the stepwise introduction of liquid into the left or right pleural space and during phrenic nerve stimulation in the same conditions was determined using computed tomography. From these data, accurate measurements of diaphragm muscle length and displacement were obtained, and the changes in pleural and abdominal pressure were analyzed as functions of these parameters. The effect of liquid instillation on the axial position of rib 5 was also measured. The data showed that 1) liquid leaked through the dorsal mediastinal sheet behind the pericardium so that effusion was bilateral; 2) effusion caused a caudal displacement of the relaxed diaphragm; 3) this displacement was, compared with passive lung inflation, much larger than the cranial displacement of the ribs; and 4) the capacity of the diaphragm to generate pressure, in particular pleural pressure, decreased markedly as effusion increased, and this decrease was well explained by the decrease in active muscle length. It is concluded that pleural effusion has a major adverse effect on the pressure-generating capacity of the diaphragm and that this is the result of the action of hydrostatic forces on the muscle.

  11. Diaphragm pacing improves sleep in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jesus; Morélot-Panzini, Capucine; Salachas, François; Redolfi, Stefania; Straus, Christian; Becquemin, Marie-Hélène; Arnulf, Isabelle; Pradat, Pierre-François; Bruneteau, Gaëlle; Ignagni, Anthony R; Diop, Moustapha; Onders, Raymond; Nelson, Teresa; Menegaux, Fabrice; Meininger, Vincent; Similowski, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, respiratory insufficiency is a major burden. Diaphragm conditioning by electrical stimulation could interfere with lung function decline by promoting the development of type 1 muscle fibres. We describe an ancillary study to a prospective, non-randomized trial (NCT00420719) assessing the effects of diaphragm pacing on forced vital capacity (FVC). Sleep-related disturbances being early clues to diaphragmatic dysfunction, we postulated that they would provide a sensitive marker. Stimulators were implanted laparoscopically in the diaphragm close to the phrenic motor point in 18 ALS patients for daily conditioning. ALS functioning score (ALSFRS), FVC, sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP), and polysomnographic recordings (PSG, performed with the stimulator turned off) were assessed before implantation and after four months of conditioning (n = 14). Sleep efficiency improved (69 ± 15% to 75 ± 11%, p = 0.0394) with fewer arousals and micro-arousals. This occurred against a background of deterioration as ALSFRS-R, FVC, and SNIP declined. There was, however, no change in NIV status or the ALSFRS respiratory subscore, and the FVC decline was mostly due to impaired expiration. Supporting a better diaphragm function, apnoeas and hypopnoeas during REM sleep decreased. In conclusion, in these severe patients not expected to experience spontaneous improvements, diaphragm conditioning improved sleep and there were hints at diaphragm function changes.

  12. Horn of Africa food crisis

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Dear colleagues, As many of you are already aware, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than a half million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. An immediate, determined mobilization is required in order to avert an imminent humanitarian catastrophe and to prevent millions of people from being robbed of a future through the scourge of hunger and malnutrition. CERN has decided to join this international mobilization by specifically opening an account for those who want to make a donation to help the drought- and famine-affected populations in the region. Children being the first...

  13. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger nonlocality for continuous-variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zengbing; Zhang Yongde

    2002-01-01

    As a development of our previous work, this paper is concerned with the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) nonlocality for continuous-variable cases. The discussion is based on the introduction of a pseudospin operator, which has the same algebra as the Pauli operator, for each of the N modes of a light field. Then the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality is presented for the N modes, each of which has a continuous degree of freedom. Following Mermin's argument, it is demonstrated that for N-mode parity-entangled GHZ states (in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space) of the light field, the contradictions between quantum mechanics and local realism grow exponentially with N, similarly to the usual N-spin cases

  14. Removing Unnecessary Variables from Horn Clause Verification Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele De Angelis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Verification conditions (VCs are logical formulas whose satisfiability guarantees program correctness. We consider VCs in the form of constrained Horn clauses (CHC which are automatically generated from the encoding of (an interpreter of the operational semantics of the programming language. VCs are derived through program specialization based on the unfold/fold transformation rules and, as it often happens when specializing interpreters, they contain unnecessary variables, that is, variables which are not required for the correctness proofs of the programs under verification. In this paper we adapt to the CHC setting some of the techniques that were developed for removing unnecessary variables from logic programs, and we show that, in some cases, the application of these techniques increases the effectiveness of Horn clause solvers when proving program correctness.

  15. Variation compensation and analysis on diaphragm curvature analysis for emphysema quantification on whole lung CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brad M.; Reeves, Anthony P.; Barr, R. Graham; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.

    2010-03-01

    CT scans allow for the quantitative evaluation of the anatomical bases of emphysema. Recently, a non-density based geometric measurement of lung diagphragm curvature has been proposed as a method for the quantification of emphysema from CT. This work analyzes variability of diaphragm curvature and evaluates the effectiveness of a compensation methodology for the reduction of this variability as compared to emphysema index. Using a dataset of 43 scan-pairs with less than a 100 day time-interval between scans, we find that the diaphragm curvature had a trend towards lower overall variability over emphysema index (95% CI:-9.7 to + 14.7 vs. -15.8 to +12.0), and that the variation of both measures was reduced after compensation. We conclude that the variation of the new measure can be considered comparable to the established measure and the compensation can reduce the apparent variation of quantitative measures successfully.

  16. High temperature energy harvesters utilizing ALN/3C-SiC composite diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yun-Ju; Li, Wei-Chang; Felmetsger, Valery V.; Senesky, Debbie G.; Pisano, Albert P.

    2014-06-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) energy harvesting devices aiming at powering wireless sensor systems for structural health monitoring in harsh environments are presented. For harsh environment wireless sensor systems, sensor modules are required to operate at elevated temperatures (> 250°C) with capabilities to resist harsh chemical conditions, thereby the use of battery-based power sources becomes challenging and not economically efficient if considering the required maintenance efforts. To address this issue, energy harvesting technology is proposed to replace batteries and provide a sustainable power source for the sensor systems towards autonomous harsh environment wireless sensor networks. In particular, this work demonstrates a micromachined aluminum nitride/cubic silicon carbide (AlN/3C-SiC) composite diaphragm energy harvester, which enables high temperature energy harvesting from ambient pulsed pressure sources. The fabricated device yields an output power density of 87 μW/cm2 under 1.48-psi pressure pulses at 1 kHz while connected to a 14.6-kΩ load resistor. The effects of pulse profile on output voltage have been studied, showing that the output voltage can be maximized by optimizing the diaphragm resonance frequency based on specific pulse characteristics. In addition, temperature dependence of the diaphragm resonance frequency over the range of 20°C to 600°C has been investigated and the device operation at temperatures as high as 600°C has been verified.

  17. Tumor motion prediction with the diaphragm as a surrogate: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervino, Laura I; Jiang Yan; Sandhu, Ajay; Jiang, Steve B

    2010-01-01

    We have previously assessed the use of the diaphragm as a surrogate for predicting real-time tumor position with linear models built with training data extracted from the same treatment fraction (Cervino et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 3529-41). However, practical use in the clinical setting requires the capability of predicting tumor position throughout the treatment course using a model built at the beginning of the course. We evaluate the inter-fraction applicability of linear models to predict superior-inferior tumor position based on diaphragm position using 21 fluoroscopic sequences from five lung cancer patients. Tumor position is predicted with models built during the first fluoroscopic sequence of each patient. Other fluoroscopic sets are registered to the first set with five different methods. The mean localization prediction error and maximum error at a 95% confidence level averaged over all patients are found to be 1.2 mm and 2.9 mm, respectively, for bony registration and 1.2 mm and 2.8 mm, respectively, for registration based on the mean position of the tumor in the first two breathing cycles. Other registration methods produce larger prediction errors. In the clinical setting, this prediction error could be added as a margin to the target volume. We therefore conclude that it is feasible to predict lung tumor motion with diaphragm with sufficient accuracy in the clinical setting. (note)

  18. Four-Dimensional CT of the Diaphragm in Children: Initial Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the technical feasibility of four-dimensional (4D) CT for the functional evaluation of the pediatric diaphragm. Materials and Methods In 22 consecutive children (median age 3.5 months, age range 3 days–3 years), 4D CT was performed to assess diaphragm motion. Diaphragm abnormalities were qualitatively evaluated and diaphragm motion was quantitatively measured on 4D CT. Lung density changes between peak inspiration and expiration were measured in the basal lung parenchyma. The diaphragm motions and lung density changes measured on 4D CT were compared between various diaphragm conditions. In 11 of the 22 children, chest sonography was available for comparison. Results Four-dimensional CT demonstrated normal diaphragm (n = 8), paralysis (n = 10), eventration (n = 3), and diffusely decreased motion (n = 1). Chest sonography demonstrated normal diaphragm (n = 2), paralysis (n = 6), eventration (n = 2), and right pleural effusion (n = 1). The sonographic findings were concordant with the 4D CT findings in 90.9% (10/11) of the patients. In diaphragm paralysis, the affected diaphragm motion was significantly decreased compared with the contralateral normal diaphragm motion (−1.1 ± 2.2 mm vs. 7.6 ± 3.8 mm, p = 0.005). The normal diaphragms showed significantly greater motion than the paralyzed diaphragms (4.5 ± 2.1 mm vs. −1.1 ± 2.2 mm, p Hounsfield units [HU] vs. 180 ± 71 HU, p = 0.03), while no significant differences were found between the normal diaphragms and the paralyzed diaphragms (136 ± 66 HU vs. 89 ± 73 HU, p = 0.1) or between the normal diaphragms and the contralateral normal diaphragms in paralysis (136 ± 66 HU vs. 180 ± 71 HU, p = 0.1). Conclusion The functional evaluation of the pediatric diaphragm is feasible with 4D CT in select children. PMID:29354007

  19. Emphysema quantification from CT scans using novel application of diaphragm curvature estimation: comparison with standard quantification methods and pulmonary function data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brad M.; Reeves, Anthony P.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Barr, R. Graham

    2009-02-01

    Emphysema is a disease of the lungs that destroys the alveolar air sacs and induces long-term respiratory dysfunction. CT scans allow for the imaging of the anatomical basis of emphysema and quantification of the underlying disease state. Several measures have been introduced for the quantification emphysema directly from CT data; most,however, are based on the analysis of density information provided by the CT scans, which vary by scanner and can be hard to standardize across sites and time. Given that one of the anatomical variations associated with the progression of emphysema is the flatting of the diaphragm due to the loss of elasticity in the lung parenchyma, curvature analysis of the diaphragm would provide information about emphysema from CT. Therefore, we propose a new, non-density based measure of the curvature of the diaphragm that would allow for further quantification methods in a robust manner. To evaluate the new method, 24 whole-lung scans were analyzed using the ratios of the lung height and diaphragm width to diaphragm height as curvature estimates as well as using the emphysema index as comparison. Pearson correlation coefficients showed a strong trend of several of the proposed diaphragm curvature measures to have higher correlations, of up to r=0.57, with DLCO% and VA than did the emphysema index. Furthermore, we found emphysema index to have only a 0.27 correlation to the proposed measures, indicating that the proposed measures evaluate different aspects of the disease.

  20. Idiopathic diaphragmatic paralysis: Bell's palsy of the diaphragm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crausman, Robert S; Summerhill, Eleanor M; McCool, F Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic diaphragm paralysis is probably more common and responsible for more morbidity than generally appreciated. Bell's palsy, or idiopathic paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve, may be seen as an analogous condition. The roles of zoster sine herpete and herpes simplex have increasingly been recognized in Bell's palsy, and there are some data to suggest that antiviral therapy is a useful adjunct to steroid therapy. Thus, we postulated that antiviral therapy might have a positive impact on the course of acute idiopathic diaphragm paralysis which is likely related to viral infection. Three consecutive patients with subacute onset of symptomatic idiopathic hemidiaphragm paralysis were empirically treated with valacyclovir, 1,000 mg twice daily for 1 week. Prior to therapy, diaphragmatic function was assessed via pulmonary function testing and two-dimensional B-mode ultrasound, with testing repeated 1 month later. Diaphragmatic function pre- and post-treatment was compared to that of a historical control group of 16 untreated patients. All three subjects demonstrated ultrasound recovery of diaphragm function 4-6 weeks following treatment with valacyclovir. This recovery was accompanied by improvements in maximum inspiratory pressure (PI(max)) and vital capacity (VC). In contrast, in the untreated cohort, diaphragm recovery occurred in only 11 subjects, taking an average of 14.9 +/- 6.1 months (mean +/- SD). The results of this small, preliminary study suggest that antiviral therapy with valacyclovir may be helpful in the treatment of idiopathic diaphragm paralysis induced by a viral infection.

  1. Effect of maternal steroid on developing diaphragm integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Song

    Full Text Available Antenatal steroids reduce the severity of initial respiratory distress of premature newborn babies but may have an adverse impact on other body organs. The study aimed to examine the effect of maternal steroids on postnatal respiratory muscle function during development and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the potential myopathy in newborn rats. Pregnant rats were treated with intramuscular injections of 0.5 mg/kg betamethasone 7 d and 3 d before birth. Newborn diaphragms were dissected for assessment of contractile function at 2 d, 7 d or 21 d postnatal age (PNA, compared with age-matched controls. The expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC isoforms and atrophy-related genes and activity of intracellular molecular signalling were measured using quantitative PCR and/or Western blot. With advancing PNA, neonatal MHC gene expression decreased progressively while MHC IIb and IIx isoforms increased. Protein metabolic signalling showed high baseline activity at 2 d PNA, and significantly declined at 7 d and 21 d. Antenatal administration of betamethasone significantly decreased diaphragm force production, fatigue resistance, total fast fibre content and anabolic signalling activity (Akt and 4E-BP1 in 21 d diaphragm. These responses were not observed in 2 d or 7 d postnatal diaphragm. Results demonstrate that maternal betamethasone treatment causes postnatal diaphragmatic dysfunction at 21 d PNA, which is attributed to MHC II protein loss and impairment of the anabolic signalling pathway. Developmental modifications in MHC fibre composition and protein signalling account for the age-specific diaphragm dysfunction.

  2. A novel technique for diaphragm biopsies in human patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noullet, Séverine; Romero, Norma; Menegaux, Fabrice; Chapart, Maud; Demoule, Alexandre; Morelot-Panzini, Capucine; Similowski, Thomas; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jésus

    2015-06-15

    The diaphragm is difficult to biopsy because of its anatomic location. We describe a new laparoscopic diaphragm biopsy technique. Fifty one patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis gave their consent to diaphragm biopsy in the context of an implanted phrenic nerve stimulation protocol (NCT01583088). The biopsy was taken from the costal diaphragm, after opening the parietal peritoneum with scissors, and by grasping the diaphragmatic muscle over the rib with toothed laparoscopy forceps. The first four electrocoagulation biopsies were unsuitable for morphologic examination. The following 47 biopsies were therefore performed without electrocoagulation. The mean size of the biopsy fragments obtained after preparation was 3 ± 1 × 2 ± 1 × 1 ± 1 mm (maximum: 4 × 3 × 2 mm). A diaphragmatic injury occurred during the section in three cases requiring immediate suture without causing pneumothorax. A small pleural effusion was observed on the postoperative chest x-ray in one patient with a spontaneously favorable outcome. Numerous stains were able to be performed on the fragments obtained. Diaphragm biopsy can be safely performed by laparoscopy and yields tissue suitable for our future histologic evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bending-Induced Giant Polarization in Ferroelectric MEMS Diaphragm

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhihong

    2016-09-09

    The polarization induced by the strain gradient, i.e. the flexoelectric effect, has been observed in a micromachined Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) diaphragms. Applying air pressure to bend a flat diaphragm which initially does not exhibit any electromechanical coupling can induce a resonance peak in its impedance spectrum. This result supposes that bending, thus the strain gradient in the diaphragm causes polarization in PZT film. We also investigated the switching behaviors of the polarization in response to an external electric field in a bent diaphragm and further quantified the polarization induced by the strain gradient. The effective flexoelectric coefficient of the PZT film has been calculated as large as 2.0 × 10−4 C/m. A giant flexoelectric polarization of the order of 1 μC/cm2 was characterized which is of the same order of magnitude as the normal remnant ferroelectric polarization of PZT film. The suggested explanation for the giant polarization is the large strain gradient in the diaphragm and the strain gradient induced reorientation of the polar nanodomains.

  4. Diaphragm and Lung Ultrasound to Predict Weaning Outcome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas-Álvarez, Ana M; Tenza-Lozano, Eva M; Latour-Pérez, Jaime

    2017-12-01

    Deciding the optimal timing for extubation in patients who are mechanically ventilated can be challenging, and traditional weaning predictor tools are not very accurate. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the accuracy of lung and diaphragm ultrasound for predicting weaning outcomes in critically ill adults. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, LILACS, Teseo, Tesis Doctorales en Red, and OpenGrey were searched, and the bibliographies of relevant studies were reviewed. Two researchers independently selected studies that met the inclusion criteria and assessed study quality in accordance with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. The summary receiver-operating characteristic curve and pooled diagnostic OR (DOR) were estimated by using a bivariate random effects analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were explored by using predefined subgroup analyses and bivariate meta-regression. Nineteen studies involving 1,071 people were included in the study. For diaphragm thickening fraction, the area under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.87, and DOR was 21 (95% CI, 11-40). Regarding diaphragmatic excursion, pooled sensitivity was 75% (95% CI, 65-85); pooled specificity, 75% (95% CI, 60-85); and DOR, 10 (95% CI, 4-24). For lung ultrasound, the area under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.77, and DOR was 38 (95% CI, 7-198). Based on bivariate meta-regression analysis, a significantly higher specificity for diaphragm thickening fraction and higher sensitivity for diaphragmatic excursion was detected in studies with applicability concerns. Lung and diaphragm ultrasound can help predict weaning outcome, but its accuracy may vary depending on the patient subpopulation. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of bubbler/diaphragm techniques to measure surface level in the waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.J.; Hickman, B.J.; Colson, J.B.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine if a bubbler technique can be used to determine the surface level in the waste tanks. Two techniques were evaluated. The first technique is a standard bubbler system in which a tube is placed below the surface of the liquid to be measured and air pressure inside a tube is increased until bubbles begin to become emitted from the tube. The air pressure then is a function of the pressure at the bottom of the tube. The second technique involves a system similar to the standard bubbler technique, but instead of bubbles being released into the material to be gauged, air pressure is increased against a diaphragm until enough pressure is applied to overcome the pressure of the liquid at the given depth, at which time the air then flows in a return loop back to a vent. The advantage of the diaphragm system is that it is a sealed system; thus no air is released into the waste tank materials, and it is not possible for the waste tank materials to get into the air flow. Based on the results of the tests conducted in this program, it appears that the bubbler and diaphragm systems that were tested could not be used for accurate measurements of the level in the waste tanks. Both exhibited deposits of simulated waste tank material at the end of the devices which affected the ability of the gauge to accurately determine changes in the surface level even though the measured value of the level was inaccurate. Further investigations into the cause of this inaccuracy may be warranted. Alternate diaphragm materials may improve the performance of this gauge

  6. Investigation of geometric design in piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems diaphragms for ultrasonic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiongfeng; Wang, Tao; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-05-01

    Acoustic energy transfer (AET) has been widely used for contactless energy delivery to implantable devices. However, most of the energy harvesters (ultrasonic receivers) for AET are macro-scale transducers with large volume and limited operation bandwidth. Here, we propose and investigate two microelectromechanical systems diaphragm based piezoelectric ultrasonic energy harvesters (PUEHs) as an alternative for AET. The proposed PUEHs consist of micro-scale diaphragm array with different geometric parameter design. Diaphragms in PUEH-1 have large length to width ratio to achieve broadband property, while its energy harvesting performance is compromised. Diaphragms in PUEH-2 have smaller length to width ratio and thinner thickness to achieve both broadband property and good energy harvesting performance. Both PUEHs have miniaturized size and wide operation bandwidth that are ideally suitable to be integrated as power source for implantable biomedical devices. PUEH-1 has a merged -6 dB bandwidth of 74.5% with a central frequency of 350 kHz. PUEH-2 has two separate -6 dB bandwidth of 73.7%/30.8% with central frequencies of 285 kHz/650 kHz. They can adapt to various ultrasonic sources with different working frequency spectrum. Maximum output power is 34.3 nW and 84.3 nW for PUEH-1 and PUEH-2 at 1 mW/cm2 ultrasound intensity input, respectively. The associated power density is 0.734 μW/cm2 and 4.1 μW/cm2, respectively. Better energy harvesting performance is achieved for PUEH-2 because of the optimized length to width ratio and thickness design. Both PUEHs offer more alignment flexibility with more than 40% power when they are in the range of the ultrasound transmitter.

  7. Dystrophic phenotype improvement in the diaphragm muscle of mdx mice by diacerhein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Dias Mâncio

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are striking features of Duchenne muscular dystrophy disease. Diacerhein is an anthraquinone, which exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Based on their actions, the present study evaluated the effects of diacerhein against myonecrosis, oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the diaphragm muscle of mdx mice and compared these results to current treatment widely used in DMD patients, with a main focus on the impact of prednisone. The results demonstrated that diacerhein treatment prevented muscle damage indicated by a decrease in the IgG uptake by muscle fibers, lower CK levels in serum, reduction of fibers with central nuclei with a concomitant increase in fibers with peripheral nuclei. It also had an effect on the inflammatory process, decreasing the inflammatory area, macrophage staining and TNF-α and IL-1β content. Regarding oxidative stress, diacerhein treatment was effective in reducing the ROS and lipid peroxidation in the diaphragm muscle from mdx mice. Compared to prednisone treatment, our findings demonstrated that diacerhein treatment improved the dystrophic phenotype in the diaphragm muscle of mdx mice similar to that of glucocorticoid therapy. In this respect, this work suggests that diacerhein has a potential use as an alternative drug in dystrophinopathy treatment and recommends that its anti-inflammatory and antioxidants properties in the dystrophic muscle should be better understood.

  8. AA, Inner Conductor of Magnetic Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Antiprotons emerging at large angles from the production target (hit by an intense 26 GeV proton beam from the PS), were focused into the acceptance of the injection line of the AA by means of a "magnetic horn" (current-sheet lens). Here we see an early protype of the horn's inner conductor, machined from solid aluminium to a thickness of less than 1 mm. The 1st version had to withstand pulses of 150 kA, 15 us long, every 2.4 s. See 8801040 for a later version.

  9. 76 FR 47141 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ....us , with the words Big Horn County RAC in the subject line. Facsimilies may be sent to 307-674-2668... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. [[Page 47142

  10. Mechanical characterization of the mouse diaphragm with optical coherence elastography reveals fibrosis-related change of direction-dependent muscle tissue stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shang; Loehr, James A.; Larina, Irina V.; Rodney, George G.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    The diaphragm, composed of skeletal muscle, plays an important role in respiration through its dynamic contraction. Genetic and molecular studies of the biomechanics of mouse diaphragm can provide great insights into an improved understanding and potential treatment of the disorders that lead to diaphragm dysfunction (i.e. muscular dystrophy). However, due to the small tissue size, mechanical assessment of mouse diaphragm tissue under its proper physiological conditions has been challenging. Here, we present the application of noncontact optical coherence elastography (OCE) for quantitative elastic characterization of ex vivo mouse diaphragm. Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography was combined with a focused air-puff system to capture and measure the elastic wave propagation from tissue surface. Experiments were performed on wildtype and dystrophic mouse diaphragm tissues containing different levels of fibrosis. The OCE measurements of elastic wave propagation were conducted along both the longitudinal and transverse axis of the muscle fibers. Cross-correlation of the temporal displacement profiles from different spatial locations was utilized to obtain the propagation time delay, which was used to calculate the wave group velocity and to further quantify the tissue Young's modulus. Prior to and after OCE assessment, peak tetanic force was measured to monitor viability of the tissue during the elasticity measurements. Our experimental results indicate a positive correlation between fibrosis level and tissue stiffness, suggesting this elastic-wave-based OCE method could be a useful tool to monitor mechanical properties of skeletal muscle under physiological and pathological conditions.

  11. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  12. Horn's Biologically Active Substances - Can We Replace Horns of Critically Endangered Species (Saiga) by Horns of More Abundant Animals?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Romanov, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 3-11 ISSN 2210-3155 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : biologically active compounds * horn * rhinoceros * saiga * traditional Chinese medicine Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry

  13. Computed tomography of the temporal horns at Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, U.; Vogel

    1989-01-01

    In the literature there are different opinions referring to the involvement of the temporal lobes or horns at Alzheimer's disease. Conventionally computed tomogram of the head does not include the temporal horn in its full length. A simple method to demonstrate the temporal horns after cranial computer tomography is described. It allows the evaluation of temporal lobe and temporal horn if questionable alterations at Alzheimer's disease are to be discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Automatic assessment of average diaphragm motion trajectory from 4DCT images through machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Wei, Jie; Huang, Hailiang; Gaebler, Carl Philipp; Yuan, Amy; Deasy, Joseph O

    2015-12-01

    To automatically estimate average diaphragm motion trajectory (ADMT) based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT), facilitating clinical assessment of respiratory motion and motion variation and retrospective motion study. We have developed an effective motion extraction approach and a machine-learning-based algorithm to estimate the ADMT. Eleven patients with 22 sets of 4DCT images (4DCT1 at simulation and 4DCT2 at treatment) were studied. After automatically segmenting the lungs, the differential volume-per-slice (dVPS) curves of the left and right lungs were calculated as a function of slice number for each phase with respective to the full-exhalation. After 5-slice moving average was performed, the discrete cosine transform (DCT) was applied to analyze the dVPS curves in frequency domain. The dimensionality of the spectrum data was reduced by using several lowest frequency coefficients ( f v ) to account for most of the spectrum energy (Σ f v 2 ). Multiple linear regression (MLR) method was then applied to determine the weights of these frequencies by fitting the ground truth-the measured ADMT, which are represented by three pivot points of the diaphragm on each side. The 'leave-one-out' cross validation method was employed to analyze the statistical performance of the prediction results in three image sets: 4DCT1, 4DCT2, and 4DCT1 + 4DCT2. Seven lowest frequencies in DCT domain were found to be sufficient to approximate the patient dVPS curves ( R = 91%-96% in MLR fitting). The mean error in the predicted ADMT using leave-one-out method was 0.3 ± 1.9 mm for the left-side diaphragm and 0.0 ± 1.4 mm for the right-side diaphragm. The prediction error is lower in 4DCT2 than 4DCT1, and is the lowest in 4DCT1 and 4DCT2 combined. This frequency-analysis-based machine learning technique was employed to predict the ADMT automatically with an acceptable error (0.2 ± 1.6 mm). This volumetric approach is not affected by the presence of the lung tumors

  15. CFD analysis of a diaphragm free-piston Stirling cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughley, Alan; Sellier, Mathieu; Gschwendtner, Michael; Tucker, Alan

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of a novel free-piston Stirling cryocooler that uses a pair of metal diaphragms to seal and suspend the displacer. The diaphragms allow the displacer to move without rubbing or moving seals. When coupled to a metal diaphragm pressure wave generator, the system produces a complete Stirling cryocooler with no rubbing parts in the working gas space. Initial modelling of this concept using the Sage modelling tool indicated the potential for a useful cryocooler. A proof-of-concept prototype was constructed and achieved cryogenic temperatures. A second prototype was designed and constructed using the experience gained from the first. The prototype produced 29 W of cooling at 77 K and reached a no-load temperature of 56 K. The diaphragm's large diameter and short stroke produces a significant radial component to the oscillating flow fields inside the cryocooler which were not modelled in the one-dimensional analysis tool Sage that was used to design the prototypes. Compared with standard pistons, the diaphragm geometry increases the gas-to-wall heat transfer due to the higher velocities and smaller hydraulic diameters. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the cryocooler was constructed to understand the underlying fluid-dynamics and heat transfer mechanisms with the aim of further improving performance. The CFD modelling of the heat transfer in the radial flow fields created by the diaphragms shows the possibility of utilizing the flat geometry for heat transfer, reducing the need for, and the size of, expensive heat exchangers. This paper presents details of a CFD analysis used to model the flow and gas-to-wall heat transfer inside the second prototype cryocooler, including experimental validation of the CFD to produce a robust analysis.

  16. Experimental device for measuring the dynamic properties of diaphragm motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtášek, Kamil; Dvořák, Lukáš; Mejzlík, Jan

    The subject of this paper is to design and description of the experimental device for the determination dynamic properties of diaphragm pneumatic motors. These motors are structurally quite different from conventional pneumatic linear cylinders. The working fluid is typically compressed air, the piston of motor is replaced by an elastic part and during the working cycle there is a contact of two elastic environments. In the manufacturers catalogs of these motors are not given any working characteristics. Description of the dynamic behavior of diaphragm motor will be used for verification of mathematical models.

  17. Diaphragm electromyographic activity following unilateral midcervical contusion injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieck, Gary C.

    2016-01-01

    Contusion-type injuries to the spinal cord are characterized by tissue loss and disruption of spinal pathways. Midcervical spinal cord injuries impair the function of respiratory muscles and may contribute to significant respiratory complications. This study systematically assessed the impact of a 100-kDy unilateral C4 contusion injury on diaphragm muscle activity across a range of motor behaviors in rats. Chronic diaphragm electromyography (EMG) was recorded before injury and at 1 and 7 days postinjury (DPI). Histological analyses assessed the extent of perineuronal net formation, white-matter sparing, and phrenic motoneuron loss. At 7 DPI, ∼45% of phrenic motoneurons were lost ipsilaterally. Relative diaphragm root mean square (RMS) EMG activity increased bilaterally across a range of motor behaviors by 7 DPI. The increase in diaphragm RMS EMG activity was associated with an increase in neural drive (RMS value at 75 ms after the onset of diaphragm activity) and was more pronounced during higher force, nonventilatory motor behaviors. Animals in the contusion group displayed a transient decrease in respiratory rate and an increase in burst duration at 1 DPI. By 7 days, following midcervical contusion, there was significant perineuronal net formation and white-matter loss that spanned 1 mm around the injury epicenter. Taken together, these findings are consistent with increased recruitment of remaining motor units, including more fatigable, high-threshold motor units, during higher force, nonventilatory behaviors. Changes in diaphragm EMG activity following midcervical contusion injury reflect complex adaptations in neuromotor control that may increase the risk of motor-unit fatigue and compromise the ability to sustain higher force diaphragm efforts. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study shows that unilateral contusion injury at C4 results in substantial loss of phrenic motoneurons but increased diaphragm muscle activity across a range of ventilatory and higher

  18. Ruptured rudimentary horn at 22 weeks | Dhar | Nigerian Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rudimentary horn is a developmental anomaly of the uterus. Pregnancy in a noncommunicating rudimentary horn is very difficult to diagnose before it ruptures. A case of undiagnosed rudimentary horn pregnancy at 22 weeks presented to Nizwa regional referral hospital in shock with features of acute abdomen. Chances of ...

  19. 75 FR 71069 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ....us , with the words Big Horn County RAC in the subject line. Facsimilies may be sent to 307-674-2668... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee...

  20. 76 FR 26240 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... words Big Horn County RAC in the subject line. Facsimilies may be sent to 307-674-2668. All comments... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee...

  1. Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACOG Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap Home For Patients Search ... Format Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap Contraception What are barrier ...

  2. Bending-induced electromechanical coupling and large piezoelectric response in a micromachined diaphragm

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhihong

    2013-11-04

    We investigated the dependence of electromechanical coupling and the piezoelectric response of a micromachined Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48)O 3 (PZT) diaphragm on its curvature by observing the impedance spectrum and central deflection responses to a small AC voltage. The curvature of the diaphragm was controlled by applying air pressure to its back. We found that a depolarized flat diaphragm does not initially exhibit electromechanical coupling or the piezoelectric response. However, upon the application of static air pressure to the diaphragm, both electromechanical coupling and the piezoelectric response can be induced in the originally depolarized diaphragm. The piezoelectric response increases as the curvature increases and a giant piezoelectric response can be obtained from a bent diaphragm. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that a high strain gradient in a diaphragm can polarize a PZT film through a flexoelectric effect, and that the induced piezoelectric response of the diaphragm can be controlled by adjusting its curvature.

  3. Diaphragm atrophy and weakness in the absence of mitochondrial dysfunction in the critically Ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, Marloes; Hooijman, Pleuni E.; Beishuizen, Albertus; De Waard, Monique C.; Paul, Marinus A.; Hartemink, Koen J.; Van Hees, Hieronymus W.H.; Lawlor, Michael W.; Brocca, Lorenza; Bottinelli, Roberto; Pellegrino, Maria A.; Stienen, Ger J.M.; Heunks, Leo M.A.; Wüst, Rob C.I.; Ottenheijm, Coen A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: The clinical significance of diaphragm weakness in critically ill patients is evident: it prolongs ventilator dependency and increases morbidity, duration of hospital stay, and health care costs. The mechanisms underlying diaphragm weakness are unknown, but might include mitochondrial

  4. Diaphragm Muscle Fiber Weakness and Ubiquitin-Proteasome Activation in Critically Ill Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijman, P.E.; Beishuizen, A.; Witt, C.C.; de Waard, M.C.; Girbes, A.R.J.; Spoelstra-de Man, A.M.E.; Niessen, H.W.; Manders, E.; van Hees, H.W.H.; van den Brom, C.E.; Silderhuis, V.; Lawlor, M.W.; Labeit, S.; Stienen, G.J.M.; Hartemink, K.J.; Paul, M.A.; Heunks, L.M.A.; Ottenheijm, C.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: The clinical significance of diaphragm weakness in critically ill patients is evident: it prolongs ventilator dependency, and increases morbidity and duration of hospital stay. To date, the nature of diaphragm weakness and its underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are poorly understood.

  5. Continuity diaphragm for skewed continuous span precast prestressed concrete girder bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Continuity diaphragms used on skewed bents in prestressed girder bridges cause difficulties in detailing and : construction. Details for bridges with large diaphragm skew angles (>30) have not been a problem for LA DOTD. : However, as the skew angl...

  6. Assembly of the magnetic horns under way

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    One of the key components of the CNGS facility is the system of magnetic lenses, known as horns, which are to point the pions and kaons that will decay into muons and muon-neutrinos in the direction of the Gran Sasso Laboratory. Positioned at the end of the target, which produces the pions and kaons, the system comprises two of these horns. The first focuses the positively charged pions and kaons, which have an energy of approximately 35 GeV, and defocuses the negative particles. Unfortunately, it has a tendency to cause excessive deflection of particles that have energies of less than 35 GeV and insufficient deflection of those with energies of more than 35 GeV. These negative effects are corrected by the second horn (also known as the reflector), which is positioned 40 metres from the first. Ahmed Cherif of the EST Division's Metrology Service checks the straightness of the inner conductor of the first magnetic horn for CNGS. The tolerance is less than one millimetre over a length of approximately 6.5 metre...

  7. Gemelligraviditet i et horn af bicorn uterus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Bicornuate uterus is associated with early foetal loss and extremely preterm delivery. A patient with dichorionic twins in a single horn of a bicornuate uterus was admitted in week 24 + 6 with preterm labour. Long-term treatment with a combination of tocolytics, atosiban and diclofenac inhibited...

  8. Some remarks on Cicindela saetigera Horn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de C.

    1937-01-01

    In 1936 five specimens of the beautiful beetle Cicindela saetigera Horn (fig. 1) were collected by Prof. Dr. L. G. M. Baas Becking and Dr. J. Reuter on their journey in Australia and kindly given to the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden. As this rather uncommon species was new to the

  9. The orthopaedic management of myelomeningocele | Horn | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The orthopaedic management of myelomeningocele. A Horn, S Dix-Peek, S Mears, EB Hoffman. Abstract. Despite improvement in antenatal care and screening, myelomeningocele remains the most common congenital birth defect, with a reported incidence of 1 - 2.5/1000 patients in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  10. Validation of ultrasonography for non-invasive assessment of diaphragm function in muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Nicholas P; Bible, Kenneth L; Kim, Min Jeong; Odom, Guy L; Adams, Marvin E; Froehner, Stanley C

    2016-12-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe, degenerative muscle disease that is commonly studied using the mdx mouse. The mdx diaphragm muscle closely mimics the pathophysiological changes in DMD muscles. mdx diaphragm force is commonly assessed ex vivo, precluding time course studies. Here we used ultrasonography to evaluate time-dependent changes in diaphragm function in vivo, by measuring diaphragm movement amplitude. In mdx mice, diaphragm amplitude decreased with age and values were much lower than for wild-type mice. Importantly, diaphragm amplitude strongly correlated with ex vivo specific force values. Micro-dystrophin administration increased mdx diaphragm amplitude by 26% after 4 weeks. Diaphragm amplitude correlated positively with ex vivo force values and negatively with diaphragm fibrosis, a major cause of DMD muscle weakness. These studies validate diaphragm ultrasonography as a reliable technique for assessing time-dependent changes in mdx diaphragm function in vivo. This technique will be valuable for testing potential therapies for DMD. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe, degenerative muscle disease caused by dystrophin mutations. The mdx mouse is a widely used animal model of DMD. The mdx diaphragm muscle most closely recapitulates key features of DMD muscles, including progressive fibrosis and considerable force loss. Diaphragm function in mdx mice is commonly evaluated by specific force measurements ex vivo. While useful, this method only measures force from a small muscle sample at one time point. Therefore, accurate assessment of diaphragm function in vivo would provide an important advance to study the time course of functional decline and treatment benefits. Here, we evaluated an ultrasonography technique for measuring time-dependent changes of diaphragm function in mdx mice. Diaphragm movement amplitude values for mdx mice were considerably lower than those for wild-type, decreased from 8 to 18 months of age, and correlated

  11. Sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River Shale in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok-Hoon; Koh, Chang-Seong; Joe, Young-Jin; Woo, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Suk

    2017-04-01

    The Horn River Basin in the northeastern British Columbia, Canada, is one of the largest unconventional gas accumulations in North America. It consists mainly of Devonian shales (Horn River Formation) and is stratigraphically divided into three members, the Muskwa, Otterpark and Evie in descending order. This study focuses on sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River shale based on sedimentary facies analysis aided by well-log mineralogy (ECS) and total organic carbon (TOC) data. The shale formation consists dominantly of siliceous minerals (quartz, feldspar and mica) and subordinate clay mineral and carbonate materials, and TOC ranging from 1.0 to 7.6%. Based on sedimentary structures and micro texture, three sedimentary facies were classified: homogeneous mudstone (HM), indistinctly laminated mudstone (ILM), and planar laminated mudstone (PLM). Integrated interpretation of the sedimentary facies, lithology and TOC suggests that depositional environment of the Horn River shale was an anoxic quiescent basin plain and base-of-slope off carbonate platform or reef. In this deeper marine setting, organic-rich facies HM and ILM, dominant in the Muskwa (the upper part of the Horn River Formation) and Evie (the lower part of the Horn River Formation) members, may have been emplaced by pelagic to hemipelagic sedimentation on the anoxic sea floor with infrequent effects of low-density gravity flows (turbidity currents or nepheloid flows). In the other hand, facies PLM typifying the Otterpark Member (the middle part of the Horn River Formation) suggests more frequent inflow of bottom-hugging turbidity currents punctuating the hemipelagic settling of the background sedimentation process. The stratigraphic change of sedimentary facies and TOC content in the Horn River Formation is most appropriately interpreted to have been caused by the relative sea-level change, that is, lower TOC and frequent signal of turbidity current during the sea

  12. Rectal diaphragm in a patient with imperforate anus and rectoprostatic fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Ashokanand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of rectal diaphragm in an imperforate anus has not been reported until now. A 1-year-old male presented with right transverse colostomy for high anorectal malformation. The patient had imperforate anus and a recto-prostatic fistula with rectal diaphragm. We managed the case by an ano-rectal pull through with excision of the diaphragm.

  13. Phrenic nerves and diaphragms in sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, J; Weber, U; Schröder, J M; Lemke, R; Althoff, H

    1998-01-30

    Disturbances of the respiratory system may be an important factor in the cascade of events leading to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Even though the diaphragm is the major respiratory muscle in infants, little is known about alterations of this muscle and of the phrenic nerve in SIDS. In the present study, diaphragms and phrenic nerves of 24 SIDS infants and seven controls were analyzed. Morphometric analysis revealed only slightly larger cross sectional areas of phrenic nerve axons but no increase in myelin sheath thickness in SIDS cases. However, in one SIDS case, myelinated nerve fibre density was severely reduced. Using electron microscopy, several nerve fibres of SIDS infants showed focal accumulations of neurofilaments. Muscle fibre diameters in SIDS diaphragms were significantly larger compared to controls (P fibre ruptures and contracture bands were found. These prominent nonspecific ultrastructural alterations should advise caution in the interpretation of morphometric data. Thus, in some cases exemplified by one case of the present series, decreased density of phrenic nerve myelinated axons might contribute to SIDS. Still, the present results indicate that development of phrenic nerves and diaphragms is not delayed in most SIDS infants.

  14. Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm | Jamabo | Sahel Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Those treated for traumatic rupture of the diaphragm were selected and analyzed for age, gender, cause of injury, associated injuries sustained and mode of treatment. They were all treated at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital and a private clinic in Port Harcourt. Results: 12 patients had traumatic rupture of ...

  15. Potential for Revitalisation of the Diaphragm for Family Planning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This health systems assessment evaluated the feasibility of introducing a new contraceptive device, the SILCS single-size diaphragm, into the existing family planning method mix in Uganda. A total of 26 focus group discussions with 201 female and 77 male potential users and 98 key informant interviews with policymakers ...

  16. Subacute presentation of spontaneous diaphragmal rupture: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Hermann

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diaphragmatic injuries are relatively rare and present with non specific symptoms and signs. Late discoveries are almost a rule in all but the most evident cases. Many patients are observed or even treated for suspected other conditions, most often musculosceletal disorders.Patients and methods: We report a case of a 14-year-old boy who presented with left lumbar pain and developed peritonitis six days after strenuous training. A chest X-ray revealed abdominal viscera in the left hemithorax. A large posterolateral rupture of the left diaphragm was found at laparotomy together with herniation of the stomach, spleen and colon. The stomach was perforated and partialy necrotic. Afer partial gastrectomy, repositioning and diaphragmal repair the patient recovered well.Conclusions: If pain in toracoabdominal region is a predominant sign after trauma or endogenous strain, one should consider the posibility of ruptured diaphragm and make a chest X-ray. Operation of diaphragmal hernia is necessary and garanties good results when treated on time.

  17. Potential for Revitalisation of the Diaphragm for Family Planning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    diaphragm, into the existing family planning method mix in Uganda. A total of 26 ... expand women's options for contraceptive protection. ... several countries, and the product was approved in ..... younger clients and may not adequately market ... different stages of their life cycle. .... maternal mortality ratio in Uganda: priority.

  18. A new straight accelerator tube with U diaphragm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinhong; Lai Weiquan; Deng Yushen; Zhang Jidong

    1994-01-01

    After calculating the potential distribution and the particle trajectories in electrostatic accelerator tubes, a new straight tube with U diaphragm to suppress secondary particles is proposed. It's properties are demonstrated by the high voltage tests and the γ-rays measurements in the accelerator

  19. Effect of hyperinflation on inspiratory function of the diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, V D; Dolan, G F; Konopka, R F; Moser, K M

    1976-01-01

    The inspiratory efficiency of the diaphragm during unilateral and bilateral phrenic stimulation (UEPS and BEPS) with constant stimulus was studied in seven dogs from FRC to 120% TLC. Alveolar pressures (PAl) were recorded during relaxation, BEPS and UEPS at each lung volume in the closed respiratory system. From the PAl-lung volume curves, tidal volume (VT), and pressure developed by the diaphragm (Pmus) were derived. Results are summarized below. a) Hyperinflation impaired the inspiratory efficiency of the diaphragm which behaved as an expiratory muscle beyond the lung volume of 103.7% TLC (Vinef). b) The diaphragm during UEPS became expiratory at the same Vinef as during (BEPS. C) The VT-lung volume relationship was linear during BEPS, allowing simple quantitation of VT loss with hyperinflation and prediction of Vinef. d) With only one phrenic nerve stimulated, the functional loss is less pronounced in VT than in Pmus, as compared to BEPS, indicating that the respiratory system was more compliant during UEPS than BEPS. This compliance difference from UEPS to BEPS diminished with severe hyperinflation.

  20. A quantitative witness for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltschka, Christopher [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Siewert, Jens [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Along with the vast progress in experimental quantum technologies there is an increasing demand for the quantification of entanglement between three or more quantum systems. Theory still does not provide adequate tools for this purpose. We provide a simple procedure to quantify Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type multipartite entanglement in arbitrary three-qubit states. The method is based on the recently introduced GHZ symmetry and exact results for the states which are invariant under this symmetry, and generally gives a good lower bound to the three-tangle. A generalization both to more parties and to higher-dimensional systems is possible.

  1. HYPERDIRE. HYPERgeometric functions DIfferential REduction. MATEMATICA based packages for differential reduction of generalized hypergeometric functions. FD and FS Horn-type hypergeometric functions of three variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytev, Vladimir V.; Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu.; Moch, Sven-Olaf; Hamburg Univ.

    2013-12-01

    HYPERDIRE is a project devoted to the creation of a set of Mathematica based programs for the differential reduction of hypergeometric functions. The current version includes two parts: the first one, FdFunction, for manipulations with Appell hypergeometric functions F D of r variables; and the second one, FsFunction, for manipulations with Lauricella-Saran hypergeometric functions F S of three variables. Both functions are related with one-loop Feynman diagrams.

  2. Recruitment of rat diaphragm motor units across motor behaviors with different levels of diaphragm activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Yasin B; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2014-12-01

    Phrenic motor neurons are recruited across a range of motor behaviors to generate varying levels of diaphragm muscle (DIAm) force. We hypothesized that DIAm motor units are recruited in a fixed order across a range of motor behaviors of varying force levels, consistent with the Henneman Size Principle. Single motor unit action potentials and compound DIAm EMG activities were recorded in anesthetized, neurally intact rats across different motor behaviors, i.e., eupnea, hypoxia-hypercapnia (10% O2 and 5% CO2), deep breaths, sustained airway occlusion, and sneezing. Central drive [estimated by root-mean-squared (RMS) EMG value 75 ms after the onset of EMG activity (RMS75)], recruitment delay, and onset discharge frequencies were similar during eupnea and hypoxia-hypercapnia. Compared with eupnea, central drive increased (∼25%) during deep breaths, and motor units were recruited ∼12 ms earlier (P motor units were recruited ∼30 ms earlier (P motor unit onset discharge frequencies were significantly higher (P Recruitment order of motor unit pairs observed during eupnea was maintained for 98%, 87%, and 84% of the same pairs recorded during hypoxia-hypercapnia, deep breaths, and airway occlusion, respectively. Reversals in motor unit recruitment order were observed primarily if motor unit pairs were recruited motor unit recruitment order being determined primarily by the intrinsic size-dependent electrophysiological properties of phrenic motor neurons. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Empirical investigation of wind farm blockage effects in Horn Rev 1 offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitraszewski, Karol; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Nygaard, Nicolai

    We present an empirical study of wind farm blockage effects based on Horns Rev 1 SCADA data. The mean inflow non-uniformities in wind speed are analyzed by calculating the mean power outputs of turbines located along the outer edges of the farm for different wind directions, wind speeds and stabi......We present an empirical study of wind farm blockage effects based on Horns Rev 1 SCADA data. The mean inflow non-uniformities in wind speed are analyzed by calculating the mean power outputs of turbines located along the outer edges of the farm for different wind directions, wind speeds...

  4. Emerging landscape degradation trends in the East African Horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricope, N. G.; Michaelsen, J.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Lopez-Carr, D.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing climate variability along with declining trends in rainfall represent major risk factors affecting food security in many regions of the world. We identify Africa-wide regions where significant rainfall decreases from 1979-2011 are coupled with significant human population density increases. The rangelands of the East African Horn remain one of the world's most food insecure regions with significantly increasing human populations predominantly dependent on pastoralist and agro-pastoralist livelihoods. Widespread vegetation degradation is occurring, adversely impacting fragile ecosystems and human livelihoods. Using MODIS land cover and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data collected since 2000, we observe significant changes in vegetation patterns and productivity over the last decade across the East African Horn and demonstrate that these two products can be used concurrently at large spatial scales to monitor vegetation dynamics at decadal time scales. Results demonstrate that a near doubling of the population in pastoral regions is linked with hotspots of degradation in vegetation condition. The most significant land cover change and browning trends are observed in areas experiencing drying precipitation trends in addition to increasing population pressures. These findings have serious implications for current and future regional food security monitoring and forecasting and for mitigation and adaptation strategies in a region where population is expected to continue increasing against a backdrop of drying climate trends.Fig.1(a)Change in standardized precipitation index in Africa between 1979-2010 (b)Change in population density at continental scale using the GRUMPv1 1990 and 2000 and AfriPop 2010 population density datasets Fig.2 Land cover change trajectories based on 2001-2009 MOD12Q1 Land Cover product for the East African Horn overlaid over aggregated FEWS Net Livelihoods Zones.

  5. Evaluation of phrenic nerve and diaphragm function with peripheral nerve stimulation and M-mode ultrasonography in potential pediatric phrenic nerve or diaphragm pacing candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalsky, Andrew J; Lesser, Daniel J; McDonald, Craig M

    2015-02-01

    Assessing phrenic nerve function in the setting of diaphragmatic paralysis in diaphragm pacing candidates can be challenging. Traditional imaging modalities and electrodiagnostic evaluations are technically difficult. Either modality alone is not a direct measure of the function of the phrenic nerve and diaphragm unit. In this article, the authors present their method for evaluating phrenic nerve function and the resulting diaphragm function. Stimulating the phrenic nerve with transcutaneous stimulation and directly observing the resulting movement of the hemidiaphragm with M-mode ultrasonography provides quantitative data for predicting the success of advancing technologies such as phrenic nerve pacing and diaphragm pacing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Failure analysis of globe control valves with spring-diaphragm actuator for nuclear power plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.; Chen, W.W.H.; Wang, T.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the failure analysis of a globe control valve with spring-diaphragm actuator indicated that the diaphragm failed because the service loading is close to the strength of the diaphragm. The resulting impact force is significantly larger than the plug guide strength and that cause it to bulge out after the impact. To improve the valve performance, proper torque should be used to tighten the actuator diaphragm case fasteners. A stronger actuator diaphragm could be used to provide additional safety margin during operation. Stiffening the plug guide may avoid jamming the bushing

  7. AA, inner conductor of a magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    At the start-up of the AA and during its initial operation, magnetic horns focused the antiprotons emanating from the production target. These "current-sheet lenses" had a thin inner conductor (for minimum absorption of antiprotons), machined from aluminium to wall thicknesses of 0.7 or 1 mm. The half-sine pulses rose to 150 kA in 8 microsec. The angular acceptance was 50 mrad.

  8. Assessment of the effectiveness of a small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement on reducing anaemia and stunting in refugee populations in the Horn of Africa: Secondary data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Style

    Full Text Available Stunting and micronutrient malnutrition are persistent public health problems in refugee populations. UNHCR and its partner organisations implement blanket supplementary feeding programmes using a range of special nutritional products as one approach to address these issues. The evidence base for the efficacy and effectiveness of a small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement, Nutributter®, in reducing stunting and anaemia is limited. Secondary data analysis was used to assess the effectiveness of Nutributter® distribution on anaemia and stunting in children aged 6-23 months (programme target group and 6-59 months (the standard age group sampled in routine nutrition surveys. Analysis was conducted using routine pre and post-intervention cross-sectional nutrition survey data collected between 2008-2011 in five refugee camps in Kenya and Djibouti. Changes in total anaemia (Haemoglobin<110g/L, anaemia categories (mild, moderate and severe, and stunting (height-for-age z-score <-2 were explored using available data on the Nutributter® programme and contextual factors. A significant reduction in the prevalence of anaemia in children aged 6-23 months and 6-59 months was seen in four of five, and in all five camps, respectively (p<0.05. Reductions ranged from 12.4 to 23.0, and 18.3 to 29.3 percentage points in each age group. Improvements were largely due to reductions in moderate and severe anaemia and occurred where the prevalence of acute malnutrition was stable or increasing. No change in stunting was observed in four of five camps. The replicability of findings across five sites strongly suggests that Nutributter® distribution was associated with a reduction in anaemia, but not stunting, among refugee children in the Horn of Africa. Benefits were not restricted to the 6-23 month target group targeted by the nutrition programme. However, even following this intervention anaemia remained a serious public health problem and additional work to

  9. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P. [NERI, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. The study focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging bird species. The study was based on data from spring 2004. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be of importance for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)

  10. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. The study focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging bird species. The study was based on data from spring 2004. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be of importance for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)

  11. Actively adjustable step-type ultrasonic horns in longitudinal vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuyu; Guo, Hao; Xu, Jie

    2018-04-01

    Actively adjustable longitudinal step-type ultrasonic horns are proposed and studied. The horn is composed of a traditional ultrasonic horn and piezoelectric material. In practical applications, this kind of step-type ultrasonic horn is mechanically excited by an ultrasonic transducer and the piezoelectric material is connected to an adjustable electric impedance. In this research, the effects of the electric impedance and of the location of the piezoelectric material on the performance of the horn are studied. It is shown that when the electric resistance is increased, the resonance frequency of the horn is increased; the displacement magnification is increased when the piezoelectric material is located in the large end and decreased when the piezoelectric material is located in the small end of the horn. The displacement magnification for the piezoelectric material in the large end is larger than that for the piezoelectric material in the small end of the horn. Some step-type ultrasonic horns are designed and manufactured; the resonance frequency and the displacement magnification are measured by means of POLYTEC Laser Scanning vibrometer. It is shown that the theoretical resonance frequency and the displacement magnification are in good agreement with the measured results. It is concluded that by means of the insertion of the piezoelectric material in the longitudinal horn, the horn performance can be adjusted by changing the electric impedance and the location of the piezoelectric material in the horn. It is expected that this kind of adjustable ultrasonic horns can be used in traditional and potential ultrasonic technologies where the vibrational performance adjustment is needed.

  12. Audiovisual biofeedback improves diaphragm motion reproducibility in MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; O’Brien, Ricky; Keall, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In lung radiotherapy, variations in cycle-to-cycle breathing results in four-dimensional computed tomography imaging artifacts, leading to inaccurate beam coverage and tumor targeting. In previous studies, the effect of audiovisual (AV) biofeedback on the external respiratory signal reproducibility has been investigated but the internal anatomy motion has not been fully studied. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that AV biofeedback improves diaphragm motion reproducibility of internal anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: To test the hypothesis 15 healthy human subjects were enrolled in an ethics-approved AV biofeedback study consisting of two imaging sessions spaced ∼1 week apart. Within each session MR images were acquired under free breathing and AV biofeedback conditions. The respiratory signal to the AV biofeedback system utilized optical monitoring of an external marker placed on the abdomen. Synchronously, serial thoracic 2D MR images were obtained to measure the diaphragm motion using a fast gradient-recalled-echo MR pulse sequence in both coronal and sagittal planes. The improvement in the diaphragm motion reproducibility using the AV biofeedback system was quantified by comparing cycle-to-cycle variability in displacement, respiratory period, and baseline drift. Additionally, the variation in improvement between the two sessions was also quantified. Results: The average root mean square error (RMSE) of diaphragm cycle-to-cycle displacement was reduced from 2.6 mm with free breathing to 1.6 mm (38% reduction) with the implementation of AV biofeedback (p-value biofeedback (p-value biofeedback (p-value = 0.012). The diaphragm motion reproducibility improvements with AV biofeedback were consistent with the abdominal motion reproducibility that was observed from the external marker motion variation. Conclusions: This study was the first to investigate the potential of AV biofeedback to improve the motion

  13. LS1 Report: Thank you magnetic horn!

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Experiments at the Antimatter Decelerator (AD) have been receiving beams since the beginning of this week. There is a crucial element at the heart of the chain that prepares the antiproton beam: the so-called magnetic horn, a delicate piece of equipment that had to be refurbished during LS1 and that is now showing just how well it can perform.   View from the top of the target and horn trolley, along the direction of the beam. Antiprotons for the AD are produced by smashing a beam of protons from the PS onto an iridium target. However, the particles produced by the nuclear interactions are emitted at very wide angles; without a focussing element, all these precious particles would be lost. “A magnetic horn is placed at the exit of the target to focus back a large fraction of the negative particles, including antiprotons, parallel to the beam line and with the right momentum,” explains Marco Calviani, physicist in the EN Department and the expert in charge of the AD targe...

  14. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Tougaard, S.; Jensen, Thyge; Ebbesen, I.; Teilmann, J.

    2003-03-01

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  15. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Tougaard, S.; Jensen, Thyge [Fisheries and Maritime Museum Esbjerg (Denmark); Ebbesen, I. [Univ. of Sourthern Denmark, Inst. of Biology, Odense (Denmark); Teilmann, J. [NationL Environmental Res. Inst., Roskidle (Denmark)

    2003-03-15

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  16. Diaphragm Effect of Steel Space Roof Systems in Hall Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet FENKLİ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hall structures have been used widely for different purposes. They have are reinforced concrete frames and shear wall with steel space roof systems. Earthquake response of hall structures is different from building type structures. One of the most critical nodes is diaphragm effect of steel space roof on earthquake response of hall structures. Diaphragm effect is depending on lateral stiffness capacity of steel space roof system. Lateral stiffness of steel space roof system is related to modulation geometry, support conditions, selected sections and system geometry. In current paper, three representative models which are commonly used in Turkey were taken in to account for investigation. Results of numerical tests were present comparatively

  17. Phrenic Nerve Reconstruction and Bilateral Diaphragm Plication After Lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Shuichi; Yamada, Tetsu; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Ishinagi, Hiroyoshi; Matsuoka, Takahisa; Nagai, Shinjiro; Matsuoka, Katsunari; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2017-07-01

    A 49-year-old man with left phrenic nerve paralysis caused by mediastinal tumor resection 28 years earlier was found to have a nodule in the right upper lobe. The right phrenic nerve was severed during right upper lobectomy but was reconstructed along with bilateral plication of the diaphragm. The patient was weaned from the ventilator during the daytime on postoperative day 13 and was discharged home on postoperative day 48. Three months postoperatively, chest fluoroscopic imaging showed recovery of movement of the right diaphragm. Nerve conduction studies showed improvement of function of the reconstructed right phrenic nerve. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. PO2 Cycling Reduces Diaphragm Fatigue by Attenuating ROS Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Li; Diaz, Philip T.; Chien, Michael T.; Roberts, William J.; Kishek, Juliana; Best, Thomas M.; Wagner, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged muscle exposure to low PO2 conditions may cause oxidative stress resulting in severe muscular injuries. We hypothesize that PO2 cycling preconditioning, which involves brief cycles of diaphragmatic muscle exposure to a low oxygen level (40 Torr) followed by a high oxygen level (550 Torr), can reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as attenuate muscle fatigue in mouse diaphragm under low PO2. Accordingly, dihydrofluorescein (a fluorescent probe) was used to monito...

  19. 900 MW CP1 nuclear steam turbine retrofit thermal effects on low pressure diaphragms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buguin, A.; Gruau, P.; Lamarque, F.; Huggett, J.

    2015-01-01

    The steam turbines of the Koeberg units 1 and 2 operated by ESKOM in South Africa have been retrofitted in order to mitigate the generic problems of stress corrosion cracking of the original shrunk-on disk rotor design. As already done in Belgium and France, the implementation of welded rotors improves the turbine reliability and availability. Moreover, the new technology implemented associated with a new steam path allows a significant performance improvement. With a wealth of experience in CP1 retrofit, ALSTOM has put in place new technical features in the steam path in order to further improve the heat rate. Among them, steam balance holes drilled in the rotor disks have exacerbated the thermal sensitivity of the LP diaphragms. During the commissioning of the Unit 1 LP turbines following the retrofit, the load increase led to unacceptable vibrations. An investigation program was launched to determine the root causes of the problem. This paper presents the findings following the turbine inspection, as well as the recommendations and modifications to allow a smooth return to service of the unit. In addition, the results of the root cause analysis of the vibration incident are explained. Based on finite element calculations and site measurements, ALSTOM has established that the diaphragm thermal behavior, intensified by the steam balance holes, has led to radial rubbing. It was also established that the phenomena had no effect on the diaphragms mechanical integrity. Design changes have been proposed to ensure a safe and reliable long term operation of the units. These modifications have been successfully implemented onto the Koeberg Unit 2 Nuclear Steam Turbine commissioned in November 2012. (authors)

  20. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation for the Hepatocellular Carcinoma Abutting the Diaphragm: Assessment of Safety and Therapeutic Efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Young Sun; Choi, Dong Il; Lee, Won Jae; Lim, Hyo K.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the safety and therapeutic efficacy of a percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) abutting the diaphragm. We retrospectively assessed 80 patients who underwent a percutaneous RF ablation for a single nodular (< 4 cm) HCC over the last four years. Each patient underwent an ultrasound-guided RF ablation using internally cooled electrodes for the first-line treatment. We divided patients into two subgroups based on whether the index tumor was abutting (less than 5 mm) the diaphragm or not: group A (abutting; n = 31) versus group B (non-abutting; n = 49). We compared the two subgroups for complications and therapeutic efficacy using image and the review of medical records. The statistical assessment included an independent t-test, Fisher's exact test, and chi-square test. The assessment of the diaphragmatic swelling at CT immediately following the procedure was more severe in group A than group B (mean thickness change:1.44 vs. 0.46 mm, p = 0.00). Further, right shoulder pain was more common in group A than B (p = 0.01). Although minor complications (hemothorax 1 case, pleural effusion 1 case) were noted only in group A, no major thoracic complication occurred in either group. The technical success rate was lower in group A than group B (84% vs. 98%, p = 0.03). As well, the primary and secondary technique effectiveness rates in group A and group B were 90% versus 98% (p = 0.29) and 79% versus 91% (p = 0.25), respectively. The local tumor progression rate was higher in group A than in group B (29% vs. 6%, p = 0.02). We found that the percutaneous RF ablation for the HCC abutting the diaphragm is a safe procedure without major complications. However, it is less effective with regard to technical success and local tumor control

  1. PO2 cycling reduces diaphragm fatigue by attenuating ROS formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; Diaz, Philip T; Chien, Michael T; Roberts, William J; Kishek, Juliana; Best, Thomas M; Wagner, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged muscle exposure to low PO2 conditions may cause oxidative stress resulting in severe muscular injuries. We hypothesize that PO2 cycling preconditioning, which involves brief cycles of diaphragmatic muscle exposure to a low oxygen level (40 Torr) followed by a high oxygen level (550 Torr), can reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as attenuate muscle fatigue in mouse diaphragm under low PO2. Accordingly, dihydrofluorescein (a fluorescent probe) was used to monitor muscular ROS production in real time with confocal microscopy during a lower PO2 condition. In the control group with no PO2 cycling, intracellular ROS formation did not appear during the first 15 min of the low PO2 period. However, after 20 min of low PO2, ROS levels increased significantly by ∼30% compared to baseline, and this increase continued until the end of the 30 min low PO2 condition. Conversely, muscles treated with PO2 cycling showed a complete absence of enhanced fluorescence emission throughout the entire low PO2 period. Furthermore, PO2 cycling-treated diaphragm exhibited increased fatigue resistance during prolonged low PO2 period compared to control. Thus, our data suggest that PO2 cycling mitigates diaphragm fatigue during prolonged low PO2. Although the exact mechanism for this protection remains to be elucidated, it is likely that through limiting excessive ROS levels, PO2 cycling initiates ROS-related antioxidant defenses.

  2. A free-piston Stirling cryocooler using metal diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughley, Alan; Sellier, Mathieu; Gschwendtner, Michael; Tucker, Alan

    2016-12-01

    A novel concept for a free-piston Stirling cryocooler has been proposed. The concept uses a pair of metal diaphragms to seal and suspend the displacer of a free-piston Stirling cryocooler. The diaphragms allow the displacer to move without rubbing or moving seals, potentially resulting in a long-life mechanism. When coupled to a metal diaphragm pressure wave generator, the system produces a complete Stirling cryocooler with no rubbing parts in the working gas space. Initial modelling of this concept using the Sage modelling tool indicates the potential for a useful cryocooler. A proof-of-concept prototype was constructed and achieved cryogenic temperatures. A second prototype was designed and constructed using the experience gained from the first. The prototype produced 29 W of cooling at 77 K and reached a no-load temperature of 56 K. Sage predicted the macroscopic behaviour of the prototype well but did not provide sufficient insights to improve performance significantly. This paper presents details of the development, modelling and testing of the proof-of-concept prototype and a second, improved prototype.

  3. PO2 cycling reduces diaphragm fatigue by attenuating ROS formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zuo

    Full Text Available Prolonged muscle exposure to low PO2 conditions may cause oxidative stress resulting in severe muscular injuries. We hypothesize that PO2 cycling preconditioning, which involves brief cycles of diaphragmatic muscle exposure to a low oxygen level (40 Torr followed by a high oxygen level (550 Torr, can reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS as well as attenuate muscle fatigue in mouse diaphragm under low PO2. Accordingly, dihydrofluorescein (a fluorescent probe was used to monitor muscular ROS production in real time with confocal microscopy during a lower PO2 condition. In the control group with no PO2 cycling, intracellular ROS formation did not appear during the first 15 min of the low PO2 period. However, after 20 min of low PO2, ROS levels increased significantly by ∼30% compared to baseline, and this increase continued until the end of the 30 min low PO2 condition. Conversely, muscles treated with PO2 cycling showed a complete absence of enhanced fluorescence emission throughout the entire low PO2 period. Furthermore, PO2 cycling-treated diaphragm exhibited increased fatigue resistance during prolonged low PO2 period compared to control. Thus, our data suggest that PO2 cycling mitigates diaphragm fatigue during prolonged low PO2. Although the exact mechanism for this protection remains to be elucidated, it is likely that through limiting excessive ROS levels, PO2 cycling initiates ROS-related antioxidant defenses.

  4. The entropy of Garfinkle-Horne dilaton black hole due to arbitrary spin fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN; Yougen(沈有根)

    2002-01-01

    Using the membrane model which is based on brick wall model, we calculated the free energy and entropy of Garfinkle-Horne dilatonic black hole due to arbitrary spin fields. The result shows that the entropy of scalar field and the entropy of Fermionic field have similar formulas. There is only a coefficient between them.

  5. Generating multiphoton Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states with weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Guang-Sheng; Lin, Yuan; Wu, Biao

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme to generate polarization-entangled multiphoton Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states with weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity based on controlled bus rotation and subsequent homodyne measurement. Our method is simple in operation and has high success probabilities with near perfect fidelities in an ideal case

  6. Three-dimensional quadratic modeling and quantitative evaluation of the diaphragm on a volumetric CT scan in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yongjun [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34138 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jangpyo [Interdisciplinary Program, Bioengineering Major, Graduate School, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Namkug, E-mail: namkugkim@gmail.com [Department of Convergence Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joo-Young; Lee, Sang Min; Seo, Joon Beom [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diaphragm function may deteriorate due to reduced muscle fiber length. Quantitative analysis of the morphology of the diaphragm is therefore important. In the authors current study, they propose a diaphragm segmentation method for COPD patients that uses volumetric chest computed tomography (CT) data, and they provide a quantitative analysis of the diaphragmatic dimensions. Methods: Volumetric CT data were obtained from 30 COPD patients and 10 normal control patients using a 16-row multidetector CT scanner (Siemens Sensation 16) with 0.75-mm collimation. Diaphragm segmentation using 3D ray projections on the lower surface of the lungs was performed to identify the draft diaphragmatic lung surface, which was modeled using quadratic 3D surface fitting and robust regression in order to minimize the effects of segmentation error and parameterize diaphragm morphology. This result was visually evaluated by an expert thoracic radiologist. To take into consideration the shape features of the diaphragm, several quantification parameters—including the shape index on the apex (SIA) (which was computed using gradient set to 0), principal curvatures on the apex on the fitted diaphragm surface (CA), the height between the apex and the base plane (H), the diaphragm lengths along the x-, y-, and z-axes (XL, YL, ZL), quadratic-fitted diaphragm lengths on the z-axis (FZL), average curvature (C), and surface area (SA)—were measured using in-house software and compared with the pulmonary function test (PFT) results. Results: The overall accuracy of the combined segmentation method was 97.22% ± 4.44% while the visual accuracy of the models for the segmented diaphragms was 95.28% ± 2.52% (mean ± SD). The quantitative parameters, including SIA, CA, H, XL, YL, ZL, FZL, C, and SA were 0.85 ± 0.05 (mm{sup −1}), 0.01 ± 0.00 (mm{sup −1}), 17.93 ± 10.78 (mm), 129.80 ± 11.66 (mm), 163.19 ± 13.45 (mm), 71

  7. Influence of double-diaphragm vacuum compaction on deformation during forming of composite prepregs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Alshahrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the diaphragm forming process, a vacuum seal is applied between the upper and lower diaphragms to compact and hold the laminate. Therefore, a thorough characterization of the in-plane shear behavior of fabrics under diaphragm forming conditions must take into account the effect of vacuum-sealing and compaction between the two diaphragms during bias extension. The study presented here examined the shear angles of out-of-autoclave 8-harness satin woven carbon/epoxy prepregs under diaphragm compaction. A bias extension test was conducted to study the effect of diaphragm compaction and ply interactions on shear properties. The test was performed at different compaction levels, and changes in shear angle with respect to vacuum levels and diaphragm compaction forces were observed. The contribution of diaphragm material and ply interaction to shear stiffness was evaluated and compared with results from a direct bias extension test. The samples were tested at both room temperature and at elevated temperatures using a radiant heater. The results show that shear angle decreases significantly as vacuum pressure and compaction is applied between the two diaphragms. This finding indicates that vacuum levels and compaction forces have a significant influence on the deformation limit and wrinkling onset during the diaphragm forming process.

  8. Progressive Diaphragm Atrophy in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glau, Christie L; Conlon, Thomas W; Himebauch, Adam S; Yehya, Nadir; Weiss, Scott L; Berg, Robert A; Nishisaki, Akira

    2018-02-05

    Diaphragm atrophy is associated with delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation and increased mortality in critically ill adults. We sought to test for the presence of diaphragm atrophy in children with acute respiratory failure. Prospective, observational study. Single-center tertiary noncardiac PICU in a children's hospital. Invasively ventilated children with acute respiratory failure. Diaphragm thickness at end-expiration and end-inspiration were serially measured by ultrasound in 56 patients (median age, 17 mo; interquartile range, 5.5-52), first within 36 hours of intubation and last preceding extubation. The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 140 hours (interquartile range, 83-201). At initial measurement, thickness at end-expiration was 2.0 mm (interquartile range, 1.8-2.5) and thickness at end-inspiration was 2.5 mm (interquartile range, 2-2.8). The change in thickness at end-expiration during mechanical ventilation between first and last measurement was -13.8% (interquartile range, -27.4% to 0%), with a -3.4% daily atrophy rate (interquartile range, -5.6 to 0%). Thickening fraction = ([thickness at end-inspiration - thickness at end-expiration]/thickness at end-inspiration) throughout the course of mechanical ventilation was linearly correlated with spontaneous breathing fraction (beta coefficient, 9.4; 95% CI, 4.2-14.7; p = 0.001). For children with a period of spontaneous breathing fraction less than 0.5 during mechanical ventilation, those with exposure to a continuous neuromuscular blockade infusion (n = 15) had a significantly larger decrease in thickness at end-expiration compared with children with low spontaneous breathing fraction who were not exposed to a neuromuscular blockade infusion (n = 18) (-16.4%, [interquartile range, -28.4% to -7.0%] vs -7.3%; [interquartile range, -10.9% to -0%]; p = 0.036). Diaphragm atrophy is present in children on mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Diaphragm contractility, measured as

  9. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top......-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental...

  10. Constraint specialisation in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query–answer transformed version of a given set of clauses and a goal. The constraints from the model are then used to compute...... a specialised version of each clause. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. The specialisation procedure can be repeated to yield further specialisation. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraint theory...

  11. Analysis and Transformation Tools for Constrained Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Several techniques and tools have been developed for verification of properties expressed as Horn clauses with constraints over a background theory (CHC). Current CHC verification tools implement intricate algorithms and are often limited to certain subclasses of CHC problems. Our aim in this work...... is to investigate the use of a combination of off-the-shelf techniques from the literature in analysis and transformation of Constraint Logic Programs (CLPs) to solve challenging CHC verification problems. We find that many problems can be solved using a combination of tools based on well-known techniques from...... abstract interpretation, semantics-preserving transformations, program specialisation and query-answer transformations. This gives insights into the design of automatic, more general CHC verification tools based on a library of components....

  12. Robust control of dielectric elastomer diaphragm actuator for human pulse signal tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhihang; Chen, Zheng; Asmatulu, Ramazan; Chan, Hoyin

    2017-08-01

    Human pulse signal tracking is an emerging technology that is needed in traditional Chinese medicine. However, soft actuation with multi-frequency tracking capability is needed for tracking human pulse signal. Dielectric elastomer (DE) is one type of soft actuating that has great potential in human pulse signal tracking. In this paper, a DE diaphragm actuator was designed and fabricated to track human pulse pressure signal. A physics-based and control-oriented model has been developed to capture the dynamic behavior of DE diaphragm actuator. Using the physical model, an H-infinity robust control was designed for the actuator to reject high-frequency sensing noises and disturbances. The robust control was then implemented in real-time to track a multi-frequency signal, which verified the tracking capability and robustness of the control system. In the human pulse signal tracking test, a human pulse signal was measured at the City University of Hong Kong and then was tracked using DE actuator at Wichita State University in the US. Experimental results have verified that the DE actuator with its robust control is capable of tracking human pulse signal.

  13. Laterally Driven Resonant Pressure Sensor with Etched Silicon Dual Diaphragms and Combined Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel structure of the resonant pressure sensor is presented in this paper, which tactfully employs intercoupling between dual pressure-sensing diaphragms and a laterally driven resonant strain gauge. After the resonant pressure sensor principle is introduced, the coupling mechanism of the diaphragms and resonator is analyzed and the frequency equation of the resonator based on the triangle geometry theory is developed for this new coupling structure. The finite element (FE simulation results match the theoretical analysis over the full scale of the device. This pressure sensor was first fabricated by dry/wet etching and thermal silicon bonding, followed by vacuum-packaging using anodic bonding technology. The test maximum error of the fabricated sensor is 0.0310%F.S. (full scale in the range of 30 to 190 kPa, its pressure sensitivity is negative and exceeding 8 Hz/kPa, and its Q-factor reaches 20,000 after wafer vacuum-packaging. A novel resonant pressure sensor with high accuracy is presented in this paper.

  14. An Accurate Study on Capacitive Microphone with Circular Diaphragm Using a Higher Order Elasticity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakiba Dowlati

    Full Text Available Abstract This study has been undertaken to investigate the mechanical behavior of the capacitive microphone with clamped circular diaphragm using modified couple stress theory in comparison to the classical one. Presence of the length scale parameter in modified couple stress theory provides the means to evaluate the size effect on the microphone mechanical behavior. Investigating Pull-in phenomenon and dynamic behavior of the microphone are the matters provided due to the application of a step DC voltage. Also the effects of different air damping coefficients on dynamic pull-in voltage and pull-in time have been studied. The output level or sensitivity of the microphone has been studied by investigating the frequency response in term of magnitude for different length scale parameters to figure out how the length scale parameter affects on the sensitivity of the capacitive microphone. To achieve these ends, the nonlinear differential equation of the circular diaphragm has been extracted using Kirchhoff thin plate theory. Then, a Step-by-Step Linearization Method (SSLM has been used to escape from the nonlinearity of the differential equation. Afterwards, Galerkin-based reduced-order model has been applied to solve the obtained equation.

  15. Anatomy of pudendal nerve at urogenital diaphragm--new critical site for nerve entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Stephan; Ebmer, Johannes; Dellon, A Lee; Aszmann, Oskar C

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the relations of the pudendal nerve in this complex anatomic region and determine possible entrapment sites that are accessible for surgical decompression. Entrapment neuropathies of the pudendal nerve are an uncommon and, therefore, often overlooked or misdiagnosed clinical entity. The detailed relations of this nerve as it exits the pelvis through the urogenital diaphragm and enters the mobile part of the penis have not yet been studied. Detailed anatomic dissections were performed in 10 formalin preserved hemipelves under 3.5x loupe magnification. The pudendal nerve was dissected from the entrance into the Alcock canal to the dorsum of the penis. The branching pattern of the nerve and its topographic relationship were recorded and photographs taken. The anatomic dissections revealed that the pudendal nerve passes through a tight osteofibrotic canal just distal to the urogenital diaphragm at the entrance to the base of the penis. This canal is, in part, formed by the inferior ramus of the pubic bone, the suspensory ligament of the penis, and the ischiocavernous body. In two specimens, a fusiform pseudoneuromatous thickening was found. The pudendal nerve is susceptible to compression at the passage from the Alcock canal to the dorsum of the penis. Individuals exposed to repetitive mechanical irritation in this region are especially endangered. Diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy can have additional compression neuropathy with decreased penile sensibility and will benefit from decompression of the pudendal nerve.

  16. Wave propagation inside the Agbo horn | Nwachukwu | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... comparable to that of modern horns and other musical instruments in emitting harmonious vibrations of even and odd harmonics when excited. This investigation has further shown that the “agbo” horns can be used for fourier analysis and amplitude modulation. They also have characteristics similar to violin, piano, oboe, ...

  17. The natural horn as an efficient sound radiating system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results obtained showed that the locally made horn are efficient sound radiating systems and are therefore excellent for sound production in local musical renditions. These findings, in addition to the portability and low cost of the horns qualify them to be highly recommended for use in music making and for other purposes ...

  18. Occupational cow horn eye injuries in Ibadan, Nigeria | Ibrahim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case series aims to describe the clinical features, management, and outcome of occupational eye injuries caused by cow horns and to recommend possible preventive measures. A review of patients with cow horn inflicted eye injuries seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan between January 2006, and ...

  19. AFP Algorithm and a Canonical Normal Form for Horn Formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Majdoddin, Ruhollah

    2014-01-01

    AFP Algorithm is a learning algorithm for Horn formulas. We show that it does not improve the complexity of AFP Algorithm, if after each negative counterexample more that just one refinements are performed. Moreover, a canonical normal form for Horn formulas is presented, and it is proved that the output formula of AFP Algorithm is in this normal form.

  20. 76 FR 7810 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ..., Wyoming 82801. Comments may also be sent via e-mail to [email protected] , with the words Big... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee...

  1. A Study of Free-Piston Double-Diaphragm Drivers for Expansion Tubes. Report 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years the free-piston double-diaphragm driver has been used to increase the performance of the XI pilot expansion tube to super-orbital test conditions. However, the actual performance of the double-diaphragm driver was found to be considerably less than ideal. An experimental study of the double-diaphragm driver was carried out on the XI facility over a range of conditions with the objective of determining the effect of. heat losses; and the non-ideal rupture of the 'light' secondary diaphragm on the driver performance. The disparity between the theoretical and measured performance envelope are highlighted. A viscous limit for the experiments vas established. Heat transfer behind the primary shock is shown to be the mechanism behind this limit Incident, reflected and transmitted shock trajectories for the secondary diaphragm were experimentally determined and compared with computed trajectories from a one-dimensional diaphragm inertia model. It was found that the diaphragm did influence the unsteady expansion. A good agreement between experimental and computed shock trajectories was obtained using a diaphragm inertia model assuming that the diaphragm mass became negligible 3 microns after shock impact.

  2. Method of segmenting inferior horns of lateral ventricles using active contour models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Masumi; Koyama, Shuji; Kodera, Yoshie

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that the measurement of regional atrophy in the structure of the medial temporal lobe is a promising way to discriminate Alzheimer-type dementia patients from healthy control subjects. There are some reports that the inferior horns of the lateral ventricles are expanded by atrophying the structure of the medial temporal lobe. We developed a technique to automatically detect the region of the inferior horns of the lateral ventricles by gray-level thresholding and morphological processing. However, there were some incorrect regions in this method. Accordingly, we proposed a technique for which active contour models (ACM) were used. Our ACM incorporates the improved edge-based image and the external constraint to improve convergence and to reduce its dependence on initial estimation. In this study, we present the details of an algorithm that traces the contours of the inferior horns of the lateral ventricles and its performance relative to manual methods. The average degree of correspondence between the extract region and manual trace was measured in 30 inferior horns of 15 subjects. The average degree of correspondence of the proposed method was about 4% higher than that of the conventional method. These results suggest that the proposed method is more accurate than the conventional method. (author)

  3. Giant cutaneous horn in an African woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthumba Peter M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A cutaneous horn is a conical projection of hyperkeratotic epidermis. Though grossly resembling an animal horn, it lacks a bony core. These lesions have been well described in Caucasian patients, as well as in a number of Arabic and Asian patients. Case presentation A young female presented with a large 'horn' of five-year duration, arising from a burn scar. Excision and scalp reconstruction were performed. Histology was reported as verrucoid epidermal hyperplasia with cutaneous horn. Conclusion This may be the first documentation of this lesion in a black African. Although likely rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dermatologic lesions. Up to 40% of cutaneous horns occur as part of a premalignant or malignant lesion, and surgical extirpation with histological examination is thus more important than the curiosity surrounding these lesions.

  4. A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaff, W D; Cooley, B C; Shen, W; Gittlesohn, A M; Rock, J A

    1987-11-01

    A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing is described. Healing was reflected by acquisition of strength and elasticity, measured by burst strength (BS) and extensibility (EX), respectively. A tensiometer (Instron Corp., Canton, MA) was used to assess these characteristics in castrated and estrogen-supplemented or nonsupplemented animals. While the horn weights (HW), BS, and EX of contralateral horns were not significantly different, the intra-animal variation of HW was 7.2%, BS was 17.7% and EX was 38.2%. In a second experiment, one uterine horn was divided and anastomosed, and the animal given estrogen supplementation or a placebo pellet. Estrogen administration was found to increase BS and EX of anastomosed horns prior to 14 days, but had no beneficial effect at 21 or 42 days. The data suggest that estrogen may be required for optimal early healing of genital tract wounds.

  5. Large Epiphrenic Diverticulum with Perforation and Leakage below the Diaphragm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønserud, Majken Munk; Brenøe, Anne-Sofie; Eckardt, Jens

    2015-01-01

    contrast revealed contrast leakage near the minor curvature of the stomach. The following esophagogastroduodenoscopy demonstrated a giant dilatation of the esophagus, as well as a second esophageal lumen originating 25 cm from the incisors. The “false” lumen of the esophagus was located parallel...... to esophagus, ending blindly in a perforation below the diaphragm. The clinical presentation and the patient’s age make it most likely, that it was a long epiphrenic diverticulum of pulsion type. The patient was treated conservatively, discharged after 10 days and has been followed in our outpatient clinic...... for 8 months, until he died of aggressive pulmonary cancer....

  6. Examination of human diaphragms for trichinosis, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, S E; Ozaki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Kazuo

    1961-11-30

    Trichinella spiralis has been found in three species of mammals born in Hokkaido so it possibly infects other species in Japan, including man. Although examination of human diaphragms in a small series of 149 autopsies in Hiroshima and 37 autopsies in Nagasaki (by digestion, compression, and microscopic sections) failed to reveal any instance of trichinous infection, it is felt that the existence or absence of human trichinosis inJapan can be determined only by examination covering a larger series of autopsies, and performed in various parts of the country. 6 references.

  7. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradoxes from qudit graph states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weidong; Yu, Sixia; Oh, C H

    2013-03-08

    One fascinating way of revealing quantum nonlocality is the all-versus-nothing test due to Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger (GHZ) known as the GHZ paradox. So far genuine multipartite and multilevel GHZ paradoxes are known to exist only in systems containing an odd number of particles. Here we shall construct GHZ paradoxes for an arbitrary number (greater than 3) of particles with the help of qudit graph states on a special kind of graphs, called GHZ graphs. Furthermore, based on the GHZ paradox arising from a GHZ graph, we derive a Bell inequality with two d-outcome observables for each observer, whose maximal violation attained by the corresponding graph state, and a Kochen-Specker inequality testing the quantum contextuality in a state-independent fashion.

  8. Development of large size NC trepanning and horning machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yoshiei; Aono, Fumiaki; Siga, Toshihiko; Sudo, Eiichi; Takasa, Seiju; Fukuyama, Masaaki; Sibukawa, Koichi; Nakagawa, Hirokatu

    2010-01-01

    Due to the recent increase in world energy demand, construction of considerable number of nuclear and fossil power plant has been proceeded and is further planned. High generating capacity plant requires large forged components such as monoblock turbine rotor shafts and the dimensions of them tend to increase. Some of these components have center bore for material test, NDE and other use. In order to cope with the increase in production of these large forgings with center bores, a new trepanning machine, which exclusively bore a deep hole, was developed in JSW taking account of many accumulated experiences and know-how of experts. The machine is the world largest 400t trepanning and horning machine with numerical control and has many advantage in safety, the machining precision, machining efficiency, operability, labor-saving, and energy saving. Furthermore, transfer of the technical skill became easy through concentrated monitoring system based on numerically analysed experts' know-how. (author)

  9. Vacuum Analysis of Scanning Horn of Electron Beam Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprapto; Sukidi; Sukaryono; Setyo Atmojo; Djasiman

    2003-01-01

    Vacuum analysis of scanning horn of electron beam machine (EBM) has been carried out. In EBM, electron beam produced by the electron gun is accelerated by the accelerating tube toward the target via scanning horn and window. To avoid the disturbance of electron beam trajectory in side the EBM, it is necessary to evacuate the EBM. In designing and constructing the scanning horn, vacuum analysis must be carried out to find the ultimate vacuum grade based on the analysis as well as on the test resulted by the vacuum pump. The ultimate vacuum grade is important and affecting the electron trajectory from electron gun to the target. The yield of the vacuum analysis show that the load gas to be evacuated were the outgassing, permeation and leakages where each value were 5.96487x10 -6 Torr liter/sec, 6.32083x10 -7 Torr liter/sec, and 1.3116234x10 -4 Torr liter/sec respectively, so that the total gas load was 1.377587x10 -4 Torr liter/sec. The total conductivity according to test result was 15.769 liter/sec, while the effective pumping rate and maximum vacuum obtained by RD 150 pump were 14.269 Torr liter/sec and 9.65x10 -6 Torr respectively, The vacuum steady state indicated by the test result was 3.5x10 -5 Torr. The pressure of 3.5x10 -5 Torr showed by the test is close to the capability of vacuum pump that is 2x10 -5 Torr. The vacuum test indicated a good result and that there was no leakage along the welding joint. In the latter of installation it considered to be has a pressure of 5x10 -6 Torr, because the aluminum gasket will be used to seal the window flanges and will be evacuated by turbomolecular pump with pumping rate of 500 liter/sec and ultimate vacuum of -10 Torr. (author)

  10. Determination of ventilatory liver movement via radiographic evaluation of diaphragm position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, James M.; Dawson, Laura A.; Kazanjian, Sahira; McGinn, Cornelius; Brock, Kristy K.; Lawrence, Theodore; Haken, Randall ten

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the accuracy of estimation of liver movement inferred by observing diaphragm excursion on radiographic images. Methods and Materials: Eight patients with focal liver cancer had platinum embolization microcoils implanted in their livers during catheterization of the hepatic artery for delivery of regional chemotherapy. These patients underwent fluoroscopy, during which normal breathing movement was recorded on videotape. Movies of breathing movement were digitized, and the relative projected positions of the diaphragm and coils were recorded. For 6 patients, daily radiographs were also acquired during treatment. Retrospective measurements of coil position were taken after the diaphragm was aligned with the superior portion of the liver on digitally reconstructed radiographs. Results: Coil movement of 4.9 to 30.4 mm was observed during normal breathing. Diaphragm position tracked inferior-superior coil displacement accurately (population σ 1.04 mm) throughout the breathing cycle. The range of coil movement was predicted by the range of diaphragm movement with an accuracy of 2.09 mm (σ). The maximum error observed measuring coil movement using diaphragm position was 3.8 mm for a coil 9.8 cm inferior to the diaphragm. However, the distance of the coil from the top of the diaphragm did not correlate significantly with the error in predicting liver excursion. Analysis of daily radiographs showed that the error in predicting coil position using the diaphragm as an alignment landmark was 1.8 mm (σ) in the inferior-superior direction and 2.2 mm in the left-right direction, similar in magnitude to the inherent uncertainty in alignment. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the range of ventilatory movement of different locations within the liver is predicted by diaphragm position to an accuracy that matches or exceeds existing systems for ventilatory tracking. This suggests that the diaphragm is an acceptable anatomic landmark for radiographic

  11. A new horned dinosaur reveals convergent evolution in cranial ornamentation in Ceratopsidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Caleb M; Henderson, Donald M

    2015-06-15

    Ceratopsid (horned) dinosaurs are an iconic group of large-bodied, quadrupedal, herbivorous dinosaurs that evolved in the Late Cretaceous and were largely restricted to western North America [1-5]. Ceratopsids are easily recognized by their cranial ornamentation in the form of nasal and postorbital horns and frill (capped by epiossifications); these structures show high morphological disparity and also represent the largest cranial display structures known to have evolved [2, 4]. Despite their restricted occurrence in time and space, this group has one of the best fossil records within Dinosauria, showing a rapid diversification in horn and frill morphology [1]. Here a new genus and species of chasmosaurine ceratopsid is described based on a nearly complete and three-dimensionally preserved cranium recovered from the uppermost St. Mary River Formation (Maastrichtian) of southwestern Alberta. Regaliceratops peterhewsi gen. et sp. nov. exhibits many unique characters of the frill and is characterized by a large nasal horncore, small postorbital horncores, and massive parietal epiossifications. Cranial morphology, particularly the epiossifications, suggests close affinity with the late Campanian/early Maastrichian taxon Anchiceratops, as well as with the late Maastrichtian taxon Triceratops. A median epiparietal necessitates a reassessment of epiossification homology and results in a more resolved phylogeny. Most surprisingly, Regaliceratops exhibits a suite of cranial ornamentations that are superficially similar to Campanian centrosaurines, indicating both exploration of novel display morphospace in Chasmosaurinae, especially Maastrichtian forms, and convergent evolution in horn morphology with the recently extinct Centrosaurinae. This marks the first time that evolutionary convergence in horn-like display structures has been demonstrated between dinosaur clades, similar to those seen in fossil and extant mammals [6]. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Experimental Characterization of Piezoelectric Radial Field Diaphragms for Fluidic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, R. G.; Kavli, S. E.; Thomas, R. A., Jr.; Darji, K. J.; Mossi, K. M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA has recently developed a new piezoelectric actuator, the Radial Field Diaphragm or RFD. This actuator uses a radially-directed electric field to generate concentric out-of-plane (Z-axis) motion that allows this packaged device to be used as a pump or valve diaphragm. In order to efficiently use this new active device, experimental determination of pressure, flow rate, mechanical work, power consumption and overall efficiency needs to be determined by actually building a pump. However, without an optimized pump design, it is difficult to assess the quality of the data, as these results are inherent to the actual pump. Hence, separate experiments must be conducted in order to generate independent results to help guide the design criteria and pump quality. This paper focuses on the experiments used to generate the RFD's operational parameters and then compares these results to the experimentally determined results of several types of ball pumps. Also discussed are how errors are inherently introduced into the experiments, the pump design, experimental hardware and their effects on the overall system efficiency.

  13. Scattering study at free air ionization chamber diaphragm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Alexandre Lo Bianco dos

    2011-01-01

    The maim of this work consisted in the assessment of the correction factor for air kerma, due to scattered radiation in the diaphragm of the free-air ionization chamber model 481. LNMRl measurements were made to acquire x-ray spectra corresponding to the Qualities RQR-M, described in IEC 61627 standards (2005). These spectra were used as input data in the MC simulations. The operational range of energy spectra provide up to 35 keV. This energy range is typically used in diagnostic radiology, although there is not primary standard for air kerma. The determination of this factor is a fundamental process in the primary standardization of the air kerma. These factors were obtained by computer simulation using the Penelope code. The results are k RQR-M1 =0,9946, k RQR -M2 =0,9932, k RQR-M3 =0,9978 and k RQR-M4 =0,9885; with uncertainties of 0,007 and coverage factor equal to 2. lt can be concluded that, with respect to the diaphragm, the chamber can be used in the primary standard of air kerma. (author)

  14. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Nishida

    Full Text Available The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  15. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Kazuhiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Taniguchi, Wataru; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  16. Multisetting Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradoxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weidong; Yu, Sixia; Oh, C. H.

    2017-01-01

    The Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) paradox provides an all-versus-nothing test for the quantum nonlocality. In most of the GHZ paradoxes known so far each observer is allowed to measure only two alternative observables. Here we present a general construction for GHZ paradoxes in which each observer measures more than two observables given that the system is prepared in the n -qudit GHZ state. By doing so we are able to construct a multisetting GHZ paradox for the n -qubit GHZ state, with n being arbitrary, which is genuine n -partite; i.e., no GHZ paradox exists when restricted to a subset of a number of observers for a given set of Mermin observables. Our result fills up the gap of the absence of a genuine GHZ paradox for the GHZ state of an even number of qubits, especially the four-qubit GHZ state as used in GHZ's original proposal.

  17. On the origin of Ammon's horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, I

    2014-10-01

    Greek and Roman worship of their gods and myths go back to Ancient Egyptian times. Images engraved in Greco-Roman coinage range from references to the assassination of Caesar and legendary stories like the arrival of a snake shaped demi-god Aesculapius to save the Romans from the plague, to invocations of major deities including Apollo the physician or Ammon the protector. Depicted with the horns of a ram, Ammon was adopted by the Greeks as an epithet of Zeus and later incorporated by the Romans as Jupiter. References to the cult of Ammon appear on tetradrachms minted for Alexander The Great and on provincial Roman coins struck under Claudius. It is thrilling to hold a coin depicting Marcus Aurelius with Salus on the reverse and think that it could have been handed to Galen in payment for his services. However, it is rare to find figures other than rulers on coins and the physician of Pergamum is no exception. Inspired by the Renaissance school of Padua, French anatomists in the Enlightenment (Garengeot in 1742 and Flurant in 1752) continued reviving ancient myths and named the curve-shaped-inner portion of the temporal lobe Ammon's horn. Outstanding scholars who studied this primitive structure of the brain included Lorente de Nó and his mentor Cajal, whose portrait appeared on fifty-pesetas notes issued in 1935. As primary sources of great archaeological and artistic value, Greco-Roman coins provide information about the origins of the myths and gods of classical antiquity and continue to inspire the arts and sciences to this day. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of tensile forces on the deflection of circular diaphragms in pressure sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorthuyzen, J.A.; Bergveld, Piet

    1984-01-01

    It is known that the deflection of a diaphragm is determined by two mechanisms, bending moments or bending stress and tensile forces or membrane stress. Usually the influence of tensile forces is not taken into account when calculating the mechanical properties of thin diaphragms. Hence the

  19. Free radicals in hypoxic rat diaphragm contractility: no role for xanthine oxidase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunks, L.M.A.; Machiels, H.A.; Abreu, R.A. de; Zhu, X.; Heijden, E. van der; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2001-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that hypoxia enhances the generation of oxidants. Little is known about the role of free radicals in contractility of the rat diaphragm during hypoxia. We hypothesized that antioxidants improve contractility of the hypoxic rat diaphragm and that xanthine oxidase (XO) is an

  20. Diffusivity measurements in some organic solvents by a gas-liquid diaphragm cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, R.J.; Littel, R.J.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1992-01-01

    A diaphragm cell has been developed for the measurement of diffusion coefficients of gases In liquids. The diaphragm cell is operated batchwise with respect to both gas and liquid phases, and the diffusion process Is followed by means of the gas pressure decrease which is recorded by means of a

  1. Diffusivity Measurements in Some Organic Solvents by a Gas-Liquid Diaphragm Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, Rob J.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1992-01-01

    A diaphragm cell has been developed for the measurement of diffusion coefficients of gases in liquids. The diaphragm cell is operated batchwise with respect to both gas and liquid phases, and the diffusion process is followed by means of the gas pressure decrease which is recorded by means of a

  2. Design of calandria-end shield support diaphragm of Narora Atomic Power Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S K; Nanda Kumar, S; Kakodkar, A

    1975-01-01

    The calandria-end shield diaphragm is one of the important components in Narora Atomic Power Plant. The support diaphragm is designed against elastic and plastic instability failures. Method of analysis for elastic and plastic instability is discussed for normal loading, pipe rupture loading, and earthquake loading.

  3. Design of calandria-end shield support diaphragm of Narora Atomic Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.K.; Nanda Kumar, S.; Kakodkar, A.

    1975-01-01

    The calandria-end shield diaphragm is one of the important components in Narora Atomic Power Plant. The support diaphragm is designed against elastic and plastic instability failures. Method of analysis for elastic and plastic instability is discussed for normal loading, pipe rupture loading and earthquake loading. (author)

  4. EST and microarray analysis of horn development in Onthophagus beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Zuojian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of novel traits and their subsequent diversification represent central themes in evo-devo and evolutionary ecology. Here we explore the genetic and genomic basis of a class of traits that is both novel and highly diverse, in a group of organisms that is ecologically complex and experimentally tractable: horned beetles. Results We developed two high quality, normalized cDNA libraries for larval and pupal Onthophagus taurus and sequenced 3,488 ESTs that assembled into 451 contigs and 2,330 singletons. We present the annotation and a comparative analysis of the conservation of the sequences. Microarrays developed from the combined libraries were then used to contrast the transcriptome of developing primordia of head horns, prothoracic horns, and legs. Our experiments identify a first comprehensive list of candidate genes for the evolution and diversification of beetle horns. We find that developing horns and legs show many similarities as well as important differences in their transcription profiles, suggesting that the origin of horns was mediated partly, but not entirely, by the recruitment of genes involved in the formation of more traditional appendages such as legs. Furthermore, we find that horns developing from the head and prothorax differ in their transcription profiles to a degree that suggests that head and prothoracic horns are not serial homologs, but instead may have evolved independently from each other. Conclusion We have laid the foundation for a systematic analysis of the genetic basis of horned beetle development and diversification with the potential to contribute significantly to several major frontiers in evolutionary developmental biology.

  5. Entanglement Classification of extended Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-Symmetric States

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Eylee; Park, DaeKil

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze entanglement classification of extended Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-symmetric states $\\rho^{ES}$, which is parametrized by four real parameters $x$, $y_1$, $y_2$ and $y_3$. The condition for separable states of $\\rho^{ES}$ is analytically derived. The higher classes such as bi-separable, W, and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger classes are roughly classified by making use of the class-specific optimal witnesses or map from the extended Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger symmetry t...

  6. The diaphragms of fenestrated endothelia: gatekeepers of vascular permeability and blood composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Radu V; Tse, Dan; Deharvengt, Sophie J; Smits, Nicole C; Xu, Yan; Luciano, Marcus R; McGarry, Caitlin L; Buitendijk, Maarten; Nemani, Krishnamurthy V; Elgueta, Raul; Kobayashi, Takashi; Shipman, Samantha L; Moodie, Karen L; Daghlian, Charles P; Ernst, Patricia A; Lee, Hong-Kee; Suriawinata, Arief A; Schned, Alan R; Longnecker, Daniel S; Fiering, Steven N; Noelle, Randolph J; Gimi, Barjor; Shworak, Nicholas W; Carrière, Catherine

    2012-12-11

    Fenestral and stomatal diaphragms are endothelial subcellular structures of unknown function that form on organelles implicated in vascular permeability: fenestrae, transendothelial channels, and caveolae. PV1 protein is required for diaphragm formation in vitro. Here, we report that deletion of the PV1-encoding Plvap gene in mice results in the absence of diaphragms and decreased survival. Loss of diaphragms did not affect the fenestrae and transendothelial channels formation but disrupted the barrier function of fenestrated capillaries, causing a major leak of plasma proteins. This disruption results in early death of animals due to severe noninflammatory protein-losing enteropathy. Deletion of PV1 in endothelium, but not in the hematopoietic compartment, recapitulates the phenotype of global PV1 deletion, whereas endothelial reconstitution of PV1 rescues the phenotype. Taken together, these data provide genetic evidence for the critical role of the diaphragms in fenestrated capillaries in the maintenance of blood composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anatomic connections of the diaphragm influence of respiration on the body system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordoni B

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bruno Bordoni,1 Emiliano Zanier2 1Rehabilitation Cardiology Institute of Hospitalization and Care with Scientific Address, S Maria Nascente Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation, 2EdiAcademy, Milano, Italy Abstract: The article explains the scientific reasons for the diaphragm muscle being an important crossroads for information involving the entire body. The diaphragm muscle extends from the trigeminal system to the pelvic floor, passing from the thoracic diaphragm to the floor of the mouth. Like many structures in the human body, the diaphragm muscle has more than one function, and has links throughout the body, and provides the network necessary for breathing. To assess and treat this muscle effectively, it is necessary to be aware of its anatomic, fascial, and neurologic complexity in the control of breathing. The patient is never a symptom localized, but a system that adapts to a corporeal dysfunction. Keywords: diaphragm, fascia, phrenic nerve, vagus nerve, pelvis

  8. Development of the superconducting gravimeter using a new type of diaphragm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, H., E-mail: ikeda@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp [Research Facility Center for Science and Technology, Cryogenics Division, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Aoyama, Y.; Hayakawa, H.; Doi, K.; Shibuya, K. [National Institute of Polar Research, Midori-Machi, Tchikawa-shi, Tokyo 190-8518 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    During the period from December 2009 to February 2010, a new superconducting gravimeter with a cryocooler was installed to replace the former one at Syowa Station on the Antarctica. It has a high sensitivity of one nano-gal enabling measurement inside the Earth for the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP network). A new type of diaphragm was confirmed to well isolate the vibration from refrigerator cold-head and to prevent the solid air contamination perfectly. The Dewar refrigeration system consists of a newly designed Dewar interfaced with a cryocooler capable of obtaining temperatures below the vaporization point of liquid helium. The system is based on the Coolpower 0.1 W, 4.2 K cryocooler manufactured by Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. Real time remote monitoring system from Japan was also established. The recent large earthquake in the Republic of Chile was observed at Syowa Station with the superconducting gravimeter.

  9. Development of the superconducting gravimeter using a new type of diaphragm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, H.; Aoyama, Y.; Hayakawa, H.; Doi, K.; Shibuya, K.

    2011-01-01

    During the period from December 2009 to February 2010, a new superconducting gravimeter with a cryocooler was installed to replace the former one at Syowa Station on the Antarctica. It has a high sensitivity of one nano-gal enabling measurement inside the Earth for the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP network). A new type of diaphragm was confirmed to well isolate the vibration from refrigerator cold-head and to prevent the solid air contamination perfectly. The Dewar refrigeration system consists of a newly designed Dewar interfaced with a cryocooler capable of obtaining temperatures below the vaporization point of liquid helium. The system is based on the Coolpower 0.1 W, 4.2 K cryocooler manufactured by Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. Real time remote monitoring system from Japan was also established. The recent large earthquake in the Republic of Chile was observed at Syowa Station with the superconducting gravimeter.

  10. Extra Lobes of Liver and Congenital Anomalies of Diaphragm in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Zhurylo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature data on hepatic congenital anomalies in children are summarized in this article. Three clinical observations of transposition of extra lobe of the liver (ELL into the thoracic cavity in children were analyzed. The true diaphragmatic hernia was found in all cases. Clinical manifestations of this disease depend on the severity of the compression of mediastinum organs. Indications for surgical correction were determined individually. ELL move into the abdominal cavity, excision of the hernia sac and alloplasty of the diaphragmatic defect were performed for one patient. Possible mechanisms for the formation of these complex congenital malformations were discussed based on the comparison of clinical data with the stages of embryogenesis liver, diaphragm and heart.

  11. Rostral horn evolution among agamid lizards of the genus ceratophora endemic to Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte II, James A.; Macey, J. Robert; Pethiyagoda, Rohan; Larson, Allan

    2001-07-10

    The first phylogenetic hypothesis for the Sri Lankan agamid lizard genus Ceratophora is presented based on 1670 aligned base positions (472 parsimony informative) of mitochondrial DNA sequences, representing coding regions for eight tRNAs, ND2, and portions of ND1 and COI. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple origins and possibly losses of rostral horns in the evolutionary history of Ceratophora. Our data suggest a middle Miocene origin of Ceratophora with the most recent branching of recognized species occurring at the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. Haplotype divergence suggests that an outgroup species, Lyriocephalus scutatus, dates at least to the Pliocene. These phylogenetic results provide a framework for comparative studies of the behavioral ecological importance of horn evolution in this group.

  12. Revisiting the Battle of the Little Big Horn

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burns, Matthew

    2000-01-01

    The Battle of the Little Big Horn has captured the interest of historians, scholars, and military enthusiasts since the day that over 200 United States soldiers under General George Armstrong Custer's...

  13. Cutaneous horn and thermal keratosis in erythema AB igne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sood Apra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 46 - year - old Kashmiri lady developed erythema ab igne on both legs. She subsequently developed multiple keratoses and a cutaneous horn in the involved skin. An uncommon association of these three clinical conditions is being presented.

  14. Ultra-wideband horn antenna with abrupt radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    An ultra-wideband horn antenna transmits and receives impulse waveforms for short-range radars and impulse time-of flight systems. The antenna reduces or eliminates various sources of close-in radar clutter, including pulse dispersion and ringing, sidelobe clutter, and feedline coupling into the antenna. Dispersion is minimized with an abrupt launch point radiator element; sidelobe and feedline coupling are minimized by recessing the radiator into a metallic horn. Low frequency cut-off associated with a horn is extended by configuring the radiator drive impedance to approach a short circuit at low frequencies. A tapered feed plate connects at one end to a feedline, and at the other end to a launcher plate which is mounted to an inside wall of the horn. The launcher plate and feed plate join at an abrupt edge which forms the single launch point of the antenna.

  15. Tree dimension in verification of constrained Horn clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we show how the notion of tree dimension can be used in the verification of constrained Horn clauses (CHCs). The dimension of a tree is a numerical measure of its branching complexity and the concept here applies to Horn clause derivation trees. Derivation trees of dimension zero c...... algorithms using these constructions to decompose a CHC verification problem. One variation of this decomposition considers derivations of successively increasing dimension. The paper includes descriptions of implementations and experimental results....

  16. Maximal violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for four-level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Libin; Chen Jingling; Chen Shigang

    2004-01-01

    Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for bipartite systems of four dimensions is studied in detail by employing the unbiased eight-port beam splitters measurements. The uniform formulas for the maximum and minimum values of this inequality for such measurements are obtained. Based on these formulas, we show that an optimal nonmaximally entangled state is about 6% more resistant to noise than the maximally entangled one. We also give the optimal state and the optimal angles which are important for experimental realization

  17. Generation and discrimination of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states using dipole-induced transparency in a cavity-waveguide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Jun; Qian, Yong; Yang, Tao; Feng, Xun-Li; Gong, Shang-Qing

    2007-01-01

    We propose an efficient scheme to build an arbitrary multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and discriminate all the universal Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states using parity measurement based on dipole-induced transparency in a cavity-waveguide system. A prominent advantage is that initial entangled states remain after nondetective identification and they can be used for successive tasks. We analyze the performance and possible errors of the required single-qubit rotations and emphasize that the scheme is reliable and can satisfy the current experimental technology

  18. Diaphragm motion quantification in megavoltage cone-beam CT projection images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingqing; Siochi, R Alfredo

    2010-05-01

    To quantify diaphragm motion in megavoltage (MV) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections. User identified ipsilateral hemidiaphragm apex (IHDA) positions in two full exhale and inhale frames were used to create bounding rectangles in all other frames of a CBCT scan. The bounding rectangle was enlarged to create a region of interest (ROI). ROI pixels were associated with a cost function: The product of image gradients and a gradient direction matching function for an ideal hemidiaphragm determined from 40 training sets. A dynamic Hough transform (DHT) models a hemidiaphragm as a contour made of two parabola segments with a common vertex (the IHDA). The images within the ROIs are transformed into Hough space where a contour's Hough value is the sum of the cost function over all contour pixels. Dynamic programming finds the optimal trajectory of the common vertex in Hough space subject to motion constraints between frames, and an active contour model further refines the result. Interpolated ray tracing converts the positions to room coordinates. Root-mean-square (RMS) distances between these positions and those resulting from an expert's identification of the IHDA were determined for 21 Siemens MV CBCT scans. Computation time on a 2.66 GHz CPU was 30 s. The average craniocaudal RMS error was 1.38 +/- 0.67 mm. While much larger errors occurred in a few near-sagittal frames on one patient's scans, adjustments to algorithm constraints corrected them. The DHT based algorithm can compute IHDA trajectories immediately prior to radiation therapy on a daily basis using localization MVCBCT projection data. This has potential for calibrating external motion surrogates against diaphragm motion.

  19. Investigation of the Durability of a Diaphragm for a Total Artificial Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, Felix; Rossbroich, Ralf; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2016-10-01

    One of the most critical components regarding the durability of the ReinHeart total artificial heart (TAH) is its biocompatible diaphragm, which separates the drive unit from the ventricles. Hence, a durability tester was designed to investigate its required 5-year lifetime. The aim of this study was to prove the validity of accelerated testing of the polyurethane diaphragm. The durability tester allows simultaneous testing of 12 diaphragms and mimics physiological conditions. To accelerate the time of testing, it operates with an increased speed at a frequency of 8 Hz. To prove the correctness of this acceleration, a servo-hydraulic testing machine was used to study the effect of different frequencies and their corresponding loads. Thereby the viscoelastic behavior of the polyurethane was investigated. Additionally, high-speed video measurements were performed. The force against frequency and the high-speed video measurements showed constant behavior. In the range of 1-10 Hz, the maximum resulting forces varied by 3%, and the diaphragm movement was identical. Frequencies below 10 Hz allow a valid statement of the diaphragm's mechanical durability. Viscoelasticity of the polyurethane in the considered frequency-range is negligible. The accelerated durability test is applicable to polyurethane diaphragms, and the results are applicable to TAH use. The reliability of the diaphragm for a lifetime of 5 years was found to be 80% with a confidence of 62%. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Restoration of the Golden Horn Estuary (Halic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Heather M; Kanat, Gurdal; Aydinol Turkdogan, F Ilter

    2009-12-01

    Restoration of the iconic Golden Horn Estuary in Istanbul, Turkey was a substantial political, logistical, ecological, and social challenge. Forty years of uncontrolled industrial and urban growth resulted in thick layers of anoxic sediment, toxic bacteria, strong hydrogen sulfide odor, and ecologically unlivable conditions. The major components of restoration, spanning two decades, have included (1) demolition and relocation of industries and homes along the shore, (2) creation of wastewater infrastructure, (3) removal of anoxic sludge from the estuary, (4) removal of a floating bridge that impeded circulation, and (5) creation of cultural and social facilities. Although Turkey is not known as an environmental leader in pollution control, the sum of these efforts was largely successful in revitalizing the area through dramatic water quality improvement. Consequently, the estuary is once again inhabitable for aquatic life as well as amenable to local resource users and foreign visitors, and Istanbul has regained a lost sense of cultural identity. This paper focuses on literature review and personal interviews to discuss the causes of degradation, solutions employed to rehabilitate the estuary, and subsequent physicochemical, ecological, and social changes.

  1. Quantification of Diaphragm Mechanics in Pompe Disease Using Dynamic 3D MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Mogalle

    Full Text Available Diaphragm weakness is the main reason for respiratory dysfunction in patients with Pompe disease, a progressive metabolic myopathy affecting respiratory and limb-girdle muscles. Since respiratory failure is the major cause of death among adult patients, early identification of respiratory muscle involvement is necessary to initiate treatment in time and possibly prevent irreversible damage. In this paper we investigate the suitability of dynamic MR imaging in combination with state-of-the-art image analysis methods to assess respiratory muscle weakness.The proposed methodology relies on image registration and lung surface extraction to quantify lung kinematics during breathing. This allows for the extraction of geometry and motion features of the lung that characterize the independent contribution of the diaphragm and the thoracic muscles to the respiratory cycle.Results in 16 3D+t MRI scans (10 Pompe patients and 6 controls of a slow expiratory maneuver show that kinematic analysis from dynamic 3D images reveals important additional information about diaphragm mechanics and respiratory muscle involvement when compared to conventional pulmonary function tests. Pompe patients with severely reduced pulmonary function showed severe diaphragm weakness presented by minimal motion of the diaphragm. In patients with moderately reduced pulmonary function, cranial displacement of posterior diaphragm parts was reduced and the diaphragm dome was oriented more horizontally at full inspiration compared to healthy controls.Dynamic 3D MRI provides data for analyzing the contribution of both diaphragm and thoracic muscles independently. The proposed image analysis method has the potential to detect less severe diaphragm weakness and could thus be used to determine the optimal start of treatment in adult patients with Pompe disease in prospect of increased treatment response.

  2. Effect of Elastase-induced Emphysema on the Force-generating Ability of the Diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supinski, Gerald S.; Kelsen, Steven G.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of emphysema on the ability of the diaphragm to generate force was examined in costal diaphragm muscle strips from 10 Golden hamsters killed 18 mo after intratracheal injection of pancreatic elastase in a dose producing hyperinflation (mean total lung capacity [TLC] = 163% of control) and generalized panacinar emphysema. 13 saline-injected normal animals served as controls. The time course of isometric tension and the effect of alterations in muscle fiber and sarcomere length on the isometric tension (T) generated in response to tetanizing electrical stimuli (length-tension [L-T] relationship) were examined. Elastase administration caused an increase in diaphragm muscle thickness and reduction in the length of costal diaphragm muscle fibers measured in situ. Emphysema significantly increased the maximum tetanic tension as a result of hypertrophy. Maximal tension corrected for increases in muscle cross-sectional area (T/cm2), however, was the same in emphysematous (E) and control (C) animals. Emphysema also shifted the muscle fiber L-T curve of the diaphragm but not of a control muscle, the soleus, toward shorter lengths. In contrast to the effects of E on the diaphragm muscle fiber L-T curve, the sarcomere L-T curve was the same in E and C. Since the length at which tension was maximal correlated closely with sarcomere number (r = 0.94; P < 0.001) reduction in the number of sarcomeres in series in muscles from emphysematous animals appeared to explain the shift in the muscle fiber L-T curve. We conclude that in elastase-induced emphysema adaptive changes both in diaphragm cross-sectional area and sarcomere number augment the force-generating ability of the diaphragm. We speculate that changes in sarcomere number compensate for alterations in muscle fiber length resulting from chronic hyperinflation of the thorax, while diaphragmatic muscle hypertrophy represents a response to changes in respiratory load and/or diaphragm configuration (La

  3. The Fat-Dachsous signaling pathway regulates growth of horns in Trypoxylus dichotomus, but does not affect horn allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hust, James; Lavine, Mark D; Worthington, Amy M; Zinna, Robert; Gotoh, Hiroki; Niimi, T; Lavine, Laura

    Males of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, possess exaggerated head and thoracic horns that scale dramatically out of proportion to body size. While studies of insulin signaling suggest that this pathway regulates nutrition-dependent growth including exaggerated horns, what regulates disproportionate growth has yet to be identified. The Fat signaling pathway is a potential candidate for regulating disproportionate growth of sexually-selected traits, a hypothesis we advanced in a previous paper (Gotoh et al., 2015). To investigate the role of Fat signaling in the growth and scaling of the sexually dimorphic, condition-dependent traits of the in the Asian rhinoceros beetle T. dichotomus, we used RNA interference to knock down expression of fat and its co-receptor dachsous. Knockdown of fat, and to a lesser degree dachsous, caused shortening and widening of appendages, including the head and thoracic horns. However, scaling of horns to body size was not affected. Our results show that Fat signaling regulates horn growth in T. dichotomus as it does in appendage growth in other insects. However, we provide evidence that Fat signaling does not mediate the disproportionate, positive allometric growth of horns in T. dichotomus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cough induced rib fracture, rupture of the diaphragm and abdominal herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurl Peter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cough can be associated with many complications. In this article, we present a 59 year old male patient with a very rare combination of a cough related stress fracture of the ninth rib, a traumatic rupture of the diaphragm, and an abdominal wall herniation. The hernia was repaired through surgical treatment without bowel resection, the diaphragm and the internal and oblique abdominal muscle were adapted, and the abdomen was reinforced with a prolene net. Although each individual injury is well documented in the literature, the combination of rib fracture, abdominal herniation and diaphragm rupture has not been reported.

  5. Internally-cooled centrifugal compressor with cooling jacket formed in the diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James J.; Lerche, Andrew H.; Moreland, Brian S.

    2014-08-26

    An internally-cooled centrifugal compressor having a shaped casing and a diaphragm disposed within the shaped casing having a gas side and a coolant side so that heat from a gas flowing though the gas side is extracted via the coolant side. An impeller disposed within the diaphragm has a stage inlet on one side and a stage outlet for delivering a pressurized gas to a downstream connection. The coolant side of the diaphragm includes at least one passageway for directing a coolant in a substantially counter-flow direction from the flow of gas through the gas side.

  6. Diaphragm Muscle Weakness Following Acute Sustained Hypoxic Stress in the Mouse Is Prevented by Pretreatment with N-Acetyl Cysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. O’Leary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen deficit (hypoxia is a major feature of cardiorespiratory diseases characterized by diaphragm dysfunction, yet the putative role of hypoxic stress as a driver of diaphragm dysfunction is understudied. We explored the cellular and functional consequences of sustained hypoxic stress in a mouse model. Adult male mice were exposed to 8 hours of normoxia, or hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.10 with or without antioxidant pretreatment (N-acetyl cysteine, 200 mg/kg i.p.. Ventilation and metabolism were measured. Diaphragm muscle contractile function, myofibre size and distribution, gene expression, protein signalling cascades, and oxidative stress (TBARS were determined. Hypoxia caused pronounced diaphragm muscle weakness, unrelated to increased respiratory muscle work. Hypoxia increased diaphragm HIF-1α protein content and activated MAPK, mTOR, Akt, and FoxO3a signalling pathways, largely favouring protein synthesis. Hypoxia increased diaphragm lipid peroxidation, indicative of oxidative stress. FoxO3 and MuRF-1 gene expression were increased. Diaphragm 20S proteasome activity and muscle fibre size and distribution were unaffected by acute hypoxia. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine substantially enhanced cell survival signalling, prevented hypoxia-induced diaphragm oxidative stress, and prevented hypoxia-induced diaphragm dysfunction. Hypoxia is a potent driver of diaphragm weakness, causing myofibre dysfunction without attendant atrophy. N-acetyl cysteine protects the hypoxic diaphragm and may have application as a potential adjunctive therapy.

  7. Diaphragm flange and method for lowering particle beam impedance at connected beam tubes of a particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biallas, George Herman

    2017-07-04

    A diaphragm flange for connecting the tubes in a particle accelerator while minimizing beamline impedance. The diaphragm flange includes an outer flange and a thin diaphragm integral with the outer flange. Bolt holes in the outer flange provide a means for bolting the diaphragm flange to an adjacent flange or beam tube having a mating bolt-hole pattern. The diaphragm flange includes a first surface for connection to the tube of a particle accelerator beamline and a second surface for connection to a CF flange. The second surface includes a recessed surface therein and a knife-edge on the recessed surface. The diaphragm includes a thickness that enables flexing of the integral diaphragm during assembly of beamline components. The knife-edge enables compression of a soft metal gasket to provide a leak-tight seal.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Diaphragm Wall Model Executed in Poznań Clay Formation Applying Selected Fem Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Superczyńska M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of numerical calculations of a diaphragm wall model executed in Poznań clay formation. Two selected FEM codes were applied, Plaxis and Abaqus. Geological description of Poznań clay formation in Poland as well as geotechnical conditions on construction site in Warsaw city area were presented. The constitutive models of clay implemented both in Plaxis and Abaqus were discussed. The parameters of the Poznań clay constitutive models were assumed based on authors’ experimental tests. The results of numerical analysis were compared taking into account the measured values of horizontal displacements.

  9. Piracy around the Horn of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Ho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Piracy around the Horn of Africa has risen to a level serious enough for the international community to take concerted action to secure an international sea lane. However, the efforts so far have been initiated mainly by the international community while regional efforts are only just beginning. In the short term, more action will have to be taken at the operational level like dispatching more ships and integrating the operations of ships already deployed to the area. In the longer term, the root causes of piracy and the grievances of the Somali people have to be addressed. In particular, there is a need to restore law and order in Somalia by supporting moderate leaders in their attempts to create a representative government.La piraterie au large de la Corne de l’Afrique a augmenté à un degré tel que la communauté internationale a décidé d’agir de concert pour sécuriser cette voie maritime. Néanmoins, si les efforts entrepris sont principalement ceux de la communauté internationale, les démarches régionales ne sont qu’à leur commencement. Dans le court terme, davantage d’initiatives devront être prises au niveau opérationnel, comme l’envoi de bateaux supplémentaires et la coordination des actions menées. Dans le plus long terme, il faudra s’attaquer aux racines de la piraterie et aux difficultés auxquelles doivent faire face les Somaliens. Il s’agit en particulier de restaurer l’état de droit en supportant les chefs de file modérés dans leur tentative de créer un gouvernement représentatif.

  10. Investigation into the behaviour of concrete anchored diaphragm walls under earthquake condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, H. R.; Rahaii, A. R.

    2003-01-01

    Diaphragm walls are frequently used in civil Engineering projects. Considering the variety and important volume of consumed materials (concrete, anchors and soil), one of the important factors for design and construction of these walls, are their behaviour under different executive, and loading conditions. In this paper, various models of concrete diaphragms with different number of anchors and soil parameters under static and dynamic loading have been investigated using finite element method with nonlinear models. Results including the internal forces in diaphragm walls, variation of forces in the anchors, shape of the sliding surface and variation of pressure in soil are obtained and compared. An experimental tool with suitable measurement systems for determining the pressure and internal forces was designed and realised. Also with similitude and dimensional analyses, diaphragms with different number of anchors were built and set on the shaking table test and experimented under different accelograms. Finally results of nonlinear dynamic analysis were compared with experimental results

  11. Development of a Hemispherical Metal Diaphragm for Single-Cycle Liquid-Metal Positive Expulsion Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorland, Sol

    1965-01-01

    This report presents experimental results pertaining to the design and development of a metallic expulsion diaphragm for single-cycle positive expulsion of high-temperature liquid in an agravity condition...

  12. Documentation of diaphragmal paralysis with digital subtraction techniques. Dokumentation von Zwerchfellparesen mit digitaler Subtraktionstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggershauser, T. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkranke); Buente, E. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkranke); Kohz, P. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkranke); Fink, U. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkranke)

    1992-01-01

    The causative factors for a paresis of the diaphragm are primarily subsequent to operations on lesions of the phrenic nerve or on such mediastinal tumors as lyphomas which result in compression or infiltration of the nerves. (orig.)

  13. Overview of recent focussing horns for the BNL neutrino program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.; Leonhardt, W.; Monaghan, R.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the two magnetic focussing horn systems recently constructed, installed, and operated in the fast extracted beam for the neutrino physics program at the AGS. These horn systems consist of a number of interrelated subsystems which operate together to produce a very intense, parallel beam of pions. The strong magnetic focussing is generated by pulsing the coaxial structures of the horns with currents of up to 300kA during the 2.5 μsec proton beam spill. Because of their high levels of induced radioactivity, these horns had to be designed for reliability and ease in installation. Both horn systems built had the same overall features, but the broad band system focussed pions over as large a momentum band as possible to maximize the neutrino flux. The narrow band systems restricted the momentum to +-15% of 3 GeV/c to provide kinematic constraints for the experiment. A synopsis of the design concepts and critical engineering requirements is given. Detailed discussion of the subsystems follows in the subsequent papers

  14. Reinforcement of the pelvic diaphragm using a purse-string suture in dogs: description of technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Moraes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recurrence of perineal hernias is frequent, and is associated to poor identification of anatomical structures during surgery, inadequate suture placement, and failure of physical support of the pelvic diaphragm after surgical reconstruction. The objective of this work is to describe a novel surgical technique for reinforcement of the pelvic diaphragm after performing the internal obturator transposition technique in dogs with perineal hernia.

  15. Study on the onset of DC diaphragm glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Xinglong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongmei; Ren, Hongxia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the DC diaphragm glow discharge (DGD) occurred around the small hole on quartz tube between two submersed graphite electrodes and the onset of DGD was systematically investigated. It was found that critical voltage (V D ) decreased with the increasing conductivity, and then maintained at about 620 V. When the hole diameter increased from 1.0 mm to 2.5 mm, H 2 O 2 formation and AO discoloration in anolyte increased with the increase of the hole diameter. In addition, the effect of electrolyte constituents on H 2 O 2 formation and AO discoloration in anolyte induced by DGD was also studied. The concentration of H 2 O 2 and AO discoloration in anolyte was close in inert electrolyte such as Na 2 SO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 solution. The concentration of H 2 O 2 and AO discoloration rate in Na 2 CO 3 and NaAc solution was lower than those in Na 2 SO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 solution, due to their capture ability for ·OH. However, NaCl showed enhancing effect on AO discoloration, although it consumed a certain amount of H 2 O 2 . The energy efficiencies of AO discoloration and H 2 O 2 formation were also compared with those of other DGD reactor.

  16. Wind Farm Wake: The Horns Rev Photo Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Elouan Réthoré

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine the nowadays well-known wind farm wake photographs taken on 12 February 2008 at the offshore Horns Rev 1 wind farm. The meteorological conditions are described from observations from several satellite sensors quantifying clouds, surface wind vectors and sea surface temperature as well as ground-based information at and near the wind farm, including Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA data. The SCADA data reveal that the case of fog formation occurred 12 February 2008 on the 10:10 UTC. The fog formation is due to very special atmospheric conditions where a layer of cold humid air above a warmer sea surface re-condensates to fog in the wake of the turbines. The process is fed by warm humid air up-drafted from below in the counter-rotating swirl generated by the clock-wise rotating rotors. The condensation appears to take place primarily in the wake regions with relatively high axial velocities and high turbulent kinetic energy. The wind speed is near cut-in and most turbines produce very little power. The rotational pattern of spiraling bands produces the large-scale structure of the wake fog.

  17. Numerical investigation on vibration characteristics of a micro-speaker diaphragm considering thermoforming effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeong Min; Park, Ke Un [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Micro-speaker diaphragms play an important role in generating desired sound responses, and are designed to have thin membrane shapes for flexibility in the axial direction. The micro-speaker diaphragms are formed from thin polymer film through the thermoforming process, in which local thickness reductions occur due to strain localization. This thickness reduction results in a change in vibration characteristics of the diaphragm and different sound responses from that of the original design. In this study, the effect of this thickness change in the diaphragm on its vibration characteristics is numerically investigated by coupling thermoforming simulation, structural analysis and modal analysis. Thus, the thickness change in the diaphragm is calculated from the thermoforming simulation, and reflected in the further structural and modal analyses in order to estimate the relevant stiffness and vibration modes. Comparing these simulation results with those from a diaphragm with the uniform thickness, it is found that a local thickness reduction results in the stiffness reduction and the relevant change in the natural frequencies and the corresponding vibration modes.

  18. Numerical investigation on vibration characteristics of a micro-speaker diaphragm considering thermoforming effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeong Min; Park, Ke Un

    2013-01-01

    Micro-speaker diaphragms play an important role in generating desired sound responses, and are designed to have thin membrane shapes for flexibility in the axial direction. The micro-speaker diaphragms are formed from thin polymer film through the thermoforming process, in which local thickness reductions occur due to strain localization. This thickness reduction results in a change in vibration characteristics of the diaphragm and different sound responses from that of the original design. In this study, the effect of this thickness change in the diaphragm on its vibration characteristics is numerically investigated by coupling thermoforming simulation, structural analysis and modal analysis. Thus, the thickness change in the diaphragm is calculated from the thermoforming simulation, and reflected in the further structural and modal analyses in order to estimate the relevant stiffness and vibration modes. Comparing these simulation results with those from a diaphragm with the uniform thickness, it is found that a local thickness reduction results in the stiffness reduction and the relevant change in the natural frequencies and the corresponding vibration modes.

  19. Measurement of thermal expansion coefficient of graphene diaphragm using optical fiber Fabry–Perot interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Cheng; Liu, Qianwen; Peng, Xiaobin; Fan, Shangchun

    2016-01-01

    Application of the Fabry–Perot (FP) interference method for determining the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of a graphene diaphragm is investigated in this paper. A miniature extrinsic FP interferometric (EFPI) sensor was fabricated by using an approximate 8-layer graphene diaphragm. The extremely thin diaphragm was transferred onto the endface of a ferrule with an inner diameter of 125 μ m, and van der Waals interactions between the graphene diaphragm and its substrate created a low finesse FP interferometer with a cavity length of 36.13 μ m. Double reference FP cavities using two cleaved optical fibers as reflectors were also constructed to differentially cancel the thermal expansion effects of the trapped gas and adhesive material. A temperature test demonstrated an approximate cavity length change of 166.1 nm °C −1 caused by film thermal expansion in the range of 20–60 °C. Then along with the established thermal deformation model of the suspended circular diaphragm, the calculated CTE ranging from  −9.98  ×  10 −6 K −1 to  −2.09  ×  10 −6 K −1 conformed well to the previously measured results. The proposed method would be applicable in other types of elastic materials as the sensitive diaphragm of an EFPI sensor over a wide temperature range. (paper)

  20. High-intensity interval training prevents oxidant-mediated diaphragm muscle weakness in hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, T Scott; Eisenkolb, Sophia; Drobner, Juliane; Fischer, Tina; Werner, Sarah; Linke, Axel; Mangner, Norman; Schuler, Gerhard; Adams, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a key risk factor for heart failure, with the latter characterized by diaphragm muscle weakness that is mediated in part by increased oxidative stress. In the present study, we used a deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt mouse model to determine whether hypertension could independently induce diaphragm dysfunction and further investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sham-treated (n = 11), DOCA-salt-treated (n = 11), and DOCA-salt+HIIT-treated (n = 15) mice were studied over 4 wk. Diaphragm contractile function, protein expression, enzyme activity, and fiber cross-sectional area and type were subsequently determined. Elevated blood pressure confirmed hypertension in DOCA-salt mice independent of HIIT (P HIIT. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein expression tended to decrease (∼30%; P = 0.06) in DOCA-salt vs. sham- and DOCA-salt+HIIT mice, whereas oxidative stress increased (P HIIT further prevented direct oxidant-mediated diaphragm contractile dysfunction (P hypertension induces diaphragm contractile dysfunction via an oxidant-mediated mechanism that is prevented by HIIT.-Bowen, T. S., Eisenkolb, S., Drobner, J., Fischer, T., Werner, S., Linke, A., Mangner, N., Schuler, G., Adams, V. High-intensity interval training prevents oxidant-mediated diaphragm muscle weakness in hypertensive mice. © FASEB.

  1. β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) prevents sepsis-induced diaphragm dysfunction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supinski, Gerald S; Callahan, Leigh A

    2014-06-01

    Infections induce severe respiratory muscle weakness. Currently there are no treatments for this important clinical problem. We tested the hypothesis that β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) would prevent sepsis-induced diaphragm weakness. Four groups of adult male mice were studied: controls (saline-injected), sepsis (intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide), sepsis+HMB (injected intravenously), and HMB. Diaphragm force generation and indices of caspase 3, calpain, 20S proteasomal subunit, and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) activation were assessed after 24h. Sepsis elicited large reductions in diaphragm specific force generation at all stimulation frequencies. Endotoxin also activated caspase 3, calpain, the 20S proteasomal subunit and PKR in the diaphragm. HMB blocked sepsis-induced caspase 3, 20S proteasomal and PKR activation, but did not prevent calpain activation. Most importantly, HMB administration significantly attenuated sepsis-induced diaphragm weakness, preserving muscle force generation at all stimulation frequencies (pHMB may prove to be an important therapy in infected patients, with the potential to increase diaphragm strength, to reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and to decrease mortality in this patient population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Holocene Evolution and Sediment Provenance of Horn Island, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, N.; Wallace, D. J.; Miner, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    As one of the most stable islands in the Mississippi-Alabama barrier island chain, Horn Island provides critical habitat, plays an important role in regulating estuarine conditions in the Mississippi Sound, and helps to attenuate wave energy and storm surge for the mainland. The provenance of sediments comprising Horn Island is largely unknown and has implications for mode of island genesis and evolution. The existing literature proposes that island chain formation was initiated by bar emergence from a subaqueous spit that grew laterally westward from Dauphin Island in the east. Decelerating sea level rise 4,000 to 5,000 years ago facilitated island formation. This proposed mode of formation is supported by a lone radiocarbon date from lagoonal sediments below Horn Island, suggesting the system formed after 4,615 ± 215 years BP. Rivers supplying suspended sediment include the Mississippi, Pascagoula, Mobile and Apalachicola, but the variable nature of their paths and sediment supply means that Horn Island has received differing amounts of sediment from these proximal rivers throughout the Holocene. To analyze the stratigraphy and sediment characteristics of Horn Island, we will utilize 24 vibracores (up to 6 meters in length) from offshore Horn Island that were obtained by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and 9 onshore drill cores (up to 28 meters in length) from the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality. High-resolution LiDAR data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 2010 will be used to describe modern geomorphic barrier environments. We will employ down-core x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence analyses to identify mineralogical and chemical signatures that potentially correspond to unique signatures of the fluvial sources of proximal rivers. New radiocarbon ages will be used to constrain the timing of island formation and alterations in sediment supply. High-resolution shallow geophysical data will provide

  3. Preliminary AD-Horn Thermomechanical and Electrodynamic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2095747; Horvath, David; Calviani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) target area consolidation activities planned for LS2, it has been necessary to perform a comprehensive study of the thermo-structural behaviour of the AD magnetic horn during operation, in order to detail specific requirements for the upgrade projects and testing procedures. The present work illustrates the preliminary results of the finite element analysis carried out to evaluate the thermal and structural behaviour of the device, as well as the methodology used to model and solve the thermomechanical and electrodynamic simulations performed in the AD magnetic horn.

  4. A ruptured rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus at 18 weeks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    76000 pregnancies. Rupture of the horn in pregnancy is considered the most serious and common complication of rudimentary horns. The investigation of choice is considered to be magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Evaluation of renal tract ...

  5. Status report of seabird surveys at Horns Rev, 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2002-01-01

    The present report presents the results of three bird surveys conducted in the Horns Rev area during the second half of 2001. Due to poor weather conditions in December 2001, the last survey was, however, performed on 7 January 2002. The surveys are part of the base-line investigations of birds performed in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. The results of the surveys during August 2001 - January 2002 are presented together with the results obtained during the period August 2000 - April 2001, and are also compared to results obtained during the period August 1999 - April 2000. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 16 aerial surveys performed during August 1999 - January 2002, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, mainly occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common Scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of the Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Common scoters occurred in very high numbers in January 2002. This was probably related to increased immigration of birds from the inner Danish waters during a cold period in late December 2001. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affect less than 1% of the various species, except divers where 1.58% will be

  6. Computed tomography of the temporal horns at Alzheimer's disease. Computertomographie der Temporalhoerner bei Morbus Alzheimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, U; Vogel, [Allgemeines Krankenhaus Ochsenzoll, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik

    1989-06-01

    In the literature there are different opinions referring to the involvement of the temporal lobes or horns at Alzheimer's disease. Conventionally computed tomogram of the head does not include the temporal horn in its full length. A simple method to demonstrate the temporal horns after cranial computer tomography is described. It allows the evaluation of temporal lobe and temporal horn if questionable alterations at Alzheimer's disease are to be discussed. (orig.).

  7. Diaphragm-Sparing Nerve Blocks for Shoulder Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, De Q H; Elgueta, Maria Francisca; Aliste, Julian; Finlayson, Roderick J

    Shoulder surgery can result in significant postoperative pain. Interscalene brachial plexus blocks (ISBs) constitute the current criterion standard for analgesia but may be contraindicated in patients with pulmonary pathology due to the inherent risk of phrenic nerve block and symptomatic hemidiaphragmatic paralysis. Although ultrasound-guided ISB with small volumes (5 mL), dilute local anesthetic (LA) concentrations, and LA injection 4 mm lateral to the brachial plexus have been shown to reduce the risk of phrenic nerve block, no single intervention can decrease its incidence below 20%. Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular blocks with LA injection posterolateral to the brachial plexus may anesthetize the shoulder without incidental diaphragmatic dysfunction, but further confirmatory trials are required. Ultrasound-guided C7 root blocks also seem to offer an attractive, diaphragm-sparing alternative to ISB. However, additional large-scale studies are needed to confirm their efficacy and to quantify the risk of periforaminal vascular breach. Combined axillary-suprascapular nerve blocks may provide adequate postoperative analgesia for minor shoulder surgery but do not compare favorably to ISB for major surgical procedures. One intriguing solution lies in the combined use of infraclavicular brachial plexus blocks and suprascapular nerve blocks. Theoretically, the infraclavicular approach targets the posterior and lateral cords, thus anesthetizing the axillary nerve (which supplies the anterior and posterior shoulder joint), as well as the subscapular and lateral pectoral nerves (both of which supply the anterior shoulder joint), whereas the suprascapular nerve block anesthetizes the posterior shoulder. Future randomized trials are required to validate the efficacy of combined infraclavicular-suprascapular blocks for shoulder surgery.

  8. 76 FR 53295 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ...-12 of August 8, 2011--Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa... Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested... Department of State, related to the humanitarian crisis in the Horn of Africa. You are authorized and...

  9. 9 CFR 95.11 - Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies..., OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.11 Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs. (a) Clean, dry bones, horns, and hoofs, that are free from undried pieces of hide, flesh...

  10. 9 CFR 95.12 - Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.12 Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Bones, horns, and hoofs offered for importation which do not meet the conditions or requirements...

  11. Energy loss in electrochemical diaphragm process of chlorine and alkali industry - A collateral effect of the undesirable generation of chlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Phabyanno Rodrigues; Mirapalheta, Almir; e Silva Zanta, Carmem Lucia de Paiva; Tonholo, Josealdo [Instituto de Quimica e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072970 Maceio, AL (Brazil); Henrique dos Santos Andrade, Marcio [Instituto de Quimica e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072970 Maceio, AL (Brazil); Braskem S/A, Maceio, AL (Brazil); Vilar, Eudesio Oliveira [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal de Campina, Grande, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    Contamination of NaOH with chlorate constitutes a major problem for the chlorine-alkali industry, particularly when electrolytic cells based on the diaphragm process are employed. In this paper, pilot and laboratory cell experiments revealed that chlorate contamination in diaphragm cells also inhibits hydrogen evolution and gives rise to a significant increase in electrical energy consumption. Electrolysis carried out under conditions that simulated the industrial process (current density 240 mA cm{sup -2}; temperature 90 C; brine flux 23 L cm{sup -2} h{sup -1}) revealed that chlorate formation depends on brine flux and NaOH production. The inhibitory effect of chlorate on the main cathodic reaction was demonstrated in bench cell experiments, with cathodic displacement of the hydrogen evolution reaction by more than 100 mV in the presence of 0.4% chlorate compared with ideal conditions in which chlorate formation was absent. This hydrogen generation overpotential can charge the total electric energy balance in more than 5% of the total value, consisting of a critical loss for this process. (author)

  12. DiPALS: Diaphragm Pacing in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Christopher J; Bradburn, Mike J; Maguire, Chin; Cooper, Cindy L; Baird, Wendy O; Baxter, Susan K; Cohen, Judith; Cantrill, Hannah; Dixon, Simon; Ackroyd, Roger; Baudouin, Simon; Bentley, Andrew; Berrisford, Richard; Bianchi, Stephen; Bourke, Stephen C; Darlison, Roy; Ealing, John; Elliott, Mark; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Galloway, Simon; Hamdalla, Hisham; Hanemann, C Oliver; Hughes, Philip; Imam, Ibrahim; Karat, Dayalan; Leek, Roger; Maynard, Nick; Orrell, Richard W; Sarela, Abeezar; Stradling, John; Talbot, Kevin; Taylor, Lyn; Turner, Martin; Simonds, Anita K; Williams, Tim; Wedzicha, Wisia; Young, Carolyn; Shaw, Pamela J

    2016-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease resulting in death, usually from respiratory failure, within 2-3 years of symptom onset. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a treatment that when given to patients in respiratory failure leads to improved survival and quality of life. Diaphragm pacing (DP), using the NeuRx/4(®) diaphragm pacing system (DPS)™ (Synapse Biomedical, Oberlin, OH, USA), is a new technique that may offer additional or alternative benefits to patients with ALS who are in respiratory failure. The Diaphragm Pacing in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (DiPALS) trial evaluated the effect of DP on survival over the study duration in patients with ALS with respiratory failure. The DiPALS trial was a multicentre, parallel-group, open-label, randomised controlled trial incorporating health economic analyses and a qualitative longitudinal substudy. Eligible participants had a diagnosis of ALS (ALS laboratory-supported probable, clinically probable or clinically definite according to the World Federation of Neurology revised El Escorial criteria), had been stabilised on riluzole for 30 days, were aged ≥ 18 years and were in respiratory failure. We planned to recruit 108 patients from seven UK-based specialist ALS or respiratory centres. Allocation was performed using 1 : 1 non-deterministic minimisation. Participants were randomised to either standard care (NIV alone) or standard care (NIV) plus DP using the NeuRX/4 DPS. The primary outcome was overall survival, defined as the time from randomisation to death from any cause. Secondary outcomes were patient quality of life [assessed by European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, three levels (EQ-5D-3L), Short Form questionnaire-36 items and Sleep Apnoea Quality of Life Index questionnaire]; carer quality of life (EQ-5D-3L and Caregiver Burden Inventory); cost-utility analysis and health-care resource use; tolerability and adverse events. Acceptability and attitudes to

  13. Anisotropic surface wave tomography in the Horn of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, D.; Montagner, J. P.; Debayle, E.; Leveque, J. J.; Cara, M.; Lepine, J. C.; Beucler, E.; Sebai, A.

    2003-04-01

    One of the largest continental hotspot is located in the Afar Depression, in East of Africa. It has been advocated to be the surface expression of the South-West African Superswell, which is the antipode of the Pacific Superswell in the framework of the mantle degree 2 pattern. We performed an anisotropic surface wave tomography in the Horn of Africa in order to image the seismic structure beneath the region. Data were collected from the permanent IRIS and GEOSCOPE networks and from the PASSCAL experiment in Tanzania and Saudi Arabia. We supplemented our data base with a French deployment of 5 portable broadband stations surrounding the Afar Hotspot. Path average phase velocities are obtained using a method based on a least-squares minimization (Beucler et al., 2002). The data are corrected from the effect of the crust according to the a priori 3SMAC model (Nataf et Ricard, 1996). 3D-models of velocity, radial and azimuthal anisotropies are inverted for. We find low velocities beneath the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the South East of the Tanzania Craton, the Hotspot and Central Africa. High velocities are present in the eastern Arabia and the Tanzania Craton. These results are in agreement with the anisotropic model of Debayle et al.(2002). The flow pattern can be derived from fast axis directions of seismic anisotropy. The anisotropy model beneath Afar displays a complex pattern, in which the hotspot seems to play a perturbating role. The azimuthal anisotropy shows that the Afar plume might be interpreted as feeding other hotspots in central Africa. The directions of fast axis are in good agreement with the results of previous SKS studies performed in the region (Gao et al., 1997; Wolfe et al., 1999; Barruol and Ismail, 2001).

  14. Development of Optophone with No Diaphragm and Application to Sound Measurement in Jet Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshito Sonoda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optophone with no diaphragm, which can detect sound waves without disturbing flow of air and sound field, is presented as a novel sound measurement technique and the present status of development is reviewed in this paper. The method is principally based on the Fourier optics and the sound signal is obtained by detecting ultrasmall diffraction light generated from phase modulation by sounds. The principle and theory, which have been originally developed as a plasma diagnostic technique to measure electron density fluctuations in the nuclear fusion research, are briefly introduced. Based on the theoretical analysis, property and merits as a wave-optical sound detection are presented, and the fundamental experiments and results obtained so far are reviewed. It is shown that sounds from about 100 Hz to 100 kHz can be simultaneously detected by a visible laser beam, and the method is very useful to sound measurement in aeroacoustics. Finally, present main problems of the optophone for practical uses in sound and/or noise measurements and the image of technology expected in the future are shortly shown.

  15. Response of False horn plantain to different plant densities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study, which was carried out at the Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana, from April 1992 to March 1995, aimed at determining (i) the optimum plant density of False horn plantain for maximum yield, and (ii) the optimum frequency of handweeding for economic returns. Results indicated that the optimum plant density ...

  16. Littoral Encounters : The Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobecki, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    1. III * Later Medieval: Excluding Chaucer -- Brown et al., 10.1093 ... ... between the Saracens and the londisse men allied to the protagonist (' Littoral Encounters: the Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn', Al-Mas a ... www.ywes.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/man0092 2.Murray, Alan V.

  17. 163 COUNTER-TERRORISM IN THE GREATER HORN OF AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-07-11

    Jul 11, 2010 ... location in the Horn is strategic. Yet, it is land-locked and .... The insurgents adapted Middle East style suicide bombings. At least one person ... 2002 in Mombasa However, Kenyan security agencies believe that Fazul is alive and is ... In June 2006 IGAD regional ministers ratified a Kenya-led travel ban on.

  18. Acute Renal Failure Following the Saharan Horned Viper (Cerastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The Saharan horned viper (Cerastes cerastes) is a common snake in the sandy and rocky regions in the south of Morocco. Although nearly all snakes with medical relevance can induce acute renal failure (ARF), it's unusual except with bites by some viper species. ARF has very rarely been reported following ...

  19. Forced Displacement and Mixed Migration in the Horn of Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group; UNHCR

    2015-01-01

    The Horn of Africa (HOA) covers Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda. Despite its rich endowment in human, social, and natural capital, the region is plagued by a complex history of weak governance, insecurity, increasing environmental degradation, entrenched poverty, and a range of persistent development challenges. Conflict remains endemic in the re...

  20. Occupational Cow Horn Eye Injuries in Ibadan, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cow horn injury is an uncommon cause of penetrating eye injury with grave ... cattle‑related jobs, and they all had unilateral open‑globe injuries with corneoscleral lacerations. ... likely to be because men are at increased risk as cattle rearers.

  1. Toward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Moreover, conflict in one country tends to affect its neighbours, mainly through the flow of refugees and weapons. Building on work carried out during Phase I ... Extrants. Rapports. Towards Developing a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa: Developing Responses to Human (In) Security-Phase Two ...

  2. Decomposition by tree dimension in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of the concept of tree dimension in Horn clause analysis and verification. The dimension of a tree is a measure of its non-linearity - for example a list of any length has dimension zero while a complete binary tree has dimension equal to its height. We apply ...

  3. Brain, memory and development : the imprint of Gabriel Horn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Johan J; Brown, Malcolm W; Johnson, Mark H

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews is dedicated to the memory of Sir Gabriel Horn, who died on 2nd August 2012. In his impressive career that spanned more than 50 years (Bolhuis and Johnson, 2012; Brown, 2013), Horn’s contributions to cognitive neuroscience consistently

  4. Calibration of the SH134-20 Standard Gain Horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    This report documents the measurement of the linearly polarized SH134-20 Standard Gain Horn. The measurement comprises on-axis gain, on-axis polarization characteristics, and reflection coefficient at 111 frequencies in the frequency range from 22-33 GHz. The measurement was carried out at the DTU...

  5. Schemes for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and cluster state preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Jie; Xia Yan; Song Heshan

    2008-01-01

    Schemes to generate Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and cluster states of three atoms are proposed in a two-mode cavity. The advantages of the schemes are their robustness against decoherence due to spontaneous emission of the excited states and decay of the cavity modes. Moreover, the schemes can be generalized to generate N-atom entangled states

  6. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger nonlocality in arbitrary even dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jinhyoung; Lee, Seung-Woo; Kim, M. S.

    2006-01-01

    We generalize Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) nonlocality to every even-dimensional and odd-partite system. For the purpose we employ concurrent observables that are incompatible and nevertheless have a common eigenstate. It is remarkable that a tripartite system can exhibit the genuinely high-dimensional GHZ nonlocality

  7. Issues in treating depression in primary care | Horn | Continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues in treating depression in primary care. NR Horn. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  8. Dog-Bone Horns for Piezoelectric Ultrasonic/Sonic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    A shape reminiscent of a dog bone has been found to be superior to other shapes for mechanical-amplification horns that are components of piezoelectrically driven actuators used in a series of related devices denoted generally as ultrasonic/sonic drill/corers (USDCs). The first of these devices was reported in Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors (NPO-20856), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January 2001), page 38. The dog-bone shape was conceived especially for use in a more recent device in the series, denoted an ultrasonic/ sonic gopher, that was described in Ultrasonic/Sonic Mechanisms for Drilling and Coring (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The figure shows an example of a dog-bone-shaped horn and other components of an ultrasonic gopher. Prerequisite to a meaningful description of this development is an unavoidably lengthy recapitulation of the principle of operation of a USDC and, more specifically, of the ultrasonic/sonic gopher as described previously in NASA Tech Briefs. The ultrasonic actuator includes a stack of piezoelectric rings, the horn, a metal backing, and a bolt that connects the aforementioned parts and provides compressive pre-strain to the piezoelectric stack to prevent breakage of the rings during extension. The stack of piezoelectric rings is excited at the resonance frequency of the overall ultrasonic actuator. Through mechanical amplification by the horn, the displacement in the ultrasonic vibration reaches tens of microns at the tip of the horn. The horn hammers an object that is denoted the free mass because it is free to move longitudinally over a limited distance between hard stops: The free mass bounces back and forth between the ultrasonic horn and a tool bit (a drill bit or a corer). Because the longitudinal speed of the free mass is smaller than the longitudinal speed of vibration of the tip of the horn, contact between the free mass and the horn tip usually occurs at a

  9. Displacement and resonance behaviors of a piezoelectric diaphragm driven by a double-sided spiral electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Zhiyuan

    2012-04-03

    This paper presents the design of a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) diaphragm actuated by double-sided patterned electrodes. Au/Cr electrodes were deposited on bulk PZT wafers by sputtering while patterned by a lift-off process. SU-8 thick film was used to form the structural layer. Double-spiral electrode induced in-plane poling and piezoelectric elongation are converted to an out-of-plane displacement due to the confined boundary condition. The influence of different drive configurations and electrode parameters on deflection has been calculated by finite element methods (FEM) using a uniform field model. Impedance and quasi-static displacement spectra of the diaphragm were measured after poling. Adouble-sided patterned electrode diaphragm can be actuated by more drive configurations than a single-sided one. Compared with a single-sided electrode drive, a double-sided out-of-phase drive configuration increases the coupling coefficient of the fundamental resonance from 7.6% to 11.8%. The displacement response of the diaphragm increases from 2.6 to 8.6nmV 1. Configurations including the electric field component perpendicular to the poling direction can stimulate shear modes of the diaphragm. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. The role of Sema3–Npn-1 signaling during diaphragm innervation and muscle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettl, Rosa-Eva; Hanuschick, Philipp; Amend, Anna-Lena; Alberton, Paolo; Aszodi, Attila; Huber, Andrea B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Correct innervation of the main respiratory muscle in mammals, namely the thoracic diaphragm, is a crucial pre-requisite for the functionality of this muscle and the viability of the entire organism. Systemic impairment of Sema3A–Npn-1 (Npn-1 is also known as NRP1) signaling causes excessive branching of phrenic nerves in the diaphragm and into the central tendon region, where the majority of misguided axons innervate ectopic musculature. To elucidate whether these ectopic muscles are a result of misguidance of myoblast precursors due to the loss of Sema3A–Npn-1 signaling, we conditionally ablated Npn-1 in somatic motor neurons, which led to a similar phenotype of phrenic nerve defasciculation and, intriguingly, also formation of innervated ectopic muscles. We therefore hypothesize that ectopic myocyte fusion is caused by additional factors released by misprojecting growth cones. Slit2 and its Robo receptors are expressed by phrenic motor axons and migrating myoblasts, respectively, during innervation of the diaphragm. In vitro analyses revealed a chemoattractant effect of Slit2 on primary diaphragm myoblasts. Thus, we postulate that factors released by motor neuron growth cones have an influence on the migration properties of myoblasts during establishment of the diaphragm. PMID:27466379

  11. Horn amplification at a tyre/road interface. Pt. 1. Experiment and computation; Tire/romenkan ni okeru horn koka. Jikken to keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, T. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Tyre/road interface noise can be amplified by a horn type space formed by the tread face of the tyre and the road. This paper is a report on studies on experiment and computation to elucidate the above phenomenon in detail. Measurement and computation were carried out on a tyre replaced with a single cylinder, whereas it was verified that the horn effect by each frequency can be calculated by BEM computation. Then, discussions were given on actual tyres combined with the BEM computation, and the following results were acquired: (1) the horn effect is small in zones of low frequencies; (2) the larger the tread width, the larger the horn effect increases; (3) the relationship between the tread width and the horn effect is governed by the ratio of the road contact width to noise wavelength; (4) the frequency characteristics of the horn effect vary largely according to whether the sound source exists in forward or rearward locations; (5) the relationship between the forward and rearward locations of the sound source with the horn effect is governed by the distance between the front and rear ends of the road contact face of the tyre; (6) the smaller the radius of the tread shoulder, the greater the horn effect; (7) tread deformation due to load applied on the tyre slightly changes the frequency characteristics of the horn effect; (8) with the sound source existing closer to the center of ground contacting width, the horn effect increases; and (9) the present study has verified the horn effect of 22 dB as the maximum. If the sound source is not present at the center of ground contacting width, the horn effect is reduced to about 10 dB, but the value cannot be ignored as the influence on traffic noise. (translated by NEDO)

  12. The role of doublesex in the evolution of exaggerated horns in the Japanese rhinoceros beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuta; Harigai, Ayane; Nakata, Moe; Hosoya, Tadatsugu; Araya, Kunio; Oba, Yuichi; Ito, Akinori; Ohde, Takahiro; Yaginuma, Toshinobu; Niimi, Teruyuki

    2013-06-01

    Male-specific exaggerated horns are an evolutionary novelty and have diverged rapidly via intrasexual selection. Here, we investigated the function of the conserved sex-determination gene doublesex (dsx) in the Japanese rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) using RNA interference (RNAi). Our results show that the sex-specific T. dichotomus dsx isoforms have an antagonistic function for head horn formation and only the male isoform has a role for thoracic horn formation. These results indicate that the novel sex-specific regulation of dsx during horn morphogenesis might have been the key evolutionary developmental event at the transition from sexually monomorphic to sexually dimorphic horns.

  13. Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa Underlying a Giant Cutaneous Horn: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous horn is a conical, dense, and hyperkeratotic protrusion that often appears similar to the horn of an animal. Giant cutaneous horns are rare; no incidence or prevalence has been reported. The significance of cutaneous horns is that they occur in association with, or as a response to, a wide variety of underlying benign, premalignant, and malignant cutaneous diseases. A case of giant cutaneous horn of left oral commissure along with carcinoma left buccal mucosa is reported here as an extremely rare oral/perioral pathology.

  14. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Henriksen, Oluf. D.; Teilmann, J.; Rye Hansen, J.

    2004-06-01

    Occurrence and distribution of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in and around the off-shore wind farm on Horns Reef, Denmark, was investigated. This report describes data collected in 2003 as part of an ongoing monitoring program, covering a period before construction of the wind farm (baseline), the construction period in 2002 and one year following construction of the wind farm. Data from acoustic dataloggers (T-PODs) and visual surveys conducted from ships confirmed the presence of harbour porpoises inside the wind farm area during all periods investigated. Comparison with baseline data from 1999-2001 and with control areas outside the wind farm did not show a statistical significant change in sighting rates inside the wind farm area in the first year following construction relative to baseline. T-POD data showed a pronounced effect of the construction of the wind farm on the indicators 'encounter duration' (measure of how long porpoises remain close to the POD) and 'waiting time' (measure of time interval between porpoise encounters). Both parameters seem to indicate higher levels of porpoise activity during construction (encounter duration went up, waiting time went down) compared to baseline. A partial return to baseline levels was seen for these two indicators in 2003. (au)

  15. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Henriksen, Oluf. D.; Teilmann, J. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Rye Hansen, J. [DDH Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-06-15

    Occurrence and distribution of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in and around the off-shore wind farm on Horns Reef, Denmark, was investigated. This report describes data collected in 2003 as part of an ongoing monitoring program, covering a period before construction of the wind farm (baseline), the construction period in 2002 and one year following construction of the wind farm. Data from acoustic dataloggers (T-PODs) and visual surveys conducted from ships confirmed the presence of harbour porpoises inside the wind farm area during all periods investigated. Comparison with baseline data from 1999-2001 and with control areas outside the wind farm did not show a statistical significant change in sighting rates inside the wind farm area in the first year following construction relative to baseline. T-POD data showed a pronounced effect of the construction of the wind farm on the indicators 'encounter duration' (measure of how long porpoises remain close to the POD) and 'waiting time' (measure of time interval between porpoise encounters). Both parameters seem to indicate higher levels of porpoise activity during construction (encounter duration went up, waiting time went down) compared to baseline. A partial return to baseline levels was seen for these two indicators in 2003. (au)

  16. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Wisz, M.S.; Teilmann, J.; Bech, N.I. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Skov, H. [DHI - Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Henriksen, Oluf, D. [DDH-Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-15

    This report describes the monitoring of harbour porpoises at Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, with emphasis on data collected in 2004. Three 2-day surveys with line transect observations of porpoises were conducted in 2004 and data from acoustic data loggers (TPODs) were collected from January through July. Although new data from 2004 was included in the analysis there were no significant additions to conclusions from previous years' reports. On the contrary, the general conclusions regarding effects of construction and operation of the wind farm on porpoise abundance inside and outside the wind farm area have been weakened somewhat compared to previous reports. The specific conclusions regarding short-time effects of construction activities (especially pile drivings) has not been changed, however. Modelling of the spatial distribution of porpoises in the area demonstrated very weak correlations with static environmental variables (water depth, change in water depth and distance to 6 m depth contour). This highlights the importance of dynamic environmental variables, in particular tide and salinity, in determining the fine-scale distribution of porpoises and their prey in the area. a strong correlation between tide and porpoise abundance observed in the T-POD data on some parts of the reef (high abundance at high tide, low at low tide) supports the importance of this variable. Tide and salinity will be included in a forthcoming analysis of the entire dataset from the monitoring program. (au)

  17. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J; Carstensen, J; Wisz, M S; Teilmann, J; Bech, N I [National Environmental Res. Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Skov, H [DHI - Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Henriksen, Oluf, D. [DDH-Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-15

    This report describes the monitoring of harbour porpoises at Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, with emphasis on data collected in 2004. Three 2-day surveys with line transect observations of porpoises were conducted in 2004 and data from acoustic data loggers (TPODs) were collected from January through July. Although new data from 2004 was included in the analysis there were no significant additions to conclusions from previous years' reports. On the contrary, the general conclusions regarding effects of construction and operation of the wind farm on porpoise abundance inside and outside the wind farm area have been weakened somewhat compared to previous reports. The specific conclusions regarding short-time effects of construction activities (especially pile drivings) has not been changed, however. Modelling of the spatial distribution of porpoises in the area demonstrated very weak correlations with static environmental variables (water depth, change in water depth and distance to 6 m depth contour). This highlights the importance of dynamic environmental variables, in particular tide and salinity, in determining the fine-scale distribution of porpoises and their prey in the area. a strong correlation between tide and porpoise abundance observed in the T-POD data on some parts of the reef (high abundance at high tide, low at low tide) supports the importance of this variable. Tide and salinity will be included in a forthcoming analysis of the entire dataset from the monitoring program. (au)

  18. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Wisz, M.S.; Teilmann, J.; Bech, N.I.; Skov, H.; Henriksen, Oluf D.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the monitoring of harbour porpoises at Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, with emphasis on data collected in 2004. Three 2-day surveys with line transect observations of porpoises were conducted in 2004 and data from acoustic data loggers (TPODs) were collected from January through July. Although new data from 2004 was included in the analysis there were no significant additions to conclusions from previous years' reports. On the contrary, the general conclusions regarding effects of construction and operation of the wind farm on porpoise abundance inside and outside the wind farm area have been weakened somewhat compared to previous reports. The specific conclusions regarding short-time effects of construction activities (especially pile drivings) has not been changed, however. Modelling of the spatial distribution of porpoises in the area demonstrated very weak correlations with static environmental variables (water depth, change in water depth and distance to 6 m depth contour). This highlights the importance of dynamic environmental variables, in particular tide and salinity, in determining the fine-scale distribution of porpoises and their prey in the area. a strong correlation between tide and porpoise abundance observed in the T-POD data on some parts of the reef (high abundance at high tide, low at low tide) supports the importance of this variable. Tide and salinity will be included in a forthcoming analysis of the entire dataset from the monitoring program. (au)

  19. Molecular Weiss domain polarization in piezoceramics to diaphragm, cantilever and channel construction in low-temperature-cofired ceramics for micro-fluidic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, P.K.; Ahmad, S.; Grimme, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the efforts made to study the process of comminution to Weiss domain polarization and phase transition in piezoceramics together with the versatility of low-temperature-cofired ceramics-based devices and components for their ready adoption for typical applications in the area of micro-fluidics. A conceptual micro-fluidic module has been presented and few unit entities necessary for its realization have been described. The purpose of these entities is to position the sensors and actuators by using piezoelectric materials. Investigations are performed to make useful constructions like diaphragms and cantilevers for laying the sensing elements, cavities for burying the electronic chip devices, and channels for fluid transportation. In order to realize these constructions, the basic step involves machining of circular, straight line, rectangular and square-shaped structure in the green ceramic tapes followed by lamination and firing with post-machining in some cases. The diaphragm and cavity includes one or more un-machined layer stacked together with several machined layers with rectangular or square slits. The cantilever is an extension of the diaphragm creation process with inclusion of a post-machining step. The channel essentially consists of a machined green ceramic layer sandwiched between an un-machined and a partially machined layer. The fabrication for all the above constructions has been exemplified and the details have been discussed

  20. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state generation of three atoms trapped in two remote cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanling; Fang Maofa; Xiao Xing; Zeng Ke; Wu Chao

    2010-01-01

    We consider a system composed of a single-atom-trapped cavity (A) and a remote two-atom-trapped cavity (B) which are connected by an optical fibre. It is shown that a shared Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state of the three atoms can be deterministically generated by controlling the time of interaction or via the adiabatic passage based on this system. The influence of various decoherence processes such as spontaneous emission and photon loss on the fidelity is also investigated. It is found that our schemes can be realized with high fidelity even when these decoherence processes are considered.

  1. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state generation of three atoms trapped in two remote cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yanling; Fang Maofa; Xiao Xing; Zeng Ke; Wu Chao, E-mail: mffang@hunnu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control, Ministry of Education, and College of Physics and Information Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2010-04-28

    We consider a system composed of a single-atom-trapped cavity (A) and a remote two-atom-trapped cavity (B) which are connected by an optical fibre. It is shown that a shared Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state of the three atoms can be deterministically generated by controlling the time of interaction or via the adiabatic passage based on this system. The influence of various decoherence processes such as spontaneous emission and photon loss on the fidelity is also investigated. It is found that our schemes can be realized with high fidelity even when these decoherence processes are considered.

  2. Radial tear of posterior horn of the medial meniscus and osteonecrosis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoyama, Tatsuo; Ihara, Hidetoshi; Kawashima, Mahito

    2003-01-01

    We studied the relation between a radial tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus and osteonecrosis of the knee. Thirty-eight knees of 37 patients were diagnosed as medial meniscus tear and received arthroscopic knee surgery. We divided them into two groups: knees having radial tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (posterior horn group) and knees containing radial tear except for posterior horn, horizontal tear, degenerative tear, and flap tear of the medial meniscus (non-posterior horn group). The posterior horn group consisted of 14 knees (average age: 65.1 years old) and the non-posterior horn group consisted of 24 knees (average age: 59.6 years old). All cases underwent MRI before arthroscopy. MRI findings were classified into three types (typical osteonecrosis, small osteonecrosis, and non-osteonecrosis). In the posterior horn group, typical osteonecrosis were five knees and small osteonecrosis were five knees, while in the non-posterior horn group only three knees were small osteonecrosis. These findings suggest the relevance between radial tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus and osteonecrosis of the knee (Mann-Whitney test p<0.01). The etiology of spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee joint is unknown, however one etiology could be the radial tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. (author)

  3. Visualization of the diaphragm muscle with ultrasound improves diagnostic accuracy of phrenic nerve conduction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas E; Utz, Michael; Patrick, Erica; Rheinwald, Nicole; Downs, Marlene; Dilek, Nuran; Dogra, Vikram; Logigian, Eric L

    2014-05-01

    Evaluation of phrenic neuropathy (PN) with phrenic nerve conduction studies (PNCS) is associated with false negatives. Visualization of diaphragmatic muscle twitch with diaphragm ultrasound (DUS) when performing PNCS may help to solve this problem. We performed bilateral, simultaneous DUS-PNCS in 10 healthy adults and 12 patients with PN. The amplitude of the diaphragm compound muscle action potential (CMAP) (on PNCS) and twitch (on DUS) was calculated. Control subjects had phrenic CMAP (on PCNS). In the 12 patients with PN, 12 phrenic neuropathies were detected. Three of these patients had either significant side-to-side asymmetry or absolute reduction in diaphragm movement that was not detected with PNCS. There were no cases in which the PNCS showed an abnormality but the DUS did not. The addition of DUS to PNCS enhances diagnostic accuracy in PN. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Action of the isolated canine diaphragm on the lower ribs at high lung volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Troyer, André; Wilson, Theodore A

    2014-10-15

    The normal diaphragm has an inspiratory action on the lower ribs, but subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease commonly have an inward displacement of the lateral portions of the lower rib cage during inspiration. This paradoxical displacement, conventionally called 'Hoover's sign', has traditionally been attributed to the direct action of radially oriented diaphragmatic muscle fibres. In the present study, the inspiratory intercostal muscles in all interspaces in anaesthetized dogs were severed so that the diaphragm was the only muscle active during inspiration. The displacements of the lower ribs along the craniocaudal and laterolateral axes and the changes in pleural pressure (∆Ppl) and transdiaphragmatic pressure were measured during occluded breaths and mechanical ventilation at different lung volumes between functional residual capacity (FRC) and total lung capacity. From these data, the separate effects on rib displacement of ∆Ppl and of the force exerted by the diaphragm on the ribs were determined. Isolated spontaneous diaphragm contraction at FRC displaced the lower ribs cranially and outward, but this motion was progressively reversed into a caudal and inward motion as lung volume increased. However, although the force exerted by the diaphragm on the ribs decreased with increasing volume, it continued to displace the ribs cranially and outward. These observations suggest that Hoover's sign is usually caused by the decrease in the zone of apposition and, thus, by the dominant effect of ∆Ppl on the lower ribs, rather than an inward pull from the diaphragm. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  5. Identifying decreased diaphragmatic mobility and diaphragm thickening in interstitial lung disease: the utility of ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Pauliane Vieira; Prina, Elena; Albuquerque, André Luis Pereira; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Caruso, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the applicability of ultrasound imaging of the diaphragm in interstitial lung disease (ILD). Methods: Using ultrasound, we compared ILD patients and healthy volunteers (controls) in terms of diaphragmatic mobility during quiet and deep breathing; diaphragm thickness at functional residual capacity (FRC) and at total lung capacity (TLC); and the thickening fraction (TF, proportional diaphragm thickening from FRC to TLC). We also evaluated correlations between diaphragmatic dysfunction and lung function variables. Results: Between the ILD patients (n = 40) and the controls (n = 16), mean diaphragmatic mobility was comparable during quiet breathing, although it was significantly lower in the patients during deep breathing (4.5 ± 1.7 cm vs. 7.6 ± 1.4 cm; p < 0.01). The patients showed greater diaphragm thickness at FRC (p = 0.05), although, due to lower diaphragm thickness at TLC, they also showed a lower TF (p < 0.01). The FVC as a percentage of the predicted value (FVC%) correlated with diaphragmatic mobility (r = 0.73; p < 0.01), and an FVC% cut-off value of < 60% presented high sensitivity (92%) and specificity (81%) for indentifying decreased diaphragmatic mobility. Conclusions: Using ultrasound, we were able to show that diaphragmatic mobility and the TF were lower in ILD patients than in healthy controls, despite the greater diaphragm thickness at FRC in the former. Diaphragmatic mobility correlated with ILD functional severity, and an FVC% cut-off value of < 60% was found to be highly accurate for indentifying diaphragmatic dysfunction on ultrasound. PMID:27167428

  6. Attached cavitation at a small diameter ultrasonic horn tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Cairós, Carlos; Dular, Matevž

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids, for instance, for cell disruption or sonochemical reactions. They are operated typically in the frequency range up to about 50 kHz and have tip diameters from some mm to several cm. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e., below the acoustic driving frequency. Here, we present a systematic study of the cavitation dynamics in water at a 20 kHz horn tip of 3 mm diameter. The system was investigated by high-speed imaging with simultaneous recording of the acoustic emissions. Measurements were performed under variation of acoustic power, air saturation, viscosity, surface tension, and temperature of the liquid. Our findings show that the liquid properties play no significant role in the dynamics of the attached cavitation at the small ultrasonic horn. Also the variation of the experimental geometry, within a certain range, did not change the dynamics. We believe that the main two reasons for the peculiar dynamics of cavitation on a small ultrasonic horn are the higher energy density on a small tip and the inability of the big tip to "wash" away the gaseous bubbles. Calculation of the somewhat adapted Strouhal number revealed that, similar to the hydrodynamic cavitation, values which are relatively low characterize slow cavitation structure dynamics. In cases where the cavitation follows the driving frequency this value lies much higher - probably at Str > 20. In the spirit to distinguish the observed phenomenon with other cavitation dynamics at ultrasonic transducer surfaces, we suggest to term the observed phenomenon of attached cavities partly covering the full horn

  7. Automated Diaphragm Loading for the LB/TS (Large Blast/Thermal Simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-28

    103 87 10 925 Q & T 150 126 132 ill 9 775 Q & T 180 151 163 137 7 575 AISI 4140 ANNEALED 90 76 70 59 15 Q & T 125 105 103 87 10 1025 Q & T 150 126 132...carbon steel diaphragm would be 1.9 inches thick, whereas the heat treated alloy steel diaphragm ( AISI 4130) would be 0.44 inches thick. A normalized...EXPOSURE SPEC TREAT @ RT @ 700 F @ RT @ 700 F PERCENT LIMIT ksi ksi ksi ksi in/in F LOW ALLOY STEELS AISI 4130 ANNEALED 90 76 70 59 15 Q & T 125 105

  8. CONSTRUCTIVE ASPECTS INFLUENCE ON STIFFNESS OF DIAPHRAGM WALLS IN FRAME CONSTRUCTIONS WITH (LIGHT STEEL THIN –WALLED STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Savytskyi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The dependences of influence of structural features of diaphragms of lightweight steel framing braced wall structures on their stiffness are determined. On the basis of dependences the procedure for estimation of stiffness of a diaphragm of any configuration that allows making decisions for maintenance of building stiffness is developed.

  9. Interpolant tree automata and their application in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the combination of abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with interpolant tree automata, in an abstraction-refinement scheme for Horn clause verification. These techniques have been previously applied separately, but are combined in a new way in this ......This paper investigates the combination of abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with interpolant tree automata, in an abstraction-refinement scheme for Horn clause verification. These techniques have been previously applied separately, but are combined in a new way...... clause verification problems indicates that the combination of interpolant tree automaton with abstract interpretation gives some increase in the power of the verification tool, while sometimes incurring a performance overhead....

  10. [The unicorn and the unicorn horn among apothecaries and physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Louis-Paul; Cossu Ferra Fischer, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    In the 4th century A.D. the first unicorn was shown as a little horse with a twisted horn and was completely different from the Oriental one described by Marco Polo. The new unicorn appeared during the 4th century A.D. in Alexandria. This animal enamoured of purity was used as a Christian symbol of purity and sacrifice and adornment of churches like in Lyons in the 13th century. In the 15th & 17th centuries the unicorn was found again in famous tapestries like La Dame B la Licorne as it meant courage, speed and purity. Since the 6th century the powder of unicorn horn was used as a medicine or a drug against poisoning. Depictions of unicorn can be found in chemist's signs, engravings or paintings until the 19th century.

  11. General proof of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zeqian

    2004-01-01

    It is proved that all states of three spin-(1/2) particles exhibiting an 'all versus nothing' contradiction between quantum mechanics and the local realism of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen are exactly the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and the states obtained from them by local unitary transformations. The proof is obtained by showing that there are at most four elements (except for a different sign) in a set of mutually commuting nonlocal spin observables in the three-qubit system and using the certain algebraic properties that Pauli's matrices satisfy. We show that only does such a set of four nonlocal spin observables present a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-Mermin-like argument. This also reveals the equivalence between the GHZ theorem and maximal violation of the Bell inequality

  12. Meteorological explanation of wake clouds at Horns Rev wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emeis, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Meteorology and Climate Research

    2010-08-15

    The occurrence of wake clouds at Horns Rev wind farm is explained as mixing fog. Mixing fog forms when two nearly saturated air masses with different temperature are mixed. Due to the non-linearity of the dependence of the saturation water vapour pressure on temperature, the mixed air mass is over-saturated and condensation sets in. On the day in February 2008, when the wake clouds were observed at Horns Rev, cold and very humid air was advected from the nearby land over the warmer North Sea and led to the formation of a shallow layer with sea smoke or fog close above the sea surface. The turbines mixed a much deeper layer and thus provoked the formation of cloud trails in the wakes of the turbines. (orig.)

  13. The magnetic horn being installed in the CNGS target chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic system that focuses the beam of particles arising from the graphite target of the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso project (CNGS) has been installed in its final position in the tunnel.The CNGS secondary beam magnetic system consists of two elements: the horn and the reflector, both acting as focusing lenses for the positively-charged pions and kaons produced by proton interactions in the target.

  14. Optimal detection of entanglement in Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    We present a broad class of N-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-diagonal states such that nonpositivity under the partial transpose operation is necessary and sufficient for the presence of entanglement, including many naturally arising instances such as dephased GHZ states. Furthermore, our proof directly leads to an entanglement witness which saturates this bound. The witness is applied to thermal GHZ states to prove that the entanglement can be extremely robust to system imperfections.

  15. Fabrication and Testing of Pyramidal X- Band Standard Horn Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan F. Khazaal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Standard horn antennas are an important device to evaluate many types of antennas, since they are used as a reference to any type of antennas within the microwave frequency bands. In this project the fabrication process and tests of standard horn antenna operating at X-band frequencies have been proposed. The fabricated antenna passed through multi stages of processing of its parts until assembling the final product. These stages are (milling, bending, fitting and welding. The assembled antenna subjected to two types of tests to evaluate its performance. The first one is the test by two port network analyzer to point out S & Z parameters, input resistance, and the voltage standing wave ratio of the horn, while the second test was done using un-echoic chamber to measure the gain, side lobes level and the half power beam width. The results of testing come nearly as a theoretical value of the most important of antenna parameters, like; gain, side lobe level, -3 dB beam width, return loss and voltage standing wave ratio "VSWR", input Impedance.

  16. Interpolant Tree Automata and their Application in Horn Clause Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishoksan Kafle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the combination of abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with interpolant tree automata, in an abstraction-refinement scheme for Horn clause verification. These techniques have been previously applied separately, but are combined in a new way in this paper. The role of an interpolant tree automaton is to provide a generalisation of a spurious counterexample during refinement, capturing a possibly infinite set of spurious counterexample traces. In our approach these traces are then eliminated using a transformation of the Horn clauses. We compare this approach with two other methods; one of them uses interpolant tree automata in an algorithm for trace abstraction and refinement, while the other uses abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra without the generalisation step. Evaluation of the results of experiments on a number of Horn clause verification problems indicates that the combination of interpolant tree automaton with abstract interpretation gives some increase in the power of the verification tool, while sometimes incurring a performance overhead.

  17. HE GATES OF HORN AND IVORY: A GEOGRAPHICAL MYTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schulte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles proposes a new interpretation of the Homeric myth of the gates of horn and ivory that occurs in Book 19 of the Odyssey. It first argues that horn (the material of the southern gate in neoplatonic commentaries can be found in the sign of Capricornus. More complex is the argument that also ivory (the material of the northern gate in neoplatonic commentaries is derived from astronomical myths: the myths discussed are the myth of Adonis (beginning with the story about the ivory statue carved by Pygmalion, the myths of the Erymanthian, Studia Litterarum. Vol. 1, no 3–4 Jörg Schulte 83 the Calydonian, and the Ephesian boars, the myth of Orion, and the myth of the constellation ursa major. An enquiry into the occurance of ivory in Greek mythology leads to the hypothesis that the constellation ursa major was identified with a boar (with ivory tusks. The hypothesis implies that the gates of horn and ivory were already at the times of Homer understood as an astronomical myth that described the northernmost and southernmost points of the sky.

  18. Effects of acute respiratory and metabolic acidosis on diaphragm muscle obtained from rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Pierre; Carreira, Serge; Demoule, Alexandre; Amour, Julien; Langeron, Olivier; Riou, Bruno; Coirault, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Acute respiratory acidosis is associated with alterations in diaphragm performance. The authors compared the effects of respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis in the rat diaphragm in vitro. Diaphragmatic strips were stimulated in vitro, and mechanical and energetic variables were measured, cross-bridge kinetics calculated, and the effects of fatigue evaluated. An extracellular pH of 7.00 was obtained by increasing carbon dioxide tension (from 25 to 104 mmHg) in the respiratory acidosis group (n = 12) or lowering bicarbonate concentration (from 24.5 to 5.5 mM) in the metabolic acidosis group (n = 12) and the results compared with a control group (n = 12, pH = 7.40) after 20-min exposure. Respiratory acidosis induced a significant decrease in maximum shortening velocity (-33%, P Respiratory acidosis impaired more relaxation than contraction, as shown by impairment in contraction-relaxation coupling under isotonic (-26%, P acidosis group. In rat diaphragm, acute (20 min) respiratory acidosis induced a marked decrease in the diaphragm contractility, which was not observed in metabolic acidosis.

  19. Bending-induced electromechanical coupling and large piezoelectric response in a micromachined diaphragm

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhihong; Yao, Yingbang; Wang, Xianbin; Yue, Weisheng; Chen, Longqing; Zhang, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the dependence of electromechanical coupling and the piezoelectric response of a micromachined Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48)O 3 (PZT) diaphragm on its curvature by observing the impedance spectrum and central deflection responses to a small AC

  20. Distinct functions of Crumbs regulating slit diaphragms and endocytosis in Drosophila nephrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochapfel, Florian; Denk, Lucia; Mendl, Gudrun; Schulze, Ulf; Maaßen, Christine; Zaytseva, Yulia; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Weide, Thomas; Rachel, Reinhard; Witzgall, Ralph; Krahn, Michael P

    2017-12-01

    Mammalian podocytes, the key determinants of the kidney's filtration barrier, differentiate from columnar epithelial cells and several key determinants of apical-basal polarity in the conventional epithelia have been shown to regulate podocyte morphogenesis and function. However, little is known about the role of Crumbs, a conserved polarity regulator in many epithelia, for slit-diaphragm formation and podocyte function. In this study, we used Drosophila nephrocytes as model system for mammalian podocytes and identified a conserved function of Crumbs proteins for cellular morphogenesis, nephrocyte diaphragm assembly/maintenance, and endocytosis. Nephrocyte-specific knock-down of Crumbs results in disturbed nephrocyte diaphragm assembly/maintenance and decreased endocytosis, which can be rescued by Drosophila Crumbs as well as human Crumbs2 and Crumbs3, which were both expressed in human podocytes. In contrast to the extracellular domain, which facilitates nephrocyte diaphragm assembly/maintenance, the intracellular FERM-interaction motif of Crumbs is essential for regulating endocytosis. Moreover, Moesin, which binds to the FERM-binding domain of Crumbs, is essential for efficient endocytosis. Thus, we describe here a new mechanism of nephrocyte development and function, which is likely to be conserved in mammalian podocytes.

  1. Morphological and ultrastructural evaluation of the golden retriever muscular dystrophy trachea, lungs, and diaphragm muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Thais Borges; de Abreu, Dilayla Kelly; Rodrigues, Márcio Nogueira; Brólio, Marina Pandolphi; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disease, characterized by atrophy and muscle weakness. The respiratory failure is a common cause of early death in patients with DMD. Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a canine model which has been extensively used for many advances in therapeutics applications. As the patients with DMD, the GRMD frequently died from cardiac and respiratory failure. Observing the respiratory failure in DMD is one of the major causes of mortality we aimed to describe the morphological and ultrastructural data of trachea, lungs (conductive and respiratory portion of the system), and diaphragm muscle using histological and ultrastructural analysis. The diaphragm muscle showed discontinuous fibers architecture, with different diameter; a robust perimysium inflammatory infiltrate and some muscle cells displayed central nuclei. GRMD trachea and lungs presented collagen fibers and in addition, the GRMD lungs showed higher of levels collagen fibers that could limit the alveolar ducts and alveoli distension. Therefore, the most features observed were the collagen areas and fibrosis. We suggested in this study that the collagen remodeling in the trachea, lungs, and diaphragm muscle may increase fibrosis and affect the trachea, lungs, and diaphragm muscle function that can be a major cause of respiratory failure that occur in patients with DMD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Concrete Flow in Diaphragm Wall Panels : A Full-Scale In-Situ Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dalen, J.H.; Bosch, J.W.; Broere, W.

    2015-01-01

    Flow processes, taking place during the concreting of diaphragm wall panels (D-wall panels), are of great importance for the quality of the wall. During this phase, the bentonite, present in the excavated trench, should be completely replaced by concrete in a controlled way. In literature several

  3. Displacement and resonance behaviors of a piezoelectric diaphragm driven by a double-sided spiral electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Zhiyuan; Olfatnia, Mohammad; Miao, Jianmin; Wang, Zhihong

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) diaphragm actuated by double-sided patterned electrodes. Au/Cr electrodes were deposited on bulk PZT wafers by sputtering while patterned by a lift-off process. SU-8 thick film

  4. Changes in the Diaphragm Lipid Content after Administration of Streptozotocin and High-Fat Diet Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlomiej Lukaszuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The diaphragm is a dome-shaped skeletal muscle indispensable for breathing. Its activity contributes up to 70% of the total ventilatory function at rest. In comparison to other skeletal muscles, it is distinguished by an oxidative phenotype and uninterrupted cyclic contraction pattern. Surprisingly, the research regarding diaphragm diabetic phenotype particularly in the light of lipid-induced insulin resistance is virtually nonexistent. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 3 groups: control, streptozotocin-induced (STZ type-1 diabetes, and rodents fed with high-fat diet (HFD. Additionally, half of the animals from each group were administered with myriocin, a robust, selective inhibitor of ceramide synthesis and, therefore, a potent agent ameliorating insulin resistance. Diaphragm lipid contents were evaluated using chromatography. Fatty acid transporter expression was determined by Western blot. The STZ and HFD rats had increased concentration of lipids, namely, ceramides (CER and diacylglycerols (DAG. Interestingly, this coincided with an increased concentration of long-chain (C ≥ 16 saturated fatty acid species present in both the aforementioned lipid fractions. The CER/DAG accumulation was accompanied by an elevated fatty acid transporter expression (FATP-1 in HFD and FATP-4 in STZ. Surprisingly, we observed a significantly decreased triacylglycerol content in the diaphragms of STZ-treated rats.

  5. Quantification of diaphragm mechanics in Pompe disease using dynamic 3D MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogalle, Katja; Perez-Rovira, Adria; Ciet, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diaphragm weakness is the main reason for respiratory dysfunction in patients with Pompe disease, a progressive metabolic myopathy affecting respiratory and limb-girdle muscles. Since respiratory failure is the major cause of death among adult patients, early identification of respira......BACKGROUND: Diaphragm weakness is the main reason for respiratory dysfunction in patients with Pompe disease, a progressive metabolic myopathy affecting respiratory and limb-girdle muscles. Since respiratory failure is the major cause of death among adult patients, early identification...... methodology relies on image registration and lung surface extraction to quantify lung kinematics during breathing. This allows for the extraction of geometry and motion features of the lung that characterize the independent contribution of the diaphragm and the thoracic muscles to the respiratory cycle....... RESULTS: Results in 16 3D+t MRI scans (10 Pompe patients and 6 controls) of a slow expiratory maneuver show that kinematic analysis from dynamic 3D images reveals important additional information about diaphragm mechanics and respiratory muscle involvement when compared to conventional pulmonary function...

  6. Functional assessment of the diaphragm by speckle tracking ultrasound during inspiratory loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mos-Oppersma, Eline; Hatam, Nima; Doorduin, Jonne; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.; Marx, Gernot; Goetzenich, Andreas; Fritsch, Sebastian; Heunks, Leo M.A.; Bruells, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of diaphragmatic effort is challenging, especially in critically ill patients in the phase of weaning. Fractional thickening during inspiration assessed by ultrasound has been used to estimate diaphragm effort. It is unknown whether more sophisticated ultrasound techniques such as speckle

  7. Midbrain and medullary control of postinspiratory activity of the crural and costal diaphragm in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, Hari H.; Holstege, Gert

    Subramanian HH, Holstege G. Midbrain and medullary control of postinspiratory activity of the crural and costal diaphragm in vivo. J Neurophysiol 105: 2852-2862, 2011. First published March 30, 2011; doi:10.1152/jn.00168.2011.-Studies on brain stem respiratory neurons suggest that eupnea consists of

  8. Where Did the Water Go?: Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

    2007-01-01

    Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be…

  9. Comparison of clinical utility between diaphragm excursion and thickening change using ultrasonography to predict extubation success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jung-Wan; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Jong Deog; Kim, Ho Cheol

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aims Both diaphragmatic excursion and change in muscle thickening are measured using ultrasonography (US) to assess diaphragm function and mechanical ventilation weaning outcomes. However, which parameter can better predict successful extubation remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical utility of these two diaphragmatic parameters to predict extubation success. Methods This study included patients subjected to extubation trial in the medical or surgical intensive care unit of a university-affiliated hospital from May 2015 through February 2016. Diaphragm excursion and percent of thickening change (Δtdi%) were measured using US within 24 hours before extubation. Results Sixty patients were included, and 78.3% (47/60) of these patients were successfully extubated, whereas 21.7% (13/60) were not. The median degree of excursion was greater in patients with extubation success than in those with extubation failure (1.65 cm vs. 0.8 cm, p success had a greater Δtdi% than those with extubation failure (42.1% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.03). The areas under the receiver operating curve for excursion and Δtdi% were 0.836 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.717 to 0.919) and 0.698 (95% CI, 0.566 to 0.810), respectively (p = 0.017). Conclusions Diaphragm excursion seems more accurate than a change in the diaphragm thickness to predict extubation success. PMID:29050461

  10. Quantification of the variability of diaphragm motion and implications for treatment margin construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rit, Simon; van Herk, Marcel; Zijp, Lambert; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the variability of diaphragm motion during free-breathing radiotherapy of lung patients and its effect on treatment margins to account for geometric uncertainties. Thirty-three lung cancer patients were analyzed. Each patient had 5-19 cone-beam scans acquired during different treatment

  11. CFD Fuel Slosh Modeling of Fluid-Structure Interaction in Spacecraft Propellant Tanks with Diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sances, Dillon J.; Gangadharan, Sathya N.; Sudermann, James E.; Marsell, Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Liquid sloshing within spacecraft propellant tanks causes rapid energy dissipation at resonant modes, which can result in attitude destabilization of the vehicle. Identifying resonant slosh modes currently requires experimental testing and mechanical pendulum analogs to characterize the slosh dynamics. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques have recently been validated as an effective tool for simulating fuel slosh within free-surface propellant tanks. Propellant tanks often incorporate an internal flexible diaphragm to separate ullage and propellant which increases modeling complexity. A coupled fluid-structure CFD model is required to capture the damping effects of a flexible diaphragm on the propellant. ANSYS multidisciplinary engineering software employs a coupled solver for analyzing two-way Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) cases such as the diaphragm propellant tank system. Slosh models generated by ANSYS software are validated by experimental lateral slosh test results. Accurate data correlation would produce an innovative technique for modeling fuel slosh within diaphragm tanks and provide an accurate and efficient tool for identifying resonant modes and the slosh dynamic response.

  12. Diaphragm remodeling and compensatory respiratory mechanics in a canine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, A F; Petrov, M; Malik, A S; Mitchell, M A; Childers, M K; Bogan, J R; Seidner, G; Kornegay, J N; Stedman, H H

    2014-04-01

    Ventilatory insufficiency remains the leading cause of death and late stage morbidity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). To address critical gaps in our knowledge of the pathobiology of respiratory functional decline, we used an integrative approach to study respiratory mechanics in a translational model of DMD. In studies of individual dogs with the Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) mutation, we found evidence of rapidly progressive loss of ventilatory capacity in association with dramatic morphometric remodeling of the diaphragm. Within the first year of life, the mechanics of breathing at rest, and especially during pharmacological stimulation of respiratory control pathways in the carotid bodies, shift such that the primary role of the diaphragm becomes the passive elastic storage of energy transferred from abdominal wall muscles, thereby permitting the expiratory musculature to share in the generation of inspiratory pressure and flow. In the diaphragm, this physiological shift is associated with the loss of sarcomeres in series (∼ 60%) and an increase in muscle stiffness (∼ 900%) compared with those of the nondystrophic diaphragm, as studied during perfusion ex vivo. In addition to providing much needed endpoint measures for assessing the efficacy of therapeutics, we expect these findings to be a starting point for a more precise understanding of respiratory failure in DMD.

  13. Acute gastric volvulus secondary to eventration of the diaphragm in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singal A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an 18-month-old boy who presented with acute organoaxial volvulus of stomach secondary to eventration of diaphragm. Clinically, the child exhibited classical triad of epigastric distension, unproductive retching and inability to pass a nasogastric tube. Successful operative management is presented and relevant literature is discussed.

  14. Electrical activity of the diaphragm during nCPAP and high flow nasal cannula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, C. G.; Hutten, G. J.; Kraaijenga, J. V.; de Jongh, F. H.; van Kaam, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine if the electrical activity of the diaphragm, as measure of neural respiratory drive and breathing effort, changes over time in preterm infants transitioned from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) to high flow nasal cannula (HFNC). Design Prospective

  15. Design recommendations for the optimized continuity diaphragm for prestressed concrete bulb-T beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This research focused on prestressed concrete bulb-T (PCBT) beams made composite with a cast-in-place concrete deck and continuous over several spans through the use of continuity diaphragms. The current design procedure in AASHTO states that a conti...

  16. How Sharp is a Unicorn's Horn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter H.; Allignton, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Criticizes a study of the reliability and validity of curriculum-based reading inventories by L. S. Fuchs, D. Fuchs, and S. L. Deno and raises questions regarding the study's internal and external validity. (AEA)

  17. Assessment of Diaphragm and External Intercostals Fatigue from Surface EMG using Cervical Magnetic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ju Chang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed: (1 to test the reliability of surface electromyography (sEMG recording of the diaphragm and external intercostals contractions response to cervical magnetic stimulation (CMS, (2 to examine the amount and the types of inspiratory muscle fatigue that developed after maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV maneuvers.Ten male college students without physical disability (22.1±2.0 years old participated in the study and each completed a control (quiet breathing trial and a fatigue (MVV maneuvers trial sequentially. In the quiet breathing trial, the subjects maintained quiet breathing for five minutes. The subjects performed five maximal static inspiratory efforts and received five CMS before and after the quiet breathing. In the MVV trial, subjects performed five maximal inspiratory efforts and received five CMS before, immediately after, and ten minutes after two sets of MVV maneuvers performed five minutes apart. Maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax, sEMG of diaphragm and external intercostals during maximal static inspiratory efforts and during CMS were recorded. In the quiet breathing trial, high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC=0.95-0.99 were observed in all the variables. In the MVV trial, the PImax, the EMG amplitude and the median power frequency during maximal static inspiratory efforts significantly decreased in both the diaphragm and the external intercostals immediately after the MVV maneuvers Sensors 2008, 8 2175 (P 0.05. It is concluded that the sEMG recordings of the diaphragm during maximal static inspiratory efforts and in response to CMS allow reproducible sequential assessment of diaphragm contractility. MVV maneuvers resulted in inspiratory muscles fatigue, possibly central fatigue.

  18. Application Research of Horn Array Multi-Beam Antenna in Reference Source System for Satellite Interference Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Lin, Hui; Zhang, Qi

    2018-01-01

    The reference source system is a key factor to ensure the successful location of the satellite interference source. Currently, the traditional system used a mechanical rotating antenna which leaded to the disadvantages of slow rotation and high failure-rate, which seriously restricted the system’s positioning-timeliness and became its obvious weaknesses. In this paper, a multi-beam antenna scheme based on the horn array was proposed as a reference source for the satellite interference location, which was used as an alternative to the traditional reference source antenna. The new scheme has designed a small circularly polarized horn antenna as an element and proposed a multi-beamforming algorithm based on planar array. Moreover, the simulation analysis of horn antenna pattern, multi-beam forming algorithm and simulated satellite link cross-ambiguity calculation have been carried out respectively. Finally, cross-ambiguity calculation of the traditional reference source system has also been tested. The comparison between the results of computer simulation and the actual test results shows that the scheme is scientific and feasible, obviously superior to the traditional reference source system.

  19. Coursing with Coils: The Only Orchestral Instrument Harder Than the French Horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Plumley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Playing the horn has become not only more sophisticated and accurate, but simpler and more efficient for the horn player. The natural horn, used in a variety ways in early history, demanded an incredible level of skill and precision, more than our valved horn today in some ways because it required a more accurate ear, more embouchure dexterity, and the necessity of wrangling crooks for different keys. Thus, it required many practiced skills of the player that are no longer as necessary as they once were. This paper discusses each of these demands along with the history of the horn, its uses and popularity, and how it compares in construction to the valved horn.

  20. Spherical Horn Array for Wideband Propagation Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2011-01-01

    properties and coupling between the elements are investigated via measurements and numerical simulations. Radiation patterns and sum beams of the array on selected frequencies throughout the band are also presented. Based on the obtained results it is concluded that the array is a good candidate...

  1. HYPERDIRE. HYPERgeometric functions DIfferential REduction. MATEMATICA based packages for differential reduction of generalized hypergeometric functions. F{sub D} and F{sub S} Horn-type hypergeometric functions of three variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytev, Vladimir V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Moch, Sven-Olaf [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-12-15

    HYPERDIRE is a project devoted to the creation of a set of Mathematica based programs for the differential reduction of hypergeometric functions. The current version includes two parts: the first one, FdFunction, for manipulations with Appell hypergeometric functions F{sub D} of r variables; and the second one, FsFunction, for manipulations with Lauricella-Saran hypergeometric functions F{sub S} of three variables. Both functions are related with one-loop Feynman diagrams.

  2. Alpine ibex males grow large horns at no survival cost for most of their lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toïgo, Carole; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Loison, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Large horns or antlers require a high energy allocation to produce and carry both physiological and social reproductive costs. Following the principle of energy allocation that implies trade-offs among fitness components, growing large weapons early in life should thus reduce future growth and survival. Evidence for such costs is ambiguous, however, partly because individual heterogeneity can counterbalance trade-offs. Individuals with larger horns or antlers may be of better quality and thus have a greater capacity to survive. We investigated trade-offs between male early horn growth and future horn growth, baseline mortality, onset of actuarial senescence, and rate of ageing in an Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex) population. Horn growth of males in early life was positively correlated to their horn length throughout their entire life. Cohort variation and individual heterogeneity both accounted for among-individual variation in horn length, suggesting both long-lasting effects of early life conditions and individual-specific horn growth trajectories. Early horn growth did not influence annual survival until 12 years of age, indicating that males do not invest in horn growth at survival costs over most of their lifetime. However, males with fast-growing horns early in life tended to have lower survival at very old ages. Individual heterogeneity, along with the particular life-history tactic of male ibex (weak participation to the rut until an old age after which they burn out in high mating investment), are likely to explain why the expected trade-off between horn growth and survival does not show up, at least until very old ages.

  3. Studies on thermo-elastic heating of horns used in ultrasonic plastic welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopa Rani, M; Prakasan, K; Rudramoorthy, R

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic welding horn is half wavelength section or tool used to focus the ultrasonic vibrations to the components being welded. The horn is designed in such a way that it maximizes the amplitude of the sound wave passing through it. The ends of the horn represent the displacement anti-nodes and the center the 'node' of the wave. As the horns perform 20,000 cycles of expansion and contraction per second, they are highly stressed at the nodes and are heated owing to thermo-elastic effects. Considerable temperature rise may be observed in the horn, at the nodal region when working at high amplitudes indicating high stress levels leading to failure of horns due to cyclic loading. The limits for amplitude must therefore be evaluated for the safe working of the horn. Horns made of different materials have different thermo-elastic behaviors and hence different temperatures at the nodes and antinodes. This temperature field can be used as a control mechanism for setting the amplitude/weld parameters. Safe stress levels can be predicted using modal and harmonic analyses followed by a stress analysis to study the effect of cyclic loads. These are achieved using 'Ansys'. The maximum amplitude level obtained from the stress analysis is used as input for 'Comsol' to predict the temperature field. The actual temperature developed in the horn during operation is measured using infrared camera and compared with the simulated temperature. From experiments, it is observed that horn made of titanium had the lowest temperature rise at the critical region and can be expected to operate at amplitudes up to 77 μm without suffering failure due to cyclic loading. The method of predicting thermo-elastic stresses and temperature may be adopted by the industry for operating the horn within the safe stress limits thereby extending the life of the horn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Derivation of Conditions for the Normal Gain Behavior of Conical Horns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Yeng Tan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Monotonically increasing gain-versus-frequency pattern is in general expected to be a characteristic of aperture antennas that include the smooth-wall conical horn. While optimum gain conical horns do naturally exhibit this behavior, nonoptimum horns need to meet certain criterion: a minimum axial length for given aperture diameter, or, alternatively, a maximum aperture diameter for the given axial length. In this paper, approximate expressions are derived to determine these parameters.

  5. Feeding ecology of two endangered sympatric megaherbivores: Asian elephant Elephas maximus and greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis in lowland Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradhan, N.M.B.; Wegge, P.; Moe, S.R.; Shrestha, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the diets of low-density but increasing populations of sympatric Asian elephants Elephas maximus and greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis in the Bardia National Park in lowland Nepal. A microhistological technique based on faecal material was used to estimate the seasonal

  6. Coursing with Coils: The Only Orchestral Instrument Harder Than the French Horn

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah R. Plumley

    2016-01-01

    Playing the horn has become not only more sophisticated and accurate, but simpler and more efficient for the horn player. The natural horn, used in a variety ways in early history, demanded an incredible level of skill and precision, more than our valved horn today in some ways because it required a more accurate ear, more embouchure dexterity, and the necessity of wrangling crooks for different keys. Thus, it required many practiced skills of the player that are no longer as necessary as the...

  7. Discrimination of the hard keratins animal horn and chelonian shell using attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscardi, Brianna; Welsh, Wendy; Kennedy, Anthony

    2012-05-01

    The ability to discriminate between objects manufactured from animal horn and chelonian (turtle, tortoise, or terrapin) shell is important from a cultural and archeological perspective such that it may allow conservators to determine the appropriate treatment and long-term care solution. It would also aid curators in identifying and cataloging items manufactured from these materials. Discrimination and classification is also a valuable tool for those involved in tracking the illegal trade in restricted materials of this nature. Attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, using a single reflection diamond internal reflection element (IRE), coupled with discrimination analysis was used to analyze a total of thirty-nine samples (29 calibration samples, 10 validation samples). A discrimination analysis model was constructed using Mahalanobis distances to classify spectra into one of two classes. The model was then subsequently used to successfully classify all validation samples and correctly identify them as animal horn or chelonian shell based on second-derivative spectra of the amide I and II regions. This technique requires minimal to no sample preparation and may be used to nondestructively identify very small samples successfully without performing detailed secondary structural curve-fitting routines. This model should be a valuable resource to museums, conservators, and wildlife management programs for rapidly and reliably discriminating between animal horn and chelonian shell.

  8. Depletion of Pax7+ satellite cells does not affect diaphragm adaptations to running in young or aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murach, Kevin A; Confides, Amy L; Ho, Angel; Jackson, Janna R; Ghazala, Lina S; Peterson, Charlotte A; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E

    2017-10-01

    Satellite cell depletion does not affect diaphragm adaptations to voluntary wheel running in young or aged mice. Satellite cell depletion early in life (4 months of age) has minimal effect on diaphragm phenotype by old age (24 months). Prolonged satellite cell depletion in the diaphragm does not result in excessive extracellular matrix accumulation, in contrast to what has been reported in hind limb muscles. Up-regulation of Pax3 mRNA+ cells after satellite cell depletion in young and aged mice suggests that Pax3+ cells may compensate for a loss of Pax7+ satellite cells in the diaphragm. Future investigations should focus on the role of Pax3+ cells in the diaphragm during adaptation to exercise and ageing. Satellite cell contribution to unstressed diaphragm is higher compared to hind limb muscles, which is probably attributable to constant activation of this muscle to drive ventilation. Whether satellite cell depletion negatively impacts diaphragm quantitative and qualitative characteristics under stressed conditions in young and aged mice is unknown. We therefore challenged the diaphragm with prolonged running activity in the presence and absence of Pax7+ satellite cells in young and aged mice using an inducible Pax7 CreER -R26R DTA model. Mice were vehicle (Veh, satellite cell-replete) or tamoxifen (Tam, satellite cell-depleted) treated at 4 months of age and were then allowed to run voluntarily at 6 months (young) and 22 months (aged). Age-matched, cage-dwelling, Veh- and Tam-treated mice without wheel access served as activity controls. Diaphragm muscles were analysed from young (8 months) and aged (24 months) mice. Satellite cell depletion did not alter diaphragm mean fibre cross-sectional area, fibre type distribution or extracellular matrix content in young or aged mice, regardless of running activity. Resting in vivo diaphragm function was also unaffected by satellite cell depletion. Myonuclear density was maintained in young satellite cell

  9. THE EFFECT OF INNER DIAPHRAGMS AND NON-CONTINUOUS SILL SECTION ON THE STIFFNESS OF AUTOMOTIVE B-PILLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the knowledge on the behaviour of T-frame under specific loading will be obtained by experimental methods in order to investigate the deflection of the vehicle B-pillar or T-frame. In addition, a series of T-frame were designed with inner diaphragm at various location in the sill member in order to investigate the effect of inner diaphragm and noncontinuous closed hat section in the sill member. Lastly, the results from the experimental tests were compared with the finite element analysis results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the inner diaphragm in the automotive B-pillar.

  10. Overexpression of antioxidant enzymes in diaphragm muscle does not alter contraction-induced fatigue or recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, Joseph M.; DeRuisseau, Keith C.; Whidden, Melissa A.; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan; Song, Wook; Vrabas, Ioannis S.; Powers, Scott K.

    2010-01-01

    Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are necessary to optimize muscle force production in unfatigued muscle. In contrast, sustained high levels of ROS production have been linked to impaired muscle force production and contraction-induced skeletal muscle fatigue. Using genetically engineered mice, we tested the hypothesis that the independent transgenic overexpression of catalase (CAT), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD; SOD1) or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD; SOD2) antioxidant enzymes would negatively affect force production in unfatigued diaphragm muscle but would delay the development of muscle fatigue and enhance force recovery after fatiguing contractions. Diaphragm muscle from wild-type littermates (WT) and from CAT, SOD1 and SOD2 overexpressing mice were subjected to an in vitro contractile protocol to investigate the force–frequency characteristics, the fatigue properties and the time course of recovery from fatigue. The CAT, SOD1 and SOD2 overexpressors produced less specific force (in N cm−2) at stimulation frequencies of 20–300 Hz and produced lower maximal tetanic force than WT littermates. The relative development of muscle fatigue and recovery from fatigue were not influenced by transgenic overexpression of any antioxidant enzyme. Morphologically, the mean cross-sectional area (in μm2) of diaphragm myofibres expressing myosin heavy chain type IIA was decreased in both CAT and SOD2 transgenic animals, and the percentage of non-contractile tissue increased in diaphragms from all transgenic mice. In conclusion, our results do not support the hypothesis that overexpression of independent antioxidant enzymes protects diaphragm muscle from contraction-induced fatigue or improves recovery from fatigue. Moreover, our data are consistent with the concept that a basal level of ROS is important to optimize muscle force production, since transgenic overexpression of major cellular antioxidants is associated with

  11. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States and Few-Body Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Pepe, Francesco V.

    2011-12-01

    The generation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states is a crucial problem in quantum information. We derive general conditions for obtaining GHZ states as eigenstates of a Hamiltonian. We find that a necessary condition for an n-qubit GHZ state to be a nondegenerate eigenstate of a Hamiltonian is the presence of m-qubit couplings with m≥[(n+1)/2]. Moreover, we introduce a Hamiltonian with a GHZ eigenstate and derive sufficient conditions for the removal of the degeneracy.

  12. Foreign aid and extremism in the Horn of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2014-01-01

    -state actors such as warlord militias and religious extremists. Such fragmented conflicting factions- most of them without clear national vision and project- have since received external aid. By instrumentally focusing and dealing with such divisive elements, donor countries aimed and hoped for potentially......-religious extremists. Such securitization approaches imposed terror and counter terror warfare on peaceful civil society efforts (Kaldor, 2013). In the Horn of Africa, Africans fight each other in proxy wars apparently sponsored by external actors. The approach therefore undermined civic constituents trying to re...

  13. A strange horn between Paolo Mantegazza and Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Carla; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    During the preparation of an exhibition in Pavia dedicated to the centennial anniversary of the death of the Italian Pathologist Paolo Mantegazza, a strange cheratinic horn was found at the Museum for the History of the University of Pavia labelled as 'spur of a cock transplanted into an ear of a cow.' After some historical investigation, we found this strange object was at the centre of a scientific correspondence between Mantegazza and Charles Darwin, who made reference to it in his book The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Wind Farm Wake: The Horns Rev Photo Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Rasmussen, Leif; Peña, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine the nowadays well-known wind farm wake photographs taken on 12 February 2008 at the offshore Horns Rev 1 wind farm. The meteorological conditions are described from observations from several satellite sensors quantifying clouds, surface wind vectors and sea surf...... in the wake regions with relatively high axial velocities and high turbulent kinetic energy. The wind speed is near cut-in and most turbines produce very little power. The rotational pattern of spiraling bands produces the large-scale structure of the wake fog....

  15. ESR dating studies on fossil of elaphurus davidianus horn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shiming; Wang Hong; Tang Jingjuan; Yan Xiaomin; Guo Shiqing

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of studies on elephant tooth fossil, ESR dating of elaphurus davidianus horn fossil found in Anhui Province was reported. The sample examined by TEM electron spectrum is composed of hydroxyapatite. ESR experiments showed that the solid bone sample can be chosen as dating material. According to the contents of U, Th and K in the sample determined by ICP, the annual dose of radiation was calculated by using the linear uranium accumulation model and disequilibrium decay. The age of this fossil was determined to be 2.5 x 10 4 years

  16. Entanglement Distillation from Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger Shares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrana, Péter; Christandl, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    We study the problem of converting a product of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states shared by subsets of several parties in an arbitrary way into GHZ states shared by every party. Such a state can be described by a hypergraph on the parties as vertices and with each hyperedge corresponding to a GHZ state shared among the parties incident with it. Our result is that if SLOCC transformations are allowed, then the best asymptotic rate is the minimum of bipartite log-ranks of the initial state, which in turn equals the minimum cut of the hypergraph. This generalizes a result by Strassen on the asymptotic subrank of the matrix multiplication tensor.

  17. Generation of Path-Encoded Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, N.; Menotti, M.; Sipe, J. E.; Liscidini, M.

    2017-11-01

    We study the generation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states of three path-encoded photons. Inspired by the seminal work of Bouwmeester et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1345 (1999), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.1345] on polarization-entangled GHZ states, we find a corresponding path representation for the photon states of an optical circuit, identify the elements required for the state generation, and propose a possible implementation of our strategy. Besides the practical advantage of employing an integrated system that can be fabricated with proven lithographic techniques, our example suggests that it is possible to enhance the generation efficiency by using microring resonators.

  18. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and few-body Hamiltonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Pepe, Francesco V

    2011-12-23

    The generation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states is a crucial problem in quantum information. We derive general conditions for obtaining GHZ states as eigenstates of a Hamiltonian. We find that a necessary condition for an n-qubit GHZ state to be a nondegenerate eigenstate of a Hamiltonian is the presence of m-qubit couplings with m≥[(n+1)/2]. Moreover, we introduce a Hamiltonian with a GHZ eigenstate and derive sufficient conditions for the removal of the degeneracy.

  19. Asymmetric multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosal, Darwin; Oh, C.H.; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Kwek, L.C.; Zukowski, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study the multiparticle generalized GHZ states. It has been shown that for an odd number of qubits and for a specific range of parameters, they do not violate any Bell inequality for correlation functions. We show here both analytically and numerically that, nevertheless, such states violate local realism, once a more detailed analysis of the correlations is made than the one allowed by correlation functions. The results imply that multiparticle Clauser-Horne-type inequalities involving probabilities are stronger tools for analyzing violations of local realism in multiparticle systems than inequalities involving the correlation functions

  20. Novel Time-domain Ultra-wide Band TEM Horn Antenna for Highway GPR Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin De

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on transmission line theory and impedance transition, we design an ultra-wideband Transverse ElectroMagnetic (TEM horn antenna that takes advantage of index gradient structure and loading techniques and is optimized for highway Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR applications. We use numerical simulation to analyze the effects of different curved surfaces as an extension of the antenna and further improve the antenna performance by the use of a metallic reflective cavity and distributed resistor loading. We then fabricated an antenna based on the optimization results and determined the Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR of the antenna to be less than 2 for bandwidths ranging from 0.9–12.6 GHz. The waveform fidelity of the antenna is also good and when we applied this antenna to highway scenarios, it achieved good results.

  1. Functional restoration of the paralyzed diaphragm in high cervical quadriplegia via phrenic nerve neurotization utilizing the functional spinal accessory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-liang; Li, Jian-jun; Zhang, Shao-cheng; Du, Liang-jie; Gao, Feng; Li, Jun; Wang, Yu-ming; Gong, Hui-ming; Cheng, Liang

    2011-08-01

    The authors report a case of functional improvement of the paralyzed diaphragm in high cervical quadriplegia via phrenic nerve neurotization using a functional spinal accessory nerve. Complete spinal cord injury at the C-2 level was diagnosed in a 44-year-old man. Left diaphragm activity was decreased, and the right diaphragm was completely paralyzed. When the level of metabolism or activity (for example, fever, sitting, or speech) slightly increased, dyspnea occurred. The patient underwent neurotization of the right phrenic nerve with the trapezius branch of the right spinal accessory nerve at 11 months postinjury. Four weeks after surgery, training of the synchronous activities of the trapezius muscle and inspiration was conducted. Six months after surgery, motion was observed in the previously paralyzed right diaphragm. The lung function evaluation indicated improvements in vital capacity and tidal volume. This patient was able to sit in a wheelchair and conduct outdoor activities without assisted ventilation 12 months after surgery.

  2. The Effects of Phrenic Nerve Degeneration by Axotomy and Crush on the Electrical Activities of Diaphragm Muscles of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkiş, Mehmet Eşref; Kavak, Servet; Sayır, Fuat; Him, Aydin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of axotomy and crush-related degeneration on the electrical activities of diaphragm muscle strips of experimental rats. In the present study, twenty-one male Wistar-albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The animals in the first group were not crushed or axotomized and served as controls. Phrenic nerves of the rats in the second and third groups were crushed or axotomized in the diaphragm muscle. Resting membrane potential (RMP) was decreased significantly in both crush and axotomy of diaphragm muscle strips of experimental rats (p phrenic nerves may produce electrical activities in the diaphragm muscle of the rat by depolarization time and half-repolarization time prolonged in crush and axotomy rats.

  3. Enhanced Transmissions Through Three-dimensional Cascade Sharp Waveguide Bends Using C-slit Diaphragms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Hu, Bowei; Zhang, Aofang; Gao, Dongxing; Wang, Hui; Shi, Ayuan; Lei, Zhenya; Yang, Pei

    2017-03-21

    Transmission properties through sharp rectangular waveguide bends are investigated to determine the cut-off bending angles of the wave propagation. We show that a simple metallic diaphragm at the bending corner with properly devised sub-wavelength defect apertures of C-slits would be readily to turn on the transmissions with scarce reflections of the propagating modes, while preserving the integrity of the transmitting fields soon after the bends. In particularly, our design also demonstrates the capability of eliminating all the unwanted cavity resonant transmissions that exist in the three-dimensional cascade sharp waveguide bends, and solely let the desired signals travel along the whole passage of the waveguide. The present approach, using C-slit diaphragms to support the sharp bending behaviors of the guided waves with greatly enhanced transmissions, would be especially effective in constructing novel waveguides and pave the way for the development of more compact and miniaturized electromagnetic systems that exploit these waveguide bends.

  4. Developing a new ultrasonic method to assess diaphragm movement and comparing the accuracy with existing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo Skaarup, Søren; Løkke, Anders; Laursen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Diaphragm is the most important respiratory muscle. Movement can be evaluated with ultrasound. Currently two different methods are used, M-mode and B-mode. However, diaphragm movement is complex.Aim: We hypothesized that the two existing methods are imprecise as they only measure...... film clips independently to assess inter-rater variability.Results: We found a linear correlation between FVC and diaphragmatic movement. M-mode had Pearson r=0.84 (95%CI 0.76-0.89), B-mode had r=0.68 (95%CI 0.55-0.79) and Area-measurement had r=0.84 (95%CI 0.77-0.90). Inter-rater agreement was r=0...

  5. Structure of diaphragm floor of reactor container, construction module and construction method thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Tadaaki; Ushiroda, Koichi; Matsuura, Tadashi; Komaru, Toshimi; Nemoto, Yoichi; Makita, Tatsuo; Maezawa, Sumito.

    1998-01-01

    A diaphragm floor of a reactor container has a structure comprising iron beams buried in concretes and connection members connecting the iron beams and liners, in which the liners are supported by the iron beams, and the load of the iron reinforced concretes when formed on the liner is supported by the iron beams thereby enabling to construct a diaphragm floor with no or reduced amount of temporary support members. As a result, the construction operation can be promoted by reducing the amount of the temporary support members or making the removing operation of the temporary support members unnecessary. The concrete layer comprises at least two upper and lower layers of a firstly formed concrete layer and a subsequently formed concrete layer, and the iron beams have such a strength capable of enduring the load applied when the firstly formed concrete is placed. (N.H.)

  6. Ensemble-based Probabilistic Forecasting at Horns Rev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    forecasting methodology. In a first stage, ensemble forecasts of meteorological variables are converted to power through a suitable power curve model. This modelemploys local polynomial regression, and is adoptively estimated with an orthogonal fitting method. The obtained ensemble forecasts of wind power...

  7. In vitro glucose uptake by isolated rat hemi-diaphragm study of Aegle marmelos Correa root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subban Ravi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the root of Aegle marmelos, a medicinal plant, was fractionated into eight fractions using column chromatography. The anti-diabetic activity of all the fractions was studied using the glucose uptake by isolated rat hemi-diaphragm in vitro model. Using the bioassay-guided fractionation, two compounds 1 and 2 were isolated by column chromatography and identified as 6-methyl-4-chromanone and skimmianine respectively by NMR and mass spectral methods.

  8. Investigation by the Rutherford backscattering method of impurity deposited on the T-3M tokamak diaphragm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danelyan, L.S.; Egorova, I.M.; Kulikauskas, V.S.; Baratov, D.G.; Belykh, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Rutherford backscattering of helium-4 ions was used for investigation of impurity deposited on the annular graphite diaphragm as a result of the interaction between hydrogen plasma and liquid-metal spray limiter. The experimental RBS spectra distributions of the impurity elements surface densities along the direction from plasma to the chamber wall are presented as depth of the elements. The erosion coefficient of the main liquid-metal limiter element has been estimated

  9. Oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure in mice: impact on lung tissue and diaphragm muscle,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Portão de Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate oxidative damage (lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS], and carbonylation and inflammation (expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin [p-AMPK and p-mTOR, respectively] in the lung parenchyma and diaphragm muscles of male C57BL-6 mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS for 7, 15, 30, 45, or 60 days. METHODS: Thirty-six male C57BL-6 mice were divided into six groups (n = 6/group: a control group; and five groups exposed to CS for 7, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with control mice, CS-exposed mice presented lower body weights at 30 days. In CS-exposed mice (compared with control mice, the greatest differences (increases in TBARS levels were observed on day 7 in diaphragm-muscle, compared with day 45 in lung tissue; the greatest differences (increases in carbonyl levels were observed on day 7 in both tissue types; and sulfhydryl levels were lower, in both tissue types, at all time points. In lung tissue and diaphragm muscle, p-AMPK expression exhibited behavior similar to that of TBARS. Expression of p-mTOR was higher than the control value on days 7 and 15 in lung tissue, as it was on day 45 in diaphragm muscle. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that CS exposure produces oxidative damage, not only in lung tissue but also (primarily in muscle tissue, having an additional effect on respiratory muscle, as is frequently observed in smokers with COPD.

  10. Rupture traumatique du diaphragme au CHU Gabriel Touré de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rupture traumatique du diaphragme au CHU Gabriel Touré de Bamako, Mali. B T Dembélé, A Togo, A Traoré, Y Sidibé, M Konaté, A A Traoré, A Bah, T Koné, I Tounkara, L Kanté, I Diakité, B Karembé, A Koné, M.I Mangane, G Diallo ...

  11. 12MW Horns Rev experiment[Wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Pena, A; Mikkelsen, T.; Courtney, M.; Antoniou, I.; Gryning, S.-E.; Hansen, P. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept. (Denmark); Soerensen, P.B. [DONG Energy (Denmark)

    2007-10-15

    The 12MW project with the full title '12 MW wind turbines: the scientific basis for their operation at 70 to 270 m height offshore' has the goal to experimentally investigate the wind and turbulence characteristics between 70 and 270 m above sea level and thereby establish the scientific basis relevant for the next generation of huge 12 MW wind turbines operating offshore. The report describes the experimental campaign at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm at which observations from Doppler Laser LIDAR and SODAR were collected from 3 May to 24 October 2006. The challenges for mounting and operating the instruments on the transformer platform at Horns Rev were overcome by a close collaboration between DONG energy and Risoe National Laboratory DTU. The site is presented. In particular, three tall offshore meteorological masts, up to 70 m tall, provided a useful source of meteorological data for comparison to the remotely sensed wind and turbulence observations. The comparison showed high correlation. The LIDAR and SODAR wind and turbulence observations were collected far beyond the height of the masts (up to 160 m above sea level) and the extended profiles were compared to the logarithmic wind profile. Further studies on this part of the work are on-going. Technical detail on LIDAR and SODAR are provided as well as theoretical work on turbulence and atmospheric boundary layer flow. Selected results from the experimental campaign are reported. (au)

  12. Slack KNa Channels Influence Dorsal Horn Synapses and Nociceptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evely, Katherine M; Pryce, Kerri D; Bausch, Anne E; Lukowski, Robert; Ruth, Peter; Haj-Dahmane, Samir; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2017-01-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channel Slack (Kcnt1, Slo2.2) is highly expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons where it regulates neuronal firing. Several studies have implicated the Slack channel in pain processing, but the precise mechanism or the levels within the sensory pathway where channels are involved remain unclear. Here, we furthered the behavioral characterization of Slack channel knockout mice and for the first time examined the role of Slack channels in the superficial, pain-processing lamina of the dorsal horn. We performed whole-cell recordings from spinal cord slices to examine the intrinsic and synaptic properties of putative inhibitory and excitatory lamina II interneurons. Slack channel deletion altered intrinsic properties and synaptic drive to favor an overall enhanced excitatory tone. We measured the amplitudes and paired pulse ratio of paired excitatory post-synaptic currents at primary afferent synapses evoked by electrical stimulation of the dorsal root entry zone. We found a substantial decrease in the paired pulse ratio at synapses in Slack deleted neurons compared to wildtype, indicating increased presynaptic release from primary afferents. Corroborating these data, plantar test showed Slack knockout mice have an enhanced nociceptive responsiveness to localized thermal stimuli compared to wildtype mice. Our findings suggest that Slack channels regulate synaptic transmission within the spinal cord dorsal horn and by doing so establishes the threshold for thermal nociception.

  13. Christoph Hein's Horns Ende. Historical Revisionism: A Process of Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Bulmahn

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available In light of recent developments, the historical record of the German Democratic Republic will be closely reexamined as the two Germanies merge into one country. Christoph Hein's novel Horns Ende undoubtedly will play a role in the debate about the GDR past, because it is a clear repudiation of official historical mythmaking. The novel examines in detail the political and social fiber of a small town in the GDR during the fifties. Horn returns to the town some thirty years after his death, and entices the townspeople to recount their lives during the early years of the socialist republic. These recollections initiate a dialogue between author, reader and the townspeople. The outcome of these exchanges is a skillful dissection of the effects of Stalinism on ordinary citizens, and it revises perceptions of a period in GDR history that officially had been touted as politically and socially harmonious. Hein challenges the reader to reconstruct a historical record that more closely reflects the experiences of ordinary people, and in doing so he exposes past official historical mythmaking. He is convinced that a society's survival is dependent upon the accuracy of its history; historical revision therefore must not be left to those in power.

  14. Wind Farm Wake: The 2016 Horns Rev Photo Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Bay Hasager

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind farm wakes were observed and photographed in foggy conditions at Horns Rev 2 on 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC. These new images show highly contrasting conditions regarding the wind speed, turbulence intensity, atmospheric stability, weather conditions and wind farm wake development as compared to the Horns Rev 1 photographs from 12 February 2008. The paper examines the atmospheric conditions from satellite images, radiosondes, lidar and wind turbine data and compares the observations to results from atmospheric meso-scale modelling and large eddy simulation. Key findings are that a humid and warm air mass was advected from the southwest over cold sea and the dew-point temperature was such that cold-water advection fog formed in a shallow layer. The flow was stably stratified and the freestream wind speed was 13 m/s at hub height, which means that most turbines produced at or near rated power. The wind direction was southwesterly and long, narrow wakes persisted several rotor diameters downwind of the wind turbines. Eventually mixing of warm air from aloft dispersed the fog in the far wake region of the wind farm.

  15. Partial Support Ventilation and Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidants Protect against Ventilator-Induced Decreases in Diaphragm Muscle Protein Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Hudson

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life-saving intervention in patients in respiratory failure. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of diaphragm atrophy and weakness. MV-induced diaphragmatic weakness is significant because inspiratory muscle dysfunction is a risk factor for problematic weaning from MV. Therefore, developing a clinical intervention to prevent MV-induced diaphragm atrophy is important. In this regard, MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy occurs due to both increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis. While efforts to impede MV-induced increased proteolysis in the diaphragm are well-documented, only one study has investigated methods of preserving diaphragmatic protein synthesis during prolonged MV. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of two therapeutic interventions that, conceptually, have the potential to sustain protein synthesis in the rat diaphragm during prolonged MV. Specifically, these experiments were designed to: 1 determine if partial-support MV will protect against the decrease in diaphragmatic protein synthesis that occurs during prolonged full-support MV; and 2 establish if treatment with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant will maintain diaphragm protein synthesis during full-support MV. Compared to spontaneously breathing animals, full support MV resulted in a significant decline in diaphragmatic protein synthesis during 12 hours of MV. In contrast, diaphragm protein synthesis rates were maintained during partial support MV at levels comparable to spontaneous breathing animals. Further, treatment of animals with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant prevented oxidative stress during full support MV and maintained diaphragm protein synthesis at the level of spontaneous breathing animals. We conclude that treatment with mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants or the use of partial-support MV are potential strategies to preserve diaphragm protein synthesis during prolonged MV.

  16. Partial Support Ventilation and Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidants Protect against Ventilator-Induced Decreases in Diaphragm Muscle Protein Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Matthew B; Smuder, Ashley J; Nelson, W Bradley; Wiggs, Michael P; Shimkus, Kevin L; Fluckey, James D; Szeto, Hazel H; Powers, Scott K

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention in patients in respiratory failure. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of diaphragm atrophy and weakness. MV-induced diaphragmatic weakness is significant because inspiratory muscle dysfunction is a risk factor for problematic weaning from MV. Therefore, developing a clinical intervention to prevent MV-induced diaphragm atrophy is important. In this regard, MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy occurs due to both increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis. While efforts to impede MV-induced increased proteolysis in the diaphragm are well-documented, only one study has investigated methods of preserving diaphragmatic protein synthesis during prolonged MV. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of two therapeutic interventions that, conceptually, have the potential to sustain protein synthesis in the rat diaphragm during prolonged MV. Specifically, these experiments were designed to: 1) determine if partial-support MV will protect against the decrease in diaphragmatic protein synthesis that occurs during prolonged full-support MV; and 2) establish if treatment with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant will maintain diaphragm protein synthesis during full-support MV. Compared to spontaneously breathing animals, full support MV resulted in a significant decline in diaphragmatic protein synthesis during 12 hours of MV. In contrast, diaphragm protein synthesis rates were maintained during partial support MV at levels comparable to spontaneous breathing animals. Further, treatment of animals with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant prevented oxidative stress during full support MV and maintained diaphragm protein synthesis at the level of spontaneous breathing animals. We conclude that treatment with mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants or the use of partial-support MV are potential strategies to preserve diaphragm protein synthesis during prolonged MV.

  17. The Many Faces of Compliance: The Supreme Court's Decision in "Horne v. Flores"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thro, William E.

    2009-01-01

    At first blush, the Supreme Court's recent decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009) appears to be about the proper standard for determining when to modify a previous judgment, a topic that would interest only civil procedure geeks. Yet, on closer examination, "Horne" is about giving local and state officials discretion to solve education problems and,…

  18. The flora of woody plants and vegetation on the Horn of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    There are about one thousand species of woody plants that occur naturally on the Horn of Africa, including trees and large shrubs, and they have many functions in the highly varied ecosystem on the Horn, including soil conservation and the prevention of flooding during tropical rainstorms. For hi...

  19. Monte Carlo analysis of thermal transpiration effects in capacitance diaphragm gauges with helicoidal baffle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, M; Stefanov, S; Wüest, M

    2012-01-01

    The Capacitance Diaphragm Gauge (CDG) is one of the most widely used vacuum gauges in low and middle vacuum ranges. This device consists basically of a very thin ceramic or metal diaphragm which forms one of the electrodes of a cap acitor. The pressure is determined by measuring the variation in the capacitance due to the deflection of the diaphragm caused by the pressure difference established across the membrane. In order to minimize zero drift, some CDGs are operated keeping the sensor at a higher temperature. This difference in the temperature between the sensor and the vacuum chamber makes the behaviour of the gauge non-linear due to thermal transpiration effects. This effect becomes more significant when we move from the transitional flow to the free molecular regime. Besides, CDGs may incorporate different baffle systems to avoid the condensation on the membrane or its contamination. In this work, the thermal transpiration effect on the behaviour of a rarefied gas and on the measurements in a CDG with a helicoidal baffle system is investigated by using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). The study covers the behaviour of the system under the whole range of rarefaction, from the continuum up to the free molecular limit and the results are compared with empirical results. Moreover, the influence of the boundary conditions on the thermal transpiration effects is investigated by using Maxwell boundary conditions.

  20. Exercise Prevents Diaphragm Wasting Induced by Cigarette Smoke through Modulation of Antioxidant Genes and Metalloproteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracielle Vieira Ramos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of physical training on an antioxidant canonical pathway and metalloproteinases activity in diaphragm muscle in a model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods. Male mice were randomized into control, smoke, exercise, and exercise + smoke groups, which were maintained in trial period of 24 weeks. Gene expression of kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1; nuclear factor erythroid-2 like 2; and heme-oxygenase1 by polymerase chain reaction was performed. Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 activities were analyzed by zymography. Exercise capacity was evaluated by treadmill exercise test before and after the protocol. Results. Aerobic training inhibited diaphragm muscle wasting induced by cigarette smoke exposure. This inhibition was associated with improved aerobic capacity in those animals that were submitted to 24 weeks of aerobic training, when compared to the control and smoke groups, which were not submitted to training. The aerobic training also downregulated the increase of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 and upregulated antioxidant genes, such as nuclear factor erythroid-2 like 2 (NRF2 and heme-oxygenase1 (HMOX1, in exercise + smoke group compared to smoke group. Conclusions. Treadmill aerobic training protects diaphragm muscle wasting induced by cigarette smoke exposure involving upregulation of antioxidant genes and downregulation of matrix metalloproteinases.

  1. Comparison of stethoscope bell and diaphragm, and of stethoscope tube length, for clinical blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyu; Griffiths, Clive; Murray, Alan; Zheng, Dingchang

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of stethoscope side and tube length on auscultatory blood pressure (BP) measurement. Thirty-two healthy participants were studied. For each participant, four measurements with different combinations of stethoscope characteristics (bell or diaphragm side, standard or short tube length) were each recorded at two repeat sessions, and eight Korotkoff sound recordings were played twice on separate days to one experienced listener to determine the systolic and diastolic BPs (SBP and DBP). Analysis of variance was carried out to study the measurement repeatability between the two repeat sessions and between the two BP determinations on separate days, as well as the effects of stethoscope side and tube length. There was no significant paired difference between the repeat sessions and between the repeat determinations for both SBP and DBP (all P-values>0.10, except the repeat session for SBP using short tube and diaphragm). The key result was that there was a small but significantly higher DBP on using the bell in comparison with the diaphragm (0.66 mmHg, P=0.007), and a significantly higher SBP on using the short tube in comparison with the standard length (0.77 mmHg, P=0.008). This study shows that stethoscope characteristics have only a small, although statistically significant, influence on clinical BP measurement. Although this helps understand the measurement technique and resolves questions in the published literature, the influence is not clinically significant.

  2. Advanced performance of small diaphragm vacuum pumps through the use of mechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmann, R.; Dirscherl, J.

    Oil-free diaphragm vacuum pumps have proven to be the best way in vacuum generation for the chemical laboratory and they also find increasing use as backing pumps for modern wide-range turbo molecular pumps. The majority of vacuum pumps in practical use pump only a rather small percentage of their lifetime at full gas load. A pump backing a turbo molecular pump does not have to pump a significant gas load when the high-vacuum pump is running at ultimate vacuum pressure. Also, for a vacuum distillation the vacuum pump has to operate at full speed only at the beginning to lower the pressure inside the system to a vacuum level where evaporation starts. In a rather leak-tight system the distillation process continues by evaporating from the hot liquid and condensing at the cold condenser without the need of a mechanical vacuum pump. Rotational speed controlled diaphragm pumps are now available through progress in mechatronics and offer high pumping speed capability for fast pump-down cycles and precise pressure control for distillations. At low gas load the rotational speed can be reduced, improving maintenance intervals, power consumption, noise, vibration and - surprisingly - also ultimate pressure. The different behaviour in pumping speed and ultimate pressure of rotational speed controlled diaphragm pumps in comparison to constant-speed pumps is related to the mechanical properties of the valves and gas dynamics .

  3. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm: Preliminary note of analysis of data from spring 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    In February 1998, the Ministry of the Environment gave Elsam A/S and Eltra A.m.b.a. approval to erect a wind farm, capable of producing 160 MW of electric power, at Horns Rev, west of Blaevandshuk off the west coast of Jutland. Construction activities at Horns Rev started in September 2001 and were finished in summer 2002. The entire project has been organised as a demonstration project to assess the technical, economic and environmental constraints on the future development of electric power production in Danish offshore environments. Within the framework of the environmental programme, bird investigations have been carried out in relation to the risk of collision between birds and wind turbines since 2002. To provide the latest update on the results from the bird investigations, this note presents results compiled during spring 2004 and deals with a preliminary analysis of effects on birds present at Horns Rev during commercial operation of the Horns Rev wind farm. Due to the remoteness of the area it has not been possible to obtain base-line investigation of bird occurrence and behaviour at the wind farm site. (au)

  4. Preference of redear sunfish on zebra mussels and rams-horn snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Morgan, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    We tested prey preferences of adult (200- to 222-mm long) redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) on two size classes of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and two-ridge rams-horns (Helisoma anceps) in experimental aquaria. We also tested physical limitations on consuming these mollusks and determined prey bioenergetic profitability. Redear sunfish strongly preferred rams-horns over zebra mussels, but they displayed no size preference for either prey. Ingestion was not physically limited since both prey species up to 15-mm long fit within the pharyngeal gapes of redear sunfish. Rams-horns were more bioenergetically profitable than zebra mussels and ingestion of rams-horn shell fragments was about three times less than zebra mussels. Rams-horns were somewhat more resistant to shell-crushing, but all size ranges of both prey species tested were crushable by redear sunfish. These studies suggested that the redear sunfish should not be considered a panacea for biological control of zebra mussels.

  5. Electronic Entanglement Concentration for the Concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shang-Ping; Zhou, Lan; Gu, Shi-Pu; Wang, Xing-Fu; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state, which encodes many physical qubits in a logic qubit will have important applications in both quantum communication and computation. In this paper, we will describe an entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for electronic C-GHZ state, by exploiting the electronic polarization beam splitters (PBSs) and charge detection. This protocol has several advantages. First, the parties do not need to know the exact coefficients of the initial less-entangled C-GHZ state, which makes this protocol feasible. Second, with the help of charge detection, the distilled maximally entangled C-GHZ state can be remained for future application. Third, this protocol can be repeated to obtain a higher success probability. We hope that this protocol can be useful in future quantum computation based on electrons.

  6. Fast generating Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state via iterative interaction pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bi-Hua; Chen, Ye-Hong; Wu, Qi-Cheng; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan

    2016-10-01

    We delve a little deeper into the construction of shortcuts to adiabatic passage for three-level systems by iterative interaction picture (multiple Schrödinger dynamics). As an application example, we use the deduced iterative based shortcuts to rapidly generate the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state in a three-atom system with the help of quantum Zeno dynamics. Numerical simulation shows the dynamics designed by the iterative picture method is physically feasible and the shortcut scheme performs much better than that using the conventional adiabatic passage techniques. Also, the influences of various decoherence processes are discussed by numerical simulation and the results prove that the scheme is fast and robust against decoherence and operational imperfection.

  7. Experimental test of the irreducible four-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zu-En; Tang, Wei-Dong; Wu, Dian; Cai, Xin-Dong; Yang, Tao; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Żukowski, Marek; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-03-01

    The paradox of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) disproves directly the concept of EPR elements of reality, based on the EPR correlations, in an all-versus-nothing way. A three-qubit experimental demonstration of the GHZ paradox was achieved nearly 20 years ago, followed by demonstrations for more qubits. Still, the GHZ contradictions underlying the tests can be reduced to a three-qubit one. We show an irreducible four-qubit GHZ paradox, and report its experimental demonstration. The bound of a three-setting-per-party Bell-GHZ inequality is violated by 7 σ . The fidelity of the GHZ state was around 81 % , and an entanglement witness reveals a violation of the separability threshold by 19 σ .

  8. Experimental Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-Type Six-Photon Quantum Nonlocality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Huang, Yun-Feng; Wang, Zhao; Liu, Bi-Heng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-12-31

    Quantum nonlocality gives us deeper insight into quantum physics. In addition, quantum nonlocality has been further recognized as an essential resource for device-independent quantum information processing in recent years. Most experiments of nonlocality are performed using a photonic system. However, until now, photonic experiments of nonlocality have involved at most four photons. Here, for the first time, we experimentally demonstrate the six-photon quantum nonlocality in an all-versus-nothing manner based on a high-fidelity (88.4%) six-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Our experiment pushes multiphoton nonlocality studies forward to the six-photon region and might provide a larger photonic system for device-independent quantum information protocols.

  9. Generation of an arbitrary concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with single photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-02-01

    The concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state is a new kind of logic-qubit entangled state, which may have extensive applications in future quantum communication. In this letter, we propose a protocol for constructing an arbitrary C-GHZ state with single photons. We exploit the cross-Kerr nonlinearity for this purpose. This protocol has some advantages over previous protocols. First, it only requires two kinds of cross-Kerr nonlinearities to generate single phase shifts  ±θ. Second, it is not necessary to use sophisticated m-photon Toffoli gates. Third, this protocol is deterministic and can be used to generate an arbitrary C-GHZ state. This protocol may be useful in future quantum information processing based on the C-GHZ state.

  10. Short-term effects of the construction of wind turbines on harbour porpoises at Horns Reef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J. [Hedeselskabet, Miljoe og Energi A/S, Viborg(Denmark); Carstensen, Jakob [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Marine Ecology, Roskidle (Denmark); Damsgaard Henriksen, O.; Teilmann, J. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Arctic Biology, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2003-04-15

    In 2002 the Worlds largest offshore wind farm, consisting of 80 2MW wind turbines, was constructed on Horns Reef in the Danish North Sea. Ship based visual surveys and long-term deployment of acoustic dataloggers (PODs) were used to assess short term effects of construction on behaviour and abundance of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Most focus was put on mounting of steel monopile foundations for the turbines, as they were rammed into the seabed. This type of operation is known to generate very loud underwater sound levels. Combined evidence from animal densities obtained from visual surveys, behavioural observations during surveys and acoustic activity data in and outside the construction area demonstrated effects on the behaviour and abundance of animals on both short-term (hours) and long term (entire construction period) scales. Acoustic activity by the porpoises decreased dramatically on the entire Horns Reef at the onset of ramming operations and returned to higher levels a few hours after each ramming operation was completed. A reduction in abundance close to ramming operations was anticipated, as deterring devices (pingers and seal scarers) were deployed prior to each ramming operation to deter marine mammals from the area and thus protect them from exposure to the loud sound levels generated by the ramming procedure. The changes in abundance and behaviour over large distances are unlikely to be explained by the deterring sounds, which have comparably lower intensities than the ramming sounds and these effects must be attributed to the ramming. A general effect on the behaviour of animals was seen during the construction period and at distances of up to 10-15 kilometers from the construction site. Compared to observations before and after construction there was a decrease in non-directional swimming, a behaviour assumed to correlate with feeding activity. Animal density estimates indicates that there were fewer animals present on the entire Horns

  11. Short-term effects of the construction of wind turbines on harbour porpoises at Horns Reef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, Jakob; Damsgaard Henriksen, O.; Teilmann, J.

    2003-04-01

    In 2002 the Worlds largest offshore wind farm, consisting of 80 2MW wind turbines, was constructed on Horns Reef in the Danish North Sea. Ship based visual surveys and long-term deployment of acoustic dataloggers (PODs) were used to assess short term effects of construction on behaviour and abundance of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Most focus was put on mounting of steel monopile foundations for the turbines, as they were rammed into the seabed. This type of operation is known to generate very loud underwater sound levels. Combined evidence from animal densities obtained from visual surveys, behavioural observations during surveys and acoustic activity data in and outside the construction area demonstrated effects on the behaviour and abundance of animals on both short-term (hours) and long term (entire construction period) scales. Acoustic activity by the porpoises decreased dramatically on the entire Horns Reef at the onset of ramming operations and returned to higher levels a few hours after each ramming operation was completed. A reduction in abundance close to ramming operations was anticipated, as deterring devices (pingers and seal scarers) were deployed prior to each ramming operation to deter marine mammals from the area and thus protect them from exposure to the loud sound levels generated by the ramming procedure. The changes in abundance and behaviour over large distances are unlikely to be explained by the deterring sounds, which have comparably lower intensities than the ramming sounds and these effects must be attributed to the ramming. A general effect on the behaviour of animals was seen during the construction period and at distances of up to 10-15 kilometers from the construction site. Compared to observations before and after construction there was a decrease in non-directional swimming, a behaviour assumed to correlate with feeding activity. Animal density estimates indicates that there were fewer animals present on the entire Horns

  12. Phenotypic disparity in Iberian short-horned grasshoppers (Acrididae): the role of ecology and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navas, Vicente; Noguerales, Víctor; Cordero, Pedro J; Ortego, Joaquín

    2017-05-04

    The combination of model-based comparative techniques, disparity analyses and ecomorphological correlations constitutes a powerful method to gain insight into the evolutionary mechanisms that shape morphological variation and speciation processes. In this study, we used a time-calibrated phylogeny of 70 Iberian species of short-horned grasshoppers (Acrididae) to test for patterns of morphological disparity in relation to their ecology and phylogenetic history. Specifically, we examined the role of substrate type and level of ecological specialization in driving different aspects of morphological evolution (locomotory traits, chemosensitive organs and cranial morphology) in this recent radiation. We found a bimodal distribution of locomotory attributes corresponding to the two main substrate type guilds (plant vs. ground); plant-perching species tend to exhibit larger wings and thicker femora than those that remain on the ground. This suggests that life form (i.e., substrate type) is an important driving force in the evolution of morphological traits in short-horned grasshoppers, irrespective of ancestry. Substrate type and ecological specialization had no significant influence on head shape, a trait that showed a strong phylogenetic conservatism. Finally, we also found a marginal significant association between the length of antennae and the level of ecological specialization, suggesting that the development of sensory organs may be favored in specialist species. Our results provide evidence that even in taxonomic groups showing limited morphological and ecological disparity, natural selection seems to play a more important role than genetic drift in driving the speciation process. Overall, this study suggests that morphostatic radiations should not necessarily be considered as "non-adaptive" and that the speciation process can bind both adaptive divergence mechanisms and neutral speciation processes related with allopatric and/or reproductive isolation.

  13. Forensic DNA barcoding and bio-response studies of animal horn products used in traditional medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal horns (AHs have been applied to traditional medicine for more than thousands of years, of which clinical effects have been confirmed by the history. But now parts of AHs have been listed in the items of wildlife conservation, which limits the use for traditional medicine. The contradiction between the development of traditional medicine and the protection of wild resources has already become the common concern of zoophilists, traditional medical professionals, economists, sociologists. We believe that to strengthen the identification for threatened animals, to prevent the circulation of them, and to seek fertile animals of corresponding bioactivities as substitutes are effective strategies to solve this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A powerful technique of DNA barcoding based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI was used to identify threatened animals of Bovidae and Cervidae, as well as their illegal adulterants (including 10 species and 47 specimens. Meanwhile, the microcalorimetric technique was used to characterize the differences of bio-responses when those animal specimens acted on model organism (Escherichia coli. We found that the COI gene could be used as a universal primer to identify threatened animals and illegal adulterants mentioned above. By analyzing 223 mitochondrial COI sequences, a 100% identification success rate was achieved. We further found that the horns of Mongolian Gazelle and Red Deer could be exploited as a substitute for some functions of endangered Saiga Antelope and Sika Deer in traditional medicine, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Although it needs a more comprehensive evaluation of bioequivalence in order to completely solve the problem of substitutes for threatened animals, we believe that the identification (DNA barcoding of threatened animals combined with seeking substitutions (bio-response can yet be regarded as a valid strategy for establishing a balance

  14. Reachability for Finite-state Process Algebras Using Horn Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya; Nielson, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    of the Data Flow Analysis are used in order to build a set of Horn clauses whose least model corresponds to an overapproximation of the reachable states. The computed model can be refined after each transition, and the algorithm runs until either a state whose reachability should be checked is encountered...... or it is not in the least model for all constructed states and thus is definitely unreachable. The advantages of the algorithm are that in many cases only a part of the Labelled Transition System will be built which leads to lower time and memory consumption. Also, it is not necessary to save all the encountered states...... which leads to further reduction of the memory requirements of the algorithm....

  15. Ulnar nerve entrapment in a French horn player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, R A

    1997-10-01

    Nerve entrapment syndromes are frequent among musicians. Because of the demands on the musculoskeletal system and the great agility needed to per-form, musicians often present with vague complaints early in the course of entrapment, which makes the diagnosis a challenge for the clinician. Presented here is such a case of ulnar nerve entrapment at the left elbow of a French horn player. This case points out some of the difficulties in establishing a diagnosis of nerve entrapment in musicians. It also supports the theory that prolonged elbow flexion and repetitive finger movement contribute to the development of ulnar entrapment at the elbow. Although surgery is not required for most of the musculoskeletal problems of musicians, release of an entrapped nerve refractory to conservative therapy may be career-saving for the musician.

  16. Quantum Steganography via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ4 State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Allati, A.; Hassouni, Y.; Medeni, M.B. Ould

    2012-01-01

    A quantum steganography communication scheme via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ 4 state is constructed to investigate the possibility of remotely transferred hidden information. Moreover, the multipartite entangled states are become a hectic topic due to its important applications and deep effects on aspects of quantum information. Then, the scheme consists of sharing the correlation of four particle GHZ 4 states between the legitimate users. After insuring the security of the quantum channel, they begin to hide the secret information in the cover of message. Comparing the scheme with the previous quantum steganographies, capacity and imperceptibility of hidden message are good. The security of the present scheme against many attacks is also discussed. (general)

  17. Irreducible multiqutrit correlations in Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fu-Lin [Physics Department, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Chen, Jing-Ling [Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071 (China); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2011-12-15

    Following the idea of the continuity approach by D. L. Zhou [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 180505 (2008)], we obtain the degrees of irreducible multiparty correlations in two families of n-qutrit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states. For the pure states in one of the families, the irreducible 2-party, n-party, and (n-m)-party (0

  18. A quantitative witness for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltschka, Christopher; Siewert, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Along with the vast progress in experimental quantum technologies there is an increasing demand for the quantification of entanglement between three or more quantum systems. Theory still does not provide adequate tools for this purpose. The objective is, besides the quest for exact results, to develop operational methods that allow for efficient entanglement quantification. Here we put forward an analytical approach that serves both these goals. We provide a simple procedure to quantify Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type multipartite entanglement in arbitrary three-qubit states. For two qubits this method is equivalent to Wootters' seminal result for the concurrence. It establishes a close link between entanglement quantification and entanglement detection by witnesses, and can be generalised both to higher dimensions and to more than three parties.

  19. Irreducible multiqutrit correlations in Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fu-Lin; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Following the idea of the continuity approach by D. L. Zhou [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 180505 (2008)], we obtain the degrees of irreducible multiparty correlations in two families of n-qutrit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states. For the pure states in one of the families, the irreducible 2-party, n-party, and (n-m)-party (0< m< n-2) correlations are nonzero, which is different from the n-qubit case. We also derive the correlation distributions in the n-qutrit maximal slice state, which can be uniquely determined by its (n-1)-qutrit-reduced density matrices among pure states. It is proved that there is no irreducible n-qutrit correlation in the maximal slice state. This enlightens us to give a discussion about how to characterize the pure states with irreducible n-party correlation in arbitrarily high-dimensional systems by the way of the continuity approach.

  20. An Anonymous Surveying Protocol via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mosayeb; Gong, Li-Hua; Houshmand, Monireh; Matin, Laleh Farhang

    2016-10-01

    A new experimentally feasible anonymous survey protocol with authentication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states is proposed. In this protocol, a chief executive officer (CEO) of a firm or company is trying to find out the effect of a possible action. In order to prepare a fair voting, the CEO would like to make an anonymous survey and is also interested in the total action for the whole company and he doesn't want to have a partial estimate for each department. In our proposal, there are two voters, Alice and Bob, voting on a question with a response of either "yes" or "no" and a tallyman, whose responsibility is to determine whether they have cast the same vote or not. In the proposed protocol the total response of the voters is calculated without revealing the actual votes of the voters.

  1. Redefining ecological ethics: science, policy, and philosophy at Cape Horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodeman, Robert

    2008-12-01

    In the twentieth century, philosophy (especially within the United States) embraced the notion of disciplinary expertise: philosophical research consists of working with and writing for other philosophers. Projects that involve non-philosophers earn the deprecating title of "applied" philosophy. The University of North Texas (UNT) doctoral program in philosophy exemplifies the possibility of a new model for philosophy, where graduate students are trained in academic philosophy and in how to work with scientists, engineers, and policy makers. This "field" (rather than "applied") approach emphasizes the inter- and transdisciplinary nature of the philosophical enterprise where theory and practice dialectically inform one another. UNT's field station in philosophy at Cape Horn, Patagonia, Chile is one site for developing this ongoing experiment in the theory and practice of interdisciplinary philosophic research and education.

  2. Spinal dorsal horn astrocytes: New players in chronic itch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Tsuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic itch is a debilitating symptom of inflammatory skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis, and systemic diseases, for which existing treatment is largely ineffective. Recent studies have revealed the selective neuronal pathways that are involved in itch sensations; however, the mechanisms by which itch turns into a pathological chronic state are poorly understood. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms producing chronic itch have been made by defining causal roles for astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn in mouse models of chronic itch including atopic dermatitis. Understanding the key roles of astrocytes may provide us with exciting insights into the mechanisms for itch chronicity and lead to a previously unrecognized target for treating chronic itch.

  3. Feasibility of navigator setting on the left diaphragm for whole-heart coronary MRA. A study in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kunihiro; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Maruyama, Kazuhiro; Noda, Mayumi; Fujita, Mitsuo; Morita, Satoru; Ohnishi, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    We prospectively compared the quality of images obtained by navigator setting on the left and right diaphragm on whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (WHCMRA). In 10 healthy volunteers, we performed free-breathing, 3-dimensional segmented true fast imaging with steady-state precession (trueFISP) WHCMRA by setting the navigator on the left and right diaphragm in random order. For the left diaphragm, we set the navigator outside the scope of the heart to avoid the influence on coronary arteries. We compared image acquisition time and visible length of coronary arteries using paired t-test and subjective image quality on a 4-point scale (1, poor; 4, excellent) using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Mean overall subjective image quality was significantly better in the left diaphragm than the right (3.3±0.7 versus 2.9±0.9, P=0.02). Mean overall visible length of the coronary arteries was significantly better in the left diaphragm than the right (115.4±31.1 vs. 112.6±29.9 mm, P=0.02). Mean acquisition time between the left and right diaphragm was not significantly different (15.6±5.0 versus 16.0±5.7 min, P=0.79). In this small group of healthy volunteers, navigator setting for WHCMRA was superior on the left diaphragm than the right; however, feasibility of the technique requires additional consideration in a larger group of actual patients. (author)

  4. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon

    2011-01-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in response to plantarflexion and inversion of the foot or ankle compression were recorded from the medial part of the deep dorsal horn, laminae IV-VI, in normal and ankle-sprained rats. One day after ankle sprain, rats showed significantly reduced WBRs on the affected foot, and this reduction was partially restored by systemic morphine. The majority of deep dorsal horn neurons responded to a single ankle stimulus modality. After ankle sprain, the mean evoked response rates were significantly increased, and afterdischarges were developed in recorded dorsal horn neurons. The ankle sprain-induced enhanced evoked responses were significantly reduced by morphine, which was reversed by naltrexone. The data indicate that movement-specific dorsal horn neuron responses were enhanced after ankle sprain in a morphine-dependent manner, thus suggesting that hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons is an underlying mechanism of pain after ankle sprain. PMID:21389306

  5. MR imaging of displaced meniscal tears of the knee. Importance of a 'disproportional posterior horn sign'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.C.; Hsu, C.Y.; Shih, T.T.F.; Huang, K.M.; Li, Y.W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Meniscal tears associated with displaced fragments are clinically significant. We propose the 'disproportional posterior horn sign' as a supportive criterion to identify a posterocentrally displaced meniscal fragment on MR imaging studies. If the meniscal posterior horn in the central portion appears larger than that in the peripheral section, it is considered positive for 'disproportional posterior horn sign'. Material and Methods: MR images obtained in 42 patients with 43 lesions, confirmed to have displaced meniscal tears, were included in this study. The MR images were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of the 'disproportional posterior horn sign', as well as the other known signs. Results: The 'disproportional posterior horn sign' was seen in 9 (20.9%) of 43 lesions, including 1 lateral discoid meniscal tear, 5 lateral meniscal tears and 3 medial meniscal tears. Five of them also had other signs of a displaced meniscal fragment. However, the remaining 4 cases only exhibited the 'disproportional posterior horn sign'. For the other MR signs, the 'absent bow tie sign' was detected in 40 (93%) of 43 lesions, the 'flipped meniscus sign' in 27 (62.8%) of 43 lesions, the 'double posterior cruciate ligament sign' in 17 (39.5%) of 43 lesions and the 'notch fragment sign' in 22 (51.2%) of 43 lesions. Conclusion: The 'disproportional posterior horn sign' is helpful in demonstrating a posterocentrally displaced meniscal fragment, especially when other characteristic signs are unremarkable or absent

  6. Novel Insights into the Bovine Polled Phenotype and Horn Ontogenesis in Bovidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Grohs, Cécile; Medugorac, Ivica; Krebs, Stefan; Djari, Anis; Graf, Alexander; Fritz, Sébastien; Seichter, Doris; Baur, Aurélia; Russ, Ingolf; Bouet, Stéphan; Rothammer, Sophie; Wahlberg, Per; Esquerré, Diane; Hoze, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Weiss, Bernard; Thépot, Dominique; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; van Marle-Köster, Este; Hreiðarsdóttir, Gunnfríður Elín; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Reversé, Patrick; Catros, Olivier; Marchand, Jean-Luc; Soulas, Pascal; Roy, Pierre; Marquant-Leguienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Clément, Laetitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Pannetier, Maëlle; Phocas, Florence; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Fouchet, Michel; Journaux, Laurent; Bernard-Capel, Carine; Ponsart, Claire; Eggen, André; Blum, Helmut; Gallard, Yves; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric; Capitan, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    Despite massive research efforts, the molecular etiology of bovine polledness and the developmental pathways involved in horn ontogenesis are still poorly understood. In a recent article, we provided evidence for the existence of at least two different alleles at the Polled locus and identified candidate mutations for each of them. None of these mutations was located in known coding or regulatory regions, thus adding to the complexity of understanding the molecular basis of polledness. We confirm previous results here and exhaustively identify the causative mutation for the Celtic allele (PC) and four candidate mutations for the Friesian allele (PF). We describe a previously unreported eyelash-and-eyelid phenotype associated with regular polledness, and present unique histological and gene expression data on bovine horn bud differentiation in fetuses affected by three different horn defect syndromes, as well as in wild-type controls. We propose the ectopic expression of a lincRNA in PC/p horn buds as a probable cause of horn bud agenesis. In addition, we provide evidence for an involvement of OLIG2, FOXL2 and RXFP2 in horn bud differentiation, and draw a first link between bovine, ovine and caprine Polled loci. Our results represent a first and important step in understanding the genetic pathways and key process involved in horn bud differentiation in Bovidae. PMID:23717440

  7. DYNAMICS OF A PROMINENCE-HORN STRUCTURE DURING ITS EVAPORATION IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Yao; Fu, Jie; Li, Bo [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai 264209 (China); Li, Xing [Department of Physics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Liu, Wei, E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-08-20

    The physical connections among and formation mechanisms of various components of the prominence-horn cavity system remain elusive. Here we present observations of such a system, focusing on a section of the prominence that rises and separates gradually from the main body. This forms a configuration sufficiently simple to yield clues regarding the above issues. It is characterized by embedding horns, oscillations, and a gradual disappearance of the separated material. The prominence-horn structure exhibits a large-amplitude longitudinal oscillation with a period of ∼150 minutes and an amplitude of ∼30 Mm along the trajectory defined by the concave horn structure. The horns also experience a simultaneous transverse oscillation with a much smaller amplitude (∼3 Mm) and a shorter period (∼10–15 minutes), likely representative of a global mode of the large-scale magnetic structure. The gradual disappearance of the structure indicates that the horn, an observational manifestation of the field-aligned transition region separating the cool and dense prominence from the hot and tenuous corona, is formed due to the heating and diluting process of the central prominence mass; most previous studies suggested that it is the opposite process, i.e., the cooling and condensation of coronal plasmas, that formed the horn. This study also demonstrates how the prominence transports magnetic flux to the upper corona, a process essential for the gradual build-up of pre-eruption magnetic energy.

  8. Diagnosis of radial tear of posterior horn of medial meniscus by MR imaging. Prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoyama, Tatsuo; Ihara, Hidetoshi; Kawashima, Mahito

    2002-01-01

    It is not easy to detect radial tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (torn posterior horn) under arthroscopy if the surgeon does not notice the tear before arthroscopy. Occasionally the tear goes undetected or is missed during arthroscopy. The sagittal view of MR imaging is very useful for diagnosing torn posterior horns. The normal posterior horn of the medial meniscus appears as an image of low intensity triangle of the sagittal MRI medial slice next to the PCL. On the contrary, the image of the torn posterior horn shows a high intensity triangle, so we refer to the feature as a white meniscus sign. We prospectively examined the accuracy of white meniscus sign of MRI. Forty-two knees in 41 patients were studied. They were over 40 years of age, diagnosed with medial meniscus tear and had undergone MRI before arthroscopy. Before arthroscopy, we predicted the existence of torn posterior horn by the white meniscus sign and examined the accuracy of the MRI after arthroscopy. Total accuracy rate was 90.5%, sensitivity was 94.1%, and specificity was 88.0%. We concluded that the white meniscus sign on MRI is very useful for defecting torn posterior horn of the medial meniscus. (author)

  9. Elaborate horns in a giant rhinoceros beetle incur negligible aerodynamic costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Erin L; Tobalske, Bret W

    2013-05-07

    Sexually selected ornaments and weapons are among nature's most extravagant morphologies. Both ornaments and weapons improve a male's reproductive success; yet, unlike ornaments that need only attract females, weapons must be robust and functional structures because they are frequently tested during male-male combat. Consequently, weapons are expected to be particularly costly to bear. Here, we tested the aerodynamic costs of horns in the giant rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. We predicted that the long, forked head horn would have three main effects on flight performance: increased body mass, an anterior shift in the centre of mass and increased body drag. We found that the horns were surprisingly lightweight, and therefore had a trivial effect on the male beetles' total mass and mass distribution. Furthermore, because beetles typically fly at slow speeds and high body angles, horns had little effect on total body drag. Together, the weight and the drag of horns increased the overall force required to fly by less than 3 per cent, even in the largest males. Because low-cost structures are expected to be highly evolutionarily labile, the fact that horns incur very minor flight costs may have permitted both the elaboration and diversification of rhinoceros beetle horns.

  10. Clinical significance of neonatal parafrontal horn cysts detected by cranial sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Jeong Joo; Jung, Myung Ja; Kim, Eun Ryung

    2005-01-01

    The describe the significance, incidence and characteristics of sonographic findings and long term outcomes of parafrontal horn cysts detected by screening cranial sonography done within the first week following birth. 2122 first cranial ultrasound scans performed over a five year period were retrospectively evaluated and 23 neonates with parafrontal horn cysts were found (which are different from secondary cystic lesions). 17 cases had a birth weight of 2400 gm with gestation between 34 and 41 weeks. The size, shape and location of the parafrontal horn cysts and other associated abnormalities shown on the cranial sonogram were evaluated and sequential ultrasound study, maternal records, neonatal events and neurodevelopmental evaluations were retrospectively assessed. Of the 23 subjects, 21 had isolated parafrontal horn cysts and 2 had subependymal hemorrhages. There was no record of any abnormal perinatal history. The cysts were bilateral in 20 neonates and unilateral in the others. The size of the cysts ranged from 3 to 18 mm in diameter (mean 9 mm). Sonographic features of the parafrontal horn cysts were distinctive morphology (elliptical, thin walled) and location (adjacent to the tip of the frontal horn). In 17 of the cases a follow-up cranial sonography was performed, and all parafrontal horn cysts disappeared within 3 to 6 months. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were normal in those 17 cases. Screening cranial sonography of neonates discovers isolated parafrontal horn cyst. The incidence of parafrontal horn cysts in neonates in our study was 1.1%. They are present in the first week following birth and resolve themselves without medical treatment within a few months. In addition, they show normal neurodevelopment. The parafrontal cysts are suspected to be a benign variant of normal neurodevelopment

  11. Clinical significance of neonatal parafrontal horn cysts detected by cranial sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jeong Joo [Eulji University of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Myung Ja [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ryung [Sungae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    The describe the significance, incidence and characteristics of sonographic findings and long term outcomes of parafrontal horn cysts detected by screening cranial sonography done within the first week following birth. 2122 first cranial ultrasound scans performed over a five year period were retrospectively evaluated and 23 neonates with parafrontal horn cysts were found (which are different from secondary cystic lesions). 17 cases had a birth weight of < 2400 gm with gestation between 30 and 35 weeks, 6 cases had a birth weight of > 2400 gm with gestation between 34 and 41 weeks. The size, shape and location of the parafrontal horn cysts and other associated abnormalities shown on the cranial sonogram were evaluated and sequential ultrasound study, maternal records, neonatal events and neurodevelopmental evaluations were retrospectively assessed. Of the 23 subjects, 21 had isolated parafrontal horn cysts and 2 had subependymal hemorrhages. There was no record of any abnormal perinatal history. The cysts were bilateral in 20 neonates and unilateral in the others. The size of the cysts ranged from 3 to 18 mm in diameter (mean 9 mm). Sonographic features of the parafrontal horn cysts were distinctive morphology (elliptical, thin walled) and location (adjacent to the tip of the frontal horn). In 17 of the cases a follow-up cranial sonography was performed, and all parafrontal horn cysts disappeared within 3 to 6 months. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were normal in those 17 cases. Screening cranial sonography of neonates discovers isolated parafrontal horn cyst. The incidence of parafrontal horn cysts in neonates in our study was 1.1%. They are present in the first week following birth and resolve themselves without medical treatment within a few months. In addition, they show normal neurodevelopment. The parafrontal cysts are suspected to be a benign variant of normal neurodevelopment.

  12. Thermo active piles and diaphragm walls building process and thermal response test; Pilotes y pantallas termoactivas. Proceso constructivo y caracterizacion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazariegos, A.; Anton, L. C.; Valle, R.; Urchueguia, J.; Quilis, S.; Martinez, S.; Magraner, T.

    2009-07-01

    Thermo active foundation technology uses building foundation piles diaphragm wall slabs as ground heat exchangers to provide building with heating and cooling. This type of foundation is based on the use of the ground temperature to enhance the heat pump coefficient of performance (COP). In this kind of structures, the heat exchange can be done through a closed circuit installed on the reinforced of the foundation. This closed circuit is made up of HDPE pipes geothermal probes, through which water or brine circulates producing a heat exchange between this fluid and the ground. this fluid is led to a geothermal heat pump GHP, generating the energy required for air-conditioning a building. ENERGESIS, leading company in the air-conditioning field using geothermal energy and RADIO KRONSA, leading company in the engineering field of soil and subsoil, with the collaboration of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV) and the Escuela Universitaria de Ingenieria Tecnica de Obras Publicas (UPM), have developed an action line to design and implement saving energy facilities by using geothermal energy associated with the foundations. A series of tests at work have been done in order to have a procedure to implement the thermal response of thermo active piles and diaphragm walls. (Author) 7 refs.

  13. Deterministic generation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states for three distant atoms via adiabatic passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Pei-Jun; Si Liu-Gang; Yang Xiao-Xue; Lü Xin-You

    2011-01-01

    We propose two schemes for generating Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states of three distant atoms. In the present schemes, the atoms are individually trapped in three spatially separated optical cavities coupled by two optical fibres. Performing an adiabatic passage along dark states, the population of cavities and fibres excited is negligible under certain conditions. In addition, the spontaneous decay of atoms is also efficiently suppressed based on our proposals. Furthermore, the discussion about the entanglement fidelity is given and we point out that our schemes work robustly with small fluctuations of experimental parameters. (general)

  14. One-Step Generation of Multiqubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States in a Driven Circuit QED System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jinsong; Nie Wei; Wei Lianfu

    2011-01-01

    We propose an efficient scheme to generate multiqubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states by one-step quantum operation in a driven circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) system. Our proposal is based on a unitary evolution exp[-iλS 2 x ], with S x being the collective spin operator in x direction and λ a controllable parameter, induced by driving the resonator. The quantum operation avoids resonator-field decay and may achieve the GHZ states with ideal success probability. The feasibility with the experimentally-demonstrated circuit QED system is also discussed. (general)

  15. The generation of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state of four distant atoms conditioned on cavity decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahlke, Kai; Zou Xubo; Mathis, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    We show a way to use an optical device set-up to generate the four-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state of atoms, which are trapped separately in leaky cavities. Based on cavity decay, photons are transferred from the atom-cavity systems to a symmetric series of beam splitters and photon detectors. The events of photon detection on the output modes of the beam splitters project the state of the atom-cavity systems onto the GHZ state. It is briefly pointed out how this scheme can be extended to generate GHZ states of 4m atoms

  16. Liquid Metal Droplet and Micro Corrugated Diaphragm RF-MEMS for reconfigurable RF filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Wasim

    detail and have proved pivotal to this work. The second part of the dissertation focuses on the Liquid Metal Droplet RF-MEMS. A novel tunable RF MEMS resonator that is based upon electrostatic control over the morphology of a liquid metal droplet (LMD) is conceived. We demonstrate an LMD evanescent-mode cavity resonator that simultaneously achieves wide analog tuning from 12 to 18 GHz with a measured quality factor of 1400-1840. A droplet of 250-mum diameter is utilized and the applied bias is limited to 100 V. This device operates on a principle called Electro-Wetting On Dielectric (EWOD). The liquid metal employed is a non-toxic eutectic alloy of Gallium, Indium and Tin known as Galinstan. This device also exploits interfacial surface energy and viscous body forces that dominate at nanoliter scale. We then apply our Liquid Metal Droplet (LMD) RF-MEMS architecture to demonstrate a continuously tunable electrostatic Ku-Band Filter. A 2-pole bandpass filter with measured insertion loss of less than 0.4dB and 3dB FBW of 3.4% is achieved using a Galinstan droplet of 250mum diameter and bias limited to 100V. We demonstrate that the LMD is insensitive to gravity by performing inversion and tilt experiments. In addition, we study its thermal tolerance by subjecting the LMD up to 150° C. The third part of the dissertation is dedicated to the Micro-Corrugated Diaphragm (MCD) RF-MEMS. We present an evanescent-mode cavity bandpass filter with state-of-the-art RF performance metrics like 4:1 tuning ratio from 5 to 20 GHz with less than 2dB insertion loss and 2-6% 3dB bandwidth. Micro-Corrugated Diaphragm (MCD) is a novel electrostatic MEMS design specifically engineered to provide large-scale analog deflections necessary for such continuous and wide tunable filtering with very high quality factor. We demonstrate a 1.25mm radius and 2mum thick Gold MCD which provides 30mum total deflection with nearly 60% analog range. We also present a detailed and systematic MCD design

  17. Insights into the development and evolution of exaggerated traits using de novo transcriptomes of two species of horned scarab beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian A Warren

    Full Text Available Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as "horns". These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce a horn at all, or they produce a disproportionately small horn for their body size. While the diversity of horn shapes and their behavioural ecology have been reasonably well studied, we know far less about the proximate mechanisms that regulate horn growth. Thus, using 454 pyrosequencing, we generated transcriptome profiles, during horn growth and development, in two different scarab beetle species: the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, and the dung beetle, Onthophagus nigriventris. We obtained over half a million reads for each species that were assembled into over 6,000 and 16,000 contigs respectively. We combined these data with previously published studies to look for signatures of molecular evolution. We found a small subset of genes with horn-biased expression showing evidence for recent positive selection, as is expected with sexual selection on horn size. We also found evidence of relaxed selection present in genes that demonstrated biased expression between horned and horn-less morphs, consistent with the theory of developmental decoupling of phenotypically plastic traits.

  18. Computational modeling and experimental studies of the dynamic performance of ultrasonic horn profiles used in plastic welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopa Rani, M; Rudramoorthy, R

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasonic horns are tuned components designed to vibrate in a longitudinal mode at ultrasonic frequencies. Reliable performance of such horns is normally decided by the uniformity of vibration amplitude at the working surface and the stress developed during loading condition. The horn design engineer must pay particular attention to designing a tool that will produce the desired amplitude without fracturing. The present work discusses horn configurations which satisfy these criteria and investigates the design requirements of horns in ultrasonic system. Different horn profiles for ultrasonic welding of thermoplastics have been characterized in terms of displacement amplitude and von-Mises stresses using modal and harmonic analysis. To validate the simulated results, five different horns are fabricated from Aluminum, tested and tuned to the operating frequency. Standard ABS plastic parts are welded using these horns. Temperature developed during the welding of ABS test parts using different horns is recorded using sensors and National Instruments (NIs) data acquisition system. The recorded values are compared with the predicted values. Experimental results show that welding using a Bezier horn has a high interface temperature and the welded joints had higher strength as compared to the other horn profiles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Insights into the development and evolution of exaggerated traits using de novo transcriptomes of two species of horned scarab beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ian A; Vera, J Cristobal; Johns, Annika; Zinna, Robert; Marden, James H; Emlen, Douglas J; Dworkin, Ian; Lavine, Laura C

    2014-01-01

    Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as "horns". These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce a horn at all, or they produce a disproportionately small horn for their body size. While the diversity of horn shapes and their behavioural ecology have been reasonably well studied, we know far less about the proximate mechanisms that regulate horn growth. Thus, using 454 pyrosequencing, we generated transcriptome profiles, during horn growth and development, in two different scarab beetle species: the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, and the dung beetle, Onthophagus nigriventris. We obtained over half a million reads for each species that were assembled into over 6,000 and 16,000 contigs respectively. We combined these data with previously published studies to look for signatures of molecular evolution. We found a small subset of genes with horn-biased expression showing evidence for recent positive selection, as is expected with sexual selection on horn size. We also found evidence of relaxed selection present in genes that demonstrated biased expression between horned and horn-less morphs, consistent with the theory of developmental decoupling of phenotypically plastic traits.

  20. Insulation Coordination of Arcing Horns on HVDC Electrode Lines: Protection Performance Evaluation, Influence Factors and Improvement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiandong Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arcing horns are widely used in high voltage overhead lines to protect insulator strings from being destroyed by the free burning arcs caused by lightening faults. In this paper, we focus on the insulation coordination of arcing horns on the electrode lines of a 5000 MW, ±800 kV high voltage direct current (HVDC system. The protection performance of arcing horns are determined by the characteristics of not only the external system but also the fault arc. Therefore, the behaviors and characteristics of long free burning arcs are investigated by the experiments at first. In order to evaluate the protection performance of arcing horns, the static stability criterion U-I characteristic method is introduced. The influence factors on the protection performance of arcing horns are analyzed theoretically. Finally, the improvement methods for the protection performance of arcing horns are proposed, and the diversified configuration strategy of arcing horns is recommended for cost saving.

  1. Estimation of diaphragm length in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D K; Gorman, R B; Tolman, J; Pride, N B; Gandevia, S C

    2000-11-01

    In patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diaphragm function may be compromised because of reduced muscle fibre length. Diaphragm length (L(Di)) can be estimated from measurements of transverse diameter of the rib cage (D(Rc)) and the length of the zone of apposition (L(Zapp)) in healthy subjects, but this method has not been validated in patients with COPD. Postero-anterior chest radiographs were obtained at total lung capacity (TLC), functional residual capacity (FRC) and residual volume (RV) in nine male patients with severe COPD (mean [S.D.]; FEV(1), 23 [6] %pred.; FRC, 199 [15] %pred.). Radiographs taken at TLC were used to identify the lateral costal insertions of the diaphragm (L(Zapp) assumed to approach zero at TLC). L(Di) was measured directly and also estimated from measurements of L(Zapp) and D(Rc) using a prediction equation derived from healthy subjects. The estimation of L(Di) was highly accurate with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.93 and 95% CI of approximately +/-8% of the true value. L(Di) decreased from 426 (64) mm at RV to 305 (31) mm at TLC. As there were only small and variable changes in D(Rc) across the lung volume range, most of the L(Di) changes occurred in the zone of apposition. Additional studies showed that measurements of L(Di) from PA and lateral radiographs performed at different lung volumes were tightly correlated. These results suggest that non-invasive measurements of L(Zapp) in the coronal plane (e.g. using ultrasonography) and D(Rc) (e.g. using magnetometers) can be used to provide an accurate estimate of L(Di) in COPD patients.

  2. High Power DC Diaphragm Discharge Excited in a Vapor Bubble for the Treatment of Water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Petr; Člupek, Martin; Babický, Václav; Doležalová, Eva; Sisrová, Irena; Maršálková, Eliška; Maršálek, Blahoslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 1 (2013), s. 83-95 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00430802; GA ČR(CZ) GD104/09/H080 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : Diaphragm discharge * Water * Hydrogen peroxide * Phenol * Bacteria * Algae Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; EF - Botanics (BU-J) Impact factor: 1.599, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11090-012-9432-6.pdf

  3. Innervation of periesophageal region of cat's diaphragm - Implication for studies of control of vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L. K.; Miller, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    The extent of the region of the diaphragm around the esophagus that displays greatly reduced activity during the expulsive phase of vomiting was determined from electromyographic studies in cats to be about 0.75-1.0 cm from the esophagus. Horseradish peroxidase injected into this region retrogradely labeled motoneurons throughout most of the rostral-caudal extent of the phrenic nucleus, with the exception of caudal C6 and rostral C7. This widespread intermingling of motoneurons that innervate the region of reduced activity with other phrenic motoneurons creates a difficulty for needed follow-up studies of diaphragmatic control during vomiting.

  4. Investigations of harbour porpoises at the planned site for wind turbines at Horns Reef. Status report. 1/1 2001 - 31/12 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skov, H.; Teilmann, J.; Damsgaard Henriksen, O.; Carstensen, Jacob

    2002-07-01

    An offshore wind farm is currently being established at Horns Reef. EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) studies were carried out in 2000 following the guidelines jointly drawn up by the Danish Energy Agency and the National Forest and Nature Agency. Part of the demonstration program for the Horns Reef wind farm is to assess the effect of wind farms on the environment, and one of the tasks is to monitor whether wind farms will cause measurable, temporary or permanent, changes in the local stock of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). On the basis of two-years of ship-based surveys and analyses of historic data, the impact assessment regarding harbour porpoises for the Horns Reef wind farm was finalised in February 2000. The results of the impact assessment suggested that short-term effects on harbour porpoises would take place as a result of disturbance during the construction phase caused by a large number of service boats and sound emissions from the ramming activities. The EIA estimated that the animals would disappear from the wind farm area during construction, and subsequently return to the site after construction activities have ceased. On the basis of the fact that the sound emissions from the turbines during production are more regular and at a low level and a modest disturbance from service vessels the long-term effects on the number of harbour porpoises on Horns Reef during the production phase was estimated to be relatively small, or equivalent to 25% as compared to the base line level. Following the EIA, a monitoring programme was launched to measure the level of long-term effects on harbour porpoises on Horns Reef, and base-line investigations have been carried out up to the present time, - at the onset of the construction phase. This report deals with the results of the investigations on harbour porpoises on Horns Reef during the period from January 2001 to December 2001. These investigations involve a range of new field and analysis techniques

  5. Investigations of harbour porpoises at the planned site for wind turbines at Horns Reef. Status report. 1/1 2001 - 31/12 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov, H. [Ornis Consult A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark); Teilmann, J.; Damsgaard Henriksen, O. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Arctic Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Carstensen, Jacob [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Marine Ecology, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-07-15

    An offshore wind farm is currently being established at Horns Reef. EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) studies were carried out in 2000 following the guidelines jointly drawn up by the Danish Energy Agency and the National Forest and Nature Agency. Part of the demonstration program for the Horns Reef wind farm is to assess the effect of wind farms on the environment, and one of the tasks is to monitor whether wind farms will cause measurable, temporary or permanent, changes in the local stock of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). On the basis of two-years of ship-based surveys and analyses of historic data, the impact assessment regarding harbour porpoises for the Horns Reef wind farm was finalised in February 2000. The results of the impact assessment suggested that short-term effects on harbour porpoises would take place as a result of disturbance during the construction phase caused by a large number of service boats and sound emissions from the ramming activities. The EIA estimated that the animals would disappear from the wind farm area during construction, and subsequently return to the site after construction activities have ceased. On the basis of the fact that the sound emissions from the turbines during production are more regular and at a low level and a modest disturbance from service vessels the long-term effects on the number of harbour porpoises on Horns Reef during the production phase was estimated to be relatively small, or equivalent to 25% as compared to the base line level. Following the EIA, a monitoring programme was launched to measure the level of long-term effects on harbour porpoises on Horns Reef, and base-line investigations have been carried out up to the present time, - at the onset of the construction phase. This report deals with the results of the investigations on harbour porpoises on Horns Reef during the period from January 2001 to December 2001. These investigations involve a range of new field and analysis techniques

  6. Safety and efficacy of diaphragm pacing in patients with respiratory insufficiency due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (DiPALS): a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Non-invasive ventilation is part of the standard of care for treatment of respiratory failure in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The NeuRx RA/4 Diaphragm Pacing System has received Humanitarian Device Exemption approval from the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of respiratory failure in patients with ALS. We aimed to establish the safety and efficacy of diaphragm pacing with this system in patients with respiratory muscle weakness due to ALS. We undertook a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial at seven specialist ALS and respiratory centres in the UK. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older with laboratory supported probable, clinically probable, or clinically definite ALS; stable riluzole treatment for at least 30 days; and respiratory insufficiency. We randomly assigned participants (1:1), via a centralised web-based randomisation system with minimisation that balanced patients for age, sex, forced vital capacity, and bulbar function, to receive either non-invasive ventilation plus pacing with the NeuRx RA/4 Diaphragm Pacing System or non-invasive ventilation alone. Patients, carers, and outcome assessors were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was overall survival, defined as the time from randomisation to death from any cause. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered, ISRCTN number 53817913. Between Dec 5, 2011, and Dec 18, 2013, we randomly assigned 74 participants to receive either non-invasive ventilation alone (n=37) or non-invasive ventilation plus diaphragm pacing (n=37). On Dec 18, 2013, the Data Monitoring and Ethics Committee (DMEC) recommended suspension of recruitment on the basis of overall survival figures. Randomly assigned participants continued as per the study protocol until June 23, 2014, when the DMEC advised discontinuation of pacing in all patients. Follow-up assessments continued until the planned end of the study in December, 2014. Survival

  7. Giant Cutaneous Horn Overlying A Verruca at an Uncommon Site: Medical Marvel vs Superstitious Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeeva, Karthik Kathladka; Ali, Puttur Sainuddin Mohammed Ameer; Pinto, Malcolm; Rao, Srikar; Rai, Arvind Shivram

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous horn has been a matter of discussion to mankind since time immemorial and a subject of fascination for the layman. There have been instances where certain groups saw it with angst and disgust, with a person having a large cutaneous horn on an exposed area getting a dismal look. We present a case of a 64-year-old man with a giant cutaneous horn over his left gluteal region. Cutaneous horns more commonly present in the sun-exposed areas. In our case it has presented in an uncommon site. The patient had delayed and denied medical treatment due to his superstitious beliefs, after having sought advice from faith healers leading to progression of the disease. This case has been presented for its giant size (rare variety), its location being over the gluteal region (photo-protected site) and its benign histopathology suggestive of wart in spite of the giant size.

  8. Metabolic rate and evaporative water loss of Mexican Spotted and Great Horned Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Russell P. Balda; Rudy M. King

    1993-01-01

    We measured rates of oxygen consumption and evaporative water loss (EWL) of Mexican Spotted (Strix occidentalis lucida) and Great Horned (Bubo virginianus) owls in Arizona. Basal metabolic rate averaged 0.84 ccO2. g-1. h-1...

  9. Catalogue of the living Bivalvia of the eastern Pacific Ocean: Bering Strait to Cape Horn

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernard, F. R

    1983-01-01

    ...) to Cape Horn, Tierra del Fuego (60 deg S). 1308 species from the high intertidal zone to deep waters extending approximately two thousand kilometers offshore are included, representing the total described fauna...

  10. Distillation of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state from arbitrary tripartite states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Yina; Li Chuanfeng; Guo Guangcan

    2002-01-01

    We present a method of distillation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states from arbitrary tripartite pure states by local operations and classical communication. We go further to discuss the various results we get and calculate the efficiency of the protocol

  11. Remote information concentration by a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and by a bound entangled state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yafei; Zhan, Mingsheng; Feng, Jian

    2003-01-01

    We compare remote quantum information concentration by a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state with an unlockable bound entangled state. We find that in view of communication security the bound entangled state works better than the GHZ state

  12. Acceptability of an existing, female-controlled contraceptive method that could potentially protect against HIV: a comparison of diaphragm users and other method users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Sheryl Thorburn; Harvey, S Marie; Maher, Julie E; Beckman, Linda J

    2004-01-01

    The diaphragm, an internal barrier contraceptive device, is a candidate for a female-controlled method for preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study's objective was to examine how women who use the diaphragm differ from women using the pill and/or condoms with respect to factors hypothesized to influence the acceptability of contraceptive methods. Our goal was to increase understanding of who finds the diaphragm acceptable and why. We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey with selected female members of a managed care organization. For this analysis, we limited the sample to 585 women currently using the diaphragm (n = 196), pill (n = 200), condoms (n = 132), or pill and condoms (n = 57). We conducted bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression analyses to assess the associations between selected characteristics and diaphragm use. Diaphragm use was significantly associated with several variables. Of particular interest, placing less importance on hormonal method characteristics was significantly associated with diaphragm use (versus use of the pill, condoms, or both). Placing more importance on barrier method attributes was significantly associated with diaphragm use (versus pill use, alone or with condoms). In addition, lower condom use self-efficacy was significantly associated with diaphragm use (versus condom use, alone or with pill). Lack of motivation to avoid HIV/STIs was significantly associated with using the diaphragm versus condoms (only). These results have important implications for future research, interventions, counseling strategies for providers, and product development. Our findings suggest that if the diaphragm protects against HIV, it could be a desirable option for some women.

  13. Developmental plasticity of phrenic motoneuron and diaphragm properties with the inception of inspiratory drive transmission in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, John J; Martin-Caraballo, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The review outlines data consistent with the hypothesis that inspiratory drive transmission that generates fetal breathing movements (FBMs) is essential for the developmental plasticity of phrenic motoneurons (PMNs) and diaphragm musculature prior to birth. A systematic examination during the perinatal period demonstrated a very marked transformation of PMN and diaphragm properties coinciding with the onset and strengthening of inspiratory drive and FBMs in utero. This included studies of age-dependent changes of: i) morphology, neuronal coupling, passive and electrophysiological properties of PMNs; ii) rhythmic inspiratory activity in vitro; iii) FBMs generated in vivo detected by ultrasonography; iv) contractile and end-plate potential properties of diaphragm musculature. We also propose how the hypothesis can be further evaluated with studies of perinatal hypoglossal motoneuron-tongue musculature and the use of Dbx1 null mice that provide an experimental model lacking descending inspiratory drive transmission in utero. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Posterior horn medial meniscal root tear: the prequel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, H. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, New York, NY (United States); Morrison, W. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DiFelice, G.S. [Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Vaidya, N. [Crystal Run Healthcare, Middletown, NY (United States); Winalski, C.S. [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    To determine whether subarticular marrow changes deep to the posterior horn medial meniscal root anchor might predict subsequent medial meniscal root tear. Fifteen patients with MR-diagnosed posterior horn medial meniscal root (PHMMR) tear and a knee MRI antecedent to the tear were identified at three imaging centers over a 7-year period. The pre- and post-tear MR images were evaluated for marrow signal changes deep to the root anchor, meniscal root signal intensity, medial compartment articular cartilage thinning, and meniscal body extrusion. Images of 29 age- and gender-matched individuals with two MRIs of the same knee were reviewed as a control group. MRI in 11 of 15 (73 %) cases with subsequent PHMMR tear demonstrated linear subcortical marrow edema deep to the meniscal root anchor on the antecedent MRI compared to only 1 of 29 (3 %) non-tear controls (p < 0.0001). The abnormal signal resolved on post-tear MRI in all but two patients. Cyst-like changes deep to the PHMMR were present on initial MRI in three of 15 (23 %) cases and three of 29 (10 %) controls, persisting in all but one case on follow-up imaging. The PHMMR was gray on the initial MRI in seven of 15 (47 %) of cases that developed tears compared to four of 29 (14 %) controls (p < 0.0001). There was medial meniscal extrusion (MME) prior to tear in two of 15 (13 %) patients and in ten of 15 (67 %) patients after PHMMR failure. In the control group, MME was present in one (3 %) and three (10 %) of 29 subjects on the initial and follow-up MRIs, respectively. Articular cartilage loss was noted in two of 15 (15 %) cases before tear and nine of 15 (69 %) on follow-up imaging, as compared to one (3 %) and four (14 %) of 29 subjects in the control group. Subcortical marrow edema deep to the PHMMR may result from abnormal stresses and thus be a harbinger of meniscal root failure. This hypothesis is supported by resolution of these marrow signal changes after root tear. Following tear, extrusion of the

  15. Entrapment of the Temporal Horn as a Cause of Pure Wernicke Aphasia: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallone, Aldo; Belvisi, Daniele; Marsili, Luca

    2015-07-01

    Entrapment of the temporal horn is an extremely rare pathologic condition occurring as a result of surgery for tumors, intraventricular infections, hemorrhage, or traumatic events involving the peritrigonal area. We report a case of a 58-year-old man who presented with pure Wernicke aphasia (never described before in the albeit rare cases of isolated temporal horn dilatation) that regressed completely following successful ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The relevant literature is also briefly reviewed.

  16. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2011-01-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in res...

  17. Quantifying the nonlocality of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger quantum correlations by a bounded communication simulation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branciard, Cyril; Gisin, Nicolas

    2011-07-08

    The simulation of quantum correlations with finite nonlocal resources, such as classical communication, gives a natural way to quantify their nonlocality. While multipartite nonlocal correlations appear to be useful resources, very little is known on how to simulate multipartite quantum correlations. We present a protocol that reproduces tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations with bounded communication: 3 bits in total turn out to be sufficient to simulate all equatorial Von Neumann measurements on the tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state.

  18. The influence of nerve section on the metabolism of polyamines in rat diaphragm muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D; Manchester, K L

    1981-01-01

    Concentrations of spermidine, spermine and putrescine have been measured in rat diaphragm muscle after unilateral nerve section. The concentration of putrescine increased approx. 10-fold 2 days after nerve section, that of spermidine about 3-fold by day 3, whereas an increase in the concentration of spermine was only observed after 7-10 days. It was not possible to show enhanced uptake of either exogenous putrescine or spermidine by the isolated tissue during the hypertrophy. Consistent with the accumulation of putrescine, activity of ornithine decarboxylase increased within 1 day of nerve section, was maximally elevated by the second day and then declined. Synthesis of spermidine from [14C]putrescine and either methionine or S-adenosylmethionine bt diaphragm cytosol rose within 1 day of nerve section, but by day 3 had returned to normal or below normal values. Activity of adenosylmethionine decarboxylase similarly increased within 1 day of nerve section, but by day 3 had declined to below normal values. Activity of methionine adenosyltransferase was elevated throughout the period studied. The concentration of S-adenosylmethionine was likewise enhanced during hypertrophy. Administration of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) produced a marked increase in adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity and a large increase in putrescine concentration, but did not prevent the rise in spermidine concentration produced by denervation. Possible regulatory mechanisms of polyamine metabolism consistent with the observations are discussed. PMID:7316998

  19. Vibrational mode and sound radiation of electrostatic speakers using circular and annular diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hsi; Chiang, Hsin-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    This study modeled two diaphragms comprising a pair of indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent plates sandwiching a vibrating diaphragm to create circular (30 mm radius) and annular (30 mm outer and 3 mm inner radius) push-pull electrostatic speakers. We then measured the displacement amplitudes and mode shapes produced by the devices. Vibration characteristics were used to predict sound pressure levels (SPLs) using the lumped parameter method (LPM) and distributed parameter method (DPM). The two measurement results obtained using a laser system were compared to the SPLs obtained using traditional acoustic measurement (AM) from 20 Hz to 20 kHz in order to verify our predictions. When using LPM and DPM, the SPL prediction results in the first three symmetric modes were in good agreement with the AM results. Under the assumption of linear operations, the DPM and amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) techniques proved effective in determining the visualization of mode shape (0,1)-(0,3). The use of ITO plates is a practical technique for the prediction of SPL, as well as measurement of mode shapes. The four evaluation methods, i.e. LPM, DPM, ESPI and AM, present a high degree of consistency with regard to vibrational mode and sound radiation characteristics.

  20. Lipid intermediates in membrane fusion: formation, structure, and decay of hemifusion diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovsky, Yonathan; Chernomordik, Leonid V; Kozlov, Michael M

    2002-11-01

    Lipid bilayer fusion is thought to involve formation of a local hemifusion connection, referred to as a fusion stalk. The subsequent fusion stages leading to the opening of a fusion pore remain unknown. The earliest fusion pore could represent a bilayer connection between the membranes and could be formed directly from the stalk. Alternatively, fusion pore can form in a single bilayer, referred to as hemifusion diaphragm (HD), generated by stalk expansion. To analyze the plausibility of stalk expansion, we studied the pathway of hemifusion theoretically, using a recently developed elastic model. We show that the stalk has a tendency to expand into an HD for lipids with sufficiently negative spontaneous splay, (~)J(s)action of an external force pulling the diaphragm rim apart. We calculate the dependence of the HD radius on this force. To address the mechanism of fusion pore formation, we analyze the distribution of the lateral tension emerging in the HD due to the establishment of lateral equilibrium between the deformed and relaxed portions of lipid monolayers. We show that this tension concentrates along the HD rim and reaches high values sufficient to rupture the bilayer and form the fusion pore. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that transition from a hemifusion to a fusion pore involves radial expansion of the stalk.

  1. Contribution of oxidative stress to pathology in diaphragm and limb muscles with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hee; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Thompson, LaDora V; Lawler, John M

    2013-02-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative skeletal muscle disease that makes walking and breathing difficult. DMD is caused by an X-linked (Xp21) mutation in the dystrophin gene. Dystrophin is a scaffolding protein located in the sarcolemmal cytoskeleton, important in maintaining structural integrity and regulating muscle cell (muscle fiber) growth and repair. Dystrophin deficiency in mouse models (e.g., mdx mouse) destabilizes the interface between muscle fibers and the extracellular matrix, resulting in profound damage, inflammation, and weakness in diaphragm and limb muscles. While the link between dystrophin deficiency with inflammation and pathology is multi-factorial, elevated oxidative stress has been proposed as a central mediator. Unfortunately, the use of non-specific antioxidant scavengers in mouse and human studies has led to inconsistent results, obscuring our understanding of the importance of redox signaling in pathology of muscular dystrophy. However, recent studies with more mechanistic approaches in mdx mice suggest that NAD(P)H oxidase and nuclear factor-kappaB are important in amplifying dystrophin-deficient muscle pathology. Therefore, more targeted antioxidant therapeutics may ameliorate damage and weakness in human population, thus promoting better muscle function and quality of life. This review will focus upon the pathobiology of dystrophin deficiency in diaphragm and limb muscle primarily in mouse models, with a rationale for development of targeted therapeutic antioxidants in DMD patients.

  2. Crura sign: differentiation between traumatic rupture of the diaphragm and nontraumatic diaphragmatic elevation on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Jin; Han, Hae Ja; Kim, Wang Jung; Youk, Yong Soo; Han, Gi Seok; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Kil Sun; Kim, Dae Young

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate whether in patients with diffuse evaluation of a hemidiaphragm on chest radiographs, the apparence of the crura on CT might be helpful in differentiating between traumatic rupture of the diaphragm (TRD) and nontraumatic causes such as diaphragmatic palsy or diffuse diaphragmatic eventration. Among patients with diffuse elevations of a hemidiaphragm on chest radiograph, 27 who had patients undergone CT scans were retrospectively reviewed. Twelve patients had surgically proven TRD, and 15 had nontraumatic elevation of a hemidiaphragm such as diaphragmatic palsy or diffuse diaphragmatic eventration. Under the hypothesis that the affected crus is markedly thinner than the normal side in nontraumatic elevation but is normal in TRD ('crura sign', we optically assessed without measurement the thickness of both crura. In all patients with TRD, the thickness of the affected crus was similar to that of the contralateral side. In all patients with nontraumatic causes, however, the crus of the elevated hemidiaphragm was markedly thinner than that of the normal side. The 'crura sign' may be useful additional CT finding of traumatic rupture the diaphragm

  3. Studies on the uptake of 14C-neostigmine in the isolated rat diaphragm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleberg, L.

    1976-01-01

    The uptake process of 14 C-neostigmine in striated muscles was studied using the isolated rat diaphragm. Hemidiaphragms were incubated with 3x10 -7 M 14 C-neostigmine at 37deg in Krebs-Ringer solution containing 11 mM glucose and aerated with oxygen:carbon dioxide (95:5 v/v %). The uptake, which is expressed as the muscle-to-medium concentration ratio, was 1.41, after 3 hours, after which the rate of uptake diminished and became equal to that of inulin. The uptake which showed partial saturation, was decreased by some tertiary and quarternary amines, metabolic inhibitors, potassium and in an atmosphere of nitrogen. Neostigmine accumulated in all parts of the muscle without preference for the end plate zone. The half-time for the efflux was about 30 min. The phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation became desensitized to the effect of 3x10 -7 M neostigmine after 2-3 hours. It is suggested that the uptake of neostigmine is mediated via a specialized carrier transport system. (author)

  4. Experimental validation of the tuneable diaphragm effect in modern acoustic stethoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Karolina M; Nowak, Lukasz J

    2017-09-01

    The force with which the diaphragm chestpiece of a stethoscope is pressed against the body of a patient during an auscultation examination introduces the initial stress and deformation to the diaphragm and the underlying tissues, thus altering the acoustic parameters of the sound transmission path. If the examination is performed by an experienced physician, he will intuitively adjust the amount of the force in order to achieve the optimal sound quality. However, in case of becoming increasingly popular auto-diagnosis and telemedicine auscultation devices with no such feedback mechanisms, the question arises regarding the influence of the possible force mismatch on the parameters of the recorded signal. The present study describes the results of the experimental investigations on the relation between pressure applied to the chestpiece of a stethoscope and parameters of the transmitted bioacoustic signals. The experiments were carried out using various stethoscopes connected to a force measurement system, which allowed to maintain fixed pressure during auscultation examinations. The signals were recorded during examinations of different volunteers, at various auscultation sites. The obtained results reveal strong individual and auscultation-site variability. It is concluded that the underlying tissue deformation is the primary factor that alters the parameters of the recorded signals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. [Diaphragm pacing for the ventilatory support of the quadriplegic patients with respiratory paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H; Wang, L S; Pan, H C; Shoung, H M; Lee, L S

    1992-02-01

    Electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerve to pace the diaphragm in patients with chronic ventilatory insufficiency has been an established therapeutic modality since William W.L. Glenn first described using radiofrequency signals in 1978 to stimulate the phrenic nerves. Before this event, patients who were ventilator-dependent and thus bedridden because of respiratory paralysis associated with quadriplegia usually anticipated little chance for physical or psychosocial rehabilitation. Two cases of C1-C2 subluxtion with cord injury and chronic ventilatory insufficiency were implanted at VGH-Taipei with diaphragm pacemaker in 1988. Postoperative phrenic nerve stimulation was given according to individual training schedule. One case with total phrenic paralysis received bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation and became weaned from the ventilator 6 months later. The other case with partially active ventilatory function received unilateral phrenic nerve stimulation to compensate the ventilation. However, its final outcome still showed the necessity of a bilateral mode to achieve adequate ventilation irrespective of strenuous training for 2 years.

  6. Sensory and motor innervation of the crural diaphragm by the vagus nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard L; Page, Amanda J; Cooper, Nicole J; Frisby, Claudine L; Blackshaw, L Ashley

    2010-03-01

    During gastroesophageal reflux, transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and crural diaphragm (CD) inhibition occur concomitantly. Modifying vagus nerve control of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation is a major focus of development of therapeutics for gastroesophageal reflux disease, but neural mechanisms that coordinate the CD are poorly understood. Nerve tracing and immunolabeling were used to assess innervation of the diaphragm and lower esophageal sphincter in ferrets. Mechanosensory responses of vagal afferents in the CD and electromyography responses of the CD were recorded in novel in vitro preparations and in vivo. Retrograde tracing revealed a unique population of vagal CD sensory neurons in nodose ganglia and CD motor neurons in brainstem vagal nuclei. Anterograde tracing revealed specialized vagal endings in the CD and phrenoesophageal ligament-sites of vagal afferent mechanosensitivity recorded in vitro. Spontaneous electromyography activity persisted in the CD following bilateral phrenicotomy in vivo, while vagus nerve stimulation evoked electromyography responses in the CD in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that vagal sensory and motor neurons functionally innervate the CD and phrenoesophageal ligament. CD vagal afferents show mechanosensitivity to distortion of the gastroesophageal junction, while vagal motor neurons innervate both CD and distal esophagus and may represent a common substrate for motor control of the reflux barrier. Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An electrostatic scanning micromirror with diaphragm mirror plate and diamond-shaped reinforcement frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang-Hyeon; Choi, Moongoo; Kim, Sang-Cheon; Lee, See-Hyung; Kim, Seong-Hyok; Yee, Youngjoo; Bu, Jong-Uk

    2006-05-01

    We present the design, fabrication and measurement results of a comb-driven electrostatic scanning micromirror. Instead of a conventional micromirror having uniform thickness across the entire reflective surface, a diaphragm mirror plate supported by an array of diamond-shaped frame structures is fabricated monolithically. The fabrication process is a simple sequence of silicon deep etch processes on both sides of the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate without the substrate bonding process. The micromirror is fabricated on the device layer of the substrate. The mirror plate undergoes a rotational motion by an electrostatic force between the movable comb electrodes connected to the micromirror and stationary comb electrode formed on the handle wafer. A scanning micromirror with a 10 µm thick diaphragm mirror plate, having a planar dimension of 1.5 × 1.5 mm2, supported by an array of 110 µm thick rhombic support frames, was fabricated and tested. A mechanical deflection angle of 8.5° at a resonance frequency of 19.55 kHz and a pressure of 7 mTorr was obtained. A prototype of the raster scanning laser projection display system was developed using the fabricated micromirror as the horizontal scanner and a galvanomirror as the vertical scanner, respectively.

  8. Genetic specification of left–right asymmetry in the diaphragm muscles and their motor innervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoy, Camille; Dinvaut, Sarah; Chaix, Yohan; Morlé, Laurette; Sanyas, Isabelle; Bozon, Muriel; Kindbeiter, Karine; Durand, Bénédicte; Skidmore, Jennifer M; De Groef, Lies; Seki, Motoaki; Moons, Lieve; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Martin, James F; Martin, Donna M; Falk, Julien; Castellani, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    The diaphragm muscle is essential for breathing in mammals. Its asymmetric elevation during contraction correlates with morphological features suggestive of inherent left–right (L/R) asymmetry. Whether this asymmetry is due to L versus R differences in the muscle or in the phrenic nerve activity is unknown. Here, we have combined the analysis of genetically modified mouse models with transcriptomic analysis to show that both the diaphragm muscle and phrenic nerves have asymmetries, which can be established independently of each other during early embryogenesis in pathway instructed by Nodal, a morphogen that also conveys asymmetry in other organs. We further found that phrenic motoneurons receive an early L/R genetic imprint, with L versus R differences both in Slit/Robo signaling and MMP2 activity and in the contribution of both pathways to establish phrenic nerve asymmetry. Our study therefore demonstrates L–R imprinting of spinal motoneurons and describes how L/R modulation of axon guidance signaling helps to match neural circuit formation to organ asymmetry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18481.001 PMID:28639940

  9. Evaluation of COPD's diaphragm motion extracted from 4D-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastika, Windra; Masuda, Yoshitada; Kawata, Naoko; Matsumoto, Koji; Suzuki, Toshio; Iesato, Ken; Tada, Yuji; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Ohnishi, Takashi; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a method called intersection profile method to construct a 4D-MRI (3D+time) from time-series of 2D-MRI. The basic idea is to find the best matching of the intersection profile from the time series of 2D-MRI in sagittal plane (navigator slice) and time series of 2D-MRI in coronal plane (data slice). In this study, we use 4D-MRI to semiautomatically extract the right diaphragm motion of 16 subjects (8 healthy subjects and 8 COPD patients). The diaphragm motion is then evaluated quantitatively by calculating the displacement of each subjects and normalized it. We also generate phase-length map to view and locate paradoxical motion of the COPD patients. The quantitative results of the normalized displacement shows that COPD patients tend to have smaller displacement compared to healthy subjects. The average normalized displacement of total 8 COPD patients is 9.4mm and the average of normalized displacement of 8 healthy volunteers is 15.3mm. The generated phase-length maps show that not all of the COPD patients have paradoxical motion, however if it has paradoxical motion, the phase-length map is able to locate where does it occur.

  10. Degeneration of Phrenic Motor Neurons Induces Long-Term Diaphragm Deficits following Mid-Cervical Spinal Contusion in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Charles; Putatunda, Rajarshi; Hala, Tamara J.; Regan, Kathleen A.; Frank, David M.; Brion, Jean-Pierre; Leroy, Karelle; Pochet, Roland; Wright, Megan C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A primary cause of morbidity and mortality following cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is respiratory compromise, regardless of the level of trauma. In particular, SCI at mid-cervical regions targets degeneration of both descending bulbospinal respiratory axons and cell bodies of phrenic motor neurons, resulting in deficits in the function of the diaphragm, the primary muscle of inspiration. Contusion-type trauma to the cervical spinal cord is one of the most common forms of human SCI; however, few studies have evaluated mid-cervical contusion in animal models or characterized consequent histopathological and functional effects of degeneration of phrenic motor neuron–diaphragm circuitry. We have generated a mouse model of cervical contusion SCI that unilaterally targets both C4 and C5 levels, the location of the phrenic motor neuron pool, and have examined histological and functional outcomes for up to 6 weeks post-injury. We report that phrenic motor neuron loss in cervical spinal cord, phrenic nerve axonal degeneration, and denervation at diaphragm neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) resulted in compromised ipsilateral diaphragm function, as demonstrated by persistent reduction in diaphragm compound muscle action potential amplitudes following phrenic nerve stimulation and abnormalities in spontaneous diaphragm electromyography (EMG) recordings. This injury paradigm is reproducible, does not require ventilatory assistance, and provides proof-of-principle that generation of unilateral cervical contusion is a feasible strategy for modeling diaphragmatic/respiratory deficits in mice. This study and its accompanying analyses pave the way for using transgenic mouse technology to explore the function of specific genes in the pathophysiology of phrenic motor neuron degeneration and respiratory dysfunction following cervical SCI. PMID:23176637

  11. a Design of the Driver Airbag Module with Floating Horn Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chang-Min; Lee, Young-Hoon; Suh, Duck-Young

    The driver airbag system is designed as a supplemental restraint system in addition to the seatbelt, and is designed to protect the driver's head and chest against severe injury by a device that is actuated in case of vehicle's fronted impact. Deployment of an airbag module with floating horn assembly is a highly dynamic process. The concept of driver airbag module with floating horn assembly and aluminum emblem is presented as a useful parameter when the airbag deploys and the energy is evaluated as performance factor in airbag module. Floating horn assembly is also one of the major factors for driver airbag module design to perform its horn function and check the package between driver airbag module and steering wheel. This study on the design of driver airbag module with floating horn assembly proved the feasibility as a new safety device. However, the system level study is needed for decrease of passenger injury. This study can be used for the implementation of a prototype of DABM with floating horn device.

  12. Ruptured Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy at 25 Weeks with Previous Vaginal Delivery: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa V. Kanagal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn occurs due to failure of complete development of one of the Mullerian ducts and incomplete fusion with the contralateral side. Pregnancy in a noncommunicating rudimentary horn is extremely rare and usually terminates in rupture during first or second trimester of pregnancy. Diagnosis of rudimentary horn pregnancy and its rupture in a woman with prior vaginal delivery is difficult. It can be missed in routine ultrasound scan and in majority of cases it is detected after rupture. It requires a high index of suspicion. We report a case of G2PlL1 with rupture rudimentary horn pregnancy at 25 weeks of gestation which was misdiagnosed as intrauterine pregnancy with fetal demise by ultrasound, and termination was attempted and the case was later referred to our hospital after the patient developed hemoperitoneum and shock with a diagnosis of rupture uterus. Laparotomy revealed rupture of right rudimentary horn pregnancy with massive hemoperitoneum. Timely laparotomy, excision of the horn, and blood transfusion saved the patient.

  13. Autophagy-associated atrophy and metabolic remodeling of the mouse diaphragm after short-term intermittent hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Giordano

    Full Text Available Short-term intermittent hypoxia (IH is common in patients with acute respiratory disorders. Although prolonged exposure to hypoxia induces atrophy and increased fatigability of skeletal muscle, the response to short-term IH is less well known. We hypothesized that the diaphragm and limb muscles would adapt differently to short-term IH given that hypoxia stimulates ventilation and triggers a superimposed exercise stimulus in the diaphragm.We determined the structural, metabolic, and contractile properties of the mouse diaphragm after 4 days of IH (8 hours per day, 30 episodes per hour to a FiO2 nadir=6%, and compared responses in the diaphragm to a commonly studied reference limb muscle, the tibialis anterior. Outcome measures included muscle fiber size, assays of muscle proteolysis (calpain, ubiquitin-proteasome, and autophagy pathways, markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, quantification of intramyocellular lipid and lipid metabolism genes, type I myosin heavy chain (MyHC expression, and in vitro contractile properties.After 4 days of IH, the diaphragm alone demonstrated significant atrophy (30% decrease of myofiber size together with increased LC3B-II protein (2.4-fold and mRNA markers of the autophagy pathway (LC3B, Gabarapl1, Bnip3, whereas active calpain and E3 ubiquitin ligases (MuRF1, atrogin-1 were unaffected in both muscles. Succinate dehydrogenase activity was significantly reduced by IH in both muscles. However, only the diaphragm exhibited increased intramyocellular lipid droplets (2.5-fold after IH, along with upregulation of genes linked to activated lipid metabolism. In addition, although the diaphragm showed evidence for acute fatigue immediately following IH, it underwent an adaptive fiber type switch toward slow type I MyHC-expressing fibers, associated with greater intrinsic endurance of the muscle during repetitive stimulation in vitro.Short-term IH induces preferential atrophy in the mouse diaphragm

  14. Synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents in Spinal Dorsal Horn Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dougherty Patrick M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Removing and sequestering synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space is carried out by specific plasma membrane transporters that are primarily located in astrocytes. Glial glutamate transporter function can be monitored by recording the currents that are produced by co-transportation of Na+ ions with the uptake of glutamate. The goal of this study was to characterize glutamate transporter function in astrocytes of the spinal cord dorsal horn in real time by recording synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents. Results Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from astrocytes in the spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG area in spinal slices of young adult rats. Glutamate transporter currents were evoked in these cells by electrical stimulation at the spinal dorsal root entry zone in the presence of bicuculline, strychnine, DNQX and D-AP5. Transporter currents were abolished when synaptic transmission was blocked by TTX or Cd2+. Pharmacological studies identified two subtypes of glutamate transporters in spinal astrocytes, GLAST and GLT-1. Glutamate transporter currents were graded with stimulus intensity, reaching peak responses at 4 to 5 times activation threshold, but were reduced following low-frequency (0.1 – 1 Hz repetitive stimulation. Conclusion These results suggest that glutamate transporters of spinal astrocytes could be activated by synaptic activation, and recording glutamate transporter currents may provide a means of examining the real time physiological responses of glial cells in spinal sensory processing, sensitization, hyperalgesia and chronic pain.

  15. Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm on harbour porpoises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Teilmann, J.; Rye Hansen, J.

    2004-09-01

    Horns Reef offshore wind farm was established in 2002. It consists of 80 2 MW wind turbines, mounted on steel monopile foundations. A harbour porpoise monitoring program was set up in connection with the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the wind farm project. This monitoring program started in 1999 with collection of baseline data and has continued though construction and operational period. The program continues through 2005. Baseline studies showed that harbour porpoises are abundant in the area, including the area where the wind farm is now located. Significant effects on behaviour and distribution of the porpoises were observed during the construction of the wind farm. Changes could be linked to pile driving operations, where monopile foundations were rammed into the seabed. This procedure produced high levels of underwater noise and mitigation procedures in the form of a ramp up procedure and deployment of acoustic alarms were employed. During the construction period very few animals were observed inside the wind farm area. Acoustic monitoring data showed a significant increase in waiting time between porpoise encounters in connection with pile driving operations, followed by a rapid return to levels normal for the construction period as a whole. However, when the entire construction period was considered as a whole, T-POD activity increased relative to baseline. Observations during operation of the wind farm in 2003 showed a return to baseline levels on most of the indicators derived from the acoustic monitoring and animals were again seen inside the wind farm area. (au)

  16. Textural Poaching Twin Peaks: The Audrey Horne Sweater Girl GIFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Gillan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to widen the lens of analysis of participatory culture inspired by long-arc serials like Twin Peaks. It considers GIF creation as a form of textural poaching, a new reception practice involving skimming off and repurposing top-of-the-mind content: the most arresting elements of costuming, set design, and dialogue. This behavior has become more popular as more series rely on textural storytelling and are filled with moments of excess that feel separate from the story. After an introduction to GIFs and GIF creation, it contrasts the impression of the character and series conveyed by Audrey Horne GIFs and the actual dynamics in the “Audrey’s Dance” scene. It establishes that Audrey’s look is most visually aligned with the Sweater Girl type, but as an allusive characterization it creates excess and calls attention to itself. Part of the “cool pop” reputation of the series may stem from the wider circulation of iconic moments of excess especially given that the GIFs detach the images from the series’ uneven storytelling and its challenging surrealist sensibility.

  17. SOME PROPERTIES OF HORN TYPE SECOND ORDER DOUBLE HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar Hasanov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Horn [1931, Hypergeometrische Funktionen zweier Veranderlichen, Math. Ann.,105(1, 381-407], (corrections in Borngasser [1933, Uber hypergeometrische funkionen zweier Veranderlichen, Dissertation, Darmstadt], defined and investigated ten second order hypergeometric series of two variables. In the course of further investigation of Horn’s series, we noticed the existence of hypergeometric double series H*2 analogous to Horn’s double series H*2. The principal object of this paper is to present a natural further step toward the mathematical properties and presentations concerning the analogous hypergeometric double series H*2 Indeed, motivated by the important role of the Horn’s functions in several diverse fields of physics and the contributions toward the unification and generalization of the hyper-geometric functions, we establish a system of partial differential equations, integral representations, expansions, analytic continuation, transformation formulas and generating relations. Also, we discuss the links for the various results, which are presented in this paper, with known results.

  18. Omora Ethnobotanical Park and the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene C. Hargrove

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The biocultural conservation and research initiative of Omora Ethnobotanical Park and the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve was born in a remote part of South America and has rapidly expanded to attain regional, national, and international relevance. The park and the biosphere reserve, led by Ricardo Rozzi and his team, have made significant progress in demonstrating the way academic research supports local cultures, social processes, decision making, and conservation. It is a dynamic hive of investigators, artists, writers, students, volunteers, and friends, all exploring ways to better integrate academia and society. The initiative involves an informal consortium of institutions and organizations; in Chile, these include the University of Magallanes, the Omora Foundation, and the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, and in the United States, the University of North Texas, the Omora Sub-Antarctic Research Alliance, and the Center for Environmental Philosophy at the University of North Texas. The consortium intends to function as a hub through which other institutions and organizations can be involved in research, education, and biocultural conservation. The park constitutes one of three long-term socio-ecological research sites in Chile of the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity.

  19. Polarization entanglement purification for concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-10-01

    Entanglement purification plays a fundamental role in long-distance quantum communication. In the paper, we put forward the first polarization entanglement purification protocol (EPP) for one type of nonlocal logic-qubit entanglement, i.e., concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state, resorting to the photon-atom interaction in low-quality (Q) cavity. In contrast to existing EPPs, this protocol can purify the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in both physic and logic level. Instead of measuring the photons directly, this protocol only requires to measure the atom states to judge whether the protocol is successful. In this way, the purified logic entangled states can be preserved for further application. Moreover, it makes this EPP repeatable so as to obtain a higher fidelity of logic entangled states. As the logic-qubit entanglement utilizes the quantum error correction (QEC) codes, which has an inherent stability against noise and decoherence, this EPP combined with the QEC codes may provide a double protection for the entanglement from the channel noise and may have potential applications in long-distance quantum communication.

  20. Evaluating the effect of pressure on the diaphragm micro- electro-mechanical thickness and the amount of shift in medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazli Zargarpour

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of design parameters on the sensitive microphone diaphragm for use in implantable medical applications is presented. The different parameters such as diaphragm shape, size, thickness and different applied pressures on the diaphragm has been considered. The effect of changes in these parameters on the displacement and stress in a variety of shapes of diaphragm is discussed. In order to design the optimal shape of the proposed diaphragm for the considered parameters, it has been simulated and analyzed in software COMSOL. According to the parameters, the diaphragm shapes of square, rectangular and oval with respect to the intended user, average central displacement in human hearing frequency range 20Hz-20KHz are nm 5. 5, nm2. 6, and nm 130 respectively . According to the results of the simulations, the oval-shaped diaphragm that has been studies in this paper, the possibility of implanted medical applications, performance is optimal than other shapes. In addition, the piezoelectric material is PZT which used in the design of the diaphragm.