WorldWideScience

Sample records for hormesis historical perspective

  1. The marginalization of hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, E J; Baldwin, L A

    2000-01-01

    Despite the substantial development and publication of highly reproducible toxicological data, the concept of hormetic dose-response relationships was never integrated into the mainstream of toxicological thought. Review of the historical foundations of the interpretation of the bioassay and assessment of competitive theories of dose-response relationships lead to the conclusion that multiple factors contributed to the marginalization of hormesis during the middle and subsequent decades of the 20th century. These factors include: (a) the close-association of hormesis with homeopathy lead to the hostility of modern medicine toward homeopathy thereby creating a guilt by association framework, and the carry-over influence of that hostility in the judgements of medically-based pharmacologists/ toxicologists toward hormesis; (b) the emphasis of high dose effects linked with a lack of appreciation of the significance of the implications of low dose stimulatory effects; (c) the lack of an evolutionary-based mechanism(s) to account for hormetic effects; and (d) the lack of appropriate scientific advocates to counter aggressive and intellectually powerful critics of the hormetic perspective. PMID:10745293

  2. Historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A historical perspective of the nuclear waste issue is presented, beginning from the Atoms for Peace Legislation which made nuclear technology available to private industry in 1953 to 1954. Once the nuclear process had been demonstrated to be a technically and economically feasible method to convert thermal energy for electric power generation, commercial application began. The issue of nuclear waste management did not keep up with higher priorities. As early as 1957, research into storing the waste in geological structures was conducted by the National Academy of Sciences, and considerable technical progress was made in the 60's. During the 60's and 70's, numerous legislative actions (e.g., Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Environmental Policy Act) had a significant impact on nuclear waste dipsosal decisions. In 1971 to 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission authorized a nuclear waste repository in Kansas, a decision which was amended the following year and finally abandoned altogether in 1974. The OPEC oil embargo and ensuing price actions moved nuclear power into a more prominent position in the United States' plans for energy independence. This increased the stress between environmental concerns and economic need. The Carter Administration indefinitely deferred reprocessing of spent fuel and initiated a government-wide review of nuclear policy issues. The Congress did not actively begin to fashion a nuclear waste program until February 1980. The legislation which passed the Senate in the Spring of '82, and a compromise version pending before the House, may resolve the issue by establishing a long-term stable policy which will contain milestones, goals and specific decision making processes; it will include a mechanism for the public and the states to be involved; and it will insure adequate financing provisions

  3. Radiation hormesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author defines hormesis as the stimulus given to any organism by non-toxic concentrations of toxic substances and gives a few examples of the experimental evidence for the existence of radiation hormesis. The most probable explanation for its working lies not in the education of the nuclear repair system but in the education of the immune system, which is very complex and is capable of learning to deal with a variety of threats to living cells. The effects of both high LET and low LET particles are considered. (author)

  4. Chaos: A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lighthill, James

    In this introductory lecture I'd like to offer a broad historical perspective regarding the relatively recent general recognition: (a) that mechanical systems satisfying Newton's laws may be subject to the essentially unpredictable type of behavior which the word CHAOS describes—in other words, the recognition (b) that quantum effects are not required; (c) so that, notwithstanding Heisenberg, uncertainty is there on the basis of the good old classical mechanics based on Newton's Laws. But first of all I'll remind you that there are two kinds of laws in science, which we may exemplify by Kepler's Laws and Newton's Laws. Kepler in 1609 completed some very detailed observations of the motions of Mars; together with a full geometrical description of them, in the Copernican sun-centered flame of reference, as motions in a constant orbit in the shape of an ellipse with the Sun as focus. A decade later Kepler had published the Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae (a rather more substantial work than the Dialogo which later got Galileo into some difficulties), and had there described in detail his most famous discovery: Kepler's three empirical laws concerning planetary orbits. These laws, of the elliptical shapes of orbits, of the radius covering equal areas in equal times, and of the proportionality of the square of the orbital period to the cube of the major axis, were shown from the observations to be closely satisfied by the Earth and by the five then known planets; and furthermore, by the four satellites of Jupiter which Galileo had recently discovered.

  5. Hormesis in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2008-01-01

    Hormesis in aging is represented by mild stress-induced stimulation of protective mechanisms in cells and organisms resulting in biologically beneficial effects. Single or multiple exposure to low doses of otherwise harmful agents, such as irradiation, food limitation, heat stress, hypergravity, reactive oxygen species and other free radicals have a variety of anti-aging and longevity-extending hormetic effects. Detailed molecular mechanisms that bring about the hormetic effects are being increasingly understood, and comprise a cascade of stress response and other pathways of maintenance and repair. Although the extent of immediate hormetic effects after exposure to a particular stress may only be moderate, the chain of events following initial hormesis leads to biologically amplified effects that are much larger, synergistic and pleiotropic. A consequence of hormetic amplification is an increase in the homeodynamic space of a living system in terms of increased defence capacity and reduced load of damaged macromolecules. Hormetic strengthening of the homeodynamic space provides wider margins for metabolic fluctuation, stress tolerance, adaptation and survival. Hormesis thus counter-balances the progressive shrinkage of the homeodynamic space, which is the ultimate cause of aging, diseases and death. Healthy aging may be achieved by hormesis through mild and periodic, but not severe or chronic, physical and mental challenges, and by the use of nutritional hormesis incorporating mild stress-inducing molecules called hormetins. The established scientific foundations of hormesis are ready to pave the way for new and effective approaches in aging research and intervention.

  6. Radium in consumer products: an historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates in historical and technical perspective how radium began to be used in consumer products and how changing conditions in technology and regulations have greatly modified the use of radium. In addition, the various uses of radium that have been tried or have been used in consumer products have been described, and whenever possible, the historical perspective has been used to show when devices were needed and when changing conditions caused the products to be no longer required. The historical perspective attitude is again used in the evaluation of the risks and benefits of radium in comparison to radium substitutes

  7. VARIETIES OF SOCIAL DISCIPLINING, HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás A. Mantecón Movellán

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Historical thought has tended to explain social disciplining according to two main analytical perspectives: on one hand, German tradition about the so-called sozialdisziplinierung and, on the other hand, Foucault perspectives (focussed on disciplines practiced on the bodies-and/or-minds of people by the authorities. From these both viewpoints social disciplining was a dynamic ingredient of change, from traditional societies up to contemporary liberal societies; a machinery to provoke top-down changes (from above. On the bases of historical evidences, this research claims for a third viewpoint that stresses dynamics of social discipline and social disciplining from below; underlines the need of integrating this third perspective in the historical explanation of change in past societies throughout the analysis of social practices of everyday life; the values underneath them and, in the end, taking into account varieties of discipline and perspectives of social disciplining from below.

  8. The Principalship in Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a review of the existing historiography of the American school principal. Although a small and incomplete body of research, scholarship on the history of the principalship demonstrates that it has always been a complex and multifaceted role and that principals have historically drawn on shifting sources of authority to assert…

  9. Integrated Curriculum in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vars, Gordon F.

    1991-01-01

    Organizing a school staff to deliver a core curriculum has historically taken three forms: the all-school theme approach, interdisciplinary teamwork, and the block time or self-contained class models. The ultimate in student-centered integrative curriculum is the unstructured core approach, which involves teacher and student cooperation in…

  10. Japan 2006 in historical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Michiko Tanaka Nishishima

    2007-01-01

    Readings of the current Japanese politics with the historic and social insight through analysis of four facts registered in 2006: the visit of the prime minister Koizumi to the Yasukuni shrine; the election of Abe Shinzo as the president of Liberal Democratic Party and the formation of Abe cabinet; the Atomic bomb experimentation by the North Corea; the publication of the book of feminist counteroffensive against the numerous rightist conservative harassment.

  11. Japan 2006 in historical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Tanaka Nishishima

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Readings of the current Japanese politics with the historic and social insight through analysis of four facts registered in 2006: the visit of the prime minister Koizumi to the Yasukuni shrine; the election of Abe Shinzo as the president of Liberal Democratic Party and the formation of Abe cabinet; the Atomic bomb experimentation by the North Corea; the publication of the book of feminist counteroffensive against the numerous rightist conservative harassment.

  12. A Historical Perspective on Closing Achievement Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Although much has been written recently about gaps in the achievement of different groups of students, the problem has been with us for many years. This manuscript presents a historical perspective of the problem, viewing it as one of reducing variation in students' achievement. Specifically, it reviews the work of renowned educator Benjamin S.…

  13. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of {gamma}-ray. (author)

  14. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1999-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of {gamma}-ray.

  15. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose γ-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of γ-ray. (author)

  16. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose γ-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of γ-ray

  17. Dermatotoxicology: Historical perspective and advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental principles underlying the study of dermatotoxicology were developed by Arnold Lehman and John Draize over a half century ago and remain applicable today. This discipline has proven indispensable for addressing the problems associated with skin exposure to chemicals. The 55th anniversary of Lehman's landmark publication on safety factors presents the opportunity to reflect upon the historical beginnings of dermatotoxicology and the role of regulatory policies on the development of this field over the years. The complexity and sheer volume of information that has been collected makes it difficult to comprehensively cover all aspects of this vast discipline. This overview will touch upon the general concepts of ADME, the various forms of contact dermatitis, and transdermal drug delivery systems. The traditional tests performed in animals and humans to identify allergic or irritant potential of chemicals, in addition to alternative methods such as QSAR modeling will be discussed. The subspecialties of infant and occupational dermatotoxicology, as well as dermatotoxicology of aged and ethnic skin, and skin of the vulva and vagina will also be noted.

  18. Historical perspective on astrophysical MHD simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    This contribution contains the introductory remarks that I presented at IAU Symposium 270 on ``Computational Star Formation" held in Barcelona, Spain, May 31 -- June 4, 2010. I discuss the historical development of numerical MHD methods in astrophysics from a personal perspective. The recent advent of robust, higher order-accurate MHD algorithms and adaptive mesh refinement numerical simulations promises to greatly improve our understanding of the role of magnetic fields in star formation.

  19. Radiation hormesis in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most remarkable aspect in the hormesis law is that low dose of harmful agents can produce effect that are diametrically opposite to the effect found with high doses of the same agent. Minute quantities of a harmful agent bring about very small change in the organism and control mechanisms appear to subjugate normal processes to place the organism in a state of alert and repair. The stimulated organism is more responsive to changes in environmental factors than it did before being alerted. Routine functions, including repair and defense, have priority for available energy and material. The alerted organism utilizes nutrients more efficiently, grows faster, shows improved defense reactions, matures faster, reproduces more effectively, has less disease, and lives longer. Accelerated germination, sprouting, growth, development, blooming and ripening, and increased crop yield and resistance to disease are found in plants. Another concept supported by the data is that low doses of ionizing radiation provide increased resistance to subsequent high doses of radiation. The hormesis varies with subject plant, variety, state of seed, environmental and cultural conditions, physiologic function measured, dose rate and total exposure. The results of hormesis are less consistently found, probably due to the great number of uncontrolled variables in the experiments. The general dosage for radiation hormesis in about 100 (10 to 1,000) times ambient or 100 (10 to 1,000) times less than a definitely harmful dose, but these must be modified to the occasion. Although little is known about most mechanisms of hormesis reaction, overcompensation of repair mechanism is offered as on mechanism. Radiation hormesis can provide more efficient use of resources, maximum production of foods, and increased health by the use of ionizing radiation as a useful tool in our technologic society. Efficient utilization of nature's resources demands support to explore the practical application of

  20. Radiation hormesis in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    The most remarkable aspect in the hormesis law is that low dose of harmful agents can produce effect that are diametrically opposite to the effect found with high doses of the same agent. Minute quantities of a harmful agent bring about very small change in the organism and control mechanisms appear to subjugate normal processes to place the organism in a state of alert and repair. The stimulated organism is more responsive to changes in environmental factors than it did before being alerted. Routine functions, including repair and defense, have priority for available energy and material. The alerted organism utilizes nutrients more efficiently, grows faster, shows improved defense reactions, matures faster, reproduces more effectively, has less disease, and lives longer. Accelerated germination, sprouting, growth, development, blooming and ripening, and increased crop yield and resistance to disease are found in plants. Another concept supported by the data is that low doses of ionizing radiation provide increased resistance to subsequent high doses of radiation. The hormesis varies with subject plant, variety, state of seed, environmental and cultural conditions, physiologic function measured, dose rate and total exposure. The results of hormesis are less consistently found, probably due to the great number of uncontrolled variables in the experiments. The general dosage for radiation hormesis in about 100 times ambient or 100 times less than a definitely harmful dose, but these must be modified to the occasion. Although little is known about most mechanisms of hormesis reaction, overcompensation of repair mechanism is offered as on mechanism. Radiation hormesis can provide more efficient use of resources, maximum production of foods, and increased health by the use of ionizing radiation as a useful tool in our technologic society. Efficient utilization of nature`s resources demands support to explore the practical application of radiation hormesis.

  1. Developing variations: : An analytical and historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sirman, Berk

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Berk Sirman: Developing Variations – An Analytical and Historical Perspective. Uppsala Universitet: Institutionen för musikvetenskap, uppsats för 60 p., 2006. Developing variations is a term by Arnold Schönberg that is coined to describe constant modification of motives and ideas in a theme, or possibly throughout the whole work. This is thought to be superior to exact repetitions. Developing variations was used by Schönberg to analyze the music of Brahms, whose compositions represen...

  2. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose gamma radiation on germination, early growth and yield in a wide range of vegetable crops. The stimulating effects of gamma radiation was evaluated through investigating germination rate, early growth and physiological activities such as enzyme activities, hormones and photosynthetic responses etc. Induction of increased shikonin production in the plants by low dose gamma radiation was challenged to open up the possibility of applying radiation hormesis to the industrial mass production system of the natural materials useful to humans. Effects of natural radiation emitted from solid ceramics was compared on the plants with those of low dose gamma radiation. Finally, activation of aged seeds by low dose gamma radiation, probably facilitating their commercial circulation in the agriculture, was challenged in association with an industrial seed company. Moreover, the shift in resistance of the crops to environmental stresses including UV and low temperature was addressed as well as DNA damage, repair and protein expression after gamma irradiation

  3. Management of basilar invagination: A historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhidha Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time the terms basilar invagination and platybasia were used interchangeably. Basilar invagination has been defined as a prolapse of the vertebral column into the spinal cord. Platybasia is defined as an abnormal obtuse angle between the anterior skull base and the clivus. The authors review the existing literature and summarize the historical and modern perspectives in the management of basilar invagination. From radiological curiosities, the subject of basilar invagination is now viewed as eminently treatable. The more pronounced understanding of the subject has taken place in the last three decades when on the basis of understanding of the biomechanical subtleties the treatment paradigm has remarkably altered. From surgery that involved decompression of the region, stabilization and realignment now form the basis of treatment.

  4. DPAL: historical perspective and summary of achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, B. V.; Knize, R. J.

    2013-10-01

    Alkali vapor lasers are under extensive research and development during the past decade because of their potential for scaling to high powers while maintaining a good beam quality. Also, a possibility of using efficient diode lasers for pumping alkali vapor promises high total wall plug efficiency for a Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL). Since the first DPAL demonstration with output power of 130 mW in 20051, a significant progress in this field was achieved. The output power of about 1 kW in continuous wave (CW) operation with optical efficiency close to 50% was recently demonstrated for a Cs DPAL2. Also, the DPALs based on other alkali metals (Rubidium and Potassium) were demonstrated3,4 . In spite of these significant achievements, there are still several problems in DPAL power scaling exist that must be addressed. Among them are the thermal5 and photoionization6 issues that become important even at power level about several tens of watts. In this paper we present a historical review of the alkali laser research and development, discuss the most important achievements and future perspectives in this field of research.

  5. Perspectives: Using Historical Documents To Think about NIF Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of using historical documents in the classroom is to generate and enhance discussion by providing a historical perspective for issues. Five documents are included in this packet and are to be used as a supplemental material for the National Issues Forum (NIF) topics. Issues raised include (1) an analysis of the documents and (2)…

  6. Historical Perspectives in Marketing Education: Justification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a justification and an implementation plan for the establishment of a historical orientation across the undergraduate marketing curriculum. The justification for the historical perspective addresses three areas: tapping into the extensive body of knowledge in marketing history, practical implications, and critical thinking.…

  7. Global Transfer and Indian Management A Historical Hybridity Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker-Ritterspach, Florian; Raaijman, Tico

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of Indian management and to challenge more generally ahistorical and essentialist notions of indigenous management perspectives. Drawing selectively on postcolonial theory, we suggest that a historical hybridity perspective serves as

  8. [Scientific standards in parasitology in historical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonc, Elzbieta; Płonka-Syroka, Bozena

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of scientific standards in parasitology was carried out from the perspective of anthropology of knowledge - a new discipline that emerged from non-classical history science in the 1990s. The history of parasitology, its development and limitations, are presented in a broad socio-cultural context, as the answers of scientists to different social needs in historical periods. In parasitological history there are some periods characteristic for all newly emerging disciplines of natural science. The first systematic account of natural phenomena and their interpretations was initiated in the 16th century and continued till the mid 18th century. It was a period when the phenomena could not be explained in a proper way by the existing and accepted theories. The epidemic diseases were one of these phenomena which were interpreted based on ancient ideas, mostly humoral pathology. In the 16th century a new contagium concept of material factors (pathogenes) that could be spread by contact among humans or close association was formed. This hypothesis, however, was not widely accepted because it contradicted the well-established normative concepts in the European academic naturalism. The development of parasitology was stopped because of theoretical barriers and interpretation difficulties (non-materialistic standard of naturalism, humoral pathology and spontaneous theory). In the second half of the 18th century, the theoretical crisis in natural sciences gave a new impulse for many disciplines; among others, parasitology entered in its second stage of development. The collected observations were classified in a new way and in the context of new interpretations. The progress in parasitology was prompted by the intensified urbanization, rapid increase of European population as well as by wars connected with infections and epidemics. It resulted in two competitive research programs (the French and the German). On the basis of the same observations, they advanced

  9. [Scientific standards in parasitology in historical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonc, Elzbieta; Płonka-Syroka, Bozena

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of scientific standards in parasitology was carried out from the perspective of anthropology of knowledge - a new discipline that emerged from non-classical history science in the 1990s. The history of parasitology, its development and limitations, are presented in a broad socio-cultural context, as the answers of scientists to different social needs in historical periods. In parasitological history there are some periods characteristic for all newly emerging disciplines of natural science. The first systematic account of natural phenomena and their interpretations was initiated in the 16th century and continued till the mid 18th century. It was a period when the phenomena could not be explained in a proper way by the existing and accepted theories. The epidemic diseases were one of these phenomena which were interpreted based on ancient ideas, mostly humoral pathology. In the 16th century a new contagium concept of material factors (pathogenes) that could be spread by contact among humans or close association was formed. This hypothesis, however, was not widely accepted because it contradicted the well-established normative concepts in the European academic naturalism. The development of parasitology was stopped because of theoretical barriers and interpretation difficulties (non-materialistic standard of naturalism, humoral pathology and spontaneous theory). In the second half of the 18th century, the theoretical crisis in natural sciences gave a new impulse for many disciplines; among others, parasitology entered in its second stage of development. The collected observations were classified in a new way and in the context of new interpretations. The progress in parasitology was prompted by the intensified urbanization, rapid increase of European population as well as by wars connected with infections and epidemics. It resulted in two competitive research programs (the French and the German). On the basis of the same observations, they advanced

  10. Toxicological awakenings: the rebirth of hormesis as a central pillar of toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses historical reasons that may account for the marginalization of hormesis as a dose-response model in the biomedical sciences in general and toxicology in particular. The most significant and enduring explanatory factors are the early and close association of the concept of hormesis with the highly controversial medical practice of homeopathy and the difficulty in assessing hormesis with high-dose testing protocols which have dominated the discipline of toxicology, especially regulatory toxicology. The long-standing and intensely acrimonious conflict between homeopathy and 'traditional' medicine (allopathy) lead to the exclusion of the hormesis concept from a vast array of medical- and public health-related activities including research, teaching, grant funding, publishing, professional societal meetings, and regulatory initiatives of governmental agencies and their advisory bodies. Recent publications indicate that the hormetic dose-response is far more common and fundamental than the dose-response models [threshold/linear no threshold (LNT)] used in toxicology and risk assessment, and by governmental regulatory agencies in the establishment of exposure standards for workers and the general public. Acceptance of the possibility of hormesis has the potential to profoundly affect the practice of toxicology and risk assessment, especially with respect to carcinogen assessment

  11. Teaching Historical Memories in an Intercultural Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibel, Katrine Vinther; Wrochem, Oliver

    How can we approach historical remembrance in history teaching? This question lies at the heart of the three-year, EU-funded project TeacMem,which involves partners from Denmark, Germany and Norway. The participants (teacher trainers, historians, teachers, memorial educators, disseminators and st...... and students) have studied the memory cultures regarding the Nazi era and World War II in the three countries. Together, they have developed and tested a range of educational methods focusing on the development of historical and intercultural competence in memorials and schools...

  12. Indian Women: An Historical and Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rosemary Ackley

    1975-01-01

    Several issues relating to Indian women are discussed. These include (1) the three types of people to whom we owe our historical perceptions of Indian women, (2) role delineation in Indian society; (3) differences between Indian women and white women, and (4) literary role models of Indian women. (Author/BW)

  13. Children's Rights in Education: An Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stuart N.; Pavlovic, Zoran

    1991-01-01

    Major historical themes of the childrens rights movement dealing with education are briefly traced. The meaning and significance of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child are considered as they relate to education. The roles of school psychology in future advances in children's rights are discussed. (SLD)

  14. Putting Barack Obama's Candidacy in Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ibram

    2008-01-01

    Senator Barack Obama's historic candidacy for president of the United States has generated an intense and thoughtful national discussion within Black America. His campaign has brought several issues to the fore. Recently, the author spoke with five of the most preeminent Black scholars in the nation to search out some of their thoughts on five key…

  15. Hormesis Can and Does Work in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Rattan, Suresh I.S.; Demirovic, Dino

    2009-01-01

    If we accept the validity of the general concept of physiological hormesis as being the phenomenon of achieving health beneficial effects by exposure to mild stress, then hormesis is being applied already and successfully to humans. The evidence for this is the well-demonstrated health benefits of regular and moderate exercise. Mild stress-induced activation of one or more intracellular pathways of stress response are central to this. Experimental studies performed on human cells in culture e...

  16. Engineering Ethics in France. A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Didier, Christelle

    1999-01-01

    Until recently, there have been no engineering ethics courses, no research programs on the topic, nor a specific code of ethics for engineers in France. For cultural and historical reasons, the question of whether or not engineering is a profession has not been an issue. Therefore, professional ethics in engineering have not developed as they have in English-speaking countries. If a code of ethics is considered to be one way of studying engineering ethics, where should such an investigation b...

  17. Representation in Econometrics: A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher L. Gilbert; Qin, Duo

    2007-01-01

    Measurement forms the substance of econometrics. This chapter outlines the history of econometrics from a measurement perspective - how have measurement errors been dealt with and how, from a methodological standpoint, did econometrics evolve so as to represent theory more adequately in relation to data? The evolution is organized in terms of four phases: 'theory and measurement', 'measurement and theory', 'measurement with theory' and 'measurement without theory'. The question of how measure...

  18. India's first synchrotron radiation source Indus-1: a historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first Indian synchrotron radiation source Indus-l was commissioned in May 1999. This article briefs the development of accelerator based research programme in India and discusses the historical perspectives starting from the year 1953 at and goes to the development of Indus-1 and Indus-2 at Centre for Advanced Technology at Indore

  19. Learning Spiritual Dimensions of Care from a Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Aru

    1999-01-01

    Looks at the spiritual dimensions of nursing at various historical periods: ancient civilizations, the Middle Ages, Renaissance, and the 18th and 19th centuries. Reviews contemporary perspectives on spirituality and nursing and suggests how nurses can be equipped to deal with patients' spiritual needs. (SK)

  20. The Voting Rights Act--An Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustin, Bayard; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This address to the morning session of the Southern Policy Conference on the Voting Rights Act of 1965 puts the Act in an historical perspective in which its importance is clearly perceived; also includes is a discussion of the address by Nicholas Katzenbach, Vernon Jordan, James P. Turner, and George H. Esser, persons who either were involved in…

  1. People Recognition: A Historical/Anthropological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Using current neurological and neuropsychological literature, and the analysis of different cultural and historical conditions, people recognition is analyzed. Different “subsystems” or “modules” could be involved in individuals' recognition: living versus non-living, own species versus other species, familiar versus non-familiar, males versus females, and individual identification versus emotional identification. Not only visual, but also auditory and even olfactory information may be involved in people recognition. Visual information involved in people recognition is proposed to include not only the perception of faces, but also the perception of whole body and gait, clothes, emotional expressions, and individual marks.

  2. Human experimentation in historical and ethical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, N

    1982-01-01

    Prepared as background material for a World Health Organization/Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences document, Proposed International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects (1982), this article reviews historical aspects of human experimentation and considers several current issues. It refers to early experiments, including auto-experiments by physicians; traces the history of drug trials through the pharmacotherapeutic revolution and the thalidomide tragedy; and describes the formulation of ethical requirements during the Weimar Republic in Germany. Contemporary problems discussed are the use of controls and placebos, investigators as subjects, special categories of subjects, and informed and vicarious consent. The text of the proposed WHO/CIOMS Guidelines is appended.

  3. American medical malpractice litigation in historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, J C

    2000-04-01

    Medical malpractice and the problems associated with it remain an important issue in the US medical community. Yet relatively little information regarding the long-term history of malpractice litigation can be found in the literature. This article addresses 2 questions: (1) when and why did medical malpractice litigation originate in the United States and (2) what historical factors best explain its subsequent perpetuation and growth? Medical malpractice litigation appeared in the United States around 1840 for reasons specific to that period. Those reasons are discussed in the context of marketplace professionalism, an environment that provided few quality controls over medical practitioners. Medical malpractice litigation has since been sustained for a century and a half by an interacting combination of 6 principal factors. Three of these factors are medical: the innovative pressures on American medicine, the spread of uniform standards, and the advent of medical malpractice liability insurance. Three are legal factors: contingent fees, citizen juries, and the nature of tort pleading in the United States. Knowledge of these historical factors may prove useful to those seeking to reform the current medical malpractice litigation system. PMID:10755500

  4. Modeling Concept Evolution: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Flavio; Velegrakis, Yannis; Mylopoulos, John; Bykau, Siarhei

    The world is changing, and so must the data that describes its history. Not surprisingly, considerable research effort has been spent in Databases along this direction, covering topics such as temporal models and schema evolution. A topic that has not received much attention, however, is that of concept evolution. For example, Germany (instance-level concept) has evolved several times in the last century as it went through different governance structures, then split into two national entities that eventually joined again. Likewise, a caterpillar is transformed into a butterfly, while a mother becomes two (maternally-related) entities. As well, the concept of Whale (a class-level concept) changed over the past two centuries thanks to scientific discoveries that led to a better understanding of what the concept entails. In this work, we present a formal framework for modeling, querying and managing such evolution. In particular, we describe how to model the evolution of a concept, and how this modeling can be used to answer historical queries of the form "How has concept X evolved over period Y". Our proposal extends an RDF-like model with temporal features and evolution operators. Then we provide a query language that exploits these extensions and supports historical queries.

  5. Music and Astronomy: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The link between music and astronomy has deep historical roots. William Herschel, who is considered to be the father of modern astronomy, began his career as a musician. He was a composer, organist at a church in Bath, UK, and a major contributor to the musical life of that community. Like Herschel, I too am an organist and composer, and much of my creative work focuses on connections between music and astronomy. This presentation will explore briefly aspects of William Herschel's musical career, and will then focus on contemporary music inspired by astronomical phenomena. Emphasis will be placed on the use of music as a creative teaching tool in informal education environments. The University of Arizona's Astronomy Camp, hosted at both Mt. Lemmon and Kitt Peak National Observatory, will be used as an example and case study. Examples from my creative activity as an organ performer and composer will be important features of this presentation. This presentation builds on the session exploring the life and work of the Herschels at the January 2011 AAS Historical Astronomy Division meeting in Seattle, WA.

  6. An historical perspective on cell mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelling, Andrew E; Horton, Michael A

    2008-04-01

    The physical properties of the protoplasm have long been of interest, and today, several intricate methods, including atomic force microscopy, have been employed in studies of cellular mechanics. However, many current concepts and experimental approaches actually have their beginnings over 300 years ago. Unfortunately, these pioneering studies have been all but forgotten. In this paper, we have reviewed some of the early literature on cellular mechanics to place modern work within an historical framework. It is clear that with current nanoscience approaches, modern experiments employing cell indentation, manipulation, particle rheology and micro- or nano-needle poking are now quantifying mechanical properties which were only qualitatively described 100 years ago. Aside from the variety of approaches our predecessors have employed to understand cellular mechanics, we feel an understanding of the past will help to propel nanoscience into the future. As nanophysiology and nanomedicine are developing, we as a community should take time to consider the early roots of these fields. PMID:18064487

  7. Women and drug addiction: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandall, Stephen R

    2010-04-01

    The history of women and addiction in America extends back more than 150 years. Although the true epidemiology of women and addiction has always been difficult to determine, the spectrum of female addicts extends well beyond those women who make sensationalistic headlines by "abandoning" or "battering" their children. Historically, female addiction has been largely the result of inappropriate overmedication practices by physicians and pharmacists, media manipulation, or individuals own attempts to cope with social or occupational barriers preventing equality and self-fulfillment. From the mid-nineteenth century, uneasy tolerance, social ostracism, vilification, persecution, and legal prosecution have grudgingly, but not completely, given way to more humane treatment opportunities in the setting of more enlightened comprehensive care. PMID:20407971

  8. The vector algebra war: A historical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, James M; Hartnett, John G; Abbott, Derek

    2015-01-01

    There are a wide variety of different vector formalisms currently utilized in science. For example, Gibbs three-vectors, spacetime four-vectors, complex spinors for quantum mechanics, quaternions used for rigid body rotations and Clifford multivectors. With such a range of vector formalisms in use, it thus appears that there is as yet no general agreement on a vector formalism suitable for the whole of science. This surprising situation exists today, despite the fact that one of the main goals of nineteenth century science was to correctly describe vectors and the algebra of three-dimensional space. This situation has also had the unfortunate consequence of fragmenting knowledge across many disciplines and requiring a very significant amount of time and effort in learning the different formalisms. We thus review historically the development of our various vector systems and conclude that the Clifford algebra multivector fulfills the goal of correctly describing vectorial quantities in three dimensions.

  9. Human experimentation in historical and ethical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, N

    1982-01-01

    Prepared as background material for a World Health Organization/Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences document, Proposed International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects (1982), this article reviews historical aspects of human experimentation and considers several current issues. It refers to early experiments, including auto-experiments by physicians; traces the history of drug trials through the pharmacotherapeutic revolution and the thalidomide tragedy; and describes the formulation of ethical requirements during the Weimar Republic in Germany. Contemporary problems discussed are the use of controls and placebos, investigators as subjects, special categories of subjects, and informed and vicarious consent. The text of the proposed WHO/CIOMS Guidelines is appended. PMID:6753169

  10. Astronomy in India a historical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    India has a strong and ancient tradition of astronomy, which seamlessly merges with the current activities in Astronomy and Astrophysics in the country. While the younger generation of astronomers and students are reasonably familiar with the current facilities and the astronomical research, they might not have an equally good knowledge of the rich history of Indian astronomy. This particular volume, brought out as a part of the Platinum Jubilee Celebrations of Indian National Science Academy, concentrates on selected aspects of historical development of Indian astronomy in the form of six invited chapters. Two of the chapters – by Balachandra Rao and M.S. Sriram – cover ancient astronomy and the development of calculus in the ancient Kerela text Yuktibhasa. The other four chapters by B.V. Sreekantan, Siraj Hasan, Govind Swarup and Jayant Narlikar deal with the contemporary history of Indian astronomy covering space astronomy, optical astronomy, radio astronomy and developments in relativistic astrophysic...

  11. A historical perspective on ventilator management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B A

    1994-02-01

    Paralysis via neuromuscular blockade in ICU patients requires mechanical ventilation. This review historically addresses the technological advances and scientific information upon which ventilatory management concepts are based, with special emphasis on the influence such concepts have had on the use of neuromuscular blocking agents. Specific reference is made to the scientific information and technological advances leading to the newer concepts of ventilatory management. Information from > 100 major studies in the peer-reviewed medical literature, along with the author's 25 yrs of clinical experience and academic involvement in acute respiratory care is presented. Nomenclature related to ventilatory management is specifically defined and consistently utilized to present and interpret the data. Pre-1970 ventilatory management is traced from the clinically unacceptable pressure-limited devices to the reliable performance of volume-limited ventilators. The scientific data and rationale that led to the concept of relatively large tidal volume delivery are reviewed in the light of today's concerns regarding alveolar overdistention, control-mode dyssynchrony, and auto-positive end-expiratory pressure. Also presented are the post-1970 scientific rationales for continuous positive airway pressure/positive end-expiratory pressure therapy, avoidance of alveolar hyperxia, and partial ventilatory support techniques (intermittent mandatory ventilation/synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation). The development of pressure-support devices is discussed and the capability of pressure-control techniques is presented. The rationale for more recent concepts of total ventilatory support to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury is presented. The traditional techniques utilizing volume-preset ventilators with relatively large tidal volumes remain valid and desirable for the vast majority of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Neuromuscular blockade is best avoided in these

  12. Poverty, Population, Inequality, and Development: the Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilosi, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seen in historical perspective the main economic predicaments of the present world (such as poverty, inequality, backwardness appear in a somewhat different light than in many current discussions, especially by sociologists, radical economists and political scientists. In the present paper the achievements of the modern age, and in particular of the post- World War II period, are considered in the perspective of economic and demographic history, and in their connection with the systems of production and of international relations. Some considerations concerning future possible developments conclude the paper.

  13. The concept of learning in cultural-historical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2015-01-01

    A cultural-historical perspective on learning is presented. The key idea is to conceptualise learning as self-mastery of action, using existing psychological functions. The main part of the chapter provides an overview of Vygotsky’s theory of higher psychological functions, and discusses...... their implications for understanding learning. Brief comments are made about the notions of internalization and zone of proximal development. Subsequent theoretical developments are mentioned, with a special focus on the idea of learning activity and developmental teaching. The chapter concludes with three issues...... that deserve further research within this perspective....

  14. Historical perspective on developmental concepts and terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, John M; Neri, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    In their ontogeny and phylogeny all living beings are historical entities. The revolution in biology of the 18th and 19th centuries that did away with the scala naturae according to which we humans, the acme of creation, "made a little lower than the angels," also led to the gradual realization that a humble one-celled protist ("protoctist"), such as Entamoeba histolytica of ill repute [Margulis and Chapman, ] has the same 4-billion-year phylogeny as that of Homo sapiens, vivid testimony to common ancestry and the relatedness of all living beings on earth. The group of medical geneticists who assembled at the NIH, Bethesda, MD this January to address terms pertaining to human ontogeny, did so in the long tradition of Sydenham, Linnaeus, Meckel, Geoffroy St-Hilaire père et fils, Wilhelm His and so many others before who had over the previous two centuries wrestled as earnestly as they could with concepts of "classification" and nomenclature of developmental anomalies. The prior massive need for classification per se in medical morphology has diminished over the years in favor of ever more sophisticated understanding of pathogenesis and cause through experimental biology and genetics; however, in the winter of 2013 it was still found prudent to respect terminological precedent on general terms while recognizing recent advances in developmental pathology requiring clarification and definition of special terms. Efforts along similar lines instigated by the German Society of Anatomists at their first meeting in Leipzig in 1887 culminated, after intense years of work by hundreds of experts and consultants under the goad of Wilhelm His, in the Basel Nomina Anatomica [BNA, His (1895)]. His, himself, stated prefatorily that the BNA had no legislative weight, only an evanescent consensus of many to be amended in the future as needed and indicated. Without hubris, no one before or after will do the same. The more substantial the consensus the more permanent the structure

  15. Cinderella Revisited: A Historical Perspective to Graduate Work in Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Keat Leng

    2013-01-01

    The retail industry has been employing more graduates in recent years but unfortunately, it has been met with limited success. The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical perspective to the employment of graduates in the retail industry by firstly examining the nature of retail work and how it has changed over the last century. Subsequently, the paper examines the debate on the role of education and training in the retail industry. Drawing on these examinations, the paper concludes t...

  16. Historical revisionism in comparative perspective : law, politics and surrogate mourning

    OpenAIRE

    BELAVUSAU, Uladzislau

    2013-01-01

    Recently the law on the Armenian genocide denial in France with a subsequent decision of the Conseil Constitutionnel (February 2012) shed fresh light on the controversial issue of historical revisionism. It disposed the issue in a wider perspective than a recurrent legal discussion on Holocaust denial. Furthermore, in drawing their bill, the authors of the French law invoked the EU Council Framework Decision 2008/913. This article demonstrates the chilling effects of that EU instrument for th...

  17. Radiation hormesis--a remedy for fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    2010-04-01

    Personal reflections on radiation hormesis for the past 50 years are presented. The causes of ignoring and rejections of this phenomenon by international and national bodies and by radiation protection establishment are analyzed. The opposition against nuclear weapons and preparations for nuclear war was probably the main factor in inducing the concern for adverse effects of low doses of ionizing radiation, a byproduct of activism against the nuclear weapon tests. UNSCEAR was deeply involved in preparation of the scientific basis for cessation of nuclear test, and contributed to elaboration of the LNT assumption, which is in contradiction with the hormetic phenomenon. However, this authoritative body recognized also the existence of radiation hormesis, termed as 'adaptive response.' The political and vested interests behind exclusion of hormesis from the current risk assessment methodology are discussed. PMID:20332170

  18. Plant taxonomy: a historical perspective, current challenges, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhan, Germinal; Gaudeul, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomy is the science that explores, describes, names, and classifies all organisms. In this introductory chapter, we highlight the major historical steps in the elaboration of this science that provides baseline data for all fields of biology and plays a vital role for society but is also an independent, complex, and sound hypothesis-driven scientific discipline.In a first part, we underline that plant taxonomy is one of the earliest scientific disciplines that emerged thousands of years ago, even before the important contributions of Greeks and Romans (e.g., Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides). In the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries, plant taxonomy benefited from the Great Navigations, the invention of the printing press, the creation of botanic gardens, and the use of the drying technique to preserve plant specimens. In parallel with the growing body of morpho-anatomical data, subsequent major steps in the history of plant taxonomy include the emergence of the concept of natural classification, the adoption of the binomial naming system (with the major role of Linnaeus) and other universal rules for the naming of plants, the formulation of the principle of subordination of characters, and the advent of the evolutionary thought. More recently, the cladistic theory (initiated by Hennig) and the rapid advances in DNA technologies allowed to infer phylogenies and to propose true natural, genealogy-based classifications.In a second part, we put the emphasis on the challenges that plant taxonomy faces nowadays. The still very incomplete taxonomic knowledge of the worldwide flora (the so-called taxonomic impediment) is seriously hampering conservation efforts that are especially crucial as biodiversity enters its sixth extinction crisis. It appears mainly due to insufficient funding, lack of taxonomic expertise, and lack of communication and coordination. We then review recent initiatives to overcome these limitations and to anticipate how taxonomy

  19. Historical perspective of brucellosis: a microbiological and epidemiological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    The historical process of brucellosis extends back to humankind's first contact with animals. Although brucellosis is a sporadic disease observed in animals in certain regions of the world, it is an important disease in humans that can affect many organs and systems due to the consumption of contaminated milk or milk products. Studies have shown that the presence of Brucella dates back to 60 million years ago. In 450 BC, Hippocrates described a disease similar to brucellosis. Since Hippocrates' time, brucellosis has been characterized by fever. Our aim is to investigate selfless work undertaken by scientists on the epidemiology, diagnosis and clinical findings of brucellosis until today, and to gain a historical perspective about the disease that is as old as human history, still has importance today, causes economic losses in treated animals and harms human health. PMID:27031903

  20. Historical perspectives on theories of periodontal disease etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hujoel, Philippe; Zina, Lívia Guimarães; Cunha-Cruz, Joana;

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the causes of periodontal disease have changed greatly over time. The aim of this review is to provide a critical and historical perspective, dating back over more than a century, on two competing paradigms. While we understand that this stark dichotomization may be viewed...... as extreme, and is legitimately open to challenge, it is our hope that this didactic approach will serve to stimulate debate. The distinction made focuses on whether the primary etiology involves local causes, such as dental plaque, or involves remote causes, such as nutrition, tobacco use or other systemic...... factors. We provide a brief historical overview of the local and remote cause hypotheses and discuss some key reasons why the local cause hypothesis has become dominant....

  1. Summer 2015 Extremes over South Asia within the Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, D.; Ashfaq, M.

    2015-12-01

    South Asian summer in 2015 has been marked by weather events of extremely different nature, including hot extremes over India and Pakistan, and wet extremes over northern, western and eastern states of India. Interestingly, these extremes are happening against the backdrop of warm sea surface temperature anomalies in the equatorial Pacific, which has historically reduced the strength of summer monsoon over South Asia. Given the occurrence of the contrasting anomalies at large and regional scales, in this study, we analyze 2015 extremes over South Asia within the historical perspective. We study the anomalies in the land, atmospheric and oceanic processes that potentially led to the regional heat waves and wet extremes throughout the summer and their connection to the large-scale anomalies in the monsoon dynamic. Additionally, we analyze historical simulations of the CMIP5 GCMs to investigate the likelihood of these anomalies with respect to the pre-industrial time period. Our analysis suggests evolving changes in the monsoon dynamics over South Asia where the lesser-known regional and local drivers have influence on the historical tele-connections.

  2. Radio listening in a life-historical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora

    are interpreted as material-semiotic interactions, as well as the embodied and subjective experiences and memories in time and space are interpreted in a postphenomenological perspective. Encompassing these rather different theories is the notion of soundscape (Schafer) which, in a newer reading inspired by John......Radiobroadcasting and the radio apparatus have travelled in time and technological maturing since the beginning of the 20th century, which means that radio as a media and radio-listening as a human activity incorporate several aspects relevant to the study of ageing and experiences of ageing....... The pivot of my exploration of radio-listening in a life-historical perspective is a fieldwork among Danish people above 70 years. These people are interviewed, followed in their daily practices while listening to radio, and we also listen to and discuss selected radioprogrammes from the archive. The aim...

  3. Modeling of gun barrel surface erosion: Historic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, A.C.

    1996-08-01

    Results and interpretations of numerical simulations of some dominant processes influencing gun barrel propellant combustion and flow-induced erosion are presented. Results include modeled influences of erosion reduction techniques such as solid additives, vapor phase chemical modifications, and alteration of surface solid composition through use of thin coatings. Precedents and historical perspective are provided with predictions from traditional interior ballistics compared to computer simulations. Accelerating reactive combustion flow, multiphase and multicomponent transport, flow-to-surface thermal/momentum/phase change/gas-surface chemical exchanges, surface and micro-depth subsurface heating/stress/composition evolution and their roles in inducing surface cracking, spall, ablation, melting, and vaporization are considered. Recognition is given to cyclic effects of previous firing history on material preconditioning. Current perspective and outlook for future are based on results of a US Army-LLNL erosion research program covering 7 y in late 1970s. This is supplemented by more recent research on hypervelocity electromagnetic projectile launchers.

  4. Cinderella Revisited: A Historical Perspective to Graduate Work in Retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Keat Leng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The retail industry has been employing more graduates in recent years but unfortunately, ithas been met with limited success. The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical perspective tothe employment of graduates in the retail industry by firstly examining the nature of retail work andhow it has changed over the last century. Subsequently, the paper examines the debate on the role ofeducation and training in the retail industry. Drawing on these examinations, the paper concludes thatretailers need to realign their graduate employment policies to match what they are able to offer towhat graduates need.

  5. Historic perspectives from anthropology. Reflections proposed to Transcultural Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach Viadas, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    History brings together meanings related to earlier periods, being aware of the past as a panorama to reread the present. Madeleine Leininger presented in 1970 an implicit and respectful message to the Nursing Profession when introducing Nursing and Anthropology. Two Worlds to Blend. Implicitly: Nursing you disregard culture. This article shows the absence of the history of anthropology and of nursing within Transcultural Nursing and it includes how education has influenced theoretic, methodological, and comparative approaches giving researchers the responsibility to decide their fundamentals. Berthoud (2001) has inspired the anthropological and historic perspectives of the author, thus universalism, relativism, and comparison are presented.

  6. Historical perspective and advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Harandi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids and melphalan were used for decades to treat multiple myeloma. Combination chemotherapy has been extensively studied with similar overall survival rates to melphalan and prednisone. In the last decade, the development of new agents has progressed significantly. Thalidomide and its newer derivatives lenalidomide, bortezomib, and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin have drastically revolutionized treatment approaches. As a result, numerous clinical trials have yielded exciting treatment strategies resulting in therapeutic advances, and improved responses and overall survival of patients. This review summarizes the international uniform response criteria for multiple myeloma and gives a historical perspective on previous therapies with updates on the newest available treatments.

  7. Miasmas, germs, homeopathy and hormesis: commentary on the relationship between homeopathy and hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, John R

    2010-07-01

    Is hormesis related to homeopathy? Despite the superficial similarity of the low dose of the applied stimulus, there are compelling reasons for maintaining hormesis and homeopathy as unrelated. Homeopathy originated in the medical knowledge vacuum of the 19th century, prior to the acceptance of the germ/gene bases of disease. Homeopathy was never grounded on empirical scientific evidence. Hormesis, on the other hand, has always been an empirical science, involving properly controlled experiments. Hormesis is a concept in toxicology that involves biphasic dose responses in biological systems, wherein low doses of stressors can have beneficial effects and higher doses have harmful effects. Hormesis, as it applies to toxicology, is a necessary and useful concept describing adaptive organismic responses to applied stressors. Conversely, homeopathy is a medical doctrine based on the erroneous belief that substances which cause the symptoms of a disorder will cure the disorder when given to patients in small doses. To suggest that homeopathy is a form of post-exposure conditioning hormesis assumes that homeopathic practitioners employed the scientific method with measurable experimental end-points and proper controls, and that their 'provings' had actually determined the correct compound, at the correct dose, required to cure a disorder. Because many homeopathic preparations are diluted to a point where none of the starting solutes would likely remain, the idea of a beneficial or harmful hormetic dose becomes moot. Without supporting scientific evidence for the efficacy or purported mechanisms of homeopathy, the term hormesis should not be linked with it in any way. PMID:20558603

  8. Separations chemistry for f elements: Recent developments and historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Choppin, G.R. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    With the end of the cold war, the principal mission in actinide separations has changed from production of plutonium to cleanup of the immense volume of moderately radioactive mixed wastes which resulted from fifty years of processing activities. In order to approach the cleanup task from a proper perspective, it is necessary to understand the nature of the problem and how the wastes were generated. In this report, the history of actinide separations, both the basic science and production aspects, is examined. Many of the separations techniques in use today were developed in the 40`s and 50`s for the identification and production of actinide elements. To respond to the modern world of actinide separations new techniques are being developed for separations ranging from analytical methods to detect ultra-trace concentrations (for bioassay and environmental monitoring) to large scale waste treatment procedures. Some of these new methods are ``improvements`` or adaptations of the historical techniques. Total actinide recovery, lanthanide/actinide separations, and selective partitioning of actinides from inert constituents are of primary concern. This report, offers a historical perspective, review the current status of f element separation processes, and suggest areas for continued research in both actinide separations and waste cleanup/environment remediation.

  9. Hormesis and the Salk Polio Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    The production of the Salk vaccine polio virus by monkey kidney cells was generated using the synthetic tissue culture medium, Mixture 199. In this paper’s retrospective assessment of this process, it was discovered that Mixture 199 was modified by the addition of ethanol to optimize animal cell survival based on experimentation that revealed a hormetic-like biphasic response relationship. This hormesis-based optimization procedure was then applied to all uses of Mixture 199 and modifications...

  10. Statistical methods and applications from a historical perspective selected issues

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The book showcases a selection of peer-reviewed papers, the preliminary versions of which were presented at a conference held 11-13 June 2011 in Bologna and organized jointly by the Italian Statistical Society (SIS), the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) and the Bank of Italy. The theme of the conference was "Statistics in the 150 years of the Unification of Italy." The celebration of the anniversary of Italian unification provided the opportunity to examine and discuss the methodological aspects and applications from a historical perspective and both from a national and international point of view. The critical discussion on the issues of the past has made it possible to focus on recent advances, considering the studies of socio-economic and demographic changes in European countries.

  11. The solar dynamic radiator with a historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclallin, K. L.; Fleming, M. L.; Hoehn, F. W.; Howerton, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    A historical perspective on pumped-fluid loop space radiators provides a basis for the design of the Space Station Solar Dynamic (SD) power module radiator. SD power modules, capable of generating 25 kW (electrical) each, are planned for growth in Station power requirements. The Brayton cycle SD module configuration incorporates a pumped-fluid loop radiator that must reject up to 99 kW (thermal). The thermal/hydraulic design conditions in combination with required radiator orientation and packaging envelope form a unique set of constraints as compared to previous pumped-fluid loop radiator systems. Nevertheless, past program successes have demonstrated a technology base that can be applied to the SD radiator development program to ensure a low risk, low cost system.

  12. Historic perspective: prebiotics, probiotics, and other alternatives to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, M E

    2011-11-01

    Applications of antimicrobials in food production and human health have found favor throughout human history. Antibiotic applications in agricultural and human medical arenas have resulted in tremendous increases in food animal production and historically unprecedented gains in human health protection. Successes attributed to widespread antibiotic use have been accompanied by the inadvertent emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A major problem associated with this emerging resistance is the crossover use of some antibiotics in agricultural settings as well as in the prevention and treatment of human disease. This outcome led to calls to restrict the use of human health-related antibiotics in food animal production. Calls for restricted antibiotic use have heightened existing searches for alternatives to antibiotics that give similar or enhanced production qualities as highly reliable as the antibiotics currently provided to food animals. Agricultural and scientific advances, mainly within the last 100 yr, have given us insights into sources, structures, and actions of materials that have found widespread application in our modern world. The purpose of this presentation is to provide a historic perspective on the search for what are generally known as antibiotics and alternative antimicrobials, probiotics, prebiotics, bacteriophages, bacteriocins, and phytotherapeutics. PMID:22010256

  13. RACK(1) to the future - a historical perspective

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ron, Dorit

    2013-08-01

    This perspective summarises the first and long overdue RACK1 meeting held at the University of Limerick, Ireland, May 2013, in which RACK1’s role in the immune system, the heart and the brain were discussed and its contribution to disease states such as cancer, cardiac hypertrophy and addiction were described. RACK1 is a scaffolding protein and a member of the WD repeat family of proteins. These proteins have a unique architectural assembly that facilitates protein anchoring and the stabilisation of protein activity. A large body of evidence is accumulating which is helping to define the versatile role of RACK1 in assembling and dismantling complex signaling pathways from the cell membrane to the nucleus in health and disease. In this commentary, we first provide a historical perspective on RACK1. We also address many of the pertinent and topical questions about this protein such as its role in transcription, epigenetics and translation, its cytoskeletal contribution and the merits of targeting RACK1 in disease.

  14. Environmental factors in the summer Olympics in historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiser, Benny; Reilly, Thomas

    2004-10-01

    A descriptive approach is adopted in reviewing the probable impact of environmental factors during the summer Olympic Games since their inception in 1896. A historical analytical perspective is impractical due to the lack of reliable climatic data for the earlier Games and the evolution of a myriad of factors that impinge on competitive performance at elite level. Nevertheless, the endurance running events, particularly the marathon, are considered in detail with respect to exposure to environmental forces. Heat, humidity, air pollution, altitude and the geographical features of the race course are considered selectively and dealt with in order of chronology and global climatic zones. We focus on diverse climate zones and particular environmental conditions in order to scrutinize their likely influences on competitive performance, especially in the Olympic marathon races. Notwithstanding the limitations of a narrative approach, performances are related to particular weather data and mitigating influences. Travel difficulties are addressed where these affected a majority of competitors. Environmental stress was associated with the ill-timing and poor organization of the earlier Games. While many of these detrimental and injurious features have been alleviated since then, other environmental stress factors are less prone to mitigation and thus remain a sometimes severe challenge to endurance races. The unique environment conditions for outdoor endurance races in temperate climate zones tend to be highly variable and therefore difficult to predict. PMID:15768729

  15. Epidemiological profile of India: Historical and contemporary perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M D Gupte; Vidya Ramachandran; R K Mutatkar

    2001-11-01

    Knowledge and understanding of the epidemiological profile is an essential pre-requisite to assess and address public health needs in the country and to enable efficient programme planning and management. The need for adequate and accurate health information and data to undertake such an exercise cannot be over-emphasized. The present effort is a modest attempt to critically analyse the epidemiological profile of India from the historical and contemporary perspective. In order to assess the successes achieved as well caution against the daunting challenges awaiting the country, parameters such as disease burden and health status indicators, are increasingly being used. Changes in the population age structure, improvements in the nation’s economic status, altered lifestyles of people and duality of disease burden testify to the demographic, development and health transition occurring in the country. Population stabilization, poverty alleviation, life-style modification, surveillance and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases constitute the major challenges demanding urgent attention in the future.

  16. Postnatal care: a cross-cultural and historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard-Gran, Malin; Garthus-Niegel, Susan; Garthus-Niegel, Kristian; Eskild, Anne

    2010-12-01

    Childbirth and the immediate postpartum period represent a major transition in a woman's life. This period is considered a vulnerable time for the mother and child in most societies, and rituals for this transition are common. In this study, we present some examples of postpartum customs in a cross-cultural and historical perspective. Also, we present the current knowledge on the possible impact of postnatal care on mental health. Systematic literature searches were performed in Medline, PsycINFO, and the Science Citation Index Expanded (ISI) for the time period 1966 through May 2010. Reference lists in books on pregnancy and childbirth from the University Library in Oslo were used to obtain additional information. We found that the postnatal period seems to be universally defined as 40 days. Most cultures have special postnatal customs, including special diet, isolation, rest, and assistance for the mother. The uniformity of customs across different cultures is striking. However, many postnatal customs that were common before 1950 are no longer existent. The focus on rest and assistance for the mother after delivery has gradually decreased. Studies of associations of postnatal care and mental health in the mother are limited and show inconsistent results. More knowledge is needed on postnatal care and mental health.

  17. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in Japanese hormesis cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, cosmetics claiming hormesis effect are available through Internet. Although these cosmetics show the contents, they never mention the minor elements and radioactive sources. The existence of radioisotopes, however, was observed by measurements of the gamma-rays with a HPGe detector. In this study, in order to clarify the contents of trace elements, the hormesis cosmetics including radioactive sources were analyzed using INAA, PGAA and NAA with multiple gamma-ray detection (NAAMG). Nineteen elements were analyzed quantitatively in hormesis cosmetics by INAA, PGAA and NAAMG and 16 elements were detected qualitatively by SEM-EPMA. (author)

  18. Geohistorical Archaeology: A Perspective for Considering the Historic Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, John R.

    2002-01-01

    The term geohistorical archaeology was adopted to describe the combination of the techniques and concepts of historical geography, historical archaeology, and history. It is suggested that the field offers the potential of enhanced research and instruction as it pertains to the early historical settlement of an area. Particular emphasis is placed…

  19. Review of retrofit strategies decision system in historic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Bostenaru Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban development is a process. In structuring and developing its phases different actors are implied, who act under different, sometimes opposite, dynamic conditions and within different reference systems. This paper aims to explore the contribution of participatism to disaster mitigation, when this concerns earthquake impact on urban settlements, through the support provided to multi-criteria decision in matters of retrofit. The research broadness in field of decision making on one side and the lack of a specific model for the retrofit of existing buildings on another side led to an extensive review of the state of the art in related models to address the issue. Core idea in the selection of existing models has been the preoccupation for collaborative issues, in other words, the consideration for the different actors implied in the planning process. The historic perspective on participative planning models is made from the view of two generations of citizen implication. The first approaches focus on the participation of the building owner/inhabitant in the planning process of building construction. As current strategies building rehabilitation and selection from alternative retrofit strategies are presented. New developments include innovative models using the internet or spatial databases. The investigated participation approaches show, that participation and communication as a more comprehensive term are an old topic in the field politics-democratisation-urbanism. In all cases it can be talked of 'successful learning processes', of the improvement of the level of the professional debate. More than 30 years history of participation marked a transition in understanding the concept: from participation, based on a central decision process leading to a solution controlled and steered by the political-administrative system, to communication, characterised by simultaneous decision processes taking place outside politics and administration in co

  20. Global energy shifts: Future possibilities in historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Bruce Michael

    2000-11-01

    This study adopts a macro-comparative, world-systems perspective in order to shed light on the dynamics that led to a global shift away from primary reliance on coal and towards over-reliance on petroleum. It is argued that the interaction of three global dynamics, those of geopolitical rivalry, commercial competition, and social unrest, undermined the nineteenth-century international coal system and paved the way for the consolidation of an international petroleum system in the twentieth century. Specifically, the historical analysis presented in this dissertation shows that: (1) intervention by state agents was absolutely crucial in the early development and later expansion of the international petroleum system; (2) private coal companies attempted to prevent the consolidation of an oil-based energy system, but these older companies were out-competed by newer, multinational petroleum corporations; and (3) waves of labor unrest in established coal industries played a key role in prompting a relatively rapid shift away from coal and towards petroleum. Indeed, a key conclusion of this study is that pressures exerted by such social movements as labor unions, nationalist movements, and environmental coalitions have played as important a role in influencing energy trajectories as the more commonly-recognized actions of governmental and corporate actors. By examining contemporary patterns of state and private investments in a cluster of new energy technologies, as well as the growing influence of environmental regulations it is argued that global dynamics are beginning to favor a shift towards new, more environmentally sustainable energy technologies. The fuel cell is highlighted as one new energy technology that is poised to enter into widespread diffusion in the coming decades, though potentials for expansions in wind, solar, small-scale hydro-electric, and modern biomass systems are also examined. Although significant hurdles must be overcome, this study concludes by

  1. When less is more: hormesis against stress and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Zimmermann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available All living organisms need to adapt to ever changing adverse conditions in order to survive. The phenomenon termed hormesis describes an evolutionarily conserved process by which a cell or an entire organism can be preconditioned, meaning that previous exposure to low doses of an insult protects against a higher, normally harmful or lethal dose of the same stressor. Growing evidence suggests that hormesis is directly linked to an organism’s (or cell’s capability to cope with pathological conditions such as aging and age-related diseases. Here, we condense the conceptual and potentially therapeutic importance of hormesis by providing a short overview of current evidence in favor of the cytoprotective impact of hormesis, as well as of its underlying molecular mechanisms.

  2. Hormesis and homeopathy: The and nbsp;artificial twins

    OpenAIRE

    Jargin, Sergei V.

    2015-01-01

    Homeopathy claims a curative reaction from small doses of a substance, high doses of which cause symptoms similar to those the patient is suffering from. Hormesis is a concept of biphasic dose-response to different pharmacological and toxicological agents. According to this concept, a small dose of a noxious agent can exert a beneficial action. A hypothesis is defended here that hormesis as a general principle can be assumed only for the factors present in the natural environment thus having ...

  3. Dose estimation of radiation exposure from hormesis cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmetics claiming hormesis effects are available through Internet. Although the hormesis effect is explained in each product of cosmetics, there is no explanation about the radiation source. The existence of the progeny nuclides of Th and U series (RI) was confirmed by the γ-ray spectroscopy using a HPGe detector. The highest radioactivity densities were 68 Bq/g of the Th-series included in the hormesis powder. Because the particle containing RI were of the size of 1-10 micrometer by observing and analyzing SEM-EDX, there is a risk of inhaling the powder to the deep into the lungs. Furthermore, as about 1% RI was dissolved in water, the uptake of the RI to the body would be possible. The highest value of the evaluation of uniform radiation exposure to some organs by the continuous usage for 10 years was 5.5 mSv/y of the hormesis powder inhalation to the lung. Furthermore, the calculated quantity of the radioactivity of progeny of 222Rn deposited in the body after continuous use of the hormesis cream every day for one year becomes 24 Bq. The possibility of accumulation of the radioactivity in the body from the hormesis cosmetics cannot be denied. The addition of the radioisotope to cosmetics is prohibited in some EU countries by the regulation. It's proposed in this paper that the legitimacy of the addition of the radioisotope should be seriously re-examined. (author)

  4. Hormesis in Aging and Neurodegeneration—A Prodigy Awaiting Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Mao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hormesis describes the drug action of low dose stimulation and high dose inhibition. The hormesis phenomenon has been observed in a wide range of biological systems. Although known in its descriptive context, the underlying mode-of-action of hormesis is largely unexplored. Recently, the hormesis concept has been receiving increasing attention in the field of aging research. It has been proposed that within a certain concentration window, reactive oxygen species (ROS or reactive nitrogen species (RNS could act as major mediators of anti-aging and neuroprotective processes. Such hormetic phenomena could have potential therapeutic applications, if properly employed. Here, we review the current theories of hormetic phenomena in regard to aging and neurodegeneration, with the focus on its underlying mechanism. Facilitated by a simple mathematical model, we show for the first time that ROS-mediated hormesis can be explained by the addition of different biomolecular reactions including oxidative damage, MAPK signaling and autophagy stimulation. Due to their divergent scales, the optimal hormetic window is sensitive to each kinetic parameter, which may vary between individuals. Therefore, therapeutic utilization of hormesis requires quantitative characterizations in order to access the optimal hormetic window for each individual. This calls for a personalized medicine approach for a longer human healthspan.

  5. Molecular gerontology: from homeodynamics to hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2014-01-01

    The science and study of the biological basis of aging, biogerontology, is now a well-established field with solid scientific base. A paradigm-shift in gerontology has occurred by realising the fact that biological aging occurs in spite of the presence of complex homeodynamic pathways of maintenance, repair and defence, and there is no "enemy within". This viewpoint separates the modulation of aging from the treatment of one or more age-related diseases. A promising strategy in biogerontology is to slow down aging and to extend healthspan by hormetin-mediated hormesis. Physical, nutritional and mental hormetins, which initiate stress responses and strengthen the homeodynamics, are potentially effective aging modulators. As a biomedical issue, the biological process of aging underlies all major diseases, and while the optimal treatment of every disease is a social and moral necessity, preventing the onset of agerelated diseases by intervening in the basic process of aging is the best approach for designing novel pharmaceutical interventions.

  6. Historical evolution of Olympic commercialism: the evolution of attitudes towards commercialism within the American Olympic Movement : a historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The uneasy relationship between the long-standing amateur ideals of the Olympic Games and commercialism, including sponsorship, licensing, and television, is spotlighted via this historical perspective spanning 100 years of the Olympic movement. Utilizing primary sources such as personal correspondence and minutes of meetings of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and its Executive Board, this paper demonstrates how attitudes towards commercialism within the U.S.-based Olympic movement ...

  7. The Materiality of Digital Collections: Theoretical and Historical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoff, Marlene

    2006-01-01

    Digital and textual objects are coming under a new kind of scrutiny as scholars are becoming more interested in physical artifacts and their relation to their social and cultural environment. This study of material culture suggests a need to explore the nature of digital materiality, as well as the broader historical context in which electronic…

  8. Polynomial Approximation of Functions: Historical Perspective and New Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidron, Ivy

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of applying symbolic computation and graphics to enhance students' ability to move from a visual interpretation of mathematical concepts to formal reasoning. The mathematics topics involved, Approximation and Interpolation, were taught according to their historical development, and the students tried to follow the…

  9. College Student Values: An Historical and Conceptual Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William E.

    A historical survey of the literature and research on values and value measurement is presented. Various approaches to value study such as the Allport-Vernon-Lindsey model and the work of Adorno, et al in "The Authoritarian Personality" are discussed and analyzed. The author suggests that the models set forth in these works are not sensitive…

  10. Pirates, ports, and coasts in Asia: historical and contemporary perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kleinen; M. Osseweijer

    2010-01-01

    Pirates, Ports and Coasts in Asia aims to fill in some of the historical gaps in the coverage of maritime piracy and armed robbery in Asia. The authors highlight a variety of activities ranging from raiding, destroying and pillaging coastal villages and capturing inhabitants to attacking and taking

  11. Art as an investment in a historical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation studies the price formation mechanisms on the art market. More specifically, it uses historical data to test the impact of several factors on the French art market between 1860 and 1950 and on the Belgian art market between 1945 and 1950. The first paper investigates the link betwe

  12. Historical Perspectives of the Causation of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy A. Ruegg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Less-known forces are involved in the etiology of lung cancer and have relevant implications for providers in ameliorating care. The purpose of this article is to discuss theories of causation of lung cancer using historical analyses of the evolution of the disease and incorporating related explanations integrating the relationships of science, nursing, medicine, and society. Literature from 160 years was searched and Thagard’s model of causation networks was used to exhibit how nursing and medicine were significant influences in lung cancer causation theory. Disease causation interfaces with sociological norms of behavior to form habits and rates of health behavior. Historically, nursing was detrimentally manipulated by the tobacco industry, engaging in harmful smoking behaviors, thus negatively affecting patient care. Understanding the underlying history behind lung cancer causation may empower nurses to play an active role in a patient’s health.

  13. The Relationships in Marketing: Contribution of a Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa M. Fernandes; Proença, João F.; P. K. Kannan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an historical analysis of relationship marketing. We discuss the roots and the directions of relationship marketing that are considered relevant: their origins, the Industrial Marketing and Purchasing group (IMP) approach to business relationships, the Nordic approach to services relationships and, the managerial and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) approach of relationship marketing. The paper highlights that the boundaries of relationship marketing as defined in co...

  14. Family types and intimate-partner violence: A historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tur-Prats, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the historical origins of violence against women, in contrast to earlier literature, which focused only on short-term determinants. It analyses the relationship between traditional family patterns (stem versus nuclear) and intimate-partner violence (IPV). Stem families are those in which one child stays in the parental household with spouse and children, so that at least two generations live together. I model the behavior of a traditional peasant family and ...

  15. Malaysia's socio-economic transformation in historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kalim SIDDIQUI

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to explain the pattern and evolution of economic development in Malaysia since independence. It focuses on the impact of growth and analyses how the government policy of positive discrimination (also known as Bumiputeras) has helped to address historical backwardness and thus reduce ethnic tensions in the country. The state also launched the policy of diversification, which involved various combinations of policy initiatives; for instance, the expansion of new ...

  16. Radiation hormesis and the linear-no-threshold assumption

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Charles L

    2009-01-01

    Current radiation protection standards are based upon the application of the linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption, which considers that even very low doses of ionizing radiation can cause cancer. The radiation hormesis hypothesis, by contrast, proposes that low-dose ionizing radiation is beneficial. In this book, the author examines all facets of radiation hormesis in detail, including the history of the concept and mechanisms, and presents comprehensive, up-to-date reviews for major cancer types. It is explained how low-dose radiation can in fact decrease all-cause and all-cancer mortality an

  17. Causation and Caution in Financial Aid Reform: A Historical Perspective through Multiple Shades of Gray Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomhead, Keiko Shimizu

    2013-01-01

    To better understand how a once well-intentioned concept of financial tuition assistance for college students has devolved into its current troubled and broken state, this doctoral thesis explored the evolution of the U.S. system of federal financial aid in higher education from a historical perspective. The study began with a review of the…

  18. Computer Science Education in French Secondary Schools: Historical and Didactical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Georges-Louis; Drot-Delange, Beatrice; Grandbastien, Monique; Tort, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Computer science as a school subject in France is characterized by a succession of promising starts that have not yet been transformed into perennial solutions. The main goal of this article is to analyze this complex situation from a historical perspective, and describe the current rebirth of an optional Computer Science course in the last year…

  19. A Commentary on "Historical Perspectives on Invariant Measurement: Guttman, Rasch, and Mokken"

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ayala, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    In "Historical perspectives on invariant measurement: Guttman, Rasch, and Mokken," Engelhard (2008) discusses one of the keystones of modern measurement, measurement invariance (cf. Thurstone, 1928), and traces its evolution through the work of three principal measurement theorists. Although these scholars span both parametric and nonparametric…

  20. A Historical Perspective on Gender Inequality and Development in the World Economy, c. 1850-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dilli, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is to add a historical perspective to the debate on the link between gender inequality and development. To do so, the dissertation first documents global gender differences in life expectancy and sex ratios (to cover health status); in average years of schooli

  1. Mass loss and evolution of stars and star clusters: a personal historical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The development and progress of the studies of winds and mass loss from hot stars, from about 1965 up to now, is discussed in a personal historical perspective. The present state of knowledge about stellar winds, based on papers presented at this workshop, is described. About ten years ago the mecha

  2. Animal Experiments in Biomedical Research: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Henrique Franco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-human animals in biomedical research has given important contributions to the medical progress achieved in our day, but it has also been a cause of heated public, scientific and philosophical discussion for hundreds of years. This review, with a mainly European outlook, addresses the history of animal use in biomedical research, some of its main protagonists and antagonists, and its effect on society from Antiquity to the present day, while providing a historical context with which to understand how we have arrived at the current paradigm regarding the ethical treatment of animals in research.

  3. Innovation in science and organizational renewal historical and sociological perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Münch, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This book looks at the types of new research organizations that drive scientific innovation and how ground-breaking science transforms research fields and their organization. Based on historical case studies and comparative empirical data, the book presents new and thought-provoking evidence that improves our knowledge and understanding about how new research fields are formed and how research organizations adapt to breakthroughs in science. While the book is firmly based in science history, it discusses more general sociological and policy propositions regarding scientific innovations and organizational change. The volume brings together leading scholars both from the United States and Europe.

  4. A historical perspective on ankle ligaments reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Tarabella, Vittorio; Filardo, Giuseppe; Tomba, Patrizia; Viganò, Anna; Marcacci, Maurilio; Zaffagnini, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Ankle sprains are by far the most common injuries treated by sport medicine physicians. Treatment is mainly conservative, but in some cases surgical intervention is required. The aim of the present manuscript is to give an insight into the origins and developments of ankle ligaments reconstructive surgery, underlining the fundamental steps that marked the transition from a mere conservative approach to surgical treatment options. In this historical note, the most illustrious figures who contributed to this particular field of orthopaedic practice are also acknowledged. Level of evidence V. PMID:26718639

  5. Trade Unions and Unionism in Nigeria: A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Olusoji James George; Oluwakemi Owoyemi; Uche Onokala

    2012-01-01

    Trade unions and trade unionism in Nigeria are said to be part of the legacy of colonilisation of Nigeria; as it was introduced by the colonial masters. This paper sets out to dispute this fact. This is because before the coming of the colonialists there was in place some forms of trade unions and trade unionism. This paper relies heavily on historical facts as well as some existing literatures to conclude that there was in place some forms of trade union and trade unionism in the area now na...

  6. Animal Experiments in Biomedical Research: A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Henrique Franco

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This article reviews the use of non-human animals in biomedical research from a historical viewpoint, providing an insight into the most relevant social and moral issues on this topic across time, as well as to how the current paradigm for ethically and publically acceptable use of animals in biomedicine has been achieved. Abstract The use of non-human animals in biomedical research has given important contributions to the medical progress achieved in our day, but it has also b...

  7. Historical review of surgical simulation--a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satava, Richard M

    2008-02-01

    Although simulation is relatively new to surgical education, there is a long history in many other disciplines, such as military, aviation, and nuclear power plant operations, among others. In the late 1980s these technologies began to be adapted to the surgical world, along with the new technology of virtual reality. This is a review of the introduction of manikins, computers, and virtual reality into education and training for surgical skills. Two concomitant revolutions occurred: objective assessment of surgical skills and converting training from the apprenticeship model to one of criterion-based training. A personal perspective on these developments adds information not previously published. PMID:18097716

  8. Free fall and self-force: an historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Spallicci, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Free fall has signed the greatest markings in the history of physics through the leaning Pisa tower, the Cambridge apple tree and the Einstein lift. The perspectives offered by the capture of stars by supermassive black holes are to be cherished, because the study of the motion of falling stars will constitute a giant step forward in the understanding of gravitation in the regime of strong field. After an account on the perception of free fall in ancient times and on the behaviour of a gravit...

  9. A historical perspective on the collaboration between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvagnat, François; Wiss, Matthias; Clément, Sandra

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this article is to present and discuss the connections between psychoanalysis and neuroscience from a historical viewpoint. We start by examining how Sigmund Freud can be viewed as a pioneer in the interaction between these two fields. Freud was himself a neurologist and had maintained an interest in biology as he developed the key concepts of psychoanalysis. His ideas regarding psychosomatics are described. We will also explore how the concept of drive is essential to the connection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. Then, we describe several key actors and historical events and characters at the interface of these two fields, namely Sándor Radó Lawrence S. Kubie and Mc Culloch, the debates that took place during the Macy conferences, as well as the positions of Jacques Lacan, George L. Engel, and Eric Kandel. Finally, we present a synthesis of the main fields in which the connections between psychoanalysis and neuroscience are already fruitful, and those where they should be developed: the classification of mental diseases, the link between the scientific and psychic dimensions, therapeutics, the organization of the body, intersubjectivity, the subjective division and ambivalence, as well as transferential effects like such as the placebo and nocebo effects. In the conclusion, we advocate several strategic alliances and underscore the complementarity between rigorous scientific experimentation and the individualized psychoanalytic approach.

  10. Spent nuclear fuel policies in historical perspective: An international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article is to explain why the world's nuclear power countries differ from each other with respect to their spent nuclear fuel (SNF) policies. The emergence and evolution of three principal SNF approaches are analyzed: direct disposal, reprocessing and SNF export. Five broad explanatory factors are identified and discussed in relation to the observed differences in policy outcomes: military ambitions and non-proliferation, technological culture, political culture and civil society, geological conditions, and energy policy. SNF policy outcomes can generally be seen to result from a complex interaction between these broad factors, but it is also possible to discern a number of important patterns. To the extent that the five factors may undergo far-reaching changes in the future, the historical experience of how they have shaped SNF policies also give a hint of possible future directions in SNF policymaking around the world

  11. European Welfare State in a Historical Perspective. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marian ŞTEFAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the historical evolution of the European welfare state, especially after the second half of the nineteenth century. Even if one considers that social protection systems have their origins in the period of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, various social problems have been treated in European countries before the Bismarck’s social legislation, beginning with the sixteenth century. In this article we presented mainly (i the origins of social policy systems in Europe, as shown in the literature covered, (ii the conceptual evolution of the so-called “welfare state” and (iii the development of social security schemes based on International Labour Organization typology.

  12. [The psychodynamics of anti-Judaism in the historical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenberg, P

    1992-12-01

    In the author's view, anti-Jewishness is the expression of covert anti-Christianism, which in its turn conceals an unconscious revolt against Christ. Unconscious aggression is unleashed against the Jews, who thus become scapegoats against whom three constantly recurring accusations are levelled: the killing of Christ; the desecration of the Host; and the ritual murder of children. The author traces the history of these accusations from the Middle Ages to the present. The search for scapegoats is a universal phenomenon not limited to anti-Jeweshness but encountered more generally in situations of social and political uncertainty. To substantiate his claims, the author draws upon historical documents from the Second World War dealing with the threat to China from Japan's armed forces, and also makes reference to the race riots in Los Angeles early this year.

  13. Historical perspective on the moon base: the British experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the many historical episodes that have relevance to the establishment of a human base, the voyages of Captain Cook, and the founding of Britain's Botany Bay colony in Australia seems particularly appropriate. The process resulting in the selection of Cook rewards study, as do his relations with the Admiralty, with the scientific establishment and with the scientists who accompanies him. Britain's tight control of the Botany Bay settlement and its unwillingness to promote early self-sufficiency may have delayed the time when Australia became self-supporting. Structuring the lunar base to offer opportunities for private initiatives may hasten the day when it becomes a self-supporting settlement rather than an externally supported scientific base on an Antarctic model

  14. Typhoid transmission: a historical perspective on mathematical model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakach, Iurii; Just, Matthew R; Gambhir, Manoj; Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai

    2015-11-01

    Mathematical models of typhoid transmission were first developed nearly half a century ago. To facilitate a better understanding of the historical development of this field, we reviewed mathematical models of typhoid and summarized their structures and limitations. Eleven models, published in 1971 to 2014, were reviewed. While models of typhoid vaccination are well developed, we highlight the need to better incorporate water, sanitation and hygiene interventions into models of typhoid and other foodborne and waterborne diseases. Mathematical modeling is a powerful tool to test and compare different intervention strategies which is important in the world of limited resources. By working collaboratively, epidemiologists and mathematicians should build better mathematical models of typhoid transmission, including pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions, which will be useful in epidemiological and public health practice.

  15. The Occurrence of Hormesis in Plants and Algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedergreen, Nina; Streibig, Jens C; Kudsk, Per;

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the frequency, magnitude and dose/concentration range of hormesis in four species: The aquatic plant Lemna minor, the micro-alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the two terrestrial plants Tripleurospermum inodorum and Stellaria media exposed to nine herbicides and one...

  16. Hormesis and homeopathy: The and nbsp;artificial twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V Jargin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Homeopathy claims a curative reaction from small doses of a substance, high doses of which cause symptoms similar to those the patient is suffering from. Hormesis is a concept of biphasic dose-response to different pharmacological and toxicological agents. According to this concept, a small dose of a noxious agent can exert a beneficial action. A hypothesis is defended here that hormesis as a general principle can be assumed only for the factors present in the natural environment thus having induced adaptation of living organisms. Generalizations of the hormesis phenomenon used in support of homeopathy are unfounded. Low-dose impacts may be associated with a higher risk in a state of organ sub-compensation or failure especially in the elderly patients. Practical recommendations should be based neither on the hormesis as a default approach nor on the postulates of homeopathy. All clinically relevant effects, hormetic or not, should be tested by the methods of evidence-based medicine. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 74-77

  17. The WCCES and Intercultural Dialogue: Historical Perspectives and Continuing Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark

    2008-07-01

    The World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES) has been strongly concerned with intercultural dialogue since the Council was created in 1970. Indeed advancement of education "for international understanding in the interests of peace, intercultural cooperation, mutual respect among peoples and observance of human rights" is one of the goals built into the WCCES Statutes. This paper begins with a focus on the origins and goals of the WCCES, noting in particular links with the mission of UNESCO. The paper then considers dimensions of evolution in the work of the WCCES in the domain of intercultural dialogue. It underlines the growth of the WCCES and the continuing challenges for securing balanced representation of voices and perspectives.

  18. Free Fall and Self-Force: an Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallicci, Alessandro

    Free fall has signed the greatest markings in the history of physics through the leaning Pisa tower, the Woolsthorpe apple tree and the Einstein lift. The perspectives offered by the capture of stars by supermassive black holes are to be cherished, because the study of the motion of falling stars will constitute a giant step forward in the understanding of gravitation in the regime of strong field. After an account on the perception of free fall in ancient times and on the behaviour of a gravitating mass in Newtonian physics, this chapter deals with last century debate on the repulsion for a Schwarzschild-Droste black hole and mentions the issue of an infalling particle velocity at the horizon. Further, black hole perturbations and numerical methods are presented, paving the way to the introduction of the self-force and other back-action related methods. The impact of the perturbations on the motion of the falling particle is computed via the tail, the back-scattered part of the perturbations, or via a radiative Green function. In the former approach, the self-force acts upon the background geodesic; in the latter, the geodesic is conceived in the total (background plus perturbations) field. Regularisation techniques (mode-sum and Riemann-Hurwitz z function) intervene to cancel divergencies coming from the infinitesimal size of the particle. An account is given on the state of the art, including the last results obtained in this most classical problem, together with a perspective encompassing future space gravitational wave interferometry and head-on particle physics experiments. As free fall is patently non-adiabatic, it requires the most sophisticated techniques for studying the evolution of the motion. In this scenario, the potential of the self-consistent approach, by means of which the background geodesic is continuously corrected by the self-force contribution, is examined.

  19. A historical perspective regarding US public research universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arden L. Jr. Bement

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century is a time of both great promise and great anxiety. Economic institutions, technological tools and societal aspirations connect us all globally. We share a pivotal role in common; research universities around the globe have this and can continue to play it in economic development through people, knowledge, know-how and facilities. The current economic climate is manifest in increasing pressure on research universities to expand their impact by fostering innovation leading to the creation of new industries and jobs whilst also developing a proficient workforce and the next generation of leaders, whether in academia, government, industry or non-profit areas. The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical context regarding several broad developments that have shaped the role of US research universities in relationship to the economy. Purdue University is used as case study to illustrate the specific challenges and opportunities which it has experienced over many decades during its growth and evolution as a research university. We would also like to join in celebrating the Universidad Nacional de Colombia’s School of Engineering’s150-year tradition in technology and innovation. We hope this paper provides some vision regarding the future of engineering education within a global economic context.

  20. Vertical transmission of arboviruses in mosquitoes: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequime, Sebastian; Lambrechts, Louis

    2014-12-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are mainly transmitted horizontally among vertebrate hosts by blood-feeding invertebrate vectors, but can also be transmitted vertically in the vector from an infected female to its offspring. Vertical transmission (VT) is considered a possible mechanism for the persistence of arboviruses during periods unfavorable for horizontal transmission, but the extent and epidemiological significance of this phenomenon have remained controversial. To help resolve this question, we reviewed over a century of published literature on VT to analyze historical trends of scientific investigations on experimental and natural occurrence of VT in mosquitoes. Our synthesis highlights the influence of major events of public health significance in arbovirology on the number of VT publications. Epidemiological landmarks such as emergence events have significantly stimulated VT research. Our analysis also reveals the association between the evolution of virological assays and the probability of VT detection. Increased sensitivity and higher-throughput of modern laboratory assays resulted in enhanced VT detection. In general, VT contribution to arbovirus persistence is likely modest because vertically infected mosquitoes are rarely observed in nature. Taken together, however, our results call for caution when interpreting VT studies because their conclusions are context- and method-dependent.

  1. Chemical control of Aedes aegypti: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Manjarres-Suarez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the use of chemical insecticides throughout history as the main tool to fight against Aedes aegypti, a vector of dengue virus. Methods: A text mining approach was conducted on databases, such as PUBMED and SCIENCE DIRECT, using the keywords “Aedes aegypti”, combined with the words “insecticides”, “resistance”, “organochlorines”, “organophosphates”, “carbamates” and “pyrethroids”. Results related to historical information dealing with the chemical control of Aedes aegypti, in particular those containing data on insecticide resistance for this species, were scrutinized and analyzed. Results: Different chemical groups have been utilized to control A. aegypti, including organochlorine, organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides. In general, the tendency has been to replace a particular pesticide, for which resistance had been detected, for a new one, mosquito-sensitive, and with little evidence of deleterious effects derived from its use. The spread of resistance has been registered in several countries of America, Asia and Africa. Two mechanisms have been highly cited to be responsible for the resistance; the increase activity of detoxifying enzymes, and structural changes in the insecticide target site, mostly within the central nervous system. Conclusion: Excessive use of chemical insecticides and the lack of dosing control have led to widespread resistance in A. aegypti, as no “safer” alternative chemical options are available for vector control in different countries, impacting human health.

  2. People involved in radiation research and protection - an historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The lives of selected people involved in radiation research are covered in two parts: 1. history of radiation and radioactivity; and 2. historical aspects of radiation and radiation protection in Western Australia. History of radiation/radioactivity: The background of some of the key people involved in early radiation research is discussed. These include Rontgen and Becqucrel who undertook early research into X-rays and radioactivity respectively. As well as the radiation hazards which early radiation scientists faced, there were also social pressures, as exemplified by the life of women such as Marie Curie, particularly after the death of her husband Pierre. Despite this being the time of the so-called 'beautiful years' in Europe, where there was a friendly exchange of ideas between scientists from various countries, there were also protracted disagreements. Some of the scientific findings of the Curies' daughter (Irene Joliot-Curie) and husband (Frederic Joliot-Curie) were vigorously disputed by Lisa Meitner (and colleague Otto Hahn) in Vienna. The 'beautiful years' came to an end when politics intruded and scientists such as Lisa Meitner had to flee from persecution. The splitting of the atom and realisation (by Leo Szilard) that a chain reaction was possible, led to political barriers being erected around scientists. With Europe poised for war, the implication of this science for warfare application was cause for concern among many of the normally free thinking and co-operative scientists. Secrecy now prevailed.

  3. A historical perspective on malaria control in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean Michael; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Silva-Flannery, Luciana

    2015-09-01

    Malaria has always been an important public health problem in Brazil. The early history of Brazilian malaria and its control was powered by colonisation by Europeans and the forced relocation of Africans as slaves. Internal migration brought malaria to many regions in Brazil where, given suitable Anopheles mosquito vectors, it thrived. Almost from the start, officials recognised the problem malaria presented to economic development, but early control efforts were hampered by still developing public health control and ignorance of the underlying biology and ecology of malaria. Multiple regional and national malaria control efforts have been attempted with varying success. At present, the Amazon Basin accounts for 99% of Brazil's reported malaria cases with regional increases in incidence often associated with large scale public works or migration. Here, we provide an exhaustive summary of primary literature in English, Spanish and Portuguese regarding Brazilian malaria control. Our goal was not to interpret the history of Brazilian malaria control from a particular political or theoretical perspective, but rather to provide a straightforward, chronological narrative of the events that have transpired in Brazil over the past 200 years and identify common themes.

  4. Free fall and self-force: an historical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Spallicci, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Free fall has signed the greatest markings in the history of physics through the leaning Pisa tower, the Cambridge apple tree and the Einstein lift. The perspectives offered by the capture of stars by supermassive black holes are to be cherished, because the study of the motion of falling stars will constitute a giant step forward in the understanding of gravitation in the regime of strong field. After an account on the perception of free fall in ancient times and on the behaviour of a gravitating mass in Newtonian physics, this chapter deals with last century debate on the repulsion for a Schwarzschild black hole and mentions the issue of an infalling particle velocity at the horizon. Further, black hole perturbations and numerical methods are presented, paving the way to the introduction of the self-force and other back-action related methods. The impact of the perturbations on the motion of the falling particle is computed via the tail, the back-scattered part of the perturbations, or via a radiative Green...

  5. NOx emissions in China: historical trends and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen oxides (NOx are key pollutants for the improvement of ambient air quality. Within this study we estimated the historical NOx emissions in China for the period 1995–2010, and calculated future NOx emissions every five years until 2030 under six emission scenarios. Driven by the fast growth of energy consumption, we estimate the NOx emissions in China increased rapidly from 11.0 Mt in 1995 to 26.1 Mt in 2010. Power plants, industry and transportation were major sources of NOx emissions, accounting for 28.4, 34.0, and 25.4% of the total NOx emissions in 2010, respectively. Two energy scenarios, a business as usual scenario (BAU and an alternative policy scenario (PC, were developed to project future energy consumption. In 2030, total energy consumption is projected to increase by 64 and 27% from 2010 level respectively. Three sets of end-of-pipe pollution control measures, including baseline, progressive, and stringent control case, were developed for each energy scenario, thereby constituting six emission scenarios. By 2030, the total NOx emissions are projected to increase (compared to 2010 by 36% in the baseline while policy cases result in reduction up to 61% in the most ambitious case with stringent control measures. More than a third of the reduction achieved by 2030 between least and most ambitious scenario comes from power sector and more than half is distributed equally between industry and transportation sectors. Selective Catalytic Reduction dominates the NOx emission reductions in power plants, while life style changes, control measures for industrial boilers and cement production are major contributors to reductions in industry. Timely enforcement of legislation on heavy duty vehicles would contribute significantly to NOx emission reductions. About 30% of the NOx emission reduction in 2020, and 40% of the NOx emission reduction in 2030 could be treated as the ancillary benefit of energy conservation. Sensitivity analysis was

  6. NOx emissions in China: historical trends and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B.; Wang, S. X.; Liu, H.; Xu, J. Y.; Fu, K.; Klimont, Z.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.; Cofala, J.; Amann, M.

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are key pollutants for the improvement of ambient air quality. Within this study we estimated the historical NOx emissions in China for the period 1995-2010, and calculated future NOx emissions every five years until 2030 under six emission scenarios. Driven by the fast growth of energy consumption, we estimate the NOx emissions in China increased rapidly from 11.0 Mt in 1995 to 26.1 Mt in 2010. Power plants, industry and transportation were major sources of NOx emissions, accounting for 28.4%, 34.0%, and 25.4% of the total NOx emissions in 2010, respectively. Two energy scenarios, a business as usual scenario (BAU) and an alternative policy scenario (PC), were developed to project future energy consumption. In 2030, total energy consumption is projected to increase by 64% and 27% from 2010 level respectively. Three sets of end-of-pipe pollution control measures, including baseline, progressive, and stringent control case, were developed for each energy scenario, thereby constituting six emission scenarios. By 2030, the total NOx emissions are projected to increase (compared to 2010) by 36% in the baseline while policy cases result in reduction up to 61% in the most ambitious case with stringent control measures. More than a third of the reduction achieved by 2030 between least and most ambitious scenario comes from power sector, and more than half is distributed equally between industry and transportation sectors. Selective catalytic reduction dominates the NOx emission reductions in power plants, while life style changes, control measures for industrial boilers and cement production are major contributors to reductions in industry. Timely enforcement of legislation on heavy-duty vehicles would contribute significantly to NOx emission reductions. About 30% of the NOx emission reduction in 2020 and 40% of the NOx emission reduction in 2030 could be treated as the ancillary benefit of energy conservation. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to

  7. S.M. Guma and the Sesotho historical novel: an Afrocentric perspective

    OpenAIRE

    T.J. Selepe

    2008-01-01

    Afrocentricity seems to be emerging as one of the potent critical tools that could be used to re-establish and qualify African cultural identity through literary study among others. The primary objective of this movement is to reinterpret world history from an African perspective. This article will therefore examine some historical features of S.M. Guma’s novels from the 1960s to the 1990s from an African perspective. By applying the Afrocentric paradigm this will attempt to demonstrate how m...

  8. Brief historical perspective on the definition of high-level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report constitutes a historical perspective on the definition of HLW with emphasis on the US situation. The major HLW definitions are summarized chronologically, including a categorization of the considerations (e.g., waste source, heat generation rate, radiological effects) forming the bases of the definitions. High-level waste (HLW) definitions are then discussed in terms of these considerations. A brief discussion of the institutional aspects of HLW regulation and management are presented. An appendix to the report constitutes an annotated, chronological bibliography that formed the basis of the perspective

  9. [Swimming, physical activity and health: a historical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, A A

    2015-01-01

    Swimming, which is the coordinated and harmonic movement of the human body inside a liquid medium by means of the combined action of the superior and inferior limbs, is a physical activity which is diffused throughout the whole world and it is practiced by healthy and non-healthy subjects. Swimming is one of the physical activities with less contraindications and, with limited exceptions, can be suggested to individuals of both sexes and of every age range, including the most advanced. Swimming requires energy both for the floating process and for the anterograde progression, with a different and variable osteo-arthro-muscular involvement according to the different styles. The energetic requirement is about four times that for running, with an overall efficiency inferior to 10%; the energetic cost of swimming in the female subject is approximately two thirds of that in the male subject. The moderate aerobic training typical of swimming is useful for diabetic and hypertensive individuals, for people with painful conditions of rachis, as also for obese and orthopaedic patients. Motor activity inside the water reduces the risk of muscular-tendinous lesions and, without loading the joints in excess, requires the harmonic activation of the whole human musculature. Swimming is an activity requiring multiple abilities, ranging from a sense of equilibrium to that of rhythm, from reaction speed to velocity, from joint mobility to resistance. The structured interest for swimming in the perspective of human health from the beginning of civilization, as described in this contribution, underlines the relevance attributed to this activity in the course of human history. PMID:26378756

  10. S.M. Guma and the Sesotho historical novel: an Afrocentric perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.J. Selepe

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Afrocentricity seems to be emerging as one of the potent critical tools that could be used to re-establish and qualify African cultural identity through literary study among others. The primary objective of this movement is to reinterpret world history from an African perspective. This article will therefore examine some historical features of S.M. Guma’s novels from the 1960s to the 1990s from an African perspective. By applying the Afrocentric paradigm this will attempt to demonstrate how material conditions of the period have provided useful raw materials for the Sesotho historical novel, which tends to illuminate a better understanding of the Basotho culture, history, identity and nationhood.

  11. A Historical Perspective on Gender Inequality and Development in the World Economy, c. 1850-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Dilli, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is to add a historical perspective to the debate on the link between gender inequality and development. To do so, the dissertation first documents global gender differences in life expectancy and sex ratios (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and marriage age (to cover socioeconomic status); and in parliamentary seats and suffrage (to cover political rights) over the last century. These...

  12. Pass or Fail in the Swedish school? : A historical perspective on citizenship, diversity and social justice

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Laila

    2013-01-01

    The article aims to discuss the school's education for citizenship and democracy in light of the economic crisis in the early 1990s and the subsequent depletion of the Swedish welfare state. Increased economic inequality, exclusion and marginalization of the school as well as in society in general raise the question about the school equivalency. The discussion sets out from a theoretical approach and a historical perspective to visualize how the meaning and policies of citizenship and democra...

  13. Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: An historical perspective and future opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbles, John [Steel Industry Consultant, Mason, OH (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Renowned industry expert Dr. John Stubbles has projected the energy savings that the U.S. steel industry could reasonably expect to achieve in the report, Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: Historical Perspective and Future Opportunities (PDF 432 KB). The report examines the potential impacts of state-of-the-art technologies and operating practices, as well as structural changes in the industry itself.

  14. Ophthalmology's future in the next decade: a historical and comparative perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Day, S H

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To gain a historical and comparative perspective about the future of ophthalmology within the profession of medicine. METHODS: A literature search is made of disciplines other than medicine (history, sociology, philosophy, economics, and ethics) in order to assess factors responsible for survival and healthiness of a profession. The "learned" professions (medicine, law, and theology) are assessed. Other "professional" careers valued by society (sports and classical music) are reviewe...

  15. A Brief Historical Perspective on Dental Implants, Their Surface Coatings and Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Celeste M

    2014-01-01

    This review highlights a brief, chronological sequence of the history of dental implants. This historical perspective begins with ancient civilizations and spotlights predominant dentists and their contributions to implant development through time. The physical, chemical and biologic properties of various dental implant surfaces and coatings are discussed, and specific surface treatments include an overview of machined implants, etched implants, and sand-blasted implants. Dental implant coati...

  16. North American osprey populations and contaminants: Historic and contemporary perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Johnson, Branden L.

    2010-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) populations were adversely affected by DDT and perhaps other contaminants in the United States and elsewhere. Reduced productivity, eggshell thinning, and high DDE concentrations in eggs were the signs associated with declining osprey populations in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. The species was one of the first studied on a large scale to bring contaminant issues into focus. Although few quantitative population data were available prior to the 1960s, many osprey populations in North America were studied during the 1960s and 1970s with much learned about basic life history and biology. This article reviews the historical and current effects of contaminants on regional osprey populations. Breeding populations in many regions of North America showed post-DDT-era (1972) population increases of varying magnitudes, with many populations now appearing to stabilize at much higher numbers than initially reported in the 1970s and 1980s. However, the magnitude of regional population increases in the United States between 1981 (first Nationwide Survey, ≈8,000 pairs), when some recovery had already occurred, 1994 (second survey, ≈14,200), and 2001 (third survey, ≈16,000–19,000), or any other years, is likely not a simple response to the release from earlier contaminant effects, but a response to multi-factorial effects. This indirect "contaminant effects" measurement comparing changes (i.e., recovery) in post-DDT-era population numbers over time is probably confounded by changing human attitudes toward birds of prey (shooting, destroying nests, etc.), changing habitats, changing fish populations, and perhaps competition from other species. The species' adaptation to newly created reservoirs and its increasing use of artificial nesting structures (power poles, nesting platforms, cell towers, channel markers, offshore duck blinds, etc.) are two important factors. The timing of the initial use of artificial nesting structures, which replaced

  17. Surgery for anterior cruciate ligament deficiency: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Oliver S

    2012-01-01

    ACL reconstruction as a common procedure within the realm of most surgeons' ability. More recently, the principle of anatomic ACL reconstruction, aiming at the functional restoration of native ACL dimensions and insertion sites, has been introduced, superseding the somewhat ill-advised concept of isometric graft placement. Double-bundle reconstruction is gaining in popularity, and combined extra- and intra-articular procedures are seeing a revival, but more accurate and reliable pre- and post-operative assessment tools are required to provide customised treatment options and appropriate evaluation and comparability of long-term results. Modern ACL surgery is united in the common goal of re-establishing joint homoeostasis with normal knee kinematics and function which may ultimately assist in reducing the prevalence of post-operative joint degeneration. This review hopes to provide an insight into the historical developments of ACL surgery and the various controversies surrounding its progress. Level of evidence V.

  18. Assessment of Drought Severity Techniques - A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panu, U. S.; Crinklaw, T.

    2011-12-01

    Droughts are natural phenomenon experienced by all nations across the globe. Drought inherently means a scarcity of water, which adversely affects various sectors of human socio-economic spectrum, e.g. agriculture, hydropower generation, water supply, industry, recreation, navigation, fish production etc. The prime cause of droughts is the occurrence of less than optimal (below normal) precipitation, which has its origin to various natural reasons, the most important being the global climatic forcing. Droughts are also referred to as sustained and regionally extensive occurrences of below average water availability which invariably cultivate into environmental disasters. The evolution of a drought event is defined into four types; meteorological, agricultural, hydrological, and socio-economic. Drought affects all aspects of societal systems irrespective of how it is defined. This has led to a wide range of studies conducted by meteorologists, ecologists, environmentalists, hydrologists, geologists and agricultural scientists in attempts to understand drought processes as required to analyze and predict the impacts of droughts. A conceptual definition, such as a shortage of water relied on by human activity, avoids quantification of a drought event. On the other hand, the purpose of an operational definition is to determine the beginning, termination, and severity of a drought event. The severity assessment of droughts is of primary importance for allocation and management of available water resources. The progression and impact of historical droughts in a region is helpful for developing relationships and techniques to investigate relevant characteristics of droughts. For optimum drought preparedness and mitigative responses, professional bodies need to provide information to private and government agencies in a manner that may also be understood by their employers, stakeholders and the general public. Drought indicators bridge this communication gap between all

  19. Woodland caribou management in Alberta: historical perspectives and future opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elston H. Dzus

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou conservation has been the topic of much debate for the past few decades. By the late 1970s there was growing concern about declining woodland caribou populations and the interaction between industrial activities and woodland caribou. Initial concerns led to the closure of the licensed hunting season in 1981. Early confrontation between government and industry in the late 1980s transformed into a series of evolving collaborative ventures. Improving our understanding of the basic ecology of woodland caribou in Alberta was at the center of early research efforts; more recent studies have examined the effects of industrial activities on caribou and effectiveness of various mitigation factors. Despite having amassed an impressive body of information from a research and monitoring perspective, progress on implementing effective management actions has been less dramatic. Industry has endured significant costs implementing a variety of perceived conservation initiatives, but caribou populations continued to decline through the last few decades. While some parties feel more research is needed, there is growing consensus that changes to habitat as induced by human activities are important factors influencing current caribou declines. Predation is a proximate cause of most caribou mortality. Climate change mediated alterations to habitat and predator-prey interactions remain a key source of uncertainty relative to future caribou population trends. Management actions will need to deal with long term habitat changes associated with human land use and short term implications of increased predation. In 2005, the provincial minister responsible for caribou conservation responded to the draft 2004 recovery plan and created the Alberta Caribou Committee (ACC. The goal of the ACC is to maintain and recover woodland caribou in Alberta’s forest ecosystems while providing opportunities for resource development, following guidance provided by the

  20. Moderls of Internationzation of Two Argentine Pharmaceutical Companies in Historical Perspective: The Cases of Bagó and Sidus

    OpenAIRE

    Campins, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Internationalization is not a simple decision but rather a complex strategy that requires the presence of tangible and intangible resources that, in the case of a family firm, call for careful analysis. To understand this process, the present study reconstructs the historical trajectories of two important Argentine laboratories, Bagó and Sidus, in historical perspective, using the stage approach of the Uppsala school (U-model) and the perspective of resources and capacities (resource-based vi...

  1. Altruistic cell suicide in relation to radiation hormesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high radiosensitivity to killing of undifferentiated primordial cells (Bergonie and Tribondeau 1906) can be described as a manifestation of the suicide of injured cells for the benefit of an organism as a whole if their suicide stimulates proliferation of healthy cells to replace them, resulting in complete elimination of injury. This process is called cell-replacement repair, to distinguish it from DNA repair which is rarely complete. 'Cell suicide', 'programmed death' and 'apoptosis' are terms used for the same type of active cell death. Cell suicide is not always altruistic. Altruistic suicide in Drosophila, mice, humans, plants, and E. coli is reviewed in this paper to illustrate its widely different facets. The hypothesis that in animals, radiation hormesis results from altruistic cell suicide is proposed. This hypothesis can explain the hormetic effect of low doses of radiation on the immune system in mice. In contrast, in plants, radiation hormesis seems to be mainly due to non-altruistic cell death. (author)

  2. Insects, Insecticides and Hormesis: Evidence and Considerations for Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, G. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Insects are ubiquitous, crucial components of almost all terrestrial and fresh water ecosystems. In agricultural settings they are subjected to, intentionally or unintentionally, an array of synthetic pesticides and other chemical stressors. These ecological underpinnings, the amenability of insects to laboratory and field experiments, and our strong knowledgebase in insecticide toxicology, make the insect-insecticide model an excellent one to study many questions surrounding hormesis. Moreov...

  3. Testing elementary and secondary school students' ability to perform historical perspective taking: the constructing of valid and reliable measure instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Huijgen,T.; Boxtel, van, C.; Grift, van de, Wim J.C.M.; Holthuis, P.

    2014-01-01

    Historical reasoning competencies play an important role in history education. However, valid and reliable large-scale measurement instruments to assess these competencies are scarce. This study considers two instruments for measuring students’ ability to perform historical perspective taking (HPT) as a historical reasoning competency. The instruments have been tested for validity and reliability among 1,270 Dutch upper elementary and secondary school students, ranging in age from 10 to 17 ye...

  4. Hormesis and Cellular Quality Control: A Possible Explanation for the Molecular Mechanisms that Underlie the Benefits of Mild Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegant, F.A.C.; de Poot, S A H; Boers-Trilles, V.E.; Schreij, A.M.A

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the detrimental action of severe stress conditions, the beneficial effects of mild stress, known as hormesis, is increasingly discussed and studied. A variety of applications for hormesis in risk assessment processes, anti-ageing strategies and clinical therapies have been proposed. The molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of hormesis, however, are not yet fully understood. A possible mechanism that has been proposed for hormesis, the homoeostasis overshoot hypothesis...

  5. Clarifying appeals to dignity in medical ethics from an historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes Jm

    2009-03-01

    Over the past few decades the concept of (human) dignity has deeply pervaded medical ethics. Appeals to dignity, however, are often unclear. As a result some prefer to eliminate the concept from medical ethics, whereas others try to render it useful in this context. We think that appeals to dignity in medical ethics can be clarified by considering the concept from an historical perspective. Firstly, on the basis of historical texts we propose a framework for defining the concept in medical debates. The framework shows that dignity can occur in a relational, an unconditional, a subjective and a Kantian form. Interestingly, all forms relate to one concept since they have four features in common: dignity refers, in a restricted sense, to the 'special status of human beings'; it is based on essential human characteristics; the subject of dignity should live up to it; and it is a vulnerable concept, it can be lost or violated. We argue that being explicit about the meaning of dignity will prevent dignity from becoming a conversation-stopper in moral debate. Secondly, an historical perspective on dignity shows that it is not yet time to dispose of dignity in medical ethics. At least Kantian and relational dignity can be made useful in medical ethics. PMID:19161568

  6. Advances for prosthetic technology from historical perspective to current status to future application

    CERN Document Server

    LeMoyne, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the advances in transtibial prosthetic technology and targets research in the evolution of the powered prosthesis such as the BiOM, which was derived from considerable research and development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The concept of the book spans the historical evolution of prosthetic applications from passive to new and futuristic robotic prosthetic technologies.  The author describes the reasons for amputation, surgical procedures, and an historical perspective of the prosthesis for the lower limb. He also addresses the phases and sub-phases of gait and compensatory mechanisms arising for a transtibial prosthesis and links the compensatory mechanisms to long-term morbidities.  The general technologies for gait analysis central to prosthetic design and the inherent biomechanics foundations for analysis are also explored.  The book reports on recent-past to current-term applications with passive elastic prostheses.  The core of the book deals with futuristic robo...

  7. Historical perspective and contemporary management of acute coronary syndromes: from MONA to THROMBINS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kristopher P; Conti, C Richard; Winchester, David E

    2015-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains a major burden on morbidity and mortality in the United States. Medical professionals and students often use the mnemonic 'MONA' (morphine, oxygen, nitroglycerin and aspirin) to recall treatments for ACS; however, this list of therapies is outdated. We provide a historical perspective on 'MONA,' attempt to uncover its origin in the medical literature, and demonstrate the myriad changes that have occurred over the last 50 years of ACS management. We have developed a novel mnemonic, 'THROMBINS2' (thienopyridines, heparin/enoxaparin, renin-angiotensin system blockers, oxygen, morphine, beta blocker, intervention, nitroglycerin, statin/salicylate) to help bedside clinicians recall all the elements of contemporary ACS management. We demonstrate the mortality benefit for each component of contemporary ACS management, correlating the continued improvement with historical data on mortality after myocardial infarction. We encourage providers to utilize this mnemonic to explore options and guide treatments in ACS patients. PMID:26457728

  8. Historical perspective and contemporary management of acute coronary syndromes: from MONA to THROMBINS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kristopher P; Conti, C Richard; Winchester, David E

    2015-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains a major burden on morbidity and mortality in the United States. Medical professionals and students often use the mnemonic 'MONA' (morphine, oxygen, nitroglycerin and aspirin) to recall treatments for ACS; however, this list of therapies is outdated. We provide a historical perspective on 'MONA,' attempt to uncover its origin in the medical literature, and demonstrate the myriad changes that have occurred over the last 50 years of ACS management. We have developed a novel mnemonic, 'THROMBINS2' (thienopyridines, heparin/enoxaparin, renin-angiotensin system blockers, oxygen, morphine, beta blocker, intervention, nitroglycerin, statin/salicylate) to help bedside clinicians recall all the elements of contemporary ACS management. We demonstrate the mortality benefit for each component of contemporary ACS management, correlating the continued improvement with historical data on mortality after myocardial infarction. We encourage providers to utilize this mnemonic to explore options and guide treatments in ACS patients.

  9. Linear No-Threshold Model VS. Radiation Hormesis

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality data have been used in the past to justify the use of the linear no-threshold (LNT) model for estimating the carcinogenic effects of low dose radiation. An analysis of the recently updated atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality dose-response data shows that the data no longer support the LNT model but are consistent with a radiation hormesis model when a correction is applied for a likely bias in the baseline cancer mortality rate. If the validity of t...

  10. Paradigm lost, paradigm found: The re-emergence of hormesis as a fundamental dose response model in the toxicological sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, Edward J. [Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: edwardc@schoolph.umass.edu

    2005-12-15

    This paper provides an assessment of the toxicological basis of the hormetic dose-response relationship including issues relating to its reproducibility, frequency, and generalizability across biological models, endpoints measured and chemical class/physical stressors and implications for risk assessment. The quantitative features of the hormetic dose response are described and placed within toxicological context that considers study design, temporal assessment, mechanism, and experimental model/population heterogeneity. Particular emphasis is placed on an historical evaluation of why the field of toxicology rejected hormesis in favor of dose response models such as the threshold model for assessing non-carcinogens and linear no threshold (LNT) models for assessing carcinogens. The paper argues that such decisions were principally based on complex historical factors that emerged from the intense and protracted conflict between what is now called traditional medicine and homeopathy and the overly dominating influence of regulatory agencies on the toxicological intellectual agenda. Such regulatory agency influence emphasized hazard/risk assessment goals such as the derivation of no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) and the lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) which were derived principally from high dose studies using few doses, a feature which restricted perceptions and distorted judgments of several generations of toxicologists concerning the nature of the dose-response continuum. Such historical and technical blind spots lead the field of toxicology to not only reject an established dose-response model (hormesis), but also the model that was more common and fundamental than those that the field accepted. - The quantitative features of the hormetic dose/response are described and placed within the context of toxicology.

  11. Paradigm lost, paradigm found: The re-emergence of hormesis as a fundamental dose response model in the toxicological sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an assessment of the toxicological basis of the hormetic dose-response relationship including issues relating to its reproducibility, frequency, and generalizability across biological models, endpoints measured and chemical class/physical stressors and implications for risk assessment. The quantitative features of the hormetic dose response are described and placed within toxicological context that considers study design, temporal assessment, mechanism, and experimental model/population heterogeneity. Particular emphasis is placed on an historical evaluation of why the field of toxicology rejected hormesis in favor of dose response models such as the threshold model for assessing non-carcinogens and linear no threshold (LNT) models for assessing carcinogens. The paper argues that such decisions were principally based on complex historical factors that emerged from the intense and protracted conflict between what is now called traditional medicine and homeopathy and the overly dominating influence of regulatory agencies on the toxicological intellectual agenda. Such regulatory agency influence emphasized hazard/risk assessment goals such as the derivation of no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) and the lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) which were derived principally from high dose studies using few doses, a feature which restricted perceptions and distorted judgments of several generations of toxicologists concerning the nature of the dose-response continuum. Such historical and technical blind spots lead the field of toxicology to not only reject an established dose-response model (hormesis), but also the model that was more common and fundamental than those that the field accepted. - The quantitative features of the hormetic dose/response are described and placed within the context of toxicology

  12. Johann P. Arnason & Kurt A. Raaflaub, The Roman Empire in Context: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (Chichester: Wiley & Sons, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gibbons

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arnason and Raaflaub’s edited volume, The Roman Empire in Context: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, is the fifth volume in a series entitled The Ancient World: Comparative Histories. The overarching aim of the series is to bring a comparative perspective to studies of ancient histories, and earlier titles focus either on content or geography. This is the only volume to date that focuses on a specific civilization, and Rome is of course significant enough to merit its own volume.

  13. Indexing Policy in Historical and Doctrinal Perspective: A Survey of Recent Experience and Theoretical Development

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    Paul D. McNelis

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Indexing Policy in Historical and Doctrinal Perspective: A Survey of Recent Experience and Theoretical Development This paper surveys recent experience with indexation as well as the evolving theoretical developments during the last twelve years.The first part concentrates on recent experiences, first in those countries with long-term indexation experience, then in those where indexation was reduced or terminated (the Southern Cone Countries us well os Finland and Iceland, and where indexing has been practiced under conditions of moderate inflation.The second part summarizes recent theoretial developments on indexation, both in closed and in open economies. The focus in on the determination of the "optimal" indexing arrangement, and the restrictions which optimal indexing policies place on exchange rate and monetary policy. It evaluates the usefulness of these models, in term of their ability to explain recent experience as well as to offer policy recommendations for current problem.

  14. Assessing the Constructive Potential of Union Citizenship A Socio-Historical Perspective

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    Antje Wiener

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available In European integration studies citizenship policy has not received much attention as a practice. Instead much of the literature has predominantly focused on legal assessments of Union citizenship shedding light on the limitations of supranational citizenship compared to the familiar statist concepts of citizenship. Legal approaches have thus often adopted a minimalist perspective on citizenship, establishing what Union citizenship is not leaving aside the constructive potential of Union citizenship. This paper seeks to demonstrate that a constructive perspective on the practice of citizenship facilitates valuable information about the creation of the institutionalised terms of citizenship over time. If it is true that Union citizenship is different from other types of citizenship, what is new about it? Constructive approaches suggest, that if we are to establish the dynamics which characterise Union citizenship analyses need to allow for a way of appreciating historical variability of context and contents of citizenship. To that end the major part of this paper seeks to develop a way of assessing the constructive potential of citizenship based on its newly institutionalised terms such as the shared values, objectives and regulations that have been established by citizenship policy over time. Beyond describing the emergence of EC/EU citizenship the paper promotes a systematic approach to reconstruct the policy in this supranational context. It is assumed that citizenship did not emerge out of the blue on the agenda of the Maastricht Intergovernmental Conference but that it is possible to identify agenda-setting steps in earlier stages of the policy process. If this assumption is correct, then a historical account could bring the various steps of citizenship policy which led to the history-making decision at Maastricht summit to the fore.

  15. Assessing the Constructive Potential of Union Citizenship – A Socio-Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Wiener

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available In European integration studies citizenship policy has not received much attention as a practice. Instead much of the literature has predominantly focused on legal assessments of Union citizenship shedding light on the limitations of supranational citizenship – compared to the familiar statist concepts of citizenship. Legal approaches have thus often adopted a minimalist perspective on citizenship, establishing what Union citizenship is not leaving aside the constructive potential of Union citizenship. This paper seeks to demonstrate that a constructive perspective on the practice of citizenship facilitates valuable information about the creation of the institutionalised terms of citizenship over time. If it is true that Union citizenship is different from other types of citizenship, what is new about it? Constructive approaches suggest, that if we are to establish the dynamics which characterise Union citizenship analyses need to allow for a way of appreciating historical variability of context and contents of citizenship. To that end the major part of this paper seeks to develop a way of assessing the constructive potential of citizenship based on its newly institutionalised terms such as the shared values, objectives and regulations that have been established by citizenship policy over time. Beyond describing the emergence of EC/EU citizenship the paper promotes a systematic approach to reconstruct the policy in this supranational context. It is assumed that citizenship did not emerge out of the blue on the agenda of the Maastricht Intergovernmental Conference but that it is possible to identify agenda-setting steps in earlier stages of the policy process. If this assumption is correct, then a historical account could bring the various steps of citizenship policy which led to the history-making decision at Maastricht summit to the fore.

  16. Heritage Conservation and Urban Landscaping of Ancient Pan Pool Neighborhood, Qufu: a Historical and Indigenous Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchun Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gu Pan Pool neighborhood got its name because of Gu Pan Chi, (古泮池,the ancient Pan Pool, located in the southeastern part of Confucius’ birthplace, Qufu, the birth place of Confucius with a history of 3000 year. Gu Pan Pool has been recently under preservation with the joint efforts of World Bank cultural heritage conservation project and the local municipal government. With disparate interests in mind, the three stakeholders of heritage, the world bank, Qufu municipal government and local residents are contradictory with each other in the regeneration process, in which the local voices are often ignored. The purpose of this paper is to rethink heritage making from a historical and indigenous perspective in the contemporary Chinese urban historic landscape planning process. The author contends that the cultural value and pluralism embedded in the ritual way of thinking in Chinese Classics inherited and transmitted for thousands of years could be an alternative way of thinking for the landscape planning practices in the homogenizing culture of global capitalism. This research aims to reinterpret and re-activate Confucianism as cultural heritage to enrich the understanding and hence the sustainability related to human action in urban spaces with emphasis on planning processes in contemporary China.

  17. Strategy for Self-Centered Development from the Perspective of an Historical Analysis of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pérez Sánchez

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available After acknowledging the three phases of historical analysis of development, and especially considering the research work done in the last twenty-five years by the Germans Dieter Sengcheus and Ulrich Mezel, the author presents the principle elements of a self-centered development strategy which highlights the following perspectives:dissociation, economic restructuring, and the new forms of an international division of labor among Third World economies.This document calls into question the underlying operation of the conventional theory of development and its current policy, which call for the increasing integration of the Third World in the world market as a means of going beyond development as it is commonly understood. Though being an integral element in the theory of self-centereddevelopment, temporary dissociation from the world market is proposed. The justification for the strategy of dissociation, excepting the recourse to some historical and paradigmatic reflections sketched by Friedrich List, has kept itself, of necessity, to the global and abstract level. This position is nothing, however, but a most direct analytical result deduced fromthe principle theoretical beginnings and the empirical observations of both the Theory of Dependence and Peripheral Capitalism. Although the review vents its criticism on (and mainly questions the practicality of the aforesaid conception, a more penetratingunderstanding of what the wager for such a strategy entails is found. Thus, the notion of self-centered development influences and gives impulse to a most extensive ideologicallymarked debate about the alternative conceptions of development.

  18. Record Rainfall and Flooding in Texas and Oklahoma, May 2015; Extent and Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Heavy rains began in Texas and Oklahoma in early May 2015 and continued through the end of the month. Both states set all-time records for mean statewide precipitation; Texas - 227mm (8.93 in), Oklahoma - 357mm (14.06 in) -- for the period of record (1895-2015). These new statewide records were set despite the fact that the western portions of both Texas and Oklahoma received only modest rainfall. Parameters used in this study to evaluate the magnitude and historical perspective of the May 2015 rainfall included daily and total storm precipitation, stream flow, changes in the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and changes in reservoir water levels. Although the Dallas-Fort Worth area and the cities of Austin, Houston and Oklahoma City sustained the most serious flood events, more than 100 localities in the two states reported some flooding. The region with the largest amounts of precipitation extended from north-central Texas northeastward into eastern Oklahoma. Cumulative May rainfall in this region exceeded 508 mm (20 in). Provisional stream flow data for the river basins most affected -- Red River, Brazos, Colorado, and Trinity rivers -- reveal significant peaks, but the peaks generally are within the ranges of the historical record. With the exception of the Red River the most significant flooding relative to historic flood peaks, occurred on tributaries to the major rivers. Comparison of the PDSI for the months of April and June reveals the dramatic impact of the precipitation during May. By the first week of June both states are classified as moderately moist - with the exception of the extreme northeastern corner of Oklahoma. Changes in Reservoir levels (as a percent of capacity) between April and June was greatest for the Rolling Plains region (+ 15.5%), with lesser, but significant gains in South and Central Texas and the Central Oklahoma region.

  19. Modernity Strikes Back? A Historical Perspective on the Latest Increase in Interpersonal Violence (1960–1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Eisner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a plethora of criminological explanations why criminal violence increased during the three decades between the early 1960s and the early 1990s. This paper argues that most available interpretations are lacking in three respects: they lack a historical perspective that anchors the three critical decades in a wider understanding of long-term trends; they take the nation-state as their unit of analysis and disregard important commonalities across the Western world; and they pay insufficient attention to different trends in broad categories of physical violence. This paper therefore takes a macro-level and long-term perspective on violent crime, focussing on European homicide during the past 160 years. It demonstrates that the period of increase was preceded by a long-term decline and convergence of homicide rates from the 1840s to the 1950s. Also, it shows that both the decline and the increase primarily resulted from temporal variation in the likelihood of physical aggression between men in public space. It argues that explanations of these common trends need to take into account broad long-term cultural change common to Western societies. In particular, the paper suggests that shifts in culturally transmitted and institutionally embedded ideals of the conduct of life may provide an explanation for long-term change in levels of interpersonal violence.

  20. Research Findings on Radiation Hormesis and Radon Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation hormesis research in Japan to determine the validity of Luckey's claims has revealed information on the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific data of animal tests we obtained and successful results actually brought by radon therapy on human patients show us a clearer understanding of the health effects of low-level radiation. We obtained many animal test results and epidemiological survey data through our research activities cooperating with more than ten universities in Japan, categorized as follows: 1. suppression of cancer by enhancement of the immune system based on gene activation; 2. rejuvenation and suppression of aging by increasing cell membrane permeability and enzyme syntheses; 3. adaptive response by activation of gene expression on DNA repair and cell apoptosis; 4. pain relief and stress moderation by hormone formation in the brain and central nervous system; 5. avoidance and therapy of obstinate diseases by enhancing damage control systems and form one formation

  1. Mitochondrial stress extends lifespan in C. elegans through neuronal hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglioni, Silvia; Schiavi, Alfonso; Runci, Alessandra; Shaik, Anjumara; Ventura, Natascia

    2014-08-01

    Progressive neuronal deterioration accompanied by sensory functions decline is typically observed during aging. On the other hand, structural or functional alterations of specific sensory neurons extend lifespan in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Hormesis is a phenomenon by which the body benefits from moderate stress of various kinds which at high doses are harmful. Several studies indicate that different stressors can hormetically extend lifespan in C. elegans and suggest that hormetic effects could be exploited as a strategy to slow down aging and the development of age-associated (neuronal) diseases in humans. Mitochondria play a central role in the aging process and hormetic-like bimodal dose-response effects on C. elegans lifespan have been observed following different levels of mitochondrial stress. Here we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial stress may hormetically extend C. elegans lifespan through subtle neuronal alterations. In support of our hypothesis we find that life-lengthening dose of mitochondrial stress reduces the functionality of a subset of ciliated sensory neurons in young animals. Notably, the same pro-longevity mitochondrial treatments rescue the sensory deficits in old animals. We also show that mitochondrial stress extends C. elegans lifespan acting in part through genes required for the functionality of those neurons. To our knowledge this is the first study describing a direct causal connection between sensory neuron dysfunction and extended longevity following mitochondrial stress. Our work supports the potential anti-aging effect of neuronal hormesis and open interesting possibility for the development of therapeutic strategy for age-associated neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Resurgence of malaria in Bombay (Mumbai) in the 1990s: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, V

    2000-06-01

    Bombay has achieved extraordinary success in controlling its malaria problem for nearly six decades by relying primarily on legislative measures and non-insecticidal methods of mosquito abatement. In 1992, however, malaria reemerged in Bombay with a vengeance. During 1992-1997, the city witnessed a manifold increase in the number of malaria cases diagnosed and treated by the public health system. The large number of malaria patients treated by private practitioners was not recorded by the municipal malaria surveillance system during this period. In 1995, at the peak of the resurgence, public health officials of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay (MCGB) confirmed that 170 persons in the city had died due to malaria. The crisis was unprecedented in Bombay's modern public health history. In response to intense criticism from the media, the city's public health officials attributed the resurgence to the global phenomenon of mosquito-vector resistance to insecticides, and Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Local scientists who investigated the problem offered no support to this explanation. So what might explain the resurgence? What factors led the problem to reach an epidemic level in a matter of two or three years? In addressing the above principal questions, this paper adopts a historical perspective and argues that in the resurgence of malaria in Bombay in the 1990s, there is an element of the 'presence of the past'. In many ways the present public health crisis in Bombay resembles the health scenario that characterized the city at the turn of the 19th century. It is possible to draw parallels between the early public health history of malaria control in Bombay, which was punctuated by events that followed the bubonic plague epidemic of 1896, and the present-day malaria epidemic punctuated by the threat of a plague epidemic in 1994. As such, the paper covers a long period, of almost 100 years. This time-depth is used to

  3. [The concept of mental care of a family health team from a historical-cultural perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Marcelo Dalla; Martins, Sueli Terezinha Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims at analyzing the individual senses and social meanings of mental care actions carried out by professionals working in a Family Health Care Team. The study is based on Vigotsky's (1896-1934) theoretical perspective of a historical and cultural psychology. The work is part of a participant research and as such conducted in the context of a field research. It was observed that the team took into consideration the relevance of social determinants for the disease of the target population, the need for making use of diversified care strategies reaching beyond the clinical setting, the importance of taking care of their own mental health, as well as difficulties related to approaching the families of the patients. We emphasize the importance of overcoming the exclusiveness of the biomedical determination of the health-disease process as pointed out in the operational principles of the Family Health Care Strategy, expressed by responsiveness as a care tool, the establishment of relationships and continued care. PMID:19142322

  4. Regulation of human sexual behaviour, sex revolution and emergence of AIDS: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A

    1997-01-01

    No Society in the World permits fully free sexual behaviour. All societies utilize a variety of ways for regulation of sexual behaviour. This has been happening since antiquity. Culture also affects sexual behaviour. In western civilization there was a healthly outlook towards sexuality during Greco-Roman era. In Indian civilization also human sexuality was considered an inseparable part of life and was given a higher place in human life. Many treatises on human sexuality were written. Sex was considered as an art and was given an exalted status through the medium of sculpture work in temples of Konark & Khajuraho. But in Christian civilization sexual acts and related areas were considered immoral, debasing, dirty and abhoring. Sex-related ideas/thoughts were considered immoral in Churches and were given low status in society. Rapidly occurring social changes in 20th century- World wars I & II, urbanization, modernization, industrialization, women emancipation and strong reaction to unprecedented suppression of 19th century suppression of sexuality led to advent of sexual revolution in America & other western countries. Liberal-sex spread throughout the society. Sexual promiscuity, prostitution, homosexuality, group-sex were socially accepted on a wide scale. Presumably as a result of these tendencies a disease like AIDS has now spread from America to the whole world. Present article is an effort of analysis of historical perspective of this problem. PMID:12575704

  5. Profiles in chemistry: a historical perspective on the national organic symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Edward E; Myers, Brian J

    2013-06-21

    This perspective delineates the history of the National Organic Chemistry Symposium (NOS) and, in doing so, traces the development of organic chemistry over the past 88 years. The NOS is the premier event sponsored by the ACS Division of Organic Chemistry (ORGN) and has been held in odd-numbered years since 1925, with the exceptions of 1943 and 1945. During the 42 symposia, 332 chemists have given 549 plenary lectures. The role the NOS played in the launch of The Journal of Organic Chemistry and Organic Reactions and the initiation of the Roger Adams Award are discussed. Representative examples highlighting the chemistry presented in each era are described, and the evolution of the field is examined by assigning each NOS talk to one of seven subdisciplines and analyzing how the number of talks in each subdiscipline has changed over time. Comparisons of the demographics of speakers, attendees, and ORGN members are made, and superlatives are noted. Personal interest stories of the speakers are discussed, along with the relationships among them, especially their academic lineage. Logistical aspects of the NOS and their historical trends are reviewed. Finally, the human side of science is examined, where over the past century, the NOS has been intertwined with some of the most heated debates in organic chemistry. Conflicts and controversies involving free radicals, reaction mechanisms, and nonclassical carbocations are discussed.

  6. Spa Treatment (Balneotherapy for Fibromyalgia—A Qualitative-Narrative Review and a Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Ablin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform a narrative review of spa therapy for management of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS, evaluating this traditional time-honored form of therapy in a historical perspective. Methods. Medline was searched using the terms “Spa therapy,” “Balneotherapy,” and “Fibromyalgia” between 1990 (year of ACR fibromyalgia criteria publication and April 2013. The Cochrane database was also searched. Publications relating to the implementation of spa therapy and related practices over the centuries were identified through references, searched, and reviewed. Results. Reports of balneotherapy were described from diverse locations throughout Europe and Asia, and various forms of water-related therapy have been incorporated for many musculoskeletal indications. In the management of FMS, spa therapy has generally been shown to be well accepted and moderately effective for symptom reduction. Conclusion. While achieving high-quality evidence-based conclusions is difficult for complex natural therapies such as spa therapy, the existing evidence indicates a positive effect in management of FMS. In view of the long history of this modality in the management of rheumatic pain as well as the inherent difficulties related to pharmacological treatment, the role of spa therapy should currently be recognized as part of a therapeutic program for FMS.

  7. The Canadian Management of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Historical and Scientific Perspective, 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Alexandra E; Shamy, Michel C F

    2015-11-01

    On February 11, 2015, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency announced that a cow born and raised in Alberta had tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease. BSE is a prion disease of cattle that, when transmitted to humans, produces a fatal neurodegenerative disease known as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We believe that this latest case of BSE in Canadian cattle suggests the timeliness of a review of the management of BSE in Canada from a historically and scientifically informed perspective. In this article, we ask: how did the Canadian management of BSE between 1990 and 2014 engage with the contemporary understanding of BSE's human health implications? We propose that Canadian policies largely ignored the implicit medical nature of BSE, treating it as a purely agricultural and veterinary issue. In this way, policies to protect Canadians were often delayed and incomplete, in a manner disturbingly reminiscent of Britain's failed management of BSE. Despite assurances to the contrary, it is premature to conclude that BSE (and with it the risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is a thing of Canada's past: BSE remains very much an issue in Canada's present. PMID:26357946

  8. A cultural historical theoretical perspective of discourse and design in the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Megan

    2015-06-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser have initiated an important conversation in science education as they use sociocultural theory to introduce design based scenarios into the science classroom. This response seeks to expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article The discourse of design- based science classroom activities by using a specific perspective within a sociocultural framework. Through using a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The history and development of higher mental functions, Plenum Press, New York, 1987) reading of design based activity and discourse in the science classroom, it is proposed that learning should be an integral part of these processes. Therefore, everyday and scientific concepts are explained and expanded in relation to Inventing Graphing and discourse presented in Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article. This response reports on the importance of teacher's being explicit in relation to connecting everyday and scientific concepts alongside design based activity and related science concepts when teaching students. It is argued that explicit teaching of concepts should be instigated prior to analysis of discourse in the science classroom as it is only with experience and understanding these processes that students have the resources to call upon to argue like practicing scientists.

  9. Analysing young children’s thinking about natural phenomena: A sociocultural/cultural historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JILL ROBBINS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vygotsky’s sociocultural/cultural historical theory emphasised the notion of semiotic mediation – or how thinking is transformed through signs (such as language and cultural tools (such as drawings from an intermental to an intramental plane. While the ideas of Vygotsky have become well-accepted within research in early childhood education in Australia, they are somewhat slower to be adopted within science education research. Yet they offer the potential for gaining new understandings of how young children’s thinking about the world develops. This article will demonstrate one way in which aspects of Vygotsky’s (1987-1999 work, particularly his ideas about semiotic mediation can inform analysis of children’s thinking about the world. Focusing on conversations with children about natural phenomena, and drawings they completed during those conversations, the analysis identifies a number of significant issues that are not normally revealed within the dominant forms of analysis which draw on constructivist perspectives. The findings, which reveal complex and dynamic aspects of children’s thinking, have implications for both teachers and researchers working with young children – especially within science education and science education research.

  10. Challenges and opportunities for the Olympic Movement in future decades: an educational and historical-educational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wassong, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenges faced by the Olympic Movement from an educational and historical-educational perspective. The focus is on three ideas which all have the potential for development into academic projects which would benefit the Olympic Movement. Firstly, there is a need to analyze the relevance of Pierre de Coubertin to today's Olympic Movement. Examples are given on how some of Coubertin's ideas can be transferred from their late 19th century roots to the Olympic world of t...

  11. Controlling our destinies: Historical, philosophical, social and ethical perspectives on the Human Genome Project: Final report, July 1, 1995-June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, P.R.

    1996-09-25

    This report briefly describes the efforts by the organizing committee in preparation for the conference entitled Controlling Our Destinies: Historical, Philosophical, Social, and Ethical Perspectives on the Human Genome Project. The conference was held October 5-8, 1995.

  12. Structured Development and Promotion of a Research Field: Hormesis in Biology, Toxicology, and Environmental Regulatory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushak, Paul; Elliott, Kevin C

    2015-12-01

    The ability of powerful and well-funded interest groups to steer scientific research in ways that advance their goals has become a significant social concern. This steering ability is increasingly being recognized in the peer-reviewed scientific literature and in findings of deliberative scientific bodies. This paper provides a case study that illustrates some of the major strategies that can be used to structure and advance a controversial research field. It focuses on hormesis, described as a type of dose-response relationship in toxicology and biology showing low-dose stimulation but high-dose inhibition, or the reverse. Hormesis proponents tout its significance, arguing that substances toxic at high doses and beneficial at lower doses should be regulated less stringently. We identify five strategies employed by hormesis proponents to foster its acceptance: (1) creating institutions focused on supporting hormesis; (2) developing terminology, study designs, and data interpretations that cast it in a favorable light; (3) using bibliometric techniques and surveys to attract attention; (4) aggressively advocating for the phenomenon and challenging critics; and (5) working with outside interest groups to apply the hormesis phenomenon in the economic and political spheres. We also suggest a number of oversight strategies that can be implemented to help promote credible and socially responsible research in cases like this one.

  13. The definition of hormesis and its implications for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der H.; Alink, G.M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    This article comments on some of the basic questions put forward in state-of-the-art discussions on hormesis. There seems to be a need for a better definition of the concept itself and reconsideration of whether all biphasic dose-response curves should be considered representative for hormesis. Horm

  14. Myofascial Trigger Points Then and Now: A Historical and Scientific Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jay P; Thaker, Nikki; Heimur, Juliana; Aredo, Jacqueline V; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Gerber, Lynn

    2015-07-01

    The intent of this article is to discuss the evolving role of the myofascial trigger point (MTrP) in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) from both a historical and scientific perspective. MTrPs are hard, discrete, palpable nodules in a taut band of skeletal muscle that may be spontaneously painful (i.e., active) or painful only on compression (i.e., latent). MPS is a term used to describe a pain condition that can be acute or, more commonly, chronic and involves the muscle and its surrounding connective tissue (e.g. fascia). According to Travell and Simons, MTrPs are central to the syndrome-but are they necessary? Although the clinical study of muscle pain and MTrPs has proliferated over the past two centuries, the scientific literature often seems disjointed and confusing. Unfortunately, much of the terminology, theories, concepts, and diagnostic criteria are inconsistent, incomplete, or controversial. To address these deficiencies, investigators have recently applied clinical, imaging (of skeletal muscle and brain), and biochemical analyses to systematically and objectively study the MTrP and its role in MPS. Data suggest that the soft tissue milieu around the MTrP, neurogenic inflammation, sensitization, and limbic system dysfunction may all play a role in the initiation, amplification, and perpetuation of MPS. The authors chronicle the advances that have led to the current understanding of MTrP pathophysiology and its relationship to MPS, and review the contributions of clinicians and researchers who have influenced and expanded our contemporary level of clinical knowledge and practice.

  15. Stopping the "Flow of Co-Eds and Other Female Species": A Historical Perspective on Gender Discrimination at Southern (U.S.) Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, Amy Thompson

    2009-01-01

    The interrelated nature of gender and racial constructs in the culture of the southern United States accounts for much of the historical prejudice against coeducation in the region's institutions of higher education. This essay offers a historical perspective on gender discrimination on the campuses of Southern universities from the attempts to…

  16. Stress to the Rescue: Is Hormesis a ‘Cure’ For Aging?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahn, Arnold; Olsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact that the phenomenon of hormesis has been known for many years it is still very much an area of controversy just how useful hormetic treatments are in preventing age-related human diseases and increasing life expectancy. Since there are no data in humans demonstrating hormesis as ...... as an effective anti-ageing strategy we turn to a simple model organism for insight. In this review we explore what can be predicted about the usefulness of hormetic treatments in humans based upon studies conducted in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans....

  17. Poseidon's paintbox : historical archives of ocean colour in global-change perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernand, M. R.

    2011-11-01

    In the thesis introduction issues are discussed on the historical background of marine optics and on marine optical devices that were used over the past centuries to observe and measure; as in all sciences, in marine optics we can see a steady development: that of ‘measuring’, beginning many centuries ago, to 'knowing' and since less than a century to the understanding of the phenomenon. Hereafter, six themes are treated successively. The first theme, ‘Ocean optics from 1600 (Hudson) to 1930 (Raman), shift in interpretation of natural water colouring’, addresses the question of why it took so long a time to explain the phenomenon ‘the colouring of the sea’, especially the blue colour, despite the age-long interest of sailors, for practical purposes of navigation and detection of fish - of which more later. The second theme ‘On the history of the Secchi disc’, describes the search to establish methods for the determination of (sea) water clarity concerning purposes of navigation (near coast colour changes) just mentioned to detect shoals, and for a more basic purpose, tracing lost objects. The search to determine the clarity of lakes and seas culminated in the invention of the Secchi disc, used since the late 19th century. The third theme, ‘Spectral analysis of the Forel-Ule ocean colour comparator scale’, addresses the accuracy of a colour scale proposed, used in limnology and oceanography. Scale observations are put into perspective with contemporary measurements on the colour of the sea. The fourth theme, ‘Ocean colour changes in the North Pacific since 1930’, handles the question whether long-term ocean colour changes using historic Forel-Ule observations, in this part of the ocean made very frequently over time, can be determined in relation to global change. In principal global warming may cause a gradual change in ocean colour due to the effect of biological, chemical and physical aspects of the ocean-surface. The fifth theme,

  18. What are check dams made for? An historical perspective from the French experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Carladous, Simon; Recking, Alain

    2015-04-01

    technical and sociological reasons. The Mountain lands' conservation and restoration law of 1882 aimed to better fit local issues. The idea of the presentation is thus to highlight how evolved the historical comprehension of torrential hazards and of the usefulness of check dams in mitigation plans in a changing environment on the technical as well as on the sociological and regulatory points of view. Pioneering scientific and technical works on torrential hydraulics and check dams will be presented. Describing the global context that leads to French laws of 1860,1864 and 1882 will allow us to explain the extensive development of the works in more than a thousand of torrents and a hundred of big landslides. We then will discuss the evolution of technics during the beginning of the 20th century and the changes induced after WWII by the arrival of reinforced-concrete technics. We will conclude the presentation with a synthesis table aiming to highlight the different functions of check dams based on a description of their situations in the watershed, compare to other structures' situations and on shape criteria. This historical perspective will hopefully help people to better understand for which purposes some structures have been built in the past centuries and what lessons can be learnt from this assessment.

  19. Choice of rotatable plug seals for prototype fast breeder reactor: Review of historical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Choice and arrangement of elastomeric inflatable and backup seals as primary and secondary barriers. • With survey (mid-1930s onwards) of reactor, sealing, R&D and rubber technology. • Load, reliability, safety, life and economy of seals and reactors are key factors. • PFBR blends concepts and experience of MOX fuelled FBRs with original solutions. • R&D indicates inflatable seal advanced fluoroelastomer pivotal in unifying nuclear sealing. - Abstract: Choice and arrangement of elastomeric primary inflatable and secondary backup seals for the rotatable plugs (RPs) of 500 MW (e), sodium cooled, pool type, 2-loop, mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is depicted with review of various historical perspectives. Static and dynamic operation, largest diameters (PFBR: ∼6.4 m, ∼4.2 m), widest gaps and variations (5 ± 2 mm) and demanding operating requirements make RP openings on top shield (TS) the most difficult to seal which necessitated extensive development from 1950s to early 1990s. Liquid metal freeze seals with life equivalent to reactor prevailed as primary barrier (France, Japan, U.S.S.R.) during pre-1980s in spite of bulk, cost and complexity due to the abilities to meet zero leakage and resist core disruptive accident (CDA). Redefinition of CDA as beyond design basis accident, tolerable leakage and enhanced economisation drive during post-1980s established elastomeric inflatable seal as primary barrier excepting in U.S.S.R. (MOX fuel, freeze seal) and U.S.A. (metallic fuel). Choice of inflatable seal for PFBR RPs considers these perspectives, inherent advantages of elastomers and those of inflatable seals which maximise seal life. Choice of elastomeric backup seal as secondary barrier was governed by reliability and minimisation as well as distribution of load (temperature, radiation, mist) to maximise seal life. The compact sealing combination brings the hanging RPs at about the same elevation to reduce

  20. Choice of rotatable plug seals for prototype fast breeder reactor: Review of historical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, N.K., E-mail: nksinha@igcar.gov.in; Raj, Baldev, E-mail: baldev.dr@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Choice and arrangement of elastomeric inflatable and backup seals as primary and secondary barriers. • With survey (mid-1930s onwards) of reactor, sealing, R&D and rubber technology. • Load, reliability, safety, life and economy of seals and reactors are key factors. • PFBR blends concepts and experience of MOX fuelled FBRs with original solutions. • R&D indicates inflatable seal advanced fluoroelastomer pivotal in unifying nuclear sealing. - Abstract: Choice and arrangement of elastomeric primary inflatable and secondary backup seals for the rotatable plugs (RPs) of 500 MW (e), sodium cooled, pool type, 2-loop, mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is depicted with review of various historical perspectives. Static and dynamic operation, largest diameters (PFBR: ∼6.4 m, ∼4.2 m), widest gaps and variations (5 ± 2 mm) and demanding operating requirements make RP openings on top shield (TS) the most difficult to seal which necessitated extensive development from 1950s to early 1990s. Liquid metal freeze seals with life equivalent to reactor prevailed as primary barrier (France, Japan, U.S.S.R.) during pre-1980s in spite of bulk, cost and complexity due to the abilities to meet zero leakage and resist core disruptive accident (CDA). Redefinition of CDA as beyond design basis accident, tolerable leakage and enhanced economisation drive during post-1980s established elastomeric inflatable seal as primary barrier excepting in U.S.S.R. (MOX fuel, freeze seal) and U.S.A. (metallic fuel). Choice of inflatable seal for PFBR RPs considers these perspectives, inherent advantages of elastomers and those of inflatable seals which maximise seal life. Choice of elastomeric backup seal as secondary barrier was governed by reliability and minimisation as well as distribution of load (temperature, radiation, mist) to maximise seal life. The compact sealing combination brings the hanging RPs at about the same elevation to reduce

  1. The Inside, Out: Diaries as Entry Points to Historical Perspective-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemisko, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Diaries can serve as meaningful entry points for advancing historical consciousness and develop historical thinking (Seixas, 2002) because they can connect readers/learners with the diverse emotions, thoughts and motivations of the people who wrote them in particular times and particular places. According to philosopher and historian, R.G.…

  2. A Dataset on Comparative Historical National Accounts, ca.1870-1950 : A Time-Series Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.-P.; Woltjer, P.; Ma, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper accompanies the Historical National Accounts datahub which presents an overview of the currently available studies on long-term economic growth across countries. Now that more and more detailed historical national accounts have become available, the Groningen Growth and Development Centre

  3. A historical perspective on precipitation, drought severity, and streamflow in Texas during 1951-56 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Karl E.

    2013-01-01

    The intense drought throughout Texas during 2011 resulted in substantial declines in streamflow. By April 2011, nearly all of the State was experiencing severe to extreme drought according to data from the University of Nebraska–Lincoln Drought Monitor. By the end of July 2011, more than 75 percent of the State was experiencing exceptional drought. The worst of the drought occurred around October 4, 2011, when 97 percent of Texas was suffering from extreme to exceptional drought. The historical drought of 1951–56 has long been used by water-resource managers, engineers, and scientists as a point of reference for water-supply planning. A comparison of drought conditions during the 2011 water year (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011) to the historical drought of 1951–56 from a hydrologic perspective serves as an additional reference for water-supply planning.

  4. Model Uncertainty via the Integration of Hormesis and LNT as the Default in Cancer Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Calabrese

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On June 23, 2015, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC issued a formal notice in the Federal Register that it would consider whether “it should amend its ‘Standards for Protection Against Radiation’ regulations from the linear non-threshold (LNT model of radiation protection to the hormesis model.” The present commentary supports this recommendation based on the (1 flawed and deceptive history of the adoption of LNT by the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS in 1956; (2 the documented capacity of hormesis to make more accurate predictions of biological responses for diverse biological end points in the low-dose zone; (3 the occurrence of extensive hormetic data from the peer-reviewed biomedical literature that revealed hormetic responses are highly generalizable, being independent of biological model, end point measured, inducing agent, level of biological organization, and mechanism; and (4 the integration of hormesis and LNT models via a model uncertainty methodology that optimizes public health responses at 10−4. Thus, both LNT and hormesis can be integratively used for risk assessment purposes, and this integration defines the so-called “regulatory sweet spot.”

  5. Monitoring Colonial Waterbird Populations in the Northeast: Historical and Future Perspectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this paper the author documents both historical and current programs or activities affecting waterbird populations and their habitats in the Northeast, review...

  6. "A terror to their neighbors": beliefs about mental disorder and violence in historical and cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, J

    1992-01-01

    This tribute to the enduring legacy of Bernard Diamond explores public perceptions of a link between mental disorder and violent behavior. Research on contemporary American beliefs is summarized and compared both to historical accounts of public perceptions in Western cultures and to anthropological investigations of public perceptions in non-Western cultures. The conclusion of these reviews is that the belief that mental disorder bears some moderate association with violent behavior is both historically invariant and culturally universal.

  7. On Narrative Strategies Embodied in The Known World under New His-torical Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying-ying; QIU Jia-ling

    2014-01-01

    With the multiple clues, rambling narrative and multidimensional architecture, Jones, in TheKnownWorld, constructs a fairly layered, three-dimensional world and presents a panorama of the entire slave society. The so-called mongline History be-fore is decomposed into a number of linear histories, and history which was non-narrative and non-representational is dismantled into histories narrated by many single narrators. Cultural discourse and historical discourse blend together. Jones shares the same conception on history and literature with New Historical critics who emphasize the complex mix-and-match interaction be-tween history and text.

  8. Hiromeri: a specialty ham of Cyprus--historical evidence, culinary and cultural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patapiou, Nasa; Lazarou, Chrystalleni

    2013-01-01

    Hiromeri is a specialty ham of Cyprus, made of smoked pork leg that is matured in wine. Until now there has been no systematic effort to present historical evidence that will support the Cypriot authenticity of this product. In this article, the historical evidence from sixteenth to twentieth centuries, referring to the production and trade of hiromeri in Cyprus, is presented. The evidence is drawn from archival testimony, travelers' descriptions, old history books, and essays on agricultural production. Moreover, a description of the hiromeri production process as well as past and current culinary uses and customs associated with its production and consumption are presented.

  9. Translating Bourdieu: cultural capital and the English middle class in historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Simon

    2005-03-01

    This article examines the ways in which Pierre Bourdieu's work on culture and cultural capital can be applied to the study of the English middle class in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Drawing on a wide historical literature, the article argues for the significance of culture as a constitutive element of middle-class identities in England since 1800. It goes on to examine Bourdieu's ideas of 'objectivated', 'instutionalized' and 'incorporated' cultural capital, in the context of family, inheritance, education and the body. The article identifies changes in the historical forms which cultural capital has taken and emphasizes the importance of analysing family processes of intergenerational transmission.

  10. INTRINSIC ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF MAMMALIAN NEURONS AND CNS FUNCTION: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo R Llinas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This brief review summarizes work done in mammalian neuroscience concerning the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of four neuronal types; Cerebellar Purkinje cells, inferior olivary cells, thalamic cells, and some cortical interneurons. It is a personal perspective addressing an interesting time in neuroscience when the reflex view of brain function, as the paradigm to understand global neuroscience, began to be modified towards one in which sensory input modulates rather than dictates brain function. The perspective of the paper is not a comprehensive description of the intrinsic electrical properties of all nerve cells but rather addresses a set of cell types that provide indicative examples of mechanisms that modulate brain function.

  11. Historical Empathy as Perspective Recognition and Care in One Secondary Social Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined the place that historical empathy, as both a subjective and an objective endeavor, occupied in one teacher's instruction and her students' response. Data--collected over five months--include 29 hours of classroom observations in an Advanced Placement European History course, instructional artifacts, and…

  12. Skyscape of an Amazonian Diaspora : Arawak Astronomy in Historical Comparative Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jara Gomez, Fabiola

    2014-01-01

    The title of this article “Arawak Astronomy” suggests that the research matter concerns the astronomy of an already well-defined ethnographic entity. This however does not do justice to the complexities of Arawak (pre)history. This contribution aims to discuss and connect the available historical an

  13. From Rod to Reason: Historical Perspectives on Corporal Punishment in the Public School, 1642-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Francis J.

    1994-01-01

    A historical overview of disciplinary practices used in U.S. classrooms shows that corporal punishment has been a consistent and conspicuous part of schooling since the beginning. Alternatives aimed at minimizing classroom punishment and disciplining students in a more systematic and psychologically oriented way are now part of teacher preparation…

  14. ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL REPORTING IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT: HISTORICAL AND THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley Salvary

    2005-01-01

    Over time, a changing environment has produced changes in the types of accounting information and in the dissemination of such information (financial reporting). Certain changes in the environment do impel changes in accounting. This paper examines various theoretical issues in accounting in a historical setting and provides some insight on the manner in which the accounting profession has responded to problems.

  15. Differences and Deficits in Psychological Research in Historical Perspective: A Commentary on the Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This commentary traces discussions of psychological differences and deficits from the mid-1950s to the current day, positioning the disciplinary discussions in the social-historical context in which they took place. The challenges of assessing diagnoses of deficit and the potential harms that result when misdiagnosis is implemented as social…

  16. Young People Who Sexually Abuse: A Historical Perspective and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lucinda A.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a historical overview of research on sexually abusive youth. The evolution of the field over the past 30 years is discussed--from the initial development of treatment interventions to contemporary efforts of professionals to move from traditional, adult-oriented interventions toward developmentally sensitive assessment…

  17. WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (WRM) IN THE VENETO REGION: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Rosato, Paolo; Stellin, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to illustrate the historical evolution of man's intervention in water resource management in the Veneto region in order to highlight, from both the technical and financial points of view, the ability of the institution of the consortia to join public and private interests and to adapt itself to the changing economical and social needs in this region.

  18. Understanding and Dismantling Barriers for Partnerships for Inclusive Education: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitoller, Federico R.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, universities and school districts share responsibility for teacher and student learning. Sharing responsibility demands that both institutions work to develop closer relationships through ongoing engagement, dialogue and negotiation. Drawing from Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), we examined one school/university…

  19. Historical Perspectives and Recommendations for revision of the Agricultural Handbook 296

    Science.gov (United States)

    While the most recent edition of Agriculture Handbook 296 was released in 2006, many of the geographic boundaries consistently mimic historic map products of generalized regional and national soil-survey maps (some dating back to the 1930s). Furthermore, the underlying concepts and technologies used...

  20. Conceptualising and Researching the Professionalisation of Religious Education Teachers: Historical and International Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freathy, Rob; Parker, Stephen G.; Schweitzer, Friedrich; Simojoki, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Current discussions on Religious Education (RE), both in Germany and England, focus on the quality of teaching and the professionality of teachers, but neglect the historical and institutional process of professionalisation upon which conceptions of teaching quality and teacher professionality hinge. This article seeks to provide definitional…

  1. Equity and Equality in Elementary Public Education: Historical Perspectives and the Perceptions of Education Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Sylvia Dihanne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how elementary principals perceive their roles in the context of equity and historical inequality in public education. Three elementary principals of three different socio-economically and culturally diverse elementary school districts responded to interviews and questionnaires. They expressed…

  2. Status, Virtue and Duty: A Historical Perspective on the Occupational Culture of Teachers in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    This historical paper is an introduction to curriculum thinking in Japan. It discusses contested value frameworks that have exercised professional educators in the light of two "Western" interventions: (1) the modernization initiatives of the Meiji government of the nineteenth century; and (2) the policies that followed Japan's defeat in the…

  3. Science Education and Religion in the Post-Darwin Era: An Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of the author's current research into science teachers' perspectives on the theory of evolution and its teaching in the classroom. Anti-evolutionary views have recently become very prominent in the context of science education, with almost one third of science teachers in the United Kingdom agreeing that creationism should be…

  4. A Historical Perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical...... development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP100), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies...... such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus...

  5. A conceptual perspective for investigating motive in cultural-historical theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief discussion of the other chapters in this edited volume, and then presents a brief introduction to the concept of motive within cultural-historical theory. This discussion includes a discussion of why the concept is needed, the ontological shift in the explanatory log...... of the theory, the relation of the concept in the theory of activity. The main section of the chapter provides a methodological discussion of ways to research the motive concept. The chapter concludes with three open research problems in relation to the motive concept.......This chapter provides a brief discussion of the other chapters in this edited volume, and then presents a brief introduction to the concept of motive within cultural-historical theory. This discussion includes a discussion of why the concept is needed, the ontological shift in the explanatory logic...

  6. A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick H; Christensen, Per

    2013-09-01

    The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP(100)), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO(2)-eq.tonne(-1) to net saving of 670 kg CO(2)-eq.tonne(-1) of MSWM.

  7. Water, mining, and waste: An historical and economic perspective on conflict management in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca A. Adler; Marius Claassen; Linda Godfrey; Anthony R. Turton.

    2007-01-01

    Lack of government intervention in South Africa’s mining industry has worsened conflicts associated with limited water resources. With the advent of democracy, new legislation demands that all South African citizens have the right to a clean, safe environment, including access to potable water, and that the country develop in a sustainable manner. But conflict remains due to the historical partnership between the government and the mining industry, as well as due to cumulative impacts associa...

  8. The development of ICT across the curriculum in Irish schools: a historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    McGarr, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    peer-reviewed This literature review explores the historical development of ICT in Irish postprimary/ secondary schools and examines how the education system has responded to the various ICT initiatives and policy changes. The review has found that despite national policy and significant ICT initiatives, it appears that the use of computer technology has instead evolved independent of these changes. The various policy nudges throughout the past three decades have had limited...

  9. Rural exoduses and urbanization in colombia. historical perspective and theoretical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Steiner, Lina María

    2010-01-01

    From the 16th century until today, the migratory phenomenon in Colombia have marked the configuration of the national space and influenced the formation of Colombian urban agglomerations. During the middle of the 20th century, internal migrations from rural areas left historical effects on the country urban net. Rural population, a protagonist since the beginning of century of the agrarian settling in the central Andean region, left the rural zones and headed towards the cities, generating an...

  10. Associations and other groups in Science: an historical and contemporary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Delicado, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Scientific societies or associations are quite an under-researched issue. Science studies have historically paid much more attention to nonformalised collectives in science: the “republic of science” of Polanyi (1962), the “scientific community” of Hagstrom (1965) and Merton (1973), the “invisible colleges” of Crane (1972), the “scientific field” of Bourdieu (1975), or the “transepistemic arenas” of Knorr-Cetina (1982). Theories of the Mode 2 production of knowledge (Gibbons...

  11. SRS SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION AND PROCESSING; HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cercy, M.; Peeler, D.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-25

    This report provides a historical overview and lessons learned associated with the SRS sludge batch (SB) qualification and processing programs. The report covers the framework of the requirements for waste form acceptance, the DWPF Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), waste feed acceptance, examples of how the program complies with the specifications, an overview of the Startup Program, and a summary of continuous improvements and lessons learned. The report includes a bibliography of previous reports and briefings on the topic.

  12. China's Land-Use Changes during the Past 300 Years: A Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lijuan; Zhu, Feng; Sun, Zhanli; Moore, John C; Cui, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes of historical land-use change is crucial to the research of global environmental sustainability. Here we examine and attempt to disentangle the evolutionary interactions between land-use change and its underlying causes through a historical lens. We compiled and synthesized historical land-use change and various biophysical, political, socioeconomic, and technical datasets, from the Qing dynasty to modern China. The analysis reveals a clear transition period between the 1950s and the 1980s. Before the 1950s, cropland expanded while forested land diminished, which was also accompanied by increasing population; after the 1980s land-use change exhibited new characteristics: changes in cropland, and decoupling of forest from population as a result of agricultural intensification and globalization. Chinese political policies also played an important and complex role, especially during the 1950s-1980s transition periods. Overall, climate change plays an indirect but fundamental role in the dynamics of land use via a series of various cascading effects such as shrinking agricultural production proceeding to population collapse and outbreaks of war. The expected continuation of agricultural intensification this century should be able to support increasing domestic demand for richer diets, but may not be compatible with long-term environmental sustainability. PMID:27571087

  13. China’s Land-Use Changes during the Past 300 Years: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lijuan; Zhu, Feng; Sun, Zhanli; Moore, John C.; Cui, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes of historical land-use change is crucial to the research of global environmental sustainability. Here we examine and attempt to disentangle the evolutionary interactions between land-use change and its underlying causes through a historical lens. We compiled and synthesized historical land-use change and various biophysical, political, socioeconomic, and technical datasets, from the Qing dynasty to modern China. The analysis reveals a clear transition period between the 1950s and the 1980s. Before the 1950s, cropland expanded while forested land diminished, which was also accompanied by increasing population; after the 1980s land-use change exhibited new characteristics: changes in cropland, and decoupling of forest from population as a result of agricultural intensification and globalization. Chinese political policies also played an important and complex role, especially during the 1950s–1980s transition periods. Overall, climate change plays an indirect but fundamental role in the dynamics of land use via a series of various cascading effects such as shrinking agricultural production proceeding to population collapse and outbreaks of war. The expected continuation of agricultural intensification this century should be able to support increasing domestic demand for richer diets, but may not be compatible with long-term environmental sustainability. PMID:27571087

  14. China’s Land-Use Changes during the Past 300 Years: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Miao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes of historical land-use change is crucial to the research of global environmental sustainability. Here we examine and attempt to disentangle the evolutionary interactions between land-use change and its underlying causes through a historical lens. We compiled and synthesized historical land-use change and various biophysical, political, socioeconomic, and technical datasets, from the Qing dynasty to modern China. The analysis reveals a clear transition period between the 1950s and the 1980s. Before the 1950s, cropland expanded while forested land diminished, which was also accompanied by increasing population; after the 1980s land-use change exhibited new characteristics: changes in cropland, and decoupling of forest from population as a result of agricultural intensification and globalization. Chinese political policies also played an important and complex role, especially during the 1950s–1980s transition periods. Overall, climate change plays an indirect but fundamental role in the dynamics of land use via a series of various cascading effects such as shrinking agricultural production proceeding to population collapse and outbreaks of war. The expected continuation of agricultural intensification this century should be able to support increasing domestic demand for richer diets, but may not be compatible with long-term environmental sustainability.

  15. Targeting the age-related occurrence, removal, and accumulation of molecular damage by hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2010-06-01

    Strategies for testing and developing effective means of intervention, prevention, and modulation of aging incorporate means to minimize the occurrence and accumulation of molecular damage, to reduce molecular heterogeneity, and to evaluate the relevance of the type and extent of damage with respect to its role in aging and age-related diseases. One such approach is that of mild stress-induced hormesis, which stimulates maintenance and repair systems and strengthens the homeodynamic space of cells and organisms. Hormesis through mild heat shock, natural and synthetic hormetins, and other stressors brings about several antiaging effects in human fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and telomerase-immortalized bone marrow stem cells. Depending on the cell type, these antiaging hormetic effects include extension of replicative life span, enhanced proteasomal activities, increased chaperone levels, and improved wound healing, angiogenesis, and differentiation. The main molecular pathways for achieving such hormetic effects are through targeting the processes for the repair and removal of molecular damage, which can slow aging.

  16. Sex specific effects of heat induced hormesis in Hsf-deficient Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J G; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Kristensen, K V;

    2007-01-01

    In insects mild heat stress early in life has been reported to increase life span and heat resistance later in life, a phenomenon termed hormesis. Here, we test if the induction of the heat shock response by mild heat stress is mediating hormesis in longevity and heat resistance at older age....... To test this hypothesis we used two heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) mutant stocks. One stock harbours a mutation giving rise to a heat sensitive Hsf which inactivates the heat shock response at high temperature and the other is a rescued mutant giving rise to a wild-type phenotype. We measured...... longevity, heat resistance and expression level of a heat shock protein, Hsp70, in controls and mildly heat treated flies. We found a marked difference between males and females with males showing a beneficial effect of the early heat treatment on longevity and heat resistance later in life in the rescued...

  17. Radiation-induced reactions of the lungs: Hormesis, guideline on radiation protection in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain almost all full papers presented at the 34th annual meeting of the Vereinigung Deutscher Strahlenschutzaerzte e.V., held in Dresden from May 3-5, 1993. There were three main topics selected for this meeting: radiation-induced reactions in the lungs, radiation hormesis, and the German regulatory guide for Radiation Protection in Medicine, as amended in mid-1993. The papers discuss the pathogenesis of radiation-induced lesions in the lungs, results of animal experiments applying partial and whole-lung irradiation, clinical experience and diagnostics, lung function impairment, and X-ray signs of the thorax after radiation exposure of the respiratory organ. The two papers discussing the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation, radiation hormesis and adaptive response in biological systems have been presented by experts in this matter which give a picture of the current scientific knowledge and of the items of controversy. (orig./MG)

  18. Hormesis, allostatic buffering capacity and physiological mechanism of physical activity: a new theoretic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guolin; He, Hong

    2009-05-01

    Despite great progress made in sports medicine, the physiological mechanism of moderate physical activity-induced physical fitness remains only partly understood. Combined with the hormetic characteristic of physical activity and property of allostasis, we first propose the hormesis induced allostatic buffering capacity enhancement as a physiological mechanism to explain the moderate physical activity-induced physical fitness. As stressful stimulus, physical activity can induce several stresses in the host, including eustress ('good stress') and distress ('bad stress'), which may have both positive and negative effects. Too little or too much physical activities will introduce too weak eustress or too strong distress and result in allostasis load through weakening allostatic buffering capacity or damaging allostatic buffering capacity respectively. However, moderate physical activities will introduce eustress and contribute to the hormesis induced allostatic buffering capacity enhancement, which benefits organism.

  19. Perezhivanie and classroom discourse: a cultural-historical perspective on "Discourse of design based science classroom activities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Megan; March, Sue

    2015-06-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser challenge the `argumentation focus of science lessons' and propose that through a `design-based approach' emergent conversations with the teacher offer possibilities for different types of discussions to enhance pedagogical discourse in science classrooms. This important paper offers a "preliminary contribution to a general theory" regarding the link between activity types and discourse practices. Azevedo, Martalock and Keser offer a general perspective with a sociocultural framing for analysis of classroom discourse. Interestingly the specific concepts drawn upon are from conversation analysis; there are few sociocultural concepts explored in detail. Therefore, in this article we focus on a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky. The history and development of higher mental functions, vol 4. Plenum Press, New York, 1987; The Vygotsky reader. Black, Cambridge, 1994) methodology to explore, analyse and explain how we would use a different theoretical lens. We argue that a cultural historical reading of argumentation in science lessons and design based activity will expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's proposed general theory of activity types and discourse practices. Specifically, we use Lev Vygotksy's idea of perezhivanie as the unit of analysis to reconceptualise this important paper. We focus on the holistic category of students' emotional experience through discourse while developing scientific awareness.

  20. Review: Emmanuel Akyeampong, Robert H. Bates, Nathan Nunn, and James A. Robinson (eds, Africa’s Development in Historical Perspective (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Cooper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume:Emmanuel Akyeampong, Robert H. Bates, Nathan Nunn, and James A. Robinson (eds, Africa’s Development in Historical Perspective, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014, ISBN 9781107041158 (hardback, 9781107691209 (paperback, 539 pages

  1. Solar System Exploration Augmented by Lunar and Outer Planet Resource Utilization: Historical Perspectives and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In the historical work, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. These studies depict program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system, lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented are presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal propulsion, nuclear surface power, as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Robotic and human outer planet exploration options are described in many detailed and extensive studies. Nuclear propulsion options for fast trips to the outer planets are discussed. To refuel such vehicles, atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has also been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen (H2) can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and H2 (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses have investigated resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. These analyses included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional

  2. Hormesis and Paradoxical Effects of Drooping Birch (Betula pendula Roth Parameters Under Motor Traffic Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Erofeeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Various plant indexes are used or recommended for bioindication. However, the nonmonotonic dose–response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects of these indexes are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependences of these Betula pendula indexes on the intensity of motor traffic pollution. Regression analysis did not reveal any dependence of chlorophyll and carotenoid content on traffic intensity (in 2008 and 2010-2013. Lipid peroxidation rate had different versions of paradoxical effects in 2008 and 2010 to 2012 and increased in comparison with control under an increase in pollution level in 2013. In 2010 to 2012, all dose–response dependences for total protein and thiol group content were biphasic and multiphasic paradoxical effects. In 2013, an increase in traffic intensity induced a linear reduction in protein content and an increase in thiol group level in comparison with the control. In most cases, the studied phenological indexes and seed production decreased monotonically in comparison with the control following an increase in traffic intensity. Only in 2010 and 2013, share of fallen leaves had hormesis and paradoxical effect accordingly. Fluctuating asymmetry had a paradoxical effect and hormesis in 2008 and 2012, accordingly, and increased in comparison with the control under an increase in the level of pollution in 2010 to 2011.

  3. Hormesis and Paradoxical Effects of Drooping Birch (Betula pendula Roth) Parameters Under Motor Traffic Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeeva, Elena A

    2015-01-01

    Various plant indexes are used or recommended for bioindication. However, the nonmonotonic dose-response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indexes are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependences of these Betula pendula indexes on the intensity of motor traffic pollution. Regression analysis did not reveal any dependence of chlorophyll and carotenoid content on traffic intensity (in 2008 and 2010-2013). Lipid peroxidation rate had different versions of paradoxical effects in 2008 and 2010 to 2012 and increased in comparison with control under an increase in pollution level in 2013. In 2010 to 2012, all dose-response dependences for total protein and thiol group content were biphasic and multiphasic paradoxical effects. In 2013, an increase in traffic intensity induced a linear reduction in protein content and an increase in thiol group level in comparison with the control. In most cases, the studied phenological indexes and seed production decreased monotonically in comparison with the control following an increase in traffic intensity. Only in 2010 and 2013, share of fallen leaves had hormesis and paradoxical effect accordingly. Fluctuating asymmetry had a paradoxical effect and hormesis in 2008 and 2012, accordingly, and increased in comparison with the control under an increase in the level of pollution in 2010 to 2011.

  4. Hormesis on life-history traits: is there such thing as a free lunch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Tjalling; Barsi, Alpar; Ducrot, Virginie

    2013-03-01

    The term "hormesis" is used to describe dose-response relationships where the response is reversed between low and high doses of a stressor (generally, stimulation at low doses and inhibition at high ones). A mechanistic explanation is needed to interpret the relevance of such responses, but there does not appear to be a single universal mechanism underlying hormesis. When the endpoint is a life-history trait such as growth or reproduction, a stimulation of the response comes with costs in terms of resources. Organisms have to obey the conservation laws for mass and energy; there is no such thing as a free lunch. Based on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory, we introduce three categories of explanations for hormesis that obey the conservation laws: acquisition (i.e., increasing the input of energy into the individual), allocation (i.e., rearranging the energy flows over various traits) and medication (e.g., the stressor is an essential element or acts as a cure for a disease or infection). In this discussion paper, we illustrate these explanations with cases where they might apply, and elaborate on the potential consequences for field populations.

  5. Awareness of hormesis will enhance future research in basic and applied neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Mark P

    2008-01-01

    Hormesis is defined operationally as responses of cells or organisms to an exogenous or intrinsic factor (chemical, temperature, psychological challenge, etc.) in which the factor induces stimulatory or beneficial effects at low doses and inhibitory or adverse effects at high doses. The compendium of articles by Calabrese entitled "Neuroscience and Hormesis" provides a broad range of examples of neurobiological processes and responses to environmental factors that exhibit biphasic dose responses, the signature of hormesis. Nerve cell networks are the "first responders" to environmental challenges--they perceive the challenge and orchestrate coordinated adaptive responses that typically involve autonomic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral changes. In addition to direct adaptive responses of neurons to environmental stressors, cells subjected to a stressor produce and release molecules such as growth factors, cytokines, and hormones that alert adjacent and even distant cells to impending danger. The discoveries that some molecules (e.g., carbon monoxide and nitric oxide) and elements (e.g., selenium and iron) that are toxic at high doses play fundamental roles in cellular signaling or metabolism suggest that during evolution, organisms (and their nervous systems) co-opted environmental toxins and used them to their advantage. Neurons also respond adaptively to everyday stressors, including physical exercise, cognitive challenges, and dietary energy restriction, each of which activates pathways linked to the production of neurotrophic factors and cellular stress resistance proteins. The development of interventions that activate hormetic signaling pathways in neurons is a promising new approach for the preventation and treatment of a range of neurological disorders.

  6. The Regulation of Market Manipulation in Australia: A Historical Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Chitimira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Notably, in Australia, market abuse practices like market manipulation and other market misconduct practices are expressly prohibited under the Corporations Act as amended by the Financial Services Reform Act. In the light of this, and for the purposes of this article, a brief historical analysis of the market manipulation prohibition will be presented first. Secondly, the available penalties and remedies for market manipulation are discussed. Thereafter, possible recommendations and significant Australian anti-market abuse enforcement approaches that may be utilised in South Africa are briefly stated. Lastly, concluding remarks are provided.

  7. Women in physics in El Salvador: Historical perspectives and current challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Telma; Jiménez, Diana; Larios, Gloria

    2015-12-01

    Physics as a discipline in El Salvador's higher education system has struggled historically; however, since 1991, it has enjoyed a growth-friendly environment. While there are few female physicists in El Salvador, they are employed in various organizations and educational institutions, demonstrating that physics is a viable career path. El Salvador currently offers a range of opportunities for women in physics. With the support of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we will both meet the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities that face female physicists in El Salvador.

  8. Italian Chemists’ Contributions to Named Reactions in Organic Synthesis: An Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Papeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available From the second half of the 19th century up to modern times, the tremendous contribution of Italian chemists to the development of science resulted in the discovery of a number of innovative chemical transformations. These reactions were subsequently christened according to their inventors’ name and so entered into the organic chemistry portfolio of “named organic reactions”. As these discoveries were being conceived, massive social, political and geographical changes in these chemists’ homeland were also occurring. In this review, a brief survey of known (and some lesser known named organic reactions discovered by Italian chemists, along with their historical contextualization, is presented.

  9. The hunt for the dynamical resonances in chemical reaction dynamics: a perspective on historical advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Angyang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical background and basic definition of the resonances in chemical reaction dynamics have been introduced in this article. The historical breakthrough in the experimental search for the reaction resonances has been reviewed in this report, with an emphasis on the crossed molecular beam apparatus. The research of the chemical reaction resonances has attracted many scientists’ attention from 80s of last century. The chemical reaction resonances in the F+H2 reaction were firstly observed by the researchers of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2006. Besides, the partial wave resonances in the chemical reactions have been observed for the first time in 2010.

  10. Historical and current introgression in a Mesoamerican hummingbird species complex: a biogeographic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Rosa Alicia; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The influence of geologic and Pleistocene glacial cycles might result in morphological and genetic complex scenarios in the biota of the Mesoamerican region. We tested whether berylline, blue-tailed and steely-blue hummingbirds, Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia cyanura and Amazilia saucerottei, show evidence of historical or current introgression as their plumage colour variation might suggest. We also analysed the role of past and present climatic events in promoting genetic introgression and species diversification. We collected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data and microsatellite loci scores for populations throughout the range of the three Amazilia species, as well as morphological and ecological data. Haplotype network, Bayesian phylogenetic and divergence time inference, historical demography, palaeodistribution modelling, and niche divergence tests were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this Amazilia species complex. An isolation-with-migration coalescent model and Bayesian assignment analysis were assessed to determine historical introgression and current genetic admixture. mtDNA haplotypes were geographically unstructured, with haplotypes from disparate areas interdispersed on a shallow tree and an unresolved haplotype network. Assignment analysis of the nuclear genome (nuDNA) supported three genetic groups with signs of genetic admixture, corresponding to: (1) A. beryllina populations located west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; (2) A. cyanura populations between the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Nicaraguan Depression (Nuclear Central America); and (3) A. saucerottei populations southeast of the Nicaraguan Depression. Gene flow and divergence time estimates, and demographic and palaeodistribution patterns suggest an evolutionary history of introgression mediated by Quaternary climatic fluctuations. High levels of gene flow were indicated by mtDNA and asymmetrical isolation-with-migration, whereas the microsatellite analyses found evidence

  11. Glycemic targets in pregnancies affected by diabetes: historical perspective and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L

    2015-01-01

    The definition of optimal glycemic control in pregnancies affected by diabetes remains enigmatic. Diabetes phenotypes are heterogeneous. Moreover, fetal macrosomia insidiously occurs even with excellent glycemic control. Current blood glucose (BG) targets (FBG ≤95, 1-h post-prandial controlled trial (RCT) has never compared current vs. lower glucose targets powered on maternal/fetal outcomes. This paper provides historical context to the current targets by reviewing evidence supporting their evolution. Using lower targets (FBG optimal glycemic control that minimizes both small for and large for gestational age across pregnancies affected by diabetes. PMID:25398204

  12. Multiaxial and Thermomechanical Fatigue of Materials: A Historical Perspective and Some Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    2013-01-01

    Structural materials used in engineering applications routinely subjected to repetitive mechanical loads in multiple directions under non-isothermal conditions. Over past few decades, several multiaxial fatigue life estimation models (stress- and strain-based) developed for isothermal conditions. Historically, numerous fatigue life prediction models also developed for thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) life prediction, predominantly for uniaxial mechanical loading conditions. Realistic structural components encounter multiaxial loads and non-isothermal loading conditions, which increase potential for interaction of damage modes. A need exists for mechanical testing and development verification of life prediction models under such conditions.

  13. Industrial Property and global competitiveness in historical perspective; Propiedad industrial y competitividad global en perspectiva historica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz, P.

    2011-07-01

    The ability to compete globally changes over time. The processes of technological innovation and education largely determine economic growth and international competitiveness. The development and evolution of Intellectual Property Rights in the long term have been essential for the management of R and D and of creative and innovative competence's in several countries. Thus, economic and technological history becomes an essential tool for analysts and political economists. And the historical archive of the Spanish Patents and Trademarks Office turns out to be a laboratory of the past for thinking on the future. (Author) 48 refs.

  14. Robert H. Pudenz (1911-1998) and Ventriculoatrial Shunt: Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Subhas K; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Bir, Shyamal C; Kalakoti, Piyush; Nanda, Anil

    2015-11-01

    Robert H. Pudenz was a renowned neurosurgeon in North America in the 20th century, famous for his contributions in the evolution of the shunt valve and ventriculoatrial shunt surgery. With his innovative idea and help from Heyer, in 1955, he demonstrated that a venous catheter worked best when in the right atrium and that the slit valve should be located at the most distal portion of the shunt system to prevent retrograde filling and thrombosis. He also contributed to various experimental studies on the brain, especially the electrical response of different neural structures. This historical vignette focuses on the work of Robert Pudenz and the evolution of the ventriculoatrial shunt.

  15. Europe of Monnet, Schumann and Mitrany: A Historical Glance to the EU from the Functionalist Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introductory article to this special issue pursues two main objectives, one empirical the other theoretical. This paper investigates the European Coal and Steel Community, established in 1951, as an empirical reality. After explaining the historical background of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC, the paper tries to explain the ECSC through functionalist approach or theory, which is very debatable among scholars. The paper then concludes that at the very beginning the best way to understand the process of European integration within the framework of theoretical conceptualization is to take functionalism as an approach or perhaps a mid-range theory what Simon Hix (2004 used.

  16. Europe of Monnet, Schumann and Mitrany: A Historical Glance to the EU from the Functionalist Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Kurt

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The introductory article to this special issue pursues two main objectives, one empirical the other theoretical. This paper investigates the European Coal and Steel Community, established in 1951, as an empirical reality. After explaining the historical background of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC, the paper tries to explain the ECSC through functionalist approach or theory, which is very debatable among scholars. The paper then concludes that at the very beginning the best way to understand the process of European integration within the framework of theoretical conceptualization is to take functionalism as an approach or perhaps a mid-range theory what Simon Hix (2004 used.

  17. Hormesis depends upon the life-stage and duration of exposure: Examples for a pesticide and a nanomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyne, William; Little, Simon; Spurgeon, David J; Svendsen, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Tests to assess toxic effects on the reproduction of adult C. elegans after 72h exposure for two chemicals, (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU)), also known as diuron, and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) indicated potential, although not significant hormesis. Follow up toxicity tests comparing the potential hormesis concentrations with controls at high replication confirmed that the stimulatory effect was repeatable and also statistically significant within the test. To understand the relevance of the hormesis effects for overall population fitness, full life-cycle toxicity tests were conducted for each chemical. When nematodes were exposed to DCMU over the full life-span, the hormesis effect for reproduction seen in short-term tests was no longer evident. Further at the putative hormesis concentrations, a negative effect of DCMU on time to maturation was also seen. For the Ag NPs, the EC50 for effects on reproduction in the life-cycle exposure was substantially lower than in the short-term test, the EC50s estimated by a three parameter log logistic model being 2.9mg/L and 0.75mg/L, respectively. This suggests that the level of toxicity for Ag NPs for C. elegans reproduction is dependant on the life stage exposed and possibly the duration of the exposure. Further, in the longer duration exposures, hormesis effects on reproduction seen in the short-term exposures were no longer apparent. Instead, all concentrations reduced both overall brood size and life-span. These results for both chemicals suggest that the hormesis observed for a single endpoint in short-term exposure may be the result of a temporary reallocation of resources between traits that are not sustained over the full life-time. Such reallocation is consistent with energy budget theories for organisms subject to toxic stress. PMID:26057078

  18. Growth and yield models in Spain: Historical overview, Contemporary Examples and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, F.; Alvarez-Gonzalez, J. G.; Rio, M. del; Barrio, M.; Bonet, J. a.; Bravo-Oviedo, A.; Calama, R.; Castedo-Dorado, F.; Crecente-Campo, F.; Condes, S.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.; Gonzalez-Martinez, S. C.; Lizarralde, I.; Nanos, N.; Madrigal, A.; Martinez-Millan, F. J.; Montero, G.; Ordonez, C.; Palahi, M.; Pique, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Rodriguez-Soalleiro, R.; Rojo, A.; Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, M.; Trasobares, A.; Vazquez-Pique, J.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present a review of forest models developed in Spain in recent years for both timber and non timber production and forest dynamics (regeneration, mortality,..). Models developed are whole stand, size (diameter) class and individual-tree. The models developed to date have been developed using data from permanent plots, experimental sites and the National Forest Inventory. In this paper we show the different sub-models developed so far and the friendly use software. Main perspectives of forest modelling in Spain are presented. (Author) 107 refs.

  19. A Historical Perspective in the Christian-Muslim Relations in Nigeria since 1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamolekun Taiye

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Christian- Muslim relations in Nigeria since 1914. In achieving the objective in this paper, Historical approach is adopted. It gives a historical survey of the evolution of Nigeria and the attitude of colonial administration to religious propaganda. The method of conversion adopted by Islam and Christianity in pre-independence is discussed .The independence and republican constitution provision for religious freedom is pointed out. The role of military Government on religious development and interaction is identified. 1978 Nigeria constituent Assembly debate on Sharia court of appeal and 1979 constitution on Religious affairs are discussed. New dimension in Religious propaganda, fanaticism, fundamentalism, and Religious Politics since 1980 is discussed. The 1999 constitution and Sharia law in the civilian dispensation is identified. Religious terrorism as practised by maitasine and Boko Haram sects is discussed. It is discovered that various factors contributed and affected Christian-Muslim relationship in Nigeria. The paper concludes with suggestions and solutions to the problems affecting Christian-Muslim relations.

  20. The nude in medical photography: a historical perspective, with modern legal ramifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S B

    1996-01-01

    Taking medical photographs of nude patients was common in the nineteenth century and was related to the diagnostic promises of photography. Nude photography today, while just as diagnostically important, is a carefully thought out practice fraught with serious legal ramifications especially when dealing with children and adolescents. As members of the human race, we are diverse in our practices and not only on a country wide but a regional level. What is acceptable in New York is not necessarily acceptable in central Kansas. Unfortunately, in many circumstances, it is difficult to measure intent. Vintage medical photographs have become valued as art, as well as historic and cultural documents. Nude vintage medical photographs fully expose the human condition and have become among the most valued of historic medical photographs. The implications for the future treatment of nude medical photography is well established. The passage of time, nostalgia, and, most importantly, the attempt to learn the secrets of life and means of death in past epochs will result in preserving and valuing these most important clinical photographs.

  1. A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Five scenarios are compared based on different waste management systems from 1970 to 2010. • Technology development for incineration and vehicular exhaust system throughout the time period is considered. • Compared scenarios show continuous improvement regarding environmental performance of waste management system. • Energy and material recovery from waste account for significant savings of Global Warming Potential (GWP) today. • Technology development for incineration has played key role in lowering the GWP during past five decades. - Abstract: The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP100), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO2-eq. tonne−1 to net saving of 670 kg CO2-eq. tonne−1 of MSWM

  2. A historical perspective on the economics of the ownership of mineral rights ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cawood, F.T.; Minnitt, R.C.A. [Technikon SA, Florida (South Africa). Dept. of Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Inauguration of the new political dispensation in South Africa, initiated a dynamic period in the historical development of its minerals policy. The process of substituting the current South African mineral policy framework with an acceptable `post apartheid` system, started soon after the 1994 election of the African National Congress (ANC) government. The Green Paper on a Minerals and Mining Policy for South Africa released for public discussion in February 1998, calls for radical transformation in mineral rights ownership. A shift towards exclusive state ownership of mineral rights, away from the present dual system of private and state ownership, is the most significant proposal. The current holders of mineral rights, or their nominees, who lawfully enjoyed security of tenure under past and present mineral laws are opposed to this transformation because mineral rights were often acquired at considerable cost. The situation is compounded by poor public record-keeping and passive mineral rights administration over a very long period. This paper represents a summary of the historical developments leading to the current legislative environment and forms the basis for any discussion on which future sculpturing of South Africa`s policy regarding mineral rights can take place. One cannot plan for the future without considering the past. 21 refs.

  3. LOOKING BACH AND BUFFARDIN’S ISTANBUL MEETING FROM A TURKISH MUSIC HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren KUTLAY BAYDAR

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with 16. century, Ottoman Empire began to encounter and get acquinted with Western music either through the Consulates that came to Ottoman lands from Europe or through their Consulates that they sent to different European Countries, or through musical ensembles sent by European Kings as a gift to the ruling Sultan. Even though the instruction, production, and performance of Western music on the Ottoman lands was undertaken during the 19. century, these first interactions act like a basis for the upcoming serious steps in the Western Art. Among those interactions, the one that is most interesting and hasn’t been published in any of the turkish resources in this area is the meeting of Johann Jacob Bach, who is the brother of famous composer Johann Sebatian Bach, and the most famous flute virtuoso of the era, French flutist and composer Pierre Gabriel Buffardin, and Bach’s taking flute lessons from Buffardin for several months in Istanbul.In this article, the historical significance of Bach and Buffardin’s Istanbul meeting will be analyzed through studying historical events that brought them to Istanbul.In this way, it is aimed to state one of the unknown sides of the interactions of Western music on Ottoman lands in Turkish music history.

  4. Comparing World Economic and Net Energy Metrics, Part 3: Macroeconomic Historical and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey W. King

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available I use energy cost share to characterize the role of energy in the economy. Specifically, I use an estimate of monetary expenditures for primary energy on an annualized basis for forty-four countries from 1978 to 2010 for natural gas, coal, petroleum, and electricity. I show that global energy cost share is significantly correlated to a one-year lag in the change in gross domestic product as well as measures of total factor productivity. Given the historical reduction in the relative cost of energy (including food and fodder for animate power since the start of the Industrial Revolution, combined with a global energy cost share estimate, I conclude that the turn of the 21st Century represents the time period with the cheapest energy in the history of human civilization (to date. This potential historical nadir for energy expenditures around 2000 has important ramifications for strategies to solve future social, economic, and environmental problems such as reducing annual emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Rapidly decreasing annual GHG emissions while internalizing their costs into the economy might feedback to increase energy expenditures to such a degree as to prevent economic growth during that transition.

  5. Capital-centric versus knowledge-centric paradigms of human resource management: A historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris W. Callaghan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Central to understanding the contemporary state of the human resource management (HRM field is knowledge of its history, and the underlying rationales as to why it has changed over time. This research attempts to identify one such important ‘rationale’.Research purpose: This article relates certain changes in HRM over time to the argument that there has been a shift from an industrial paradigm (on which many human resource [HR] systems, practices and theoretical frameworks are still based to a knowledge paradigm (of knowledge work, in which employee knowledge and skills offer compound advantages that are not substitutable which explains a great deal of the variance in changes of the field over time.Motivation for the study: It is argued that in order for the field to move forward, it may needto bring to the surface certain assumptions and differentiate between theoretical frameworkswhen dealing with knowledge work versus non-knowledge work.Research design, approach and method: This article offers a perspective of HR theory development over time. It is a conceptual/perspectives article and is not qualitative nor quantitative in nature. Further research will be able to test the ideas presented here.Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resources managers need to differentiate between knowledge and non-knowledge work. The latter is associated with increased heterogeneity and complexity, and differences in power relationships, as knowledge work shifts power away from capital into the hands of skilled knowledge labour.

  6. Is hormesis an underestimated factor in the development of herbicide resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belz, Regina G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing impact of herbicide resistant weeds increasingly affects weed management and the delay of resistance evolution has become a major task of chemical weed control. Hormesis and, thus, the phenomenon that low doses of herbicides can boost weed growth could be of importance in this regard since the recommended field rate may represent a low dose for weeds that have evolved resistance to the applied herbicide and, thus, a potential hormetic dose. Applying the field rate may thus not only directly select resistant biotypes, it may also indirectly promote the success and spread of resistant biotypes via hormesis. Nevertheless, hormetic effects in resistant weeds are hitherto merely randomly observed and, thus, a clear quantitative basis to judge the significance of hormesis for resistance evolution is lacking. Therefore, this study aimed at quantifying the degree and frequency of herbicide hormesis in sensitive and resistant weed species in order to provide a first indication of whether the phenomenon deserves consideration as a potential factor contributing to the development of herbicide resistance. In germination assays complete dose-response experiments were conducted with sensitive and resistant biotypes of Matricaria inodora (ALS-target-site resistant; treated with iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium/mesosulfuron-methyl, Eleusine indica (glyphosateresistant; treated with glyphosate, and Chenopodium album (triazine/triazinone-target-site resistant; treated with terbuthylazine. After 10 days of cultivation under controlled conditions plant growth was analyzed by measuring shoot/root length and mass. Results indicated that herbicide hormesis occurred on average with a total frequency of 29% in sensitive/resistant biotypes with an average growth increase of 53% occurring typically within a dose zone exceeding 350fold. Hormetic effects occurred, however, very variable and only for specific endpoints and not plant growth in general. If such a

  7. Hormesis-based anti-aging products: a case study of a novel cosmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Suresh I S; Kryzch, Valérie; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Perrier, Eric; Nizard, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Application of hormesis in aging research and interventions is becoming increasingly attractive and successful. The reason for this is the realization that mild stress-induced activation of one or more stress response (SR) pathways, and its consequent stimulation of repair mechanisms, is effective in reducing the age-related accumulation of molecular damage. For example, repeated heat stress-induced synthesis of heat shock proteins has been shown to have a variety of anti-aging effects on growth and other cellular and biochemical characteristics of normal human skin fibroblasts, keratinocytes and endothelial cells undergoing aging in vitro. Therefore, searching for potential hormetins - conditions and compounds eliciting SR-mediated hormesis - is drawing attention of not only the researchers but also the industry involved in developing healthcare products, including nutriceuticals, functional foods and cosmeceuticals. Here we present the example of a skin care cosmetic as one of the first successful product developments incorporating the ideas of hormesis. This was based on the studies to analyse the molecular effects of active ingredients extracted from the roots of the Chinese herb Sanchi (Panax notoginseng) on gene expression at the level of mRNAs and proteins in human skin cells. The results showed that the ginsenosides extracted from Sanchi induced the transcription of stress genes and increased the synthesis of stress proteins, especially the heat shock protein HSP1A1 or Hsp70, in normal human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, this extract also has significant positive effects against facial wrinkles and other symptoms of facial skin aging as tested clinically, which may be due to its hormetic mode of action by stress-induced synthesis of chaperones involved in protein repair and removal of abnormal proteins. Acceptance of such a hormesis-based product by the wider public could be instrumental in the social recognition of the concept of

  8. Quantitative analysis of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems-A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T.E.; Goodman, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Although much progress has been made toward the mathematical description of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems since the late 19th century, the advective and dispersive mechanisms involved are still incompletely understood. This article documents the major historical advances in this subject and summarizes the major direction of current studies. From the time of Badon Ghyben and Herzberg, it has been recognized that density is important in mathematically describing saltwater-freshwater systems. Other mechanisms, such as hydrodynamic dispersion, were identified later and are still not fully understood. Quantitative analysis of a saltwater-freshwater system attempts to mathematically describe the physical system and the important mechanisms using reasonable simplifications and assumptions. This paper, in developing the history of quantitative analysis discusses many of these simplifications and assumptions and their effect on describing and understanding the phenomenon. ?? 1985.

  9. Native American men-women, lesbians, two-spirits: Contemporary and historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    People living in the role of the "other" sex in Native American cultures, often entering into same-sex relationships, have been subject to various anthropological, historical, and psychological analyses and interpretations. Most recently, there has been a shift to an indigenist/decolonial interdisciplinary focus on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer Native people. This article gives a discussion of approaches to the subject, with a focus on female gender variability. An overview is given of the latter, complemented by a discussion of the identities and concerns of contemporary Native lesbians, many of whom identify as "two-spirit," a term that alludes to the dual, spiritually powerful nature traditionally attributed in a number of Native American cultures to individuals who combine the feminine and masculine.

  10. Native American men-women, lesbians, two-spirits: Contemporary and historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    People living in the role of the "other" sex in Native American cultures, often entering into same-sex relationships, have been subject to various anthropological, historical, and psychological analyses and interpretations. Most recently, there has been a shift to an indigenist/decolonial interdisciplinary focus on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer Native people. This article gives a discussion of approaches to the subject, with a focus on female gender variability. An overview is given of the latter, complemented by a discussion of the identities and concerns of contemporary Native lesbians, many of whom identify as "two-spirit," a term that alludes to the dual, spiritually powerful nature traditionally attributed in a number of Native American cultures to individuals who combine the feminine and masculine. PMID:27254758

  11. Electrical stimulation of the brain and the development of cortical visual prostheses: An historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Philip M; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances are occurring in neural engineering, bionics and the brain-computer interface. These milestones have been underpinned by staggering advances in micro-electronics, computing, and wireless technology in the last three decades. Several cortically-based visual prosthetic devices are currently being developed, but pioneering advances with early implants were achieved by Brindley followed by Dobelle in the 1960s and 1970s. We have reviewed these discoveries within the historical context of the medical uses of electricity including attempts to cure blindness, the discovery of the visual cortex, and opportunities for cortex stimulation experiments during neurosurgery. Further advances were made possible with improvements in electrode design, greater understanding of cortical electrophysiology and miniaturisation of electronic components. Human trials of a new generation of prototype cortical visual prostheses for the blind are imminent. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Hold Item. PMID:26348986

  12. An Historical Perspective of the NERVA Nuclear Rocket Engine Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, W. H.; Finger, H. B.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear rocket research and development was initiated in the United States in 1955 and is still being pursued to a limited extent. The major technology emphasis occurred in the decade of the 1960s and was primarily associated with the Rover/NERVA Program where the technology for a nuclear rocket engine system for space application was developed and demonstrated. The NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) technology developed twenty years ago provides a comprehensive and viable propulsion technology base that can be applied and will prove to be valuable for application to the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper, which is historical in scope, provides an overview of the conduct of the NERVA Engine Program, its organization and management, development philosophy, the engine configuration, and significant accomplishments.

  13. [The Gioconda from the historical and medical perspective (hypotheses of pathology in her painting)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Hermida, J

    2001-01-01

    As a preamble, some historical and biographical brushtrokes of the Gioconda, Leonardo and his painting will be outlined. Following these observations, a series of medical interpretations will be put forth regarding his painting with the aim of analysing possible pathologies related to: the skin, hair, eyes, hands and the reproductive and endocrine systems. We will conclude by observing the famous work The Smile and by extracting a hypothesis on pathologies of various natures such as: neurological, muscular, hypoacusic, asthmatic, psychoneurotic, psychiatric, ethylic, sexual, stress-related, stomatological (bruxismo) and the driving force that lies behind setting off the Stendhal Syndrome: a psychosomatic disorder known to be due to the human being's susceptibility to saturation from having received impressions of great artistic beauty.

  14. Dharmic projects, imperial reservoirs, and new temples of India: An historical perspective on dams in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As international attention continues to focus on large dam projects across Asia, it is worth noting that conflicts over the politics of and environmental changes caused by dams in India are not new. Population dislocation, siltation, disease, floods caused by catastrophic dam failure, raised water tables, high costs and low returns-all of these concerns, and others, can be discussed in the context of reservoir projects ten, one hundred, or even one thousand years old. In this paper, I identify some of the major issues in the political ecology of contemporary dam projects and show how these same issues have played out in southern India over the last thousand years, suggesting that historical attention to the cultural and political context of reservoir construction might help us to understand some aspects of contemporary conflicts.

  15. Engineering Improvement: Social and Historical Perspectives on the NAE’s “Grand Challenges”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. Slaton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The list of engineering "Grand Challenges" lately developed by the National Academy of Engineering enters a long historical tradition of such epically scaled to-do lists, dating back to the profession's U.S. origins in the mid-19th century. The mission statements, codes of ethics, and, later, lists of so-called grand challenges that have issued from engineering societies have served the dual function of directing engineers' work and supporting particular cultural roles for these bodies of experts. Almost all such plans, regardless of period or sponsoring body, have also blended highly practical aims of industrial and infrastructural development with more inchoate projects of societal uplift. The Grand Challenges of the NAE, currently playing a formative role in many engineering organizations and research and teaching settings, extend this lineage, working from a selective and self-confirming view of human welfare. We might bring to the Grand Challenges the type of critical, politically informed analysis that historians and STS scholars have brought to other sites of engineering activity and professionalization, to detect the nature of interests that underlay all such projections of engineering’s role in society. Who is served by the development of different technologies, products, and infrastructures? Who might be harmed? Most fundamentally, the Grand Challenges proceed from the premise that engineering research, construction, invention, and production are to take precedence over their absence, as befits a body dedicated not to the contraction of such enterprises but to their extension. Yet the interests of sustainability, global health, and other areas of human well-being might be best served in certain cases by just such a turning away from engineering. Making explicit the social and historical assumptions of the NAE’s Grand Challenges, and probing the implications of those assumptions for a diverse range of actors and communities, may

  16. Religious morality (and secular humanism in Western civilization as precursors to medical ethics: A historic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Faria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In discussing bioethics and the formulation of neuroethics, the question has arisen as to whether secular humanism should be the sole philosophical guiding light, to the exclusion of any discussion (or even mention of religious morality, in professional medical ethics. In addition, the question has arisen as to whether freedom or censorship should be part of medical (and neuroscience journalism. Should independent medical journals abstain from discussing certain issues, or should only the major medical journals - i.e., the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA or Lancet - be heard, speaking with one "consensual," authoritative voice? This issue is particularly important in controversial topics impacting medical politics - e.g., public health policy, socio-economics, bioethics, and the so-called redistributive justice in health care. Should all sides be heard when those controversial topics are discussed or only a consensual (monolithic side? This historical review article discusses those issues and opts for freedom in medical and surgical practice as well as freedom in medical journalism, particularly in opinion pieces such as editorials, commentaries, or letters to the editor, as long as they relate to medicine and, in our special case, to neuroscience and neurosurgery. After answering those questions, and in response to a critical letter to the editor, this review article then expounds comprehensively on the historical and philosophical origins of ethics and religious morality. Necessarily, we discuss the Graeco-Roman legacy and the Judeo-Christian inheritance in the development of ethics and religious morality in Western civilization and their impact on moral conduct in general and on medical and neuroscience ethics in particular.

  17. Religious morality (and secular humanism) in Western civilization as precursors to medical ethics: A historic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    In discussing bioethics and the formulation of neuroethics, the question has arisen as to whether secular humanism should be the sole philosophical guiding light, to the exclusion of any discussion (or even mention) of religious morality, in professional medical ethics. In addition, the question has arisen as to whether freedom or censorship should be part of medical (and neuroscience) journalism. Should independent medical journals abstain from discussing certain issues, or should only the major medical journals — i.e., the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) or Lancet — be heard, speaking with one “consensual,” authoritative voice? This issue is particularly important in controversial topics impacting medical politics — e.g., public health policy, socio-economics, bioethics, and the so-called redistributive justice in health care. Should all sides be heard when those controversial topics are discussed or only a consensual (monolithic) side? This historical review article discusses those issues and opts for freedom in medical and surgical practice as well as freedom in medical journalism, particularly in opinion pieces such as editorials, commentaries, or letters to the editor, as long as they relate to medicine and, in our special case, to neuroscience and neurosurgery. After answering those questions, and in response to a critical letter to the editor, this review article then expounds comprehensively on the historical and philosophical origins of ethics and religious morality. Necessarily, we discuss the Graeco-Roman legacy and the Judeo-Christian inheritance in the development of ethics and religious morality in Western civilization and their impact on moral conduct in general and on medical and neuroscience ethics in particular. PMID:26110085

  18. Forensic cultures in historical perspective: technologies of witness, testimony, judgment (and justice?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    This article explores the history of forensic science in terms of ideologies and institutions rather than developing technique. It presents an analytical framework for characterising forensic institutions and practices, past and present. That framework highlights the distinct issues of means of witness, accredited testimony, and the reaching of juridical decisions. The article applies the framework by comparing four forensic 'formations,' (or 'cultures') which have been prominent at various times and places in the western world from the early modern period onward: these are the central European heritage of the Caroline code, a eugenically-oriented forensic enterprise of late nineteenth-century America, the forensic perspective in nineteenth-century British India, and the representation of forensic certainty in contemporary American popular culture. The article concludes with a critique of what seems an increasingly common expectation: that forensic science evolves independently of legal institutions, and can ultimately displace them. PMID:23040200

  19. Herbicide hormesis to segregate a weed population? – A case study with Tripleurospermum perforatum (Mérat Lainz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belz, Regina G.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Weed populations feature within-population genetic differences. Thus, evaluating mean responses in herbicide treated populations may miss ecologically significant individual responses. Since hormesis can likewise vary between individuals, this study investigated the hypothesis that herbicide hormesis within a high-density weed population is different among slowly-growing individuals, as compared to fast-growing individuals. In a dose-response experiment, Tripleurospermum perforatum (Mérat Lainz was exposed to 12 doses of Atlantis WG (mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron in 24 replicates (50 plants/replicate. Root/shoot growth responses were evaluated as dose-response relationships for the population mean, the 90-97th percentile of the population (fast-growing individuals, and the 5-10th percentile (slow-growing individuals. Growth responses were generally biphasic. Slow-growing individuals had more pronounced hormesis that occurred partially at lower doses as compared to the population mean. With fast-growing individuals, hormesis was instead less pronounced and partially shifted to higher doses. Hence, hormesis was primarily associated with a stimulation of slow-growing individuals, while fast-growing individuals contributed to a lesser extent to the hormetic population response in a dense stand in vitro. This discrepancy may have the potential to segregate an herbicide exposed population and alter its sensitivity in the long-run.

  20. A Historical Perspective on Local Environmental Movements in Japan: Lessons for the Transdisciplinary Approach on Water Resource Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, T.

    2014-12-01

    Typical studies on natural resources from a social science perspective tend to choose one type of resource—water, for example— and ask what factors contribute to the sustainable use or wasteful exploitation of that resource. However, climate change and economic development, which are causing increased pressure on local resources and presenting communities with increased levels of tradeoffs and potential conflicts, force us to consider the trade-offs between options for using a particular resource. Therefore, the transdisciplinary approach that accurately captures the advantages and disadvantages of various possible resource uses is particularly important in the complex social-ecological systems, where concerns about inequality with respect to resource use and access have become unavoidable. Needless to say, resource management and policy require sound scientific understanding of the complex interconnections between nature and society, however, in contrast to typical international discussions, I discuss Japan not as an "advanced" case where various dilemmas have been successfully addressed by the government through the optimal use of technology, but rather as a nation seeing an emerging trend that is based on a awareness of the connections between local resources and the environment. Furthermore, from a historical viewpoint, the nexus of local resources is not a brand-new idea in the experience of environmental governance in Japan. There exist the local environment movements, which emphasized the interconnection of local resources and succeeded in urging the governmental action and policymaking. For this reason, local movements and local knowledge for the resource governance warrant attention. This study focuses on the historical cases relevant to water resource management including groundwater, and considers the contexts and conditions to holistically address local resource problems, paying particular attention to interactions between science and society. I

  1. Human DNA repair disorders in dermatology: A historical perspective, current concepts and new insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Shinichi

    2016-02-01

    Products of DNA damage, such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4 PPs), are continually formed in genomes after exposure to UV radiation. When these DNA damages remain unrepaired in essential DNA sites for prolonged periods, DNA replication and transcription are hampered or mutation is induced, which may cause cell death, cellular senescence, and carcinogenesis of the skin. To protect against such UV-induced DNA damage, living organisms nicely retain "DNA repair systems", which can efficiently repair "harmful" DNA damage through precise mechanisms by the integrated functions of many proteins. In humans, the failure of DNA repair systems causes a variety of disorders. Dermatological conditions such as hereditary photodermatoses, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) are caused by congenital functional defects in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) system or the translesion synthesis (TLS) system. In this review, we describe the historical progress, recent findings, and future prospects of studies of human diseases associated with DNA-repair defects. PMID:26493104

  2. Historical Perspectives and Future Needs in the Development of the Soil Series Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudette, Dylan E.; Brevik, Eric C.; Indorante, Samuel J.

    2016-04-01

    The soil series concept is an ever-evolving understanding of soil profile observations, their connection to the landscape, and functional limits on the range in characteristics that affect management. Historically, the soil series has played a pivotal role in the development of soil-landscape theory, modern soil survey methods, and concise delivery of soils information to the end-user-- in other words, soil series is the palette from which soil survey reports are crafted. Over the last 20 years the soil series has received considerable criticism as a means of soil information organization (soil survey development) and delivery (end-user application of soil survey data), with increasing pressure (internal and external) to retire the soil series. We propose that a modern re-examination of soil series information could help address several of the long-standing critiques of soil survey: consistency across survey vintage and political divisions and more robust estimates of soil properties and associated uncertainty. A new library of soil series data would include classic narratives describing morphology and management, quantitative descriptions of soil properties and their ranges, graphical depiction of the relationships between associated soil series, block diagrams illustrating soil-landscape models, maps of series distribution, and a probabilistic representation of a "typical" soil profile. These data would be derived from re-correlation of existing morphologic and characterization data informed by modern statistical methods and regional expertise.

  3. Canadian upstream oil and gas industry profitability: Historical review and future perspectives [with executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The profitability of the Canadian upstream oil and gas industry is examined by analyzing return on equity and return on capital invested. By all measures and interpretations, the upstream industry has been unprofitable since the mid-1980s; returns generated are far below the industry's own historical cost of capital, and are inadequate relative to other sectors of the Canadian economy and to international oil and gas companies. This poor profitability is attributed to such factors as: overly optimistic price forecasts and healthy cash flows generated in the early 1980s, which led to excess capital spending; poor returns on capital reflective of the physical limitations of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin; high capital and operating costs; and a high royalty burden imposed by provincial governments. The consequences of low profitability include inadequate returns to equity investors, a drop in spending on upstream services such as drilling and exploration, a reduced ability of the industry to generate employment, and an adverse effect on the economy of Alberta. Forecasts indicate that the upstream sector is extremely vulnerable to a scenario of relatively flat prices due to high and increasing operating costs and depletion charges, and the significant royalty payments that still are in effect. Little scope is foreseen for industry profitability to return to acceptable levels over the first half of the 1990s. Reduced royalties have the potential to make a significant contribution to improved profitability. 52 figs., 40 tabs

  4. Clinical manifestations of hysteria: an epistemological perspective or how historical dynamics illuminate current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros De Bustos, Elisabeth; Galli, Sylvio; Haffen, Emmanuel; Moulin, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Hysteria has generated the most heated debates among physicians, from antiquity to the present day. It has been long confused with neuroses and neurological pathologies such as Parkinson's disease and epilepsy, principally associated with women and sexual disorders. The clinical manifestations must first be seen in their historical context, as interpretation varies according to the time period. Recently, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders by the American Psychiatric Association marked a break in the consensus that previously seemed to apply to the concept of hysteria and approach to the clinical manifestations. The clinical manifestations of hysteria are numerous and multifaceted, comprising 3 main classifications: paroxysms, attacks, and acute manifestations; long-lasting functional syndromes, and visceral events. Each main classification can be subdivided into several subgroups. The first main group of paroxysms, attacks, and acute manifestations includes major hysterical attacks, such as prodrome, trance and epileptic states, minor hysterical attacks such as syncope and tetany, twilight states, paroxysmal amnesia, and cataleptic attacks. The second group includes focal hysterical symptoms, paralyses, contractures and spasms, anesthesia, and sensory disorders. Visceral manifestations can be subdivided into spasms, pain, and general and trophic disorders. The diversity of the symptoms of hysteria and its changing clinical presentation calls into question the same hysterical attacks and the same symptoms, which have had only a few differences for over 2,000 years. A new definition of hysteria should be proposed, in that it is a phenomenon that is not pathological, but physiological and expressional. PMID:25273487

  5. Can all cause readmission policy improve quality or lower expenditures? A historical perspective on current initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, James F; Hockenberry, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    All-cause readmission to inpatient care is of wide policy interest in the United States and a number of other countries (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, in the United Kingdom by the National Centre for Health Outcomes Development, and in Australia by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare). Contemporary policy efforts, including high powered incentives embedded in the current US Hospital Readmission Reduction Program, and the organizationally complex interventions derived in anticipation of this policy, have been touted based on potential cost savings. Strong incentives and resulting interventions may not enjoy the support of a strong theoretical model or the empirical research base that are typical of strong incentive schemes. We examine the historical broad literature on the issue, lay out a 'full' conceptual organizational model of patient transitions as they relate to the hospital, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of previous and proposed policies. We use this to set out a research and policy agenda on this critical issue rather than attempt to conduct a comprehensive structured literature review. We assert that researchers and policy makers should consider more fundamental societal issues related to health, social support and health literacy if progress is going to be made in reducing readmissions. PMID:23987089

  6. The diversification of eastern South American open vegetation biomes: Historical biogeography and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, Fernanda P.

    2011-06-01

    The eastern-central South American open vegetation biomes occur across an extensive range of environmental conditions and are organized diagonally including three complexly interacting tropical/sub-tropical biomes. Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTFs), Cerrado, and Chaco biomes are seasonally stressed by drought, characterized by significant plant and animal endemism, high levels of diversity, and highly endangered. However, these open biomes have been overlooked in biogeographic studies and conservation projects in South America, especially regarding fauna studies. Here I compile and evaluate the biogeographic hypotheses previously proposed for the diversification of these three major open biomes, specifically their distributions located eastern and southern of Andes. My goal is to generate predictions and provide a background for testable hypotheses. I begin by investigating both continental (inter-biome) and regional (within-biome) levels, and I then provide a biogeographical summary for these regions. I also suggest how novel molecular-based historical biogeographic/phylogeographic approaches could contribute to the resolution of long-standing questions, identify potential target fauna groups for development of these lines of study, and describe fertile future research agendas.

  7. Historical perspective: The problem of the origin of life in the context of developments in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamminga, Harmke

    1988-03-01

    The structure of the history of scientific ideas on the origin of life, after Darwin's theory of evolution brought the problem into focus, is discussed. 19th-century theories in the mainstream of historical development already included some notion of chemical evolution. These theories were limited, however, by their reliance on a protoplasmic view of life, according to which the protoplasmic substance combines all vital properties. It was only when this holistic concept of protoplasm was abandoned that a clear distinction between different vital functions such as metabolism and replication was made. This led to two schools of thought in the origin of life field, one inspired by biochemistry and one by genetics. Oparin's theory, which was rooted in the metabolic traditions of biochemistry, provided a model which has had a lasting impact in methodological terms and which helped to transform the field from a largely theoretical one to an area of active research. Genetically based theories, on the other hand, had a delayed impact in this respect, because of long-lasting uncertainty regarding the structural basis of gene function.

  8. Source and fate of hydraulic fracturing water in the Barnett Shale: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Scanlon, Bridget R; Reedy, Robert C; Costley, Ruth A

    2014-02-18

    Considerable controversy continues about water availability for and potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing (HF) of hydrocarbon assets on water resources. Our objective was to quantify HF water volume in terms of source, reuse, and disposal, using the Barnett Shale in Texas as a case study. Data were obtained from commercial and state databases, river authorities, groundwater conservation districts, and operators. Cumulative water use from ∼ 18,000 (mostly horizontal) wells since 1981 through 2012 totaled ∼ 170,000 AF (210 Mm(3)); ∼ 26 000 AF (32 Mm(3)) in 2011, representing 32% of Texas HF water use and ∼ 0.2% of 2011 state water consumption. Increase in water use per well by 60% (from 3 to 5 Mgal/well; 0.011-0.019 Mm(3)) since the mid-2000s reflects the near-doubling of horizontal-well lengths (2000-3800 ft), offset by a reduction in water-use intensity by 40% (2000-1200 gal/ft; 2.5-1.5 m(3)/m). Water sources include fresh surface water and groundwater in approximately equal amounts. Produced water amount is inversely related to gas production, exceeds HF water volume, and is mostly disposed in injection wells. Understanding the historical evolution of water use in the longest-producing shale play is invaluable for assessing its water footprint for energy production.

  9. Exploring Child Play within the Framework of Cultural-Historical Psychology: Experience and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Elkoninova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper reconstructs the history of the problem of the development of mind on the example of child play. It reveals how researchers from the cultural-historical school of thought explored the developmental function of play, recorded quantitative leaps in its development and attempted to reconstruct it — from the works of L.S. Vygotsky and his followers (activity approach to role play: A.N. Leontiev, D.B. Elkonin, N.Ya. Mikhaylenko, N.A. Korotkova and others to the works of researchers who studied the very act of development in play (L.I. Elkoninova, T.V. Bazhanova, K.O. Yuryeva. It is argued that the concept of the cultural form of play that contains the Challenge (limited by possibilities of action, by risk and the Response to it serves as a foundation not only for role-playing games, but also for games with rules and computer games too. The Challenge is associated with action which transforms the situation of acting and is typical of all forms of play that are required to tie together everything that is separated in an everyday behavior of a child.

  10. Source and fate of hydraulic fracturing water in the Barnett Shale: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Scanlon, Bridget R; Reedy, Robert C; Costley, Ruth A

    2014-02-18

    Considerable controversy continues about water availability for and potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing (HF) of hydrocarbon assets on water resources. Our objective was to quantify HF water volume in terms of source, reuse, and disposal, using the Barnett Shale in Texas as a case study. Data were obtained from commercial and state databases, river authorities, groundwater conservation districts, and operators. Cumulative water use from ∼ 18,000 (mostly horizontal) wells since 1981 through 2012 totaled ∼ 170,000 AF (210 Mm(3)); ∼ 26 000 AF (32 Mm(3)) in 2011, representing 32% of Texas HF water use and ∼ 0.2% of 2011 state water consumption. Increase in water use per well by 60% (from 3 to 5 Mgal/well; 0.011-0.019 Mm(3)) since the mid-2000s reflects the near-doubling of horizontal-well lengths (2000-3800 ft), offset by a reduction in water-use intensity by 40% (2000-1200 gal/ft; 2.5-1.5 m(3)/m). Water sources include fresh surface water and groundwater in approximately equal amounts. Produced water amount is inversely related to gas production, exceeds HF water volume, and is mostly disposed in injection wells. Understanding the historical evolution of water use in the longest-producing shale play is invaluable for assessing its water footprint for energy production. PMID:24467212

  11. Stem cells and the reproductive system: historical perspective and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Cindy M P; Taylor, Hugh S

    2013-11-01

    Recent findings in stem cell biology have presented new perspectives and opportunities for the treatment of reproductive disease. In a departure from the long held dogma of embryologically fixed numbers of oocytes, current literature suggests that human ovaries contain stem cells which form new oocytes even in adulthood and that these stem cells can be cultured in vitro to develop into mature oocytes. These findings have provided new hope and broader options for fertility preservation. Evidence of endometrial regeneration by bone marrow stem cells in endometrial tissue of women who received bone marrow transplant highlight potential for the novel treatments of uterine disorders and supports new theories for the etiology of endometriosis - ectopic transdifferentiation of stem cells. Further, endometrial derived stem cells have been demonstrated to be useful in the treatment of several chronic and often debilitating diseases, including Parkinson's Disease and Diabetes. Other cells that may present future therapeutic benefits for a myriad of disease states include placental and fetal cells which enter maternal circulation during pregnancy and can later promote parenchymal regeneration in maternal tissue. These findings highlight novel functions of the uterus and ovaries. They demonstrate that the uterus is a dynamic organ permeable to fetal stem cells capable of transdifferentiation as well as a renewable source of multipotent stem cells. While we still have much to understand about stem cells, their potential applications in reproductive biology and medicine are countless.

  12. Ashbya gossypii beyond industrial riboflavin production: A historical perspective and emerging biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Silva, Rui; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-12-01

    The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii has been safely and successfully used for more than two decades in the commercial production of riboflavin (vitamin B2). Its industrial relevance combined with its high genetic similarity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae together promoted the accumulation of fundamental knowledge that has been efficiently converted into a significant molecular and in silico toolbox for its genetic engineering. This synergy has enabled a directed and sustained exploitation of A. gossypii as an industrial riboflavin producer. Although there is still room for optimizing riboflavin production, the recent years have seen an abundant advance in the exploration of A. gossypii for other biotechnological applications, such as the production of recombinant proteins, single cell oil and flavour compounds. Here, we will address the biotechnological potential of A. gossypii beyond riboflavin production by presenting (a) a physiological and metabolic perspective over this fungus; (b) the molecular toolbox available for its manipulation; and (c) commercial and emerging biotechnological applications for this industrially important fungus, together with the approaches adopted for its engineering. PMID:26456510

  13. Pediatric liver transplantation: Personal perspectives on historical achievements and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Jean-Bernard

    2016-09-01

    This review presents the author's personal perspective and contributions to the first steps, the development, the current status, and the remaining issues of pediatric liver transplantation (LT). Innumerable children around the world who have undergone LT have reached adulthood. The techniques have reached maturity. As shown by my own group's experience, grafts donated by living donors might provide the best short-term and longterm results. Debate persists about the optimal immunosuppression (IS), although the place of tacrolimus remains unchallenged. Tolerance induction protocols aiming to induce microchimerism have been tried in clinical transplantation without convincing results. Withdrawal of maintenance IS is possible in some children who underwent liver transplantation who have excellent clinical status and normal liver function tests but is not without risk of rejection and subsequent worsening of histology. The current trend favored by the Brussels' group is to minimize IS as soon after transplant as possible, aiming to obtain a state of "prope" or "almost" tolerance. Liver grafts are threatened in the long term by increasing hepatitis-related fibrosis, resulting most likely from immunological assault. Nowadays, the focus is on the longterm survival, quality of life (growth, academic performance, employment, self-fulfillment, fertility, raising a family, etc.), induction of tolerance, prevention of risks bound to decades of IS (nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity, cardiovascular risk, de novo malignancies, etc.), and prevention of graft fibrosis. All these issues are fertile fields for younger scientists. Liver Transplantation 22 1284-1294 2016 AASLD. PMID:27096329

  14. The Cultural Industry and educational criticism in Latin America: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Soto Sandoval

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study three authors from different academic fields who have contributed to the development of educational knowledge systems in Latin America in the areas of culture, media communication, and education. In order to do so, I will first explore a historical study about the importance of the Cultural Industry in Latin America, based on academic contributions by Andres Bello, who focused intellectually to give cohesion to national unity in the recently established XIX century Latin American states. Enlightened culture emerges from its written and spoken language, and with support of the media at the time, the “bellista project” would become the first media communication and educational strategy aimed at capturing the new and varied dimensions of a nascent South American Culture. Similarly and in the same vein, I will look into the stance of writers and journalists, José Martí and Rubén Darío, who had to face Modernity as it began to replace the Enlightenment for a Culture for the Masses. Their poems and writings in newspapers back then, established an academic standpoint, for the first time, linked to media analysis and education, such as questioning the cultural industry and media narratives that were operating towards the end of the XIX century, in different media outlets. Finally, I examine how media analysis in Latin America emerged in the face of processes of domination that came not only from the economic but the so called cultural industries that surfaced with so much power in the mid-twentieth century. These media outlets show cultural processes as a marketable product while diluting the true real dimensions of culture.

  15. Selective elimination of breast cancer surgery in exceptional responders: historical perspective and current trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van la Parra, Raquel F D; Kuerer, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    With improvements in chemotherapy regimens, targeted therapies, and our fundamental understanding of the relationship of tumor subtype and pathologic complete response (pCR), there has been dramatic improvement in pCR rates in the past decade, especially among triple-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancers. Rates of pCR in these groups of patients can be in the 60 % range and thus question the paradigm for the necessity of breast and nodal surgery in all cases, particularly when the patient will be receiving adjuvant local therapy with radiotherapy. Current practice for patients who respond well to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is often to proceed with the same breast and axillary procedures as would have been offered women who had not received NCT, regardless of the apparent clinical response. Given these high response rates in defined subgroups among exceptional responders it is appropriate to question whether surgery is now a redundant procedure in their overall management. Further, definitive radiation without surgical resection with or without systemic therapy has been proven effective for several other malignant disease sites including some stages of esophageal, anal, laryngeal, prostate, cervical, and lung carcinoma. The main impediments for potential elimination of surgery have been the fact that prior and current standard and functional breast imaging methods are incapable of accurate prediction of residual disease and that integrating percutaneous biopsy of the breast primary and nodes following NCT may circumvent this issue. This article highlights historical attempts at omission of surgery following NCT in an earlier era, the current status of breast and nodal imaging to predict residual carcinoma, and ongoing and planned trials designed to identify appropriate patients who might be selected for clinical trials designed to test the safety of selected elimination of breast cancer surgery in percutaneous image

  16. Skyscape of an Amazonian Diaspora: Arawak Astronomy in Historical Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Fabiola

    The title of this article "Arawak Astronomy" suggests that the research matter concerns the astronomy of an already well-defined ethnographic entity. This however does not do justice to the complexities of Arawak (pre)history. This contribution aims to discuss and connect the available historical and ethnographic data on Arawak astronomies as gathered by the author (Jara 2000), with the most recent research on the archeology and comparative linguistics of the Arawak diaspora. The article argues that Arawak astronomy has to be related to the cultural and sociopolitical continuities and discontinuities of the Arawak diaspora throughout the lowlands of tropical South America. This article recognizes the need to consider Arawak astronomy has an object to be discovered and explained within its local and regional contexts. Notwithstanding these remarks, based on a sustained examination of ethnohistorical and ethnographic sources, this article proposes that Arawak astronomy can be characterized by at least four elements: firstly, a horizon system of observation which combines the observation of the solar solstices and equinoxes with the near heliacal and near cosmic rising or setting of at least seven star groups - the Pleiades, the Hyades, the upper stars of the constellation of Scorpius (including α Sco), Corvus, the Belt of Orion, several stars near Sirius, and the Milky Way. Secondly, the association of the rising and setting of these star groups with the seasonal cycle, mainly with the start and/or of the end of rainy and dry seasons. Thirdly, the widespread association of the stars of the year (most commonly the Pleiades but sometimes Orion or the head of Scorpius) with the beginning of the agricultural cycle and consequently with the end of the heavy rains announcing the time to plant the new fields. The last and fourth commonality are the inscriptions or markings of the origin of the stars in the local landscape, lakes, mountains, and other salient landscape

  17. Childhood central nervous system leukemia: historical perspectives, current therapy, and acute neurological sequelae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laningham, Fred H. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN (United States); Kun, Larry E. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN (United States); Reddick, Wilburn E.; Ogg, Robert J. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Division of Translational Imaging Research, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Morris, E.B. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); Pui, Ching-Hon [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2007-11-15

    During the past three decades, improvements in the treatment of childhood leukemia have resulted in high cure rates, particularly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Unfortunately, successful therapy has come with a price, as significant morbidity can result from neurological affects which harm the brain and spinal cord. The expectation and hope is that chemotherapy, as a primary means of CNS therapy, will result in acceptable disease control with less CNS morbidity than has been observed with combinations of chemotherapy and radiotherapy over the past several decades. In this review we discuss the poignant, historical aspects of CNS leukemia therapy, outline current methods of systemic and CNS leukemia therapy, and present imaging findings we have encountered in childhood leukemia patients with a variety of acute neurological conditions. A major objective of our research is to understand the neuroimaging correlates of acute and chronic effects of cancer and therapy. Specific features related to CNS leukemia and associated short-term toxicities, both disease- and therapy-related, are emphasized in this review with the specific neuroimaging findings. Specific CNS findings are similarly important when treating acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), and details of leukemic involvement and toxicities are also presented in this entity. Despite contemporary treatment approaches which favor the use of chemotherapy (including intrathecal therapy) over radiotherapy in the treatment of CNS leukemia, children still occasionally experience morbid neurotoxicity. Standard neuroimaging is sufficient to identify a variety of neurotoxic sequelae in children, and often suggest specific etiologies. Specific neuroimaging findings frequently indicate a need to alter antileukemia therapy. It is important to appreciate that intrathecal and high doses of systemic chemotherapy are not innocuous and are associated with acute, specific, recognizable, and often serious neurological

  18. Mumps resurgences in the United States: A historical perspective on unexpected elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barskey, Albert E; Glasser, John W; LeBaron, Charles W

    2009-10-19

    In 2006 the United States experienced the largest nationwide mumps epidemic in 20 years, primarily affecting college dormitory residents. Unexpected elements of the outbreak included very abrupt time course (75% of cases occurred within 90 days), geographic focality (85% of cases occurred in eight rural Midwestern states), rapid upward and downward shift in peak age-specific attack rate (5-9-year olds to 18-24-year olds, then back), and two-dose vaccine failure (63% of case-patients had received two doses). To construct a historical context in which to understand the recent outbreak, we reviewed US mumps surveillance data, vaccination coverage estimates, and relevant peer-reviewed literature for the period 1917-2008. Many of the unexpected features of the 2006 mumps outbreak had been reported several times previously in the US, e.g., the 1986-1987 mumps resurgence had extremely abrupt onset, rural geographic focality, and an upward-then-downward age shift. Evidence suggested recurrent mumps outbreak patterns were attributable to accumulation of susceptibles in dispersed situations where the risk of endemic disease exposure was low and were triggered when this susceptible population was brought together in crowded living conditions. The 2006 epidemic followed this pattern, with two unique variations: it was preceded by a period of very high vaccination rates and very low disease incidence and was characterized by two-dose failure rates among adults vaccinated in childhood. Data from the past 80 years suggest that preventing future mumps epidemics will depend on innovative measures to detect and eliminate build-up of susceptibles among highly vaccinated populations. PMID:19815120

  19. Ecology and biology of paddlefish in North America: historical perspectives, management approaches, and research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Cecil A.; Zigler, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula, Polyodontidae) are large, mostly-riverine fish that once were abundant in medium- to large-sized river systems throughout much of the central United States. Concern for paddlefish populations has grown from a regional fisheries issue to one of national importance for the United States. In 1989, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) was petitioned to list paddlefish as a federally threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. The petition was not granted, primarily because of a lack of empirical data on paddlefish population size, age structure, growth, or harvest rates across the present 22-state range. Nonetheless, concern for paddlefish populations prompted the USFWS to recommend that paddlefish be protected through the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The addition of paddlefish to Appendix II of CITES, which was approved in March 1992, provides a mechanism to curtail illegal trade in paddlefish and their parts and supports a variety of conservation plans. Paddlefish populations have been negatively affected by overharvest, river modifications, and pollution, but the paddlefish still occupies much of its historic range and most extant populations seem to be stable. Although many facets of paddlefish biology and ecology are well understood, the lack of information on larval and juvenile ecology, mechanisms that determine recruitment, population size and vital rates, interjurisdictional movements, and the effects of anthropogenic activities present significant obstacles for managing paddlefish populations. Questions about the size and structure of local populations, and how such populations are affected by navigation traffic, dams, and pollution are regarded as medium priority areas for future research. The availability of suitable spawning habitat and overall reproductive success in impounded rivers are unknown and represent critical areas for future research

  20. Selective elimination of breast cancer surgery in exceptional responders: historical perspective and current trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van la Parra, Raquel F D; Kuerer, Henry M

    2016-03-08

    With improvements in chemotherapy regimens, targeted therapies, and our fundamental understanding of the relationship of tumor subtype and pathologic complete response (pCR), there has been dramatic improvement in pCR rates in the past decade, especially among triple-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancers. Rates of pCR in these groups of patients can be in the 60 % range and thus question the paradigm for the necessity of breast and nodal surgery in all cases, particularly when the patient will be receiving adjuvant local therapy with radiotherapy. Current practice for patients who respond well to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is often to proceed with the same breast and axillary procedures as would have been offered women who had not received NCT, regardless of the apparent clinical response. Given these high response rates in defined subgroups among exceptional responders it is appropriate to question whether surgery is now a redundant procedure in their overall management. Further, definitive radiation without surgical resection with or without systemic therapy has been proven effective for several other malignant disease sites including some stages of esophageal, anal, laryngeal, prostate, cervical, and lung carcinoma. The main impediments for potential elimination of surgery have been the fact that prior and current standard and functional breast imaging methods are incapable of accurate prediction of residual disease and that integrating percutaneous biopsy of the breast primary and nodes following NCT may circumvent this issue. This article highlights historical attempts at omission of surgery following NCT in an earlier era, the current status of breast and nodal imaging to predict residual carcinoma, and ongoing and planned trials designed to identify appropriate patients who might be selected for clinical trials designed to test the safety of selected elimination of breast cancer surgery in percutaneous image

  1. Non-marital pregnancy and the second demographic transition in Australia in historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Carmichael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Australia has remarkably detailed data on non-marital pregnancy dating from 1908. They both offer insight into long-term trends in childbearing resulting from non-marital sexual activity and reveal in historical context key features of the second demographic transition and its genesis. Objective: Trends are traced in rates of non-marital conception of children ultimately born both outside and within marriage. A range of related indices is also presented in examining how demographic behaviour surrounding non-marital pregnancy (i helped generate the second demographic transition and (ii unfolded as a component of it. Methods: Core indices are rates of non-marital conception partitioned into additive components associated with marital and non-marital confinement. Data on non-marital and early marital births (at marriage durations 0-7 months are lagged back 38 weeks to a date of and age at conception basis to facilitate a common, unmarried, population at risk. Results: Post-war weakening of parental oversight of courtship was a fundamental trigger to the broader rejection of normative and institutional values that underpinned the second demographic transition. In tandem with denying the unmarried access to oral contraception it generated rampant youthful non-marital pregnancy, which undermined Judeo-Christian values, especially once abortion law reform occurred. Conclusions: Childbearing following non-marital conception transitioned rapidly after the 1960s from primarily the unintended product of youthful intercourse in non-coresidential relationships to mainly intended behaviour at normative reproductive ages in consensual unions. Family formation increasingly mixed non-marital births and premaritally and/or maritally conceived marital births.

  2. An inquiry into the causes for the multiple goals of the United States Antitrust Law from a historical perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Tie

    2006-01-01

    It is not the case as Robert Bork claims that the U.S.antitrust law had only one goal-maximization of consumer welfare of efficiency-at the very beginning and should have been kept that way for its later development.Partly because of the fighting among different interest groups as well as spokesmen of different regions at the 51 st Congress,the Sherman Antitrust Act came out as a legislation with multiple goals,which were also taking shape under the influence of the Republican idea of balance of power,the liberal belief in property rights,the freedom of contract of classic economics,and the price theory of neoclassic economics.In more than a hundred years after that,the U.S.antitrust law has shifted the center of its goals as a result of the change of regulatory regimes with different emphases such as market function,economic stabilization,social concern,and economic efficiency during different periods.From a historical perspective,it is beyond dispute that the U.S.antitrust law has had multiple goals instead of only one.

  3. Historical perspectives on typhoons and tropical storms in the natural and socio-economic system of Nam Dinh (Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinen, John

    2007-02-01

    This contribution starts with a brief introduction of the effects of typhoons and tropical storms on Vietnam, focusing in particular on the coastal region of Nam Dinh, a province in the northern part of the country and part of the Red River Delta. The magnitude of damage caused by a natural disaster is not solely determined by the direct physical impact of the event, but also depends on the socio-economic and political circumstances that shape a person or a groups' daily life. Such conditions define where and how people live and work. An overview of the major events since the 19th century shows how important it is to study these events in historical perspective. This paper briefly considers various conceptualizations and definitions of vulnerability. It analyses the destruction caused by a natural disaster in terms of peoples' vulnerability in a deltaic region. A distinction is made between collective vulnerability and individual vulnerability, each leading to different levels of perception of the disaster. The levels overlap in the discussion because they are interwoven and dependent on one another.

  4. Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: a historical perspective and future opportunities; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. steel industry has taken enormous strides over the past decades to reduce its energy consumption; since the end of World War II, the industry has reduced its energy intensity (energy use per shipped ton) by 60 percent. Between 1990 and 1998 alone, intensity has dropped from 20 to 18 million Btu (MBtu) per ton. This figure is projected to decrease to 15 MBtu/ton by 2010 with an asymptotic trend towards 14 MBtu/ton. Domestic shipments are projected to flatten out over the next decade to around 105 million tons which means that total energy consumption will also decrease. Historically, the steel industry has accounted for about 6 percent of U.S. energy consumption. Today, that figure is less than 2 percent and will decrease further to 1.5 percent by 2010. The primary causes for the decrease in energy consumption since WWII are: The use of pellets in the blast furnace and the application of new technology in the ironmaking process to further reduce fuel rates per net ton of hot metal (NTHM); The total replacement of the open hearth process by basic oxygen and electric furnaces; The almost total replacement of ingot casting by continuous casting (which improved yield dramatically and thus reduced the tons of raw steel required per ton of shipments); and The growth of the electric furnace sector of the industry at the expense of hot metal-based processes (which has also stimulated scrap recycling so that about 55 percent of ''new'' steel is now melted from scrap steel). This report focuses on the concept of good practices (i.e., those that are sustainable and can use today's technology). If all the industry could operate on this basis, the additional savings per ton could total 2 MBtu, As further restructuring occurs and the swing from hot metal-based to electric furnace-based production continues, the average consumption will approach the good practice energy per ton. Further savings will accrue through new technology, particularly in the areas of reduced blast

  5. The nutrition and health impact of cash cropping in west Africa: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, T A

    1991-01-01

    The impact of cash cropping in West Africa cannot be isolated from its social and historical background. Among the many changes brought to West African economies by cash cropping since the beginning of the century, the present document shows how the extension of trade with European merchants and colonizers created new sets of values and criteria for wealth. Food crops gradually lost their prominent cultural and economics roles to the benefit of export crops or goods. Traditional systems of agricultural production were profoundly disrupted by military actions. They imposed colonial rule and control of trade of tropical crops and goods. Forced labor and compulsory (poorly paid) work assignments were instituted for private and public enterprises: construction of roads, railways, public buildings and plantations. The main justification was the need for cheap labor to cultivate, transport and build roads for the extraction of raw materials. This in turn caused massive migrations from countries such as Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) to Ivory Coast. Cash cropping made systematic collection of taxes possible. An imposition on a per capita basis became the rule and the major incentive of small farmers to engage in commercial farming. Cash cropping made also possible extensive monetarization of West Africa. This results in both favorable and unfavorable effects on the quality of the diet. In profoundly disrupted traditional societies, the diffusion of new consumption patterns was easier and faster. It led to massive food imports of wheat, rice, sugar, alcohol, etc. Cash cropping was (and still is) practiced as a 'mining' agriculture, exhausting soils and deteriorating their fertility for extended periods of time. In the Sudanian and Sahelian zones cash cropping conflicted with the cultivation of grains because peak demands for labor were similar. Therefore, millet and sorghum production declined. Cash cropping was developed in response to the need of European economies for

  6. Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: a historical perspective and future opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbles, John

    2000-09-01

    The U.S. steel industry has taken enormous strides over the past decades to reduce its energy consumption; since the end of World War II, the industry has reduced its energy intensity (energy use per shipped ton) by 60 percent. Between 1990 and 1998 alone, intensity has dropped from 20 to 18 million Btu (MBtu) per ton. This figure is projected to decrease to 15 MBtu/ton by 2010 with an asymptotic trend towards 14 MBtu/ton. Domestic shipments are projected to flatten out over the next decade to around 105 million tons which means that total energy consumption will also decrease. Historically, the steel industry has accounted for about 6 percent of U.S. energy consumption. Today, that figure is less than 2 percent and will decrease further to 1.5 percent by 2010. The primary causes for the decrease in energy consumption since WWII are: The use of pellets in the blast furnace and the application of new technology in the ironmaking process to further reduce fuel rates per net ton of hot metal (NTHM); The total replacement of the open hearth process by basic oxygen and electric furnaces; The almost total replacement of ingot casting by continuous casting (which improved yield dramatically and thus reduced the tons of raw steel required per ton of shipments); and The growth of the electric furnace sector of the industry at the expense of hot metal-based processes (which has also stimulated scrap recycling so that about 55 percent of ''new'' steel is now melted from scrap steel). This report focuses on the concept of good practices (i.e., those that are sustainable and can use today's technology). If all the industry could operate on this basis, the additional savings per ton could total 2 MBtu, As further restructuring occurs and the swing from hot metal-based to electric furnace-based production continues, the average consumption will approach the good practice energy per ton. Further savings will accrue through new technology, particularly in

  7. A historical perspective on the discovery and elucidation of the hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Timothy M; Alter, Harvey J; London, W Thomas; Bray, Mike

    2016-07-01

    The discovery in 1965 of the "Australia antigen," subsequently identified as the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), was such a watershed event in virology that it is often thought to mark the beginning of hepatitis research, but it is more accurately seen as a critical breakthrough in a long effort to understand the pathogenesis of infectious hepatitis. A century earlier, Virchow provided an authoritative explanation of "catarrhal jaundice," which did not consider an infectious etiology, but the transmission of jaundice by human serum was clearly identified in two outbreaks in 1885, and the distinction between "infectious" and "serum" hepatitis was recognized by the early 1920s. The inability to culture a virus or reproduce either syndrome in laboratory animals led to numerous studies in human volunteers; by the end of World War II, it was known that the diseases were caused by different filterable agents, and the terms "hepatitis A" and "B" were introduced in 1947 (though some long-incubation cases then designated B must in retrospect have been hepatitis C). The development of a number of liver function tests during the 1950s led to the recognition of anicteric infections and the existence of chronic carriers, but little more could be done until an infectious agent had been identified. Once Blumberg and colleagues had found a specific viral marker, the vast amount of accumulated epidemiologic and clinical data, together with huge numbers of stored serum samples, enabled rapid progress in understanding hepatitis B, and revealed the existence of a vast population of chronically infected people in Asia, Oceania and Africa. In this article, we place the identification of the Australia antigen within the historical context of research on viral hepatitis. Following a chronological review from 1865 to 1965, we summarize how the discovery led to improved safety of blood transfusion, the development of a highly effective vaccine and the eventual identification of

  8. The nutrition and health impact of cash cropping in west Africa: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, T A

    1991-01-01

    The impact of cash cropping in West Africa cannot be isolated from its social and historical background. Among the many changes brought to West African economies by cash cropping since the beginning of the century, the present document shows how the extension of trade with European merchants and colonizers created new sets of values and criteria for wealth. Food crops gradually lost their prominent cultural and economics roles to the benefit of export crops or goods. Traditional systems of agricultural production were profoundly disrupted by military actions. They imposed colonial rule and control of trade of tropical crops and goods. Forced labor and compulsory (poorly paid) work assignments were instituted for private and public enterprises: construction of roads, railways, public buildings and plantations. The main justification was the need for cheap labor to cultivate, transport and build roads for the extraction of raw materials. This in turn caused massive migrations from countries such as Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) to Ivory Coast. Cash cropping made systematic collection of taxes possible. An imposition on a per capita basis became the rule and the major incentive of small farmers to engage in commercial farming. Cash cropping made also possible extensive monetarization of West Africa. This results in both favorable and unfavorable effects on the quality of the diet. In profoundly disrupted traditional societies, the diffusion of new consumption patterns was easier and faster. It led to massive food imports of wheat, rice, sugar, alcohol, etc. Cash cropping was (and still is) practiced as a 'mining' agriculture, exhausting soils and deteriorating their fertility for extended periods of time. In the Sudanian and Sahelian zones cash cropping conflicted with the cultivation of grains because peak demands for labor were similar. Therefore, millet and sorghum production declined. Cash cropping was developed in response to the need of European economies for

  9. Transgenerational shifts in reproduction hormesis in green peach aphid exposed to low concentrations of imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali-Mohan Ayyanath

    Full Text Available Hormesis is a biphasic phenomenon that in toxicology is characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. It has been observed in a wide range of organisms in response to many chemical stressors, including insects exposed to pesticides, with potential repercussions for agriculture and pest management. To address questions related to the nature of the dose-response and potential consequences on biological fitness, we examined transgenerational hormesis in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, when exposed to sublethal concentrations of the insecticide imidacloprid. A hormetic response in the form of increased reproduction was consistently observed and a model previously developed to test for hormesis adequately fit some of our data. However, the nature of the dose-response differed within and across generations depending upon the duration and mode of exposure. Decreased reproduction in intermediate generations confirmed that fitness tradeoffs were a consequence of the hormetic response. However, recovery to levels of reproduction equal to that of controls in subsequent generations and significantly greater total reproduction after four generations suggested that biological fitness was increased by exposure to low concentrations of the insecticide, even when insects were continuously exposed to the stressor. This was especially evident in a greenhouse experiment where the instantaneous rate of population increase almost doubled and total aphid production more than quadrupled when aphids were exposed to potato plants systemically treated with low amounts of imidacloprid. Our results show that although fitness tradeoffs do occur with hormetic responses, this does not necessarily compromise overall biological fitness.

  10. Secondary UV radiation from biota as a proof of radiation hormesis and Gurwitsch phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High (large) and low (small) doses of ionizing radiation consistently induce opposite physiologic effects in biological systems. The effects of low doses cannot be inferred by interpolation between the result from groups exposed to high doses and controls irradiated only by Natural Background Radiation. Stimulation NBR ('bio-positive') effects by low-level doses of ionizing radiation is called radiation hormesis. It is still a controversial idea; however it was found that some biological objects (yeast, sees, animals) after γ-irradiation by low-level doses (10-50 times more NBR) can increase their development. The results of the researches demonstrate that the excitation of living systems by ionizing radiation (high energy, low doses) produces among other hydrogen peroxide which initiates prolonged secondary emission that can influence biota and activate many important processes in biological systems. On the other hand it is well known that after water irradiation by ionizing radiation as the product of radiolysis concentration of hydrogen peroxide has been received. The spectral analysis of this secondary emission confirmed the contribution of the UV component to the total emission. This secondary radiation can play a very important role in the intercellular communication. The influence of hydrogen peroxide on glycine has been examined. I have measured secondary emission from Gly using the Single Photon Counting device SPC. The data obtained made possible at least a partial understanding of the radiation hormesis phenomenon and suggest closer relationship to mitogenetic radiation. I propose deexcitation processes in biomolecules as a common denominator of UV and ionizing radiation interacting with living cells, underlying both radiation hormesis and mitogenetic effect. Based on the above experiments and other authors' reports it is postulated that low-level doses of ionizing radiation through radiolysis products (among others hydrogen peroxide) generate UV

  11. Is the integration of hormesis and essentiality into ecotoxicology now opening Pandora's Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefford, Ben J; Zalizniak, Liliana; Warne, Michael St J; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2008-02-01

    Hormesis and essentiality are likely real and common effects at the level of the individual. However, the widespread incorporation of stimulatory effects into applications of ecotoxicology requires the acceptance of assumptions, value judgements and possibly lowering of water/sediment quality standards. There is also currently little data appropriate for considering hormetic effects in the ecotoxicological context. Except perhaps in the case of fitting concentration-response curves, it is not clear that incorporation of hormetic and essentiality type responses into ecotoxicology is necessary. Furthermore, its incorporation presents considerable intellectual and practical changes for ecotoxicology and could have unanticipated consequences.

  12. Historical Nihilism in the Perspective of Historical Materialism%唯物史观视域中的历史虚无主义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁明燕

    2015-01-01

    Based on a systematic review of the development of Chinese historical nihilism in modern times,this paper applies the Marxist view of history———historical materialism to analyze and evaluate the historical nihilism of contemporary China,and reveal its theoretical essence as the product of mod-ern society,namely,the lost abstract intrinsic value.We should view and analyze the history under the guidance of historical materialism,constantly derive the essence from Chinese culture,vigorously carry forward the national spirit,and resolutely resist all forms of historical nihilism.%在系统梳理中国近代以来历史虚无主义发展进程的基础上,运用马克思主义的历史观———唯物史观来分析和评价当代中国的历史虚无主义思潮,揭示了其作为现代社会产物的理论本质,即内在抽象价值的迷失。我们要在唯物史观的指导下看待历史、分析历史,不断汲取中华文化的精髓,大力弘扬民族精神,坚决抵制各种形式的历史虚无主义。

  13. Lithium Promotes Longevity through GSK3/NRF2-Dependent Hormesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Quan, Jorge Iván; Li, Li; Kinghorn, Kerri J.; Ivanov, Dobril K.; Tain, Luke S.; Slack, Cathy; Kerr, Fiona; Nespital, Tobias; Thornton, Janet; Hardy, John; Bjedov, Ivana; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Summary The quest to extend healthspan via pharmacological means is becoming increasingly urgent, both from a health and economic perspective. Here we show that lithium, a drug approved for human use, promotes longevity and healthspan. We demonstrate that lithium extends lifespan in female and male Drosophila, when administered throughout adulthood or only later in life. The life-extending mechanism involves the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) and activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (NRF-2). Combining genetic loss of the NRF-2 repressor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) with lithium treatment revealed that high levels of NRF-2 activation conferred stress resistance, while low levels additionally promoted longevity. The discovery of GSK-3 as a therapeutic target for aging will likely lead to more effective treatments that can modulate mammalian aging and further improve health in later life. PMID:27068460

  14. Lithium Promotes Longevity through GSK3/NRF2-Dependent Hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Quan, Jorge Iván; Li, Li; Kinghorn, Kerri J; Ivanov, Dobril K; Tain, Luke S; Slack, Cathy; Kerr, Fiona; Nespital, Tobias; Thornton, Janet; Hardy, John; Bjedov, Ivana; Partridge, Linda

    2016-04-19

    The quest to extend healthspan via pharmacological means is becoming increasingly urgent, both from a health and economic perspective. Here we show that lithium, a drug approved for human use, promotes longevity and healthspan. We demonstrate that lithium extends lifespan in female and male Drosophila, when administered throughout adulthood or only later in life. The life-extending mechanism involves the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) and activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (NRF-2). Combining genetic loss of the NRF-2 repressor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) with lithium treatment revealed that high levels of NRF-2 activation conferred stress resistance, while low levels additionally promoted longevity. The discovery of GSK-3 as a therapeutic target for aging will likely lead to more effective treatments that can modulate mammalian aging and further improve health in later life. PMID:27068460

  15. Bacterial, Fungal, and Parasitic Infections of the Central Nervous System: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation and Historical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Robert Y; Koeller, Kelly K

    2015-01-01

    Despite remarkable progress in prevention and treatment, infectious diseases affecting the central nervous system remain an important source of morbidity and mortality, particularly in less-developed countries and in immunocompromised persons. Bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens are derived from living organisms and affect the brain, spinal cord, or meninges. Infections due to these pathogens are associated with a variety of neuroimaging patterns that can be appreciated at magnetic resonance imaging in most cases. Bacterial infections, most often due to Streptococcus, Haemophilus, and Neisseria species, cause significant meningitis, whereas the less common cerebritis and subsequent abscess formation have well-documented progression, with increasingly prominent altered signal intensity and corresponding contrast enhancement. Atypical bacterial infections are characterized by the development of a granulomatous response, classically seen in tuberculosis, in which the tuberculoma is the most common parenchymal form of the disease; spirochetal and rickettsial diseases are less common. Fungal infections predominate in immunocompromised hosts and are caused by yeasts, molds, and dimorphic fungi. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common fungal infection, whereas candidiasis is the most common nosocomial infection. Mucormycosis and aspergillosis are characterized by angioinvasiveness and are associated with high morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. In terms of potential exposure in the worldwide population, parasitic infections, including neurocysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, echinococcosis, malaria, and schistosomiasis, are the greatest threat. Rare amebic infections are noteworthy for their extreme virulence and high mortality. The objective of this article is to highlight the characteristic neuroimaging manifestations of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases, with emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation and historical perspectives

  16. On the genesis of heterogeneous photocatalysis: a brief historical perspective in the period 1910 to the mid-1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpone, N; Emeline, A V; Horikoshi, S; Kuznetsov, V N; Ryabchuk, V K

    2012-07-01

    The concept Photocatalysis and, of greater import here, Heterogeneous Photocatalysis were first introduced in the second decade (1910-1920) of the 20th century according to the CAPLUS and MEDLINE databases (SciFinder). This review reports a brief historical perspective on the origins of the two concepts, whether implied or explicitly stated, in some detail up to about the mid-1980s when heterogeneous photocatalysis witnessed the beginning of an exponential growth, with particular emphasis on the use of nanosized TiO(2) particles in powdered form as the (so-called) photocatalyst of choice in environmental applications because of its inherent properties of abundance and chemical stability in acidic and alkaline aqueous media (in the dark), in contrast to ZnO that had been the metal oxide of choice in the early days. The early workers in this area often used the term photosensitization rather than the current popular term photocatalysis, used since the early 1980s. The term Photocatalysis appeared in the literature as early as 1910 in a book by Plotnikow (Russia) and a few years later it was introduced in France by Landau. The review also reports on contributions during the early years by Terenin at the University of St. Petersburg (previously Leningrad, Soviet Union), and in the decade spanning 1975-1985 contributions by Bard's group at the University of Texas at Austin (USA) as well as those of other groups. Some activities into the conversion of light energy to chemical fuels (e.g. H(2)) during the 1975-1985 decade are also considered.

  17. Mitochondrial Hormesis in Pancreatic β Cells: Does Uncoupling Protein 2 Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In pancreatic β cells, mitochondrial metabolism translates glucose sensing into signals regulating insulin secretion. Chronic exposure of β cells to excessive nutrients, namely, glucolipotoxicity, impairs β-cell function. This is associated with elevated ROS production from overstimulated mitochondria. Mitochondria are not only the major source of cellular ROS, they are also the primary target of ROS attacks. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP2, even though its uncoupling properties are debated, has been associated with protective functions against ROS toxicity. Hormesis, an adaptive response to cellular stresses, might contribute to the protection against β-cell death, possibly limiting the development of type 2 diabetes. Mitochondrial hormesis, or mitohormesis, is a defense mechanism observed in ROS-induced stress-responses by mitochondria. In β cells, mitochondrial damages induced by sublethal exogenous H2O2 can induce secondary repair and defense mechanisms. In this context, UCP2 is a marker of mitohormesis, being upregulated following stress conditions. When overexpressed in nonstressed naïve cells, UCP2 confers resistance to oxidative stress. Whether treatment with mitohormetic inducers is sufficient to restore or ameliorate secretory function of β cells remains to be determined.

  18. Preconditioning is hormesis part I: Documentation, dose-response features and mechanistic foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2016-08-01

    This article provides the first extensive documentation of the dose response features of pre- and postconditioning. Pre- and postconditioning studies with rigorous study designs, using multiple doses/concentrations along with refined dose/concentration spacing strategies, often display hormetic dose/concentration response relationships with considerable generality across biological model, inducing (i.e., conditioning) agent, challenging dose treatment, endpoint, and mechanism. Pre- and postconditioning hormesis dose/concentration-response relationships are reported for 154 diverse conditioning agents, affecting more than 550 dose/concentration responses, across a broad range of biological models and endpoints. The quantitative features of the pre- and postconditioning-induced protective responses are modest, typically being 30-60% greater than control values at maximum, findings that are consistent with a large body (>10,000) of hormetic dose/concentration responses not related to pre- and postconditioning. Regardless of the biological model, inducing agent, endpoint or mechanism, the quantitative features of hormetic dose/concentration responses are similar, suggesting that the magnitude of response is a measure of biological plasticity. This paper also provides the first documentation that hormetic effects account for preconditioning induced early (1-3h) and delayed (12-72h) windows of protection. These findings indicate that pre- and postconditioning are specific types of hormesis. PMID:26757428

  19. HBT Interferometry: Historical Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Padula, S S

    2004-01-01

    I review the history of HBT interferometry, since its discovery in the mid 50's, up to the recent developments and results from BNL/RHIC experiments. I focus the discussion on the contributions to the subject given by members of our Brazilian group.

  20. Forensic odontology, historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansare, K

    1995-01-01

    According to the old testament Adam was convinced by eve to put a "Bite Mark" on the apple. Interest in Forensic Odontology was heightened in the latter part of 19th Century. The first formal instructional programme was given at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, U.S. Since then the number of cases reported has played a significant role in expanding the role of Forensic Odontology. The earliest reported case was of Lollia Paulina in the year 49 A. D. One of the early reported case is also found in India in the year 1193. In the last few decades, the basic pattern of Forensic Odontology has changed quite a lot. Advances in dental material and laboratory techniques, with improvements in scientific and photographic technology, have made the proof of presentation much to forensic science. PMID:9495110

  1. Diamond films: Historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

  2. Placebo, a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, Efrat; Davidson, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Substances and interventions with no specific therapeutic effect have been in use since the dawn of history. The term placebo has first been mentioned in the Scriptures, but it was not until the 19th century that it appeared in a medical context. Although lay people like Voltaire, and physicians such as Sir William Osler, have raised the possibility that much of what physicians did had no specific therapeutic effect, this notion was not shared by the public at large or by the medical profession. It was only by the end of the 18th century that a placebo-controlled trial has been conducted, repudiating the therapeutic effect of mesmerism. The advent, in the late 1940s, of effective treatments, which also had serious adverse effects, made the distinction between placebo and putative, active drug effects more relevant and urgent, and cleared the way for double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. This in turn triggered an ethical debate on the use of placebo, both in research and in clinical practice. Anthropologists, sociologists, physiologists, and medical researchers are all focusing their efforts on understanding the mechanism, role and modulating factors of placebo. PMID:22608298

  3. Historical perspective of peptidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schrader

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptides have been studied for over 100 years, but for most of this time the focus was on a specific peptide or peptides, and not on the general peptidome of a biological sample. In the 1990s, mass spectrometry techniques were developed for the analysis of proteins, usually after digestion into peptides. The field of peptidomics started soon after proteomics and has grown to over 600 publications that use the word “peptidomic” or “peptidomics”. Although peptidomics is related to proteomics, there are fundamental differences. In this review, we discuss these differences along with the history of the field of peptidomics.

  4. Forensic odontology, historical perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Sansare K

    1995-01-01

    According to the old testament Adam was convinced by eve to put a "Bite Mark" on the apple. Interest in Forensic Odontology was heightened in the latter part of 19th Century. The first formal instructional programme was given at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, U.S. Since then the number of cases reported has played a significant role in expanding the role of Forensic Odontology. The earliest reported case was of Lollia Paulina in the year 49 A. D. One of the early reported case is al...

  5. Inequality in historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Adam Smith, Tom Paine, John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx were all bold and outspoken about the injustices of extreme inequality, nationally and internationally. Yet by almost every standard, global inequality has grown substantially since they were writing, and national income inequality also over the last two or three decades. There is a case today for more outspokenness about the extremes of inequality, both about the causes and how these causes are linked to extreme injustices in the past.

  6. The ecological stress theory of aging and hormesis: an energetic evolutionary model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Peter A

    2007-06-01

    Free-living organisms normally struggle to exist in harsh environments that are nutritionally and energetically inadequate, where evolutionary adaptation is challenged by internal stresses within organisms and external stresses from the environment. The incorporation of environmental variables into aging theories such as the free-radical and metabolic rate/oxidative stress theories, is the basis of the ecological stress theory of aging and hormesis. Environmental variation from optimum to lethal extremes gives a fitness-stress continuum, where energetic efficiency, or fitness, is inversely related to stress level; in the evolutionary context survival is a more direct measure of fitness for assessing aging than is lifespan. On this continuum, the hormetic zone is in the optimum region, while aging emphasizes survival towards lethal extremes. At the limits of survival, a convergence of physiological and genetical processes is expected under accumulating stress from Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS. Limited ecologically-oriented studies imply that major genes are important towards limits of survival compared with the hormetic zone. Future investigations could usefully explore outlier populations physiologically and genetically, since there is the likelihood that genetic variability may be lower in those cohorts managing to survive to extremely advanced ages as found in highly stressed ecological outlier populations. If so, an evolutionary explanation of the mortality-rate decline typical of cohorts of the extremely old emerges. In summary, an energetic evolutionary approach produces a general aging theory which automatically incorporates hormesis, since the theory is based on a fitness-stress continuum covering the whole range of possible abiotic environments of natural populations.

  7. Heat Stress and Hormetin-Induced Hormesis in Human Cells: Effects on Aging, Wound Healing, Angiogenesis, and Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Rattan, Suresh I.S.; Fernandes, Ricardo A.; Demirovic, Dino; Dymek, Barbara; Lima, Cristovao F.

    2008-01-01

    Accumulation of molecular damage and increased molecular heterogeneity are hallmarks of cellular aging. Mild stress-induced hormesis can be an effective way for reducing the accumulation of molecular damage, and thus slowing down aging from within. We have shown that repeated mild heat stress (RMHS) has anti-aging effects on growth and various other cellular and biochemical characteristics of normal human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes undergoing aging in vitro. RMHS given to human cells ...

  8. Perspectives on Identity, Disclosure, and the Campus Environment among African American Gay and Bisexual Men at One Historically Black College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Lori D.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how 6 African American men at one historically Black college made meaning of their gay or bisexual identity, made decisions about to whom they disclosed this identity, and how their sexual identity experiences were mediated given the context of the campus environment. The findings suggest although this particular…

  9. Video "Reading" and Multimodality: A Study of ESL/Literacy Pupils' Interpretation of "Cinderella" from Their Socio-Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Hispanic ESL/literacy learners used their socio-historical experiences and multimodal resources to mediate interpretation and representation of "Cinderella". Eighteen third-grade pupils "read" the video and re-created their understandings in pictures and sentences. The findings suggest that (a)…

  10. Sixth Grade Students' Development of Historical Perspective: World War II and the Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masato

    This study investigated how the use of various teaching methods influenced perspective taking skills of sixth grade middle school students during a unit of instruction on World War II. Three questions directed the study: (1) What do students know about World War II prior to a unit of study on World War II; (2) What do students know about World War…

  11. SafeCare: Historical Perspective and Dynamic Development of an Evidence-Based Scaled-Up Model for the Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn M. Guastaferro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available SafeCare is an evidence-based parent-training program that reduces child maltreatment, particularly neglect. The risk of child maltreatment, a public health issue affecting millions of U.S. children each year, can be markedly reduced by interventions such as SafeCare that deliver in-home services. Drawing from applied behavioral analysis roots, SafeCare focuses on providing parents with concrete skills in three areas: health, home safety, and parent-child/-infant interaction. This paper will include an overview of the SafeCare model, an historical perspective of its history and dynamic development, description of the theoretical underpinnings of the model, a description of the program targets and content by describing its modules and delivery, an overview of program outcomes, and data discussion of dissemination and implementation.

  12. A search for arsenic in hair and nail remains of former President Zachary Taylor by neutron activation analysis (A historical perspective)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June of 1991 a collaborative investigation to determine the arsenic content of hair and nail remains of former president Zachary Taylor was established between the Analytical Chemistry Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Two samples of both hair and nail were irradiated and analyzed in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory at the High Flux Isotope Reactor. The results of these analyses were key in disproving a theory that the former president had been poisoned by the ingestion of arsenic. In this presentation the analysis procedure is described, results presented, and the series of events that led up to this investigation taking place at ORNL is explained from a historical perspective

  13. “Lesson Study” as Professional Culture in Japanese Schools : An Historical Perspective on Elementary Classroom Practices

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMED, mad Reza Sarkar Arani; Fukaya, Keisuke; LASSEGARD, James P.

    2010-01-01

    Th is research examines “lesson study” as a traditional model of creating professional knowledge in schools. “Lesson study,” typically defi ned as teachers’ classroom based collaborative research, has a long history in Japan as a shared professional culture with potential for enhancing learning, enriching classroom activities and transforming the school environment. A case study method based on historical data is the primary approach used in this research. Detailed description and analysis of...

  14. Pest insect olfaction in an insecticide-contaminated environment: info-disruption or hormesis effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Thany, Steeve Hervé; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Most animals, including pest insects, live in an "odor world" and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs) are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favoring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests. PMID:22457653

  15. Cell mechanics and stress: from molecular details to the 'universal cell reaction' and hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, Paul S

    2007-04-01

    The 'universal cell reaction' (UCR), a coordinated biphasic response to external (noxious and other) stimuli observed in all living cells, was described by Nasonov and his colleagues in the mid-20th century. This work has received no attention from cell biologists in the West, but the UCR merits serious consideration. Although it is non-specific, it is likely to be underpinned by precise mechanisms and, if these mechanisms were characterized and their relationship to the UCR elucidated, then our understanding of the integration of cellular function could be improved. As a step towards identifying such mechanisms, I review some recent advances in understanding cell mechanics and the stress response and I suggest potentially testable hypotheses. There is a particular need for time-course studies of cellular responses to different stimulus doses or intensities. I also suggest a correspondence with hormesis; re-investigation of the UCR using modern biophysical and molecular-biological techniques might throw light on this much-discussed phenomenon.

  16. Establishing cellular stress response profiles as biomarkers of homeodynamics, health and hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirovic, Dino; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2013-01-01

    Aging is the progressive shrinkage of the homeodynamic space. A crucial component of the homeodynamic space is the stress response (SR), by virtue of which a living system senses disturbance and initiates a series of events for maintenance, repair, adaptation, remodeling and survival. Here we discuss the main intracellular SR pathways in human cells, and argue for the need to define and establish the immediate and delayed stress response profiles (SRP) during aging. Such SRP are required to be established at several age-points, which can be the molecular biomarkers of homeodynamic space and the health status of cells and organisms. SRP can also be useful for testing potential protectors and stimulators of homeodynamics, and can be a standard for monitoring the efficacy of potential pro-survival, health-promoting and aging-modulating conditions, food components and other compounds. An effective strategy, which makes use of SRP for achieving healthy aging and extending the healthspan, is that of strengthening the homeodynamics through repeated mild stress-induced hormesis by physical, biological and nutritional hormetins. Furthermore, SRP can also be the basis for defining health as a state of having adequate physical and mental independence of activities of daily living, by identifying a set of measurable parameters at the most fundamental level of biological organization.

  17. Inflammatory modulation of exercise salience: using hormesis to return to a healthy lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Jimmy D

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most of the human population in the western world has access to unlimited calories and leads an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. The propensity to undertake voluntary exercise or indulge in spontaneous physical exercise, which might be termed "exercise salience", is drawing increased scientific attention. Despite its genetic aspects, this complex behaviour is clearly modulated by the environment and influenced by physiological states. Inflammation is often overlooked as one of these conditions even though it is known to induce a state of reduced mobility. Chronic subclinical inflammation is associated with the metabolic syndrome; a largely lifestyle-induced disease which can lead to decreased exercise salience. The result is a vicious cycle that increases oxidative stress and reduces metabolic flexibility and perpetuates the disease state. In contrast, hormetic stimuli can induce an anti-inflammatory phenotype, thereby enhancing exercise salience, leading to greater biological fitness and improved functional longevity. One general consequence of hormesis is upregulation of mitochondrial function and resistance to oxidative stress. Examples of hormetic factors include calorie restriction, extreme environmental temperatures, physical activity and polyphenols. The hormetic modulation of inflammation, and thus, exercise salience, may help to explain the highly heterogeneous expression of voluntary exercise behaviour and therefore body composition phenotypes of humans living in similar obesogenic environments.

  18. The hormesis effect of plasma-elevated intracellular ROS on HaCaT cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szili, Endre J.; Harding, Frances J.; Hong, Sung-Ha; Herrmann, Franziska; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Short, Robert D.

    2015-12-01

    We have examined the link between ionized-gas plasma delivery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and cell fate, defined in terms of cell viability versus death. Phospholipid vesicles were used as cell mimics to measure the possible intracellular ROS concentration, [ROSi], delivered by various plasma treatments. Cells were exposed to a helium cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) jet for different plasma exposure times (5-60 s) and gas flow rates (50-1000 ml min-1). Based upon the [ROSi] data we argue that plasma-generated ROS in the cell culture medium can readily diffuse into real cells. Plasma exposure that equated to an [ROSi] in the range of 3.81  ×  10-10-9.47  ×  10-8 M, measured at 1 h after the plasma exposure, resulted in increased cell viability at 72 h; whereas a higher [ROSi] at 1 h decreased cell viability after 72 h of culture. This may be because of the manner in which the ROS are delivered by the plasma: HaCaT cells better tolerate a low ROS flux over an extended plasma exposure period of 1 min, compared to a high flux delivered in a few seconds, although the final [ROSi] may be the same. Our results suggest that plasma stimulation of HaCaT cells follows the principle of hormesis.

  19. Hormesis phenomena under Cd stress in a hyperaccumulator--Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lian; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhouli; Huang, Yanqing; Yu, Shuai

    2013-04-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate possible hormetic response induced by cadmium (Cd) in a potential hyperaccumulator-Lonicera japonica Thunb. The results showed that Cd at low concentrations induced a significant increase in plant growth, leaf water content and content of photosynthetic pigments in L. japonica, but decreased them at high concentrations, displayed inverted U-shaped dose response curves, confirming a typical biphasic hormetic response. The U-shaped dose response curves were displayed in malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage in leaves at low doses of Cd, indicating reduce oxidative stress and toxic effect. The increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was observed along with the increased Cd concentration, indicative of increase in anti-oxidative capacity that ensures redox homeostasis is maintained. After 28 days exposure to 10 mg L(-1) Cd, stem and leaf Cd concentrations reached 502.96 ± 28.90 and 103.22 ± 5.62 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively and the plant had high bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) and translocation factor (TF'). Moreover, the maximum TF value was found at 2.5 mg L(-1) Cd treatment, implying that low Cd treatment improved the ability to transfer Cd from medium via roots to aerial structures. Taking together, L. japonica could be considered as a new plant to investigate the underlying mechanisms of hormesis and Cd tolerance. Our results suggest that hormetic effects should be taken into consideration in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:23359063

  20. Extension of lifespan in C. elegans by naphthoquinones that act through stress hormesis mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper R Hunt

    Full Text Available Hormesis occurs when a low level stress elicits adaptive beneficial responses that protect against subsequent exposure to severe stress. Recent findings suggest that mild oxidative and thermal stress can extend lifespan by hormetic mechanisms. Here we show that the botanical pesticide plumbagin, while toxic to C. elegans nematodes at high doses, extends lifespan at low doses. Because plumbagin is a naphthoquinone that can generate free radicals in vivo, we investigated whether it extends lifespan by activating an adaptive cellular stress response pathway. The C. elegans cap'n'collar (CNC transcription factor, SKN-1, mediates protective responses to oxidative stress. Genetic analysis showed that skn-1 activity is required for lifespan extension by low-dose plumbagin in C. elegans. Further screening of a series of plumbagin analogs identified three additional naphthoquinones that could induce SKN-1 targets in C. elegans. Naphthazarin showed skn-1dependent lifespan extension, over an extended dose range compared to plumbagin, while the other naphthoquinones, oxoline and menadione, had differing effects on C. elegans survival and failed to activate ARE reporter expression in cultured mammalian cells. Our findings reveal the potential for low doses of naturally occurring naphthoquinones to extend lifespan by engaging a specific adaptive cellular stress response pathway.

  1. Nuclear energy and health: and the benefits of low-dose radiation hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Jerry M; Pollycove, Myron

    2009-01-01

    Energy needs worldwide are expected to increase for the foreseeable future, but fuel supplies are limited. Nuclear reactors could supply much of the energy demand in a safe, sustainable manner were it not for fear of potential releases of radioactivity. Such releases would likely deliver a low dose or dose rate of radiation, within the range of naturally occurring radiation, to which life is already accustomed. The key areas of concern are discussed. Studies of actual health effects, especially thyroid cancers, following exposures are assessed. Radiation hormesis is explained, pointing out that beneficial effects are expected following a low dose or dose rate because protective responses against stresses are stimulated. The notions that no amount of radiation is small enough to be harmless and that a nuclear accident could kill hundreds of thousands are challenged in light of experience: more than a century with radiation and six decades with reactors. If nuclear energy is to play a significant role in meeting future needs, regulatory authorities must examine the scientific evidence and communicate the real health effects of nuclear radiation. Negative images and implications of health risks derived by unscientific extrapolations of harmful effects of high doses must be dispelled.

  2. Pest insect olfaction in an insecticide-contaminated environment : info-disruption or hormesis effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène eTricoire-Leignel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Most animals, including pest insects, live in an odour world and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an info-disruptor by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favouring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests.

  3. Complex Mixture-Associated Hormesis and Toxicity: The Case of Leather Tanning Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Giovanni; Castello, Giuseppe; Gallo, Marialuisa; Borriello, Ilaria; Guida, Marco

    2008-01-01

    A series of studies investigated the toxicities of tannery-derived complex mixtures, i.e. vegetable tannin (VT) from Acacia sp. or phenol-based synthetic tannin (ST), and waste-water from tannin-based vs. chromium-based tanneries. Toxicity was evaluated by multiple bioassays including developmental defects and loss of fertilization rate in sea urchin embryos and sperm (Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis), and algal growth inhibition (Dunaliella tertiolecta and Selenastrum capricornutum). Both VT and ST water extracts resulted in hormetic effects at concentrations ranging 0.1 to 0.3%, and toxicity at levels ≥1%, both in sea urchin embryo and sperm, and in algal growth bioassays. When comparing tannin-based tannery wastewater (TTW) vs. chromium-based tannery effluent (CTE), a hormesis to toxicity trend was observed for TTW both in terms of developmental and fertilization toxicity in sea urchins, and in algal growth inhibition, with hormetic effects at 0.1 to 0.2% TTW, and toxicity at TTW levels ≥1%. Unlike TTW, CTE showed a monotonic toxicity increase from the lowest tested level (0.1%) and CTE toxicity at higher levels was significantly more severe than TTW-induced toxicity. The results support the view that leather production utilizing tannins might be regarded as a more environmentally friendly procedure than chromium-based tanning process. PMID:19088903

  4. Radioactive waste storage: historical outlook and socio technical analysis; Le stockage des dechets radioactifs: perspective historique et analyse sociotechnique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, J.C.

    1993-07-01

    The radioactive waste storage remains, in most of the industrialized concerned countries, one extremely debated question. This problem may, if an acceptable socially answer is not found, to create obstacles to the whole nuclear path. This study aim was to analyze the controversy in an historical outlook. The large technological plans have always economical, political, sociological, psychological and so on aspects, that the experts may be inclined to neglect. ``Escape of radioactivity is unlikely, as long as surveillance of the waste is maintained, that is, as long as someone is present to check for leaks or corrosion or malfunctioning of and to take action, if any of these occur. 444 refs., 32 figs.

  5. Temporal stability of chemical hormesis (CH): Is CH just a temporary stop on the road to thresholds and toxic responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushak, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Chemical hormesis (CH) is currently described as a nonmonotonic, bidirectional dose-response relationship for chemicals, where a stimulatory, (beneficial?) response at low dose or exposure is followed by an inhibitory response at higher doses/exposures (or vice-versa). CH is depicted as U(J)-shaped or inverse U(J)-shaped curves, i.e., curve slopes change sign. Some describe CH as a homeostasis-preserving response; others view CH as adaptive or (pre)conditioning responses to chemical stress. One aspect of CH and stress hormesis in general that has not been researched is its temporal stability, i.e., persistence, particularly in experimental animals and humans having long-term chemical stressing. Once maximized, does the CH response remain operative over the entire time of chemical exposure? One possible reason for the question's neglect is that temporal stability, e.g., 'steady-state hormesis,' has been assumed. Another is that CH temporality is not well understood or has been under-appreciated as to its importance. Available data, mainly for simpler biological systems, describe cases of transitory CH. Other examples, in human and experimental animal studies, show transitory existence of CH and, in some specialized cases, persisting CH. Also, certain disease state-induced hormetic responses are transitory over time in humans. The question requires resolution if CH is to be considered (i) a stable and beneficial or adverse response, (ii) a stable dose-response model competitive with stable threshold and linear, nonthreshold (LNT) dose-response models, and (iii) a model having any impact on, or role in, regulatory and public health policies. PMID:27396315

  6. Chlorpyrifos-induced hormesis in insecticide-resistant and -susceptible Plutella xylostella under normal and high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z Z; Zhang, F; Wu, Z L; Yu, Z Y; Wu, G

    2016-06-01

    Hormesis induced by insecticides at the dosage lower than what ostensibly directly causes death on insects was studied. This paper reports the effects of the in vivo application of varied concentrations of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on Plutella xylostella (DBM). The insecticide concentrations applied included 0.000025-2.5 mg l-1, which are far lower than LC1 (7.2 mg l-1), for the CPF-susceptable (Si) DBM, and 250 mg l-1 which is far below LC1 (1286 mg l-1), for the CPF-resistant (Rc) DBM, as well as LC10- and LC50-doses for both strains. Significant hormesis was found with the 'hermetic-CPFs', i.e., 0.0025 mg l-1 for Si DBM and 2.5 mg l-1 for Rc DBM, at the normal or high temperature either in a 24 h or under a long-term treatment. These doses of CPF significantly stimulated the development and increased the fecundity of Si and Rc DBM at 25°C with approximately 23.5-29.8% activity increase on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and 30.5-91.3% increase on glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) at 25 or 38°C in 4-24 h. The enzymatic activities were significantly reduced by LC50-CPF at 25°C in vivo, but the inhibition was relieved significantly, if the insects were first subjected to a hormetic-CPF pretreatment. It was remarkable that the average rates of enzymatic activity increase were 67.5-76.6% for AChE and 366-546% for GSTs. Consequently, it was concluded that the hormesis on Si and Rc DBM could be induced by CPF doses far below LC1 at normal or high temperature in short- or long-term treatment. These findings might help to improve the current insect control practices in the field. PMID:27241230

  7. The Synthetic Elicitor 2-(5-Bromo-2-Hydroxy-Phenyl)-Thiazolidine-4-Carboxylic Acid Links Plant Immunity to Hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Salus, Melinda; Bektas, Yasemin; Schroeder, Mercedes; Knoth, Colleen; Vu, Trang; Roberts, Philip; Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Eulgem, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic elicitors are drug-like compounds that induce plant immune responses but are structurally distinct from natural defense elicitors. Using high-throughput screening, we previously identified 114 synthetic elicitors that activate the expression of a pathogen-responsive reporter gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we report on the characterization of one of these compounds, 2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxy-phenyl)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (BHTC). BHTC induces disease resistance of plants against bacterial, oomycete, and fungal pathogens and has a unique mode of action and structure. Surprisingly, we found that low doses of BHTC enhanced root growth in Arabidopsis, while high doses of this compound inhibited root growth, besides inducing defense. These effects are reminiscent of the hormetic response, which is characterized by low-dose stimulatory effects of a wide range of agents that are toxic or inhibitory at higher doses. Like its effects on defense, BHTC-induced hormesis in Arabidopsis roots is partially dependent on the WRKY70 transcription factor. Interestingly, BHTC-induced root hormesis is also affected in the auxin-response mutants axr1-3 and slr-1. By messenger RNA sequencing, we uncovered a dramatic difference between transcriptional profiles triggered by low and high doses of BHTC. Only high levels of BHTC induce typical defense-related transcriptional changes. Instead, low BHTC levels trigger a coordinated intercompartmental transcriptional response manifested in the suppression of photosynthesis- and respiration-related genes in the nucleus, chloroplasts, and mitochondria as well as the induction of development-related nuclear genes. Taken together, our functional characterization of BHTC links defense regulation to hormesis and provides a hypothetical transcriptional scenario for the induction of hormetic root growth.

  8. Aviation Medicine: global historical perspectives and the development of Aviation Medicine alongside the growth of Singapore's aviation landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, W H; Low, R; Singh, J

    2011-05-01

    Aviation Medicine traces its roots to high altitude physiology more than 400 years ago. Since then, great strides have been made in this medical specialty, initially catalysed by the need to reduce pilot medical attrition during the World Wars, and more recently, fuelled by the explosive growth in globalised commercial air travel. This paper traces the historical milestones in Aviation Medicine, and maps its development in Singapore since the 1960s. Advancements in military aviation platforms and technology as well as the establishment of Singapore as an international aviation hub have propelled Aviation Medicine in Singapore to the forefront of many domains. These span Aviation Physiology training, selection medical standards, performance maximisation, as well as crew and passenger protection against communicable diseases arising from air travel. The year 2011 marks the centennial milestone of the first manned flight in Singapore, paving the way for further growth of Aviation Medicine as a mature specialty in Singapore.

  9. Historical and Physical Account on Entropy and Perspectives on the Second Law of Thermodynamics for Astrophysical and Cosmological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Schoenmaker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We performed an in depth analysis of the subjects of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics and how they are treated in astrophysical systems. These subjects are retraced historically from the early works on thermodynamics to the modern statistical mechanical approach and analyzed in view of specific practices within the field of astrophysics. As often happens in discussions regarding cosmology, the implications of this analysis range from physics to philosophy of science. We argue that the difficult question regarding entropy and the second law in the scope of cosmology is a consequence of the dominating paradigm. We further demonstrate this point by assuming an alternative paradigm, not related to thermodynamics of horizons, and successfully describing entropic behavior of astrophysical systems.

  10. Aviation Medicine: global historical perspectives and the development of Aviation Medicine alongside the growth of Singapore's aviation landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, W H; Low, R; Singh, J

    2011-05-01

    Aviation Medicine traces its roots to high altitude physiology more than 400 years ago. Since then, great strides have been made in this medical specialty, initially catalysed by the need to reduce pilot medical attrition during the World Wars, and more recently, fuelled by the explosive growth in globalised commercial air travel. This paper traces the historical milestones in Aviation Medicine, and maps its development in Singapore since the 1960s. Advancements in military aviation platforms and technology as well as the establishment of Singapore as an international aviation hub have propelled Aviation Medicine in Singapore to the forefront of many domains. These span Aviation Physiology training, selection medical standards, performance maximisation, as well as crew and passenger protection against communicable diseases arising from air travel. The year 2011 marks the centennial milestone of the first manned flight in Singapore, paving the way for further growth of Aviation Medicine as a mature specialty in Singapore. PMID:21633764

  11. Historical perspective and modern applications of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Marc-Michael; John, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy has a long history as an important spectroscopic method in chemical and pharmaceutical analysis. Instrumentation for infrared (IR) spectroscopy was revolutionized by the introduction of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometers. In addition, easier sampling combined with better sample-to-sample reproducibility and user-to-user spectral variation became available with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) probes and their application for in situ IR spectroscopy. These innovations allow many new applications in chemical and pharmaceutical analysis, such as the use of IR spectroscopy in Process Analytical Chemistry (PAC), the quantitation of drugs in complex matrix formulations, the analysis of protein binding and function and in combination with IR microscopy to the emergence of IR imaging technologies. The use of ATR-FTIR instruments in forensics and first response to 'white powder' incidents is also discussed. A short overview is given in this perspective article with the aim to renew and intensify interest in IR spectroscopy.

  12. The occurrence of hormetic dose responses in the toxicological literature, the hormesis database: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relational retrieval database has been developed compiling toxicological studies assessing the occurrence of hormetic dose responses and their quantitative characteristics. This database permits an evaluation of these studies over numerous parameters, including study design and dose-response features and physical/chemical properties of the agents. The database contains approximately 5600 dose-response relationships satisfying evaluative criteria for hormesis across over approximately 900 agents from a broadly diversified spectrum of chemical classes and physical agents. The assessment reveals that hormetic dose-response relationships occur in males and females of numerous animal models in all principal age groups as well as across species displaying a broad range of differential susceptibilities to toxic agents. The biological models are extensive, including plants, viruses, bacteria, fungi, insects, fish, birds, rodents, and primates, including humans. The spectrum of endpoints displaying hormetic dose responses is also broad being inclusive of growth, longevity, numerous metabolic parameters, disease incidences (including cancer), various performance endpoints such as cognitive functions, immune responses among others. Quantitative features of the hormetic dose response reveal that the vast majority of cases display a maximum stimulatory response less than two-fold greater than the control while the width of the stimulatory response is typically less than 100-fold in dose range immediately contiguous with the toxicological NO(A)EL. The database also contains a quantitative evaluation component that differentiates among the various dose responses concerning the strength of the evidence supporting a hormetic conclusion based on study design features, magnitude of the stimulatory response, statistical significance, and reproducibility of findings

  13. Rise, fall and resurrection of chromosome territories: a historical perspective. Part I. The rise of chromosome territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Cremer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is now generally accepted that chromosomes in the cell nucleus are organized in distinct domains, first called chromosome territories in 1909 by the great cytologist Theodor Boveri. Yet, even today chromosomes have remained enigmatic individuals, whose structures, arrangements and functions in cycling and post-mitotic cells still need to be explored in full detail. Whereas numerous recent reviews describe present evidence for a dynamic architecture of chromosome territories and discuss the potential significance within the functional compartmentalization of the nucleus, a comprehensive historical account of this important concept of nuclear organization was lacking so far. Here, we describe the early rise of chromosome territories within the context of the discovery of chromosomes and their fundamental role in heredity, covering a period from the 1870th to the early 20th century (part I, this volume. In part II (next volume we review the abandonment of the chromosome territory concept during the 1950th to 1980th and the compelling evidence, which led to its resurrection during the 1970th to 1980th.

  14. Science at Harvard University: Historical Perspectives, edited by Clark A. Elliott and Margaret W. Rossiter. Lehigh University Press, Bethlehem, 1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L. Christenson

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available This volume contains historical studies of several sciences as practiced at Harvard University. Two of these studies have relevance to the history of archaeology. A chapter by Toby Appel focuses upon the scientific career of Jeffries Wyman, first curator of Harvard's Peabody Museum. She contrasts Wyman's unassuming character with the dominating personality of his mentor and contemporary Louis Agassiz. Trained as a medical doctor, Wyman's main love was zoology, particularly comparative anatomy. In his mid-40s, he encountered his first shell midden and was bitten by the archaeology bug. Soon he was doing pioneering excavation in both New England and Florida. In 1866, he was selected to be the curator of the Peabody Museum, primarily upon his strong museum background but also because of the high regard with which he was held by certain influential people. His selection to this position may have made him America's first professional archaeologist. His principal responsibilities were to collect and display archaeological and ethnological specimens and he made great steps in this direction prior to his death in 1874. Wyman's scientific work was poorly known or studied (he is best noted for having made the first scientific description of the gorilla, in part, Appel argues, because he did not seek acclaim or controversy. His greatest influence was locally through personal interactions with students and colleagues. His archaeological work is only briefly discussed in this and the following article, and there is still much to be written about this man of high character.

  15. Equipoise in Research and the Development of Neonatal Interventions for the Management of Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Mario Augusto

    2015-08-01

    The historical review of how evidence was developed for the management of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants has not been clearly characterized. Knowledge of this process is essential to understand the role of equipoise and its influence on the decision to evaluate interventions as they were implemented in the practice of medicine. We suspect that errant approaches to clinical equipoise secondary to states of false certainty and false uncertainty have been important barriers to the timely acquisition and implementation of evidence-based knowledge necessary to improve outcomes in this fragile population of infants. When confronted with the decision to test an intervention, physicians should question whether they have lost clinical equipoise based on opinion, expertise, or observational data rather than evidence obtained from methodological inquiry; doing so facilitates reaching clinical equipoise and promotes the application of scientific methodology to answer relevant clinical questions. Timely acquisition of evidence-based knowledge can be viewed as an ethical imperative when the status quo may have negative consequences on outcomes for generations.

  16. A cultural historical activity theory perspective to understand preservice science teachers' reflections on and tensions during a microteaching experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli; Tran, Minh-Dan; McDonald, Scott P.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-09-01

    This study draws from cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to analyze preservice teachers' reflections on a microteaching activity. Microteaching activities involved preservice educators teaching middle school students from local schools. The study was conducted with 23 preservice teachers enrolled in a large university's teacher education program. During this secondary science teaching methods course, every pair of preservice teachers engaged in 20 minute microteaching activity with 3-5 middle school students. The microteaching was videotaped, and the teachers subsequently provided voice-over reflections on a second audio track. Transcriptions of the microteaching events were analyzed through the formation of event maps showing the phases of activity and the organizational sequence of actions. Event maps were used to investigate the focus of preservice teachers' reflections. The results showed that while learning from their microteaching, preservice teachers focused primarily on the mediating artifacts and gave least attention to the larger teaching community surrounding these activities. Use of CHAT helped to identify challenges in different elements of the microteaching activity. The study contributes to how reflective practice can be enhanced through attention to the social and cultural dimensions of the teaching.

  17. Biphasic toxicodynamic features of some antimicrobial agents on microbial growth: a dynamic mathematical model and its implications on hormesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murado Miguel A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present work, we describe a group of anomalous dose-response (DR profiles and develop a dynamic model that is able to explain them. Responses were obtained from conventional assays of three antimicrobial agents (nisin, pediocin and phenol against two microorganisms (Carnobacterium piscicola and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Results Some of these anomalous profiles show biphasic trends which are usually attributed to hormetic responses. But they can also be explained as the result of the time-course of the response from a microbial population with a bimodal distribution of sensitivity to an effector, and there is evidence suggesting this last origin. In light of interest in the hormetic phenomenology and the possibility of confusing it with other phenomena, especially in the bioassay of complex materials we try to define some criteria which allow us to distinguish between sensu stricto hormesis and biphasic responses due to other causes. Finally, we discuss some problems concerning the metric of the dose in connection with the exposure time, and we make a cautionary suggestion about the use of bacteriocins as antimicrobial agents. Conclusions The mathematical model proposed, which combines the basis of DR theory with microbial growth kinetics, can generate and explain all types of anomalous experimental profiles. These profiles could also be described in a simpler way by means of bisigmoidal equations. Such equations could be successfully used in a microbiology and toxicology context to discriminate between hormesis and other biphasic phenomena.

  18. Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  19. Formulation of work stress in 1960-2000: analysis of scientific works from the perspective of historical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Ari; Anttila, Erkko; Turtiainen, Jussi; Varje, Pekka

    2012-09-01

    During the latter part of the 20th century, work stress became an important societal issue and a huge amount of scientific attention went to studying it. This paper examines the process of formulating and defining the concept of work stress in the occupational health sciences and in industrial and organizational psychology from the early 1960s to the late 1990s. The empirical material of the study encompasses 108 scientific articles, books, book chapters, 'state of the art' reviews, book reviews, and written conference presentations. The data are analysed in the frameworks of historical sociology, critical psychology, and the anthropology of knowledge. We argue that work stress as a life-structuring concept gained ground in psychosocial and occupational health sciences (and also in lay understanding) in the 1960s simultaneously with the rise of social reformist movements that called for fundamental changes emphasizing democratic and human-orientated work organizations and socially responsible values. With the passing of time, however, the focus on structural improvement of work life waned and the emphasis shifted towards the apolitical occupational health aspects of work stress. Researchers with a psychological orientation emphasized micro-level characteristics as factors affecting work stress, whereas stress-orientated epidemiologists turned to the study of specific occupational stress models and/or risk factors. The emergence and development of work stress research can be seen as a chain of attempts to define and identify new risks and experiences occurring in work life. The process, driven by a gradual shift from industrial environments towards organizational frameworks characterized by social and psychological dimensions, reflected the overall shift towards modern democratic work life and the information society in which employees' emotions and well-being became an issue.

  20. Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in Japan: current issues with historical review and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Kudo, Takashi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2012-02-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI, (131)I) has been used as a therapeutic agent for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with over 50 years of history. Recently, it is now attracting attention in medical fields as one of the molecular targeting therapies, which is known as targeted radionuclide therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) for DTC, however, is now at stake in Japan, because Japan is confronting several problems, including the recent occurrence of the Great East Japan Disaster (GEJD) in March 2011. RIT for DTC is strictly limited in Japan and requires hospitalization. Because of strict regulations, severe lack of medical facilities for RIT has become one of the most important medical problems, which results in prolonged waiting time for Japanese patients with DTC, including those with distant metastasis, who wish to receive RIT immediately. This situation is also due to various other factors, such as prolonged economic recession, super-aging society, and subsequent rapidly changing medical environment. In addition, due to the experience of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese people have strong feeling of "radiophobia". There is fear that GEJD and related radiation contamination may worsen this feeling, which might be reflected in more severe regulation of RIT. To overcome these difficulties, it is essential to collect and disclose all information about the circumstances around this therapy in Japan. In this review, we would like to look at this therapy through several lenses, including historical, cultural, medical, and socio-economic points of view. We believe that clarifying the problems is sure to lead to the resolution of this complicated situation. We have also included several recommendations for future improvements. PMID:22081274

  1. Globalisations in a nutshell: Historical perspectives on the changing governance of the shea commodity chain in northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wardell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pre-colonial patterns of trade in West Africa included exchanges of shea in periodic local and regional markets. The collection, processing and marketing of shea products in such markets continues to be predominantly by women to both meet subsistence needs, and exchange of surpluses. In the early part of the 20th century, the British colonial administration considered the possibilities of starting large-scale exports of shea kernels to Europe. Multiple colonial initiatives to develop the global trade were not successful due to a composite of factors. Contemporary patterns of production, trade and regulation are contrasted in the context of globalisation in the post-independence era. The government of Ghana has progressively reinforced its ambitions to expand the shea nut trade as part of the state’s portfolio of major non-traditional agricultural export commodities. This policy is embedded within the (now dominant orthodoxy of neo-liberalism, which privileges monetized production systems and private over public regulation. Historically and culturally-embedded patterns of shea production and trade by women in northern Ghana may now be challenged by the emergence of new processing technologies, the emergence of an oligopolistic global commodity chain and the anticipated continued growth in global demand for cocoa butter equivalents.  Nevertheless, the cumulative impacts of increasing commercialisation and world market integration at the national and local level in Ghana, and other West African producer countries, are still unknown. There are risks, however, that this process may result in social differentiation, changes in household consumption patterns and loss of livelihoods, particularly for women.

  2. On the Historical and Cultural Elements Implied in The Last of the Mohi-cans from the Perspective of Cross-Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金辉

    2013-01-01

    The last of the Mohicans was written by American novelist James Fenimore Cooper in 1826, who is considered as the first long novelist of America. The work has no concentrate plots but the white people and the Indians ’friendship, communica⁃tion, and wars.The Last of the Mohicans was set in the mid-18th century when the French colonists and English colonists were fighting for Indian lands. English colonized America and were at loggerheads with France. It belongs to the frontier literature and creates a precedent for the American Frontier Fiction. The American western fiction has the most native feature.With the rise of multiculturalism trend at present,it is the best way for understanding the American local culture and history to study the American western fiction which is bred during the course of the frontier-running and Westward Movement.Cooper is a novelist who de⁃picted the real and pure American life. Based on the frontier theme, he created Leatherstocking Tales, which is a series of five nov⁃els, are his masterpieces representing his style. Among them, The Last of the Mohicans prominently reflects the Indian culture.This thesis mainly explores the historical and cultural elements embodied in The Last of the Mohicans from the perspective of cross-cul⁃tural communication.

  3. Hormesis and adaptive response of survival in Hela cells induced by low dose X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survival fraction in HeLa cells irradiated by low dose X-rays was observed using clone method. The results showed that the survival fraction in the cells irradiated by less than 0.5 Gy X-rays was higher than control, 'hormesis' of HeLa cell survival was obtained and was significant at doses near 0.25 Gy; also, the damage degree of cells induced by the following irradiation was reduced because of pre-treating the cells with low dose D1 of 0.05, 0.75 Gy; it was found from above that 'adaptive response' of cell survival was induced by the low dose irradiation

  4. Biphasic mortality response of chipmunks in the wild to single doses of ionizing radiation: Toxicity and longevity hormesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on survivalship data from Tryon and Snyder, wild chipmunks (Tamias striatus), captured, exposed to single doses of either 200 or 400 rad ionizing radiation, and subsequently returned to their natural habitat, exhibited a biphasic response in age-specific mortality rate (omega x). On the one hand, a residuum of unrepaired toxicity (injury) appeared to persist and manifest itself throughout life (enhancement of omega x values). A second response, termed longevity hormesis (of unknown mechanism), was also observed. This phenomenon initially reduced omega x values but was reversible. A relatively simple mathematical model characterizing differences in mortality experience between control and irradiated populations was formulated and tested. Although there were some shortcomings, the model characterized the data reasonably well

  5. Azadirachtin-induced hormesis mediating shift in fecundity-longevity trade-off in the Mexican bean weevil (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallqui, K S Vilca; Vieira, J L; Guedes, R N C; Gontijo, L M

    2014-04-01

    Insecticides can have lethal or sublethal effects upon targeted pest species, and sublethal effects may even favor pest outbreaks if insecticide-induced hormesis occurs. Hormesis is a biphasic dose-response of a given chemical compound that is stimulatory at low doses and toxic at high doses. The former response may result from the disruption of animal homeostasis leading to trade-off shifts between basic ecophysiological processes. A growing interest in the use of biorational insecticides, such as azadirachtin to control stored-product pests, raises concerns about potential sublethal effects. In this study, we explored the hypothesis that azadirachtin can negatively impact the reproductive capacity of the Mexican bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), a key pest of stored beans. In addition, we investigated whether adults of this species could compensate for any sublethal effect that might have affected any of their reproductive parameters by adjusting the allocation of its reproductive efforts. The results showed that females of Z. subfasciatus increased fecundity daily to compensate for azadirachtin-induced decreased longevity. In addition, a stage-structured matrix study revealed that populations of Z. subfasciatus engendered from females exposed to azadirachtin exhibited a higher rate of population increase (r) and a higher net reproductive rate (R(o)). Finally, a projection matrix analysis showed notably higher densities along the generations for azadirachtin-exposed Z. subfasciatus populations. Thus, our study provides empirical evidence for the capacity of Z. subfasciatus to adapt to sublethal effects caused by biorational insecticides; consequently, this study highlights the importance of understanding this phenomenon when devising pest management strategies. PMID:24772571

  6. Mastery Learning in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, F. Michael

    Seen in its strictest sense, mastery learning is a recent phenomenon. Viewed in terms of its constituent elements, however, it has roots deep in the Western tradition of education. Elements of mastery learning theory can be found in the work of the Sophists; early Jesuit educators; John Amos Comenius, a Moravian pastor; John Locke; Johann Heinrich…

  7. Historical perspectives of cardiac electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüderitz, Berndt

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of clinical electrophysiology has a long and fascinating history. From earliest times, no clinical symptom impressed the patient (and the physician) more than an irregular heart beat. Although ancient Chinese pulse theory laid the foundation for the study of arrhythmias and clinical electrophysiology in the 5th century BC, the most significant breakthrough in the identification and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias first occurred in this century. In the last decades, our knowledge of electrophysiology and pharmacology has increased exponentially. The enormous clinical significance of cardiac rhythm disturbances has favored these advances. On the one hand, patients live longer and thus are more likely to experience arrhythmias. On the other hand, circulatory problems of the cardiac vessels have increased enormously, and this has been identified as the primary cause of cardiac rhythm disorders. Coronary heart disease has become not just the most significant disease of all, based on the statistics for cause of death. Arrhythmias are the main complication of ischemic heart disease, and they have been directly linked to the frequently arrhythmogenic sudden death syndrome, which is now presumed to be an avoidable "electrical accident" of the heart. A retrospective look--often charming in its own right--may not only make it easier to sort through the copious details of this field and so become oriented in this universe of important and less important facts: it may also provide the observer with a chronological vantage point from which to view the subject. The study of clinical electrophysiology is no dry compendium of facts and figures, but rather a dynamic field of study evolving out of the competition between various ideas, intentions and theories. PMID:19196616

  8. Historical Perspective on Mitochondrial Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMauro, Salvatore; Garone, Caterina

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we trace the origins and follow the development of mitochondrial medicine from the premolecular era (1962-1988) based on clinical clues, muscle morphology, and biochemistry into the molecular era that started in 1988 and is still advancing at a brisk pace. We have tried to stress conceptual advances, such as endosymbiosis,…

  9. Individuality and Literacy: Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rosemary A.

    The technology of literacy for any given culture helps to Determine the character of its members. In less than 3,000 years, Western culture has been transformed from an oral/aural culture through many increasingly literate phases to a present stage which is approaching "computer literacy." Erich Fromm suggests that in the course of Western…

  10. Historical perspective of Indian neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To chronicle the history of medicine and neurology in India with a focus on its establishment and evolution. Background: The history of neurology in India is divided into two periods: ancient and modern. The ancient period dates back to the mid-second millennium Before Christ (B.C. during the creation of the Ayurvedic Indian system of Medicine, which detailed descriptions of neurological disorders called Vata Vyadhi. The early 20 th century witnessed the birth of modern Indian medicine with the onset of formal physician training at the nation′s first allopathic medical colleges located in Madras (1835, Calcutta (1835 and Mumbai (1848. Prior to India′s independence from Britain in 1947, only 25 medical schools existed in the entire country. Today, there are over 355. In 1951, physicians across the field of neurology and neurosurgery united to create the Neurological Society of India (NSI. Four decades later in 1991, neurologists branched out to establish a separate organization called the Indian Academy of Neurology (IAN. Design/Methods: Information was gathered through literature review using PubMed, MD Consult, OVID, primary texts and research at various academic institutions in India. Results: Neurological disorders were first described in ancient India under Ayurveda. The transition to modern medicine occurred more recently through formal training at medical schools beginning in the 1930′s. Early pioneers and founders of the NSI (1951 include Dr. Jacob Chandy, Dr. B Ramamurthi, Dr. S. T. Narasimhan and Dr. Baldev Singh. Later, Dr. J. S. Chopra, a prominent neurologist and visionary, recognized the need for primary centers of collaboration and subsequently established the IAN (1991. The future of Neurology in India is growing rapidly. Currently, there are 1100 practicing neurologists and more than 150 post-graduate trainees who join the ranks every year. As the number of neurologists rises across India, there is an increase in the amount of basic, clinical and epidemiological research being conducted across the country every day. Conclusions: The history of neurology in India roots back to its rich culture and tradition. Over time, there has been great structural and organizational evolution and the future of neurology in India appears to be bright. However, the number of neurologists and research in neurology needs to experience a significant growth in the future to ensure the best patient care.

  11. Introduction and perspective, historical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey eBurnstock

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available P2 nucleotide receptors were proposed to consist of two subfamilies based on pharmacology in 1985, named P2X and P2Y receptors. Later, this was confirmed following cloning of the receptors for nucleotides and studies of transduction mechanisms in the early 1990s. P2X receptors are ion channels and seven subtypes are recognised that form trimeric homomultimers or heteromultimers. P2X receptors are involved in neuromuscular and synaptic neurotransmission and neuromodulation. They are also expressed on many types of non-neuronal cells to mediate smooth muscle contraction, secretion and immune modulation. The emphasis in this review will be on the pathophysiology of P2X receptors and therapeutic potential of P2X receptor agonists and antagonists for neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders, visceral and neuropathic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, diabetes, kidney failure, bladder incontinence and cancer, as well as disorders if the special senses, airways, skin, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems.

  12. Cleft lip: The historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The earliest documented history of cleft lip is based on a combination of religion, superstition, invention and charlatanism. While Greeks ignored their existence, Spartans and Romans would kill these children as they were considered to harbour evil spirits. When saner senses prevailed Fabricius ab Aquapendente (1537-1619 was the first to suggest the embryological basis of these clefts. The knowledge of cleft lip and the surgical correction received a big boost during the period between the Renaissance and the 19th century with the publication of Pierre Franco′s Petit Traite and Traite des Hernies in which he described the condition as "lievre fendu de nativite" (cleft lip present from birth. The first documented Cleft lip surgery is from China in 390 BC in an 18 year old would be soldier, Wey Young-Chi. Albucasis of Arabia and his fellow surgeons used the cautery instead of the scalpel and Yperman in 1854 recommended scarifying the margins with a scalpel before suturing them with a triangular needle dipped in wax. The repair was reinforced by passing a long needle through the two sides of the lip and fixing the shaft of the needle with a figure-of-eight thread over the lip. Germanicus Mirault can be credited to be the originator of the triangular flap which was later modified by C.W. Tennison in 1952 and Peter Randall in 1959. In the late 50s, Ralph Millard gave us his legendary ′cut as you go′ technique. The protruding premaxilla of a bilateral cleft lip too has seen many changes throughout the ages - from being discarded totally to being pushed back by wedge resection of vomer to finally being left to the orthodontists.

  13. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhard Nieschlag; Susan Nieschlag

    2014-01-01

    The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-rank...

  14. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, DelCastillo and Pasqualini. In the 1950s longer-acting injectable testosterone enanthate became the preferred therapeutic modality. In the 1950s and 1960s, research concentrated on the chemical modification of androgens in order to emphasize their anabolic effects. Although anabolic steroids have largely disappeared from clinical medicine, they continue to live an illegal life for doping in athletics. In the 1970s the orally effective testosterone undecanoate was added to the spectrum of preparations. Recent transdermal gels and long-acting injectable preparations provide options for physiological testosterone substitution therapy. PMID:24435052

  15. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-09

    This is the first of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper examines the circumstances and consequences of the elimination of � The INF-range Pershing II ballistic missile and Gryphon Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), deployed by NATO under a dual-track strategy to counter Soviet intermediate-range missiles while pursuing negotiations to limit or eliminate all of these missiles. � The Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which was actually a family of missiles including SRAM A, SRAM B (never deployed), and SRAM II and SRAM T, these last two cancelled during an over-budget/behind-schedule development phase as part of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991 and 1992. � The nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM/N), first limited to shore-based storage by the PNIs, and finally eliminated in deliberations surrounding the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. � The Missile-X (MX), or Peacekeeper, a heavy MIRVed ICBM, deployed in fixed silos, rather than in an originally proposed mobile mode. Peacekeeper was likely intended as a bargaining chip to facilitate elimination of Russian heavy missiles. The plan failed when START II did not enter into force, and the missiles were eliminated at the end of their intended service life. � The Small ICBM (SICBM), or Midgetman, a road-mobile, single-warhead missile for which per-unit costs were climbing when it was eliminated under the PNIs. Although there were liabilities associated with each of these systems, there were also unique capabilities; this paper lays out the pros and cons for each. Further, we articulate the capabilities that were eliminated with these systems.

  16. Accountability--A Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefover, Karen Shade

    1983-01-01

    Asserts that existing accountability policies assume that a single behaviorist theory is the one best system for effective education. Examines the pitfalls of the one-system approach through the examples of John Stuart Mill's utilitarian upbringing and "Gradgrindism" in Charles Dickens' novel "Hard Times." (SK)

  17. Historical perspective of Indian neurology

    OpenAIRE

    Shrikant Mishra; Bhavesh Trikamji; Sandeep Singh; Parampreet Singh; Rajasekharan Nair

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To chronicle the history of medicine and neurology in India with a focus on its establishment and evolution. Background: The history of neurology in India is divided into two periods: ancient and modern. The ancient period dates back to the mid-second millennium Before Christ (B.C.) during the creation of the Ayurvedic Indian system of Medicine, which detailed descriptions of neurological disorders called Vata Vyadhi. The early 20 th century witnessed the birth of modern Indian med...

  18. Obscenity: Historical and Behavioral Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, W. Barnett; Teeter, Dwight L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the origins of the current state of regulation of sexually explicit materials and to suggest one plausible and practicable solution which should find its way into law. (Author)

  19. Schwarzschild Solution: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartusiak, Marcia

    2016-03-01

    While eighteenth-century Newtonians had imagined a precursor to the black hole, the modern version has its roots in the first full solution to Einstein's equations of general relativity, derived by the German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild on a World War I battlefront just weeks after Einstein introduced his completed theory in November 1915. This talk will demonstrate how Schwarzschild's solution is linked to the black hole and how it took more than half a century for the physics community to accept that such a bizarre celestial object could exist in the universe.

  20. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-09

    This is the first of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper examines the circumstances and consequences of the elimination of The INF-range Pershing II ballistic missile and Gryphon Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), deployed by NATO under a dual-track strategy to counter Soviet intermediate-range missiles while pursuing negotiations to limit or eliminate all of these missiles. The Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which was actually a family of missiles including SRAM A, SRAM B (never deployed), and SRAM II and SRAM T, these last two cancelled during an over-budget/behind-schedule development phase as part of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991 and 1992. The nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM/N), first limited to shore-based storage by the PNIs, and finally eliminated in deliberations surrounding the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. The Missile-X (MX), or Peacekeeper, a heavy MIRVed ICBM, deployed in fixed silos, rather than in an originally proposed mobile mode. Peacekeeper was likely intended as a bargaining chip to facilitate elimination of Russian heavy missiles. The plan failed when START II did not enter into force, and the missiles were eliminated at the end of their intended service life. The Small ICBM (SICBM), or Midgetman, a road-mobile, single-warhead missile for which per-unit costs were climbing when it was eliminated under the PNIs. Although there were liabilities associated with each of these systems, there were also unique capabilities; this paper lays out the pros and cons for each. Further, we articulate the capabilities that were eliminated with these systems.

  1. Ethics in surgery: historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, T; Organ, C H

    2000-01-01

    Ethics codes and guidelines date back to the origins of medicine in virtually all civilizations. Developed by the medical practitioners of each era and culture, oaths, prayers, and codes bound new physicians to the profession through agreement with the principles of conduct toward patients, colleagues, and society. Although less famous than the Hippocratic oath, the medical fraternities of ancient India, seventh-century China, and early Hebrew society each had medical oaths or codes that medical apprentices swore to on professional initiation. The Hippocratic oath, which graduating medical students swear to at more than 60% of US medical schools, is perhaps the most enduring medical oath of Western civilization. Other oaths commonly sworn to by new physicians include the Declaration of Geneva (a secular, updated form of the Hippocratic oath formulated by the World Medical Association, Ferney-Voltaire, France) and the Prayer of Moses Maimondes, developed by the 18th-century Jewish physician Marcus Herz. PMID:10636339

  2. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Nieschlag

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889, which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, DelCastillo and Pasqualini. In the 1950s longer-acting injectable testosterone enanthate became the preferred therapeutic modality. In the 1950s and 1960s, research concentrated on the chemical modification of androgens in order to emphasize their anabolic effects. Although anabolic steroids have largely disappeared from clinical medicine, they continue to live an illegal life for doping in athletics. In the 1970s the orally effective testosterone undecanoate was added to the spectrum of preparations. Recent transdermal gels and long-acting injectable preparations provide options for physiological testosterone substitution therapy.

  3. Historical perspectives on interventional electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüderitz, Berndt

    2003-10-01

    The history of interventional electrophysiology is long and fascinating. In the beginning, there is not simply the anatomy and physiology of the heart, but also analysis of the pulse, which indicates the activity of the heart. The analysis of the (peripheral) pulse as a mechanical expression of heart activity goes back several millennia. In China, in 280 B.C., Wang Chu Ho wrote ten books about the pulse. The Greeks called the pulse "sphygmos", and the sphygmology thus deals with a theory of this natural occurrence. In Roman times, Galen interpreted the various types of pulse according to the widespread presumption of the time, that each organ in every disease has its own form of pulse. The basic tool for arrhythmia diagnosis became the electrocardiography introduced by Willem Einthoven who obtained the first human electrogram 1902 in Leiden, The Netherlands. The growing clinical importance of electrical cardiac stimulation has been recognized and renewed as Zoll (1911-1999) in 1952 reported a successful resuscitation in cardiac standstill by external stimulation. Meanwhile all over the world, millions of patients with cardiac arrhythmias have been treated with pacemakers in the last 45 years. The concept of a fully automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator system (ICD) for recognition and treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias was first suggested in 1970. The first implantation of the device in a human being was performed in February 1980. Further developments concern atrial and atrioventricular defibrillators, radiofrequency ablation, laser therapy and advanced antiarrhythmic surgery, new antiarrhythmic drugs and sophisticated devices for preventive pacing. The advances in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic application of pharmacologic and electrical tools as well as alternative methods will continue as rapidly as before in order to give us further significant aid in taking care of the patient.

  4. Infantile scurvy: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, K

    2001-10-01

    Scurvy, a disease of dietary deficiency of vitamin C, is uncommon today. Among diseases, scurvy has a rich history and an ancient past. The Renaissance (14th to 16th centuries) witnessed several epidemics of scurvy among sea voyagers. In 1747, James Lind, a British Naval surgeon, performed a carefully designed clinical trial and concluded that oranges and lemons had the most antiscorbutic effect. Eventually, with the provision of lemon juice to the sea voyagers, scurvy became rare at sea. Infantile scurvy appeared almost as a new disease toward the end of the 19th century. The increased incidence of infantile scurvy during that period was attributed to the usage of heated milk and proprietary foods. Thomas Barlow described the classic clinical and pathologic features of infantile scurvy in 1883. Between 1907 and 1912, Holst and Frolich induced and cured scurvy in guinea pigs by dietary modification. In 1914, Alfred Hess established that pasteurization reduced the antiscorbutic value of milk and recommended supplementation of fresh fruit and vegetable juices to prevent scurvy. Such pioneering efforts led to the eradication of infantile scurvy in the United States. A brief history of infantile scurvy is provided. PMID:11581484

  5. The Historical Perspective of the Study of Medieval Aesthetics%中古美学研究的历史视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春青

    2016-01-01

    For a long time,"Aesthetics" as a word is always very holy for us. It seems to have a sense of transcendence and purity when we refer to the Aesthetics or aesthetic problems. In the study of aesthetics or aesthetic history, most of people are not willing to re⁃search for the social and historical foundation of aesthetic activities and the formation process of aesthetic ideas, instead taking a static and synchronic point of view as a start for research work. But in fact, as like any other social and cultural phenomenon, aesthetic ques⁃tions are the products of history, be restricted to specific historical conditions, play some kind of social functions, and be constructed in accordance with certain rules. In the previous studies, medieval aesthetics also has a tendency of being holy for us, and attracts us to it, such as "Wei Jin demeanor","sound of Zhengshi","seven sages of bamboo grove", etc. However, if we research medieval aes⁃thetics from the historical perspective, we will find that there are not only political or ideological interests, but also all kinds of contra⁃dictions and conflicts in it. As far as the mainstream of medieval aesthetics is concerned, it embodies the aesthetic taste of the intelli⁃gentsia. However, as a special class, they were originated from the scholar-officials of Qin and Han Dynasties, in a word, nobility scholars. For them, aesthetic taste plays an important role in the justification of their privileged identity, and undertakes the historical function of class distinction.%长期以来,“美学”一直是一个很神圣的词语,似乎涉及“美学”或“审美”问题时总会有那么一点不食人间烟火、超尘拔俗的味道。人们在研究美学或美学史问题时,也往往是从静态的、共时性的角度出发的,不大愿意去追索在“审美”背后蕴含的社会历史原因及其生成过程。而事实上,美学问题也和其他任何社会文化现象一样,都是历史的产

  6. Selective toxin effects on faster and slower growing individuals in the formation of hormesis at the population level - A case study with Lactuca sativa and PCIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2016-10-01

    Natural plant populations have large phenotypic plasticity that enhances acclimation to local stress factors such as toxin exposures. While consequences of high toxin exposures are well addressed, effects of low-dose toxin exposures on plant populations are seldom investigated. In particular, the importance of 'selective low-dose toxicity' and hormesis, i.e. stimulatory effects, has not been studied simultaneously. Since selective toxicity can change the size distribution of populations, we assumed that hormesis alters the size distribution at the population level, and investigated whether and how these two low-dose phenomena coexist. The study was conducted with Lactuca sativa L. exposed to the auxin-inhibitor 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (PCIB) in vitro. In two separate experiments, L. sativa was exposed to 12 PCIB doses in 24 replicates (50 plants/replicate). Shoot/root growth responses at the population level were compared to the fast-growing (≥90% percentile) and the slow-growing subpopulations (≤10% percentile) by Mann-Whitney U testing and dose-response modelling. In the formation of pronounced PCIB hormesis at the population level, low-dose effects proved selective, but widely stimulatory which seems to counteract low-dose selective toxicity. The selectivity of hormesis was dose- and growth rate-dependent. Stimulation occurred at lower concentrations and stimulation percentage was higher among slow-growing individuals, but partly or entirely masked at the population level by moderate or negligible stimulation among the faster growing individuals. We conclude that the hormetic effect up to the maximum stimulation may be primarily facilitated by an increase in size of the most slow-growing individuals, while thereafter it seems that mainly the fast-growing individuals contributed to the observed hormesis at the population level. As size distribution within a population is related to survival, our study hints that selective effects on slow

  7. Historical blunders: how toxicology got the dose-response relationship half right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, E J

    2005-12-14

    Substantial evidence indicates that reliable examples of hormetic dose responses in the toxicological literature are common and generalizable across biological model, endpoint measured and chemical class. Further evaluation revealed that the hormetic dose response model is more common than the threshold dose response model in objective, head-to-head comparisons. Nonetheless, the field of toxicology made a profound error by rejecting the use of the hormetic dose response model in its teaching, research, risk assessment and regulatory activities over nearly the past century. This paper argues that the hormetic dose response model (formerly called the Arndt-Schulz Law) was rejected principally because of its close historical association with the medical practice of homeopathy as a result of the prolonged and bitter feud between traditional medicine and homeopathy. Opponents of the concept of hormesis, making use of strong appeals to authority, were successful in their misrepresentation of the scientific foundations of hormesis and in their unfair association of it with segments of the homeopathic movement with extreme and discreditable views. These misrepresentations became established and integrated within the pharmacology and toxicology communities as a result of their origins in and continuities with traditional medicine and subsequently profoundly impacted a broad range of governmental risk assessment activities further consolidating the rejection of hormesis. This error of judgment was reinforced by toxicological hazard assessment methods using only high and few doses that were unable to assess hormetic responses, statistical modeling processes that were constrained to deny the possibility of hormetic dose response relationships and by the modest nature of the hormetic stimulatory response itself, which required more rigorous study designs to evaluate possible hormetic responses.

  8. Historical Argumentation and Writing Historical Historical Argumentation and Writing Historical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza KELEŞ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Writing a historical essay in argumentative genre is an important activity in learning and understanding the history. Argumentation is the symbol of good writing. In historical argumentation, what is expected from students is not to put the events into a chronologicalorder but to put a claim and then give a detailed discussion of the their claim based on evidence. In the present study, based on Toulmin’s argumentation model, general argumentation and historical argumentation are dealt with and features and importance of writing historical argumentation in history courses are emphasized. Moreover, sample activities that can be used to encourage students to write historical argumentation texts and evaluation criteria for a historical text in argumentative genre are presented.

  9. Historical Argumentation and Writing Historical Historical Argumentation and Writing Historical

    OpenAIRE

    KELEŞ, Hamza; KİRİŞ, Ayten

    2010-01-01

    Writing a historical essay in argumentative genre is an important activity in learning and understanding the history. Argumentation is the symbol of good writing. In historical argumentation, what is expected from students is not to put the events into a chronologicalorder but to put a claim and then give a detailed discussion of the their claim based on evidence. In the present study, based on Toulmin’s argumentation model, general argumentation and historical argumentation are dealt with an...

  10. Vegetable and synthetic tannins induce hormesis/toxicity in sea urchin early development and in algal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimosa tannin and phenol-based synthetic tannin (syntan) were tested for toxicity to sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis) early development and to marine algal growth (Dunaliella tertiolecta). Sea urchin embryogenesis was affected by vegetable tannin and syntan water extracts (VTWE and STWE) at levels ≥1 mg/L. Developmental defects were significantly decreased at VTWE and STWE levels of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L when control cultures displayed suboptimal quality, i.e. <70% 'viable' (normal or retarded) larvae. Fertilization success of sea urchin sperm was increased up to 0.3 mg/L STWE or VTWE, then was inhibited by increasing tannin levels (1-30 mg/L). Offspring abnormalities, following sperm exposure to VTWE or STWE, showed the same shift from hormesis to toxicity. Cell growth bioassays in D. tertiolecta exposed to VTWE or STWE (0.1-30 mg/L) showed non-linear concentration-related toxicity. Novel criteria are suggested in defining control quality that should reveal hormetic effects. - Vegetable tannin and synthetic tannins were moderately toxic or displayed hormetic effects in sea urchins and in algae. Re-defining control quality is needed for evaluating hormetic effects

  11. Vegetable and synthetic tannins induce hormesis/toxicity in sea urchin early development and in algal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nicola, Elena [Italian National Cancer Institute, G. Pascale Foundation, via M. Semmola, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Meric, Suereyya [Department of Civil Engineering, Salerno University, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Gallo, Marialuisa [Campania Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPAC), I-80143 Naples (Italy); Iaccarino, Mario [Italian National Cancer Institute, G. Pascale Foundation, via M. Semmola, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Della Rocca, Claudio [Department of Civil Engineering, Salerno University, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Lofrano, Giusy [Department of Civil Engineering, Salerno University, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Russo, Teresa [Campania Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPAC), I-80143 Naples (Italy); Pagano, Giovanni [Italian National Cancer Institute, G. Pascale Foundation, via M. Semmola, I-80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: gbpagano@tin.it

    2007-03-15

    Mimosa tannin and phenol-based synthetic tannin (syntan) were tested for toxicity to sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis) early development and to marine algal growth (Dunaliella tertiolecta). Sea urchin embryogenesis was affected by vegetable tannin and syntan water extracts (VTWE and STWE) at levels {>=}1 mg/L. Developmental defects were significantly decreased at VTWE and STWE levels of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L when control cultures displayed suboptimal quality, i.e. <70% 'viable' (normal or retarded) larvae. Fertilization success of sea urchin sperm was increased up to 0.3 mg/L STWE or VTWE, then was inhibited by increasing tannin levels (1-30 mg/L). Offspring abnormalities, following sperm exposure to VTWE or STWE, showed the same shift from hormesis to toxicity. Cell growth bioassays in D. tertiolecta exposed to VTWE or STWE (0.1-30 mg/L) showed non-linear concentration-related toxicity. Novel criteria are suggested in defining control quality that should reveal hormetic effects. - Vegetable tannin and synthetic tannins were moderately toxic or displayed hormetic effects in sea urchins and in algae. Re-defining control quality is needed for evaluating hormetic effects.

  12. Historical Origins of the Differences Between Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丰品

    2013-01-01

    There are many reasons why conflicts occur during the interaction between Chinese and Western people. This paper is to ex-pound on the reasons from historical perspective- - historical origins of cultural development between China and the West.

  13. Historical Fictions

    OpenAIRE

    Eve, Martin Paul

    2015-01-01

    The historical novel is a major presence in the contemporary literary landscape. Why should this genre possess such appeal? And how can we best define it? Joe Brooker (Birkbeck) and Martin Eve (Lincoln) will explore the fascination of historical fiction today with Caroline Magennis (Salford)

  14. 有毒物质Hormesis效应的识别与评价%Ways to identify and evaluate the Hormesis induced by toxic substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鸿林; 张燕; 赏国锋; 沈国清

    2011-01-01

    有毒物质Hormesis效应对传统的毒理学模型提出了挑战.在低剂量条件下单纯的效应增强并不一定是Hormesis效应,可能由效应的某种波动或试验误差引起.对有毒物质Hormesis效应特征、发生的低剂量范围及其识别与评价方法进行了综述,并以低剂量镉对蚯蚓体内谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH - PX)活性影响为例,建立了Hormesis效应及其定量评价方法.结果表明,二次函数拟合模型为y=0.3994- 1.4472X2+ 1.707X,刺激效应强度为45.34%.%The present paper takes as its objective to provide ways to identify and evaluate the hormesis induced by toxic substances. Great challenges have been brought about to the traditional model of toxicology, and the general stimulation at low-dose began to attract more and more attention both at home and abroad. However, the current research advances in this aspect are mostly based on the accumulated observation results compared to the control at low-dosages. Nevertheless , merely enhanced responses at low doses may not be likely to reveal fully the characteristics of hormesis but a random fluctuation in the response process. Thus, it can be said that the key problem leading to the inefficient identification and evaluation of hormesis lies in the lack of identification and evaluation means. Therefore, in this paper, we have first of all summarized the characteristic features of hormesis, the relation of low-dose range and the evaluation methods, and, what is more, worked out a new approach to the development of hormesis. To illustrate how to use the method, we have made attempt to apply it to the data analysis due to the influence of the low dose cadmium on the glutathione peroxidase (GSH - PX) activity in the earthworms. The results of our experiments show that cadmium at low concentrations tends to induce the stimulation of GSH - PX activity, whereas high concentrations tend to result in inhibition. To make the data fit the quadratic functions

  15. A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Perspective to Understand Preservice Science Teachers' Reflections on and Tensions during a Microteaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli; Tran, Minh-Dan; McDonald, Scott P.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    This study draws from cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to analyze preservice teachers' reflections on a microteaching activity. Microteaching activities involved preservice educators teaching middle school students from local schools. The study was conducted with 23 preservice teachers enrolled in a large university's teacher…

  16. Mitigating the consequences of future earthquakes in historical centres: what perspectives from the joined use of past information and geological-geophysical surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenzio Gizzi, Fabrizio; Moscatelli, Massimiliano; Potenza, Maria Rosaria; Zotta, Cinzia; Simionato, Maurizio; Pileggi, Domenico; Castenetto, Sergio

    2015-04-01

    To mitigate the damage effects of earthquakes in urban areas and particularly in historical centres prone to high seismic hazard is an important task to be pursued. As a matter of fact, seismic history throughout the world informs us that earthquakes have caused deep changes in the ancient urban conglomerations due to their high building vulnerability. Furthermore, some quarters can be exposed to an increase of seismic actions if compared with adjacent areas due to the geological and/or topographical features of the site on which the historical centres lie. Usually, the strategies aimed to estimate the local seismic hazard make only use of the geological-geophysical surveys. Thorough this approach we do not draw any lesson from what happened as a consequences of past earthquakes. With this in mind, we present the results of a joined use of historical data and traditional geological-geophysical approach to analyse the effects of possible future earthquakes in historical centres. The research activity discussed here is arranged into a joint collaboration between the Department of Civil Protection of the Presidency of Council of Ministers, the Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering and the Institute of Archaeological and Monumental Heritage of the National (Italian) Research Council. In order to show the results, we discuss the preliminary achievements of the integrated study carried out on two historical towns located in Southern Apennines, a portion of the Italian peninsula exposed to high seismic hazard. Taking advantage from these two test sites, we also discuss some methodological implications that could be taken as a reference in the seismic microzonation studies.

  17. Molecular mechanisms and reasons of radiation antagonism, self-induced radioprotective effect and hormesis at combined action of ionizing radiation and free radicals on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time-dependent dynamics of formation, relaxation and auto-reparation of double breaks of DNA macromolecules at the combine radiation action and non-tradition processes of degradation were considered. The auto-repairing of DNA double breaks is connected with the peculiarities of long-range interaction of nucleotide charges, atoms and molecules in the intracellular milieu. On the base of the analysis and correlation of these processes the time-dependent theory for DNA degradation was created, including hormesis phenomenon, radiation antagonism, the validity of anomaly influence of low and large doses at sharp and chronic radiation and others effects

  18. Hormesis effect of cadmium on Lonicera japonica%镉对金银花的毒物刺激效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾莲; 刘周莉; 陈玮; 何兴元; 齐丹

    2013-01-01

    采用水培方法,研究不同浓度镉(Cd)(0、0.5、2.5、5、10和25 mg· L-1)胁迫下金银花的生长特征,分析低浓度Cd对金银花产生的毒物刺激效应.结果表明:低浓度Cd处理(≤5mg·L-1)对金银花最大根长、植株干质量以及叶绿素a、叶绿素b和类胡萝卜素含量均产生显著刺激效应,分别比对照增加13.6%、11.7%、14.0%、10.8%和54.5%;低浓度Cd(≤5mg·L-1)对叶片含水量表现出一定程度的促进作用,但影响不显著;当Cd浓度≥10mg·L-1,对金银花的生长表现出显著的抑制作用.当Cd浓度为25 mg·L-1时,金银花地上部Cd含量达到622.93 mg· kg-1,表明金银花对Cd具有较强的超富集能力.Cd对金银花产生毒物刺激效应的剂量范围为0.5 ~5 mg·L-1.%A hydroponic experiment was conducted to study the growth characteristics of Lonicera japonica under the stress of different concentrations (0, 0. 5 , 2. 5 , 5 , 10, and 25 mg·L-1) cadmium (Cd) , aimed to explore the hormesis effect of low concentrations Cd on L. japonica. At ≤5 mg·L-1 of Cd, the maximum root length, plant dry biomass, and the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid of L. japonica increased significantly, with the increment being 13. 6% , 11.7% , 14. 0% , 10. 8% , and 54. 5% , respectively, as compared with the control. ≤5 mg · L-1 of Cd also had a definite positive effect on the leaf water content. At ≥10 mg·L-1 of Cd, the growth of L. japonica was inhibited significantly. When exposed to 25 mg·L-1 of Cd, the shoot Cd concentration of L. japonica reached 622. 93 mg·L-1, suggesting that L. japonica had a strong capacity of Cd-hyperaccumulation. The dose range of the hormesis effect of Cd on L. japonica was 0.5-5 mg mg·L-1 of Cd.

  19. A Historical Perspective of Deaf People and Its Constitution as aMeans of Social Movement in Brazil, in Contemporary Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ingrid Karla da Nobrega Beserra

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to present the historical constitution of the Deaf Movement (Movimento Surdo) and theirrespective events and claims in the national socio-political scene. Among the numerous social movements operatingin the country and the world we identified the Deaf Movement while present in the social struggles and the poorvisibility conferred on it in the context of listener culture, considering their undeniable importance in the currentform of society. Search up from the use of surveys and interviews to understand this movement as the set of actionsdeveloped by the deaf community around the historical issues, identity, cultural, social and political. Among themany claims of this movement highlights the proposed bilingual education for deaf people seeking socialknowledge of deafness would mean not only the best form of education for the deaf, but also for themaintenance/affirmation of deaf culture.

  20. On the complexity of earthquake sequences: a historical seismology perspective based on the L'Aquila seismicity (Abruzzo, Central Italy), 1315-1915

    OpenAIRE

    Guidoboni, E.; EEDIS; Valensise, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia

    2015-01-01

    Most damaging earthquakes come as complex sequences characterized by strong aftershocks, sometimes by foreshocks and often by multiple mainshocks. Complex earthquake sequences have enormous seismic hazard, engineering and societal implications as their impact on buildings and infrastructures may be much more severe at the end of the sequence than just after the mainshock. In this paper we examine whether historical sources can help characterizing the rare earthquake sequences of pre-instrumen...

  1. Contemporary Capitalism and the Building of Harmonious Society in World Historical Perspectives%世界历史视角·当代资本主义与和谐世界建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶富源

    2012-01-01

    World historical perspectives are views and approaches derived from the mutual connections among nations and countries, which are of critical epistemological importance. World historical perspectives must be adopted to perceive contemporary capitalism and chart the blueprint of human future. Contemporary capitalism is state monopoly capitalism, which is the full embodiment of systematic defects, giving rise to socialist factors and global polarization between extreme richness and poverty. Global polarization is the major demonstration of capitalist corruption. While it is fundamental to replace capitalism with socialism in the worldwide for mankind to get a way out, a feasible road to address current global problems is to build a harmonious world.%世界历史视角有着重要的认识功能,必须用世界历史视角来认识当代资本主义和规划人类的出路。当代资本主义是国家垄断资本主义,是制度性缺陷充分暴露、萌生了一些社会主义因素、造成全球贫富两极分化的资本主义。而全球两极分化是当代资本主义腐朽性的主要表现。人类出路的根本取向是在全世界用社会主义取代资本主义,而在当前解决全球性问题的一条现实道路则是构建和谐世界。

  2. Negotiating the Process of Historical Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endacott, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    Historical empathy scholarship has evolved to the point where further progress necessitates empirical examinations from a variety of perspectives. Prior studies on historical empathy have largely focused on teachers' pedagogical approach and student outcomes. This qualitative study focuses on students as they engage in the process of…

  3. Immmigrants and their associations: A global and historical perspective Los inmigrantes y sus asociaciones: Una perspectiva histórica y global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Moya

    2008-09-01

    sociability. The paper addresses the class and gender composition of memberships, compares the associative practices of the late 19th century’s immigrants with those of the early 21st century, and discusses the issue of state involvement. The essay shows, from a global and historical perspective, how quasi-universal processes and local and temporal specificities shaped associational practices in a way that transcended the ethno-national traditions and characteristics of particular immigrant groups and host countries.

  1. Historical prologue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organizations and machines engaged in a severe nuclear crisis would be its tangible and partially quantifiable factors. For that reason they often dominate our thinking about superpower confrontations. Military organizations, however, are not automatons that can run amok on their own. The perceptions of leaders and populations propel the course of events, and their mindsets are shaped by what experience, history, and myth claim to say about war. Since there has never been combat between nuclear-armed states, it is debatable whether the past has any relevance to what we now face. But the part is all we have to go on. Thus soldiers and statesmen are still haunted by the manner in which this century's two great wars began, and the past thereby influences the thoughts that lead to weapons, to military plans, and to decisions that could turn peace into war. It is therefore essential to have some appreciation for the historical roots that nourish our expectations about international conflict. This paper describes some of these roots

  2. Historical Superbolides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamora, S.; Ocaña, F.; Tapia, C.; de Burgos, A.; Herráiz, G.; Petrova, M.

    2015-05-01

    The amount of impacts of 50 m -- 1 cm asteroid with the Earth is a typical issue of controversy. Explosions in upper atmosphere and lunar impacts suggest that could have more impacts than is currently accepted. A ``new'' information source data can be fireballs appeared in historical press. Some of these reports indicate the presence of pressure waves or damage that may help estimate the energy of the event. We analysed more than 50 years of the archive of the New York Times and found a number of abnormally clustered events that can not be explained by a Poisson distribution. We have found at least two big concentrations not associated to any major meteor shower. One around the actual 23rd of July and other on the 14th of February. This second major concentration it is really close to the Chelyabinsk event date, so it is probable that there they are related. The preliminary results were published in Sánchez de Miguel, A., Ocaña, F., Zamora, S., et al. 2014, in Garzón Guerrero J. A., López Sánchez A. R., eds, Libro de Actas del XXI Congreso Estatal de Astronomía. Granada, Spain.

  3. EL CONCEPTO DE CALIDAD EDUCATIVA: UNA MIRADA CRÍTICA DESDE EL ENFOQUE HISTÓRICOCULTURAL (THE CONCEPT OF QUALITY EDUCATION: A CRITICAL LOOK FORM THE CULTURAL HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Arocho Wanda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este trabajo propone un examen crítico del concepto: “calidad educativa” desde la óptica históricocultural. A partir de la misma, se argumenta que la acepción técnica del concepto que domina el discurso educativo en la actualidad, según la cual la calidad se define a partir de parámetros derivados de una lógica empresarial, devela un origen asentado en el modelo neoliberal e impulsado por los procesos que caracterizan la globalización. Se plantea que tomar conciencia del origen sociocultural del concepto es una condición necesaria para construir significados alternos al término calidad y darle otros sentidos a su práctica. Se discute el rol que la pedagogía crítica puede desempeñar en la reflexión y la acción para el logro de esta meta.Abstract:This work presents a critical analysis of the concept of quality education from a cultural-historical perspective. It is argued that the technical reference of the concept that dominates current educational discourse, form which quality is defined in terms of parameters drawn form a commercial logical, unveils its origin grounded in the neoliberal model and propelled by the processes that characterize globalization. It is also argued that the development of consciousness regarding the sociocultural origins or the concept is a needed condition for the construction of alternative meanings and making new senses for its transformation into practices. The role of critical pedagogy in this endeavor is discussed.

  4. Swimming microorganisms acting as nanorobots versus artificial nanorobotic agents: A perspective view from an historical retrospective on the future of medical nanorobotics in the largest known three-dimensional biomicrofluidic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Sylvain

    2016-03-01

    The vascular system in each human can be described as a 3D biomicrofluidic network providing a pathway close to approximately 100 000 km in length. Such network can be exploited to target any parts inside the human body with further accessibility through physiological spaces such as the interstitial microenvironments. This fact has triggered research initiatives towards the development of new medical tools in the form of microscopic robotic agents designed for surgical, therapeutic, imaging, or diagnostic applications. To push the technology further towards medical applications, nanotechnology including nanomedicine has been integrated with principles of robotics. This new field of research is known as medical nanorobotics. It has been particularly creative in recent years to make what was and often still considered science-fiction to offer concrete implementations with the potential to enhance significantly many actual medical practices. In such a global effort, two main strategic trends have emerged where artificial and synthetic implementations presently compete with swimming microorganisms being harnessed to act as medical nanorobotic agents. Recognizing the potentials of each approach, efforts to combine both towards the implementation of hybrid nanorobotic agents where functionalities are implemented using both artificial/synthetic and microorganism-based entities have also been initiated. Here, through the main eras of progressive developments in this field, the evolutionary path being described from some of the main historical achievements to recent technological innovations is extrapolated in an attempt to provide a perspective view on the future of medical nanorobotics capable of targeting any parts of the human body accessible through the vascular network. PMID:27158285

  5. Swimming microorganisms acting as nanorobots versus artificial nanorobotic agents: A perspective view from an historical retrospective on the future of medical nanorobotics in the largest known three-dimensional biomicrofluidic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Sylvain

    2016-03-01

    The vascular system in each human can be described as a 3D biomicrofluidic network providing a pathway close to approximately 100 000 km in length. Such network can be exploited to target any parts inside the human body with further accessibility through physiological spaces such as the interstitial microenvironments. This fact has triggered research initiatives towards the development of new medical tools in the form of microscopic robotic agents designed for surgical, therapeutic, imaging, or diagnostic applications. To push the technology further towards medical applications, nanotechnology including nanomedicine has been integrated with principles of robotics. This new field of research is known as medical nanorobotics. It has been particularly creative in recent years to make what was and often still considered science-fiction to offer concrete implementations with the potential to enhance significantly many actual medical practices. In such a global effort, two main strategic trends have emerged where artificial and synthetic implementations presently compete with swimming microorganisms being harnessed to act as medical nanorobotic agents. Recognizing the potentials of each approach, efforts to combine both towards the implementation of hybrid nanorobotic agents where functionalities are implemented using both artificial/synthetic and microorganism-based entities have also been initiated. Here, through the main eras of progressive developments in this field, the evolutionary path being described from some of the main historical achievements to recent technological innovations is extrapolated in an attempt to provide a perspective view on the future of medical nanorobotics capable of targeting any parts of the human body accessible through the vascular network.

  6. O brincar de uma criança autista sob a ótica da perspectiva histórico-cultural An autistic child's play from the cultural-historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Bagarollo

    2013-03-01

    historical-cultural perspective of human development - which conceives of subjects as social beings, culturally constituted in and through language - this statement is no longer sustainable, since play is a socially constituted activity. From this standpoint, this study aimed to analyze the peculiarities of play in a child with autism, immersed in rich experiences with other children, with toys and games. Data collection was carried out using video recordings of speech therapy sessions with a group of four autistic children. The focus was on one child's play activities (S1, four years. The recordings were transcribed and data was analyzed based on the microgenetic analysis perspective. The data showed that when autistic children experience positive social interactions, it is possible to develop play, imaginative processes and sequences of actions such as those observed in the group's social and cultural use of toys. We conclude that therapist intervention is critical during the interaction process, assigning meanings to the child's actions, enabling the possibility of constitution of cultural being and of interacting with others. This process helps build the basis for internalizations derived from playing with others. As observed, experiences outside the institution provided opportunities to play and develop during the process, albeit more slowly and more specifically.

  7. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic...

  8. 道德历史人类学视域中我国多民族道德生活的历史变迁%Historical Changes of the Ethics in the Multi-ethnic Nation of China from the Perspective of Ethical Historical Anthropology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 陈文江

    2016-01-01

    It is a major turn in the orientation of the academic research on ethics and morality in China to probe into the occurrence and evolution of Chinese ethics,especially the great changes of the social ethics in modern times,from the perspective of the history of the ethics of multi-nation China.The changes of the paradigm has brought about changes in the subjects,content,topics,theoretical orien-tation,framework of analysis,and the research methodology,which have made the construction of the paradigm of the history of ethics in the multi-ethnic groups necessary and possible.By combining the empirical research of Anthropology and Sociology and the value analysis of Ethics,from the perspec-tives of daily lives,spiritual life and public intercourse life,the methodology studies the occurrence and the changes in core values,ethical culture and common spiritual home,thus forming a new theoretical analysis framework with empirical analysis dimension.From the perspective of this paradigm,the a-nalysis route of the historical changes of the ethics of Chinas multi-ethic groups can be examined as follows:the ethical origin of the concept of human beings in the ethics of the multi-ethnic nation;how the dharma of the human beings have been formed in the ethnic ethics;“where”the dharma of the hu-man beings have been formed in the ethnic ethics;the space of the presentation of dharma and the process of its social construction;and how the dharma has been spread and presented.%从多民族的道德生活史入手研究我国几千年文明史中伦理道德的发生演变,特别是近代以来社会道德伦理秩序的巨大变化,是我国伦理学研究方向的一个重大转变。这种研究范式把人类学、社会学的实证分析方法和伦理学的价值分析方法结合起来,从我国多民族的人的日常生活、精神生活以及公共交往生活三个层面,对多民族道德生活中的人的核心价值观念、伦理文化形态和共有精神

  9. ASERA: brief histor(y/ies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard; Gardner, Paul; Carr, Malcolm; Jones, Alister; Appleton, Ken; Fleer, Marilyn; Redman, Christine; Dawson, Vaille; Chang, Wen-Hua; Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2009-06-01

    This collection of historical accounts provides diverse perspectives on the structure and culture of the community of researchers who participate in activities of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (ASERA). It describes the formation of the Association, and identifies major changes and challenges for the ever growing and internationalisation of its membership.

  10. ACCOUNTING PARADIGMS WHICH FAVOR HISTORICAL COST

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2014-01-01

    Henning Kirkegaard shows that the evolution of accounting is to shift from one paradigm to another . Business continuity perspective should guide the company into the future , without confine it exclusively in the past. Accounting in its classical form , however, can not be dissociated from the historical cost evaluation .

  11. ASERA: Brief Histor(y/ies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard; Gardner, Paul; Carr, Malcolm; Jones, Alister; Appleton, Ken; Fleer, Marilyn; Redman, Christine; Dawson, Vaille; Chang, Wen-Hua; Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    This collection of historical accounts provides diverse perspectives on the structure and culture of the community of researchers who participate in activities of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (ASERA). It describes the formation of the Association, and identifies major changes and challenges for the ever growing and…

  12. ACCOUNTING PARADIGMS WHICH FAVOR HISTORICAL COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Henning Kirkegaard shows that the evolution of accounting is to shift from one paradigm to another . Business continuity perspective should guide the company into the future , without confine it exclusively in the past. Accounting in its classical form , however, can not be dissociated from the historical cost evaluation .

  13. Informed patient consent: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, S B; Wilson, B

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the concept of informed patient consent by examining two long-term studies in which adequate consent was not obtained from study participants: the radiation experiments sponsored by the U.S. government beginning in the 1940s and the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment conducted from 1932 to 1972. The article discusses how these experiments represent a violation of informed consent guidelines and research ethics. It also explores the ethical implications of the experiments to radiologic technologists today and discusses the technologist's role in obtaining patient consent in research and clinical practice settings. PMID:8570838

  14. Historical perspective of living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    See Ching Chan; Sheung Tat Fan

    2008-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has gone through its formative years and established as a legitimate treatment when a deceased donor liver graft is not timely or simply not available at all. Nevertheless,LDLT is characterized by its technical complexity and ethical controversy. These are the consequences of a single organ having to serve two subjects, the donor and the recipient, instantaneously. The transplant community has a common ground on assuring donor safety while achieving predictable recipient success. With this background, a reflection of the development of LDLT may be appropriate to direct future research and patient- care efforts on this life-saving treatment alternative.

  15. Medical parasitology in China: a historical perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guan-ling

    2005-01-01

    @@ The earliest investigations of parasitic diseases in China occurred in the 1870s and began with the work done by some foreign doctors studying Chinese customs, e.g., Monson ' s discovery in Xiamen of China in 1877, reporting for the first time that the mosquito was the intermediate host and vector of Wuchereria bancrofti.

  16. The Stress Reaction: A Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2016-01-01

    The history of stress research - milestones and people. Definitions and modern concepts of stress as well as the conflict between Hans Selye and the psychologists are described in this review. The molecular and physiological mechanisms of stress and their possible pharmacological intervention are introduced. The cycle of stress is presented as a new concept of the stress reaction, trying to bridge the gap between physiology and psychology. The cycle is a circular event in life, composed of 4 phases: (1) the resting ground phase, (2) the tension phase, (3) the response phase, and (4) the relief phase. In each phase, both physiological and psychological components can be assessed. These components are the basis for the proper handling of each phase and provide a unified model for the psycho-biological response to stress. In addition, parameters of the cycle such as frequency, duration, and intensity can be measured, providing an effective tool for stress management. Finally, modern techniques and mechanisms for coping with stress are discussed like the Norwegian Gate Theory and Lazarus Dichotomy Model for the Stress Reaction. In the above models, specific examples of how people respond to the first time encounter of stressful events and how soldiers cope with stress are presented.

  17. Treatment of Tuberculosis. A Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John F; Schraufnagel, Dean E; Hopewell, Philip C

    2015-12-01

    Of all achievements in medicine, the successful treatment of tuberculosis has had one of the greatest impacts on society. Tuberculosis was a leading cause of disease and a mortal enemy of humanity for millennia. The first step in finding a cure was the discovery of the cause of tuberculosis by Robert Koch in 1882. The sanatorium movement that began shortly afterward in Europe, and soon spread to the United States, brought attention to the plight of afflicted persons, and catalyzed public health action. The antituberculosis benefit of streptomycin was announced in 1945, although application was limited by the rapid development of resistance. para-Aminosalicylic acid, also discovered in 1945, when combined with streptomycin was found to greatly reduce the occurrence of drug resistance. In 1952, isoniazid opened the modern era of treatment; it was inexpensive, well tolerated, and safe. In the early 1960s, ethambutol was shown to be effective and better tolerated than para-aminosalicylic acid, which it replaced. In the 1970s, rifampin found its place as a keystone in the therapy of tuberculosis. The use of rifampin enabled the course of treatment to be reduced to nine months. Incorporation of pyrazinamide into the first-line regimen led to a further reduction of treatment duration to six months. Treatment of multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis remains a difficult problem requiring lengthy treatment with toxic drugs. However, shortened regimens show promise, and two new drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, have demonstrated effectiveness in preliminary studies and are being used for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:26653188

  18. The ligament augmentation device: an historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K; Maffulli, N

    1999-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is the most common ligament injury in the knee, and a significant number of patients may develop progressive instability and disability despite aggressive rehabilitation. Various materials have been used for its reconstruction. These include autografts, allografts, prosthetic ligaments, and synthetic augmentation of the biological tissue. The concept of ligament augmentation device (LAD) arose from the observation that biological grafts undergo a phase of degeneration and loss of strength before being incorporated. The LAD is meant to protect the biological graft during this vulnerable phase. However, it provokes an inflammatory reaction in the knee, and has been found to delay maturation of autogenous graft in humans. In experimental situations, the LAD has been found to share loads in a composite graft. It has also been found to be substantially stronger than the biological graft. However, in clinical situations no significant advantages have been observed with the use of LAD to augment patellar tendon or hamstring reconstruction of the chronic ACL-deficient knee or in the acute setting to augment repair of the torn ACL. There are very few reports of the use of LAD in reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament, and again these do not suggest any advantage in its use. Insertion of the LAD implies the introduction of a foreign material into the knee, has been associated with complications such as reactive synovitis and effusions, and may also be associated with an increased risk of infection. At present, there is no evidence that its routine use should be advocated in uncomplicated reconstructions of the ACL using biological grafts.

  19. Behavioural Phenotypes in Disability Research: Historical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodey, C. F.

    2006-01-01

    Western medicine has a long history of accounting for behaviour by reducing the body to ultimate explanatory entities. In pre-modern medicine these were invisible "animal spirits" circulating the body. In modern medicine, they are "genes". Both raise questions. The psychological phenotype is defined by human consensus, varying according to time…

  20. Historical perspective on the use of garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, R S

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this review is to examine briefly the medical uses of garlic throughout the ages and the role that it was considered to play in prevention and treatment of disease. Interest in the potential benefits of garlic has origins in antiquity and is one of the earliest documented examples of plants employed for treatment of disease and maintenance of health. Garlic was in use at the beginning of recorded history and was found in Egyptian pyramids and ancient Greek temples. There are Biblical references to garlic. Ancient medical texts from Egypt, Greece, Rome, China and India each prescribed medical applications for garlic. In many cultures, garlic was administered to provide strength and increase work capacity for laborers. Hippocrates, the revered physician, prescribed garlic for a variety of conditions. Garlic was given to the original Olympic athletes in Greece, as perhaps one of the earliest "performance enhancing" agents. It is of interest that cultures that developed without contact with one another came to similar conclusions about the efficacy of garlic. Modern science is tending to confirm many of the beliefs of ancient cultures regarding garlic, defining mechanisms of action and exploring garlic's potential for disease prevention and treatment. PMID:11238795

  1. Treatment of Tuberculosis. A Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John F; Schraufnagel, Dean E; Hopewell, Philip C

    2015-12-01

    Of all achievements in medicine, the successful treatment of tuberculosis has had one of the greatest impacts on society. Tuberculosis was a leading cause of disease and a mortal enemy of humanity for millennia. The first step in finding a cure was the discovery of the cause of tuberculosis by Robert Koch in 1882. The sanatorium movement that began shortly afterward in Europe, and soon spread to the United States, brought attention to the plight of afflicted persons, and catalyzed public health action. The antituberculosis benefit of streptomycin was announced in 1945, although application was limited by the rapid development of resistance. para-Aminosalicylic acid, also discovered in 1945, when combined with streptomycin was found to greatly reduce the occurrence of drug resistance. In 1952, isoniazid opened the modern era of treatment; it was inexpensive, well tolerated, and safe. In the early 1960s, ethambutol was shown to be effective and better tolerated than para-aminosalicylic acid, which it replaced. In the 1970s, rifampin found its place as a keystone in the therapy of tuberculosis. The use of rifampin enabled the course of treatment to be reduced to nine months. Incorporation of pyrazinamide into the first-line regimen led to a further reduction of treatment duration to six months. Treatment of multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis remains a difficult problem requiring lengthy treatment with toxic drugs. However, shortened regimens show promise, and two new drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, have demonstrated effectiveness in preliminary studies and are being used for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  2. Literacy and UNESCO: Conceptual and Historical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    At its founding in 1946, UNESCO put literacy at the top of its education and human rights agenda. More than six decades later, UNESCO maintains the mission statement: "UNESCO is at the forefront of global literacy efforts and is dedicated to keeping literacy high on national, regional and international agendas." This chapter briefly describes how…

  3. Drug misuse in sport: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, David

    2015-12-04

    This editorial draws comparisons between the recent revelations of drug misuse in Russian sport, and the State-sponsored programme of the former German Democratic Republic. While 50 years separates these two regimes, there are commonalities. The history of major incidents involving drug abuse by serious national players in sport suggests a 20-year cycle, with the GDR, China and now Russia employing similar strategies. These events underscore the value placed upon international sporting success by politicians.

  4. Historical perspective of living donor liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, See Ching; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2008-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has gone through its formative years and established as a legitimate treatment when a deceased donor liver graft is not timely or simply not available at all. Nevertheless, LDLT is characterized by its technical complexity and ethical controversy. These are the consequences of a single organ having to serve two subjects, the donor and the recipient, instantaneously. The transplant community has a common ground on assuring donor safety while achieving ...

  5. [Historical perspective of mass spectrometry in microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingorance, Jesús; Regueiro, Benito; Muñoz-Bellido, Juan Luis

    2016-06-01

    La espectrometría de masas (EM) es una técnica de análisis que permite caracterizar muestras midiendo las masas (estrictamente las razones masa-carga) de las moléculas componentes. Cuenta con más de un siglo de historia y evolución tecnológica y a lo largo de los años ha ampliado su alcance desde los isótopos a moléculas pequeñas, moléculas orgánicas más complejas y, en las últimas décadas, macromoléculas (ácidos nucleicos y proteínas). La EM MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) es una variante que permite el análisis de mezclas complejas de proteínas y que se ha aplicado recientemente a la identificación de microorganismos en cultivo, convirtiéndose en una herramienta rápida y eficaz para el diagnóstico microbiológico que ha conseguido entrar en poco tiempo en la rutina de muchos servicios de microbiología clínica. El gran impacto que ha tenido está impulsando el desarrollo de nuevas aplicaciones en el campo de la microbiología clínica.

  6. Neurology Of Hysteria - A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravarty Ambar

    2001-01-01

    The Present article summarises the changing concepts about hysteria from Egyptian papyrus to early 20th century. The contributions of early physicians including Charcot and his pupils in developing bedside clinical methods to differentiate organic disease from hysterical conversion have been highlighted. Various forms of therapy used over several centuries for this fascinating disorder is also discussed.

  7. Physics and medicine: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keevil, Stephen F

    2012-04-21

    Nowadays, the term medical physics usually refers to the work of physicists employed in hospitals, who are concerned mainly with medical applications of radiation, diagnostic imaging, and clinical measurement. This involvement in clinical work began barely 100 years ago, but the relation between physics and medicine has a much longer history. In this report, I have traced this history from the earliest recorded period, when physical agents such as heat and light began to be used to diagnose and treat disease. Later, great polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci and Alhazen used physical principles to begin the quest to understand the function of the body. After the scientific revolution in the 17th century, early medical physicists developed a purely mechanistic approach to physiology, whereas others applied ideas derived from physics in an effort to comprehend the nature of life itself. These early investigations led directly to the development of specialties such as electrophysiology, biomechanics, and ophthalmology. Physics-based medical technology developed rapidly during the 19th century, but it was the revolutionary discoveries about radiation and radioactivity at the end of the century that ushered in a new era of radiation-based medical diagnosis and treatment, thereby giving rise to the modern medical physics profession. Subsequent developments in imaging in particular have revolutionised the practice of medicine. We now stand on the brink of a new revolution in post-genomic personalised medicine, with physics-based techniques again at the forefront. As before, these techniques are often the unpredictable fruits of earlier investment in basic physics research.

  8. Teleultrasound: Historical Perspective and Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Cunha Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The health care of patients in rural or isolated areas is challenged by the scarcity of local resources, limited patient access to doctors and hospitals, and the lack of specialized professionals. This has led to a new concept in telemedicine: teleultrasonography (or teleultrasound, which permits ultrasonographic diagnoses to be performed remotely. Telemedicine and teleultrasonography are effective in providing diagnostic imaging services to these populations and reduce health care costs by decreasing the number and duration of hospitalizations and reducing unnecessary surgical procedures. This is a narrative review to present the potential clinical applications of teleultrasonography in clinical practice. The results indicate that although barriers persist for implementing teleultrasonography in a more universal and routine way, advances in telecommunications, Internet bandwidth, and the high resolution currently available for portable ultrasonography suggest teleultrasonography applications will continue to expand. Teleultrasound appears to be a valuable addition to remote medical care for isolated populations with limited access to tertiary healthcare facilities and also a useful tool for education and training.

  9. Quality of Care in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochner, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Examines the quality of care in two mid-19th-century day nurseries in North America. Finds that quality was associated with saving children's lives within a context of charity-based social welfare. The concern for the health and safety of children led to the entrenchment of a custodial model of child care, which proved resilient into the 20th…

  10. Forces in Physics A Historical Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, Steven N

    2008-01-01

    Force is one of the most elementary concepts that must be understood in order to understand modern science; it is discussed extensively in textbooks at all levels and is a requirement in most science guidelines. It is also one of the most challenging - how could one idea be involved in such disparate physical phenomena as gravity and radioactivity? Forces in Physics helps the science student by explaining how these ideas originally were developed and provides context to the stunning conclusions that scientists over the centuries have arrived at. It covers the history of all of the four traditi

  11. A Historical Perspective of the Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePauw, Karen P.

    2012-01-01

    Athletes with disabilities are more visible in the 21st century than they used to be, including in the world of sport. Today, one hears about the Paralympic Games, can find media coverage of them, can read about athletes who compete in the Paralympics and about advancements in sport prosthetic devices in science and sport magazines, and can even…

  12. Gender and social reproduction: historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslett, B; Brenner, J

    1989-01-01

    It is argued that gender relations and social reproduction were both shaped by macrohistorical processes and shaped the processes. Social reproduction is defined within feminist theory as more than production in the Marxist sense. Societal reproduction is a combination of the organization of production, the organization of social reproduction, the perpetuation of gender, and the continuation of class relations. Social reproduction includes the care and socialization of children and care of the elderly or infirm. Social reproduction includes the organization of sexuality, biological reproduction, and how food, clothing, and shelter are made available. Most social reproduction occurs within the family unit. It is pointed out that variations in the distribution of the work of social reproduction are affected by the family, market, community, and state. The ways in which women construct their own worlds of activity is a central concern. The feminist concept of social reproduction differs from modernization theory, which is concerned with the institutional location of the tasks of social reproduction and the structural effects on the family and gender relations. This literature review focuses only on the history of family strategies and separate gender-related activities. The authors describe the changes in family organization that define men as income producers and women as caretakers, who base child rearing on love and feminine virtue rather than patriarchal authority and religious doctrine. The discussion focuses on the differences in marital relationships, motherhood, and sexuality between upper and middle class and working class women in the 19th century. Among working class women, a good wife was an efficient manager, a skilled domestic worker, and an income earner. The turn of the century was a period of social change marked by smaller average family size, the decline of household production, the rise in real wages, and increased consumption. It is argued that new developments in gender relations are due to sex as well as economics and the institutionalization of these changes results in constraints and opportunities for women. PMID:12316382

  13. Constructing Worlds of Education: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droux, Joëlle; Hofstetter, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, historians have dedicated a growing amount of research to the history of globalization. This introduction shows how the articles in this issue contribute to this dynamic, aiming to illustrate its heuristic potential in historicizing educational phenomena. The field of education is presented as a relevant platform for an…

  14. Earth cycles:A historical perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Oldroyd

    2007-01-01

    @@ For at Jeast two centuries,most geologists have been convinced that Earth has experienced a"linear,"directional history.There iS no doubt that our planet is very different from what it was a few billion years ago.

  15. A historical perspective on Modified Newtonian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, R H

    2014-01-01

    I review the history and development of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) beginning with the phenomenological basis as it existed in the early 1980s. I consider Milgrom's papers of 1983 introducing the idea and its consequences for galaxies and galaxy groups, as well as the initial reactions, both negative and positive. The early criticisms were primarily on matters of principle, such as the absence of conservation laws and perceived cosmological problems; an important step in addressing these issues was the development of the Lagrangian-based non-relativistic theory of Bekenstein and Milgrom. This theory led to the development of a tentative relativistic theory that formed the basis for later multi-field theories of gravity. On an empirical level the predictive success of the idea with respect to the phenomenology of galaxies presents considerable challenges for cold dark matter. For MOND the essential challenge remains the absence of a generally accepted theoretical underpinning of the idea and, thus, cosm...

  16. Neurology Of Hysteria - A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Ambar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Present article summarises the changing concepts about hysteria from Egyptian papyrus to early 20th century. The contributions of early physicians including Charcot and his pupils in developing bedside clinical methods to differentiate organic disease from hysterical conversion have been highlighted. Various forms of therapy used over several centuries for this fascinating disorder is also discussed.

  17. [Historical perspective of mass spectrometry in microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingorance, Jesús; Regueiro, Benito; Muñoz-Bellido, Juan Luis

    2016-06-01

    La espectrometría de masas (EM) es una técnica de análisis que permite caracterizar muestras midiendo las masas (estrictamente las razones masa-carga) de las moléculas componentes. Cuenta con más de un siglo de historia y evolución tecnológica y a lo largo de los años ha ampliado su alcance desde los isótopos a moléculas pequeñas, moléculas orgánicas más complejas y, en las últimas décadas, macromoléculas (ácidos nucleicos y proteínas). La EM MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) es una variante que permite el análisis de mezclas complejas de proteínas y que se ha aplicado recientemente a la identificación de microorganismos en cultivo, convirtiéndose en una herramienta rápida y eficaz para el diagnóstico microbiológico que ha conseguido entrar en poco tiempo en la rutina de muchos servicios de microbiología clínica. El gran impacto que ha tenido está impulsando el desarrollo de nuevas aplicaciones en el campo de la microbiología clínica. PMID:27389286

  18. A Historical Perspective of Technology and Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Pitkin, Bill

    2001-01-01

    Technology is our savior. We see, hear and experience this mes- sage constantly in popular culture, from advertisements that demon- strate how technological gadgets make us smarter and perhaps even more likable to forecasts by financial analysts that the information economy will continue to increase wealth for savvy investors. The hype produced by this common message implies that unless we jump on the information age bandwagon, we risk missing out on its vast benefits. Futuristic writers such...

  19. Historical perspectives on fatty acid chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acids are basic renewable chemical building blocks that can be used as intermediates for a multitude of products. Today the global value of fatty acids exceeds 18 billion dollars and is expected to increase to nearly 26 billion over the period from 2014-2019. From it auspicious beginnings, the...

  20. A Historical Perspective of Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcioglu, Huseyin; Bilge, Ugur; Unluoglu, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    Even though there are significant developments in recent years in medical education, physicians are still needed reform and innovation in order to prepare the information society. The spots in the forefront of medical education in recent years; holistic approach in all processes, including health education, evidence-based medicine and…

  1. Knowledge Sharing among Inventors: Some Historical Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Bessen, James; Nuvolari, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This chapter documents instances from past centuries where inventors freely shared knowledge of their innovations with other inventors. It is widely believed that such knowledge sharing is largely a recent development, as in open source software. Our survey shows, instead, that innovators have long practiced "collective invention", including in such key technologies as steam engines, iron and steel production and textile machinery. Generally, innovators? behavior was substantially richer than...

  2. Historical Perspectives: The 1958 Conference Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    From February 6 to 8, 1958, approximately 200 educators and interested individuals were invited to New York City in hopes of discussing the education of academically talented students at the secondary level. Topics included identification, programming options, the social emotional well-being of students, and the limited resources allocated to…

  3. Democratizing Indonesia: Reformasi Period in Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Yuri; 佐藤, 百合

    2003-01-01

    Introduction : Triggered by the Asian currency crisis, Indonesia plunged into the times of violent change. With the downfall of the long-standing Soeharto rule in May 1998, changes of the state order started with great magnitude and rapidity under a new banner of “reformasi” (reform). What changes have occurred in this reformasi period? What do these changes signify? To answer these questions, it would be better to have a certain yardstick to allow us comparison. One possibility is to use a y...

  4. Hangman's fracture: a historical and biomechanical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayes, Mahmoud; Mittal, Monika; Rengachary, Setti S; Mittal, Sandeep

    2011-02-01

    The execution technique of hanging, introduced by the Angle, Saxon, and Jute Germanic tribes during their invasions of the Roman Empire and Britain in the 5th century, has remained largely unchanged over time. The earliest form of a gallows was a tree on which prisoners were hanged. Despite the introduction of several modifications such as a trap door, the main mechanism of death remained asphyxiation. This created the opportunity for attempted revival after the execution, and indeed several well-known cases of survival following judicial hanging have been reported. It was not until the introduction of the standard drop by Dr. Samuel Haughton in 1866, and the so-called long drop by William Marwood in 1872 that hanging became a standard, humane means to achieve instantaneous death. Hangmen, however, fearing knot slippage, started substituting the subaural knot for the traditional submental knot. Subaural knots were not as effective, and cases of decapitation were recorded. Standardization of the long drop was further propagated by John Berry, an executioner who used mathematical calculations to estimate the correct drop length for each individual to be hanged. A British committee on capital sentences, led by Lord Aberdare, studied the execution method, and advocated for the submental knot. However, it was not until Frederic Wood-Jones published his seminal work in 1913 that cervical fractures were identified as the main mechanism of death following hanging in which the long drop and a submental knot were used. Schneider introduced the term "hangman's fracture" in 1965, and reported on the biomechanics and other similarities of the cervical fractures seen following judicial hangings and those caused by motor vehicle accidents.

  5. "Globalised sports in a historical perspective"

    OpenAIRE

    Christer Ericsson; Bjorn Horgby

    2010-01-01

    The great interest in Asia for European, male football is an expression of globalised sports. Here globalisation and processes of globalisation stands for the economical, social and cultural processes, which link and affect globally. Global capitalism created a world hegemony. As a consequence the hegemonic power of the western world (including Japan) until now will be the norm of interpretation. A precondition for the development of globalised sports as an industry of entertainment is the de...

  6. Globalised Sports in a Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Christer; Horgby, Björn

    2010-01-01

    The great interest in Asia for European, male football is an expression of globalised sports. Here globalisation and processes of globalisation stands for the economical, social and cultural processes, which link and affect globally. Global capitalism created a world hegemony. As a consequence the hegemonic power of the western world (including Japan) until now will be the norm of interpretation. A precondition for the development of globalised sports as an industry of entertainment is the de...

  7. Planetary geomorphology: Some historical/analytical perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, V. R.

    2015-07-01

    Three broad themes from the history of planetary geomorphology provide lessons in regard to the logic (valid reasoning processes) for the doing of that science. The long controversy over the origin of lunar craters, which was dominated for three centuries by the volcanic hypothesis, provides examples of reasoning on the basis of authority and a priori presumptions. Percival Lowell's controversy with geologists over the nature of linear markings on the surface of Mars illustrates the role of tenacity in regard to the beliefs of some individual scientists. Finally, modern controversies over the role of water in shaping the surface of Mars illustrate how the a priori method, i.e., belief produced according to reason, can seductively cloud the scientific openness to the importance of brute facts that deviate from a prevailing paradigm.

  8. Rocks From Space: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2013-10-01

    The notion that rocks could fall to Earth from space was not seriously considered until the early nineteenth century. The impact origin of the lunar craters reached a scientific consensus only in the mid twentieth century and a wide understanding that the Earth’s neighborhood is crowded with millions of near-Earth asteroids that could cause impact damage to Earth is less than a few decades old. In the late seventeenth century, even such notable scientists as Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton ruled out the existence of small bodies in space. In 1794, the German physicist and father of acoustics Ernst F.F. Chladni published a short list of fireball events and effectively argued that these events and the meteorites they dropped could not have been atmospheric and were likely due to cosmic rocks entering the Earth’s atmosphere. In 1802 the British chemist Edward Charles Howard showed that several meteoritic stones had similar chemical compositions and that nickel, which is seldom present in terrestrial rocks except in trace amounts, was common to all of them. These two pivotal works, along with a number of early nineteenth century falls, slowly strengthened the notion that fireball events and the stones they dropped were of celestial, rather than atmospheric, origin. Even so, it was well into the mid twentieth century before Meteor Crater in particular and the obvious lunar craters in general were widely considered as impact phenomena rather than being due to volcanic eruptions or steam generated explosions. It seems that despite Mother Nature’s best attempts to point out the importance of impact events in the solar system and the existence of a vast population of near-Earth asteroids, much of the scientific community reached these viewpoints rather late. Likely reasons for this slow acceptance of rocks from space will be discussed.

  9. An historical review and perspective of AINSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ophel, T.R. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Physics

    1998-12-31

    Full text: ANSTO was formed in 1958 as a cooperative venture of modest scope, involving the newly established AAEC (created by the Atomic Energy Act of 1953 with facilities at Lucas Heights being formally opened in 1955) and the eight universities that existed at the time. Research emphasis was very much nuclear, with the two reactors MOATA and HIFAR and possible future nuclear energy developments defining it. Two accelerators, added in the early sixties - the 3 MV Van de Graaff and the 1.3 MV electron machine, were to sustain those original activities of the AAEC. It would probably be true to say that AINSE in those early days placed much importance on the general support of nuclear science throughout Australia, whereas now of course the facilitation of the use of ANSTO facilities has become the main function. Thereafter, both AINSE and the AAEC have undergone dramatic change. The number of universities expanded to 19 in the late sixties, along with more support and encouragement for research at both the new institutions and the original group of eight. University use of Lucas Heights facilities, through the agency of AINSE, expanded and began to diversify somewhat into other disciplines - a trend that has continued apace ever since. In the nineties, the Dawkins revolution led to a doubling of the number of tertiary institutions, so that once again AINSE experienced a quantum jump in size, with of course matching complexity. In parallel, AAEC broadened its activities to embrace a wide range of nuclear and energy related areas, though basic research began to taper off. Finally, the organization was given a new charter in 1985 and re-named ANSTO. A much expanded university system, the `new` ANSTO, the rise of economic rationalism and the creation of the Australian Research Council have combined to provide a succession of challenges to AINSE. From the original small, club-like beginning with narrow interests, AINSE has emerged with more than a four-fold increase in membership, to foster research within almost all of the Faculties of those members

  10. Historical perspectives on health. Early Arabic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Harry

    2004-07-01

    The Arabian conquests during and after the 7th century led to a spread of Islam as well as the consequential influence of theology on health through the teachings of the Qur'an (Koran). Although traditional medicine was widely accepted and used, the character of early aggrandisement of Arabic medicine involved a facility for adapting and absorbing Graeco-Roman knowledge. The translation schools and libraries, famous in both the East and West, preserved and expanded the knowledge acquired. European academic learning owed much to the Arabs. Information came through Spain to Italy, France and, later on, England. The founding of hospitals, whilst not an Arab initiative, received a fillip from the religious prescriptions for care of the sick. The Military Orders developed specialist institutions for the sick, probably as a result of what they saw during their sojourn in the Middle East. The legacy of Arabic medical care is still with us today and deserves understanding and greater appreciation. PMID:15301318

  11. The ligament augmentation device: an historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K; Maffulli, N

    1999-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is the most common ligament injury in the knee, and a significant number of patients may develop progressive instability and disability despite aggressive rehabilitation. Various materials have been used for its reconstruction. These include autografts, allografts, prosthetic ligaments, and synthetic augmentation of the biological tissue. The concept of ligament augmentation device (LAD) arose from the observation that biological grafts undergo a phase of degeneration and loss of strength before being incorporated. The LAD is meant to protect the biological graft during this vulnerable phase. However, it provokes an inflammatory reaction in the knee, and has been found to delay maturation of autogenous graft in humans. In experimental situations, the LAD has been found to share loads in a composite graft. It has also been found to be substantially stronger than the biological graft. However, in clinical situations no significant advantages have been observed with the use of LAD to augment patellar tendon or hamstring reconstruction of the chronic ACL-deficient knee or in the acute setting to augment repair of the torn ACL. There are very few reports of the use of LAD in reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament, and again these do not suggest any advantage in its use. Insertion of the LAD implies the introduction of a foreign material into the knee, has been associated with complications such as reactive synovitis and effusions, and may also be associated with an increased risk of infection. At present, there is no evidence that its routine use should be advocated in uncomplicated reconstructions of the ACL using biological grafts. PMID:10355719

  12. Dimensions of historical empathy in upper secondary students’ essays

    OpenAIRE

    Arja Virta; Elena Kouki

    2014-01-01

    This article examines upper secondary school students’ understanding of historical empathy. The focus is on how and to what degree they displayed in their essays historical contextualisation, perspective taking and affective connection. The study was based on the essays written by 96 students, using resource-material that comprised background information and historical sources. The students reflected on the controversial issue of Finnish children who were sent to Sweden during World War II....

  13. O corpo problematizado de uma perspectiva histórico-política El cuerpo problematizado de una perspectiva histórico-política The problematized body from a political-historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Prado Filho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da produção histórico-política dos corpos dos indivíduos nas sociedades ocidentais modernas, perspectiva mais próxima das ciências sociais e humanas, que é diversa e crítica da clássica abordagem anatômico-fisiológica predominante no domínio das ciências naturais e da medicina. Esta reflexão, apoiada no pensamento de Michel Foucault, busca desnaturalizar uma abordagem do corpo centrada em seus elementos biológicos e anatomofisiológicos, para problematizar a sua construção em termos sociais, econômicos e políticos, além de estéticos, ao longo da história.Este artículo trata de la producción histórico-política de los cuerpos de los individuos en las sociedades occidentales modernas, perspectiva más próxima de las ciencias sociales y humanas, que es diversa y crítica del clásico abordaje anatómico-fisiológico predominante en el dominio de las ciencias naturales y de la medicina. Esta reflexión, apoyada en el pensamiento de Michel Foucault, busca desnaturalizar un abordaje del cuerpo centrado en sus elementos biológicos y anatomofisiológicos, para problematizar su construcción en términos sociales, económicos y políticos, además de estéticos, a lo largo de la historia.The bodies' historical and political production in individuals in modern Western societies is provided. Whereas above perspective is closer to the social and human sciences, it is different and critical to the anatomical and physiological approach predominant in the natural sciences and in medicine. Current analysis, based on Michel Foucault, denaturalizes an approach of the body centered on biological and anatomical-physiological elements and problematizes its construction in social, economical and political terms, besides aesthetical ones, throughout History.

  14. A historical perspective and prospects of biomedical research on parasitic diseases Uma perspectiva histórica e prospecções da pesquisa biomédica em doenças parasitárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto SIMÕES-BARBOSA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available We all hope that biotechnology will answer some social and economical unavoidable requirements of the modern life. It is necessary to improve agriculture production, food abundance and health quality in a sustainable development. It is indeed a hard task to keep the progress on taking into account the rational use of genetic resources and the conservation of biodiversity. In this context, a historical perspective and prospects of the biomedical research on parasitic diseases is described in a view of three generations of investigators. This work begins with a picture of the scientific progress on biomedical research and human health over the last centuries. This black-and-white picture is painted by dissecting current advancements of molecular biology and modern genetics, which are outlined at the meaning of prospecting achievements in health science for this new millenium.Espera-se que os grandes avanços da pesquisa de genomas alcancem saltos visíveis para a sobrevivência da humanidade dentro do contexto de sustentabilidade global. Vemos atualmente a necessidade imediata de incrementar a produção de alimentos e melhorar a qualidade de vida e saúde humana, mantendo a biodiversidade preservada. A biotecnologia é a utilização racional das ferramentas geradas pela biologia molecular e genética moderna que, dado ao grande avanço dessas áreas, poderá em breve responder essas novas questões. Este trabalho, escrito por três gerações de pesquisadores, inicia com uma perspectiva histórica da pesquisa biomédica em doenças parasitárias nos últimos séculos em nosso país. Em seguida, descrevemos os mais recentes avanços da biologia molecular e genética genômica. Ressaltamos a importância dessas novas conquistas dentro de uma prospecção da pesquisa biomédica deste século e seus possíveis impactos na saúde humana.

  15. 基于空间生产视角的历史街区改造困境--以汕头小公园历史街区为例%The Dilemma of Historic District Reconstruction Based on the Perspective of Space Production:A Case Study of Small Park Historic District of Shantou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁奇峰; 蔡天抒

    2016-01-01

    Small Park Historic District in Shantou is the result of urbanization under the joint efforts of Chaoshan overseas wage economy relfux and foreign investment in the early 20th century. With the city center drift, its commercial monopoly has been losing, and physical structure and social structure bidirectional are aging. Housing property fragmentation and expected earnings instability has made the space production of local ifnance and capital markets tend to the new district with lower transaction costs, but the old town is locked to the negative cycle. From improving living conditions to pursuing urban land revenue, Small Park District has gone through three stages of transformation: "must attack" type of house reconstruction, "into a iflm supporting" type of residential groups Construction and "major demolition and construction" type of space production. Finally the achievement effect is ift to market interests, so that Small Park District renovation under the auspices of the right and capital has become urban development activities with land beneift as the goal. This article, from the perspective of protective development dilemma of Small Park Historic District, discusses the deep contradictions between protection plan expected and the game of actual development.%汕头小公园历史街区是20世纪初潮汕华侨打工经济回流与外商投资共同推动城市化的结果。随着城市中心漂移,其商业垄断地位渐失,物质结构与社会结构双向老化。房屋产权细碎化,预期收益不稳定,使得地方财政与市场资本的空间生产均趋向交易成本较低的新区,旧城则被负向循环锁定。小公园街区从改善居住条件到追求城市土地收益,经历了“见缝插针”式的独栋危房改造、“成片配套”式的居住组团建设、“大拆大建”式的空间生产三个改造阶段,最终政绩效应与市场利益的契合使小公园街区的改造沦为权力和资本主导下以

  16. A perspectiva histórico-dialética da periodização do desenvolvimento infantil La perspective histórica-dialéctica de la periodización del desarrollo infantil Historic-dialectical perspective on child development stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Campregher Pasqualini

    2009-03-01

    éctico. Se presentan los períodos del desarrollo infantil provisoriamente identificados por Vigotski y, por fin, el análisis de Leontiev y Elkonin sobre la periodicidad del desarrollo en la infancia apoyada en el concepto de actividad rectora.This paper presents an analysis of the child development’s stages under the historic-cultural perspective. The principles and fundamentals which should support periodization of child development according to Vigotski are presented, seeking to highlight the historical and dialectical character of his propositions. The paper also briefly presents Leontiev and Elkonin important contributions to this issue. Initially, the importance of an historic approach to child development is discussed, emphasizing the relationship between child and society and the concrete historic conditions as determiners of the child development process. Then, the fundamentals of age periodization in child development proposed by Vigotski are introduced, pointing the relationship between his propositions and the principles of the dialectical method. Next, the periods of child development provisionally identified by Vigotski are presented, followed by Leontiev and Elkonin analysis of periodization in child development from the category of main activity.

  17. Dimensions of historical empathy in upper secondary students’ essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arja Virta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines upper secondary school students’ understanding of historical empathy. The focus is on how and to what degree they displayed in their essays historical contextualisation, perspective taking and affective connection. The study was based on the essays written by 96 students, using resource-material that comprised background information and historical sources. The students reflected on the controversial issue of Finnish children who were sent to Sweden during World War II. All the three dimensions of empathy were expressed at some level, but contextualisation was most often superficial. The dimension the students managed best was perspective taking, which was related to the affective dimension of the topic. They also applied psychological terminology to this historical issue. It could be concluded from the findings that students need instruments for and have interest in dealing with sensitive and affective historical issues

  18. Teorias econômicas de oferta de educação: evolução histórica, estado atual e perspectivas Economic theories of the supply of education: historical evolution, current state, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio D. Waltenberg

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo preocupa-se com uma faceta particular (o lado da oferta de uma das duas grandes linhas de pesquisa em economia da educação (aspectos econômicos dos sistemas educacionais. Apresentam-se a evolução histórica, o estado atual do debate e as perspectivas de desenvolvimento das teorias econômicas de oferta de educação, abarcando-se o período compreendido entre o início da década de 1960 e as contribuições mais recentes. Argumenta-se que as teorias tradicionais de economia da educação (capital humano e sinalização não deram tratamento adequado ao lado da oferta da educação. Mais tarde, os conceitos e o instrumental da microeconomia da firma foram mobilizados a fim de se tentar mapear a "tecnologia de produção de educação". A abordagem das funções de produção de educação, baseadas inicialmente apenas em insumos monetários, não foi suficiente para que se apreendesse toda a complexidade envolvida no processo de provisão de educação. Uma análise de artigos mais recentes revela três caminhos promissores para o desenvolvimento das teorias de oferta de educação: (i incluir insumos não monetários às funções de produção; (ii levar em consideração aspectos institucionais e organizacionais do sistema educativo; e (iii aprimorar as técnicas econométricas de estimação das funções de produção. Por fim, o artigo discute mais detidamente o primeiro desses três caminhos.The present article deals with a particular aspect (the side of the supply of one of the two main lines of research in the economics of education (economical aspects of educational systems. It shows the historical evolution, the current state, and the perspectives of development of the economic theories of education supply, covering the period from the early 1960s to the more recent contributions. It argues that the traditional theories of the economics of education (human capital and screening have not dealt adequately with the

  19. 历史人口学视角下的日本“近代家庭”论批判%Critical Essay on Japanese “Modern Family” Theory from the Perspective of Historical Demography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李书琴

    2015-01-01

    applied, the logic of sociology theory and methodology should be analyzed. As an indispensable element, individual action must be contained in sociology theory. Therefore, if we want to research family, we must not neglect the fundamental element of family, namely, the demography. This essay analyzes the presupposed hypothesis of “modern family” theory from the perspective of social history of family and historical demography.

  20. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether dem

  1. APRENDIZAJE, DESARROLLO Y EVALUACIÓN EN CONTEXTOS ESCOLARES: CONSIDERACIONES TEÓRICAS Y PRÁCTICAS DESDE EL ENFOQUE HISTÓRICOCULTURAL (LEARNING, DEVELOPMENT AND ASSESSMENT IN EDUCATIONAL CONTEXTS: THEORETICAL, METHODOLOGICAL ANDA PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS FROM A CULTURAL-HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Arocho Wanda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo se analiza la relación entre aprendizaje, desarrollo y evaluación en contextos educativos desde el enfoque históricocultural. Como método de trabajo se ha utilizado el análisis de discurso de las formulaciones teóricas originales del enfoque y una revisión de sus desarrollos actuales en investigaciones e intervenciones psicoeducativas. En el análisis, se identifican y se examinan conceptos centrales de este enfoque, paradójicamente poco discutidos, como es el caso del concepto unidad de análisis. Nuestro estudio revela una estrecha relación entre los procesos de aprendizaje (apropiación y dominio de artefactos y signos culturales, desarrollo (transformaciones en la conciencia y la subjetividad enraizadas en dinámicas históricoculturales y socioinstitucionales, y evaluación (herramienta que puede incidir sobre ambos procesos. Se presentan y discuten algunos ejemplos concretos de prácticas de evaluación que pueden promover el aprendizaje y el desarrollo. Se concluye que, desde el enfoque históricocultural, aprendizaje, desarrollo y evaluación, constituyen una unidad indivisible con serias implicaciones para las prácticas docentes y las investigaciones psicoeducativas. Estas implicaciones obligan a realizar una mirada crítica de las formas tradicionales de pensar y hacer evaluación en contextos educativos.Abstract: This essay analyzes the relationship between learning, development and assessment in educational contexts from a cultural-historical perspective. The methodological approach to analysis includes discourse analysis of the original theoretical formulations and a review of current developments in psychoeducational research and intervention. The analysis identifies and examines central concepts in the cultural-historical perspective, paradoxically not frequently discussed, as is the case with the concept of unit of analysis. Our analysis reveals a close relationship of interdependency between

  2. Cosmic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    2008-07-01

    1. Astronomy in ancient and medieval China Joseph Needham; 2. Indian astronomy: an historical perspective B. V. Subbarayappa; 3. Making of astronomy in ancient India Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya; 4. The impact of astronomy on the development of western science Jean-Claude Pecker; 5. Man and the Universe Hubert Reeves; 6. Understanding the Universe - challenges and directions in modern observational astronomy Harlan Smith, Jr: 7. Frontiers in cosmology Fred Hoyle; 8. Did the Universe originate in a big bang? Jayant Narlikar; 9. The dark matter problem Bernard Carr; 10. Geometry and the Universe C. V. Vishveshwara; 11. The origin and evolution of life Cyril Ponnamperuma; 12. The anthropic principle: self selection as an adjunct to natural selection Brandon Carter; 13. Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence Ivan Kelly, Roger Culver and Peter Loptson; 14. Astronomy and science fiction Allen Janis.

  3. Inverse perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Margaret

    2006-02-01

    This paper will discuss the potentiality towards a methodology for creating perceptual shifts in virtual reality (VR) environments. A perceptual shift is a cognitive recognition of having experienced something extra-marginal, on the boundaries of normal awareness, outside of conditioned attenuation. Definitions of perceptual shifts demonstrate a historical tradition for the wonder of devices as well as analyze various categories of sensory and optical illusions. Neuroscience and cognitive science attempt to explain perceptual shifts through biological and perceptual mechanisms using the sciences. This paper explores perspective, illusion and projections to situate an artistic process in terms of perceptual shifts. Most VR environments rely on a single perceptual shift while there remains enormous potential for perceptual shifts in VR. Examples of artwork and VR environments develop and present this idea.

  4. Performer rights and responsibilities in historical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irving John

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In April 2014, fortepianist and Mozart specialist John Irving recorded a CD of solo keyboard sonatas by Joseph Haydn, using a modern copy of a Viennese fortepiano of Haydn’s era. This is an account of the project written from the performer’s perspective, examining some relevant issues of historical performance practice, organology, and detailed reflections upon the performer’s preparations (of various musical and technical kinds for the recording.

  5. Durability of Silicate Glasses: An Historical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farges, Francois; /Museum Natl. Hist. Natur. /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci.; Etcheverry, Marie-Pierre; /Marne la Vallee U.; Haddi, Amine; /Marne la Valle U.; Trocellier,; /Saclay; Curti, Enzo; /PSI, Villigen; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2007-01-02

    We present a short review of current theories of glass weathering, including glass dissolution, and hydrolysis of nuclear waste glasses, and leaching of historical glasses from an XAFS perspective. The results of various laboratory leaching experiments at different timescales (30 days to 12 years) are compared with results for historical glasses that were weathered by atmospheric gases and soil waters over 500 to 3000 years. Good agreement is found between laboratory experiments and slowly leached historical glasses, with a strong enrichment of metals at the water/gel interface. Depending on the nature of the transition elements originally dissolved in the melt, increasing elemental distributions are expected to increase with time for a given glass durability context.

  6. Three Dimensions of Critique of Marxist Ideology and Historical Intervention of Cultural Micro Perspective--From the Perspective of Markus%马克思意识形态批判的三重向度与文化微观视域的历史性介入--从马尔库什的角度谈起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温权

    2016-01-01

    Markus takes it as his later day academic task to find out and sort out ideological theory scattered in Marxist classic statements. He classifies three characteristics of the critical pattern of Marxist ideology: firstly, debating-disclosing character through previous criticism of different phantom of ideas; secondly, explaining-functional character according to the analysis of the social root of the phantom; thirdly, critical-philosophical character rooted in a more general cultural perspective. There⁃fore, according to Marxist ideological critical system, Markus aims to construct a kind of trinity inter⁃pretational pattern of“idea-everyday life-culture”so as to realize a historical turn of Marxist ideolog⁃ical critique from macro dimension to micro one. This turn perfects Marxist ideological theory and be⁃comes a practical growing point for Markus in his modern cultural critique.%挖掘并梳理散见于马克思诸经典论断中的意识形态理论,是马尔库什后期一项重要的学术任务。借此,他大致归纳出马克思意识形态批判范式的三重特质:其一,通过抨击先前各种思想幻象所彰显出的论战-揭露性;其二,凭借分析这些幻象由以产生的社会根源而突显出的解释-功能性;其三,立足更为广泛的文化视角进而生发出的批判-哲学性。由此可见,针对马克思的意识形态批判体系,马尔库什旨在建构一种“思想-日常生活-文化”三位一体的解读模式,从而真正实现马克思意识形态批判范式从宏观维度向微观视域的历史性转向。值得一提的是,该转向在完善马克思意识形态理论的同时,又成为日后马尔库什进行现代文化批判的实践生长点。

  7. Possible consequences of increasing life expectancy in Brazil: the perspective of a European historical demographer Possíveis conseqüências da crescente longevidade no Brasil: perspectiva de um demógrafo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur E. Imhof

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available Those over sixty years of age accounted for 6.6% of the total population of Brazil in 1985, in the Federal Republic of Germany this proportion was 20.3% in 1984. As early as 1950 it had been 14.5%. This proportion will not even be reached in Brazil in the year 2000 when persons aged sixty years and older are only projected to make up 8.8% of the total population. Similarly, in 1982/84 life expectancy at birth in the Federal Republic was 70.8 years for men and 77.5 for women; in Brazil the figures for 1980/85 were, by contrast, "only" 61.0 and 66.0. Against this background it is easy to understand why the discussion concerning an ageing society with its many related medical, economic, individual and social problems has been so slow in coming into its own in Brazil. As important as a more intensive consideration of these aspects may be in Brazil at present, they are, nevertheless, only one side of the story. For a European historical demographer with a long-term perspective of three of four hundred years, the other side of the story is just as important. The life expectancy which is almost ten years lower in Brazil is not a result of the fact that no one in Brazil lives to old age. In 1981 people sixty-five years and older accounted for 34.4% of all deaths! At the same time infants accounted for only 22.1% of total mortality. They are responsible, along with the "premature" deaths among youths and adults, for the low, "average" life expectancy figure. In Europe, by contrast, these "premature" deaths no longer play much of a role. In 1982/84 more than half of the women (52.8% in the Federal Republic of Germany lived to see their eightieth birthdays and almost half of the men (47.3% lived to see their seventy-fifth. Our biological existence is guaranteed to an extent today that would have been unthinkable a few generations ago. Then, the classic troika of "plague, hunger and war" threatened our forefathers all the time and everywhere. The radical

  8. The Crisis in Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Sheikh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The crisis that is currently unfolding is unlike the recessions we have seen in previous decades and spells the end of an era. To gain an adequate understanding of such a watershed, we need to look at the crisis from a broad perspective. Otherwise we run the risk of merely looking at the symptoms rather than fundamental causes. This article first deals with structural economic imbalances that underpin the current crisis. Next it takes a more broad perspective by placing these imbalances in a social context that requires a reorientation. Finally, the prospects for such a reorientation are considered in the light of historical parallels.

  9. HISTORICAL-CRITICAL PEDAGOGY AND HISTORICAL-CULTURALPSYCHOLOGY: INFERENCES IN TEACHERSTRAININGAND WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhyane Ramos Haddad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the historical-critical pedagogy and historical-cultural psychology, also rehearses to make inferences for teacher training in Brazil. Therefore, was sought to theoretical base in authors such as Dermeval Saviani, Newton Duarte, Vygotsky, Leontiev, Ligia Marcia Martins, Marilda Facci, Marta Sforni. The historical-critical pedagogy postulates that the educational actis characterized by intentionality, aiming as objective the appropriation of knowledge systematized by the student. In the same sense, the historical- cultural psychology understands that the learning of knowledge scholarship is critical for the development of higher psychological functions. The good teaching in this perspective is the one that promotes the development of the individual that is always asocial and historical development. These approaches are confronting and overcoming the pedagogies of learning to learn that find their foundation in constructivism and who claim that more important than teaching or learning is to take the student to find ways to learn how to learn. The teacher’s job, according to these pedagogies, is of a learning facilitator, which has led to an undermining of their function and causing serious consequences for the teaching learning process of students in the classroom. Finally, this article points according to the marxist perspective the omnilateral defense of teachers training as an indispensable element for the progress toward the consolidation of a quality public education.

  10. The Bicentennial 1813-1815: Historical Importance and Historiographical Reflection

    OpenAIRE

    James Kennedy

    2015-01-01

    The editors of the BMGN-Low Countries Historical Review have asked three historians to reflect on the historical importance of 1813-1815 and in doing so to interact with existing historiographies in their fields. What emerges in these essays on Belgium, the Dutch East Indies and the Netherlands are three decidedly different perspectives on the ruptures, restoration and continuities of the Orangist regime with what preceded and what followed it. In his essay on th...

  11. Historical Topics in Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    This is a reprint of the historical capsules dealing with algebra from the 31st Yearbook of NCTM,"Historical Topics for the Mathematics Classroom." Included are such themes as the change from a geometric to an algebraic solution of problems, the development of algebraic symbolism, the algebraic contributions of different countries, the origin and…

  12. Creating Historical Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassler, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Describes creating for the National Archives Public Education Department a historical drama, "Second in the Realm," based on the story of the Magna Carta. Demonstrates the effectiveness of historical drama as a teaching tool. Explains the difficulties of writing such dramas and provides guidelines for overcoming these problems. (NL)

  13. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.;

    2012-01-01

    The chapter reviews a research programme that has demonstrated the existence of historically defined autobiographical periods and identified the conditions that bring them about. Data from four samples of World War II-generation adults show that historically defined autobiographical periods endure...

  14. HMI - historical flashback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure is based on a paper read at a HMI colloquium on 14 Juni 1993. The historical information is based on a detailed historical study published in book form under the title ''Industrial-scale Research in Berlin''. (orig./HSCH)

  15. Health and demography of native Amazonians: historical perspective and current status Saúde e demografia de povos indígenas amazônicos: perspectiva histórica e situação atual

    OpenAIRE

    Warren M. Hern

    1991-01-01

    Native Amazonians have been the victims of two massive historical assaults, one at the time of the Conquest and the other during the Twentieth century. Due to epidemic disease and environmental destruction, many tribes have gone from contact to displacement, decimation, and extinction in a single generation. Deculturation and the construction of large development projects have had catastrophic effects on native populations. In many ways, native Amazonians have experienced a reverse of the "Ep...

  16. The utility of the Historical Clinical Risk -20 Scale as a predictor of outcomes in decisions to transfer patients from high to lower levels of security-A UK perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Blattner Regine; Dolan Mairead

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Structured Professional Judgment (SPJ) approaches to violence risk assessment are increasingly being adopted into clinical practice in international forensic settings. The aim of this study was to examine the predictive validity of the Historical Clinical Risk -20 (HCR-20) violence risk assessment scale for outcome following transfers from high to medium security in a United Kingdom setting. Methods The sample was predominately male and mentally ill and the majority of cas...

  17. Taking Perspective: Context, Culture, and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo M.; Suárez-Orozco, Carola

    2013-01-01

    There are important lessons to be learned from taking a comparative perspective in considering migration. Comparative examination of immigration experiences provides a way to glean common denominators of adaptation while considering the specificity of sending and receiving contexts and cultures. Equally important is a historical perspective that…

  18. Households' ICT use in an energy perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2008-01-01

    some of the previous studies on ICT and energy and the consumption perspective is introduced. Secondly, the integration of ICT in everyday practices and the dynamics behind the changes are outlined, inspired by a historical perspective. Thirdly, a figure of the relationships between changing everyday...

  19. The historical supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David H

    2013-01-01

    The Historical Supernovae is an interdisciplinary study of the historical records of supernova. This book is composed of 12 chapters that particularly highlight the history of the Far East. The opening chapter briefly describes the features of nova and supernova, stars which spontaneously explode with a spectacular and rapid increase in brightness. The succeeding chapter deals with the search for the historical records of supernova from Medieval European monastic chronicles, Arabic chronicles, astrological works etc., post renaissance European scientific writings, and Far Eastern histories and

  20. History of Historical Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Schuyler

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available On Sunday April 19, 1998 Jean Carl Harrington (known to the profession as J.C. or "Pinky" Harrington passed away at his home in Richmond, Virginia. At 96 Harrington's life almost spanned the 20th century and did encompass the rise and establishment of professional Historical Archaeology in North America. Many consider Harrington to be the founder or "father" of Americanist Historical Archaeology. In 1936 he took over the newly created NPS-CCC project at Jamestown, Virginia and that event is arguably the inception of Historical Archaeology as an organized, scholarly discipline.

  1. Historical Survey Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To preserve NEFSC historical data, images of biological and oceanographic data sheets (1948-1975) were scanned to digital format and can be queried through a portal...

  2. Iowa Historic Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file represents Iowa Historic Cemeteries. Originally it was based on an Iowa DNR point file marking cemetery locations as found on 7.5 min. USGS quad...

  3. Historical Climatology Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Climatology Series (HCS) is a set of climate-related publications published by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center beginning in 1978. HCS is...

  4. Premier Hospital Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  5. National Health Expenditures - Historical

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA) are the official estimates of total health care spending in the United States. Historical spending measures annual...

  6. Into the Surge of Network-driven Innovation:Extending the Historical Framing of Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Østergaard, Claus Møller; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss; Gertsen, Frank; Lervang, Johan-Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    The ambition of this paper is to provide a better theoretical understanding of innovation by framing it in a long historical, economical, and societal perspective. The research question of the paper is: What characterize the historical surges of innovation? Based on previous works and research this is examined from the 1880’s up until today. The contribution of the paper is a societal perspective on innovation, where the difference between industrial society and knowledge society leads into t...

  7. Hormesis in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    There is now a large amount of data available for human beings showing positive hormetic effects of mild stresses from physical, chemical, nutritional and mental sources. However, these data are dispersed in the literature and not always interpreted as hormetic effects, thus restricting their ful...

  8. Exposure to Nanoparticles and Hormesis

    OpenAIRE

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Calabrese, Edward J.; Nascarella, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles are particles with lengths that range from 1 to 100 nm. They are increasingly being manufactured and used for commercial purpose because of their novel and unique physicochemical properties. Although nanotechnology-based products are generally thought to be at a pre-competitive stage, an increasing number of products and materials are becoming commercially available. Human exposure to nanoparticles is therefore inevitable as they become more widely used and, as a result, nanotox...

  9. Tumor Resistance Explained by Hormesis

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, Edward J.; Nascarella, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced drug (GDC 0449) resistance in a mouse model for human medulloblastoma is shown in the present paper to act via an hormetic response. This has significant implications, imposing constraints on the quantitative features of the dose response of the chemotherapeutic agent, affecting optimal study design, mechanism assessment strategy, potential for tumor rebound, patient relapse and disease outcome.

  10. Teaching about the Historical Jesus: Scholarship, Context, and Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Many young college students in Florida tend to view the image of Jesus exclusively from a theological perspective. That image is produced by church services, religious study groups, or popular culture--all of which use the Bible as their primary source. The historical figure of Jesus is essentially unknown to most students. When the best scholars…

  11. 从船山历史哲学的视角解读毛泽东的实践论%Interpretation of Mao Zedong' s Practice Theory from the Perspective of Wang Chuanshan' s Historical Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凤莲; 刘洋

    2011-01-01

    毛泽东的《实践论》是中国哲学史上认识论发展的一座里程碑,它在批判继承和发展传统哲学观的基础上,印上了船山历史哲学特点的烙印,比如:社会本体论、社会交易论和实践理性论等。同时,毛泽东早年理想人格的形成与船山历史哲学也有一定的渊源。这对于研究毛泽东“实践论”在中国革命实践和具体工作方法、领导方法中的运用具有重要的意义和作用。%Mao Zedong' s theory of practice is a milestone of the development of epistemology in Chinese history of philosophy. Based on its critical inheritance and carrying forward of the traditional philosophy, it also imprints the characteristics of Wang Chuanshan' s historical philosophy, such as the social ontology, social exchange theory and practical rationalism. There is also certain origin relation between the formation of Mao Zedong' s early ideal personality and Wang Chuanshan' s historical philosophy. The application of Mao Zedong' s practice theory is of vital importance in Chinese revolution and adopting the specific methods.

  12. Historical Development of Newton's Laws of Motion and Suggestions for Teaching Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wheijen; Bell, Beverley; Jones, Allister

    2014-01-01

    A review of the history of Newton's Laws of Motion illustrates that the historical development gradually shifted away from intuitive experiences and daily life conventions towards a scientific regulated perspective. Three stages of the historical development are discussed, i.e. prior to the Principia, the 3rd (last) edition of the Principia,…

  13. Developing Critical and Historical Thinking Skills in Middle Grades Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Scott M.; Robinson, Kirk S.

    2010-01-01

    The author describes a social studies unit designed to help students develop critical thinking skills. The lessons give students opportunities to analyze multiple perspectives, use multiple sources when conducting research, and construct historical narratives through the creation of a digital historical biography.

  14. Democratic Learning Processes: Conceptual and Historical Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle

    2009-01-01

    In this article democratic learning is conceptualised with inspiration from two academic traditions, one being the conceptions of citizenship, political identities and deliberative democracy in political sociology; the other theories and research on social and lifelong learning. The first part...... of the article outlines the authors' understanding of the core concepts involved. In the second part these conceptual discussions are related to two themes: the question of public adaptation of historical experiences in connection with the German reunification and the learning perspectives related to women......'s empowerment and inclusion in the Danish democratic model. On the background of these two analyses the authors finally discuss some current democratic problems with integrating the diversity represented by ethnic minority groups. The discussion emphasizes the learning theory perspective on the initiative...

  15. Marañón and historical social psychology: some theoretical questions.

    OpenAIRE

    Almagro González, Andrés

    2008-01-01

    If one takes a multidisciplinary, integrative perspective on historical social psychology, one sees that it is a vital thread not only in the theoretical weave of social psychology as such, but in any social science which studies the social being. The multidisciplinary character of historical social psychology is friendly to authors and ideas from other domains of knowledge. Marañón's insights suggest interesting ways of answering the main questions that arise in historical social psychology....

  16. Marañón and historical social psychology: some theoretical questions.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Almagro González

    2008-01-01

    If one takes a multidisciplinary, integrative perspective on historical social psychology, one sees that it is a vital thread not only in the theoretical weave of social psychology as such, but in any social science which studies the social being. The multidisciplinary character of historical social psychology is friendly to authors and ideas from other domains of knowledge. Marañón's insights suggest interesting ways of answering the main questions that arise in historical ...

  17. Social-Ecological Guilds: Putting People into Marine Historical Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry B. Crowder

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine historical ecology provides historic insights into past ocean ecosystems that are crucial to effectively confronting the declining health and resilience in marine ecosystems. A more 'peopled' approach to marine historical ecology is necessary, given the heightened emphasis on human dimensions in marine management. This study examined the historical ecology of Hawaiian coral reef ecosystems through oral histories of diverse ocean experts, representing six traditional, local, and scientific knowledge systems. Based on 61 in-depth interviews with these ocean experts, historical trends, abundance, and distribution over 80 years and a 50-mile region for 271 species emerged. Analyzing trends by ecological guild, e.g., herbivores, proved inappropriate to these data; rather, based on qualitative analyses, five distinct trends encompassing nearly all species emerged in what we term "social-ecological guilds." Ocean expert's observations of change were surprisingly consistent, regardless of their knowledge system, whereas perceptions of change varied widely. The historical picture was far broader and richer when the contributions of six knowledge systems were incorporated, compared to that of any one alone. Social-ecological guilds also matter critically from a management perspective, because understanding how experts from a multiplicity of perspectives observe, interpret, and respond to ecological change can help managers anticipate responses to management activities and perhaps to design better management strategies.

  18. Located historical cognition: syllabus expectations and teaching method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyso Germinari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research of qualitative nature has as objective to analyze how a group of elementary school’s teachers formulates its teaching method, under the perspective of located historical cognition. The theoretical and methodological presuppositions of the Historical Education are present in the teaching and learning conception of the State Syllabus Guidelines of History, referring to a located historical cognition. The syllabus affirms that the teachers’ pedagogic work has as purpose the formation of the students’ historical thought, through the historical conscience. In order to do that, it suggests the use of the historical investigation method in classroom, articulated by the historical narratives of the subjects. Based in the theoretical and methodological referential of the “methodological structuralism”, the investigation used standardized questionnaire and semi-structured interview applied to four teachers. The results indicate that the teachers use in their teaching method elements of the historical investigation, which is a practice that potentiates in the student the development of a cognition located in the science of history.

  19. 历史制度主义视域下我国城市街道办事处的制度变迁%Institutional Change of China's Urban Sub--district Office in the Perspective of Historical lnstitutionalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张西勇; 杨继武

    2012-01-01

    The institution of China's urban sub--district office has undergone three stages which include start--up and frustra- ted, rebuilt and strengthen, and reform and innovation. From the view of historical institutionalism, the institutional change of China's urban sub--district office is influenced by the macro--institutional environment and external dem- onstration. It tends to mutual restraint and influence among the introduction of new concepts, political actors and the institution of urban sub--district office. At the same time, the historical changes of the institution of urban sub--dis trict office appear the phenomenon of path dependence, but there are also "critical junctures" of institutional innova- tion. Therefore, in order to adapt to the new institutional environment, achieve institutional innovation and enhance institution performance, we must take full advantage of the "critical junctures" and actively promote the reform of ur- ban sub--district office.%我国城市街道办事处制度经历了初创和受挫、重建和强化以及改革和创新三个阶段。从历史制度主义的视角看,我国城市街道办事处的制度变迁受到宏观制度环境、外部示范效应的影响,新观念的引入、政治行动者与街道办事处制度之间呈现出相互制约和影响的态势;同时,我国街道办事处制度的历史变迁出现路径依赖现象,但也存在制度创新的“关键节点”。因此,必须充分把握“关键节点”,积极推进街道办事处改革,以适应新的制度环境,实现制度创新和提升制度绩效。

  20. The Construction of Advanced Gender Culture from the Perspective of Historical Materialism%唯物史观视域下的先进性别文化构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽红

    2016-01-01

    构建以男女平等为核心的社会主义先进性别文化,需要以马克思主义唯物史观为指导澄清其理论基础。唯物史观认为,作为社会意识的性别文化随着社会实践的发展而发展,先进性别文化构建是一个动态发展过程,需要超越性别对立的思维方式,以两性的全面发展为目标,充分发挥中华优秀传统文化的作用。在法律政策层面,正确把握自然性别与社会性别的关系;在社会生活层面,营造女性和谐的家庭与职业关系的文化氛围;在女性自身层面,处理好主体意识与性别角色的关系。%The construction of socialist advanced gender culture of male-female equality needs to clarify its theoretical basis with the guidance of Marx ’s historical materialism.According to the Historical materialism,gender culture,as a kind of social consciousness,should be developed in the pace of the development of practice.Constructing the advanced gender culture is a dynamic process, which needs to discard the Gender Opposition thinking mode,and set the comprehensive development of the two sexes as the goal,so as to give a full play to the role of the excellent Chinese traditional culture.In the aspect of the legal policy,the relationship between natural gender and social gender should be rightly grasped;in the aspect of social life,a cultural atmosphere of the female harmonious family and professional relations should be created;as to women themselves,subject consciousness and gender role should be wisely handled.