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Sample records for hormone-releasing peptide-2 test

  1. Investigation of the clinical significance of the growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 test for the diagnosis of secondary adrenal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kiyoaki; Shinnakasu, Atsushi; Arimura, Aiko; Kikuchi, Akira; Deguchi, Takahisa; Habu, Mika; Fujio, Singo; Arita, Kazunori; Nishio, Yoshihiko

    2016-06-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) test to clinically diagnose hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis failure. We performed an insulin tolerance test (ITT), CRH stimulation test, and GHRP-2 test on 47 patients suspected of having a hypothalamo-pituitary disorder. Patients with pituitary disorders had significantly lower ACTH responses to the GHRP-2 test compared to patients with hypothalamic disorders and the control group. In contrast, peak cortisol levels in response to the GHRP-2 test were significantly lower in both hypothalamic and pituitary disorder cases compared with the control group. Assignment of a cut-off value of 11.6 μg/dL for the peak serum cortisol level demonstrated that the GHRP-2 test was able to predict secondary hypoadrenalism with 88.9% specificity and 89.7% sensitivity. The responses of ACTH and cortisol to the GHRP-2 test had no correlation to the CRH test, suggesting the involvement of a different mechanism of ACTH secretion. These results indicate that the GHRP-2 test may induce ACTH secretion from the pituitary gland through direct stimulation. Although the GHRP-2 test does not have the same predictive value as the insulin tolerance test (ITT), it has similar diagnostic potential as the CRH stimulation test for evaluating HPA axis failure.

  2. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, Cibele N.; Hayashida, Cesar Y.; Nascimento, Nancy; Longuini, Viviane C.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Bartolini, Paolo; Bowers, Cyril Y.; Toledo, Sergio P.A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/lit mice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising from mutated growth hormone-releasing hormone-receptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+) littermates and wild-type (+/+) C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (pgrowth hormone release of 34.5±9.7 ng/ml and a higher growth hormone release of 163±46 ng/ml were induced in the lit/+ mice and wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, GHRP-2 stimulated growth hormone in the lit/lit mice, and the release of growth hormone in vivo may be only partially dependent on growth hormone-releasing hormone. Additionally, the plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were evaluated in the lit/lit mice under basal and stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we have demonstrated that lit/lit mice, which harbor a germline mutation in the Growth hormone-releasing hormone gene, maintain a limited but statistically significant growth hormone elevation after exogenous stimulation with GHRP-2. The present data probably reflect a direct, growth hormone-independent effect on Growth hormone S (ghrelin) stimulation in the remaining pituitary somatotrophs of little mice that is mediated by growth hormone S-R 1a. PMID:22473409

  3. Pralmorelin: GHRP 2, GPA 748, growth hormone-releasing peptide 2, KP-102 D, KP-102 LN, KP-102D, KP-102LN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Pralmorelin [GPA 748, GHRP 2, growth hormone-releasing peptide 2, KP-102 D, KP 102 LN] is an orally active, synthetic growth hormone-releasing peptide from a series of compounds that were developed by Polygen in Germany and Tulane University in the US. Researchers at Tulane University led by Dr Cyril Bowers synthesised a series of small highly active peptides ranging in size from 3-5 amino acids or partial peptides that were suitable for a variety of administration formats (subcutaneous, buccal, oral, depot). These peptides mimic the actions of ghrelin, a 28 amino acid octanoyl peptide that regulates the release of growth hormone (GH), and may play an important role in bone and muscle growth, food intake and possibly improve recovery from injury. The use of pralmorelin as a diagnostic agent for GH deficiency is based on its ability to markedly increase plasma levels of GH in healthy subjects irrespectively of gender, obesity or age. However, in patients with GH deficiency, the effect of pralmorelin on GH levels is significantly lower compared with healthy controls. Analysis of the receiver-operating characteristics curve provided the cut-off threshold value for the GH peak of 15.0 micro g/L for the identification of patients with GH deficiency from those of healthy controls. Kaken acquired worldwide manufacturing and marketing rights to pralmorelin, and then sublicensed it to Wyeth (formerly American Home Products) for the US and Canada. Kaken retains rights to pralmorelin in Japan. On 11 March 2002 American Home Products changed its name and the names of its subsidiaries Wyeth-Ayerst and Wyeth Lederle to Wyeth. Kaken also granted exclusive sublicense options in Africa, Australia, Europe, Latin America and New Zealand to unspecified partners. Pralmorelin as KP-102 D [KP-102D] is currently awaiting approval in Japan as a diagnostic agent for hypothalamo-pituitary function. It is planned to be launched in Japan for this indication in 2004. Pralmorelin is also

  4. The effect of short-term cortisol changes on growth hormone responses to the pyridostigmine-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone test in healthy adults and patients with suspected growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M; Støving, R K; Hangaard, J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The interaction between cortisol and growth hormone (GH)-levels may significantly influence GH-responses to a stimulation test. In order to systematically analyse the interaction in a paired design, it is necessary to use a test, which has been proven safe and reliable such a...... nor by conventional HC therapy itself. However, our results also demonstrated that a GH-stimulation test should not be performed on patients, suffering from acute stress....... such as the pyridostigmine-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone (PD-GHRH) test. Three groups of subjects with a different GH-secretory capacity were included. STUDY A: Eight healthy adults were tested seven times, once with placebo throughout the examination and six times with the PD-GHRH test following no glucocorticoid......-responses to a PD-GHRH test were reduced in all individuals during acute stress-appropriate cortisol levels and the percentage reduction in GH-levels was independent of the GH-secretory capacity. Clinically, we found that peak GH-responses were not significantly affected by a short break in conventional HC therapy...

  5. Nutrient Sensing Overrides Somatostatin and Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone to Control Pulsatile Growth Hormone Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, F J

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacological studies reveal that interactions between hypothalamic inhibitory somatostatin and stimulatory growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) govern pulsatile GH release. However, in vivo analysis of somatostatin and GHRH release into the pituitary portal vasculature and peripheral GH output demonstrates that the withdrawal of somatostatin or the appearance of GHRH into pituitary portal blood does not reliably dictate GH release. Consequently, additional intermediates acting at the level of the hypothalamus and within the anterior pituitary gland are likely to contribute to the release of GH, entraining GH secretory patterns to meet physiological demand. The identification and validation of the actions of such intermediates is particularly important, given that the pattern of GH release defines several of the physiological actions of GH. This review highlights the actions of neuropeptide Y in regulating GH release. It is acknowledged that pulsatile GH release may not occur selectively in response to hypothalamic control of pituitary function. As such, interactions between somatotroph networks, the median eminence and pituitary microvasculature and blood flow, and the emerging role of tanycytes and pericytes as critical regulators of pulsatility are considered. It is argued that collective interactions between the hypothalamus, the median eminence and pituitary vasculature, and structural components within the pituitary gland dictate somatotroph function and thereby pulsatile GH release. These interactions may override hypothalamic somatostatin and GHRH-mediated GH release, and modify pulsatile GH release relative to the peripheral glucose supply, and thereby physiological demand. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  6. Effects of chronic and subtoxic chlorobenzenes on adrenocorticotrophic hormone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Zsolt; Pálföldi, Regina; László, Anna; Radács, Marianna; Sepp, Krisztián; Hausinger, Péter; Tiszlavicz, László; Valkusz, Zsuzsanna; Gálfi, Márta

    2015-08-01

    Many environmental chemicals and pesticides have been found to alter neuroendocrine communication in exposed biological objects. The environmental loads have primary and secondary effects that can alter the homeostatic regulation potential. Since it is difficult to avoid human exposition, a potentially important area of research to develop in vivo and in vitro experimental models. In this context, the primary aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of chlorobenzenes on adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) release. In our experimental study, male Wistar rats were exposed to 0.1, 1.0 and 10 μg/b.w. (body weight)kg of 1,2,4- trichlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene (ClB) mix via gastric tube for 30, 60 or 90 days. At the endpoints of the experiment blood samples were taken and animals were decapitated. Primary, monolayer adenohypophysis cell cultures were prepared by enzymatic and mechanical digestion. The ACTH hormone content in serum and supernatant media was measured by immuno-chemiluminescence assay. The Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activity was determined by modified method of Martin and Dotty. Significant differences were detected in the hormone release between the control and treated groups. The hormone release was enhanced characteristically in exposed groups depending upon the dose and duration of exposure. The Mg(2+)-ATPase activity enhanced after chronic and subtoxic ClB exposition. Light microscopy revealed that the adenohypophysis seemed to be more abundant. Results indicate that Wistar rats exposed to subtoxic ClB have direct and indirect effects on hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal axis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Protection of germinal epithelium with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nseyo, U.O.; Huben, R.P.; Klioze, S.S.; Pontes, J.E.

    1985-07-01

    A dog model for chemotherapy and radiation-induced testicular damage was created to study the protective potential of superactive analogue of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, buserelin. Buserelin appeared to offer protection of the canine germinal epithelium against cyclophosphamide, cisplatinum and radiation. Clinical trials with buserelin in patients of reproductive age undergoing treatment for cancer should be encouraged.

  8. Growth hormone-releasing factor stimulates proliferation of somatotrophs in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Swanson, L W; Vale, W

    1986-01-01

    The mitogenic effect of the hypothalamic peptides growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin on cultured growth hormone (GH)-producing cells (somatotrophs) was studied. Using autoradiographic detection of [3H]thymidine uptake and immunocytochemical identification of GH-producing cells...

  9. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH...

  10. contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Side-effects. On occasion bolus IV doses of GHRH caused flushing and warmth of the face, transient tachycardia and a slight lowering of blood pressure. The administration of bromocriptine and atenolol in combination caused dizziness after the test in 2 elderly subjects, presumably due to hypotension. 0 adverse effects ...

  11. Growth hormone releasing hormone or growth hormone treatment in growth hormone insufficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, P J; Brook, C G

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen prepubertal children who were insufficient for growth hormone were treated with growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) 1-40 and GHRH 1-29 for a mean time of nine months (range 6-12 months) with each peptide. Eleven children received GHRH 1-40 in four subcutaneous nocturnal pulses (dose 4-8 micrograms/kg/day) and eight (three of whom were also treated with GHRH 1-40) received GHRH 1-29 twice daily (dose 8-16 micrograms/kg/day). Altogether 73% of the children receiving GHRH 1-40 and 63...

  12. Derivation of Diverse Hormone-Releasing Pituitary Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Bastian Zimmer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs provide an unlimited cell source for regenerative medicine. Hormone-producing cells are particularly suitable for cell therapy, and hypopituitarism, a defect in pituitary gland function, represents a promising therapeutic target. Previous studies have derived pituitary lineages from mouse and human ESCs using 3D organoid cultures that mimic the complex events underlying pituitary gland development in vivo. Instead of relying on unknown cellular signals, we present a simple and efficient strategy to derive human pituitary lineages from hPSCs using monolayer culture conditions suitable for cell manufacturing. We demonstrate that purified placode cells can be directed into pituitary fates using defined signals. hPSC-derived pituitary cells show basal and stimulus-induced hormone release in vitro and engraftment and hormone release in vivo after transplantation into a murine model of hypopituitarism. This work lays the foundation for future cell therapy applications in patients with hypopituitarism.

  13. A role for central nervous growth hormone-releasing hormone signaling in the consolidation of declarative memories.

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    Manfred Hallschmid

    Full Text Available Contributions of somatotropic hormonal activity to memory functions in humans, which are suggested by clinical observations, have not been systematically examined. With previous experiments precluding a direct effect of systemic growth hormone (GH on acute memory formation, we assessed the role of central nervous somatotropic signaling in declarative memory consolidation. We examined the effect of intranasally administered growth hormone releasing-hormone (GHRH; 600 µg that has direct access to the brain and suppresses endogenous GHRH via an ultra-short negative feedback loop. Twelve healthy young men learned word-pair associates at 2030 h and were administered GHRH and placebo, respectively, at 2100 h. Retrieval was tested after 11 hours of wakefulness. Compared to placebo, intranasal GHRH blunted GH release within 3 hours after substance administration and reduced the number of correctly recalled word-pairs by ∼12% (both P<0.05. The impairment of declarative memory consolidation was directly correlated to diminished GH concentrations (P<0.05. Procedural memory consolidation as examined by the parallel assessment of finger sequence tapping performance was not affected by GHRH administration. Our findings indicate that intranasal GHRH, by counteracting endogenous GHRH release, impairs hippocampal memory processing. They provide first evidence for a critical contribution of central nervous somatotropic activity to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.

  14. Growth hormone-releasing hormone attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and improves heart function in pressure overload-induced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesmundo, Iacopo; Miragoli, Michele; Carullo, Pierluigi; Trovato, Letizia; Larcher, Veronica; Di Pasquale, Elisa; Brancaccio, Mara; Mazzola, Marta; Villanova, Tania; Sorge, Matteo; Taliano, Marina; Gallo, Maria Pia; Alloatti, Giuseppe; Penna, Claudia; Hare, Joshua M; Ghigo, Ezio; Schally, Andrew V; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Granata, Riccarda

    2017-11-07

    It has been shown that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) reduces cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis, prevents ischemia/reperfusion injury, and improves cardiac function in ischemic rat hearts. However, it is still not known whether GHRH would be beneficial for life-threatening pathological conditions, like cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). Thus, we tested the myocardial therapeutic potential of GHRH stimulation in vitro and in vivo, using GHRH or its agonistic analog MR-409. We show that in vitro, GHRH(1-44)NH 2 attenuates phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiac cells, adult rat ventricular myocytes, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs, decreasing expression of hypertrophic genes and regulating hypertrophic pathways. Underlying mechanisms included blockade of Gq signaling and its downstream components phospholipase Cβ, protein kinase Cε, calcineurin, and phospholamban. The receptor-dependent effects of GHRH also involved activation of Gα s and cAMP/PKA, and inhibition of increase in exchange protein directly activated by cAMP1 (Epac1). In vivo, MR-409 mitigated cardiac hypertrophy in mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction and improved cardiac function. Moreover, CMs isolated from transverse aortic constriction mice treated with MR-409 showed improved contractility and reversal of sarcolemmal structure. Overall, these results identify GHRH as an antihypertrophic regulator, underlying its therapeutic potential for HF, and suggest possible beneficial use of its analogs for treatment of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  15. Suppression of androgen production by D-tryptophan-6-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolis, G; Mehta, A; Comaru-Schally, A M; Schally, A V

    1981-01-01

    Four male transsexual subjects were given a superactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogue, D-tryptophan-6-LHRH at daily doses of 100 micrograms for 3--6 mo. A decrease in beard growth, acne, and erectile potency was noted; the latter was documented objectively with the recordings of nocturnal penile tumescence episodes. Plasma testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels fell to castrate values; basal prolactin and luteinizing hormone levels showed a small decline, whereas the acutely releasable luteinizing hormone was significantly suppressed. A rise of plasma testosterone from castrate to normal levels was demonstrable with the use of human chorionic gonadotropin. Discontinuation of treatment led to a normalization of erectile potency and plasma testosterone. The suppression of Leydig cell function by D-tryptophan-6-LHRH might have wide application in reproductive biology and in endocrine-dependent neoplasia (where it could replace surgical castration). PMID:6456277

  16. Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonists are Superior to Subcapsular Orchiectomy in Lowering Testosterone Levels of Men with Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergren, Peter Busch; Kistorp, Caroline; Fode, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    levels between patients undergoing subcapsular orchiectomy and patients treated with the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist triptorelin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial we included 58 consecutive hormone naïve men diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer at Herlev...

  17. Somatostatin dramatically stimulates growth hormone release from primate somatotrophs acting at low doses via somatostatin receptor 5 and cyclic AMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Chacón, J; Gahete, M D; Culler, M D; Castaño, J P; Kineman, R D; Luque, R M

    2012-03-01

    Somatostatin and cortistatin have been shown to act directly on pituitary somatotrophs to inhibit growth hormone (GH) release. However, previous results from nonprimate species indicate that these peptides can also directly stimulate GH secretion, at low concentrations. The relevance of this phenomenon in a nonhuman primate model was investigated in the present study by testing the impact of somatostatin/cortistatin on GH release in primary pituitary cell cultures from baboons. High doses (> 10(-10) m) of somatostatin/cortistatin did not alter basal GH secretion but blocked GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)- and ghrelin-induced GH release. However, at low concentrations (10(-17)-10(-13) m), somatostatin/cortistatin dramatically stimulated GH release to levels comparable to those evoked by GHRH or ghrelin. Use of somatostatin receptor (sst) specific agonists/antagonists, and signal transduction blockers indicated that sst2 and sst1 activation via intact adenylate cylcase and mitogen-activated protein kinase systems mediated the inhibitory actions of high-concentration somatostatin. By contrast, the stimulatory actions of low-dose somatostatin on GH release were mediated by sst5 signalling through adenylate cylcase/cAMP/protein kinase A and intracellular Ca(2+) pathways, and were additive with ghrelin (not GHRH). Notably, low-concentrations of somatostatin, similar to sst5-agonists, inhibited prolactin release. These results clearly demonstrate that the ultimate impact of somatostatin/cortistatin on hormone release is dose-dependent, cell type-selective and receptor-specific, where the stimulatory effects of low-concentration somatostatin/cortistatin on GH release extend to primates, thereby supporting the notion that this action is relevant in regulating GH secretion in humans. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Antiproliferative effect of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH antagonist on ovarian cancer cells through the EGFR-Akt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Jozsef

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH are being developed for the treatment of various human cancers. Methods MTT assay was used to test the proliferation of SKOV3 and CaOV3. The splice variant expression of GHRH receptors was examined by RT-PCR. The expression of protein in signal pathway was examined by Western blotting. siRNA was used to block the effect of EGFR. Results In this study, we investigated the effects of a new GHRH antagonist JMR-132, in ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and CaOV3 expressing splice variant (SV1 of GHRH receptors. MTT assay showed that JMR-132 had strong antiproliferative effects on SKOV3 and CaOV3 cells in both a time-dependent and dose-dependent fashion. JMR-132 also induced the activation and increased cleaved caspase3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in both cell lines. In addition, JMR-132 treatments decreased significantly the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR level and the phosphorylation of Akt (p-Akt, suggesting that JMR-132 inhibits the EGFR-Akt pathway in ovarian cancer cells. More importantly, treatment of SKOV3 and CaOV3 cells with 100 nM JMR-132 attenuated proliferation and the antiapoptotic effect induced by EGF in both cell lines. After the knockdown of the expression of EGFR by siRNA, the antiproliferative effect of JMR-132 was abolished in SKOV3 and CaOV3 cells. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that the inhibitory effect of the GHRH antagonist JMR-132 on proliferation is due, in part, to an interference with the EGFR-Akt pathway in ovarian cancer cells.

  19. Biosynthesis and the conjugation of magnetite nanoparticles with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayemi, J D; Dozie-Nwachukwu, S; Danyuo, Y; Odusanya, O S; Anuku, N; Malatesta, K; Soboyejo, W O

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the biosynthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (BMNPs) with particle sizes between 10 nm and 60 nm. The biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles are produced from Magnetospirillum magneticum (M.M.) bacteria that respond to magnetic fields. M.M. bacteria were cultured and used to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles. This was done in an enriched magnetic spirillum growth medium (EMSGM) at different pH levels. The nanoparticle concentrations were characterized with UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, while the particle shapes were elucidated via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structure of the particles was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the hydrodynamic radii, particle size distributions and polydispersity of the nanoparticles were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Carbodiimide reduction was also used to functionalize the BMNPs with a molecular recognition unit (luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, LHRH) that attaches specifically to receptors that are over-expressed on the surfaces of most breast cancer cell types. The resulting nanoparticles were examined using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and quantitative image analysis. The implications of the results are then discussed for the potential development of magnetic nanoparticles for the specific targeting and treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Effectiveness of skin icing for reducing pain associated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tsunehisa; Tsunoda, Kazuko; Ohta, Satoko; Doi, Katsumi; Miyoshi, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Mizutani, Masami

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the effect of using the cooling method on pain at the site of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone(LH-RH) agonist injection in 181 prostate cancer or premenopausal breast cancer patients by using a numerical rating scale(NRS)and a questionnaire survey with open-ended questions. According to the NRS, 38.1% of the patients experienced a reduction in pain, 37.5% experienced no change, and 24.4% experienced an increase in pain. Therefore, use of the cooling method did not have a statistically significant effect in terms of pain reduction(p=0.123). However, on analyzing pain reduction according to the answers in the questionnaire survey, 53.2% of the patients experienced a reduction in pain, 38.5% experienced no change, and 8.3% experienced an increase in pain. These findings were different from those obtained on using the NRS. In addition, irrespective of using the cooling method, needle thickness and patient obesity strongly influenced the pain experienced. The skin icing method was effective in reducing pain at the site of LH-RH agonist injection. This method is simple, inexpensive, and safe, and is hence recommended.

  1. Ghrelin stimulation of growth hormone-releasing hormone neurons is direct in the arcuate nucleus.

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    Guillaume Osterstock

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin targets the arcuate nucleus, from where growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH neurones trigger GH secretion. This hypothalamic nucleus also contains neuropeptide Y (NPY neurons which play a master role in the effect of ghrelin on feeding. Interestingly, connections between NPY and GHRH neurons have been reported, leading to the hypothesis that the GH axis and the feeding circuits might be co-regulated by ghrelin.Here, we show that ghrelin stimulates the firing rate of identified GHRH neurons, in transgenic GHRH-GFP mice. This stimulation is prevented by growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1 antagonism as well as by U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor and by calcium channels blockers. The effect of ghrelin does not require synaptic transmission, as it is not antagonized by gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate and NPY receptor antagonists. In addition, this hypothalamic effect of ghrelin is independent of somatostatin, the inhibitor of the GH axis, since it is also found in somatostatin knockout mice. Indeed, ghrelin does not modify synaptic currents of GHRH neurons. However, ghrelin exerts a strong and direct depolarizing effect on GHRH neurons, which supports their increased firing rate.Thus, GHRH neurons are a specific target for ghrelin within the brain, and not activated secondary to altered activity in feeding circuits. These results support the view that ghrelin related therapeutic approaches could be directed separately towards GH deficiency or feeding disorders.

  2. In vivo pharmacological evaluation of a lactose-conjugated luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue.

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    Moradi, Shayli Varasteh; Varamini, Pegah; Steyn, Frederik; Toth, Istvan

    2015-11-10

    In the current study, the efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile of lactose-conjugated luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) was examined following oral administration in male rats. A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry technique was developed and applied for measuring the concentration of lactose[Q(1)][w(6)]LHRH (compound 1) in rat plasma in order to allow measurement of pharmacokinetic parameters. LH release was evaluated using a sandwich ELISA. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax = 0.11 μg/ml) was reached at 2h (Tmax) following oral administration of the compound at 10mg/kg. The half-life was determined to be 2.6h. The absolute bioavailability of the orally administered compound was found to be 14%, which was a remarkable improvement compared to zero-to-low oral bioavailability of the native peptide. Compound 1 was effective in stimulating LH release at 20mg/kg after oral administration. The method was validated at a linear range of 0.01-20.0 μg/ml and a correlation coefficient of r(2) ≥ 0.999. The accuracy and precision values showed the reliability and reproducibility of the method for evaluation of the pharmacokinetic parameters. These findings showed that the lactose derivative of LHRH has a therapeutic potential to be further developed as an orally active therapeutics for the treatment of hormone-dependent diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biosynthesis and the conjugation of magnetite nanoparticles with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obayemi, J.D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State (Nigeria); Dozie-Nwachukwu, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Danyuo, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Department of Electronics and Electricals Engineering, Nigerian Turkish Nile University, Abuja (Nigeria); Odusanya, O.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Anuku, N. [Department of Chemistry, Bronx Community College, New York, NY 10453 (United States); Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Malatesta, K. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States); Soboyejo, W.O., E-mail: soboyejo@princeton.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the biosynthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (BMNPs) with particle sizes between 10 nm and 60 nm. The biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles are produced from Magnetospirillum magneticum (M.M.) bacteria that respond to magnetic fields. M.M. bacteria were cultured and used to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles. This was done in an enriched magnetic spirillum growth medium (EMSGM) at different pH levels. The nanoparticle concentrations were characterized with UV–Visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy, while the particle shapes were elucidated via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structure of the particles was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the hydrodynamic radii, particle size distributions and polydispersity of the nanoparticles were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Carbodiimide reduction was also used to functionalize the BMNPs with a molecular recognition unit (luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, LHRH) that attaches specifically to receptors that are over-expressed on the surfaces of most breast cancer cell types. The resulting nanoparticles were examined using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and quantitative image analysis. The implications of the results are then discussed for the potential development of magnetic nanoparticles for the specific targeting and treatment of breast cancer. - Highlights: • Biosynthesis of MNPs with clinically relevant sizes between 10 and 60 nm. • New insights into the effects of pH and processing time on nanoparticle shapes and sizes. • Successful conjugation of biosynthesized magnetite nanoparticles to LHRH ligands. • Conjugated BMNPs that are monodispersed with potential biomedical relevance. • Magnetic properties of biosynthesized MNPs suggest potential for MRI enhancement.

  4. The effects of kisspeptin-10 on reproductive hormone release show sexual dimorphism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Channa N; Nijher, Gurjinder M K; Comninos, Alexander N; Abbara, Ali; Januszewki, Adam; Vaal, Meriel L; Sriskandarajah, Labosshy; Murphy, Kevin G; Farzad, Zohreh; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2011-12-01

    Kisspeptin peptides are critical in human reproductive physiology and are potential therapies for infertility. Kisspeptin-10 stimulates gonadotropin release in both male and female rodents. However, few studies have investigated the effects of kisspeptin-10 on gonadotropin release in humans, and none have investigated the effect in women. If kisspeptin is to be useful for treating reproductive disease, its effects in both men and women must be established. To compare the effects of kisspeptin-10 administration on reproductive hormone release in healthy men and women. Intravenous bolus kisspeptin-10 was administered to men and women (n = 4-5 per group). Subcutaneous bolus and i.v. infusion of kisspeptin-10 was also administered to female women (n = 4-5 per group). Circulating reproductive hormones were measured. In healthy men, serum LH and FSH were elevated after i.v. bolus kisspeptin-10, at doses as low as 0.3 and 1.0 nmol/kg, respectively. In healthy women during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, no alterations in serum gonadotropins were observed after i.v. bolus, s.c. bolus, or i.v. infusion of kisspeptin-10 at maximal doses of 10 nmol/kg, 32 nmol/kg, and 720 pmol/kg/min, respectively. In women during the preovulatory phase, serum LH and FSH were elevated after i.v. bolus kisspeptin-10 (10 nmol/kg). Kisspeptin-10 stimulates gonadotropin release in men as well as women during the preovulatory phase of menstrual cycle but fails to stimulate gonadotropin release in women during the follicular phase. The sexual dimorphism of the responsiveness of healthy men and women to kisspeptin-10 administration has important clinical implications for the potential of kisspeptin-10 to treat disorders of reproduction.

  5. Substantial expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor type I in human uveal melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schally, Andrew V.; Block, Norman L; Dezso, Balazs; Olah, Gabor; Rozsa, Bernadett; Fodor, Klara; Buglyo, Armin; Gardi, Janos; Berta, Andras; Halmos, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with a very high mortality rate due to frequent liver metastases. Consequently, the therapy of uveal melanoma remains a major clinical challenge and new treatment approaches are needed. For improving diagnosis and designing a rational and effective therapy, it is essential to elucidate molecular characteristics of this malignancy. The aim of this study therefore was to evaluate as a potential therapeutic target the expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor in human uveal melanoma. The expression of LHRH ligand and LHRH receptor transcript forms was studied in 39 human uveal melanoma specimens by RT-PCR using gene specific primers. The binding charachteristics of receptors for LHRH on 10 samples were determined by ligand competition assays. The presence of LHRH receptor protein was further evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The expression of mRNA for type I LHRH receptor was detected in 18 of 39 (46%) of tissue specimens. mRNA for LHRH-I ligand could be detected in 27 of 39 (69%) of the samples. Seven of 10 samples investigated showed high affinity LHRH-I receptors. The specific presence of full length LHRH receptor protein was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A high percentage of uveal melanomas express mRNA and protein for type-I LHRH receptors. Our results support the merit of further investigation of LHRH receptors in human ophthalmological tumors. Since diverse analogs of LHRH are in clinical trials or are already used for the treatment of various cancers, these analogs could be considered for the LHRH receptor-based treatment of uveal melanoma. PMID:24077773

  6. Goserelin acetate implant: a depot luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog for advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldspiel, B R; Kohler, D R

    1991-01-01

    Goserelin acetate implant is a newly approved depot formulation of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist indicated for palliation of advanced prostate cancer. LHRH superagonists suppress gonadotropin release from the pituitary gland by causing down-regulation of receptors. The sustained-release dosage form contains goserelin acetate dispersed in a biodegradable copolymer matrix and is designed to release active drug over 28 days. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that, despite nonzero order release of goserelin from the matrix, goserelin acetate implant maintains serum concentrations of testosterone in the range normally found in castrated men (less than 2 nmol/L) throughout the recommended 28-day dosing interval. Response rates similar to those for orchiectomy and estrogen administration have been demonstrated. Combination therapy with either diethylstilbestrol or flutamide has produced favorable results, although the major advantage appears to be a reduction in the tumor flare seen during the first week of LHRH agonist therapy rather than an increase in response rate or survival. Adverse effects are similar to other LHRH agonists and include tumor flare during the first week of therapy, decreased libido, decreased erectile potency, hot flashes, and gynecomastia. In combination with flutamide, additional adverse effects include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and elevated hepatic aminotransferases, all of which can be attributed to flutamide administration. Local reactions are minimal; however, some patients require a local anesthetic before goserelin acetate implant injection. The recommended dose is 3.6 mg administered subcutaneously into the upper abdominal wall every 28 days. The average wholesale cost is approximately +320 per month. Formulary addition is recommended.

  7. Tumor growth inhibition in patients with prostatic carcinoma treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolis, G; Ackman, D; Stellos, A; Mehta, A; Labrie, F; Fazekas, A T; Comaru-Schally, A M; Schally, A V

    1982-01-01

    Ten patients with prostatic carcinoma--six with stage C and four with stage D disease--were treated for 6 weeks to 12 months with agonistic analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). [D-Trp6]LH-RH was given subcutaneously once daily at a dose of 100 microgram and [D-Ser(But)6]des-GlyNH2(10)-LH-RH ethylamide (HOE 766) was given subcutaneously (50 microgram once daily) or intranasally (500 microgram twice daily). In all patients, mean plasma testosterone levels showed a 75% suppression by the third week of treatment and remained low thereafter. This was followed by a decrease or normalization of plasma acid phosphatase levels by the second month of treatment and a 47% decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase by the 10th week of treatment in all but one patient. In patients with stage C disease presenting with prostatism or urinary outflow obstruction, there was a noticeable clinical improvement. In two such patients, a decrease in the size of the prostate was confirmed by ultrasonography. In patients with stage D disease manifested by diffuse bone metastases, there was relief of bone pain, and in one patient treated for greater than 12 months the improvement was documented by radioisotope bone imaging. It is concluded that superactive agonistic LH-RH analogues hold promise as therapeutic agents in patients with androgen-sensitive prostatic adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the analogous of LH-RH may be used to assess the responsiveness of patients to surgical castration. Long-term administration of LH-RH analogues could become an alternative to surgical castration and estrogen therapy for the treatment of hormone-dependent prostatic carcinoma. Images PMID:6461861

  8. Body fat affects mouse reproduction, ovarian hormone release, and response to follicular stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Fabian, Dušan; Babeľová Kubandová, Janka; Vlčková, Radoslava; Alwasel, Saleh; Harrath, Abdel Halim

    2017-12-07

    We investigated the effects of body fat content on mouse fecundity, ovarian hormone release, and their response to follicle stimulation hormone (FSH). 4 types of females were produced: lean (group 1), normal (group 2), slightly fat (group 3), and significantly fat (group 4). The body weights, fat content, fertility rate, embryo number produced, retarded and degenerated embryo percentage, the release of progesterone (P4), testosterone (T), and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) by isolated ovaries cultured with and without FSH (1.0IU/mL medium) were evaluated. A gradual increase in body weight and fat contents from groups 1 to 4 was observed. Group 2 had higher fertility rate than those from the other groups. Groups 2 and 3 had fewer retarded and degenerated embryos that those from groups 1 and 4. Embryo production rate was not different among the groups. P4 and T secretion was higher from group 4 than in those from groups 1-3; secretion of IGF-I of group 3 was less than that of groups 1, 2, and 4. FSH promoted ovarian T output in all groups and stimulated ovarian P4 release in groups 1, 3, and 4, but not in group 2. FSH did not affect IGF-I release in any group. Therefore, both malnutrition and overfeeding can affect body weight and fat content in female mice, reducing embryo quality or developmental capacity, but not fertility and embryo production. Excess weight or fat can have stimulatory effects on ovarian P4 and T, but inhibitory effects on ovarian IGF-I release. Both leanness and excess weight or fat can induce the stimulatory action of FSH on ovarian P4. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  9. Growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonists inhibit growth of human ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadia, A; Schally, A V; Halmos, G; Varga, J L; Seitz, S; Buchholz, S; Rick, F; Zarandi, M; Bellyei, S; Treszl, A; Szalontay, L; Lucci, J A

    2011-10-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women with gynecologic malignancies. Antagonists of the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) have been shown to inhibit growth of various cancers through endocrine, autocrine, and paracrine mechanisms. In this study, we have investigated the effects of GHRH antagonists (GHRHa) in ES-2 human clear cell ovarian cancer and in UCI-107 human serous ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated the expression of mRNA for GHRH receptor, the binding to GHRH receptors, in specimens of ES-2 ovarian cancer. We evaluated also the in vitro effects of GHRHa on ES-2 cells and the in vivo effect of 2 different GHRHa on ES-2 and UCI-107 tumors. Nude mice bearing xenografts on ES-2 and UCI-107 ovarian cancer were treated with JMR-132 and MZ-J-7-118, respectively. Tumor growth was compared to control. ES-2 cells expressed mRNA for the functional splice variant SV1 of the GHRH receptor. JMR-132 inhibited cell proliferation in vitro by 42% and 18% at 10 and 1 μM concentration, respectively. Specific high affinity receptors for GHRH were detected in ES-2 cancer samples. In vivo daily subcutaneous injections of GHRHa significantly reduced tumor growth compared to a control group in both animal models. Our results indicate that GHRHa such as JMR-132 and MZ-J-7-118 can inhibit the growth of human ovarian cancer. The efficacy of GHRHa in ovarian cancer should be assessed in clinical trials. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. HORMONE THERAPY WITH USAGE OF AGONISTS AND ANTAGONISTS OF LUTEINIZING HORMONE RELEASING HORMONE IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Nyushko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is one of the most actual problems of modern oncourology. Hormone therapy (HT using medical castration is the main method of treatment of patients with metastatic PC. HT with usage of the new class of drugs that block the receptors for luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH is a promising and effective method of castration therapy that has a number of significant advantages over the use of analogues LHRH. This article presents areview of studies that compared the effectiveness and side effects of HT using antagonists and analogues LHRH.

  11. Growth hormone-releasing peptide-biotin conjugate stimulates myocytes differentiation through insulin-like growth factor-1 and collagen type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Jin; Jeon, Jung Eun; Jeong, Se Kyoo; Yoon, Seok Jeong; Kwon, Seon Deok; Lim, Jina; Park, Keedon; Kim, Dae Yong; Ahn, Jeong Keun; Kim, Bong-Woo

    2015-09-01

    Based on the potential beneficial effects of growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP)-6 on muscle functions, a newly synthesized GHRP-6-biotin conjugate was tested on cultured myoblast cells. Increased expression of myogenic marker proteins was observed in GHRP-6-biotin conjugate-treated cells. Additionally, increased expression levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and collagen type I were observed. Furthermore, GHRP-6-biotin conjugate-treated cells showed increased metabolic activity, as indicated by increased concentrations of energy metabolites, such as ATP and lactate, and increased enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase. Finally, binding protein analysis suggested few candidate proteins, including desmin, actin, and zinc finger protein 691 as potential targets for GHRP6-biotin conjugate action. These results suggest that the newly synthesized GHRP-6-biotin conjugate has myogenic stimulating activity through, at least in part, by stimulating collagen type I synthesis and several key proteins. Practical applications of the GHRP-6-biotin conjugate could include improving muscle condition.

  12. Glucagon-like peptide-2 induces rapid digestive adaptation following intestinal resection in preterm neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Andreas; Thymann, Thomas; Lund, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a frequent complication after intestinal resection in infants suffering from intestinal disease. We tested whether treatment with the intestinotrophic hormone glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases intestinal volume and function in the period immediately following...

  13. Intestinal permeability and glucagon-like peptide-2 in children with autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Marli A; Sigalet, David L; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    We measured small intestinal permeability using a lactulose:mannitol sugar permeability test in a group of children with autism, with current or previous gastrointestinal complaints. Secondly, we examined whether children with autism had an abnormal glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) response...

  14. Relationship between body mass index and serum testosterone concentration in patients receiving luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy for prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Tim M.; van Moorselaar, R. Jeroen A.; Meuleman, Eric J. H.; ter Haar, Ronald W.; Bui, Hong N.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Vis, André N.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone concentrations in men receiving luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist therapy for prostate cancer. A total of 66 white men were included in the present study. All subjects had received LHRH agonist

  15. Degarelix monotherapy compared with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists plus anti-androgen flare protection in advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Damber, Jan Erik; Malmberg, Anders

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess differences in efficacy outcomes between luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist plus antiandrogen (AA) flare protection and monotherapy with the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist degarelix in patients with prostate cancer...

  16. Diagnostic challenges and management of a patient with acromegaly due to ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion from a bronchial carcinoid tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kyriakakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient presented at the age of 30 with classic clinical features of acromegaly and was found to have elevated growth hormone levels, not suppressing during an oral glucose tolerance test. His acromegaly was originally considered to be of pituitary origin, based on a CT scan, which was interpreted as showing a pituitary macroadenoma. Despite two trans-sphenoidal surgeries, cranial radiotherapy and periods of treatment with bromocriptine and octreotide, his acromegaly remained active clinically and biochemically. A lung mass was discovered incidentally on a chest X-ray performed as part of a routine pre-assessment for spinal surgery 5 years following the initial presentation. This was confirmed to be a bronchial carcinoid tumour, which was strongly positive for growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH and somatostatin receptor type 2 by immunohistochemistry. The re-examination of the pituitary specimens asserted the diagnosis of pituitary GH hyperplasia. Complete resolution of the patient’s acromegaly was achieved following right lower and middle lobectomy. Seventeen years following the successful resection of the bronchial carcinoid tumour the patient remains under annual endocrine follow-up for monitoring of the hypopituitarism he developed after the original interventions to his pituitary gland, while there has been no evidence of active acromegaly or recurrence of the carcinoid tumour. Ectopic acromegaly is extremely rare, accounting for <1% of all cases of acromegaly. Our case highlights the diagnostic challenges differentiating between ectopic acromegaly and acromegaly of pituitary origin and emphasises the importance of avoiding unnecessary pituitary surgery and radiotherapy. The role of laboratory investigations, imaging and histology as diagnostic tools is discussed.

  17. Melatonin improves memory acquisition under stress independent of stress hormone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Spillmann, Maria; Bärtschi, Carmen; Wolf, Oliver T; Weber, Cora S; Ehlert, Ulrike; Wirtz, Petra H

    2009-03-01

    Animal studies suggest that the pineal hormone melatonin influences basal stress hormone levels and dampens hormone reactivity to stress. We investigated whether melatonin also has a suppressive effect on stress-induced catecholamine and cortisol release in humans. As stress hormones affect memory processing, we further examined a possible accompanying modulation of memory function. Fifty healthy young men received a single oral dose of either 3 mg melatonin (n = 27) or placebo medication (n = 23). One hour later, they were exposed to a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test). During stress, subjects encoded objects distributed in the test room, for which memory was assessed a day later ("memory encoding under stress"). Fifteen minutes following stress, memory retrieval for words learnt the day before was tested ("memory retrieval after stress"). Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels, salivary free cortisol levels and psychological responses (attention, wakefulness) were repeatedly measured before and after stress exposure. Melatonin specifically enhanced recognition memory accuracy of objects encoded under stress (p cortisol levels were highest, retrieval of memories acquired the day before was not influenced by melatonin. Moreover, melatonin did not influence stress-induced elevation of catecholamine and cortisol levels which in turn did not correlate with the effects of melatonin on memory. The findings point to a primary action of melatonin on central nervous stimulus processing under conditions of stress and possibly on memory consolidation and exclude any substantial suppressive action of the substance on hormonal stress responses.

  18. Aging influences steroid hormone release by mink ovaries and their response to leptin and IGF-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Sirotkin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to understand whether ovarian steroid hormones, and their response to the metabolic hormones leptin and IGF-I leptin, could be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging via changes in basal release of ovarian progesterone and estradiol. For this purpose, we compared the release of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian fragments isolated from young (yearlings and old (3-5 years of age minks cultured with and without leptin and IGF-I (0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml. We observed that isolated ovaries of older animals produced less progesterone but not less estradiol than the ovaries of young animals. Leptin addition stimulated estradiol release by the ovarian tissue of young animals but inhibited it in older females. Leptin did not influence progesterone output by the ovaries of either young or older animals. IGF-I inhibited estradiol output in young but not old animals, whereas progesterone release was inhibited by IGF-I irrespective of the animal age. Our observations demonstrate the involvement of both leptin and IGF-I in the control of mink ovarian steroid hormones release. Furthermore, our findings suggest that reproductive aging in minks can be due to (a reduction in basal progesterone release and (b alterations in the response of estradiol but not of progesterone to leptin and IGF-I.

  19. Structural and functional divergence of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors in early sarcopterygians: lungfish and Xenopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice K V Tam

    Full Text Available The evolutionary trajectories of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH receptor remain enigmatic since the discovery of physiologically functional GHRH-GHRH receptor (GHRHR in non-mammalian vertebrates in 2007. Interestingly, subsequent studies have described the identification of a GHRHR(2 in chicken in addition to the GHRHR and the closely related paralogous receptor, PACAP-related peptide (PRP receptor (PRPR. In this article, we provide information, for the first time, on the GHRHR in sarcopterygian fish and amphibians by the cloning and characterization of GHRHRs from lungfish (P. dolloi and X. laevis. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated structural resemblance of lungfish GHRHR to their mammalian orthologs, while the X. laevis GHRHR showed the highest homology to GHRHR(2 in zebrafish and chicken. Functionally, lungfish GHRHR displayed high affinity towards GHRH in triggering intracellular cAMP and calcium accumulation, while X. laevis GHRHR(2 was able to react with both endogenous GHRH and PRP. Tissue distribution analyses showed that both lungfish GHRHR and X. laevis GHRHR(2 had the highest expression in brain, and interestingly, X. laevis(GHRHR2 also had high abundance in the reproductive organs. These findings, together with previous reports, suggest that early in the Sarcopterygii lineage, GHRHR and PRPR have already established diverged and specific affinities towards their cognate ligands. GHRHR(2, which has only been found in xenopus, zebrafish and chicken hitherto, accommodates both GHRH and PRP.

  20. Effects of active immunization against growth-hormone releasing factor on puberty and reproductive development in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanchara, K W; Armstrong, J D; Britt, J H

    1999-07-01

    Hormones within the somatotropin cascade influence several physiological traits, including growth and reproduction. Active immunization against growth hormone-releasing factor (GRFi) initiated at 3 or 6 mo of age decreased weight gain, increased deposition of fat, and delayed puberty in heifers. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of GRFi on puberty and subsequent ovulation rate in gilts. Crossbred gilts were actively immunized against GRF-(1-29)-(Gly)2-Cys-NH2 conjugated to human serum albumin (GRFi) or against human serum albumin alone (HSAi). In Exp. 1, gilts were immunized against GRF (n = 12) or HSA (n = 12) at 92 +/- 1 d of age. At 191 d of age, antibody titers against GRF were greater (P gilts. The GRFi decreased (P gilts were immunized against GRF (n = 35) or HSA (n = 35) at 35 +/- 1 d of age. The GRFi at 35 d of age did not alter the number of surface follicles or uterine weight between 93 and 102 d of age, but GRFi decreased (P Immunization against GRF reduced (P gilts, but ovulation rate was lower (P gilts. Thus, GRFi at 92 or 35 d of age decreased serum ST, IGF-I, and BW in prepubertal gilts without altering age of puberty. However, GRFi at 35 d of age, but not 92 d of age, decreased ovulation rate. These results indicate that alterations in the somatotropic axis at 1 mo of age can influence reproductive development in pubertal gilts.

  1. Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptide 6 Enhances the Healing Process and Improves the Esthetic Outcome of the Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yssel Mendoza Marí

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to its cytoprotective effects, growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6 proved to reduce liver fibrotic induration. CD36 as one of the GHRP-6 receptors appears abundantly represented in cutaneous wounds granulation tissue. The healing response in a scenario of CD36 agonistic stimulation had not been previously investigated. Excisional full-thickness wounds (6 mmØ were created in the dorsum of Wistar rats and topically treated twice a day for 5 days. The universal model of rabbit’s ears hypertrophic scars was implemented and the animals were treated daily for 30 days. Treatments for both species were based on a CMC jelly composition containing GHRP-6 400 μg/mL. Wounds response characterization included closure dynamic, RT-PCR transcriptional profile, histology, and histomorphometric procedures. The rats experiment indicated that GHRP-6 pharmacodynamics involves attenuation of immunoinflammatory mediators, their effector cells, and the reduction of the expression of fibrotic cytokines. Importantly, in the hypertrophic scars rabbit’s model, GHRP-6 intervention dramatically reduced the onset of exuberant scars by activating PPARγ and reducing the expression of fibrogenic cytokines. GHRP-6 showed no effect on the reversion of consolidated lesions. This evidence supports the notion that CD36 is an active and pharmacologically approachable receptor to attenuate wound inflammation and accelerate its closure so as to improve wound esthetic.

  2. Menstruation recovery after chemotherapy and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist plus tamoxifen therapy for premenopausal patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kenichi; Matsuo, Sadanori; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao; Shiono, Motomi

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the period required for menstruation recovery after long-term luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist plus tamoxifen therapy following chemotherapy. In this study we investigated the period required for menstruation recovery after the therapy. The subjects comprised 105 premenopausal breast cancer patients who had undergone surgery. All patients were administered an LH-RH agonist for 24 months and tamoxifen for 5 years following the postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, and the status of menstruation recovery was examined. Menstruation resumed in 16 cases (15.2%) after the last LH-RH agonist treatment session. The mean period from the last LH-RH agonist treatment to the recovery of menstruation was 6.9 months. The rate of menstruation recovery was 35.5% in patients aged 40 years or younger and 8.0% in those aged 41 years or older, and it was significantly higher in those aged 40 years or younger. The period until menstruation recovery tended to be longer in older patients at the end of treatment. This study showed that menstruation resumed after treatment at higher rates in younger patients. However, because it is highly likely that ovarian function will be destroyed by the treatment even in young patients, it is considered necessary to explain the risk to patients and obtain informed consent before introducing this treatment modality.

  3. Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on gastric emptying and incretin hormone release in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Bellon, Max; Wishart, Judith M; Young, Richard; Blackshaw, L Ashley; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K

    2009-04-01

    The incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), play an important role in glucose homeostasis in both health and diabetes. In mice, sucralose, an artificial sweetener, stimulates GLP-1 release via sweet taste receptors on enteroendocrine cells. We studied blood glucose, plasma levels of insulin, GLP-1, and GIP, and gastric emptying (by a breath test) in 7 healthy humans after intragastric infusions of 1) 50 g sucrose in water to a total volume of 500 ml (approximately 290 mosmol/l), 2) 80 mg sucralose in 500 ml normal saline (approximately 300 mosmol/l, 0.4 mM sucralose), 3) 800 mg sucralose in 500 ml normal saline (approximately 300 mosmol/l, 4 mM sucralose), and 4) 500 ml normal saline (approximately 300 mosmol/l), all labeled with 150 mg 13C-acetate. Blood glucose increased only in response to sucrose (Psucralose or saline. Gastric emptying of sucrose was slower than that of saline (t50: 87.4+/-4.1 min vs. 74.7+/-3.2 min, Psucralose 0.4 mM (73.7+/-3.1 min) or 4 mM (76.7+/-3.1 min) and saline. We conclude that sucralose, delivered by intragastric infusion, does not stimulate insulin, GLP-1, or GIP release or slow gastric emptying in healthy humans.

  4. Diverse effects of tachykinins on luteinizing hormone release in male rats: mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, P S; Sahu, A; Bonavera, J J; Kalra, S P

    1992-09-01

    The tachykinins are a group of structurally related peptides found in the rat hypothalamus and anterior pituitary. We have evaluated the effects of four tachykinins on LH release in male rats. In intact male rats, intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of neurokinin A (NKA), neuropeptide K (NPK), and neuropeptide-gamma (NP gamma) elicited dose-related, transient increases in plasma LH. Substance P (SP) was ineffective under these conditions. A further examination showed that in vitro incubation with either NPK or NP gamma of hemipituitaries from intact but not castrated male rats promoted release of LH into the medium, thereby revealing that the excitatory effects of tachykinins in intact male rats may, in part, be a result of stimulation of LH release directly from the anterior pituitary. On the other hand, the effects of these four tachykinins on LH release were different in castrated rats. Intracerebroventricular injection of NPK, NKA, and NP gamma as well as SP, which was ineffective in intact male rats, evoked a long-lasting suppression of LH release. Comparatively, NPK was the most effective tachykinin in eliciting LH responses in both of these tests involving different endocrine environments. We next evaluated the possibility that the inhibitory effects of tachykinins (NPK) may be mediated by activation of inhibitory endogenous opioid peptides. The results showed that iv infusion of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone, to block the possible inhibitory effects of endogenous opioid peptides, only partially counteracted the suppressive effects of icv NPK on plasma LH levels. Thus, in addition to revealing the diverse effects of structurally related tachykinins on LH release, the results of these investigations showed specifically that the NK-2 receptor agonists NPK, NP gamma, and NKA stimulated LH release in intact rats, in part, by a direct action at the level of the pituitary, whereas the NK-1 receptor agonist SP was inactive under these conditions

  5. Evolution of the growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) family of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R M; Scanes, C G

    1992-12-01

    1. The primordial GRF may have arisen quite early in evolutionary history, at or prior to (i.e. should immunoreactivity data be confirmed in invertebrates) the appearance of jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomates). A common evolutionary pathway using gene duplication may have been utilized to generate the GRF super-family of peptides. As most members of this peptide superfamily are produced in the gastrointestinal tract, the question is posed whether the GRF may have similar origins. 2. It is suggested that the GRF superfamily has two major branches: a) GRF; PRP/PACAP; VIP/PHI; secretin and b) Glucagon/GLP-1/GLP-2. GIP is likely to be a member of the glucagon branch. The two branches may be attributable to gene duplication encoding an ancestral molecule. These gene duplications are likely to have occurred prior to the evolution of vertebrates (conservatively 400-500 million years ago, and possibly 1 billion years ago). It is probable that peptides homologous to GRF, VIP and glucagon will be isolated from invertebrates. These invertebrate sequences will shed further light upon the evolution of this peptide superfamily. 3. Throughout the GRF superfamily, amphiphilic alpha-helical secondary structures represent preferred bioactive conformations. It is assumed that stable, ordered secondary structures conferring enhanced ligand-receptor interactions were conserved due to selective pressures. 4. It is well documented that hypothalamic GRF stimulates adenohypophyseal GH secretion in a variety of species. Thus far, the physiological effects of GRF have been attributed thus to the elevation of GH, and possibly also IGF-I. Recent data suggests a more liberal view; that GRF may also have direct actions in fetal/placental development, reproduction and immune function. Furthermore these direct effects may be mediated via GRF from either hypothalamic or extrahypothalamic (e.g. placenta, testes, ovary, leukocyte) sources. In conclusion, a great wealth of information has accumulated

  6. Neonatal imprinting predetermines the sexually dimorphic, estrogen-dependent expression of galanin in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchenthaler, I; Lennard, D E; López, F J; Negro-Vilar, A

    1993-01-01

    The incidence of colocalization of galanin (GAL) in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons is 4- to 5-fold higher in female than male rats. This fact and the finding that the degree of colocalization parallels estradiol levels during the estrous cycle suggest that GAL is an estrogen-inducible product in a subset of LHRH neurons. To analyze further this paradigm we evaluated the effects of gonadectomy and steroid replacement therapy in male and female rats. Ovariectomy resulted in a significant decrease in the number of cells colocalizing LHRH and GAL, whereas estradiol replacement to such animals restored the incidence of colocalization to that observed in controls. In males, however, estradiol treatment failed to enhance the incidence of colocalization of GAL and LHRH, indicating, therefore, that the colocalization of these peptides is gender-determined. This possibility--i.e., gender-specific determination of LHRH neurons coexpressing GAL--was evaluated by neonatal manipulation of hypothalamic steroid imprinting. As mentioned above, male rats did not respond to estrogen or testosterone by increasing GAL/LHRH colocalization as females did. Neonatally orchidectomized rats, whose hypothalami have not been exposed to testosterone during the critical period, when treated with estrogen in adulthood showed an increase in colocalization of GAL and LHRH similar to that seen in female animals. These observations indicate that the colocalization of LHRH/GAL is neonatally determined by an epigenetic mechanism that involves the testis. In summary, this sex difference in the incidence of colocalization of GAL and LHRH represents a unique aspect of sexual differentiation in that only certain phenotypic characteristics of a certain cellular lineage are dimorphic. The subpopulation of LHRH neurons that also produces GAL represents a portion of the LHRH neuronal system that is sexually differentiated and programed to integrate, under steroidal control, a network of

  7. Deficiency of growth hormone-releasing hormone signaling is associated with sleep alterations in the dwarf rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obál, F; Fang, J; Taishi, P; Kacsóh, B; Gardi, J; Krueger, J M

    2001-04-15

    The somatotropic axis, and particularly growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), is implicated in the regulation of sleep-wake activity. To evaluate sleep in chronic somatotropic deficiency, sleep-wake activity was studied in dwarf (dw/dw) rats that are known to have a defective GHRH signaling mechanism in the pituitary and in normal Lewis rats, the parental strain of the dw/dw rats. In addition, expression of GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) mRNA in the hypothalamus/preoptic region and in the pituitary was also determined by means of reverse transcription-PCR, and GHRH content of the hypothalamus was measured. Hypothalamic/preoptic and pituitary GHRH-R mRNA levels were decreased in the dw/dw rats, indicating deficits in the central GHRHergic transmission. Hypothalamic GHRH content in dw/dw rats was also less than that found in Lewis rats. The dw/dw rats had less spontaneous nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) (light and dark period) and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) (light period) than did the control Lewis rats. After 4 hr of sleep deprivation, rebound increases in NREMS and REMS were normal in the dw/dw rat. As determined by fast Fourier analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), the sleep deprivation-induced enhancements in EEG slow-wave activity in the dw/dw rats were only one-half of the response in the Lewis rats. The results are compared with sleep findings previously obtained in GHRH-deficient transgenic mice. The alterations in NREMS are attributed to the defect in GHRH signaling, whereas the decreases in REMS might result from the growth hormone deficiency in the dw/dw rat.

  8. Synthetic Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs: A Historical Appraisal of the Evidences Supporting Their Cytoprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Berlanga-Acosta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs constitute a group of small synthetic peptides that stimulate the growth hormone secretion and the downstream axis activity. Mounting evidences since the early 1980s delineated unexpected pharmacological cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties for the GHRPs. However, despite intense basic pharmacological research, alternatives to prevent cell and tissue demise before lethal insults have remained as an empty niche in the clinical armamentarium. Here, we have rigorously reviewed the investigational development of GHRPs and their clinical niching perspectives. Methodology: PubMed/MEDLINE databases, including original research and review articles, were explored. The search design was date escalated from 1980 and included articles in English only. Results and Conclusions: GHRPs bind to two different receptors (GHS-R1a and CD36, which redundantly or independently exert relevant biological effects. GHRPs’ binding to CD36 activates prosurvival pathways such as PI-3K/AKT1, thus reducing cellular death. Furthermore, GHRPs decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS spillover, enhance the antioxidant defenses, and reduce inflammation. These cytoprotective abilities have been revealed in cardiac, neuronal, gastrointestinal, and hepatic cells, representing a comprehensive spectrum of protection of parenchymal organs. Antifibrotic effects have been attributed to some of the GHRPs by counteracting fibrogenic cytokines. In addition, GHRP family members have shown a potent myotropic effect by promoting anabolia and inhibiting catabolia. Finally, GHRPs exhibit a broad safety profile in preclinical and clinical settings. Despite these fragmented lines incite to envision multiple pharmacological uses for GHRPs, especially as a myocardial reperfusion damage-attenuating candidate, this family of “drugable” peptides awaits for a definitive clinical niche.

  9. Changes of growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin neurons in the rat hypothalamus induced by genistein: a stereological study.

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    Trifunović, Svetlana; Manojlović-Stojanoski, Milica; Ristić, Nataša; Nestorović, Nataša; Medigović, Ivana; Živanović, Jasmina; Milošević, Verica

    2016-12-01

    Genistein is a plant-derived estrogenic isoflavone commonly found in dietary and therapeutic supplements, due to its potential health benefits. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SS) are neurosecretory peptides synthesized in neurons of the hypothalamus and regulate the growth hormone secretion. Early reports indicate that estrogens have highly involved in the regulation of GHRH and SS secretions. Since little is known about the potential effects of genistein on GHRH and SS neurons, we exposed rats to genistein. Genistein were administered to adult rats in dose of 30 mg/kg, for 3 weeks. The estradiol-dipropionate treatment was used as the adequate controls to genistein. Using applied stereology on histological sections of hypothalamus, we obtained the quantitative information on arcuate (Arc) and periventricular (Pe) nucleus volume and volume density of GHRH neurons and SS neurons. Image analyses were used to obtain GHRH and SS contents in the median eminence (ME). Administration of estradiol-dipropionate caused the increase of Arc and Pe nucleus volume, SS neuron volume density, GHRH and SS staining intensity in the ME, when compared with control. Genistein treatment increased: Arc nucleus volume and the volume density of GHRH neurons (by 26%) and SS neurons (1.5 fold), accompanied by higher GHRH and SS staining intensity in the ME, when compared to the orhidectomized group. These results suggest that genistein has a significant effect on hypothalamic region, involved in the regulation of somatotropic system function, and could contribute to the understanding of genistein as substance that alter the hormonal balance.

  10. Novel activity of human angiotensin I converting enzyme: release of the NH2- and COOH-terminal tripeptides from the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Skidgel, R A; Erdös, E G

    1985-01-01

    Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE; kininase II; peptidyldipeptide hydrolase, EC 3.4.15.1) cleaves COOH-terminal dipeptides from active peptides containing a free COOH terminus. We investigated the hydrolysis of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) by homogeneous human ACE. Although this decapeptide is blocked at both the NH2 and COOH termini, it was metabolized to several peptides, which were separated by HPLC and identified by amino acid analysis. A major product was the NH2-term...

  11. Luteinizing hormone responses to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, and growth hormone and cortisol responses to insulin induced hypoglycaemia in functional secondary amenorrhoea.

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    Hirvonen, E; Seppälä, M; Karonen, S L; Adlercreutz, H

    1977-02-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) responses to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), and growth hormone (GH) and cortisol responses to insulin induced hypoglycaemia were studied in 56 women classified into 4 distinct groups of functional secondary amenorrhoea. The groups were: I, self-induced weight reduction (20 patients); II, post pill amenorrhoea (14 patients); III, anorexia nervosa (10 patients); and IV, idiopathic secondary amenorrhoea (12 patients). Only patients with no overlapping anamnestic factors were included. Group I patients had the most heavily impaired LHRH-LH responses, and the GH response to hypoglycaemia was smaller than in other groups. Cortisol responses were normal. Group II patients showed blunted LH responses and normal GH and cortisol responses. Group III patients showed normal or exaggerated LH responses in the recovery phase of anorexia nervosa, while those two patients who were in the static phase of the illness had impaired responses. GH responses varied greatly. Group IV patients had normal basal levels of LH and normal LH, GH and cortisol responses. The restoration of LH response is not solely correlated to body mass, since patients recovering from anorexia nervosa showed greater LHRH-LH responses with nutritional rehabilitation at 76% of ideal body weight than patients with self-induced weight reduction at 87% of ideal body weight. In idiopathic amenorrhoea the hypothalamic pituitary axis seems to be practically intact. The function of hypothalamic-pituitary axis may be impaired selectively in functional amenorrhoea. Corticotrophin releasing hormone function remains intact, and GH-response may be impaired or normal independently of the LH-response to LHRH. In self-induced weight reduction both functions were impaired. These tests are easily carried out with out-patients, and they give more information about the functional state of hypothalamic-pituitary axis than basal analyses of hypothalamic-pituitary axis than basal analyses of

  12. Antagonists of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Inhibit the Growth of U-87MG Human Glioblastoma in Nude Mice

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    Hippokratis Kiaris

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone(GH-RH inhibit the growth of various cancers by mechanisms that involve the suppression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF -I and/or IGF-II. In view of the importance of the IGF system in glioma tumorigenesis, the effects of GH-RH antagonists MZ-5-156 and JV-1-36 were investigated in nude mice bearing subcutaneous and orthotopic xenografts of U-87MG human glioblastomas. After 4 weeks of therapy with MZ-5-156 or JV-1-36 at the dose of 20 µmg/day per animal, the final volume of subcutaneous U-87MG tumors was significantly (P < .01 decreased by 84% and 76%, respectively, as compared with controls. Treatment with GHRH antagonists also reduced tumor weight and the levels of mRNA for IGF receptor type I (IGFR-I. A reduction in the mRNA levels for IGF-II was found in tumors of mice treated with MZ-5-156. Treatment with MZ-5-156 or JV-1-36 also extended the survival of nude mice implanted orthotopically with U-87MG glioblastomas by 81% (P < .005 and 18%, respectively, as compared with the controls. Exposure in vitro to GH-RH antagonists MZ-5-156 or JV-1-36 at 1 MM concentration for 24 hours decreased the tumorigenicity of U-87MG cells in nude mice by 10% to 30% and extended the latency period for the development of subcutaneous palpable tumors by 31% to 56%, as compared with the controls. Exposure of U-87MG cells to GH-RH antagonists in vitro also resulted in a time-dependent increase in the mRNA levels of IGFR-II or a decrease in the mRNA levels of IGFR-I. mRNA for GH-RH was detected in U87MG cells and xenografts implying that GH-RH may play a role in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Our results suggest that GH-RH antagonists MZ-5-156 and JV-136 inhibit the growth of U-87MG human glioblastoma by mechanisms that involve the suppression of IGF system. Antagonistic analogs of GH-RH merit further development for the treatment of malignant glioblastoma.

  13. Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone inhibit the proliferation of experimental non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szereday, Zoltan; Schally, Andrew V; Varga, Jozsef L; Kanashiro, Celia A; Hebert, Francine; Armatis, Patricia; Groot, Kate; Szepeshazi, Karoly; Halmos, Gabor; Busto, Rebeca

    2003-11-15

    Recent studies show that antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) inhibit proliferation of various cancers indirectly through blockage of the endocrine GH-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I axis and directly by an action on tumor cells involving the suppression of autocrine/paracrine IGF-I, IGF-II, or GH-RH. The effectiveness of therapy with GH-RH antagonist JV-1-38 and its mechanisms of action were investigated in NCI-H838 non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) xenografted s.c. into nude mice and in vitro. Treatment with GH-RH antagonist JV-1-38 significantly (P < 0.05-0.001) inhibited tumor growth as demonstrated by a 58% decrease in final tumor volume, 54% reduction in tumor weight, and the extension of tumor-doubling time from 8.5 +/- 1.38 to 12 +/- 1.07 days as compared with controls. Using ligand competition assays with (125)I-labeled GH-RH antagonist JV-1-42, specific high-affinity binding sites for GH-RH were found on tumor membranes. Reverse transcription-PCR revealed the expression of mRNA for GH-RH and splice variant 1 (SV(1)) of GH-RH receptor in H838 tumors. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis also demonstrated that H838 tumors express IGF-I and IGF-I receptors. Tumoral concentration of IGF-I and its mRNA expression were significantly decreased by 25% (P = 0.05) and 65% (P < 0.001), respectively, in animals receiving JV-1-38, whereas serum IGF-I levels remained unchanged. In vitro studies showed that H838 cells secreted GH-RH and IGF-I into the medium. The growth of tumor cells in vitro was stimulated by IGF-I and inhibited by GH-RH antagonist JV-1-38 and a GH-RH antiserum. Our results extend the findings on the involvement of IGF-I in NSCLC and suggest that GH-RH may be an autocrine growth factor for H838 NSCLC. The antitumorigenic action of GH-RH antagonists could be partly direct and mediated by SV(1) of tumoral GH-RH receptors. The finding of GH-RH and SV(1) of GH-RH receptors in NSCLC provides a new approach to the treatment of this

  14. Growth hormone-releasing peptide ghrelin inhibits homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction in porcine coronary arteries and human endothelial cells.

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    Hedayati, Nasim; Annambhotla, Suman; Jiang, Jun; Wang, Xinwen; Chai, Hong; Lin, Peter H; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, is implicated to play a protective role in cardiovascular tissues. However, it is not clear whether ghrelin protects vascular tissues from injury secondary to risk factors such as homocysteine (Hcy). This study investigated the effect and potential mechanisms of ghrelin on Hcy-induced endothelial dysfunction. Porcine coronary artery rings were incubated for 24 hours with ghrelin (100 ng/mL), Hcy (50 microM), or ghrelin plus Hcy. Endothelial vasomotor function was evaluated using the myograph tension model. The response to the thromboxane A(2)analog U46619, bradykinin, and sodium nitroprusside was analyzed. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry staining, and superoxide anion production was documented lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence analysis. Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were treated with different concentrations of Hcy, ghrelin, or antighrelin receptor antibody for 24 hours, and eNOS protein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. Maximal contraction with U46619 and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation with sodium nitroprusside were not different among the four groups. However, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation with bradykinin (10(-6) M) was significantly reduced by 34% with Hcy compared with controls (P ghrelin to Hcy had a protective effect, with 61.6% relaxation, which was similar to controls (64.7%). Homocysteine significantly reduced eNOS expression, whereas ghrelin cotreatment effectively restored eNOS expression to the control levels. Superoxide anion levels, which were increased by 100% with Hcy, returned to control levels with ghrelin cotreatment. Ghrelin also effectively blocked the Hcy-induced decrease of eNOS protein levels in HCAECs in a concentration-dependent manner. Antighrelin receptor antibody effectively inhibited the effect of ghrelin. Ghrelin has a protective

  15. Supplementation of oligofructose, but not sucralose, decreases high-fat diet induced body weight gain in mice independent of gustducin-mediated gut hormone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Sandra; Cools, Leen; Avau, Bert; Vancleef, Laurien; Farré, Ricard; Verbeke, Kristin; Depoortere, Inge

    2017-03-01

    Enteroendocrine cells sense nutrients through taste receptors similar to those on the tongue. Sweet and fatty acid taste receptors (FFAR) coupled to the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, on enteroendocrine cells play a role in gut hormone release. We studied if supplementation of artificial (sucralose) or prebiotic (oligofructose; OFS) sweeteners target gustducin-mediated signaling pathways to alter gut hormone release and reduce obesity-associated disorders. Wild-type (WT) and α-gustducin knockout (α-gust -/- ) mice were fed a high-fat diet and gavaged once daily (8 wk) with water or equisweet concentrations of sweeteners. OFS but not sucralose decreased body weight gain (-19 ± 3%, p sucralose, reduced body weight gain and decreased intestinal permeability, but not glucose intolerance. Effects were not mediated by altered gut hormone levels or gustducin-mediated signaling. Artificial sweeteners do not affect gut hormone levels and are metabolically inert in mice on a high-fat diet. In contrast, prebiotic oligosaccharides (OFS) prevent body weight gain but not glucose intolerance. Alterations in sweet and short-chain fatty acid receptors (FFAR) (studied in WT and α-gust -/- mice) that regulate gut hormone levels are not mandatory for the positive effects of OFS. Enhanced uptake of SCFAs may favor interaction with FFAR2/3 on adipose tissue to induce weight loss. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Changes in growth hormone-binding protein in girls with central precocious puberty treated with a depot preparation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, S B; Donnadieu, M; Chaussain, J L

    1993-01-01

    Growth hormone-binding protein (GHBP) was studied in 11 girls with true precocious puberty, aged 7.3 +/- 0.2 years (mean +/- SE), before and after the first 6 months of treatment with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue D-Trp6-LHRH. The 125I-human GH was incubated with 150 microliters of serum, bound and free GH were separated by gel filtration. The levels of GHBP increased significantly from 24.2 +/- 1.3 to 28.1 +/- 1.9% (p pubertal spurt is mediated by a sex-steroid-induced rise in GH concentration, and they suggest that the levels of GHBP may be related to the GH secretion and its variation with treatment.

  17. Treatment of Paraphilic Disorders in Sexual Offenders or Men With a Risk of Sexual Offending With Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonists: An Updated Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Briken, Peer

    2018-01-01

    Different pharmacologic agents are used in the treatment of paraphilic disorders in sexual offenders or men with a risk of sexual offending, with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists being the agents introduced more recently to treatment regimens. To summarize the relevant literature concerning LHRH agonist treatment of paraphilic disorders in sexual offenders and update the previously published systematic review by Briken et al (J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64:890-897). The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for literature published from January 2003 through October 2017 using the following key words: LHRH agonists, GnRH agonists, antiandrogens AND paraphilia, pedophilia, sex offenders. Evaluation of the effectiveness and side effects of LHRH agonist treatment of paraphilic disorders in sexual offenders. After screening for duplicates and applying specific selection criteria, the search yielded 24 eligible studies reporting on a sample of 256 patients. There is increasing evidence that LHRH agonists are more effective than steroidal antiandrogens in lowering paraphilic sexual thoughts and behaviors. Current research also is based on methods that might be less susceptible to faking (eg, eye-tracking, brain imaging, and viewing-time measures). Side effects occurring most frequently are fatigue, hot flashes, depressive mood, weight gain, high blood pressure, diabetes, gynecomastia, loss of erectile function, and loss of bone mineral density. Although LHRH agonists seem to be the most effective drugs in the treatment of paraphilic fantasies and behaviors, they should be reserved for patients with a paraphilic disorder and the highest risk of sexual offending because of their extensive side effects. This systematic review considers all types of research on LHRH agonist treatment in patients with paraphilic disorders, thereby providing a complete overview of the current state of research. However, most studies are case reports or observational

  18. Growth hormone-releasing hormone-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 family with an uncommon phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Elisa; Ferrante, Emanuele; Verrua, Elisa; Malchiodi, Elena; Mantovani, Giovanna; Filopanti, Marcello; Ferrero, Stefano; Pietrabissa, Andrea; Vanoli, Alessandro; La Rosa, Stefano; Zatelli, Maria C; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Verga, Uberta

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) family characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism, in association with acromegaly because of ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) secretion by a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in a young man and with a bronchial carcinoid in his mother. We investigate the clinical, radiological imaging, histopathologic findings, and therapy. An 18-year-old man successfully underwent subtotal parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism. A subsequent genetic analysis showed a MEN1 gene mutation. Three years later, acromegaly because of ectopic GHRH secretion was diagnosed (pituitary MRI negative and elevated GHRH levels). A search for an ectopic tumor was unsuccessful and somatostatin analog therapy was started. Successively, scintigraphy with somatostatin analogs (68-Ga-DOTATOC-PET) showed three focal areas in the pancreatic tail. Distal pancreatectomy showed multiple pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and hormonal status was normalized. Afterwards, the evaluation of the patient's mother, carrying the same mutation, indicated a primary hyperparathyroidism and a 4 cm lung mass. The patient underwent subtotal pneumonectomy and the histological analysis was consistent with the diagnosis of a typical bronchial carcinoid. In conclusion, an atypical phenotype may be recorded in MEN1 families, thus emphasizing the importance of the new imaging and surgical techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of such a rare disease.

  19. Predictors of Treatment Response to Tesamorelin, a Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor Analog, in HIV-Infected Patients with Excess Abdominal Fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Mangili

    Full Text Available Tesamorelin, a synthetic analog of human growth hormone-releasing factor, decreases visceral adipose tissue (VAT in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy.1 To evaluate the utility of patient characteristics and validated disease-risk scores, namely indicator variables for the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation (MetS-IDF or the National Cholesterol Education Program (MetS-NCEP and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS, as predictors of VAT reduction during tesamorelin therapy at 3 and 6 months, and 2 To explore the characteristics of patients who reached a threshold of VAT 1.7 mmol/L, and white race had a significant impact on likelihood of response to tesamorelin after 6 months of therapy (interaction p-values 0.054, 0.063, and 0.025, respectively. No predictive factors were identified at 3 months. The odds of a VAT reduction to <140 cm2 for subjects treated with tesamorelin was 3.9 times greater than that of subjects randomized to placebo after controlling for study, gender, baseline body mass index (BMI and baseline VAT (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.03; 7.44.Individuals with baseline MetS-NCEP, elevated triglyceride levels, or white race were most likely to experience reductions in VAT after 6 months of tesamorelin treatment. The odds of response of VAT <140 cm2 was 3.9 times greater for tesamorelin-treated patients than that of patients receiving placebo.

  20. SIRT1 Regulates Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Release by Enhancing PIP5Kgamma Activity through Deacetylation of Specific Lysine Residues in Mammals.

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    Sayaka Akieda-Asai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SIRT1, a NAD-dependent deacetylase, has diverse roles in a variety of organs such as regulation of endocrine function and metabolism. However, it remains to be addressed how it regulates hormone release there. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that SIRT1 is abundantly expressed in pituitary thyrotropes and regulates thyroid hormone secretion. Manipulation of SIRT1 level revealed that SIRT1 positively regulated the exocytosis of TSH-containing granules. Using LC/MS-based interactomics, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5Kgamma was identified as a SIRT1 binding partner and deacetylation substrate. SIRT1 deacetylated two specific lysine residues (K265/K268 in PIP5Kgamma and enhanced PIP5Kgamma enzyme activity. SIRT1-mediated TSH secretion was abolished by PIP5Kgamma knockdown. SIRT1 knockdown decreased the levels of deacetylated PIP5Kgamma, PI(4,5P(2, and reduced the secretion of TSH from pituitary cells. These results were also observed in SIRT1-knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicated that the control of TSH release by the SIRT1-PIP5Kgamma pathway is important for regulating the metabolism of the whole body.

  1. Inhibition of growth and reduction in tumorigenicity of UCI-107 ovarian cancer by antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone and vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzistamou, I; Schally, A V; Varga, J L; Groot, K; Armatis, P; Bajo, A M

    2001-11-01

    To evaluate the tumor inhibitory activities of antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in UCI-107 human ovarian cancer model, and to investigate the role of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in the response. In the present study we investigated the effects of GH-RH antagonist JV-1-36 and VIP antagonist JV-1-52, on the growth and tumorigenicity of UCI-107 ovarian cell carcinoma xenografted into nude mice. Studies on the effects of hGH-RH(1-29)NH2, IGF-I, IGF-II, JV-1-36, and JV-1-52 on the proliferation of UCI-107 cells cultured in vitro were also performed. After 22 days of therapy with JV-1-36 or JV-1-52 at the dose of 20 microg/day, the final volume of UCI-107 tumors was significantly (PUCI-107 cells in nude mice. All ten mice injected with cells treated with medium alone developed tumors within 23 days after cell inoculation, while only eight of ten and four of ten mice injected with cells exposed to JV-1-36 or JV-1-52, respectively, had tumors. In vitro exposure of UCI-107 cells to 5-35 ng/ml IGF-II produced a significant suppression in the rate of cell proliferation (P UCI-107 ovarian cell carcinoma by mechanisms that appear to involve direct effects on the cancer cells.

  2. Effects of administration of two growth hormone-releasing hormone plasmids to gilts on sow and litter performance for the subsequent three gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patricia A; Khan, Amir S; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra; Pope, Melissa A; Bodles-Brakhop, Angela M; Kern, Douglas R

    2012-09-01

    To determine whether a novel optimized plasmid carrying the porcine growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) wild-type cDNA administered at a lower dose was as effective at eliciting physiologic responses as a commercial GHRH plasmid approved for use in Australia. 134 gilts. Estrus was synchronized and gilts were bred. Pregnant gilts were assigned to 2 treatment groups (40 gilts/group) or 1 untreated control group (24 gilts). Gilts in one of the treatment groups received the commercial GHRH plasmid, whereas gilts in the other treatment group received a novel optimized GHRH plasmid; both plasmids were administered IM in the right hind limb, which was followed by electroporation. Sow and litter performance were monitored for the 3 gestations after treatment. A significant increase in insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations, decrease in perinatal mortality rate, increase in the number of pigs born alive, and increase in the weight and number of pigs weaned were detected for both groups receiving the GHRH-expressing plasmids, compared with values for the control group. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in sow attrition in GHRH-treated females, compared with attrition in the control group, during the 3 gestations after treatment. Both of the GHRH plasmids provided significant benefits for sow performance and baby pig survivability for pregnant and lactating sows and their offspring during the 3 gestations after treatment, compared with results for untreated control gilts. Use of a novel optimized plasmid reduced the effective plasmid dose in these large mammals.

  3. Activation of arcuate nucleus neurons by systemic administration of leptin and growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 in normal and fasted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckman, S M; Rosenzweig, I; Dickson, S L

    1999-08-01

    Both leptin and growth hormone secretagogues are believed to have stimulatory effects on the hypothalamic growth hormone pulse generator, though whether these are achieved through the same pathway is unknown. Systemic administration of a normally maximal effective dose of the growth hormone secretagogue GHRP-6 to male rats causes the induction of c-Fos protein in the ventromedial aspect of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. The effect of the same dose of GHRP-6 is, however, much greater in animals that have been fasted for 48 h, suggesting that in the food-replete rat, arcuate neurons either show reduced sensitivity to endogenous growth hormone secretagogues or they are under the tonic inhibitory influences of other factors. The major populations of arcuate neurons activated by GHRP-6 have been shown to contain neuropeptide Y or growth hormone-releasing factor, while leptin is thought to be inhibitory to neuropeptide Y neurons. Leptin did not alter the response of the rats to GHRP-6. However, it was able by itself to induce c-Fos protein immunoreactivity in the ventral, including the ventrolateral, arcuate nucleus of fasted rats. This is a clear demonstration of the acute activation of arcuate neurons in the rat following systemic leptin injection and suggests that GHRP-6 and leptin act on the growth hormone axis via different pathways.

  4. Growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist inhibits the invasiveness of human endometrial cancer cells by down-regulating twist and N-cadherin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsien-Ming; Huang, Hong-Yuan; Schally, Andrew V; Chao, Angel; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Leung, Peter C K; Wang, Hsin-Shih

    2017-01-17

    More than 25% of patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma have invasive primary cancer accompanied by metastases. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plays an important role in reproduction. Here, we examined the effect of a GHRH antagonist on the motility of endometrial cancer cells and the mechanisms of action of the antagonist in endometrial cancer. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to determine the expression of the GHRH receptor protein. The activity of Twist and N-cadherin was determined by Western blotting. Cell motility was assessed by an invasion and migration assay. GHRH receptor siRNA was applied to knockdown the GHRH receptor in endometrial cancer cells. The GHRH antagonist inhibited cell motility in a dose-dependent manner. The GHRH antagonist inhibited cell motility and suppressed the expression of Twist and N-cadherin, and the suppression was abolished by GHRH receptor siRNA pretreatment. Moreover, the inhibition of Twist and N-cadherin with Twist siRNA and N-cadherin siRNA, respectively, suppressed cell motility. Our study indicates that the GHRH antagonist inhibited the cell motility of endometrial cancer cells through the GHRH receptor via the suppression of Twist and N-cadherin. Our findings represent a new concept in the mechanism of GHRH antagonist-suppressed cell motility in endometrial cancer cells and suggest the possibility of exploring GHRH antagonists as potential therapeutics for the treatment of human endometrial cancer.

  5. [Direct and indirect costs of luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogues in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Valeria; Maratea, Dario

    2015-12-01

    When analyzing the use of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues for different clinical indications, current available evidence does not support a presumed drug class effect among the various LHRH in the treatment of prostate cancer. The following search key words were entered in the PubMed database and the NICE and FDA websites: “LHRH agonist AND prostatic cancer”, “androgen deprivation therapy”, “androgen suppression”, “buserelin”, “leuprorelin”, “goserelin”,“triptorelin”, “degarelix”. The direct costs included the following items: follow-up visits, diagnostic exams (e.g. prostate-specific antigen PSA) and drug costs. The indirect costs included working days lost by the patient. With intermittent therapy as a reference, leuprorelin injectable solution of 22,25 mg was associated with the lowest cost and degarelix with the highest cost. However, given the mandatory presence of a nurse for drug injection, the buserelin depot formulation was associated with the lowest cost. If the costs for hospital visits were added to drug costs, differences between the various therapeutic strategies were less remarkable. Our study showed how various factors (e.g. route of administration, frequency of administration, presence of a nurse for drug reconstitution and injection) should be taken into account by decision makers in addition to the price of drugs.

  6. Growth hormone-releasing hormone resistance in pseudohypoparathyroidism type ia: new evidence for imprinting of the Gs alpha gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Giovanna; Maghnie, Mohamad; Weber, Giovanna; De Menis, Ernesto; Brunelli, Valeria; Cappa, Marco; Loli, Paola; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Spada, Anna

    2003-09-01

    Heterozygous inactivating mutations in the Gs alpha gene cause Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy. Consistent with the observation that only maternally inherited mutations lead to resistance to hormone action [pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia)], recent studies provided evidence for a predominant maternal origin of Gs alpha transcripts in endocrine organs, such as thyroid, gonad, and pituitary. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of pituitary resistance to hypothalamic hormones acting via Gs alpha-coupled receptors in patients with PHP Ia. Six of nine patients showed an impaired GH responsiveness to GHRH plus arginine, consistent with a complete GH deficiency (GH peak from 2.6-8.6 microg/liter, normal > 16.5), and partial (GH peak 13.9 and 13.6 microg/liter) and normal responses were found in two and one patient, respectively. Accordingly, IGF-I levels were below and in the low-normal range in seven and two patients. All patients had a normal cortisol response to 1 microg ACTH test, suggesting a normal corticotroph function that was confirmed by a normal ACTH and cortisol response to CRH test in three patients. In conclusion, we report that in addition to PTH and TSH resistance, patients with PHP Ia display variable degrees of GHRH resistance, consistent with Gs alpha imprinting in human pituitary.

  7. Neonatal defeminization of the luteinizing hormone release mechanism by catecholestrogens: different potencies of 2- and 4-hydroxyestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, J; Ghraf, R; Ball, P; Knuppen, R

    1983-06-06

    Female rats were neonatally treated with estradiol-17 beta-benzoate or the long-acting dibenzoate esters of the isomeric catecholestrogens, 2-hydroxyestradiol-17 beta and 4-hydroxyestradiol-17 beta. Estrogen benzoates were administered subcutaneously from day 1 to 5 of life at doses of 0.05, 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00 micrograms/day. All rats were ovariectomized as adults and, 4 weeks later, the luteinizing hormone (LH) response to progesterone (2.5 mg) was tested after priming with estradiol-17 beta-benzoate (20 micrograms). At a dose of 0.5 micrograms/day, estradiol-17 beta-benzoate and 4-hydroxyestradiol-17 beta-dibenzoate were equally effective in neonatally defeminizing the LH surge mechanism. In contrast, up to a dose of 1.00 micrograms/day, 2-hydroxyestradiol-17 beta-dibenzoate did not interfere with the LH response in adult life. In the pituitary gland and uterus of the neonatally defeminized rats estrogen responsiveness of cytosolic progestin receptor induction was unimpaired. Moreover, in the uterus of these rats nuclear translocation of cytosolic progestin receptors was intact.

  8. Electromagnetic field effect or simply stress? Effects of UMTS exposure on hippocampal longterm plasticity in the context of procedure related hormone release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Prochnow

    Full Text Available Harmful effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF on cognitive and behavioural features of humans and rodents have been controversially discussed and raised persistent concern about adverse effects of EMF on general brain functions. In the present study we applied radio-frequency (RF signals of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS to full brain exposed male Wistar rats in order to elaborate putative influences on stress hormone release (corticosteron; CORT and adrenocorticotropic hormone; ACTH and on hippocampal derived synaptic long-term plasticity (LTP and depression (LTD as electrophysiological hallmarks for memory storage and memory consolidation. Exposure was computer controlled providing blind conditions. Nominal brain-averaged specific absorption rates (SAR as a measure of applied mass-related dissipated RF power were 0, 2, and 10 W/kg over a period of 120 min. Comparison of cage exposed animals revealed, regardless of EMF exposure, significantly increased CORT and ACTH levels which corresponded with generally decreased field potential slopes and amplitudes in hippocampal LTP and LTD. Animals following SAR exposure of 2 W/kg (averaged over the whole brain of 2.3 g tissue mass did not differ from the sham-exposed group in LTP and LTD experiments. In contrast, a significant reduction in LTP and LTD was observed at the high power rate of SAR (10 W/kg. The results demonstrate that a rate of 2 W/kg displays no adverse impact on LTP and LTD, while 10 W/kg leads to significant effects on the electrophysiological parameters, which can be clearly distinguished from the stress derived background. Our findings suggest that UMTS exposure with SAR in the range of 2 W/kg is not harmful to critical markers for memory storage and memory consolidation, however, an influence of UMTS at high energy absorption rates (10 W/kg cannot be excluded.

  9. Intragastric infusion of the bitter tastant quinine suppresses hormone release and antral motility during the fasting state in healthy female volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, E; Corsetti, M; Van Oudenhove, L; Depoortere, I; Tack, J

    2018-01-01

    Intragastric administration of the bitter tastant denatonium benzoate inhibits the increase of motilin plasma levels and antral contractility. While these findings suggest that gastrointestinal bitter taste receptors could be new targets to modulate gastrointestinal motility and hormone release, they need confirmation with other bitter receptor agonists. The primary aim was to evaluate the effect of intragastric administration of the bitter tastant quinine-hydrochloride (QHCl) on motilin and ghrelin plasma levels. Secondly, we studied the effect on interdigestive motility. Ten healthy female volunteers were recruited (33±4 y; 22±0.5 kg/m²). Placebo or QHCl (10 μmol/kg) was administered intragastrically through a nasogastric feeding tube after an overnight fast in a single-blind randomized fashion. Administration started 20 min after the first phase III of the migrating motor complex. The measurement continued for another 2 h after the administration. Blood samples were collected every 10 min with the baseline sample taken 10 min prior to administration. The increase in plasma levels of motilin (administration; P=.04) and total ghrelin (administration; P=.02) was significantly lower after QHCl. The fluctuation of octanoylated ghrelin was reduced after QHCl (time by administration; P=.03). Duodenal motility did not differ. The fluctuation of antral activity differed over time between placebo and QHCl (time by administration; P=.03). QHCl suppresses the increase of both motilin and ghrelin plasma levels. Moreover, QHCl reduced the fluctuation of antral motility. These findings confirm the potential of bitter taste receptors as targets for modifying interdigestive motility in man. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Active immunization of pigs against growth hormone-releasing factor: effect on concentrations of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J D; Esbenshade, K L; Johnson, J L; Coffey, M T; Heimer, E; Campbell, R M; Mowles, T; Felix, A

    1990-02-01

    Cyclic gilts (96 +/- 1 kg) were used to determine the effect of active immunization against growth hormone-releasing factor GRF(1-29)-NH2 on concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Gilts were immunized against GRF conjugated to human serum albumin (GRF-HSA, n = 5) or HSA alone at 180 d of age (wk 0). Booster doses were administered at wk 9 and 13. Seven days after the second booster (wk 14), blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 6 h before feeding and 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after feeding. Eight days after the second booster, all gilts were administered a GRF analog, [desNH2Tyr1,Ala15]-GRF(1-29)-NH2, followed by an opioid agonist, FK33-824. Blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals from -30 to 240 min after injection. Immunization against GRF-HSA resulted in antibody titers, expressed as dilution required to bind 50% of [125I]GRF, ranging from 1:11,000 to 1:60,000 (wk 11 and 14); binding was not detectable or was less than 50% at 1:100 in HSA gilts (P less than .05). Episodic release of GH was abolished by immunization against GRF-HSA (P less than .05). Mean GH was decreased (P less than .07), but basal GH concentrations were not altered (P greater than .15) by immunization against GRF-HSA. Serum concentrations of IGF-1 were similar at wk 0, but concentrations were lower in GRF-HSA than in HSA gilts (P less than .05) at wk 14.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Ovarian suppression using luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists during chemotherapy to preserve ovarian function and fertility of breast cancer patients: a meta-analysis of randomized studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, M; Ceppi, M; Poggio, F; Peccatori, F A; Azim, H A; Ugolini, D; Pronzato, P; Loibl, S; Moore, H C F; Partridge, A H; Bruzzi, P; Del Mastro, L

    2015-12-01

    The role of temporary ovarian suppression with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure (POF) is still controversial. Our meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) investigates whether the use of LHRHa during chemotherapy in premenopausal breast cancer patients reduces treatment-related POF rate, increases pregnancy rate, and impacts disease-free survival (DFS). A literature search using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, and the proceedings of major conferences, was conducted up to 30 April 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for POF (i.e. POF by study definition, and POF defined as amenorrhea 1 year after chemotherapy completion) and for patients with pregnancy, as well hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CI for DFS, were calculated for each trial. Pooled analysis was carried out using the fixed- and random-effects models. A total of 12 RCTs were eligible including 1231 breast cancer patients. The use of LHRHa was associated with a significant reduced risk of POF (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.57; P chemotherapy completion, the addition of LHRHa reduced the risk of POF (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.41-0.73, P chemotherapy-induced POF and seems to increase the pregnancy rate, without an apparent negative consequence on prognosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone on sleep and brain interstitial fluid amyloid-β in an APP transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fan; Zhang, Tony J; Mahan, Thomas E; Jiang, Hong; Holtzman, David M

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by impairment of cognitive function, extracellular amyloid plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and synaptic and neuronal loss. There is substantial evidence that the aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain plays a key role in the pathogenesis of AD and that Aβ aggregation is a concentration dependent process. Recently, it was found that Aβ levels in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) are regulated by the sleep-wake cycle in both humans and mice; ISF Aβ is higher during wakefulness and lower during sleep. Intracerebroventricular infusion of orexin increased wakefulness and ISF Aβ levels, and chronic sleep deprivation significantly increased Aβ plaque formation in amyloid precursor protein transgenic (APP) mice. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a well-documented sleep regulatory substance which promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep. GHRHR(lit/lit) mice that lack functional GHRH receptor have shorter sleep duration and longer wakefulness during light periods. The current study was undertaken to determine whether manipulating sleep by interfering with GHRH signaling affects brain ISF Aβ levels in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (PS1APP) transgenic mice that overexpress mutant forms of APP and PSEN1 that cause autosomal dominant AD. We found that intraperitoneal injection of GHRH at dark onset increased sleep and decreased ISF Aβ and that delivery of a GHRH antagonist via reverse-microdialysis suppressed sleep and increased ISF Aβ. The diurnal fluctuation of ISF Aβ in PS1APP/GHRHR(lit/lit) mice was significantly smaller than that in PS1APP/GHRHR(lit/+) mice. However despite decreased sleep in GHRHR deficient mice, this was not associated with an increase in Aβ accumulation later in life. One of several possibilities for the finding is the fact that GHRHR deficient mice have GHRH-dependent but sleep-independent factors which protect against Aβ deposition. Copyright © 2014

  13. Electromagnetic Field Effect or Simply Stress? Effects of UMTS Exposure on Hippocampal Longterm Plasticity in the Context of Procedure Related Hormone Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladage, Kerstin; Krause-Finkeldey, Dorothee; El Ouardi, Abdessamad; Bitz, Andreas; Streckert, Joachim; Hansen, Volkert; Dermietzel, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Harmful effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on cognitive and behavioural features of humans and rodents have been controversially discussed and raised persistent concern about adverse effects of EMF on general brain functions. In the present study we applied radio-frequency (RF) signals of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) to full brain exposed male Wistar rats in order to elaborate putative influences on stress hormone release (corticosteron; CORT and adrenocorticotropic hormone; ACTH) and on hippocampal derived synaptic long-term plasticity (LTP) and depression (LTD) as electrophysiological hallmarks for memory storage and memory consolidation. Exposure was computer controlled providing blind conditions. Nominal brain-averaged specific absorption rates (SAR) as a measure of applied mass-related dissipated RF power were 0, 2, and 10 W/kg over a period of 120 min. Comparison of cage exposed animals revealed, regardless of EMF exposure, significantly increased CORT and ACTH levels which corresponded with generally decreased field potential slopes and amplitudes in hippocampal LTP and LTD. Animals following SAR exposure of 2 W/kg (averaged over the whole brain of 2.3 g tissue mass) did not differ from the sham-exposed group in LTP and LTD experiments. In contrast, a significant reduction in LTP and LTD was observed at the high power rate of SAR (10 W/kg). The results demonstrate that a rate of 2 W/kg displays no adverse impact on LTP and LTD, while 10 W/kg leads to significant effects on the electrophysiological parameters, which can be clearly distinguished from the stress derived background. Our findings suggest that UMTS exposure with SAR in the range of 2 W/kg is not harmful to critical markers for memory storage and memory consolidation, however, an influence of UMTS at high energy absorption rates (10 W/kg) cannot be excluded. PMID:21573218

  14. Intestinal growth adaptation and glucagon-like peptide 2 in rats with ileal-jejunal transposition or small bowel resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, Jesper; Hartmann, B.; Kissow, H.

    2001-01-01

    Anatomy, glucagon-like peptide 2, small intestine, short bowel, intestinal adaptation, growth factors, rat......Anatomy, glucagon-like peptide 2, small intestine, short bowel, intestinal adaptation, growth factors, rat...

  15. Prior administration of a non-steroidal anti-androgen failed to prevent the flare-up caused by a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Sho; Yuasa, Takeshi; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Yano, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Shinya; Masuda, Hitoshi; Fukui, Iwao; Yonese, Junji

    2015-08-05

    'Flare phenomenon' after initial luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist administration is a widely approved concept in the treatment of prostate cancer. In most guidelines, concomitant therapy with anti-androgens is recommended to prevent this flare phenomenon. However, there are few reports describing serum prostate-specific antigen transitions after hormonal therapy. Here, we present a case of a man who experienced the biochemical and clinical flare phenomenon despite prior anti-androgen use and who has detailed data. A 70-year-old Asian man with metastatic prostate cancer (multiple bone) was referred to our hospital. He was treated with prior anti-androgens and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist. Regardless of prior use of anti-androgens, his low back pain caused by bone metastases was deteriorated and serum prostate-specific antigen level was raised from 974.8 ng/mL to 2,555.5 ng/mL within 3 weeks. Then, his serum prostate specific antigen level started to decrease along with the pain. The nadir reached 1.0 ng/mL and remained for 6 months. Because the serum level of prostate-specific antigen then began to increase again, anti-androgen was discontinued for anti-androgen withdrawal syndrome. Then the serum level decreased again to less than 0.1 ng/mL. Until now, his serum prostate-specific antigen level has been maintained at less than 0.1 ng/mL for more than 30 months without any clinical progressions. We present the case of a patient in whom a clinical flare caused by an leuteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist was not prevented by prior anti-androgen administration. In addition, the nadir level of prostate-specific antigen when he received leuteinizing hormone-releasing hormone monotherapy was ten times lower than when he received concomitant therapy, and period of anti-androgen withdrawal syndrome was longer than usual. In this case, anti-androgen was probably not effective from the initial administration. Awareness of the possibility

  16. The effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 on arterial blood flow and cardiac parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Lasse; Hornum, Mads; Andersen, Ulrik B

    2010-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is known to increase mesenteric blood flow. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of GLP-2 on blood flow in different vascular sites, and dynamic changes in cardiac parameters.......Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is known to increase mesenteric blood flow. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of GLP-2 on blood flow in different vascular sites, and dynamic changes in cardiac parameters....

  17. Effect of priming injections of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone on spermiation and ovulation in Gϋnther's Toadlet, Pseudophryne guentheri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silla Aimee J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the majority of vertebrates, gametogenesis and gamete-release depend on the pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH from the hypothalamus. Studies attempting to artificially stimulate ovulation and spermiation may benefit from mimicking the naturally episodic secretion of LHRH by administering priming injections of a synthetic analogue (LHRHa. This study investigated the impact of low-dose priming injections of LHRHa on gamete-release in the Australian toadlet Pseudophryne guentheri. Methods Toadlets were administered a single dose of two micrograms per. gram LHRHa without a priming injection (no priming, or preceded by one (one priming or two (two priming injections of 0.4 micrograms per. gram LHRHa. Spermiation responses were evaluated at 3, 7 and 12 hrs post hormone administration (PA, and sperm number and viability were quantified using fluorescent microscopy. Oocyte yields were evaluated by stripping females at 10-11 hrs PA. A sub-sample of twenty eggs per female was then fertilised (with sperm obtained from testis macerates and fertilisation success determined. Results No priming induced the release of the highest number of spermatozoa, with a step-wise decrease in the number of spermatozoa released in the one and two priming treatments respectively. Peak sperm-release occurred at 12 hrs PA for all priming treatments and there was no significant difference in sperm viability. Females in the control treatment failed to release oocytes, while those administered an ovulatory dose without priming exhibited a poor ovulatory response. The remaining two priming treatments (one and two priming successfully induced 100% of females to expel an entire clutch. Oocytes obtained from the no, or two priming treatments all failed to fertilise, however oocytes obtained from the one priming treatment displayed an average fertilisation success of 97%. Conclusion Spermiation was most effectively induced in

  18. Glucagon-like peptide 2 stimulates glucagon secretion, enhances lipid absorption, and inhibits gastric acid secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Nauck, Michael A; Pott, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    or placebo during the ingestion of a solid test meal. Gastric emptying was determined using a 13C-sodium-octanote breath test. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-2, free fatty acids, free glycerol, and triglycerides were determined. RESULTS: GLP-2 administration led......BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut-derived peptide glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) has been suggested as a potential drug candidate for the treatment of various intestinal diseases. However, the acute effects of GLP-2 on gastric functions as well as on glucose and lipid homeostasis in humans are less well...... to a marked increase in glucagon concentrations both in the fasting state and during the meal study (P plasma concentrations of triglycerides and free fatty acids were significantly higher during GLP-2 infusion compared with placebo (P

  19. Production of peptide antisera specific for mouse and rat proinsulin C-peptide 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, N; Madsen, O D; Kofod, Hans

    1990-01-01

    Mice and rats have two functional non-allelic insulin genes. By using a synthetic peptide representing a common sequence in mouse and rat C-peptide 2 as antigen, we have produced rabbit antisera specific for an epitope which is not present in mouse or rat C-peptide 1. Long-term immunization did n...

  20. Diabetic intestinal growth adaptation and glucagon-like peptide 2 in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Hartmann, B; Nielsen, C

    1999-01-01

    Dietary fibre influence growth and function of the upper gastrointestinal tract. This study investigates the importance of dietary fibre in intestinal growth in experimental diabetes, and correlates intestinal growth with plasma levels of the intestinotrophic factor, glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2)....

  1. Características testiculares de touros imunizados com vacina anti-hormônio liberador do hormônio luteinizante Testicular characteristics of bulls immunosterilized with anti-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zanella

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ação imunoesterilizadora de uma vacina anti-hormônio liberador de hormônio luteinizante (LHRH, composta por ovalbumina-LHRH-7 e tiorredoxina-LHRH-7, em touros mestiços Nelore. Vinte e seis touros, com dois anos de idade, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de 13 animais. No grupo I, os animais receberam uma dose e dois reforços da vacina nos dias 0, 141, e 287 do experimento. No grupo II, os animais não receberam nenhum tratamento (controle. Para avaliar o efeito da vacina nos touros, foi realizada a mensuração da circunferência escrotal no início do experimento e no dia do abate, 741 dias depois. Por ocasião do abate, também foi coletada uma amostra dos testículos para avaliação histológica. O grupo imunizado apresentou circunferência escrotal ao abate de 22±5,98 cm, menor do que a do grupo controle que foi de 35,6±2,4 cm. Na análise histológica dos animais do grupo imunizado, foi observada degeneração testicular com ausência de espermatozoides em 85% dos animais avaliados, os outros 15% apresentaram redução no número de espermatozoides, em comparação aos animais do grupo controle. A vacina anti-LHRH, com fusão de proteínas, é efetiva na castração imunológica de touros e deve ser considerada como alternativa para utilização na produção bovina extensiva no Brasil.The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunosterilization action of the anti-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH vaccine, composed with ovalbumin-LHRH-7 and thioredoxin-LHRH-7, in Nelore-cross bulls. Twenty-six 2-year old bulls were randomly assigned in two groups of 13 animals each. The animals of group I received a primary and two booster injections of the vaccine on days 0, 141, and 287 of the experiment. In group II, the control group, the bulls did not receive any type of treatment. Scrotal circumference was measured in the beginning of the experiment and at slaughter

  2. Increased Postprandial Response of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Pedersen, Jan F; Larsen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-released gastrointestinal (GI) hormone that acts as an intestinal growth factor, and exogenous GLP-2 has been shown to increase superior mesenteric artery (SMA) blood flow. We aimed to investigate how assimilation of nutrients affects...... postprandial GLP-2 responses and to correlate these with postprandial SMA blood flow. Methods: Responses of the GI hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and GLP-2 were measured following an 80-min liquid meal test in 8 patients (6 males) with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic...... exocrine insufficiency (PEI) and 8 healthy control subjects (5 males). Postprandial GI hormone responses were correlated with change in SMA flow as assessed by the resistance index. Results: Patients with CP and PEI exhibited the greatest postprandial GLP-2 responses (1,870 +/- 249 vs. 1,199 +/- 108 pM.80...

  3. Porcine glucagon-like peptide-2: structure, signaling, metabolism and effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Hjøllund, Karina Rahr; Johnsen, Anders H

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometry of HPLC-purified porcine glucagon-like peptide-2 (pGLP-2)(1) revealed a 35 amino acid sequence with C-terminal Ser and Leu, in contrast to the 33 amino acids of human, cow, rat and mouse GLP-2. Synthetic pGLP-2 stimulated cAMP-production in COS-7 cells expressing human GLP-2 (h...

  4. Inducción a la maduración y desove del robalo (centropomus nigrescens) en cautiverío mediante la utilización del las hormonas hcg (gonadotropina coriónica humana) y lhrha (luteinizing hormone releasing hormone ethylamide)

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal Veloz, Miguel

    1997-01-01

    Inducción a la maduración y desove del robalo (Centropomus nigrescens) en cautiverio mediante la utilización del las hormonas HCG (Gonadotropina Coriónica Humana) y LHRHa (Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone Ethylamide) El principal problema que presenta el cultivo del robalo Centropomus nigrescens es la inhibición de su ciclo reproductivo en cautiverio.

  5. Treatment of endometriosis with a delayed release preparation of the agonist D-Trp6-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: long-term follow-up in a series of 50 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, J R; Mathieson, J; Risquez, F; Comaru-Schally, A M; Schally, A V

    1990-03-01

    Fifty patients with proven endometriosis were treated for 6 to 9 months with a delayed release preparation of microcapsules of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist D-Trp6-LH-RH, injected intramuscularly at monthly intervals. After a transitory ovarian stimulation at the onset of treatment, serum estradiol was suppressed to menopausal levels (50 pg/mL). This state of hypogonadism was reversible after the discontinuation of treatment, and menses resumed within 4 months after the last injection. Pelvic pain was relieved during treatment in 87.5% of patients. After a follow-up period of up to 37 months, 24 patients are in clinical remission and 9 experienced recurrence of endometriosis 7 to 14 months after completing treatment. One patient failed to respond to therapy with the agonist and 7 patients were lost to follow-up. Among 16 previously infertile patients with no other factors contributing to infertility, 7 became pregnant; 2 of these pregnancies were the result of gamete intrafallopian transfers. An eighth patient without documented infertility also conceived spontaneously. Side effects due to hypoestrogenism were reported by nearly all patients. In conclusion, D-Trp6-LH-RH microcapsules are effective and easily-administered agents for the treatment of endometriosis.

  6. Synthesis and structure-activity studies on novel analogs of human growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) with enhanced inhibitory activities on tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarandi, Marta; Cai, Renzhi; Kovacs, Magdolna; Popovics, Petra; Szalontay, Luca; Cui, Tengjiao; Sha, Wei; Jaszberenyi, Miklos; Varga, Jozsef; Zhang, XianYang; Block, Norman L; Rick, Ferenc G; Halmos, Gabor; Schally, Andrew V

    2017-03-01

    The syntheses and biological evaluations of new GHRH analogs of Miami (MIA) series with greatly increased anticancer activity are described. In the design and synthesis of these analogs, the following previous substitutions were conserved: D-Arg2, Har9, Abu15, and Nle27. Most new analogs had Ala at position 8. Since replacements of both Lys12 and Lys21 with Orn increased resistance against enzymatic degradation, these modifications were kept. The substitutions of Arg at both positions 11 and 20 by His were also conserved. We kept D-Arg28, Har29 -NH2 at the C-terminus or inserted Agm or 12-amino dodecanoic acid amide at position 30. We incorporated pentafluoro-Phe (Fpa5), instead of Cpa, at position 6 and Tyr(Me) at position 10 and ω-amino acids at N-terminus of some analogs. These GHRH analogs were prepared by solid-phase methodology and purified by HPLC. The evaluation of the activity of the analogs on GH release was carried out in vitro on rat pituitaries and in vivo in male rats. Receptor binding affinities were measured in vitro by the competitive binding analysis. The inhibitory activity of the analogs on tumor proliferation in vitro was tested in several human cancer cell lines such as HEC-1A endometrial adenocarcinoma, HCT-15 colorectal adenocarcinoma, and LNCaP prostatic carcinoma. For in vivo tests, various cell lines including PC-3 prostate cancer, HEC-1A endometrial adenocarcinoma, HT diffuse mixed β cell lymphoma, and ACHN renal cell carcinoma cell lines were xenografted into nude mice and treated subcutaneously with GHRH antagonists at doses of 1-5μg/day. Analogs MIA-602, MIA-604, MIA-610, and MIA-640 showed the highest binding affinities, 30, 58, 48, and 73 times higher respectively, than GHRH (1-29) NH2. Treatment of LNCaP and HCT-15 cells with 5μM MIA-602 or MIA-690 decreased proliferation by 40%-80%. In accord with previous tests in various human cancer lines, analog MIA-602 showed high inhibitory activity in vivo on growth of PC-3 prostate

  7. Massive weight loss restores 24-hour growth hormone release profiles and serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Hvidberg, A; Juul, A

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, we 1) determined whether the impaired spontaneous 24-h GH secretion as well as the blunted GH response to provocative testing in obese subjects are persistent disorders or transient defects reversed with weight loss and 2) investigated 24-h urinary GH excretion and basal...... levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), as well as insulin in obese subjects before and after a massive weight loss. We studied 18 obese subjects (age, 26 +/- 1 yr; body mass index, 40.9 +/- 1.1 kg/m2); 18 normal age-, and sex-matched control subjects; and 9...... reversible defects in 24-h spontaneous GH release profiles, basal IGF-I levels, and the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio in obese subjects. The recovery of the 24-h GH release points to an acquired transient defect rather than a persistent preexisting disorder....

  8. Massive weight loss restores 24-hour growth hormone release profiles and serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Hvidberg, A; Juul, A

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, we 1) determined whether the impaired spontaneous 24-h GH secretion as well as the blunted GH response to provocative testing in obese subjects are persistent disorders or transient defects reversed with weight loss and 2) investigated 24-h urinary GH excretion and basal...... levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), as well as insulin in obese subjects before and after a massive weight loss. We studied 18 obese subjects (age, 26 +/- 1 yr; body mass index, 40.9 +/- 1.1 kg/m2); 18 normal age-, and sex-matched control subjects; and 9...... reduced weight obese subjects after a diet-induced average weight loss of 30.3 +/- 4.6 kg. Twenty-four-hour spontaneous GH secretion was estimated by obtaining 3240 integrated 20-min blood samples using a constant blood withdrawal technique and computerized algorithms. Body composition was determined...

  9. The Relationship between Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 and Feeding Intolerance in Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Esra Arun; Holst, Jens Juul; Duman, Nuray

    2008-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a hormone produced primarily in the distal intestine, stimulated by enteral nutrients, and playing diverse roles in the intestinal adaptation and growth. We aimed to investigate whether GLP-2 may play a role in the development of feeding intolerance which...... is a common problem in preterm newborns resulting from the intestinal immaturity. The study included 20 term and 28 preterm neonates. Of preterm babies, 13 showed feeding intolerance fulfilling at least one of the following criteria: abdominal distension, increased gastric residual volume and presence of bile...... of term newborns. However, preterm neonates with feeding intolerance showed significantly lower levels of GLP-2 and increased duration to achieve full enteral feeding and hospitalization. It is suggested that GLP-2 plays a significant role in the regulation of feeding in newborns and that preterm babies...

  10. Immunoneutralization of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 reduces adaptive intestinal growth in diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Bolette; Thulesen, Jesper; Hare, Kristine Juul

    2002-01-01

    in the proximal part of the small intestine (10.84+/-0.44 mm(2)). Antibody treatment had no effect on body weight, blood glucose concentrations and food intake. Thus, blocking of endogenous GLP-2 in a model of adaptive intestinal growth reduces the growth response, providing strong evidence for a physiological......Supraphysiological doses of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) have been shown to induce intestinal growth by increasing villus height and crypt depth and by decreasing apoptosis, but a physiological effect of GLP-2 has not yet been demonstrated. Earlier, we found elevated levels of endogenous GLP-2...... in untreated streptozotocin diabetic rats associated with marked intestinal growth. In the present study, we investigated the role of endogenous GLP-2 for this adaptive response. We included four groups of six rats: (1) diabetic rats treated with saline, (2) diabetic rats treated with non-specific antibodies...

  11. Conversion to monotherapy with luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone agonist or orchiectomy after reaching PSA nadir following maximal androgen blockade is able to prolong progression-free survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer: A propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Gyeong Eun; Ahn, Hanjong

    2017-06-01

    The present study evaluated androgen deprivation methods to determine the approach that most improves the progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Patients had received continuous maximal androgen blockade (MAB) or monotherapy [luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist or orchiectomy] following the reaching of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) nadir. The medical records of 293 patients who received MAB following a diagnosis of metastatic prostate cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Following attainment of the PSA nadir and treatment with MAB, patients were maintained on continuous MAB (group CMAB) or converted to monotherapy (group MONO). Disease progression, defined as progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer, was evaluated and compared between the treatment modalities. PFS was compared between patients who received CMAB vs. MONO using 2:1 (102:53) propensity score matching; the basic clinicopathological characteristics (age, Gleason score, PSA and extent of bone metastasis) were similar between the groups. Disease progression was observed in 70.9% of all patients, with a median treatment period of 22.7 months. The median PFS time was 19.5 months in the CMAB group and 28.8 months in the MONO group (P=0.008). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that PFS was significantly associated with the type of maintenance androgen deprivation therapy (ADT; log rank bone metastasis were independent predictors of prolonged PFS. In this propensity score matched-analysis, conversion to monotherapy with a LHRH agonist or orchiectomy following attainment of the PSA nadir with initial MAB, prolonged the PFS, suggesting that monotherapy maintenance following initial MAB may benefit patients by reducing side effects without decreasing treatment efficacy.

  12. Is the growth outcome of children with idiopathic short stature and isolated growth hormone deficiency following treatment with growth hormone and a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist superior to that obtained by GH alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, Ana; González, Laura; Gunczler, Peter; Lanes, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined therapy with growth hormone (GH) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa) on the near-final height (NFH) of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in early puberty. A retrospective analysis of 20 patients with ISS and 9 patients with GHD treated with combined therapy was undertaken. Twelve children with ISS and ten with GHD, treated with GH alone, served as controls. Patients were matched at baseline for chronological age, bone age, height standard deviation score (SDS), and pubertal development. Patients with ISS or GHD treated with combined therapy improved both their predicted adult height (PAH) at 2 years of therapy (ISS, p children, an increase of 7.9 +/- 4.9 cm with combined therapy vs. 7.3 +/- 6.0 cm with GH; GHD children, an increase of 6.8 +/- 7.8 cm with combined therapy vs. 5 +/- 5.9 cm with GH). The total height gain SDS was higher in patients treated with GH alone compared with those with combined therapy, but the difference was not significant (ISS children, a gain of 2.4 SDS with GH vs. 0.8 SDS with combined therapy; GHD children, a gain of 1.8 SDS with GH vs. 0.6 SDS with combined therapy). Although 2 years of combined treatment with GH and LHRHa improved the PAH and the NFH of ISS and GHD patients in early puberty, this improvement was not significant compared with that observed in similar subjects treated with GH alone.

  13. Restoration of Spermatogenesis Using a New Combined Herbal Formula of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and Angelica gigas Nakai in an Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonist-Induced Rat Model of Male Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jun; Koo, Yean Kyoung; Park, Min Jung; Hwang, Yoon Kyung; Hwang, Sung Yeoun; Park, Nam Cheol

    2017-10-25

    We investigated the protective effect of a mixture of 2 herbal extracts, KH-465, which consisted of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and Angelica gigas Nakai, on spermatogenesis in a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist-induced rat model of male infertility. Seventy-five 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, containing 15 rats each: a normal control group that received no treatment and 4 experimental groups (I, II, III, and IV) in which an LHRH agonist was administered for 4 weeks to induce spermatogenic failure. Group I received distilled water, and groups II, III, and IV received 200 mg/kg/day of KH-465, 400 mg/kg/day KH-465, and depo-testosterone for 4 weeks, respectively. Weight changes of the testis and epididymis, sperm count motility, and levels of testosterone (T), free T, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were estimated. Body, testis, and epididymis weight showed no significant differences among the control and experimental groups. Treatment with KH-465 increased the sperm count and motility. Serum hormone levels of T, free T, and FSH were not significantly different in the experimental groups, while the LH level was higher than in the LHRH agonist-induced control group, but not to a significant extent. Levels of SOD were higher and 8-OHdG were lower in the groups that received KH-465 than in the LHRH agonist-induced control group. Our results suggest that KH-465 increased sperm production via reducing oxidative stress and had a positive effect in a male infertility model.

  14. In-vitro/in-vivo studies of the biodegradable poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres of a novel luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist for prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lina; Mei, Xingguo; Wang, Chenyun; Li, Xin; Zhang, Fucheng; Jin, Yiguang

    2011-03-01

    The introduction of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs and their antagonists is revolutionizing the treatment of prostate cancer. In this study, poly(D,L-lactideco-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres containing a highly potent LHRH antagonist (LXT-101) of interest in the indication of prostate cancer were evaluated on release mechanisms in vitro and biological performance in vivo. LXT-101 microspheres were prepared by the water/oil/water double emulsion method and the solid/oil/oil method. The results showed that the mechanism of LXT-101 releasing from PLGA 14,000 microspheres was the cooperation of drug diffusion and polymer degradation. This clarified the relationship between the microsphere characterization and hormone level in vivo. The larger microspheres (33 μm) could inhibit the testosterone level to castration for a longer time (35 days) than the smaller microspheres (15 μm, 14 days). The formulation containing the hydrophilic additive (polyethylene glycol 6000) could suppress the testosterone level to castration for a longer time (> 35 days) than the formulation without polyethylene glycol (14 days). The appearance of testis, vesicular seminalis, and prostates changed after treatment. The weights of sexual organs decreased significantly. The in-vivo release of the LXT-101 PLGA 14,000 microspheres curve showed that in-vivo release started immediately after day 1 (22.7%) and was rapid during the first 5 days (40.2% release). The LXT-101 microspheres could be a promising drug delivery system candidate to treat sex hormone-dependent tumors and other related disorders.

  15. In vitro effect of. Delta. sup 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol to stimulate somatostatin release and block that of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone by suppression of the release of prostaglandin E sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettori, V.; Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (United States)); Gimeno, M.F.; Franchi, A.M. (Centro de Estudios Farmacologicos y de Principios Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1990-12-01

    Previous in vivo studies have shown that {Delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal active ingredient in marijuana, can suppress both luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) secretion after its injection into the third ventricle of conscious male rats. The present studies were deigned to determine the mechanism of these effects. Various doses of THC were incubated with either stalk median eminence fragments (MEs) or mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) fragments in vitro. Although THC (10 nM) did not alter basal release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) from MEs in vitro, it completely blocked the stimulatory action of dopamine or nonrepinephrine on LHRH release. The effective doses to block LHRH release were associated with a blockade of synthesis and release of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) from MBH in vitro. In contrast to the suppressive effect of THC on LHRH release, somatostatin release from MEs was enhanced in a dose-related manner with a minimal effective dose of 1 nM. Since PGE{sub 2} suppresses somatostatin release, this enhancement may also be related to the suppressive effect of THC on PGE{sub 2} synthesis and release. The authors speculate that these actions are mediated by the recently discovered THC receptors in the tissue. The results indicate that the suppressive effect of THC on LH release is mediated by a blockade of LHRH release, whereas the suppressive effect of the compound on growth hormone release is mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of somatostatin release.

  16. Ileal tight junction gene expression in glucagon-like peptide 2-treated dairy bull calves with and without coccidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intestinal gut permeability is partially regulated by the intestinotrophic hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2). Specifically, disease models in mice and human cell lines have implicated GLP-2 in the regulation of the tight junction milieu within the intestinal tract. Therapeutic administration o...

  17. Glucagon-like peptide 2 improves nutrient absorption and nutritional status in short-bowel patients with no colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, P B; Hartmann, B; Thulesen, J

    2001-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is intestinotrophic, antisecretory, and transit-modulating in rodents, and it is mainly secreted from the intestinal mucosa of the terminal ileum and colon after food ingestion. We assessed the effect of GLP-2 on the gastrointestinal function in patients without...

  18. Glucagon-like peptide 2 therapy reduces the negative impacts the proinflammatory response in the gut of calves with coccidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damage to the intestinal epithelium reduces nutrient absorption and animal growth, and can have negative long-term health effects on livestock. The intestinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) contributes to gut integrity, reduces inflammation, and improves nutrient absorption. The presen...

  19. Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma in a 69-Year-Old Woman Receiving Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Zyczynski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 69-year-old woman was diagnosed with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS of the nasopharynx. She has a history of catastrophic thromboembolic event in the abdomen that caused short-gut syndrome and dependence on total parenteral nutrition (TPN twelve hours per day. She was treated for short-gut syndrome with teduglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2 analog, which led to reduction of TPN requirements. However, a few months later, she developed metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Though a causative relationship is unlikely between the peptide and ARMS due to the brief time course between teduglutide therapy and sarcoma diagnosis, neoplastic growth may have been accelerated by the GLP-2 analog, causing release of IGF-1. The transmembrane receptor for IGF-1 is frequently overexpressed in ARMS and is implicated in cell proliferation and metastatic behavior. This case describes a rare incidence of metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in a sexagenarian and possibly the first case reported associated with the use of teduglutide. Teduglutide was discontinued due to a potential theoretical risk of acceleration of sarcoma growth, and the patient’s rhabdomyosarcoma is in remission following sarcoma chemotherapy.

  20. Glucagon-like peptide 2 treatment may improve intestinal adaptation during weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, Thomas; Le Huërou-Luron, I; Petersen, Y M

    2014-01-01

    Transition from sow’s milk to solid feed is associated with intestinal atrophy and diarrhea. We hypothesized that the intestinotrophic hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) would induce a dose- and health status-dependent effect on gut adaptation. In Exp. 1, weaned pigs (average BW at weaning 4.......98 ± 0.18 kg) were kept in a high-sanitary environment and injected with saline or short-acting GLP-2 (80 μg/(kg BW·12 h); n = 8). Under these conditions, there was no diarrhea and GLP-2 did not improve gastrointestinal structure or function. In Exp. 2, weaned pigs (average BW at weaning 6.68 ± 0.27 kg...... effects on diarrhea. In Exp. 3, weaned pigs (average BW at weaning 6.90 ± 0.32 kg) were kept in a low-sanitary environment and injected with saline or a long-acting acylated GLP-2 analogue (25 µg/(kg BW·12 h); n = 8). In this experiment, GLP-2 increased intestinal weight (+22%; P

  1. The Effect of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 Receptor Agonists on Colonic Anastomotic Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Redstone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2 is an intestinal specific trophic hormone, with therapeutic potential; the effects on intestinal healing are unknown. We used a rat model of colonic healing, under normoxic, and stress (hypoxic conditions to examine the effect of GLP-2 on intestinal healing. Methods. Following colonic transection and reanastomosis, animals were randomized to one of six groups (n=8/group: controls, native GLP-2, long-acting GLP-2 (GLP-2- MIMETIBODY, GLP-2-MMB, animals were housed under normoxic or hypoxic (11%  O2 conditions. Animals were studied five days post-operation for anastomotic strength and wound characteristics. Results. Anastomotic bursting pressure was unchanged by GLP-2 or GLP-2-MMB in normoxic or hypoxic animals; both treatments increased crypt cell proliferation. Wound IL-1β increased with GLP-2; IFNγ with GLP-2 and GLP-2-MMB. IL-10 and TGF-β were decreased; Type I collagen mRNA expression increased in hypoxic animals while Type III collagen was reduced with both GLP-2 agonists. GLP-2 MMB, but not native GLP-2 increased TIMP 1-3 mRNA levels in hypoxia. Conclusions. The effects on CCP, cytokines and wound healing were similar for both GLP-2 agonists under normoxic and hypoxic conditions; anastomotic strength was not affected. This suggests that GLP-2 (or agonists could be safely used peri-operatively; direct studies will be required.

  2. Metabolism of glucagon-like peptide-2 in pigs: role of dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Hare, Kristine J; Hartmann, Bolette

    2006-01-01

    receiving intravenous GLP-2 infusions (2 pmol/kg/min) before and after administration of valine-pyrrolidide (300 mumol/kg; a well characterized DPP-IV inhibitor). Plasma samples were analyzed by radioimmunoassays allowing determination of intact, biologically active GLP-2 and the DPP-IV metabolite GLP-2 (3......Little is known about the metabolism of the intestinotropic factor glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2); except that it is a substrate for dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and that it appears to be eliminated by the kidneys. We, therefore, investigated GLP-2 metabolism in six multicatheterized pigs...... (p=0.052) plasma half-life to 9.9+/-0.8 min. The metabolite was eliminated with a half-life of 22.1+/-2.6 min and a clearance of 2.07+/-0.11 ml/kg/min. In conclusion, intact GLP-2 is eliminated in the peripheral tissues, the splanchnic bed and the kidneys, but not in the liver, by mechanisms...

  3. Dietary lipids and sweeteners regulate glucagon-like peptide-2 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shingo; Hokari, Ryota; Kurihara, Chie; Sato, Hirokazu; Narimatsu, Kazuyuki; Hozumi, Hideaki; Ueda, Toshihide; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Tomita, Kengo; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Nagao, Shigeaki; Miura, Soichiro

    2013-04-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a potent intestinal growth factor derived from enteroendocrine L cells. Although food intake is known to increase GLP-2 secretion, its regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown as a result of its very short half-life in venules. The aims of this study were to compare the effects of luminal nutrients on the stimulation of GLP-2 secretion in vivo using lymph samples and to clarify the involvement of the sweet taste receptor in this process in vitro. Lymph samples were collected from the thoracic duct after bolus administration of dietary lipids or sweetening agents into the duodenum of rats. Human enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells were also used to compare the effects of various nutrients on GLP-2 secretion. GLP-2 concentrations were measured by ELISA in vivo and in vitro. GLP-2 secretion was enhanced by polyunsaturated fatty acid- and monounsaturated fatty acid-rich dietary oils, dietary carbohydrates, and some kinds of sweeteners in rats; this effect was reproduced in NCI-H716 cells using α-linolenic acid (αLA), glucose, and sweeteners. GLP-2 secretion induced by sweetening agents was inhibited by lactisole, a sweetness-antagonizing inhibitor of T1R3. In contrast, lactisole was unable to inhibit GLP-2 secretion induced by αLA alone. Our results suggested that fatty acid- and sweetener-induced GLP-2 secretion may be mediated by two different pathways, with the sweet taste receptor involved in the regulation of the latter.

  4. Studies on the role of insect hemolymph polypeptides: Galleria mellonella anionic peptide 2 and lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa-Jasiłek, Aneta; Zdybicka-Barabas, Agnieszka; Stączek, Sylwia; Wydrych, Jerzy; Mak, Paweł; Jakubowicz, Teresa; Cytryńska, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    The lysozymes are well known antimicrobial polypeptides exhibiting antibacterial and antifungal activities. Their antibacterial potential is related to muramidase activity and non-enzymatic activity resembling the mode of action of cationic defense peptides. However, the mechanisms responsible for fungistatic and/or fungicidal activity of lysozyme are still not clear. In the present study, the anti-Candida albicans activity of Galleria mellonella lysozyme and anionic peptide 2 (AP2), defense factors constitutively present in the hemolymph, was examined. The lysozyme inhibited C. albicans growth in a dose-dependent manner. The decrease in the C. albicans survival rate caused by the lysozyme was accompanied by a considerable reduction of the fungus metabolic activity, as revealed by LIVE/DEAD staining. In contrast, although AP2 reduced C. albicans metabolic activity, it did not influence its survival rate. Our results suggest fungicidal action of G. mellonella lysozyme and fungistatic activity of AP2 toward C. albicans cells. In the presence of AP2, the anti-C. albicans activity of G. mellonella lysozyme increased. Moreover, when the fungus was incubated with both defense factors, true hyphae were observed besides pseudohyphae and yeast-like C. albicans cells. Atomic force microscopy analysis of the cells exposed to the lysozyme and/or AP2 revealed alterations in the cell surface topography and properties in comparison with the control cells. The results indicate synergistic action of G. mellonella AP2 and lysozyme toward C. albicans. The presence of both factors in the hemolymph of naive larvae suggests their important role in the early stages of immune response against fungi in G. mellonella. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Glucagon-like peptide-2 protects impaired intestinal mucosal barriers in obstructive jaundice rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Dong, Jia-Tian; Li, Xiao-Jing; Gu, Ye; Cheng, Zhi-Jian; Cai, Yuan-Kun

    2015-01-14

    To observe the protective effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) on the intestinal barrier of rats with obstructive jaundice and determine the possible mechanisms of action involved in the protective effect. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, an obstructive jaundice group, and a GLP-2 group; each group consisted of 12 rats. The GLP-2 group was treated with GLP-2 after the day of surgery, whereas the other two groups were treated with the same concentration of normal saline. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, and endotoxin levels were recorded at 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 d. Furthermore, on the 14(th) day, body weight, the wet weight of the small intestine, pathological changes of the small intestine and the immunoglobulin A (IgA) expressed by plasma cells located in the small intestinal lamina propria were recorded for each group. In the rat model, jaundice was obvious, and the rats' activity decreased 4-6 d post bile duct ligation. Compared with the sham operation group, the obstructive jaundice group displayed increased yellow staining of abdominal visceral serosa, decreased small intestine wet weight, thinning of the intestinal muscle layer and villi, villous atrophy, uneven height, fusion, partial villous epithelial cell shedding, substantial inflammatory cell infiltration and significantly reduced IgA expression. However, no significant gross changes were noted between the GLP-2 and sham groups. With time, the levels of ALT, endotoxin and bilirubin in the GLP-2 group were significantly increased compared with the sham group (P jaundice group than in the GLP-2 group (P jaundice rats, which might be attributed to increased intestinal IgA and reduced bilirubin and endotoxin.

  6. Safety and Dosing Study of Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 in Children With Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalet, David L; Brindle, Mary; Boctor, Dana; Casey, Linda; Dicken, Bryan; Butterworth, Sonia; Lam, Viona; Karnik, Vikram; de Heuvel, Elaine; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens

    2017-07-01

    A glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analogue is approved for adults with intestinal failure, but no studies of GLP-2 have included children. This study examined the pharmacokinetics, safety, and nutritional effects of GLP-2 in children with intestinal failure. Native human GLP-2(1-33) was synthesized following good manufacturing practices. In an open-label trial, with parental consent, 7 parenteral nutrition-dependent pediatric patients were treated with subcutaneous GLP-2 (20 µg/kg/d) for 3 days (phase 1) and, if tolerated, continued for 42 days (phase 2). Nutritional treatment was directed by the primary caregivers. Patients were followed to 1 year. Seven patients were enrolled (age: 4.0 ± 0.8 years; bowel length, mean ± SEM: 24% ± 4% of predicted). All were parenteral nutrition dependent since birth, receiving 44% ± 5% of calories by parenteral nutrition. GLP-2 treatment had no effect on vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and temperature) and caused no significant adverse events. Peak GLP-2 levels were 380 pM (day 3) and 295 pM (day 42), with no change in half-life or endogenous GLP-2 levels. Nutritional indices showed a numeric improvement in z scores and citrulline levels; the z score was maintained while citrulline levels returned to baseline once GLP-2 was discontinued. GLP-2 was well tolerated in children, with a pharmacokinetic profile similar to that of adults. There were no changes in endogenous GLP-2 release or metabolism. These results suggest that GLP-2 ligands may be safely used in pediatric patients; larger trials are suggested to investigate nutritional effects.

  7. The robustness of diagnostic tests for GH deficiency in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    , including conventional substitution therapy, influences the GH-responses. Recently, the role of IGF-I measurements in the clinical decision making has been discussed. The aim of this review is to discuss the available GH-stimulation tests. In this author's opinion, tests which include growth......-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) tend to be more potent and robust, especially the GHRH+arginine test which has been proven to be of clinical use. In contrast, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) and the glucagon test appear to have too many drawbacks....

  8. The glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor is expressed in enteric neurons and not in the epithelium of the intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens; B. Pedersen, Nis; Brix, Sophie W.

    2015-01-01

    alone, (2) mucosa with lamina propria and epithelium, (3) the external muscle coat including myenteric plexus, (4) a compartment enriched for the myenteric plexus and (5) intestine without epithelium. Expression of Glp2r; chromogranin A; tubulin, beta 3; actin, gamma 2, smooth muscle, enteric and glial......Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a potent intestinotrophic growth factor with therapeutic potential in the treatment of intestinal deficiencies. It has recently been approved for the treatment of short bowel syndrome. The effects of GLP-2 are mediated by specific binding of the hormone to the GLP......-2 receptor (GLP-2R) which was cloned in 1999. However, consensus about the exact receptor localization in the intestine has never been established. By physical, chemical and enzymatic tissue fragmentation, we were able to divide rat jejunum into different compartments consisting of: (1) epithelium...

  9. Temporal changes in the intestinal growth promoting effects of glucagon-like peptide 2 following intestinal resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaji, Tatsuru; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Redstone, Heather

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the effects of variations in the postresection timing of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) administration on intestinal morphology and activity. METHODS: A rat model of 90% intestinal resection (SBR) with exclusively parenteral nutritional (TPN) was used. Early versus late...... postresection GLP-2 stimulation was compared between SBR + TPN alone, SBR + TPN + GLP-2 (first wk), and SBR + TPN + GLP-2 (second wk) (n = 8/group). On d 14, animals were sacrificed and remnant ileum analyzed for morphology, crypt cell proliferation index (CPI), apoptosis index (API), and nutrient transporter...... expression (SGLT-1, GLUT-2, GLUT-5). In a separate study, the resection-induced effect on acute GLP-2 responsiveness was studied at d 3 and 10, in control or SBR animals, both supported with TPN. (n = 6). RESULTS: Bowel length, weight, and width were increased in SBR + TPN + GLP-2 (first wk) compared...

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal blood flow and mucosal growth in ruminating calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Burrin, D G; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal mass and blood flow in nonruminants but its effect in ruminants is unknown. Eight Holstein calves with an ultrasonic flow probe around the superior mesenteric artery and catheters in the carotid artery and mesenteric vein were paired by age...... of BSA or 1,000 pmol of GLP-2/kg of body weight per h), and recovery (saline infusion). On d 11, calves were killed 2h after injection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Gastrointestinal tissues were weighed and epithelial samples were obtained to determine villus height, crypt depth, and BrdU staining....... Infusion of GLP-2 increased superior mesenteric artery blood flow to 175% of baseline on d 0 but to only 137% of baseline after chronic treatment. Compared with that of the control, GLP-2 increased small intestinal mass by 24% by increasing epithelial mass in the jejunum and ileum. Additionally, GLP-2...

  11. Effects of chronic glucagon-like peptide-2 therapy during weaning in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalet, David L; de Heuvel, Elaine; Wallace, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    /kg/day or control drug vehicle (saline), by subcutaneous injection, given in two doses per day, (n=6/group) for 42 days. Animals were weaned normally, over days 21-25. In the fifth week of life, they underwent neuro-developmental testing, and a pharmacokinetic study. On day 42, they were euthanized, and a complete...... necropsy performed, with histological assessment of tissues from all major organs. RESULTS: GLP-2 treatment was well tolerated, one control animal died from unrelated causes. There were no effects of GLP-2 on weight gain, feed intake, or behavior. In the treated animals, GLP-2 levels were significantly......) was increased in the GLP-2 treated animals and the rate of apoptosis (Caspase-3) was decreased, the depth of the microvilli was increased and the expression of the mRNA for the GLP-2 receptor was decreased throughout the small and large intestine. CONCLUSIONS: In these growing animals, exogenous GLP-2...

  12. Short Bowel Patients Treated for Two Years with Glucagon-Like Peptide 2: Effects on Intestinal Morphology and Absorption, Renal Function, Bone and Body Composition, and Muscle Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Jeppesen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. In a short-term study, Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2 has been shown to improve intestinal absorption in short bowel syndrome (SBS patients. This study describes longitudinal changes in relation to GLP-2 treatment for two years. Methods. GLP-2, 400 micrograms, s.c.,TID, were offered, to eleven SBS patients keeping parenteral support constant. 72-hour nutritional balance studies were performed at baseline, weeks 13, 26, 52 during two years intermitted by an 8-week washout period. In addition, mucosal morphometrics, renal function (by creatinine clearance, body composition and bone mineral density (by DEXA, biochemical markers of bone turnover (by s-CTX and osteocalcin, PTH and vitamin D, and muscle function (NMR, lungfunction, exercise test were measured. Results. GLP-2 compliance was >93%. Three of eleven patients did not complete the study. In the remaining 8 patients, GLP-2 significantly reduced the fecal wet weight from approximately 3.0 to approximately 2.0 kg/day. This was accompanied by a decline in the oral wet weight intake, maintaining intestinal wet weight absorption and urinary weight constant. Renal function improved. No significant changes were demonstrated in energy intake or absorption, and GLP-2 did not significantly affect mucosal morphology, body composition, bone mineral density or muscle function. Conclusions. GLP-2 treatment reduces fecal weight by approximately 1000 g/d and enables SBS patients to maintain their intestinal fluid and electrolyte absorption at lower oral intakes. This was accompanied by a 28% improvement in creatinine clearance.

  13. A pilot study examining the relationship among Crohn disease activity, glucagon-like peptide-2 signalling and intestinal function in pediatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalet, David L; Kravarusic, Dragan; Butzner, Decker

    2013-01-01

      BACKGROUND⁄/OBJECTIVES: The relationship between the enteroendocrine hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) and intestinal inflammation is unclear. GLP-2 promotes mucosal growth, decreases permeability and reduces inflammation in the intestine; physiological stimulation of GLP-2 release...

  14. Effects of treatment with glucagon-like peptide-2 on bone resorption in colectomized patients with distal ileostomy or jejunostomy and short-bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschalck, I.B.; Jeppesen, Palle Bekker; Hartmann, B.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The gut hormone GLP-2 (glucagon-like peptide-2) seems to be involved in the circadian pattern of bone resorption, whereas parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an established key hormone in bone turnover. Endogenous GLP-2 secretion is lacking in colectomized patients with short-bowel syndrome (...

  15. Glucagon-like peptide-2 stimulates mucosal microcirculation measured by laser Doppler flowmetry in end-jejunostomy short bowel syndrome patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerup, P; Hellström, P M; Schmidt, P T

    2013-01-01

    In animal and human studies glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) has been shown to increase blood flow in the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein. This study describes the effect of GLP-2 measured directly on the intestinal mucosal blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) in end-jejunostomy...

  16. Synergistic effect of supplemental enteral nutrients and exogenous glucagon-like peptide 2 on intestinal adaptation in a rat model of short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Nelson, David W; Holst, Jens Juul

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) can lead to intestinal failure and require total or supplemental parenteral nutrition (TPN or PN, respectively). Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-dependent, proglucagon-derived gut hormone that stimulates intestinal adaptation. OBJECTIVE: Our...... of GLP-2 (SEN x GLP-2 interaction, P cellularity and digestive capacity in parenterally fed rats with SBS...

  17. Glucagon-like peptide-2, but not glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, stimulates glucagon release in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the glucagon-releasing properties of the hormones glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in 8 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without paracrine intraislet influence of insulin (C-peptide negative following a 5 g...

  18. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition enhances the intestinotrophic effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 in rats and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, B; Thulesen, J; Kissow, Hannelouise

    2000-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) induces intestinal growth in mice; but in normal rats, it seems less potent, possibly because of degradation of GLP-2 by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). The purpose of this study was to investigate the survival and effect of GLP-2 in rats and mice after...... s.c. injection of GLP-2 with or without the specific DPP-IV inhibitor, valine-pyrrolidide (VP). Rats were injected s.c. with 40 microg GLP-2 or 40 microg GLP-2+15 mg VP. Plasma was collected at different time points and analyzed, by RIA, for intact GLP-2. Rats were treated for 14 days with: saline...... s.c. injection, the plasma concentration of GLP-2 reached a maximum after 15 min, and elevated concentrations persisted for 4-8 h. With VP, the concentration of intact GLP-2 was about 2-fold higher for at least the initial 60 min. Rats treated with GLP-2+VP had increased (P

  19. Glucagon-like peptide-2 modulates neurally evoked mucosal chloride secretion in guinea pig small intestine in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassano, Sara; Liu, Sumei; Qu, Mei-Hu; Mulè, Flavia; Wood, Jackie D

    2009-10-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is an important neuroendocrine peptide in intestinal physiology. It influences digestion, absorption, epithelial growth, motility, and blood flow. We studied involvement of GLP-2 in intestinal mucosal secretory behavior. Submucosal-mucosal preparations from guinea pig ileum were mounted in Ussing chambers for measurement of short-circuit current (I(sc)) as a surrogate for chloride secretion. GLP-2 action on neuronal release of acetylcholine was determined with ELISA. Enteric neuronal expression of the GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R) was studied with immunohistochemical methods. Application of GLP-2 (0.1-100 nM) to the serosal or mucosal side of the preparations evoked no change in baseline I(sc) and did not alter transepithelial ionic conductance. Transmural electrical field stimulation (EFS) evoked characteristic biphasic increases in I(sc), with an initially rapid rising phase followed by a sustained phase. Application of GLP-2 reduced the EFS-evoked biphasic responses in a concentration-dependent manner. The GLP-2R antagonist GLP-2-(3-33) significantly reversed suppression of the EFS-evoked responses by GLP-2. Tetrodotoxin, scopolamine, and hexamethonium, but not vasoactive intestinal peptide type 1 receptor (VPAC1) antagonist abolished or reduced to near zero the EFS-evoked responses. GLP-2 suppressed EFS-evoked acetylcholine release as measured by ELISA. Pretreatment with GLP-2-(3-33) offset this action of GLP-2. In the submucosal plexus, GLP-2R immunoreactivity (-IR) was expressed in choline acetyltransferase-IR neurons, somatostatin-IR neurons, neuropeptide Y-IR neurons, and vasoactive intestinal peptide-IR neurons. We conclude that submucosal neurons in the guinea pig ileum express GLP-2R. Activation of GLP-2R decreases neuronally evoked epithelial chloride secretion by suppressing acetylcholine release from secretomotor neurons.

  20. Effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 and distal bowel resection on intestinal and systemic adaptive responses in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah W Lai

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2, with or without massive distal bowel resection, on adaptation of jejunal mucosa, enteric neurons, gut hormones and tissue reserves in rats.GLP-2 is a gut hormone known to be trophic for small bowel mucosa, and to mimic intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome (SBS. However, the effects of exogenous GLP-2 and SBS on enteric neurons are unclear.Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to four treatments: Transected Bowel (TB (n = 8, TB + GLP-2 (2.5 nmol/kg/h, n = 8, SBS (n = 5, or SBS + GLP-2 (2.5 nmol/kg/h, n = 9. SBS groups underwent a 60% jejunoileal resection with cecectomy and jejunocolic anastomosis. All rats were maintained on parenteral nutrition for 7 d. Parameters measured included gut morphometry, qPCR for hexose transporter (SGLT-1, GLUT-2, GLUT-5 and GLP-2 receptor mRNA, whole mount immunohistochemistry for neurons (HuC/D, VIP, nNOS, plasma glucose, gut hormones, and body composition.Resection increased the proportion of nNOS immunopositive myenteric neurons, intestinal muscularis propria thickness and crypt cell proliferation, which were not recapitulated by GLP-2 therapy. Exogenous GLP-2 increased jejunal mucosal surface area without affecting enteric VIP or nNOS neuronal immunopositivity, attenuated resection-induced reductions in jejunal hexose transporter abundance (SGLT-1, GLUT-2, increased plasma amylin and decreased peptide YY concentrations. Exogenous GLP-2 attenuated resection-induced increases in blood glucose and body fat loss.Exogenous GLP-2 stimulates jejunal adaptation independent of enteric neuronal VIP or nNOS changes, and has divergent effects on plasma amylin and peptide YY concentrations. The novel ability of exogenous GLP-2 to modulate resection-induced changes in peripheral glucose and lipid reserves may be important in understanding the whole-body response following intestinal resection, and is worthy of further study.

  1. Short-term administration of glucagon-like peptide-2. Effects on bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in short-bowel patients with no colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haderslev, K V; Jeppesen, P B; Hartmann, B

    2002-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a newly discovered intestinotrophic hormone. We have recently reported that a 5-week GLP-2 treatment improved the intestinal absorptive capacity of short-bowel patients with no colon. Additionally, GLP-2 treatment was associated with changes in body composition ...... that included a significant increase in total body bone mass. This article describes the effect of GLP-2 on spinal and hip bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in these patients....

  2. The effect of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 on mesenteric blood flow and cardiac parameters in end-jejunostomy short bowel patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Lasse; Hornum, Mads; Andersen, Ulrik B

    2011-01-01

    Exogenous Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 (GLP-2) treatment improves intestinal wet weight absorption in short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients. In healthy subjects, administration of GLP-2 increases small intestinal blood flow. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of GLP-2 on mesenteric blood fl...... and dynamic changes in cardiac parameters in SBS patients with jejunostomy and varying length of remnant small intestine....

  3. Response of plasma glucagon-like peptide-2 to feeding pattern and intraruminal administration of volatile fatty acids in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabagh, M; Inabu, Y; Obitsu, T; Sugino, T

    2017-07-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), a gut peptide secreted by enteroendocrine L cells, has recently been identified as a key regulator of intestinal growth and absorptive function in ruminants. However, reports on GLP-2 secretion are few, and more information regarding its secretion dynamics is needed. In this study, two experiments were conducted to elucidate the daily rhythm of GLP-2 secretion in response to feeding regimen and to investigate the effect of volatile fatty acids (VFA) on GLP-2 release in sheep. In experiment 1, blood samples were collected over 3 d from 4 Suffolk mature wethers adapted to a maintenance diet fed once daily; day 1 sampling was preceded by 24 h of fasting to reach steady state. On days 1 and 3, samples were collected every 10 min from 11:00 to 14:00 on both days and then every 1 h until 00:00 on day 1 only; feed was offered at 12:00. On day 2, feed was withheld, and sampling was performed every hour from 01:00 to 00:00. In experiment 2, 5 Suffolk mature wethers were assigned to 5 treatment groups of intraruminal administration of saline, acetate, propionate, butyrate, or VFA mix (acetate, propionate, and butyrate in a ratio of 65:20:15) in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Blood samples were collected at 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90, and 120 min relative to the beginning of administration at 12:00. In both experiments, plasma GLP-2, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose, insulin, and β-hydroxy butyric acid (BHBA) levels were measured. In experiment 1, incremental area under the curve was greater (P feeding than pre-feeding on days 1 and 3 for GLP-2 and tended to be greater (P feeding. Plasma GLP-2 was poorly correlated with GLP-1 but positively correlated with insulin, glucose, and BHBA. In experiment 2, administration of butyrate and VFA mix remarkably increased plasma GLP-2 (P = 0.05) and BHBA (P responsive to feeding and might be promoted by BHBA produced by the rumen epithelial metabolism of butyrate

  4. contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vertical dimension is stronger in target-driven programmes, the horizontal is stronger in. PHC. Vertical programmes may have a special place in certain phases of the fight against diseases, namely in the beginning to start up a programme and at the end to finish the job. To date, the world is still divided into horizontalists ...

  5. Carboxypeptidase-B-like processing of the C-terminus of glucagon-like peptide-2 in pig and human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, C; Buhl, T; Rabenhøj, L

    1989-01-01

    no mutual cross-reactivity. By gel filtration of extracts of pig and human small intestine, the immunoreactivity eluting at the position of GLP-2 was identified by the radioimmunoassays for glucagon-like peptide-2 (PG 126-159) and for PG 151-158, whereas the assay for PG 151-160 was completely negative. We...... conclude that the C-terminal amino acid residue of pig and human ileal GLP-2 is PG 158. Thus the basic residues, PG 159 and 160 are removed during its processing in the small intestine....

  6. Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 Stimulates Postresection Intestinal Adaptation in Preterm Pigs by Affecting Proteins Related to Protein, Carbohydrate, and Sulphur Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Pingping; Vegge, Andreas; Thymann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exogenous glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) stimulates intestinal adaptation after resection in animal models of pediatric short bowel syndrome (SBS). It is unknown whether the molecular mechanisms of such GLP-2 effects are similar to those of postresection spontaneous adaptation. Using...... cellular structural proteins, while the added GLP-2 treatment affected proteins involved in protein processing and the metabolism of protein, carbohydrate, and sulphur. CONCLUSION: In the first days following resection, proteins affected by resection plus GLP-2 treatment differed markedly from those...... affected by the spontaneous intestinal adaptation following resection alone. Whether more long-term GLP-2 treatment may affect the intestinal proteome following intestinal resection remains unknown....

  7. Tissue levels and post-prandial secretion of the intestinal growth factor, glucagon-like peptide-2, in controls and inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Peter T; Ljung, Tryggve; Hartmann, Bolette

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and peptide YY (PYY) are produced in endocrine L-cells of the intestine and secreted in response to food intake. GLP-2 has a trophic effect on the intestinal epithelium, whereas PYY has pro-absorptive effects. It can be speculated that, in infla......BACKGROUND AND AIM: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and peptide YY (PYY) are produced in endocrine L-cells of the intestine and secreted in response to food intake. GLP-2 has a trophic effect on the intestinal epithelium, whereas PYY has pro-absorptive effects. It can be speculated that......, in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the production and secretion of GLP-2 and PYY could be affected as a part of a regulatory mechanism. Therefore, tissue levels and meal-stimulated secretion of GLP-2 and PYY were studied in IBD patients and compared to controls. METHODS: Outpatients with IBD and control...... highest in the terminal ileum (407+/-82 pmol/g tissue, n=10), whereas PYY was highest in the rectum (919+/-249 pmol/g tissue, n=10). In IBD patients with acute inflammation, the content of GLP-2 was similar to controls, whereas PYY was decreased to 72.1+/-17.7% (P=0.03, n=13) of control values. Neither...

  8. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  9. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases net amino acid utilization by the portal-drained viscera of ruminating calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Burrin, D G; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal mass and blood flow in ruminant calves, but its impact on nutrient metabolism across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver is unknown. Eight Holstein calves with catheters in the carotid artery, mesenteric vein, portal vein and hepatic......, potentially by increased small intestinal epithelial growth and thus energy and amino acid requirements of this tissue. Increased PDV extraction of glutamine and alterations in PDV metabolism of arginine, ornithine and citrulline support the concept that GLP-2 influences intestine-specific amino acid...... metabolism. Alterations in amino acid metabolism but unchanged glucose metabolism suggests that the growth effects induced by GLP-2 in ruminants increase reliance on amino acids preferentially over glucose. Thus, GLP-2 increases PDV utilization of amino acids, but not glucose, concurrent with stimulated...

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) response to enteral intake in children during anti-cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, B U; Paerregaard, A; Schmiegelow, K

    2005-01-01

    an overnight fast and 1 hour after intake of a mixed test meal. Data on gastrointestinal toxicity, blood neutrophile counts and food records were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Forty-four meal stimulation tests were performed in 25 children (median age, 6.0 years; range, 2.5-19) during anti...... apoptosis and decreases mucosal permeability. Lack of GLP-2 may increase the risk of malabsorption and intestinal bacterial translocation. The aim of this study is to evaluate meal stimulated secretion of GLP-2 in children with cancer undergoing anti-cancer treatment. METHODS: Plasma-GLP-2 analysis after...... limit of normal values. The increase was strongly dependent on the energy intake (r = 0.62, P children treated with anti-cancer therapy, GLP-2 secretion seems to be normal...

  11. Bile acids induce glucagon-like peptide 2 secretion with limited effects on intestinal adaptation in early weaned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipharraguerre, Ignacio R; Tedó, Gemma; Menoyo, David

    2013-01-01

    Early weaning is a stressful event characterized by a transient period of intestinal atrophy that may be mediated by reduced secretion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 2. We tested whether enterally fed bile acids or plant sterols could increase nutrient-dependent GLP-2 secretion and improve...... intestinal adaptation in weanling pigs. During the first 6 d after weaning, piglets were intragastrically infused once daily with either deionized water (control), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC; 60 mg/kg body weight), or β-sitoesterol (BSE; 100 mg/kg body weight). Infusing CDC increased plasma GLP-2 (P ... administration of the bile acid CDC potentiates the nutrient-induced secretion of endogenous GLP-2 in early-weaned pigs. Bile acid-enhanced release of GLP-2, however, did not result in improved intestinal growth, morphology, or inflammation during the postweaning degenerative phase....

  12. Acute Effects of the Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 Analogue, Teduglutide, on Intestinal Adaptation in Short Bowel Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, Thomas; Stoll, B.; Mecklenburg, L.

    2014-01-01

    objective was to test the efficacy of the long-acting synthetic human GLP-2 analogue, teduglutide (ALX-0600), in a neonatal piglet jejunostomy model. Two-day-old pigs were subjected to resection of 50% of the small intestine (distal part), and the remnant intestine was exteriorized on the abdominal wall...... as a jejunostomy. All pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 7 days and a single daily injection of the following doses of teduglutide: 0.01 (n=6), 0.02 (n=6), 0.1 (n=5), or 0.2 mg kg(-1) day(-1) (n=6), and compared with placebo (n=9). Body weight increment was similar for all 4 teduglutide groups...

  13. Quality of life in patients with short bowel syndrome treated with the new glucagon-like peptide-2 analogue teduglutide--analyses from a randomised, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, P B; Pertkiewicz, M; Forbes, A

    2013-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS)-intestinal failure (IF) patients have impaired quality of life (QoL) and suffer from the burden of malabsorption and parenteral support (PS). A phase III study demonstrated that treatment with teduglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue, reduces PS volumes by 32% wh...

  14. Deficiency of the intestinal growth factor, glucagon-like peptide 2, in the colon of SCID mice with inflammatory bowel disease induced by transplantation of CD4+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Hartmann, B; Bregenholt, S

    2000-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is produced in endocrine L-cells of the intestinal mucosa. Recently, GLP-2 was found to stimulate intestinal mucosal growth. Our objective was to study the content of GLP-2 in the large intestine in a murine model of T-cell-induced inflammatory bowel disease....

  15. PEGylated porcine glucagon-like peptide-2 improved the intestinal digestive function and prevented inflammation of weaning piglets challenged with LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, K K; Wu, J; Deng, B; Li, Y M; Xu, Z W

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects on intestinal function, anti-inflammatory role and possible mechanism of polyethylene glycosylated (PEGylated) porcine glucagon-like peptide-2 (pGLP-2), a long-acting form of pGLP-2, in weaning piglets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We divided 18 weaned piglets on day 21 into three groups (control, LPS and LPS+PEG-pGLP-2; n=6). The piglets from the LPS+PEG-pGLP-2 group were injected with PEG-pGLP-2 at 10 nmol/kg BW from 5 to 7 days of the trials daily. On 8th day, the piglets in the LPS and LPS+PEG-pGLP-2 groups were intraperitoneally administered with 100 µg LPS/kg. The control group was administered with the same volume of saline solution. The piglets were then sacrificed on day 28. Afterwards, serum, duodenum, jejunum and ileum samples were collected for analysis of structural and functional endpoints. LPS+PEG-pGLP-2 treatment increased (Pdigestive function were associated with the release of GLP-2R mediator (keratinocyte growth factor) and the decrease in the expressions of intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  16. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. ... performed on infants and children to identify human growth hormone (hGH) deficiency as a cause of growth retardation. ...

  17. Short Bowel Patients Treated for Two Years with Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 (GLP-2: Compliance, Safety, and Effects on Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Jeppesen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2 has been shown to improve intestinal absorption in short bowel syndrome (SBS patients in a short-term study. This study describes safety, compliance, and changes in quality of life in 11 SBS patients at baseline, week 13, 26, and 52 during two years of subcutaneous GLP-2 treatment, 400 microgram TID, intermitted by an 8-week washout period. Methods. Safety and compliance was evaluated during the admissions. The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP, Short Form 36 (SF 36, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ evaluated quality of life. Results. The predominant adverse event was transient abdominal discomfort in 5 of 11 patients, but in 2, both suffering from Crohns disease, it progressed to abdominal pain and led to discontinuation of GLP-2 treatment. One had a fibrostenotic lesion electively resected at the jejuno-ascendo-anastomosis. The investigator excluded a patient due to unreliable feedback. Stoma nipple enlargement was seen in all 9 jejunostomy patients. Reported GLP-2 compliance was excellent (>93%. GLP-2 improved the overall quality of life VAS-score (4.1±2.8 cm versus 6.0±2.4 cm, <.01, the overall SIP score (10.3±8.9% versus 6.2±9.5%, <.001, the mental component of the SF-36 (45±13% versus 53±11%, <.05, and the overall IBDQ score (5.1±0.9 versus 5.4±0.9, <.007 in the 8 patients completing the study. Conclusions. Long-term treatment with GLP-2 is feasible in SBS patients, although caution must be exercised in patients with a history of abdominal pain. Although conclusions cannot be made in a noncontrolled trial, the high reported compliance might reflect a high treatment satisfaction, where the clinical benefits of GLP-2 may outweigh the discomforts of injections.

  18. A pilot study examining the relationship among Crohn disease activity, glucagon-like peptide-2 signalling and intestinal function in pediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalet, David L; Kravarusic, Dragan; Butzner, Decker; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J; Meddings, Jon

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The relationship between the enteroendocrine hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) and intestinal inflammation is unclear. GLP-2 promotes mucosal growth, decreases permeability and reduces inflammation in the intestine; physiological stimulation of GLP-2 release is triggered by nutrient contact. The authors hypothesized that ileal Crohn disease (CD) affects GLP-2 release. METHODS: With ethics board approval, pediatric patients hospitalized with CD were studied; controls were recruited from local schools. Inclusion criteria were endoscopy-confirmed CD (primarily of the small intestine) with a disease activity index >150. Fasting and post-prandial GLP-2 levels and quantitative urinary recovery of orally administered 3-O-methyl-glucose (active transport) and lactulose/mannitol (passive) were quantified during the acute and remission phases. RESULTS: Seven patients (mean [± SD] age 15.3±1.3 years) and 10 controls (10.3±1.6 years) were studied. In patients with active disease, fasting levels of GLP-2 remained stable but postprandial levels were reduced. Patients with active disease exhibited reduced glucose absorption and increased lactulose/mannitol recovery; all normalized with disease remission. The change in the lactulose/mannitol ratio was due to both reduced lactulose and increased mannitol absorption. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that pediatric patients with acute ileal CD have decreased postprandial GLP-2 release, reduced glucose absorption and increased intestinal permeability. Healing of CD resulted in normalization of postprandial GLP-2 release and mucosal functioning (nutrient absorption and permeability), the latter due to an increase in mucosal surface area. These findings have implications for the use of GLP-2 and feeding strategies as a therapy in CD patients; further studies of the effects of inflammation and the GLP-2 axis are recommended. PMID:24106731

  19. A dose-equivalent comparison of the effects of continuous subcutaneous glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) infusions versus meal related GLP-2 injections in the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naimi, R M; Madsen, K B; Askov-Hansen, C

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), secreted endogenously from L-cells in the distal bowel in relation to meals, modulates intestinal absorption by adjusting gastric emptying and secretion and intestinal growth. Short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients with distal intestinal resections have attenuated en...... effects of continuous, subcutaneous (s.c.), exogenous GLP-2 infusion (CONT-GLP-2) versus three daily s.c. GLP-2 injections (TID-GLP-2) on intestinal absorption in SBS patients....

  20. Reducing gut effects from Cryptosporidium parvum infection in dairy calves through prophylactic glucagon-like peptide 2 therapy or feeding of an artificial sweetener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, E E; Wall, E H; Bravo, D M; Evock-Clover, C M; Elsasser, T H; Baldwin, R L; Santín, M; Vinyard, B T; Kahl, S; Walker, M P

    2017-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) therapy was shown previously to reduce inflammation-related gut damage from coccidiosis in dairy calves, and feeding of artificial sweetener stimulates GLP-2 secretion from intestinal L cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether GLP-2 treatment or artificial sweetener feeding beginning 1 wk before an experimental inoculation with the coccidian parasite Cryptosporidium parvum can reduce infection-related intestinal damage in Holstein bull calves. Newborn calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups of 6 calves each, including noninfected control calves injected s.c. every 12 h with control buffer (CON), infected control calves injected s.c. every 12 h with control buffer (INF), infected calves injected s.c. every 12 h with 50 µg/kg of body weight of GLP-2 (GLP2), and infected calves injected s.c. every 12 h with control buffer and supplemented in the diet with Sucram (Pancosma, Geneva, Switzerland) at 400 mg/kg of dry matter of milk replacer (SUC). Treatments were initiated on d 1, and calves in INF, GLP2, and SUC were orally dosed on d 8 with 12,500 C. parvum oocysts. Fecal scores were recorded daily, plasma was collected on d 1, 8, 12, 15, and 18 to evaluate markers of inflammation, and fecal samples were collected on d 1, 8, and every other day thereafter to determine the presence of oocysts. Calves were euthanized on d 18 for collection of intestinal tissues and histological and gene expression analyses. Relative to CON, calves in INF exhibited an increase in diarrhea severity, increased plasma serum amyloid A concentration on d 15 and 18, reduced intestinal villus height, increased villus apoptosis and crypt cell proliferation, and increased intestinal mRNA expression of MARVELD2 and GPX2. However, calves in SUC and GLP2 had reduced diarrhea severity and fecal C. parvum oocyst shedding, reduced plasma serum amyloid A concentration on d 15 and 18, and, depending on the intestinal segment, increased villus height

  1. Enteral nutrients potentiate glucagon-like peptide-2 action and reduce dependence on parenteral nutrition in a rat model of human intestinal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Adam S.; Murali, Sangita G.; Hitt, Stacy; Solverson, Patrick M.; Holst, Jens J.

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-dependent, proglucagon-derived gut hormone that shows promise for the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS). Our objective was to investigate how combination GLP-2 + enteral nutrients (EN) affects intestinal adaption in a rat model that mimics severe human SBS and requires parenteral nutrition (PN). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups and maintained with PN for 18 days: total parenteral nutrition (TPN) alone, TPN + GLP-2 (100 μg·kg−1·day−1), PN + EN + GLP-2(7 days), PN + EN + GLP-2(18 days), and a nonsurgical oral reference group. Animals underwent massive distal bowel resection followed by jejunocolic anastomosis and placement of jugular catheters. Starting on postoperative day 4, rats in the EN groups were allowed ad libitum access to EN. Groups provided PN + EN + GLP-2 had their rate of PN reduced by 0.25 ml/day starting on postoperative day 6. Groups provided PN + EN + GLP-2 demonstrated significantly greater body weight gain with similar energy intake and a safe 80% reduction in PN compared with TPN ± GLP-2. Groups provided PN + EN + GLP-2 for 7 or 18 days showed similar body weight gain, residual jejunal length, and digestive capacity. Groups provided PN + EN + GLP-2 showed increased jejunal GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) expression. Treatment with TPN + GLP-2 demonstrated increased jejunal expression of epidermal growth factor. Cessation of GLP-2 after 7 days with continued EN sustained the majority of intestinal adaption and significantly increased expression of colonic proglucagon compared with PN + EN + GLP-2 for 18 days, and increased plasma GLP-2 concentrations compared with TPN alone. In summary, EN potentiate the intestinotrophic actions of GLP-2 by improving body weight gain allowing for a safe 80% reduction in PN with increased jejunal expression of GLP-2R, IGF-I, and IGFBP-5 following distal bowel

  2. Glucagon-like peptide 2 prevents down-regulation of intestinal multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 and P-glycoprotein in endotoxemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Maite Rocío; Tocchetti, Guillermo Nicolás; Zecchinati, Felipe; Londero, Ana Sofía; Dominguez, Camila; Perdomo, Virginia; Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Villanueva, Silvina Stella Maris; Mottino, Aldo Domingo

    2017-09-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, ABCC2) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) constitute essential components of the intestinal biochemical barrier that prevent incorporation of food contaminants, drugs or toxic metabolites into the blood stream. Endotoxemia induced in rats by administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in elevated intestinal permeability and toxicity of xenobiotics in part associated with down-regulation of expression and activity of Mrp2 and P-gp. We evaluated the protective effect of glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), a peptide hormone with enterotrophic properties, on Mrp2 and P-gp alterations induced by single i.p. injection of LPS (5mg/kg b.wt.) to rats. Two different protocols of GLP-2 administration, namely prevention and reversion, were examined. The prevention protocol consisted of 7s.c. injections of GLP-2 (125μg/kg b.wt.) administered every 12h, starting 60h before LPS administration. The reversion protocol consisted of 2 doses of GLP-2, starting 3h after LPS injection. Intestinal samples were collected 24h after LPS administration and expression (protein and mRNA) and activity of Mrp2 were evaluated in proximal jejunum whereas those of P-gp were studied in ileum. GLP-2 completely neutralized down-regulation of expression of Mrp2 and P-gp and loss of their respective activities induced by LPS under prevention protocol. GLP-2 was also able to prevent internalization of both transporters from the apical membrane of the enterocyte to intracellular compartments, as detected by confocal microscopy. LPS induced an increase in IL-1β and oxidized glutathione tissue levels, which were also counterbalanced by GLP-2 administration. In contrast, the reversion protocol failed to attenuate Mrp2 and P-gp down-regulation induced by LPS. We conclude that GLP-2 can prevent down-regulation of intestinal expression and activity of Mrp2 and P-gp in endotoxemic rats and that IL-1β and oxidative stress constitute potential targets

  3. Short communication: Glucagon-like peptide-2 and coccidiosis alter tight junction gene expression in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M P; Evock-Clover, C M; Elsasser, T H; Connor, E E

    2015-05-01

    Tight junction (TJ) proteins are integral factors involved in gut barrier function, and therapy with glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) enhances gut integrity. Our aim was to assess effects of GLP-2 treatment on mRNA expression of 8 TJ complex proteins in the intestine of dairy calves not infected or infected with Eimeria bovis at 11±3d of age. Mucosal epithelium from jejunum, ileum, and cecum was collected at slaughter from Holstein bull calves assigned to 4 groups: noninfected, buffer-treated (n=5); noninfected, GLP-2 treated (n=4); E. bovis-infected, buffer-treated (n=5); and E. bovis-infected, GLP-2-treated (n=4). Infected calves were orally dosed with 100,000 to 200,000 sporulated E. bovis oocysts on d 0; GLP-2-treated calves received 50 µg of GLP-2/kg of body weight subcutaneously twice daily for 10d beginning on d 18; and buffer-treated calves received an equal injection volume of 0.01 M Na bicarbonate buffer. All calves were killed on d 28. The mRNA expression of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CXADR), claudins 1, 2, and 4 (CLDN1, CLDN2, and CLDN4), F11 receptor (F11R), junction adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2), occludin (OCLN), and tight junction protein ZO-1 (TJP1) was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. In jejunum and ileum, an interaction of E. bovis infection and GLP-2 treatment on gene expression was noted. In jejunum of noninfected calves, GLP-2 increased CXADR, CLDN2, OCLN, and TJP1 mRNA expression but had no effect on mRNA expression in infected calves. Treatment with GLP-2 also increased tight junction protein ZO-1 protein expression in jejunum of noninfected calves as determined by immunohistochemistry. In ileum, E. bovis decreased expression of JAM2, OCLN, and TJP1 in buffer-treated calves, and GLP-2 increased TJP1 expression in infected calves. In cecum, E. bovis infection reduced expression of CXADR, CLDN4, F11R, and OCLN, and GLP-2 therapy increased expression of CLDN4, F11R, OCLN, and TJP1. Results are consistent with studies in

  4. Short bowel patients treated for two years with glucagon-like Peptide 2: effects on intestinal morphology and absorption, renal function, bone and body composition, and muscle function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, P B; Lund, P; Gottschalck, I B

    2009-01-01

    and bone mineral density (by DEXA), biochemical markers of bone turnover (by s-CTX and osteocalcin, PTH and vitamin D), and muscle function (NMR, lungfunction, exercise test) were measured. RESULTS: GLP-2 compliance was >93%. Three of eleven patients did not complete the study. In the remaining 8 patients...... demonstrated in energy intake or absorption, and GLP-2 did not significantly affect mucosal morphology, body composition, bone mineral density or muscle function. CONCLUSIONS: GLP-2 treatment reduces fecal weight by approximately 1000 g/d and enables SBS patients to maintain their intestinal fluid...

  5. Glucagon-like peptide-2 inhibits antral emptying in man, but is not as potent as glucagon-like peptide-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagell, C F; Wettergren, A; Pedersen, J F

    2004-01-01

    with GLP-1 inhibits gastric emptying and the sensation of hunger in man. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers were tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion. Antral emptying of a liquid meal and hunger ratings were determined using ultrasound technology and visual analogue scales scoring during......, but GLP-2 was less potent than GLP-1, which increased the antral emptying time by 192% (P hunger compared with saline (P = 0.023), whereas...... the two GLP-2 infusions had no significant effect. Addition of GLP-2 to the GLP-1 infusion did not decrease the sensation of hunger further. CONCLUSIONS: Both GLP-1 and GLP-2 inhibit antral emptying in man, but GLP-1 is more potent....

  6. The incretin approach for diabetes treatment: modulation of islet hormone release by GLP-1 agonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Ørskov, Cathrine

    2004-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 is a gut hormone that stimulates insulin secretion, gene expression, and beta-cell growth. Together with the related hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), it is responsible for the incretin effect, the augmentation of insulin secretion after ora...

  7. Sulfated gastrin stimulates ghrelin and growth hormone release but inhibits insulin secretion in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongqiong; Yannaing, Swe; Thanthan, Sint; Kuwayama, Hideto

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of gastrin on the circulating levels of ghrelin, growth hormone (GH), insulin, glucagon and glucose in ruminants. Two experiments were done in eight Holstein steers. Animals were randomly assigned to receive intravenous bolus injections: (1) 0.1% bovine serum albumin in saline as vehicle, 0.8, 4.0 and 20.0 μg/kg body weight (BW) of bovine sulfated gastrin-34; (2) vehicle, 0.53 μg/kg BW of bovine sulfated gastrin-17 alone or combined with 20.0 μg/kg BW of [D-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6, the selective antagonist of GHS-R1a. Blood samples were collected from -10 to 150 min relative to injection time. Concentrations of acyl and total ghrelin in response to gastrin-34 injection were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Concentrations of GH were also markedly elevated by gastrin-34 injection; however, the effect of 20.0 μg/kg was weaker than that of 4.0 μg/kg. The three doses of gastrin-34 equally decreased insulin levels within 15 min and maintained the level until the time of last sampling. Gastrin-34 had no effect (P > 0.05) on the levels of glucagon and glucose. Levels of acyl ghrelin increased after administration of gastrin-17 alone or combined with [D-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6; however, [D-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6 did not block the elevation of GH by gastrin-17. The present results indicate that sulfated gastrin stimulates both ghrelin and GH release, but the GHS-R1a may not contribute to the release of GH by gastrin. Moreover, sulfated gastrin seems to indirectly maintain the homeostasis of blood glucose through the down-regulation of insulin in ruminants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding the multifactorial control of growth hormone release by somatotropes: lessons from comparative endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahete, Manuel D; Durán-Prado, Mario; Luque, Raúl M; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio J; Quintero, Ana; Gutiérrez-Pascual, Ester; Córdoba-Chacón, José; Malagón, María M; Gracia-Navarro, Francisco; Castaño, Justo P

    2009-04-01

    Control of postnatal growth is the main, but not the only, role for growth hormone (GH) as this hormone also contributes to regulating metabolism, reproduction, immunity, development, and osmoregulation in different species. Likely owing to this variety of group-specific functions, GH production is differentially regulated across vertebrates, with an apparent evolutionary trend to simplification, especially in the number of stimulatory factors governing substantially GH release. Thus, teleosts exhibit a multifactorial regulation of GH secretion, with a number of factors, from the newly discovered fish GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) to pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) but also gonadotropin-releasing hormone, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and somatostatin(s) directly controlling somatotropes. In amphibians and reptiles, GH secretion is primarily stimulated by the major hypothalamic peptides GHRH and PACAP and inhibited by somatostatin(s), while other factors (ghrelin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone) also influence GH release. Finally, in birds and mammals, primary control of GH secretion is exerted by a dual interplay between GHRH and somatostatin. In addition, somatotrope function is modulated by additional hypothalamic and peripheral factors (e.g., ghrelin, leptin, insulin-like growth factor-I), which together enable a balanced integration of feedback signals related to processes in which GH plays a relevant regulatory role, such as metabolic and energy status, reproductive, and immune function. Interestingly, in contrast to the high number of stimulatory factors impinging upon somatotropes, somatostatin(s) stand(s) as the main primary inhibitory regulator(s) for this cell type.

  9. Circadian and sleep-dependent regulation of hormone release in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, C. A.; Klerman, E. B.

    1999-01-01

    Daily oscillations characterize the release of nearly every hormone. The circadian pacemaker, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, generates circadian, approximately 24-hour rhythms in many physiologic functions. However, the observed hormonal oscillations do not simply reflect the output of this internal clock. Instead, daily hormonal profiles are the product of a complex interaction between the output of the circadian pacemaker, periodic changes in behavior, light exposure, neuroendocrine feedback mechanisms, gender, age, and the timing of sleep and wakefulness. The interaction of these factors can affect hormonal secretory pulse frequency and amplitude, with each endocrine system differentially affected by these factors. This chapter examines recent advances in understanding the effects on endocrine rhythms of a number of these factors. Sleep exerts a profound effect on endocrine secretion. Sleep is a dynamic process that is characterized by periodic changes in electrophysiologic activity. These electrophysiologic changes, which are used to mark the state and depth of sleep, are associated with periodic, short-term variations in hormonal levels. The secretion of hormones such as renin and human growth hormone are strongly influenced by sleep or wake state, while melatonin and cortisol levels are relatively unaffected by sleep or wake state. In addition, sleep is associated with changes in posture, behavior, and light exposure, each of which is known to affect endocrine secretion. Furthermore, the tight concordance of habitual sleep and wake times with certain circadian phases has made it difficult to distinguish sleep and circadian effects on these hormones. Specific protocols, designed to extract circadian and sleep information semi-independently, have been developed and have yielded important insights into the effects of these regulatory processes. These results may help to account for changes in endocrine rhythms observed in circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including the dyssomnia of shift work and visual impairment. Yet to be fully investigated are the interactions of these factors with age and gender. Characterization of the factors governing hormone secretion is critical to understanding the temporal regulation of endocrine systems and presents many exciting areas for future research.

  10. Lack of stimulation of 24-hour growth hormone release by hypocaloric diet in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, A; Kjems, L L

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a marked reduction in the spontaneous secretion of GH. To investigate the effect of acute alterations in calorie intake on GH release, 24-hr spontaneous GH release was measured during habitual calorie intake as well as during a short term, very low calorie diet (VLCD......-I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), insulin, pro-insulin, and blood glucose were measured during habitual energy intake as well as during the hypocaloric diet. Twenty-four-hour GH release profiles and IGFBP-1 were decreased, and insulin as well as proinsulin....... This suggests a reversible defect in GH release, rather than a persistent preexisting disorder. It is hypothesized that enhanced bioavailability of IGF-I, acting in concert with elevated proinsulin and insulin levels, may account for the lack of stimulation of 24-hr GH release by the hypocaloric diet in obese...

  11. Pulsatile luteinising hormone releasing hormone for ovulation induction in subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayram, N.; van Wely, M.; Vandekerckhove, P.; Lilford, R.; van der Veen, F.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In normal menstrual cycles, gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion is pulsatile, with intervals of 60-120 minutes in the follicular phase. Treatment with pulsatile GnRH infusion by the intra-venous or subcutaneous route using a portable pump has been used successfully in

  12. Simultaneous measurement of hormone release and secretagogue binding by individual pituitary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.F.; Neill, J.D.

    1987-08-01

    The quantitative relationship between receptor binding and hormone secretion at the single-cell level was investigated in the present study by combining a reverse hemolytic plaque assay for measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from individual pituitary cells with an autoradiographic assay of /sup 125/I-labeled gonadontropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist binding to the same cells. In the plaque assay, LH secretion induces complement-mediated lysis of the LH-antibody-coated erythrocytes around the gonadotropes, resulting in areas of lysis (plaques). LH release from individual gonadotropes was quantified by comparing radioimmunoassayable LH release to hemolytic area in similarly treated cohort groups of cells; plaque area was linearly related to the amount of LH secreted. Receptor autoradiography was performed using /sup 125/I-labeled GnRH-A (a superagonist analog of GnRH) both as the ligand and as the stimulant for LH release in the plaque assay. The grains appeared to represent specific and high-affinity receptors for GnRH because (i) no pituitary cells other than gonadotropes bound the labeled ligand and (ii) grain development was progressively inhibited by coincubation with increasing doses of unlabeled GnRH-A. The authors conclude that GnRH receptor number for any individual gonadotrope is a weak determinant of the amount of LH it can secrete; nevertheless, full occupancy of all its GnRH receptors is required for any gonadotrope to reach its full LH-secretory capacity. Apparently the levels of other factors comprising the steps along the secretory pathway determine the secretory capacity of an individual cell.

  13. Pituitary adenomas in mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L

    1992-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human GH-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs, lactotrophs, and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both GH and PRL, by 8 months of age. We now report that GRH transgenic mice 10-24 months of age develop pituitary...

  14. Adenohypophysial changes in mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefaneanu, L; Kovacs, K; Horvath, E

    1989-01-01

    The effect of protracted GH-releasing factor (GRF) stimulation on adenohypophysial morphology was investigated in six mice transgenic for human GRF (hGRF). All animals had significantly higher plasma levels of GH and GRF and greater body weights than controls. Eight-month-old mice were killed...

  15. Sleep in mice with nonfunctional growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obal, Ferenc; Alt, Jeremiah; Taishi, Ping; Gardi, Janos; Krueger, James M

    2003-01-01

    The role of the somatotropic axis in sleep regulation was studied by using the lit/lit mouse with nonfunctional growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptors (GHRH-Rs) and control heterozygous C57BL/6J mice, which have a normal phenotype. During the light period, the lit/lit mice displayed significantly less spontaneous rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS) than the controls. Intraperitoneal injection of GHRH (50 microg/kg) failed to promote sleep in the lit/lit mice, whereas it enhanced NREMS in the heterozygous mice. Subcutaneous infusion of GH replacement stimulated weight gain, increased the concentration of plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and normalized REMS, but failed to restore normal NREMS in the lit/lit mice. The NREMS response to a 4-h sleep deprivation was attenuated in the lit/lit mice. In control mice, intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin (400 microg/kg) elicited GH secretion and promoted NREMS, and intraperitoneal administration of the somatostatin analog octretotide (Oct, 200 microg/kg) inhibited sleep. In contrast, these responses were missing in the lit/lit mice. The results suggest that GH promotes REMS whereas GHRH stimulates NREMS via central GHRH-Rs and that GHRH is involved in the mediation of the sleep effects of ghrelin and somatostatin.

  16. Role of Sleep and Sleep Loss in Hormonal Release and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Leproult, Rachel; Van Cauter, Eve

    2009-01-01

    Compared to a few decades ago, adults, as well as children, sleep less. Sleeping as little as possible is often seen as an admirable behavior in contemporary society. However, sleep plays a major role in neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism. Evidence that the curtailment of sleep duration may have adverse health effects has emerged in the past 10 years. Accumulating evidence from both epidemiologic studies and well-controlled laboratory studies indicates that chronic partial sleep l...

  17. Role of sleep and sleep loss in hormonal release and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leproult, Rachel; Van Cauter, Eve

    2010-01-01

    Compared to a few decades ago, adults, as well as children, sleep less. Sleeping as little as possible is often seen as an admirable behavior in contemporary society. However, sleep plays a major role in neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism. Evidence that the curtailment of sleep duration may have adverse health effects has emerged in the past 10 years. Accumulating evidence from both epidemiologic studies and well-controlled laboratory studies indicates that chronic partial sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity and weight gain. The present chapter reviews epidemiologic studies in adults and children and laboratory studies in young adults indicating that sleep restriction results in metabolic and endocrine alterations, including decreased glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased evening concentrations of cortisol, increased levels of ghrelin, decreased levels of leptin and increased hunger and appetite. Altogether, the evidence points to a possible role of decreased sleep duration in the current epidemic of obesity. Bedtime extension in short sleepers should be explored as a novel behavioral intervention that may prevent weight gain or facilitate weight loss. Avoiding sleep deprivation may help to prevent the development of obesity, particularly in children. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Thyroid Hormone and Estrogen Regulate Exercise-Induced Growth Hormone Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, Daniele Leão; da S. Silvestre, Diego H.; Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, João Paulo Albuquerque; Louzada, Ruy Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) regulates whole body metabolism, and physical exercise is the most potent stimulus to induce its secretion in humans. The mechanisms underlying GH secretion after exercise remain to be defined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of estrogen and pituitary type 1 deiodinase (D1) activation on exercise-induced GH secretion. Ten days after bilateral ovariectomy, animals were submitted to 20 min of treadmill exercise at 75% of maximum aerobic capacity and tissues were harvested immediately or 30 min after exercise. Non-exercised animals were used as controls. A significant increase in D1 activity occurred immediately after exercise (~60%) in sham-operated animals and GH was higher (~6-fold) 30 min after exercise. Estrogen deficient rats exhibited basal levels of GH and D1 activity comparable to those found in control rats. However, after exercise both D1 activity and serum GH levels were blunted compared to sedentary rats. To understand the potential cause-effect of D1 activation in exercise-induced GH release, we pharmacologically blocked D1 activity by propylthiouracil (PTU) injection into intact rats and submitted them to the acute exercise session. D1 inhibition blocked exercise-induced GH secretion, although basal levels were unaltered. In conclusion, estrogen deficiency impairs the induction of thyroid hormone activating enzyme D1 in the pituitary, and GH release by acute exercise. Also, acute D1 activation is essential for exercise-induced GH response. PMID:25874614

  19. Bed rest suppresses bioassayable growth hormone release in response to muscle activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, G. E.; Goulet, C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Hodgson, J. A.; Bigbee, A. J.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1997-01-01

    Hormonal responses to muscle activity were studied in eight men before (-13 or -12 and -8 or -7 days), during (2 or 3, 8 or 9, and 13 or 14 days) and after (+2 or +3 and +10 or +11 days) 17 days of bed rest. Muscle activity consisted of a series of unilateral isometric plantar flexions, including 4 maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs), 48 contractions at 30% MVC, and 12 contractions at 80% MVC, all performed at a 4:1-s work-to-rest ratio. Blood was collected before and immediately after muscle activity to measure plasma growth hormone by radioimmunoassay (IGH) and by bioassay (BGH) of tibia epiphyseal cartilage growth in hypophysectomized rats. Plasma IGH was unchanged by muscle activity before, during, or after bed rest. Before bed rest, muscle activity increased (P muscle activity, a pattern that persisted through 8 or 9 days of bed rest. However, after 13 or 14 days of bed rest, plasma concentration of BGH was significantly lower after than before muscle activity (2,594 +/- 211 to 2,085 +/- 109 microg/l). After completion of bed rest, muscle activity increased BGH by 31% at 2 or 3 days (1,807 +/- 117 to 2,379 +/- 473 microg/l; P muscle activity.

  20. Effects of suramin on hormone release by cultured rat anterior pituitary cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.A.I. Marzouk (Hamdy); L.J. Hofland (Leo); F.H. den Holder (Fred); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); J. Steenbergen (Jacobie); J. Zuiderwijk (Joke); E.M. Abou-Hashim (Ekbal); M.H. El-Kannishy (Mohammed); F.H. de Jong (Frank); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Suramin is a polyanionic compound which has been used in the treatment of trypanosomiasis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), while preliminary success has been reported in the treatment of cancer. However, suramin also causes adrenal insufficiency. We have

  1. Lack of stimulation of 24-hour growth hormone release by hypocaloric diet in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, A; Kjems, L L

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a marked reduction in the spontaneous secretion of GH. To investigate the effect of acute alterations in calorie intake on GH release, 24-hr spontaneous GH release was measured during habitual calorie intake as well as during a short term, very low calorie diet (VLCD......) in 6 obese subjects, 5 obese subjects after weight loss, and 5 normal, age- and sex-matched control subjects. Integrated 20-min samples were obtained over 24-h on two occasions in each subject using a constant blood withdrawal technique. In addition, basal levels of serum insulin-like growth factor...... levels were elevated in obese subjects compared to those in normal age- and sex-matched controls. No differences between obese subjects and normal controls were present regarding IGF-I, IGFBP-3, or IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio. In the last 24 h during the 96-h VLCD, an increase in 24-h GH release and basal...

  2. Lack of stimulation of 24-hour growth hormone release by hypocaloric diet in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, A; Kjems, L L

    1995-01-01

    ) in 6 obese subjects, 5 obese subjects after weight loss, and 5 normal, age- and sex-matched control subjects. Integrated 20-min samples were obtained over 24-h on two occasions in each subject using a constant blood withdrawal technique. In addition, basal levels of serum insulin-like growth factor...... levels were elevated in obese subjects compared to those in normal age- and sex-matched controls. No differences between obese subjects and normal controls were present regarding IGF-I, IGFBP-3, or IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio. In the last 24 h during the 96-h VLCD, an increase in 24-h GH release and basal....... This suggests a reversible defect in GH release, rather than a persistent preexisting disorder. It is hypothesized that enhanced bioavailability of IGF-I, acting in concert with elevated proinsulin and insulin levels, may account for the lack of stimulation of 24-hr GH release by the hypocaloric diet in obese...

  3. The Physiology of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH) in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    E., Billestrup, 5813. N., Gonzalez-Manchon, C., and Vale, W. (1992). Endocrino !- 28. Jungwirtb, A., Schally, A. V., Pinski, J., H-almos, G., Groot... Endocrino !. Metab. 82,690-696. Sc!. USA 88, 8749-8753. 33. Barinaga, M., Yamamoto, G., Rivier, C., Vale, W. W., Evans, 10. Berry, S. A., Srivastava, C. H...Matsubara, S., Sato, M., Mizobuchi, M., Niimi, M., and Docherty, K. (1986). J. Endocrino !. 110, 5 1-57. Takahara, J. (1997). Endocrinology 136, 4147-4150

  4. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1 inhibition perturbs postprandial gut hormone release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua V Lin

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1 is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. However, the degree of DGAT1 inhibition required for metabolic benefits is unclear. Here we show that partial DGAT1 deficiency in mice suppressed postprandial triglyceridemia, led to elevations in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY only following meals with very high lipid content, and did not protect from diet-induced obesity. Maximal DGAT1 inhibition led to enhanced GLP-1 and PYY secretion following meals with physiologically relevant lipid content. Finally, combination of DGAT1 inhibition with dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibition led to further enhancements in active GLP-1 in mice and dogs. The current study suggests that targeting DGAT1 to enhance postprandial gut hormone secretion requires maximal inhibition, and suggests combination with DPP-4i as a potential strategy to develop DGAT1 inhibitors for treatment of metabolic diseases.

  5. Acylation of Glucagon-like peptide-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Sofie; Linderoth, Lars; Bjerregaard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    These results show that membrane interactions play a prominent role during intestinal translocation of an acylated peptide. Acylation benefits permeation for shorter and medium chains due to increased membrane interactions, however, for longer chains insertion in the membrane becomes dominant and...

  6. Incretin response to a standard test meal in a rat model of sleeve gastrectomy with diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabah, Suleiman; Alasfar, Fahad; Al-Khaledi, Ghanim; Dinesh, Reshma; Al-Saleh, Mervat; Abul, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the most effective treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery. Gastroduodenal bypass surgery produces sustained weight loss and improves glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. Previous studies have shown that sleeve gastrectomy (SG) produces similar results and implicate changes in incretin hormone release in these effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups; lean control (lean), diet-induced obesity (DIO), DIO animals that had undergone SG (SG), and DIO animals that had undergone a sham operation (sham). After a 2-week recovery period, the incretin response to a standard test meal was measured. Blood sampling was performed in free-moving rats at various time points using chronic vascular access to the right jugular vein. There was a significant increase in the bodyweight of DIO animals fed a high-fat/high-sugar diet compared with the lean animals, which was reversed by SG. DIO caused an impairment of the GLP-1 response to a standard test meal, but not the GIP response. SG resulted in a dramatic increase in the GLP-1 response to a standard test meal but had no effect on the GIP response. A rapid rise in blood sugar was observed in the SG group following a standard test meal that was followed by reactive hypoglycemia. SG dramatically increases the GLP-1 response to a standard test meal but has no effect on GIP in a rat model of DIO.

  7. A 66-kDa protein of bovine hypophyseal Pars tuberalis induces luteinizing hormone release from rat Pars distalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarque, Martha; Oliveros, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    In this study, evidence for a factor secreted by bovine hypophyseal pars tuberalis that stimulates luteinizing hormone (LH) release from rat pars distalis cells is shown. The secretion products of bovine pars tuberalis cells into the culture medium were assayed on dispersed rat pars distalis cells in 30 min incubations and superfusion experiments. The culture medium from pars tuberalis total cell populations, added at a dose of 6 microg per tube, induced the greater LH release from pars distalis cells, without effect on follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) release. After pars tuberalis cells separation on a discontinuos Percoll gradient, only the culture medium of cells from 50 and 60% strength Percoll were able to release LH from rat pars distalis cells. Therefore, cell fractions from 50 and 60% strenght Percoll were cultured together. To elicit maximal LH release (6 times the basal output), with the addition of 2 microg of pars tuberalis protein was required, suggesting that these cells produce the factor or factors which affect pars distalis gonadotrope cells. After applying the pars tuberalis culture medium on 12% SDS-PAGE, the band with biological activity was that of 66-kDal. Fifty ng protein of its eluate released almost 9 times the basal output of LH from pars distalis cells. Results suggest a modulating effect of a protein from the bovine pars tuberalis on rat cultured gonadotrope cells from the pars distalis.

  8. Growth Hormone Response after Administration of L-dopa, Clonidine, and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Seigfried M.

    1993-01-01

    This study of eight growth-retarded children with Down's syndrome (aged 1 to 6.5 years) found that administration of growth hormone was more effective than either L-dopa or clonidine. Results suggest that children with Down's syndrome have both anatomical and biochemical hypothalamic derangements resulting in decreased growth hormone secretion and…

  9. Glucose-induced incretin hormone release and inactivation are differently modulated by oral fat and protein in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, P Thomas; Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2006-01-01

    Monounsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid (OA), and certain milk proteins, especially whey protein (WP), have insulinotropic effects and can reduce postprandial glycemia. This effect may involve the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide...... and act as competitive inhibitors. We therefore conclude that fat and protein may serve as exogenous regulators of secretion and inactivation of the incretin hormones with beneficial influences on glucose metabolism....

  10. Neither bST nor Growth Hormone Releasing Factor Alter Expression of Thyroid Hormone Receptors in Liver and Mammary Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiological effects of thyroid hormones are mediated primarily by binding of triiodothyronine, to specific nuclear receptors. It has been hypothesized that organ-specific changes in production of triiodothyronine from its prohormone, thyroxine, target the action of thyroid hormones to the mammary...

  11. Lack of pulse and surge modes and glutamatergic stimulation of luteinising hormone release in Kiss1 knockout rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenoyama, Y; Nakamura, S; Hayakawa, Y; Ikegami, K; Watanabe, Y; Deura, C; Minabe, S; Tomikawa, J; Goto, T; Ieda, N; Inoue, N; Sanbo, M; Tamura, C; Hirabayashi, M; Maeda, K-I; Tsukamura, H

    2015-03-01

    Kisspeptin, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, has attracted attention as a key candidate neuropeptide in controlling puberty and reproduction via regulation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in mammals. Pioneer studies with Kiss1 or its cognate receptor Gpr54 knockout (KO) mice showed the indispensable role of kisspeptin-GPR54 signalling in the control of animal reproduction, although detailed analyses of gonadotrophin secretion, especially pulsatile and surge-mode of luteinising hormone (LH) secretion, were limited. Thus, in the present study, we have generated Kiss1 KO rats aiming to evaluate a key role of kisspeptin in governing reproduction via pulse and surge modes of GnRH/LH secretion. Kiss1 KO male and female rats showed a complete suppression of pulsatile LH secretion, which is responsible for folliculogenesis and spermatogenesis, and an absence of puberty and atrophic gonads. Kiss1 KO female rats showed no spontaneous LH/follicle-stimulating hormone surge and an oestrogen-induced LH surge, suggesting that the GnRH surge generation system, which is responsible for ovulation, does not function without kisspeptin. Furthermore, challenge of major stimulatory neurotransmitters, such as monosodium glutamate, NMDA and norepinephrine, failed to stimulate LH secretion in Kiss1 KO rats, albeit they stimulated LH release in wild-type controls. Taken together, the results of the present study confirm that kisspeptin plays an indispensable role in generating two modes (pulse and surge) of GnRH/gonadotrophin secretion to regulate puberty onset and normal reproductive performance. In addition, the present study suggests that kisspeptin neurones play a critical role as a hub integrating major stimulatory neural inputs to GnRH neurones, using newly established Kiss1 KO rats, which serve as a useful model for detailed analysis of hormonal profiles. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  12. A possible role of SchistoFLRFamide in inhibition of adipokinetic hormone release from locust corpora cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullings, H G; Ten Voorde, S E; Passier, P C; Diederen, J H; Van Der Horst, D J; Nässel, D R

    1998-12-01

    The distribution and actions of FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) in the corpora cardiaca of the locust Locusta migratoria were studied. Antisera to FMRFamide and SchistoFLRFamide (PDVDHVFLRFamide) label neuronal processes that impinge on glandular cells in the glandular lobe of the corpora cardiaca known to produce adipokinetic hormones. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry revealed that these FaRP-containing processes form synaptoid contacts with the glandular cells. Approximately 12% of the axon profiles present in the glandular part of the corpus cardiacum contained SchistoFLRFamide-immunoreactive material. Retrograde tracing of the axons in the nervus corporis cardiaci II with Lucifer yellow revealed 25-30 labelled neuronal cell bodies in each lateral part of the protocerebrum. About five of these in each hemisphere reacted with the SchistoFLRFamide-antiserum. Double-labelling immunocytochemistry showed that the FaRP-containing processes in the glandular lobe of the corpora cardiaca are distinct from neuronal processes, reacting with an antiserum to the neuropeptide locustatachykinin. The effect of the decapeptide SchistoFLRFamide and the tetrapeptide FMRFamide on the release of adipokinetic hormone I (AKH I) from the cells in the glandular part of the corpus cardiacum was studied in vitro. Neither the deca- nor the tetrapeptide had any effect on the spontaneous release of AKH I. Release of AKH I induced by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX, however, was reduced significantly by both peptides. These results point to an involvement of FaRPs as inhibitory modulators in the regulation of the release of adipokinetic hormone from the glandular cells.

  13. Kisspeptin stimulates growth hormone release by utilizing Neuropeptide Y pathways and is dependent on the presence of ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although kisspeptin is the primary stimulator of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion and therefore the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis, new findings suggest kisspeptin can also regulate additional neuroendocrine processes including release of growth hormone (GH). Central delivery of kisspep...

  14. Evidence for a function of calcium influx in the stimulation of hormone release fron the parathyroid gland in the goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, K; Sand, O

    1981-09-01

    The acute effects of various drugs on the release of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in goats were studied by local infusions in vivo. Infusions of Ca2+ or Sr2+ reduced the PTH secretion rate, whereas hypocalcemia induced by EDTA increased the PTH release. Blockers of voltage sensitive Ca2+ channels (verapamil, D-600 and nifedipine) lowered the PTH secretion rate, while infusion of 4-aminopyridine, which is a blocker of voltage sensitive K+ channels, increased the PTH release. These effects were not due to altered beta-adrenergic tonus, since the effects persisted when the drugs were administered during continuous infusion of the beta-blocker propranolol. We suggest that the parathyroid cells possess voltage sensitive K+ and Ca2+ channels, and that exocytosis of stored PTH depends on the influx of extracellular Ca2+ as in other secretory cells. In order to explain the inverse relationship between the plasma Ca2+ level and the PTH release, we postulate a suppressive effect of the plasma Ca2+ on the membrane permeability to Ca2+ in parathyroid cells.

  15. Ghrelin improves growth hormone responses to growth hormone-releasing hormone in a streptozotocin-diabetic model of delayed onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diz-Chaves, Y; Spuch, C; Pérez, D; Mallo, F

    2007-04-01

    GH secretion is markedly altered in diabetes mellitus (DM) in both rats and humans, albeit in opposite directions. In the rat, diabetes suppresses pulsatile GH secretion, especially high amplitude pulses, and decreases GH responses to secretagogue, depending inversely on severity of metabolic alteration. In the present study, we wanted to address the GH responses to GHRH and low doses of ghrelin in a streptozotocin (STZ) model of diabetes characterized by the delayed onset of the metabolic alterations. We have shown that the administration of high doses of STZ (90 mg/kg in 0.01 M solution of chloride-sodium, ip) to five-day-old pups (n5-STZ) can induce the appearance of a characteristic diabetic syndrome in adult age, the diabetic triad, with elevated plasma glucose levels: polyuria, polydipsia, hyperphagia, and reduced body weight gain. At the age of 3 months, in these n5-STZ male and female rats the GH responses to GHRH (1 microg/kg) and GHRH combined with ghrelin (1+3 microg/kg) had diminished both in punctual times and in the area under the curve (AUC). However, the combined administration of GHRH and ghrelin, being the more potent stimulus, elicited a synergistic GH response. Thus, male and female rats with delayed onset diabetes displayed an altered GH response to GHRH, although the combined administration of GHRH and ghrelin was able to restore the GH secretion with a synergistic effect.

  16. Stress hormone release is a key component of the metabolic response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS): studies in hypopituitary and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Ermina; Møller, Andreas Buch; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) generates acute and chronic inflammatory and metabolic responses during acute illness and in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but it is unclear whether these responses depend on intact pituitary release...... of stress hormones. We compared the metabolic effects of LPS in hypopituitary patients (HP) (in the absence of pituitary stress hormone responses) and healthy control subjects (CTR) (with normal pituitary stress hormone responses). DESIGN: Single blind randomized. METHODS: We compared effects of LPS...

  17. Test Architecture, Test Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…

  18. [Study on luteal insufficiency by the two-step LH-RH test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, K; Makino, T; Takahashi, M; Lin, B L; Suekane, H; Yokokura, T; Kobayashi, J; Iizuka, R

    1988-02-01

    To clarify both the releasing function and the self-priming effect of LH-RH on gonadotropins of the anterior pituitary gland, two step administration of 100 micrograms of synthetic LH-RH at a 60 minutes interval (two step LH-RH test) was carried out in 29 women with luteal insufficiency, 10 women in luteal phase just after spontaneous abortion, 12 women in puerperium and 24 women with normal menstrual cycles. Native LH, FSH and their subunits were measured by radioimmunoassay and serum progesterone (P), estradiol (E2) and prolactin (PRL) were also measured before administration of LH-RH. By defining hormone release (1st peak level-0' level) as delta 1, self-priming effect (2nd peak level-60' level) as delta 2 and delta 2/delta 1 as delta 1 delta 2 ratio, in the luteal insufficiency group, especially in the cases with lower of serum P and E2, delta 1 was significantly higher and the delta 1 delta 2 ratio was lower than those in the control group. In the abortion group, delta 1 and delta 2 were similar to those in the control group, indicating rapid recovery of the anterior pituitary function. In the puerperium group (approximately 1 month after delivery), delta 1 was higher and the delta 1 delta 2 ratio was lower than those in the control group. This suggests that the puerperium is more or less similar to the period of luteal insufficiency. The results also indicate that the two step LH-RH test can be one of the useful methods for the study of luteal insufficiency in terms of the pituitary gonadotropin synthesis and release.

  19. Testing "Compatibility Testing."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Elliot; Huston, Ted L.

    Most models of marital choice are attempts to explain choices within the field of available eligibles. The essence of compatibility testing is that people select their mates by evaluating the match between psychological characteristics after sorting the available field on the basis of social characteristics. A compatibility model seems to require…

  20. Test plan :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-05-01

    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  1. Pinworm test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a ...

  2. Predictive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Predictive testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... you make the decision. What Is Predictive Genetic Testing Predictive genetic testing searches for genetic changes, or ...

  3. Pharmacogenomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Pharmacogenomic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to fit your genetic makeup What Is Pharmacogenomic Testing? Pharmacogenomic testing is done before your healthcare provider ...

  4. Mono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heterophile Test Heterophile Antibody Test Monospot Formal Name Infectious Mononucleosis Rapid Test This article was last reviewed on ... Why Get Tested? To detect and help diagnose infectious mononucleosis (mono) When To Get Tested? When a person, ...

  5. Glucagon like peptide-2 and neoplasia; a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Linea Landgrebe; Nerup, Nikolaj; Jeppesen, Palle Bekker

    2018-01-01

    independently by two authors in the following databases; Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane. Expert commentary: This systematic review indicated that treatment with GLP-2(1-33) up to 30 months in humans without any known pre-existing cancer did not confer an increased risk of intestinal...

  6. Glucagon-like peptide 2 inhibits ghrelin secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banasch, Matthias; Bulut, Kerem; Hagemann, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The growth hormone secretagogue receptor ligand ghrelin is known to play a pivotal role in the central nervous control of energy homeostasis. Circulating ghrelin levels are high under fasting conditions and decline after meal ingestion, but the mechanisms underlying the postprandial...... drop in ghrelin levels are poorly understood. In the present study we addressed, whether (1) exogenous GLP-2 administration decreases ghrelin levels and (2) what other endogenous factors are related to ghrelin secretion under fasting conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen healthy male volunteers...... were studied with the intravenous infusion of GLP-2 (2 pmol l(-1) min(-1)) or placebo over 120 min in the fasting state. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, intact GLP-2 and ghrelin were determined. RESULTS: During the infusion of GLP-2, plasma concentrations of intact GLP-2...

  7. Ham test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  8. Coombs test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  9. Trichomonas Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy ... With some NAATs, samples collected for testing of gonorrhea and chlamydial infections can also be used to ...

  10. Urodynamic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Urodynamic Testing What is the urinary tract? The urinary tract ... view of the urinary tract What is urodynamic testing? Urodynamic testing is any procedure that looks at ...

  11. Mono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Mononucleosis (Mono) Test Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic ... Questions Related Content View Sources Also Known As Mononucleosis Spot Test Mononuclear Heterophile Test Heterophile Antibody Test ...

  12. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prep Fungal Smear, Culture, Antigen and Antibody Tests Mycology Tests Fungal Molecular Tests Potassium Hydroxide Preparation Calcofluor ... February 7, Modified). Calcofluor White with 10% KOH. Mycology Online [On-line information]. Available online at http:// ...

  13. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age and race What you eat and drink Medicines you take How well you followed pre-test instructions Your doctor may also compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  14. Malnutrition Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LDL-P) Lead Legionella Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus ... Site Tests: Albumin , CBC , CMP , Electrolytes , Iron Tests , Lipid Profile , Urinalysis , Prealbumin , Vitamin D , Vitamin B12 and Folate , ...

  15. Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is responding to gluten. Unlike antibody testing, the HLA gene testing for celiac disease measures the presence or ... found on the surface of some cells. The HLA gene test for celiac disease can be performed at ...

  16. Genomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counseling Genomic Testing Pathogen Genomics Epidemiology Resources Genomic Testing Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Fact Sheet: ... Page The Need for Reliable Information on Genetic Testing In 2008, the former Secretary’s Advisory Committee on ...

  17. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  18. Tissue tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Tissue tests are widely used in horticulture practice and have in comparison with soil or substrate testing advantages as well disadvantages in comparison with soil testing. One of the main advantages of tissue tests is the certainty that analysed nutrients in plant tissues are really present in the

  19. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  20. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    1999-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  1. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  2. Nationale test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test.......Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test....

  3. Magnesium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tests G6PD Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) Gastrin Gastrointestinal Pathogens Panel Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose ... as spinach, as well as whole grains and nuts. Foods that have dietary fiber are usually also ...

  4. Copper Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tests G6PD Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) Gastrin Gastrointestinal Pathogens Panel Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose ... hepatic). Copper is found in many foods including nuts, chocolate, mushrooms, shellfish, whole grains, dried fruits, and ...

  5. Osmolality Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury Metanephrines Methotrexate Methylmalonic Acid Mononucleosis (Mono) Test MRSA ... Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Kidney Disease Lactose Intolerance Lead Poisoning Leukemia Liver Disease Lung Cancer Lung Diseases Lupus ...

  6. Bilirubin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bilirubin test in conjunction with other laboratory tests ( alkaline phosphatase , aspartate aminotransferase , alanine aminotransferase ) when someone shows signs of abnormal liver function. A bilirubin level may be ordered when ...

  7. Gonorrhea Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... can get tested. You can input your zip code and find a local testing site. How can ...

  8. Syphilis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... can get tested. You can input your zip code and find a local testing site. Should I ...

  9. Trichomonas Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Known As T. vaginalis Wet Prep Formal Name Trichomonas vaginalis testing This article was last reviewed on March ... Tested? To diagnose an infection with the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis , which causes the sexually transmitted disease trichomoniasis When ...

  10. Chymotrypsin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... at http://www.upcmd.com/dot/examples/00218/description.html. Sainato, D., (2002, March). Genetic Testing for ...

  11. ACT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content View Sources Ask Us Also Known As ACT Activated Coagulation Time Formal Name Activated Clotting Time ... What is being tested? The activated clotting time (ACT) is a test that is used primarily to ...

  12. Rubella Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Rubella Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Three-day Measles; 3-day Measles Formal name: Rubella Antibodies, IgM and IgG Related tests: TORCH ; Measles ...

  13. Gonorrhea Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Gonorrhea Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Sources Ask Us Also Known As GC Test Gonorrhea NAAT or NAT Neisseria gonorrhoeae Nucleic Acid Amplification ...

  14. Ferritin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... absorbs too much iron, even on a normal diet. How is the sample collected for testing? A ...

  15. AMA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... 50% of the cases of PBC will be discovered before a person has noticeable symptoms. What causes ...

  16. Lactate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...

  17. Allergy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment. These include: allergy screening tests done in supermarkets or drug stores, home testing, applied kinesiology (allergy ... this topic visit the AAAAI Store . Utility navigation Donate Annual meeting Browse your conditions Check pollen counts ...

  18. Progesterone Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urine Culture Urine Metanephrines Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests Vitamin K VLDL Cholesterol von Willebrand Factor Warfarin Sensitivity Testing ...

  19. Rubella Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the blood testing required to obtain a marriage license. What does the test result mean? Adult ... their joints , especially their hands and wrists. Side effects are rarely seen in young children who get ...

  20. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... at http://www.thoracic.org/education/breathing-in-america/resources/chapter-9-fungal-lung-disease.pdf. Accessed ...

  1. VMA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spasms and rapid eye movements referred to as "dancing eyes, dancing feet." The VMA test may also be ordered ... ratio is associated with a poorer prognosis . A variety of medications can interfere with VMA testing, but ...

  2. DHEAS Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer Disease Anemia Angina Ankylosing Spondylitis Anthrax ... for Teens (Ages 13-18) Screening Tests for Young Adults (Ages 19-29) Screening Tests for Adults ( ...

  3. Pregnancy test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003432.htm Pregnancy test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A pregnancy test measures a hormone in the body called human ...

  4. Nationale Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv......Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv...

  5. HIV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... All Collapse All Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...

  6. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.

    1999-01-01

    , destroy the insulation and eventually cause breakdown. It is difficult to make a model of the real-life components that can be used to examine all of these phenomena. Some decisions have to be made on how to approach this problem, how to design a test cell and how the tests should be carried out....... In this paper, four suggestions on test cells are considered....

  7. Trypsinogen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like immunoreactivity; Serum trypsinogen; Immunoreactive trypsin Images Blood test References Forsmark CE. Chronic pancreatitis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal ...

  8. Nationale test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Puck, Morten Rasmus

    Nationale test skubber undervisning i en forkert retning. Det er lærerne og skolelederne enige om. Men særligt skolelederne ser også muligheder for at bruge testen til at få viden om elevernes faglige kompetencer og om undervisningen. Det kommer til udtryk i rapporten Nationale test: Danske lærere...

  9. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base balance . This test measures the level of chloride in ... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base (pH) balance . Chloride and electrolyte tests may also be ordered ...

  10. Runflat Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-09

    the valve cores using a valve core removal tool to simulate a puncture flat. This should be done at the test site, after the tires are warmed up...F), and ideally be as close to the SAE standard temperature of 25 °C (77 °F) as possible. Test conditions should also be dry (no precipitation or

  11. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the bad things that could happen also fuels test anxiety. For example, someone worrying about doing poorly ... are shaking." Just like other types of anxiety, test anxiety can create a bad cycle: The more a person focuses on the negative ...

  12. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a sign of anemia or thalassemia. Blood Chemistry Tests/Basic Metabolic Panel The basic metabolic panel ( ... parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Anemia Coronary Heart ...

  13. Pertussis Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factor Antibody Iron Iron Tests JAK2 Mutation Kidney Stone Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) ... whooping cough); when you have symptoms of a cold and have been exposed to someone with pertussis ...

  14. TORCH Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factor Antibody Iron Iron Tests JAK2 Mutation Kidney Stone Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) ... The two most common infections with HSV are "cold sores" affecting the lips and genital herpes. Both ...

  15. Toxoplasmosis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye or brain infection that a health practitioner suspects are due to toxoplasmosis Sample Required? A blood ... to an infection or detects the genetic material ( DNA ) of the parasite in the blood. Testing is ...

  16. RPR test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... later stages of the infection. Some conditions may cause a false-positive test, including: IV drug use Lyme disease Certain types of pneumonia Malaria Pregnancy Systemic lupus erythematosus and some other autoimmune ...

  17. VDRL test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the earlier and later stages. Some conditions may cause a false-positive test, including: HIV Lyme disease Certain types of pneumonia Malaria Systemic lupus erythematosus The body does not always ...

  18. Test Ship

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  19. HPV Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detects the presence of HPV, the virus that causes cervical cancer, in your system. Certain types of HPV — including ... have any of the types of HPV that cause cervical cancer. Depending on your test results, your doctor may ...

  20. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... special preparations. For some, you may need to fast (not eat any food) for 8 to 12 hours before the test. ...

  1. Lactate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL ... metabolism) in which pyruvate is not converted to lactate. One example is pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. In these cases, pyruvate will accumulate, the ...

  2. Serotonin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acute myocardial infarction ( heart attack ), cystic fibrosis , and dumping syndrome . The serotonin test is not usually ordered ... Thank you. Contact a Scientist Find Us On Social Media: Facebook Twitter Google Plus Footer Menu Home ...

  3. IQ testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person's talents or future potential. Results of any intelligence test may be culturally biased. The more widely used ... Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Stanford-Binet Intelligence ... mathematical, analytical, spatial (for example, reading ...

  4. Electrolytes Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/print.php?unit_code=87972. Accessed September 2011. See More See Less ...

  5. VMA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Toxoplasmosis Testing Trace Minerals Transferrin and Iron-binding Capacity ( ... Blood in Urine (Hematuria) Bone Marrow Disorders Breast Cancer Cancer Cardiovascular Disease Celiac Disease Cervical Cancer Chronic ...

  6. VLDL test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease . This test may be included in a coronary risk profile. ... cholesterol level may be associated with a higher risk for heart disease and stroke. However, VLDL cholesterol level is rarely targeted when treatment for high ...

  7. Test report :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors have supplied their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and a subset of these systems were selected for performance evaluation at the BCIL. The technologies tested were electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. MILSPRAY Military Technologies has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lead acid batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited assessment of the Milspray Scorpion Energy Storage Device.

  8. Iron Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... not enough iron is taken in from the diet, blood levels will drop; thus, over time, the ...

  9. Magnesium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... bones. It comes into the body through the diet and is absorbed by the small intestine and ...

  10. Phosphorus Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... balance . Phosphorus comes into the body through the diet. It is found in many foods and is ...

  11. Toxoplasmosis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... humid locations and is influenced by the regional diet. It is higher in areas that routinely eat ...

  12. PTT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... but can occur due to an extremely poor diet, malabsorption disorders , or prolonged use of certain antibiotics, ...

  13. Copper Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... or trying to get more copper in my diet? In most cases, a regular diet satisfies the ...

  14. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... 20Files/Nutrition/DRIs/DRI_Electrolytes_Water.pdf?la=en. Accessed Oct 2015. Sources Used in Previous Reviews ...

  15. RSV Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... int/immunization/research/meetings_workshops/rsv_vaccine_development/en/. Accessed November 2016. Sources Used in Previous Reviews ...

  16. Malnutrition Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... www.who.int/vaccine_research/diseases/soa_parasitic/en/index2.html through http://www.who.int . Accessed ...

  17. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...

  18. Electrolytes Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... sometimes reported as total CO 2 ). A person's diet provides sodium, potassium, and chloride. The kidneys help ...

  19. Osmolality Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affecting osmolality; to help determine the cause of chronic diarrhea When To Get Tested? When someone has a ... increased or decreased amounts of urine, or has chronic diarrhea Sample Required? A blood sample drawn from a ...

  20. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Lead Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At a ... Related Content View Sources Also Known As Blood Lead Test Blood Lead Level BLL Formal Name Lead, ...

  1. Porphyrin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safe and unsafe drugs, different sites use different classifications and the lists are not the same. Why ... Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). M osby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., ...

  2. Tests computarizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fernando Prialé Z.

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available En primer lugar, se considera el impacto de las microcomputadoras en la actualidad, viéndolo como un hecho social destinado a traer profundos cambios: nos orientamos hacia una cultura informática cuyo signo es la posibilidad de tratar grandes cantidades de información. En segundo lugar; se analiza brevemente la importancia de los tests en el desarrollo de la psicología. Finalmente, se discute la posibilidad de aplicar la informática a la psicometría con el ejemplo del test de BARSIT.   The impact of microcomputers is discussed as a cultural fact that will bring profound changes in the near future: a society with an ubiquous capacity for treating big amounts of information. The importance of tests for the development of psychology is then analysed. Finaly, the possibility of applying microcomputers to psychometry is discussed trough a concrete example: The BARSIT test.

  3. Stool Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... stool. Collecting a Stool Specimen Unlike most other lab tests, stool is sometimes collected by the child's ...

  4. Porphyrin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LA Kaplan, AJ Pesce, SC Kazmierczak, Eds), CV Mosby, St. Louis, 2003, pp. 657-674. Pagana, Kathleen ... osby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp325, 670-672. (2003 ...

  5. Fibrinogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an investigation of a possible bleeding disorder or inappropriate blood clot formation ( thrombotic episode ) As a follow- ... More Common Questions See Less Common Questions Related Content On This Site Tests: PT and INR , PTT , ...

  6. ACT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heparin is used to help prevent and treat inappropriate blood clot formation ( thrombosis or thromboembolism ) and is ... More Common Questions See Less Common Questions Related Content On This Site Tests: Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) , ...

  7. PTH Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diseases that disrupt this feedback loop can cause inappropriate elevations or decreases in calcium and PTH levels ... More Common Questions See Less Common Questions Related Content On This Site Tests: Calcium ; Phosphorus ; Magnesium ; Vitamin ...

  8. Ferritin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the past few decades, some lab-to-lab variability can occur due to differences in testing equipment, ... Pp 443-444. Clarke, W., Editor (© 2011). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry 2nd Edition: AACC Press, Washington, ...

  9. AMA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This Site Tests: ANCA/MPO/PR3 Antibodies , Liver/Kidney Microsomal Antibody , ALP , ALT , Liver Panel , Smooth Muscle Antibody , ANA Conditions: Autoimmune Diseases , Liver Disease , Hepatitis , Cirrhosis Elsewhere On The Web ...

  10. Postmenopausal Increase in KiSS-1, GPR54, and Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LHRH-1) mRNA in the Basal Hypothalamus of Female Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Wooram; Jessen, Heather M; Auger, Anthony P; Terasawa, Ei

    2008-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor, GPR54, and its ligand, kisspeptin-54 (a KiSS-1 derived peptide) have been reported to be important players in control of LHRH-1 release. However, the role of the GPR54 signaling in primate reproductive senescence is still unclear. In the present study we investigated whether KiSS-1, GPR54, and LHRH-1 mRNA in the brain change after menopause in female rhesus monkeys using quantitative real-time PCR. Results indicate that KiSS-1, GPR54, and LHRH-1 mRNA levels in ...

  11. Postmenopausal increase in KiSS-1, GPR54, and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH-1) mRNA in the basal hypothalamus of female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooram; Jessen, Heather M; Auger, Anthony P; Terasawa, Ei

    2009-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor, GPR54, and its ligand, kisspeptin-54 (a KiSS-1 derived peptide) have been reported to be important players in control of LHRH-1 release. However, the role of the GPR54 signaling in primate reproductive senescence is still unclear. In the present study we investigated whether KiSS-1, GPR54, and LHRH-1 mRNA in the brain change after menopause in female rhesus monkeys using quantitative real-time PCR. Results indicate that KiSS-1, GPR54, and LHRH-1 mRNA levels in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) in postmenopausal females (28.3+/-1.1 years of age, n=5) were all significantly higher than that in eugonadal adult females (14.7+/-2.1 years of age, n=9), whereas KiSS-1, GPR54, and LHRH-1 mRNA levels in the preoptic area (POA) did not have any significant changes between the two age groups. To further determine the potential contribution by the absence of ovarian steroids, we compared the changes in KiSS-1, GPR54, and LHRH-1 mRNA levels in young adult ovarian intact vs. young ovariectomized females. Results indicate that KiSS-1 and LHRH-1 mRNA levels in the MBH, not POA, in ovariectomized females were significantly higher than those in ovarian intact females, whereas GPR54 mRNA levels in ovariectomized females had a tendency to be elevated in the MBH, although the values were not quite statistically significant. Collectively, in the primate the reduction in the negative feedback control by ovarian steroids appears to be responsible for the aging changes in kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling and the elevated state of the LHRH-1 neuronal system.

  12. EFFECTS OF THE APPLICATION OF A PSYCHOPROPHYLACTIC METHOD DURING THE PARTURITION PROCESS ON THE PAIN, THE ANXIETY AND THE CORTICOTROPHIN HORMONE RELEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza Alves Marques Almeida

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychoprophylactic techniques for childbirth were evaluated in the immediate nursery attendance for mother inlabor. It was evaluated the techniques effect on pain intensity and anxiety levels, as well as on the corticotrophinhormone (ACTH release. It was studied mother participation in different phases of childbirth labor and childdelivery, her vision on nursery psychoprophylactic assistance before delivery, and her perception on labor. Traceand state of anxiety, pain intensity and plasma ACTH levels were determined. Experimental research was carriedout with a quantitative and qualitative approach at a Public Maternity Hospital of the City of Goiânia in the State ofGoiás, Brazil. The sample consisted of thirty six primigravidas women that didn´t receive childbirth preparatoryclasses. Nineteen parturients received both individual nursery and labor psychoprophylactic assistance(experimental group – GE while seventeen parturient received only maternity routine assistance (control group -GC. For both groups, Visual Analogic Scale (VAS application and, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI wereperformed, as well as peripheric blood sampling and immediate postparturition interview. Results allowed toconclude that: 1. Psychoprophylactic techniques for immediate assistance to GE group have demanded theiractive participation and effective nurse intervention. Better parturient performance, relief to pain sensation,encouragement to feel labor process, with increase of positive opinions over normal child delivery, were promoted.A lower level of anxiety for a larger period of time, when considered the absolute values, was also observed; 2.Significant attributes to the assistance received during labor reflected the importance of the direct parturientassistance and childbirth preparation, even if in the immediate antecedent period; 3. High variability of ACTHplasma levels in both groups was observed, with no statistical difference between them. Correlation betweenACTH levels and the anxiety state, neither between ACTH levels and the pain intensity were not observed.

  13. Growth hormone-releasing effects of whole body vibration alone or combined with squatting plus external load in severely obese female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, Marialuisa; Cardinale, Marco; Agosti, Fiorenza; Patrizi, Alessandra; Compri, Emanuele; Rigamonti, Antonello E; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been reported to exert growth hormone(GH)-releasing effects in healthy subjects. Despite the potential of WBV to positively affect body composition changes via lipolytic effects, few studies have been performed in obese subjects to date. This study evaluated the acute effects of WBV alone or in combination with squatting plus external load (WBV+S) on serum GH levels and blood lactate concentrations in 7 severely obese women (age 22 ± 5 years; BMI 39.9 ± 2.9 kg/m2). WBV and WBV+S determined a significant GH increase (mean GH peaks 5.1 ± 1.9 ng/ml, p external load. Further additional studies are required to verify the chronic effects of WBV exercise on the GH/IGF-1 system, which could represent a potentially effective approach for weight management in obese subjects.

  14. Interleukin-8 production from human somatotroph adenoma cells is stimulated by interleukin-1β and inhibited by growth hormone releasing hormone and somatostatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindeløv, Signe Diness; Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas cause morbidity and mortality due to their localization and influence on pituitary hormone secretion. Although the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas is unclear, studies have indicated that cytokines are involved. We investigated the role of cytokines, in particular interleukin...

  15. Acute load-dependent effects of oral whey protein on gastric emptying, gut hormone release, glycemia, appetite, and energy intake in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amy T; Piscitelli, Diana; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L; Clifton, Peter M; Standfield, Scott; Hausken, Trygve; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D

    2015-12-01

    In healthy individuals, intraduodenal whey protein load-dependently modulates gastrointestinal motor and hormonal functions and suppresses energy intake. The effect of oral whey, particularly the impact of load, has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to quantify gastric emptying of 30 and 70 g of oral whey protein loads and their relation to gastrointestinal hormone, glycemic, and appetitive responses. On 3 separate occasions in a randomized, double-blind order, 18 lean men [mean ± SEM age: 24.8 ± 1.4 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 21.6 ± 0.5] received iso-osmolar, equally palatable drinks (∼450 mL) containing 30 g pure whey protein isolate (L), 70 g pure whey protein isolate (H), or saline (control). Gastric emptying (with the use of 3-dimensional ultrasound), plasma cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, insulin, glucagon, total amino acids, and blood glucose were measured for 180 min after consumption of the drinks, and energy intake at a buffet-style lunch was quantified. Gastric emptying of the L and H drinks was comparable when expressed in kilocalories per minute (L: 2.6 ± 0.2 kcal/min; H: 2.9 ± 0.3 kcal/min) and related between individuals (r = 0.54, P drinks were comparable until ∼45-60 min after ingestion, after which time the responses became more differentiated. Blood glucose was modestly reduced after the H drink between t = 45 and 150 min when compared with the L drink (all P drinks compared with control (P protein is independent of load and determines the initial gastrointestinal hormone response. This study was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as 12611000706976. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Relative effectiveness of carp pituitary extract, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog LHRHa injections and LHRHa implants for producing hybrid catfish fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption of the hybrid catfish (channel catfish, Ictalruus punctatus, female x blue catfish, I. furcatus, male) is increasing in the catfish industry. The most effective way to produce fry is hormone induced spawning of females coupled with hand stripping and in vitro fertilization. The success of...

  17. A super-agonist of growth hormone-releasing hormone causes rapid improvement of nutritional status in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczyk, Stanisław; Sikorska, Hanna; Wiecek, Andrzej; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Załecka, Klaudia; Gorczyńska, Joanna; Kubik, Małgorzata; Czerwieńska, Beata; Gosek, Katarzyna; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Wagner, David A; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Hakonen, Tiina; Kay, Sam Wai Kit; Jouhikainen, Taneli; Schaefer, Franz

    2010-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease is frequently associated with protein-energy wasting related to chronic inflammation and a resistance to anabolic hormones such as insulin and growth hormone (GH). In this study, we determined whether a new GH-releasing hormone super-agonist (AKL-0707) improved the anabolism and nutritional status of nondialyzed patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease randomized to twice daily injections of the super-agonist or placebo. After 28 days, this treatment significantly increased 24-h GH secretion by almost 400%, without altering the frequency or rhythmicity of secretory bursts or fractional pulsatile GH release, and doubled the serum insulin-like growth factor-1 level. There was a significant change in the Subjective Global Assessment from 'mildly to moderately malnourished' to 'well-nourished' in 6 of 9 patients receiving AKL-0707 but in none of 10 placebo-treated patients. By dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, both the mean fat-free mass and the body mineral content increased, but fat mass decreased, all significantly. In the AKL-0707-treated group, both serum urea and normalized protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance significantly decreased with no change in dietary protein intake, indicating a protein anabolic effect of treatment. Thus, our study shows that stimulation of endogenous GH secretion by AKL-0707 overcomes uremic catabolism of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

  18. Hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) cell number is increased in human illness, but is not reduced in Prader-Willi syndrome or obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldstone, Anthony P.; Unmehopa, Unga A.; Swaab, Dick F.

    2003-01-01

    Acute illness leads to increased GH, but reduced IGF-I secretion, while both are reduced in chronic illness. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic obesity syndrome, with GH deficiency a feature independent of obesity. Reduced GH secretion may result from decreased hypothalamic release of

  19. Effects of hypothalamic dopamine on growth hormone-releasing hormone-induced growth hormone secretion and thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced prolactin secretion in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jin; Hashizume, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of hypothalamic dopamine (DA) on the secretion of growth hormone (GH) in goats. The GH-releasing response to an intravenous (i.v.) injection of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH, 0.25 μg/kg body weight (BW)) was examined after treatments to augment central DA using carbidopa (carbi, 1 mg/kg BW) and L-dopa (1 mg/kg BW) in male and female goats under a 16-h photoperiod (16 h light, 8 h dark) condition. GHRH significantly and rapidly stimulated the release of GH after its i.v. administration to goats (P < 0.05). The carbi and L-dopa treatments completely suppressed GH-releasing responses to GHRH in both male and female goats (P < 0.05). The prolactin (PRL)-releasing response to an i.v. injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, 1 μg/kg BW) was additionally examined in male goats in this study to confirm modifications to central DA concentrations. The treatments with carbi and L-dopa significantly reduced TRH-induced PRL release in goats (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that hypothalamic DA was involved in the regulatory mechanisms of GH, as well as PRL secretion in goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. D2-like dopamine receptor mediates dopaminergic or gamma-aminobutyric acidergic inhibition of melanotropin-releasing hormone release from the pars intermedia in frogs (Rana nigromaculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonosaki, Y; Nishiyama, K; Honda, T; Ozaki, N; Sugiura, Y

    1995-12-01

    Frogs can adapt to their background by making their skin color lighter or darker as necessary, and this adaptation is regulated by MSH. We investigated the mechanism inhibiting MSH release from the pars intermedia (PI) of the pituitary gland in frogs (Rana nigromaculata) by ultrastructural immunohistochemistry and bioassay using the melanophore index. The PI contained fibers immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and neuropeptide Y, which made synaptic contacts with MSH cells. The synapses had an asymmetric profile with small round and large-cored synaptic vesicles. The skin of frogs adapted to a white background became darker after administration of 6-hydroxydopamine or autografting of the PI into the anterior chamber of the eye. The skin of autografted frogs became lighter after the administration of dopamine or GABA into the anterior chamber. Lightening of skin color with dopamine was inhibited by a D2 receptor antagonist (sulpiride), and the effect of GABA was blocked by both sulpiride and a GABAA receptor antagonist (bicuculline). These results indicate that MSH release from the PI in frogs may be inhibited by dopaminergic nerves via the D2-like receptor and by GABAergic nerves via the D2-like and GABAA receptors.

  1. Neuronal-glial plasticity in gonadotropin-releasing hormone release in adult female rats: role of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Jyoti; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2005-08-01

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory system undergoes marked structural and functional changes during the ovarian cycle. The aim of this study was to examine the neuroanatomical relationship between GnRH neurons and a polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a known marker of neuronal plasticity. Using immunohistofluorescent dual labeling, we determined that axon terminals of GnRH in the median arcuate nucleus (ME-ARC) region of the hypothalamus in the proestrous phase of the estrous cycle were intimately associated with PSA-NCAM. To further examine whether PSA-NCAM expression associated with GnRH neuron terminals varies in conjugation with cyclic changes in ovarian steroid hormone levels, we examined GnRH and PSA-NCAM dual expression in ovariectomized (OVX) and estrogen-progesterone-primed OVX (EBP-OVX) rats. The expression of PSA-NCAM immunoreactivity associated with the GnRH neurons in the proestrous phase and EBP-OVX rats was significantly higher than during the diestrous phase and in OVX rats where GnRH secretion declines. We further examined whether the structural changes in GnRH axon terminals in the ME-ARC region are also associated with glial plasticity. By extension and retraction of the glial processes, the GnRH neuron terminals in the ME-ARC region could undergo dynamic plastic changes that control GnRH release during the proestrous phase. PSA-NCAM expression was also seen on glial cells in the ME-ARC region. The close association between PSA-NCAM on GnRH and glial cells in the ME-ARC region of the hypothalamus in the rat showed dynamic structural changes in GnRH neuron terminals during the estrous cycle. These observations suggested that PSA-NCAM may act as a molecular substrate to promote neuroplastic changes in the GnRH neurosecretory system.

  2. Kisspeptin Stimulates Growth Hormone Release by Utilizing Neuropeptide Y Pathways and Is Dependent on the Presence of Ghrelin in the Ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foradori, Chad D; Whitlock, Brian K; Daniel, Jay A; Zimmerman, Arthur D; Jones, Melaney A; Read, Casey C; Steele, Barbara P; Smith, Jeremy T; Clarke, Iain J; Elsasser, Theodore H; Keisler, Duane H; Sartin, James L

    2017-10-01

    Although kisspeptin is the primary stimulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion and therefore the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, recent findings suggest kisspeptin can also regulate additional neuroendocrine processes including release of growth hormone (GH). Here we show that central delivery of kisspeptin causes a robust rise in plasma GH in fasted but not fed sheep. Kisspeptin-induced GH secretion was similar in animals fasted for 24 hours and those fasted for 72 hours, suggesting that the factors involved in kisspeptin-induced GH secretion are responsive to loss of food availability and not the result of severe negative energy balance. Pretreatment with the neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBO 3304, blocked the effects of kisspeptin-induced GH release, implicating NPY as an intermediary. Kisspeptin treatment induced c-Fos in NPY and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) cells of the arcuate nucleus. The same kisspeptin treatment resulted in a reduction in c-Fos in somatostatin (SS) cells in the periventricular nucleus. Finally, blockade of systemic ghrelin release or antagonism of the ghrelin receptor eliminated or reduced the ability of kisspeptin to induce GH release, suggesting the presence of ghrelin is required for kisspeptin-induced GH release in fasted animals. Our findings support the hypothesis that during short-term fasting, systemic ghrelin concentrations and NPY expression in the arcuate nucleus rise. This permits kisspeptin activation of NPY cells. In turn, NPY stimulates GHRH cells and inhibits SS cells, resulting in GH release. We propose a mechanism by which kisspeptin conveys reproductive and hormone status onto the somatotropic axis, resulting in alterations in GH release. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  3. Two complementary methods to control gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccination (Improvac®) misuse in horseracing: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test in plasma and steroidomics in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly-Chouriberry, Ludovic; Loup, Benoit; Popot, Marie-Agnès; Dreau, Marie-Laure; Garcia, Patrice; Bruyas, Jean-François; Bonnaire, Yves

    2017-09-01

    Since the availability on the European market of the vaccine Improvac® dedicated to male pig immunological castration, the risk of misuse of this product in horses is now considered as a threat for the horseracing industry. Immunological castration is not allowed by the racing codes (immune system, Article 6). Indeed, this vaccination against the hypothalamic hormone luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) will prevent the release from the anterior pituitary of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, which are required for the development and activity of gonads in males (testes) and female (ovaries) and therefore all their subsequent physiological functions. This treatment will induce a strong hormonal variation resulting in a behaviour modification of the animals. In this work, four male standardbreds treated with Improvac® vaccine (two intramuscular injections within 4 weeks) were studied. Monitoring of the total scrotal width showed a decrease of the scrotum size (37%) and production of anti-GnRH antibodies was detected up to 200 days after the first injection. Anti-GnRH antibodies were detected in plasma after caprylic acid precipitation followed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a rapid and efficient screening method applicable to routine analysis. These results were correlated to a switch of the sexual status from male group to gelding/female group obtained by a steroidomic approach with urine based on ten endogenous compounds. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  5. Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/publications/AssessingAlcohol/index.htm .) This issue of Alcohol Research & Health highlights some of the most popular screening ... tolerance to more than two drinks (the T question) = 2 points. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) can detect alcohol ...

  6. About testing $\

    CERN Document Server

    Loverre, P F; Spada, F R

    1999-01-01

    We study the feasibility of a long-baseline neutrino experiment from CERN to Gran Sasso LNGS Laboratories using the CERN PS accelerator. Baseline and neutrino energy spectrum are suitable to explore a region of the Dm2 and sin2(thetat) parameters space which is not reached by K2K, the first experiment that will test at accelerator the atmospheric neutrino anomaly put in evidence by Super Kamiokande

  7. Oedometer Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Grete

    1996-01-01

    . The results, however, tell nothing about the kind of actions, which has caused the overconsolidation. The determined OCR-values might be due to previous ice caps but a big difference in the two values from Solsø indicates a considerable influence from other actions. The sediments from Hollerup and Solsø...... a model set up by Moust Jacobsen in 1992. The test results do not show any significant difference in the determined values of the overconsolidation ratio (OCR) for the samples from Hollerup and Solsø, east and west of the main stationary line for the last ice sheet in Weichselian, respectively...

  8. Heart failure - tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... the best test to: Identify which type of heart failure (systolic, diastolic, valvular) Monitor your heart failure and ...

  9. Cholesterol testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol test results; LDL test results; VLDL test results; HDL test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia-results; Lipid disorder test results; Heart disease - cholesterol results

  10. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  11. Heliostat tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    An enormous glint of sunlight darted over gently sloping summits and the hairpin curves of the mountain road. Mirrors concentrated this glint into a single beam, which then shot through a thick sheet of aluminum. Such was the result of the first test run on heliostats of the unique Solntse scientific-production complex being erected in Tashkent Oblast. There will be 62 such heliostats, each with an area of 50 square meters. Hot beams will be transmitted to the concave mirror of a concentrator (2,000 square meters). And the glint that shoots from it effortlessly melts not only aluminum but also almost all known materials. A special melting furnace toward which the concentractor directs hundreds of kilowatts of energy, burns brighter than a thousand suns. The complex presently under construction is intended for acquisition of ultrahigh-heat and concurrently ultrapure materials needed by many industrial sectors. This is extremely difficult to do by traditional chemical methods and even by the most modern methods--ultrahigh frequency and cathode ray methods.

  12. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  13. Coccidioides precipitin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccidioidomycosis antibody test; Coccidioides blood test; Valley fever blood test ... There is no special preparation for the test. ... The precipitin test is one of several tests that can be done to determine if you are infected with coccidioides, which ...

  14. Myoglobin urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin urine test; Myositis - myoglobin urine test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin urine test ... The test involves only normal urination, which should cause no discomfort.

  15. Test Review: TestDaF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John; Drackert, Anastasia

    2018-01-01

    The Test of German as a Foreign Language (TestDaF) plays a critical role as a standardized test of German language proficiency. Developed and administered by the Society for Academic Study Preparation and Test Development (g.a.s.t.), TestDaF was launched in 2001 and has experienced persistent annual growth, with more than 44,000 test takers in…

  16. Helicobacter pylori Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Related Images View Sources Also Known As H. pylori antibody test, stool antigen, breath tests Urea breath test CLO test Rapid urease test (RUT) for H. pylori Formal Name Helicobacter pylori This article was last ...

  17. What Is Diagnostic Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Diagnostic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Diagnostic Testing? Diagnostic genetic testing can usually work out if ...

  18. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what you want to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... Genes: A Guide to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  19. HCG blood test - quantitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood test - quantitative; Beta-HCG blood test - quantitative; Pregnancy test - blood - quantitative ... of a screening test for Down syndrome. This test is also done to diagnose abnormal conditions not related to pregnancy that can raise HCG level.

  20. Design Driven Testing Test Smarter, Not Harder

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, M

    2010-01-01

    The groundbreaking book Design Driven Testing brings sanity back to the software development process by flipping around the concept of Test Driven Development (TDD) - restoring the concept of using testing to verify a design instead of pretending that unit tests are a replacement for design. Anyone who feels that TDD is "Too Damn Difficult" will appreciate this book. Design Driven Testing shows that, by combining a forward-thinking development process with cutting-edge automation, testing can be a finely targeted, business-driven, rewarding effort. In other words, you'll learn how to test

  1. Learning software testing with Test Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Madi, Rawane

    2013-01-01

    Learning Software Testing with Test Studio is a practical, hands-on guide that will help you get started with Test Studio to design your automated solution and tests. All through the book, there are best practices and tips and tricks inside Test Studio which can be employed to improve your solution just like an experienced QA.If you are a beginner or a professional QA who is seeking a fast, clear, and direct to the point start in automated software testing inside Test Studio, this book is for you. You should be familiar with the .NET framework, mainly Visual Studio, C#, and SQL, as the book's

  2. Compositional Testing with ioco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrenko, A.; van der Bijl, H.M.; Rensink, Arend; Ulrich, A.; Tretmans, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract. Compositional testing concerns the testing of systems that consist of communicating components which can also be tested in isolation. Examples are component based testing and interoperability testing. We show that, with certain restrictions, the ioco-test theory for conformance testing is

  3. Engine Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center's Engine Test Facility (ETF) test cells are used for development and evaluation testing of propulsion systems for...

  4. Myoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin blood test; Myositis - myoglobin blood test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin blood test ... too high, it can damage the kidneys. This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects ...

  5. Ketones urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  6. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Glucose What's in ... liver or kidneys) is working. What Is a Glucose Test? A glucose test measures how much glucose ...

  7. PT and INR Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Normalized Ratio Related tests: Activated Clotting Time ; Partial Thromboplastin Time ; Prothrombin Consumption Time; Fibrinogen ; Coagulation Factors ; Platelet Count ; Platelet Function Tests ; Thrombin Time ; Warfarin Sensitivity Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  8. Heart Health Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is easier to treat. Blood tests and heart health tests can help find heart diseases or identify ... diseases. There are several different types of heart health tests. Your doctor will decide which test or ...

  9. Genetic Testing (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Genetic Testing KidsHealth / For Parents / Genetic Testing What's in ... blood, skin, bone, or other tissue is needed. Genetic Testing During Pregnancy For genetic testing before birth, ...

  10. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal ... Screening Tests FAQ165, July 2017 PDF Format Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Pregnancy What is prenatal genetic testing? ...

  11. To test or not to test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rochon, Justine; Gondan, Matthias; Kieser, Meinhard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Student's two-sample t test is generally used for comparing the means of two independent samples, for example, two treatment arms. Under the null hypothesis, the t test assumes that the two samples arise from the same normally distributed population with unknown variance. Adequate...... control of the Type I error requires that the normality assumption holds, which is often examined by means of a preliminary Shapiro-Wilk test. The following two-stage procedure is widely accepted: If the preliminary test for normality is not significant, the t test is used; if the preliminary test rejects...... the null hypothesis of normality, a nonparametric test is applied in the main analysis. Methods: Equally sized samples were drawn from exponential, uniform, and normal distributions. The two-sample t test was conducted if either both samples (Strategy I) or the collapsed set of residuals from both samples...

  12. Survey of Testing Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarkey, Cynthia J.; Aiken, Lewis R.

    The Survey of Testing Practices was administered to 470 undergraduate students at Pepperdine University and the Univesity of California Los Angeles. The items concerned testing practices in three or four classes taken the previous term: type of test, test administration, class size, procedures for returning tests, test difficulty, and observed…

  13. Boilerplate Test Article (BTA) Modal Test Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.; Corliss, James M.; Mark, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    Modal testing of the Boilerplate Test Article (BTA) was performed to obtain data to determine the accuracy of the BTA LS- DYNA model in determining the structural response. The BTA is a full-scale steel and aluminum test article that is representative of the Orion Crew Module (CM), with similar outer-mold-line geometry, mass properties, and some similar structural features, including an internal pressure vessel connected to a backshell and heatshield via longerons, Retention and Release (R&R) brackets, and an aft ring. The structural design of the Orion CM is being developed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. To obtain data to evaluate the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact landing simulations, a series of BTA water impacts was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Discrepancies between test and simulation data are attributed to three causes:(1) Test data variability and uncertainty, (2) LS-DYNA water model and fluid-structure coupling approximations; and (3) LS-DYNA structural modeling approximations. Two activities have been undertaken to assess the accuracy of the BTA LS-DYNA structural model separately from the fluid-structure coupling portion of the water landing simulations: 1) modal testing, and 2) static load testing. The results from the static load tests are documented in a separate report. For the modal test series, the following tests were performed: (1) BTA Fully-Assembled Model Test, (2) BTA Backshell Removed Modal Test, (3) Standalone Heatshield Modal Test, (4) Standalone Windward Backshell Panel Modal Test; and (5) Standalone Leeward Backshell Panel Modal Test. This report documents findings from correlation of modal test data with LS-DYNA modal analysis results. The following figures illustrate the correlation of the modal frequencies. Where multiple closely spaced modes have been identified, the points representing the upper and lower frequencies are shown connected by a dotted line.

  14. From Test Takers to Test Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kari

    2009-01-01

    As a classroom teacher, Kari Smith realized that traditional objective tests don't always assess what students actually know. But tests are so deeply embedded in the education system that it would be difficult to do away with them entirely. Smith decided to make tests into learning tools. In this article, Smith describes three strategies for…

  15. Test Bias and Ability Level Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Bernard

    1979-01-01

    The average grade equivalent reading comprehension scores of students in Black schools are compared to those of students in White schools under two forms of test administration. Concludes that use of grade level testing with the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills is biased in favor of low scoring subgroups. (Author)

  16. Testing and Tests: Pedagogical Versus Public Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Scarvia B.; Dobbin, John E.

    Public uses of tests and testing include all those materials and practices in observation of human behavior that are intended to help administrators, school boards, legislatures, taxpayers, and others to evaluate their educational systems. Pedagogical uses of tests, on the other hand, cover all those materials and practices in observation of human…

  17. AUTOMATED API TESTING APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    SUNIL L. BANGARE; SEEMA BORSE; PALLAVI S. BANGARE; SHITAL NANDEDKAR

    2012-01-01

    Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache ...

  18. Web Security Testing Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hope, Paco

    2008-01-01

    Among the tests you perform on web applications, security testing is perhaps the most important, yet it's often the most neglected. The recipes in the Web Security Testing Cookbook demonstrate how developers and testers can check for the most common web security issues, while conducting unit tests, regression tests, or exploratory tests. Unlike ad hoc security assessments, these recipes are repeatable, concise, and systematic-perfect for integrating into your regular test suite.

  19. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arginine test; Arginine-GHRH test ... of re-inserting the needle each time. The test takes between 2 to 5 hours. The procedure ... eat for 10 to 12 hours before the test. Eating food can change the test results. Some ...

  20. Blood Test: Lipid Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advertisement Featured ContentPap Smear (Pap Test)Read Article >>Pap Smear (Pap Test)Preconception Carrier ScreeningsRead Article >>Preconception Carrier ... Article >>Tests and ProceduresPap Smear (Pap Test)A Pap smear (Pap test) is a medical exam used to ...

  1. Vendor System Vulnerability Testing Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Davidson

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system

  2. Tractor accelerated test on test rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mattetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The experimental tests performed to validate a tractor prototype before its production, need a substantial financial and time commitment. The tests could be reduced using accelerated tests able to reproduce on the structural part of the tractor, the same damage produced on the tractor during real life in a reduced time. These tests were usually performed reproducing a particular harsh condition a defined number of times, as for example using a bumpy road on track to carry out the test in any weather condition. Using these procedures the loads applied on the tractor structure are different with respect to those obtained during the real use, with the risk to apply loads hard to find in reality. Recently it has been demonstrated how, using the methodologies designed for cars, it is possible to also expedite the structural tests for tractors. In particular, automotive proving grounds were recently successfully used with tractors to perform accelerated structural tests able to reproduce the real use of the machine with an acceleration factor higher than that obtained with the traditional methods. However, the acceleration factor obtained with a tractor on proving grounds is in any case reduced due to the reduced speed of the tractors with respect to cars. In this context, the goal of the paper is to show the development of a methodology to perform an accelerated structural test on a medium power tractor using a 4 post test rig. In particular, several proving ground testing conditions have been performed to measure the loads on the tractor. The loads obtained were then edited to remove the not damaging portion of signals, and finally the loads obtained were reproduced in a 4 post test rig. The methodology proposed could be a valid alternative to the use of a proving ground to reproduce accelerated structural tests on tractors.

  3. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  4. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  5. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetone bodies; Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood; Ketoacidosis - ketones blood test ... fat cells break down in the blood. This test is used to diagnose ketoacidosis . This is a ...

  6. Campylobacter serology test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003530.htm Campylobacter serology test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look ...

  7. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  8. Testing for normality

    CERN Document Server

    Thode, Henry C

    2002-01-01

    Describes the selection, design, theory, and application of tests for normality. Covers robust estimation, test power, and univariate and multivariate normality. Contains tests ofr multivariate normality and coordinate-dependent and invariant approaches.

  9. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  10. Brain natriutetic peptide test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007509.htm Brain natriuretic peptide test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) test is a blood test that measures ...

  11. Kidney function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include: ... Oh MS, Briefel G. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes ... and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, ...

  12. ALP isoenzyme test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme test ... anything for 10 to 12 hours before the test, unless your health care provider tells you to do so. Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...

  13. Methylene blue test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methemoglobinemia - methylene blue test ... No special preparation is required for this test. ... which are genetic (problem with your genes). This test is used to tell the difference between methemoglobinemia ...

  14. Blood Test: Estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels of estradiol, which are produced by the testes and adrenal glands. In young girls, estradiol levels ... to check for damage or disease of the testes, ovaries, or adrenal glands. Testing estradiol levels also ...

  15. Aviation Flight Test

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Redstone Test Center provides an expert workforce and technologically advanced test equipment to conduct the rigorous testing necessary for U.S. Army acquisition and...

  16. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... to screen a person for diabetes. High blood sugar and diabetes may not cause symptoms in the early stages. ...

  17. Strep Throat Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... 2012 guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), confirmatory testing on adults is not usually ...

  18. Solving Leak Testing Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John Sprovieri

    2007-01-01

    .... InterTech provided two Model 1075 pressure-decay leak detectors to perform the three tests-a leak test at 220 inches of water column, a leak test at 5 inches of water column, and a forward direction...

  19. Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ164, September 2016 PDF Format Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests Pregnancy What is prenatal genetic testing? ...

  20. Structural Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides a wide variety of testing equipment, fixtures and facilities to perform both unique aviation component testing as well as common types of materials testing...

  1. Glucagon blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type I - glucagon test; Hypoglycemia - glucagon test; Low blood sugar - glucagon test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This ...

  2. Prolactin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003718.htm Prolactin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  3. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003474.htm BUN - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... for the Test Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...

  4. Chloride Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the amount of ...

  5. Potassium Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/potassiumbloodtest.html Potassium Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Potassium Blood Test? A potassium blood test measures the amount of ...

  6. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  7. Guidelines for Statistical Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Strigini, L.; Littlewood, B.; European Space Agency

    1997-01-01

    This document provides an introduction to statistical testing. Statistical testing of software is here defined as testing in which the test cases are produced by a random process meant to produce different test cases with the same probabilities with which they would arise in actual use of the software. Statistical testing of software has these main advantages: for the purpose of reliability assessment and product acceptance, it supports directly estimates of reliability, and thus decisions on...

  8. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  9. Test Control Center (TCC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Test Control Center (TCC) provides a consolidated facility for planning, coordinating, controlling, monitoring, and analyzing distributed test events. ,The TCC...

  10. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  11. FOOD SAFETY TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...

  12. GPS Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Global Positioning System (GPS) Test Facility Instrumentation Suite (GPSIS) provides great flexibility in testing receivers by providing operational control of...

  13. Textiles Performance Testing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textiles Performance Testing Facilities has the capabilities to perform all physical wet and dry performance testing, and visual and instrumental color analysis...

  14. Role of test motivation in intelligence testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Quinn, Patrick D.; Lynam, Donald R.; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2011-01-01

    Intelligence tests are widely assumed to measure maximal intellectual performance, and predictive associations between intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and later-life outcomes are typically interpreted as unbiased estimates of the effect of intellectual ability on academic, professional, and social life outcomes. The current investigation critically examines these assumptions and finds evidence against both. First, we examined whether motivation is less than maximal on intelligence tests administered in the context of low-stakes research situations. Specifically, we completed a meta-analysis of random-assignment experiments testing the effects of material incentives on intelligence-test performance on a collective 2,008 participants. Incentives increased IQ scores by an average of 0.64 SD, with larger effects for individuals with lower baseline IQ scores. Second, we tested whether individual differences in motivation during IQ testing can spuriously inflate the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes. Trained observers rated test motivation among 251 adolescent boys completing intelligence tests using a 15-min “thin-slice” video sample. IQ score predicted life outcomes, including academic performance in adolescence and criminal convictions, employment, and years of education in early adulthood. After adjusting for the influence of test motivation, however, the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes was significantly diminished, particularly for nonacademic outcomes. Collectively, our findings suggest that, under low-stakes research conditions, some individuals try harder than others, and, in this context, test motivation can act as a third-variable confound that inflates estimates of the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes. PMID:21518867

  15. Role of test motivation in intelligence testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Quinn, Patrick D; Lynam, Donald R; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2011-05-10

    Intelligence tests are widely assumed to measure maximal intellectual performance, and predictive associations between intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and later-life outcomes are typically interpreted as unbiased estimates of the effect of intellectual ability on academic, professional, and social life outcomes. The current investigation critically examines these assumptions and finds evidence against both. First, we examined whether motivation is less than maximal on intelligence tests administered in the context of low-stakes research situations. Specifically, we completed a meta-analysis of random-assignment experiments testing the effects of material incentives on intelligence-test performance on a collective 2,008 participants. Incentives increased IQ scores by an average of 0.64 SD, with larger effects for individuals with lower baseline IQ scores. Second, we tested whether individual differences in motivation during IQ testing can spuriously inflate the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes. Trained observers rated test motivation among 251 adolescent boys completing intelligence tests using a 15-min "thin-slice" video sample. IQ score predicted life outcomes, including academic performance in adolescence and criminal convictions, employment, and years of education in early adulthood. After adjusting for the influence of test motivation, however, the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes was significantly diminished, particularly for nonacademic outcomes. Collectively, our findings suggest that, under low-stakes research conditions, some individuals try harder than others, and, in this context, test motivation can act as a third-variable confound that inflates estimates of the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes.

  16. Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) accelerates the growth of colonic neoplasms in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Hartmann, B; Hare, K J

    2004-01-01

    study, the effects of GLP-2 treatment on the growth of chemically induced colonic neoplasms were investigated. METHODS: In 210 female C57bl mice, colonic tumours were initially induced with the methylating carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and mice were then treated with GLP-2. Two months after...... the growth of mucosal neoplasms. Our findings highlight the need for future investigations on the effects of GLP-2 in conditions needing long time treatment or with increased gastrointestinal cancer susceptibility....... discontinuation of the carcinogen treatment, 135 of the mice were allocated to one of six groups which were treated twice daily with 25 microg GLP-2, 25 microg Gly2-GLP-2 (stable analogue), or phosphate buffered saline for a short (10 days) or long (one month) period. The remaining 75 mice had a treatment free...

  17. Glucagon-like peptide-2 in umbilical cord blood from mature infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodé, Susan; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens Juul

    2007-01-01

    is comparable to adult fasting levels. No significant correlation to birth weight (p = 0.087) or to cesarean section (p = 0.059) was found. In multiple linear regression analysis (GLP-2 vs. GA + cesarean section), neither vaginal delivery nor GA were statistically significantly related to the level of GLP-2 (p...

  18. The effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-2 on microcirculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerup, Nikolaj; Ambrus, Rikard; Lindhe, Joanna

    2018-01-01

    authors in the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, Scopus, and Web of Science. RESULTS: Of 1111 screened papers, 20 studies were included in this review: 16 studies in animals, three in humans, and one in humans and rats. CONCLUSION: The studies were few and heterogeneous and had a high...

  19. Enteric neural pathways mediate the anti-inflammatory actions of glucagon-like peptide 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalet, David L; Wallace, Laurie E; Holst, Jens Juul

    2007-01-01

    or colitis was induced in rats by injection of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), or colitis was induced by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water. Subsets of animals received (1-33)-GLP-2 (50 mug/kg sc bid) either immediately or 2 days after the establishment of inflammation...

  20. Whey protein potentiates the intestinotrophic action of glucagon-like peptide-2 in parenterally fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Murali, Sangita G; Holst, Jens J

    2009-01-01

    protein component, casein, soy, or whey protein, potentiates the intestinal growth response to GLP-2 in rats with PN-induced mucosal hypoplasia. Rats received PN and continuous intravenous infusion of GLP-2 (100 microg/kg/day) for 7 days. Six EN groups received PN+GLP-2 for days 1-3 and partial PN+GLP-2...... plus EN for days 4-7. EN was provided by ad libitum intake of a semielemental liquid diet with different protein sources: casein, hydrolyzed soy, whey protein concentrate (WPC), and hydrolyzed WPC+casein. Controls received PN+GLP-2 alone. EN induced significantly greater jejunal sucrase activity...... whey protein, and not casein or soy, potentiated the ability of GLP-2 to reverse PN-induced mucosal hypoplasia and further increase ileal villus height, crypt depth, and mucosa cellularity compared with PN+GLP-2 alone, P whey protein to induce greater mucosal surface area...

  1. Glucagon-like peptide-2 increases mesenteric blood flow in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Lasse; Hornum, Mads; Henriksen, Birthe Merete

    2008-01-01

    trial. On day 1, a standard meal was given, and RI measured in the SMA. On day 2, GLP-2 was infused intravenously (IV) at rates of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 pmol/kg/min over 3 x 45 min separated by a 15-20 min rest period. After a further 15-20 min of rest, 450 nmol synthetic GLP-2 was given subcutaneously (SC...... given SC, GLP-2 elicited a maximum average change in RI of 15.6% (range 5.0-28.1%). The standard meal elicited a 14.7% (range 8.8-21.6%) change, pstandard meal and after subcutaneous GLP-2, p

  2. Effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 exposure on bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askov-Hansen, Carsten; Jeppesen, Palle B; Lund, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    In healthy subjects, subcutaneous injections of GLP-2 have been shown to elicit dose-related decrease in the bone resorption marker, carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), and have been proposed for the treatment of osteoporosis. This study investigated the relation between GLP-2 ...

  3. Umami receptor activation increases duodenal bicarbonate secretion via glucagon-like peptide-2 release in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joon-Ho; Inoue, Takuya; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Guth, Paul H; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D; Akiba, Yasutada

    2011-11-01

    Luminal nutrient chemosensing during meal ingestion is mediated by intestinal endocrine cells, which regulate secretion and motility via the release of gut hormones. We have reported that luminal coperfusion of L-Glu and IMP, common condiments providing the umami or proteinaceous taste, synergistically increases duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) possibly via taste receptor heterodimers, taste receptor type 1, member 1 (T1R1)/R3. We hypothesized that glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) or glucagon-like peptide (GLP) is released by duodenal perfusion with L-Glu/IMP. We measured DBS with pH and CO(2) electrodes through a perfused rat duodenal loop in vivo. GIP, exendin (Ex)-4 (GLP-1 receptor agonist), or GLP-2 was intravenously infused (0.01-1 nmol/kg/h). l-Glu (10 mM) and IMP (0.1 mM) were luminally perfused with or without bolus intravenous injection (3 or 30 nmol/kg) of the receptor antagonists Pro(3)GIP, Ex-3(9-39), or GLP-2(3-33). GIP or GLP-2 infusion dose-dependently increased DBS, whereas Ex-4 infusion gradually decreased DBS. Luminal perfusion of l-Glu/IMP increased DBS, with no effect of Pro(3)GIP or Ex-3(9-39), whereas GLP-2(3-33) inhibited L-Glu/IMP-induced DBS. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)(6-28) intravenously or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester coperfusion inhibited the effect of L-Glu/IMP. Perfusion of L-Glu/IMP increased portal venous concentrations of GLP-2, followed by a delayed increase of GLP-1, with no effect on GIP release. GLP-1/2 and T1R1/R3 were expressed in duodenal endocrine-like cells. These results suggest that luminal L-Glu/IMP-induced DBS is mediated via GLP-2 release and receptor activation followed by VIP and nitric oxide release. Because GLP-1 is insulinotropic and GLP-2 is intestinotrophic, umami receptor activation may have additional benefits in glucose metabolism and duodenal mucosal protection and regeneration.

  4. Umami Receptor Activation Increases Duodenal Bicarbonate Secretion via Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 Release in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Joon-Ho; Inoue, Takuya; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Guth, Paul H.; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D; Akiba, Yasutada

    2011-01-01

    Luminal nutrient chemosensing during meal ingestion is mediated by intestinal endocrine cells, which regulate secretion and motility via the release of gut hormones. We have reported that luminal coperfusion of l-Glu and IMP, common condiments providing the umami or proteinaceous taste, synergistically increases duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) possibly via taste receptor heterodimers, taste receptor type 1, member 1 (T1R1)/R3. We hypothesized that glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide...

  5. The effect of glucagon-like Peptide-2 receptor agonists on colonic anastomotic wound healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redstone, Heather A; Buie, William D; Hart, David A

    2010-01-01

    -operation for anastomotic strength and wound characteristics. Results. Anastomotic bursting pressure was unchanged by GLP-2 or GLP-2-MMB in normoxic or hypoxic animals; both treatments increased crypt cell proliferation. Wound IL-1ß increased with GLP-2; IFN¿ with GLP-2 and GLP-2-MMB. IL-10 and TGF-ß were decreased; Type I...... collagen mRNA expression increased in hypoxic animals while Type III collagen was reduced with both GLP-2 agonists. GLP-2 MMB, but not native GLP-2 increased TIMP 1-3 mRNA levels in hypoxia. Conclusions. The effects on CCP, cytokines and wound healing were similar for both GLP-2 agonists under normoxic...

  6. A Safety and Dosing Study of Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 in Children With Intestinal Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalet, David L; Brindle, Mary; Boctor, Dana

    2015-01-01

    human GLP-2(1-33) was synthesized following good manufacturing practices. In an open-label trial, with parental consent, 7 parenteral nutrition-dependent pediatric patients were treated with subcutaneous GLP-2 (20 µg/kg/d) for 3 days (phase 1) and, if tolerated, continued for 42 days (phase 2...... nutrition. GLP-2 treatment had no effect on vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and temperature) and caused no significant adverse events. Peak GLP-2 levels were 380 pM (day 3) and 295 pM (day 42), with no change in half-life or endogenous GLP-2 levels. Nutritional indices showed a numeric improvement...

  7. Testing the independence of two diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y; Wu, D; Zelen, M

    2001-12-01

    Consider two diagnostic procedures having binary outcomes. If one of the tests results in a positive finding, a more definitive diagnostic procedure will be administered to establish the presence or absence of a disease. The use of both tests will improve the overall screening sensitivity when the two tests are independent, compared with employing two tests that are positively correlated. We estimate the correlation coefficient of the two tests and derive statistical methods for testing the independence of the two diagnostic procedures conditional on disease status. The statistical tests are used to investigate the independence of mammography and clinical breast exams aimed at establishing the benefit of early detection of breast cancer. The data used in the analysis are obtained from periodic screening examinations of three randomized clinical trials of breast cancer screening. Analysis of each of these trials confirms the independence of the clinical breast and mammography examinations. Based on these three large clinical trials, we conclude that a clinical breast exam considerably increases the overall sensitivity relative to screening with mammography alone and should be routinely included in early breast cancer detection programs.

  8. Nationale test i naturfag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Jensen, Lars Bang

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet rummer en analyse og diskussion af test inden for naturfagsområdet og de fagforståelser de afspejler med fokus på de nationale test.......Kapitlet rummer en analyse og diskussion af test inden for naturfagsområdet og de fagforståelser de afspejler med fokus på de nationale test....

  9. Sweat electrolytes test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat test; Sweat chloride; Iontophoretic sweat test; CF - sweat test; Cystic fibrosis - sweat test ... A colorless, odorless chemical that causes sweating is applied to a small area on an arm or leg. An electrode is then attached to the spot. A weak electrical ...

  10. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum; Acidosis - CO2; Alkalosis - CO2 ... The CO2 test is most often done as part of an electrolyte or basic metabolic panel. Changes in your ...

  11. PSEUDOEXHAUSTIVE RAM TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yarmolik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern RAM tests and methods for their generation are analyzed and investigated. The wide application of pseudoexhaustive tests as the main test procedure for modern computer systems has been proved. The main estimates and metrics for so kind of tests are obtained. The values of analytical estimates have been validated by the experimental investigations.

  12. Tests for H. pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic ulcer disease - H. pylori ; PUD - H. pylori ... There are several methods to test for H. pylori infection. Breath Test (Carbon Isotope-urea Breath Test, or UBT) Up to 2 weeks before the test, you need to stop taking antibiotics, ...

  13. Color identification testing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.

    1970-01-01

    Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

  14. Pre-Test Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Pre-tests are a non-graded assessment tool used to determine pre-existing subject knowledge. Typically pre-tests are administered prior to a course to determine knowledge baseline, but here they are used to test students prior to topical material coverage throughout the course. While counterintuitive, the pre-tests cover material the student is…

  15. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  16. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  17. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  18. What Is Stress Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... However, your doctor may want to use a stress test to screen for CHD if you have diabetes. This disease increases your risk of CHD. Currently, though, no evidence shows that having a stress test will improve your outcome if you have diabetes. What To Expect Before Stress Testing Stress testing ...

  19. Blood Test: Bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Important? Top 10 Homework Tips Raising Confident Kids Blood Test: Bilirubin KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Bilirubin Print ... español Análisis de sangre: bilirrubina What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  20. Lyme disease blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. The test is used to help ... specialist looks for Lyme disease antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . If the ELISA test is positive, it must ...

  1. Lactose tolerance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than 12 parts per million over your fasting (pre-test) level. The blood test is considered normal if your glucose level ... of 12 parts per million (ppm) over your pre-test level is considered positive, ... lactose. The blood test is considered abnormal if your glucose level ...

  2. Dtest Testing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Myint, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This software runs a suite of arbitrary software tests spanning various software languages and types of tests (unit level, system level, or file comparison tests). The dtest utility can be set to automate periodic testing of large suites of software, as well as running individual tests. It supports distributing multiple tests over multiple CPU cores, if available. The dtest tool is a utility program (written in Python) that scans through a directory (and its subdirectories) and finds all directories that match a certain pattern and then executes any tests in that directory as described in simple configuration files.

  3. Numeracy Tests For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Beveridge, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The easy way to get practice and excel at numeracy tests Whether you're looking for a new job, applying to certain university courses, or attempting to join the military, you're increasingly likely to face a numeracy test as part of the screening process. And the only way to prepare for a numeracy test is practise. Numeracy Tests For Dummies is an accessible one-stop guide to pass these test. Featuring expert advice, instruction, review, and plenty of practise, Numeracy Tests For Dummies will help you succeed. Numeracy Tests For Dummies contains instruction and revision on:Basic mathematical k

  4. Skylab vibroacoustic test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Vibroacoustic testing was performed on the orbital workshop dynamic test article and the payload assembly, the two major elements of the Skylab payload. The testing was conducted on each of the Skylab elements separately in the reverberation chamber at the Johnson Space Center. The two test configurations were high fidelity flight article simulations. The testing was conducted in two phases; in the first phase, acoustic tests were performed at levels simulating the lift-off and atmospheric flight acoustic criteria. In the second phase, low frequency sinusoidal vibration tests were conducted to obtain modal response data. The objectives of the Skylab vibroacoustic test program were to: verify the vibration design and test criteria; qualify selected flight components to the vibroacoustic criteria; and verify analytical models used for dynamic load analyses. This paper describes the vibroacoustic testing and discusses the results.

  5. Testing unconstrained optimization software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, J.J.; Garbow, B.S.; Hillstrom, K.E.

    1978-07-01

    Much of the testing of optimization software is inadequate because the number of test functions is small or the starting points are close to the solution. In addition, there has been too much emphasis on measuring the efficiency of the software and not enough on testing reliability and robustness. To address this need, a relatively large but easy-to-use collection of test functions was produced and guidelines for testing the reliability and robustness of unconstrained optimization software were designed. 9 tables.

  6. Role of test motivation in intelligence testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angela Lee Duckworth; Patrick D. Quinn; Donald R. Lynam; Rolf Loeber; Magda Stouthamer-Loeber; Edward E. Smith

    2011-01-01

    .... The current investigation critically examines these assumptions and finds evidence against both. First, we examined whether motivation is less than maximal on intelligence tests administered in the context of low-stakes research situations...

  7. Wolf Testing: Open Source Testing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, P.; Gay, P. L.

    2004-12-01

    Wolf Testing is software for easily creating and editing exams. Wolf Testing allows the user to create an exam from a database of questions, view it on screen, and easily print it along with the corresponding answer guide. The questions can be multiple choice, short answer, long answer, or true and false varieties. This software can be accessed securely from any location, allowing the user to easily create exams from home. New questions, which can include associated pictures, can be added through a web-interface. After adding in questions, they can be edited, deleted, or duplicated into multiple versions. Long-term test creation is simplified, as you are able to quickly see what questions you have asked in the past and insert them, with or without editing, into future tests. All tests are archived in the database. Written in PHP and MySQL, this software can be installed on any UNIX / Linux platform, including Macintosh OS X. The secure interface keeps students out, and allows you to decide who can create tests and who can edit information already in the database. Tests can be output as either html with pictures or rich text without pictures, and there are plans to add PDF and MS Word formats as well. We would like to thank Dr. Wolfgang Rueckner and the Harvard University Science Center for providing incentive to start this project, computers and resources to complete this project, and inspiration for the project's name. We would also like to thank Dr. Ronald Newburgh for his assistance in beta testing.

  8. Fairness Testing: Testing Software for Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Galhotra, Sainyam; Brun, Yuriy; Meliou, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    This paper defines software fairness and discrimination and develops a testing-based method for measuring if and how much software discriminates, focusing on causality in discriminatory behavior. Evidence of software discrimination has been found in modern software systems that recommend criminal sentences, grant access to financial products, and determine who is allowed to participate in promotions. Our approach, Themis, generates efficient test suites to measure discrimination. Given a sche...

  9. Trends in software testing

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, J; Balakrishnan, Arunkumar

    2017-01-01

    This book is focused on the advancements in the field of software testing and the innovative practices that the industry is adopting. Considering the widely varied nature of software testing, the book addresses contemporary aspects that are important for both academia and industry. There are dedicated chapters on seamless high-efficiency frameworks, automation on regression testing, software by search, and system evolution management. There are a host of mathematical models that are promising for software quality improvement by model-based testing. There are three chapters addressing this concern. Students and researchers in particular will find these chapters useful for their mathematical strength and rigor. Other topics covered include uncertainty in testing, software security testing, testing as a service, test technical debt (or test debt), disruption caused by digital advancement (social media, cloud computing, mobile application and data analytics), and challenges and benefits of outsourcing. The book w...

  10. Pragmatics of Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Fırat ALTAY

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Teaching of a language is a very complicated issue and testing is anindispensable part of this matter. Thanks to testing teachers can assess efficiency ofteaching and learning atmosphere, and can get feedback about their learners. In order torealize this, a test should have some qualifications. One of these qualifications is aboutpragmatics. This paper aims at explaining what makes a test pragmatic and howpragmatic tests can be formed. So, examples of pragmatic tests of different types arepresented with explanations. Their pragmatic components and nature are focused on bygiving example test items on the problematic area of test questions prepared. Finally,the writer states his last words by making further comments and explanations onpragmatics of testing in the conclusion part.

  11. The Danish National Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert, Louise Voldby; Nandrup, Anne Brink

    working with the first four rounds of the test data. We provide a brief introduction to adaptive testing, the available data and general data issues including missing data, test participation and data transformations. Additionally, we construct a standardized measure of the raw pupil ability estimate......In 2010, the Danish National Tests were implemented in the public compulsory schools as a mean of evaluating the performance of the public school system. The extensive test program consists of ten mandatory tests in six subjects in grades 2 through 8. In this paper, we share our insights from...... within each test and argue that this is often a more feasible measure for data analyses compared to the transformed test score presented to pupils and teachers. We provide the reader with preliminary analyses of the relation between pupils' national test results and a wide range of pupil background...

  12. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  13. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

     This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....

  14. Metamorphic Testing for Cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey; Zhou, Zhi Quan

    2016-06-01

    Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity.

  15. Materials Test Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  16. Cold Flow Propulsion Test Complex Pulse Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, Kris

    2016-01-01

    When the propellants in a liquid rocket engine burn, the rocket not only launches and moves in space, it causes forces that interact with the vehicle itself. When these interactions occur under specific conditions, the vehicle's structures and components can become unstable. One instability of primary concern is termed pogo (named after the movement of a pogo stick), in which the oscillations (cycling movements) cause large loads, or pressure, against the vehicle, tanks, feedlines, and engine. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a unique test technology to understand and quantify the complex fluid movements and forces in a liquid rocket engine that contribute strongly to both engine and integrated vehicle performance and stability. This new test technology was established in the MSFC Cold Flow Propulsion Test Complex to allow injection and measurement of scaled propellant flows and measurement of the resulting forces at multiple locations throughout the engine.

  17. EMI Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) testing of flight hardware. It is also used to support custom RF testing up to...

  18. Ballistic Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Test Facility is comprised of two outdoor and one indoor test ranges, which are all instrumented for data acquisition and analysis. Full-size aircraft...

  19. Prenatal Genetic Testing Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Testing Chart (Infographic) Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal Genetic Testing Chart (Infographic) PFSI010 ››› Weeks 1–4 Weeks 5–8 ...

  20. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TOPIC Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Urine Test: Creatinine Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine ... Video) Urinary Tract Infections Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Kidneys and Urinary Tract Contact Us Print Resources ...

  1. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  2. Tilt Table Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure (the bottom number in a blood pressure reading), lowers peripheral vascular resistance, increases your heart rate ... mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/tilt-table-test/basics/definition/PRC-20019879 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  3. Visual acuity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003396.htm Visual acuity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The visual acuity test is used to determine the smallest ...

  4. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL ... set of tests (cell count, protein, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) level, and appearance of the fluid) to ...

  5. Learning Python testing

    CERN Document Server

    Arbuckle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This book is ideal if you want to learn about the testing disciplines and automated testing tools from a hands-on, conversational guide. You should already know Python and be comfortable with Python 3.

  6. HIV Genotypic Resistance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may be present in rare strains of HIV. The test may not detect a drug-resistant strain of ... Less Common Questions Related Content On This Site Tests: HIV Viral Load ; CD4 Count ; HIV Antibody and HIV ...

  7. Blood Gases Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LDL Particle Testing (LDL-P) Lead Legionella Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver ... such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is suspected. Blood gases may also be used ...

  8. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LDL Particle Testing (LDL-P) Lead Legionella Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver ... 40; when you have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or unexplained liver disease at any age; when ...

  9. Learning Android application testing

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Android developer looking to test your applications or optimize your application development process, then this book is for you. No previous experience in application testing is required.

  10. Uric acid test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  11. Pulmonary Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you have difficulty with being in closed spaces (claustrophobia), mention this to your provider ordering the test. ... 4 If you have difficulty with closed spaces (claustrophobia), let the test center know in case one ...

  12. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  13. HPV DNA test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test; Cancer of cervix - HPV DNA test References Hacker NF. Cervical dysplasia and cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ...

  14. Test Preparation: Your Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... the "At a Glance" section of our test descriptions. However, be sure to check with your healthcare ...

  15. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  16. Vasoactive intestinal peptide test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003508.htm Vasoactive intestinal peptide test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a test that measures the amount ...

  17. Environmental Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Test Facility (ETF) provides non-isolated shock testing for stand-alone equipment and full size cabinets under MIL-S-901D specifications. The ETF...

  18. Platelet Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Platelet Function Tests Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Also Known As Platelet Aggregation Studies PFT Platelet Function Assay PFA Formal Name Platelet Function Tests This ...

  19. Extraocular muscle function testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...

  20. Integrated Usability Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ternauciuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to regularly test the usability of a learning management system, in order to ensure a fast adoption by new users and rapidly shift the focus from the platform to the content and the learning experience. Quantitative testing yields the most reliable results due to the large number of data points acquired, but lacks the in-depth analysis of the qualitative research from a controlled testing setup. We are proposing in this paper an integrated usability testing tool, which can replace a certain type of laboratory testing, where the users’ actions on the real platform are measured and analyzed. We conducted tests with the tool and compared the results with a small scale laboratory test using the same scenarios. The results seem to confirm the proposed tool as a viable alternative to the laboratory test.

  1. ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...

  2. von Willebrand Factor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...

  3. ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...

  4. Reticulocyte Count Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...

  5. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...

  6. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid ...

  7. Collecting Samples for Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer Disease Anemia Angina Ankylosing Spondylitis Anthrax ... through Their Medical Tests Tips to Help the Elderly through Their Medical Tests Related Video View More × ...

  8. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003706.htm Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone in ...

  9. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  10. Lung diffusion testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003854.htm Lung diffusion testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lung diffusion testing measures how well the lungs exchange gases. This ...

  11. Cord blood testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003403.htm Cord blood testing To use the sharing features on this page, ... the baby to the mother's womb. Cord blood testing can be done to evaluate a newborn's health. ...

  12. Urine concentration test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003608.htm Urine concentration test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urine concentration test measures the ability of the kidneys to ...

  13. Flexseal Insulator Test Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Eric

    1995-01-01

    Small-scale version of solid-fuel rocket motor flexseal nozzle bearing assembly instrumented and tested in compression-testing fixture simulating conditions during rocket motor operation described in report.

  14. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  15. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... day Your blood sugar level The amount of carbohydrates you ate The type and dose of your diabetes medicine The type of any exercise you do ...

  16. Insensitive Munitions Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Insensitive Munitions Testing at RTC is conducted (IAW MILSTD-2105) at Test Area 4. Our engineers and technicians obtain data for hazards classification and safety...

  17. Hepatitis C Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... common cause of chronic liver disease in North America. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ...

  18. ANA (Antinuclear Antibody Test)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... Scleroderma Elsewhere On The Web Lupus Foundation of America American College of Rheumatology: Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) American ...

  19. Aldosterone and Renin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... and other forms of licorice sold in North America do not actually contain licorice. Check the package ...

  20. T3 (Triiodothyronine) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... For more information, see the Thyroid Foundation of America's web page Thyroid Problems During and After Pregnancy - ...

  1. Pap and HPV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... endocervical canal itself but also, in some cases, endometrial, extrauterine, and other cancers. What follow-up tests ... cancer risk for women undergoing concurrent testing for human papillomavirus and cervical cytology: A population-based study ...

  2. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003584.htm Leukocyte esterase urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for ...

  3. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  4. Understanding Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the development and marketing of all laboratory tests that use test kits ... Cancer.gov en español Multimedia Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy ...

  5. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  6. Corrosion Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corrosion Testing Facility is part of the Army Corrosion Office (ACO). It is a fully functional atmospheric exposure site, called the Corrosion Instrumented Test...

  7. Latex agglutination test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003334.htm Latex agglutination test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The latex agglutination test is a laboratory method to check ...

  8. Cross cultural usability testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user....... This relation was studied in an experiment with usability testing of a localized clipart application in which eight participants from Denmark and India formed pairs of evaluator-test user. The test users were asked to think aloud and the evaluators' role were to facilitate the test users thinking aloud...... and hereby identify usability problems with the clipart application. Data on the evaluators' and test users' behaviour were recorded and analyzed by coding and summarizing statistics on these behavioural events. The results show that Think Aloud Usability Test of a localized application is most effectively...

  9. Strep Throat Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Strep Throat Test Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Tested? To determine if your sore throat is "strep throat" that is caused by group A streptococcus (GAS) ...

  10. Home vision tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or eye disease and you should have a professional eye examination. Amsler grid test: If the grid appears distorted or broken, there may be a problem with the retina . Distance vision test: If you do not read the ...

  11. Ethylene glycol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... risk any time the skin is broken) Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ethylene glycol - serum ...

  12. Haptoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003634.htm Haptoglobin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The haptoglobin blood test measures the level of haptoglobin in your blood. ...

  13. HCG blood test - qualitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003509.htm HCG blood test - qualitative To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human ...

  14. ACTH blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003695.htm ACTH blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... the adrenal gland . It regulates blood pressure and blood sugar. This test can help find the causes of certain hormone ...

  15. ACE blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003567.htm ACE blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme; SACE Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ...

  16. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...

  17. Calcitonin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003699.htm Calcitonin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcitonin blood test measures the level of the hormone calcitonin in ...

  18. Fibrinopeptide A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003373.htm Fibrinopeptide A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measure the level of this substance in your blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How ...

  19. ALP - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003470.htm ALP - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... include the liver, bile ducts, and bone. A blood test can be done to measure the level of ...

  20. Aldosterone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003704.htm Aldosterone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The aldosterone blood test measures the level of the hormone aldosterone in ...

  1. Phosphorus blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003478.htm Phosphorus blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood. ...

  2. Anthrax - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003534.htm Anthrax blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The anthrax blood test looks for antibodies against Bacillus anthracis , the bacteria ...

  3. Ferritin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003490.htm Ferritin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The ferritin blood test measures the level of ferritin in the blood. ...

  4. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  5. Leucine aminopeptidase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003559.htm Leucine aminopeptidase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum leucine aminopeptidase; LAP - serum Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) - ...

  6. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  7. LDH isoenzyme blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003499.htm LDH isoenzyme blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Names LD; LDH; Lactic (lactate) dehydrogenase isoenzymes Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...

  8. Aldolase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003566.htm Aldolase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... risk any time the skin is broken) Images Blood test References Berridge BR, Van Vleet JF, Herman E. ...

  9. Ammonia blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003506.htm Ammonia blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Encephalopathy - ammonia; Cirrhosis - ammonia; Liver failure - ammonia Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ammonia (NH3) - blood ...

  10. Antibody Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibody Blood Tests Researchers have discovered that people with celiac disease who eat gluten have higher than normal levels of ... do I do if I have a negative blood test (or panel) but I’m still having symptoms? ...

  11. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  12. Flight Testing and Test Instrumentation of PHOENIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovsky, R.; Behr, R.

    2005-02-01

    Within the frame of the German national ASTRA program, the need for in-flight experimentation as a key element in the development of the next generation launcher was addressed by the Phoenix project. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle was designed to demonstrate the un-powered horizontal landing of a representative, winged RLV configuration. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle is downscaled from the reference RLV shape "Hopper", with the dimensions of 7.8m overall length, 3.8m span, and 1200kg mass. In order to be representative of a full scale RLV, the scaling method preserves all features challenging the automatic landing from the flight control point of view. These are in particular the poor flying qualities of the static unstable vehicle and the high landing velocity of 71m/s, which is same as for the full scale vehicle. The landing demonstration scenario comprises a drop from the helicopter approximately 6km ahead of the runway threshold at 2.4km above runway level. The subsequent free flight includes an accelerating dive to merge with a steep final approach path representative of an RLV, followed by a long flare, touch down on the runway, and rollout to standstill. Besides its mandatory avionics system, the vehicle is also equipped with an additional flight test instrumentation to identify local aerodynamic flow and structural stress. This FTI system is designed to collect data by recording about 130 sensor signals during flight. This test instrumentation system was operated during a test campaign dedicated to verify the aerodynamic data base of Phoenix in the Dutch-German Wind-tunnel (DNW) in August 2003 and during three automatic landing flight tests after helicopter drop in May 2004. Post flight analysis of these data allows to validate the design models and the development tools in order to establish a flight validated data base for future work. This paper gives an overview on the Phoenix system including the flight test instrumentation, the test program and

  13. Test Equipment Specifications Transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Didiek Andiana Ramadan; Drs. Linga Hermanto, MMSI Drs. Linga Hermanto, MMSI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we design a test apparatus Transistor Specification. Specification is atype of transistor is a transistor and common emitter current reinforcement value ( βDC ). The system will provide information in the form of an LED display emits greenlight when the tested types of NPN transistor and the second LED emits blue lightwhen the tested types of PNP transistors.To test the value of β, whose value is proportional to the display used by the collectorcurrent Ic.

  14. Tests in Print II: An Index to Tests, Test Reviews, and the Literature on Specific Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buros, Oscar K., Ed.

    Tests in Print II is a comprehensive, annotated bibliography of all in-print tests published as separates for use with English-speaking subjects. The 1,155 two-column pages list 2,467 tests in print as of early 1974; 16,574 references through 1971 on specific tests; a reprinting of the 1974 APA-AERA-NCME Standards for Educational andPsychological…

  15. AMSD Cryo Actuator Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullette, Mark; Matthews, Gary; Russell, Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The actuator technology required for AMSD and subsequently NGST are critical in the successful development for future cryogenic systems. Kodak has undertaken an extensive test plan to determine the performance of the force actuators developed under the AMSD program. These actuators are currently in testing at MSFC and are expected to finish this test cycle in early June 2002.

  16. Turing Test and After

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    'intelligence' just like a human being. The Turing test provides an unbiased method of comparing intelligent behaviour of humans with that of computers. The. Turing test is repeatable and objective. Turing did not regard his test as a necessary condition for attributing intelligence to machines but only as a sufficient condition.

  17. Testing Vocational English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendlebury, A. C.

    1970-01-01

    Defining vocational English as a specific vocabulary of individual words and phases connected with a certain occupation, the author outlines principles of testing, lists types of vocational English tests, and attempts to show that in constructing such tests a whole range of types of question can be used. (FB)

  18. Testing Backbone.js

    CERN Document Server

    Roemer, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This book is packed with the step by step tutorial and instructions in recipe format helping you setup test infrastructure and gradually advance your skills to plan, develop, and test your backbone applications.If you are a JavaScript developer looking for recipes to create and implement test support for your backbone application, then this book is ideal for you.

  19. Follow-Up Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follow-up Testing Follow-up testing is conducted to ensure that antibody levels are returning to normal, indicating that the intestine is healing on the ... has entered the diet. How often should follow-up testing occur? New celiacs should receive follow-up ...

  20. On Statistical Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Carl J.

    An approach to statistical testing, which combines Neyman-Pearson hypothesis testing and Fisher significance testing, is recommended. The use of P-values in this approach is discussed in some detail. The author also discusses some problems which are often found in introductory statistics textbooks. The problems involve the definitions of…

  1. Language Testing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

    Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm-…

  2. Dismantling the Mantel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles

    The simple and partial Mantel tests are routinely used in many areas of evolutionary biology to assess the significance of the association between two or more matrices of distances relative to the same pairs of individuals or demes. Partial Mantel tests rather than simple Mantel tests are widely ...... as supporting material....

  3. Usability testing for dummies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Usability testing seems complicated and time-consuming. Is it though? In fact, it is the best way to understand how real users experience your product. In this interactive session, we will do a live usability test and you will get advice on how to conduct your own usability tests.

  4. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  5. About Instruction Sequence Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Software testing is presented as a so-called theme within which different authors and groups have defined different subjects each of these subjects having a different focus on testing. A uniform concept of software testing is non-existent and the space of possible coherent perspectives on software

  6. Blood Test: Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Voice in Health Care Decisions Blood Test: Testosterone KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Testosterone Print A A A What's in this article? ... Análisis de sangre: testosterona What It Is A testosterone test measures the blood level of the male ...

  7. Automated Web Applications Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan CĂPRIŢĂ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unit tests are a vital part of several software development practicesand processes such as Test-First Programming, Extreme Programming andTest-Driven Development. This article shortly presents the software quality andtesting concepts as well as an introduction to an automated unit testingframework for PHP web based applications.

  8. Computerized Mastery Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charles; Sheehan, Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    Introduces a theoretical framework for mastery testing, using Item Response Theory and Bayesian Decision Theory. The idea of sequential testing is developed, with the goal of providing longer or shorter tests as needed, and a computerized application to a hypothetical professional knowledge examination is discussed. (Author/LRW)

  9. Testing for central symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, John; Gan, Zhuojiong

    Omnibus tests for central symmetry of a bivariate probability distribution are proposed. The test statistics compare empirical measures of opposite regions. Under rather weak conditions, we establish the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics under the null hypothesis; it follows that they

  10. Dynamic Testing: Toward a Multiple Exciter Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    complex electronics and munitions that are more susceptible to fatigue failure increased the potential for vibration to cause catastrophic failures... fatigue equiva- lent laboratory vibration specifications based on measured field data were also advancing. This led to the inclusion of the first fatigue ...critical vibration testing element. The field vibration environment may be described as the simultaneous vibration in three translational and three

  11. 100 statistical tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kanji, Gopal K

    2006-01-01

    This expanded and updated Third Edition of Gopal K. Kanji's best-selling resource on statistical tests covers all the most commonly used tests with information on how to calculate and interpret results with simple datasets. Each entry begins with a short summary statement about the test's purpose, and contains details of the test objective, the limitations (or assumptions) involved, a brief outline of the method, a worked example, and the numerical calculation. 100 Statistical Tests, Third Edition is the one indispensable guide for users of statistical materials and consumers of statistical information at all levels and across all disciplines.

  12. Noninvasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Jamie O; Cori D, Feist; Norton, Mary E; Caughey, Aaron B

    2014-02-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) refers to recently developed genetic tests of the maternal serum that allow higher detection rates of trisomy 21 and other chromosomal aneuploidies in high-risk pregnancies. Noninvasive prenatal test analyzes cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the maternal serum. Approximately 3% to 15% of cfDNA in the maternal blood is of fetal origin. Analysis of cfDNA can help identify fetuses affected with trisomy 21 and several other fetal aneuploidies. Testing can be performed after 9 to 10 weeks' gestation and has a higher sensitivity and specificity for trisomy 21 than other aneuploidy screening test. Noninvasive prenatal test has been studied and validated in singleton pregnancies at risk for trisomy 21 secondary to advanced maternal age, an abnormal serum screen, personal or family history of aneuploidy, or abnormal ultrasound findings, if these are suggestive of trisomy 13, 18, or 21. The utilization of NIPT for genetic screening has increased rapidly since introduction of the first clinical test in October 2011. Currently, there are limitations to NIPT including the possibility of test failure (2.6%-5.4%) and the focus on only the common trisomies. Noninvasive prenatal test is a screening test, and both false-positive (0.2%-1%) and false-negative results can occur. As the technology for NIPT is further evaluated, this test is likely to be increasingly used for prenatal screening. This review provides the obstetric clinician with an update of the current issues concerning NIPT.

  13. Sample Proficiency Test exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C

    2006-02-05

    The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

  14. Pilocarpine iontophoresis test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif; Nielsen, B

    1995-01-01

    The pilocarpine iontophoresis test (P-test) is used as a predictor of the capacity to produce sweat. Therefore, we studied the reproducibility of this test in 12 normal subjects on 10 consecutive days. Furthermore, we determined whether the P-test reflects whole-body and regional sweat secretion...... during exercise in the heat. Finally, we determined whether the P-test stimulates the eccrine sweat glands to maximal sweat secretion. Six growth hormone-deficient (GHD) patients who are known to have decreased sweating, and 11 healthy control subjects were studied. To induce maximal sweat secretion......-to-day variation of 20.8% between individual subjects. There was a significant positive correlation between the P-test and regional sweat secretion (r2 = 0.74). The correlation coefficient (r2) was 0.50 for the correlation between the P-test and whole-body sweat secretion, and 0.52 for the correlation between...

  15. Pilocarpine iontophoresis test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif; Nielsen, B

    1995-01-01

    regional sweat secretion and whole-body sweat secretion. We conclude that the pilocarpine iontophoresis test reflects heat- and exercise-induced sweating capacity. However, this test does not induce maximal sweating, and it cannot be used as a single reliable predictor of whole-body sweating, due......The pilocarpine iontophoresis test (P-test) is used as a predictor of the capacity to produce sweat. Therefore, we studied the reproducibility of this test in 12 normal subjects on 10 consecutive days. Furthermore, we determined whether the P-test reflects whole-body and regional sweat secretion...... during exercise in the heat. Finally, we determined whether the P-test stimulates the eccrine sweat glands to maximal sweat secretion. Six growth hormone-deficient (GHD) patients who are known to have decreased sweating, and 11 healthy control subjects were studied. To induce maximal sweat secretion...

  16. Testing and differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine

    This presentation will explore how educational standardized testing becomes meaningful/not meaningful for children and teachers and at the same time how testing becomes part of everyday differentiation and categorization processes. The presentation is based on a 3 year long post doc project...... concerning the practice of standardized testing in the Danish primary and lower secondary school (Folkeskole). The empirical material consists of qualitative interviews of pupils and teachers and participative observations both in and outside test situations in 5 school classes. The theoretical basis...... with regard to; 1) how the technology of testing and children in communities co-constitute the practice in which children take part and becomes measured, 2) the ongoing reproduction and transformation of testing practice and 3) the contradictions and conflicts of testing practice. This theoretical outset...

  17. Sperm function test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Talwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation. They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation. Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count, structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology. Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test, should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test. They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test. Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test to the oocyte during fertilization.

  18. Nemesis Autonomous Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

  19. Testing On Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Russell

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Russell and Haney (1997 reported that open-ended test items administered on paper may underestimate the achievement of students accustomed to writing on computers. This study builds on Russell and Haney's work by examining the effect of taking open-ended tests on computers and on paper for students with different levels of computer skill. Using items from the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP, this study focuses on language arts, science and math tests administered to eighth grade students. In addition, information on students' prior computer use and keyboarding speed was collected. Unlike the previous study that found large effects for open-ended writing and science items, this study reports mixed results. For the science test, performance on computers had a positive group effect. For the two language arts tests, an overall group effect was not found. However, for students whose keyboarding speed is at least 0.5 or one-half of a standard deviation above the mean, performing the language arts test on computer had a moderate positive effect. Conversely, for students whose keyboarding speed was 0.5 standard deviations below the mean, performing the tests on computer had a substantial negative effect. For the math test, performing the test on computer had an overall negative effect, but this effect became less pronounced as keyboarding speed increased. Implications are discussed in terms of testing policies and future research.

  20. Teacher Test Accountability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry H. Ludlow

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the high stakes of teacher testing, there is no doubt that every teacher test should meet the industry guidelines set forth in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Unfortunately, however, there is no public or private business or governmental agency that serves to certify or in any other formal way declare that any teacher test does, in fact, meet the psychometric recommendations stipulated in the Standards. Consequently, there are no legislated penalties for faulty products (tests nor are there opportunities for test takers simply to raise questions about a test and to have their questions taken seriously by an impartial panel. The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the psychometric results reported by National Evaluation Systems (NES in their 1999 Massachusetts Educator Certification Test (MECT Technical Report, and more specifically, to identify those technical characteristics of the MECT that are inconsistent with the Standards. A second purpose of this article is to call for the establishment of a standing test auditing organization with investigation and sanctioning power. The significance of the present analysis is twofold: a psychometric results for the MECT are similar in nature to psychometric results presented as evidence of test development flaws in an Alabama class-action lawsuit dealing with teacher certification (an NES-designed testing system; and b there was no impartial enforcement agency to whom complaints about the Alabama tests could be brought, other than the court, nor is there any such agency to whom complaints about the Massachusetts tests can be brought. I begin by reviewing NES's role in Allen v. Alabama State Board of Education, 81-697-N. Next I explain the purpose and interpretation of standard item analysis procedures and statistics. Finally, I present results taken directly from the 1999 MECT Technical Report and compare them to procedures, results, and consequences of