WorldWideScience

Sample records for horizontal loading test

  1. Horizontal loading test by whole model specimen simulating inner concrete structure of PWR type nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Noriyuki; Sekine, Masataka; Kimura, Kozo; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Tsuneo; Takeda, Toshikazu

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center has performed a horizontal loading test by a whole model specimen simulating the inner concrete structure of a PWR type nuclear power plant in order to investigate restoring force characteristics of reactor buildings. This report describes the results of examination of applicability to the test results of analysis methods based on elastic theory. The analysis results of elastic stiffness, concrete cracking load, rebar yielding loads and ultimate strength were compared with the test results. According to this examination, it is recognized that even these analysis methods based on elastic theory are comparatively effective for analysis of an inner concrete structure of fairly complex configuration, although there are limits of the scope of applicability. (author)

  2. Load Test in Sheet Pile

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Orlando Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    In this work, are discussed experiences in the use of mathematical modeling and testing in hydraulic engineering structures. For this purpose the results of load tests in sheet pile, evaluating horizontal and vertical deformations that occur in the same exposed. Comparisons between theoretical methods for calculating deformations and mathematical models based on the Finite Element Method are established. Finally, the coincidence between the numerical model and the results of the load test ful...

  3. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  4. Seismic fragility capacity of equipment--horizontal shaft pump test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, T.; Abe, H.; Suzuki, K.

    2005-01-01

    The current seismic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump is 1.6 x 9.8 m/s 2 (1.6 g), which was decided from previous vibration tests and we believe that it must have sufficient margin. The purpose of fragility capacity test is to obtain realistic seismic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump by vibration tests. Reactor Building Closed Cooling Water (RCW) Pump was tested as a typical horizontal shaft pump, and then bearings and liner rings were tested as important parts to evaluate critical acceleration and dispersion. Regarding RCW pump test, no damage was found, though maximum input acceleration level was 6 x 9.8 m/s 2 (6 g). Some kinds of bearings and liner rings were tested on the element test. Input load was based on seismic motion which was same with the RCW pump test, and maximum load was equivalent to over 20 times of design seismic acceleration. There was not significant damage that caused emergency stop of pump but degradation of surface roughness was found on some kinds of bearings. It would cause reduction of pump life, but such damage on bearings occurred under large seismic load condition that was equivalent to over 10 to 20 g force. Test results show that realistic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump would be at least four times as higher as current value which has been used for our seismic PSA. (authors)

  5. Statistical Estimation of Subgrade Reaction Coefficient For Horizontally Loaded Piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honjo, Yusuke; Zaika, Yulvi; Pokharel, Gyaneswor

    2002-01-01

    Appropriate horizontal subgrade reaction (k h ) is required to evaluate stress and displacement in horizontal loading pile. In order to obtain more accurate prediction of pile behavior, statistical analysis is employed. Based on 21 data set gathered on horizontal loading piles, inverse analysis and regression analysis are carried out. The main value and uncertainty are obtained by inverse analysis, could be employed in the regression analysis. The relationship between the lateral resistant constant (k c ) and SPT N value takes into account in correlated and uncorrelated condition. The results are compared with Port and Harbor Technical Research Institute (JPHA, 1999) and Japan Highway Bridge Specification IV (JRA, 1996). The computed values are found to be very close to the JPHA line and within the range of JRA lines in diameter 0.5 m and 2 m

  6. Modelling the pile load test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prekop Ľubomír

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modelling of the load test of horizontal resistance of reinforced concrete piles. The pile belongs to group of piles with reinforced concrete heads. The head is pressed with steel arches of a bridge on motorway D1 Jablonov - Studenec. Pile model was created in ANSYS with several models of foundation having properties found out from geotechnical survey. Finally some crucial results obtained from computer models are presented and compared with these obtained from experiment.

  7. Modelling the pile load test

    OpenAIRE

    Prekop Ľubomír

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the modelling of the load test of horizontal resistance of reinforced concrete piles. The pile belongs to group of piles with reinforced concrete heads. The head is pressed with steel arches of a bridge on motorway D1 Jablonov - Studenec. Pile model was created in ANSYS with several models of foundation having properties found out from geotechnical survey. Finally some crucial results obtained from computer models are presented and compared with these obtained from exper...

  8. An experimental study on the resistance and movement of short pile installed in sands under horizontal pullout load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Kyun Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the model tests were conducted on the short piles installed in sands under a horizontal pullout load to investigate their behavior characteristics. From the horizontal loading tests where dimensions of the pile diameter and length, and loading point were varied, the horizontal pullout resistance and the rotational and translational movement pattern of the pile were investigated. As a result, the horizontal pullout resistance of the pile embedded in sands was dependent on the pile length, diameter, loading point, etc. The ultimate horizontal pullout load tended to increase as the loading point (h/L moved to the bottom from the top of the pile, regardless of the ratio between the pile length and diameter (L/D, reached the maximum value at the point of h/L = 0.75, and decreased afterwards. When the horizontal pullout load acted on the upper part above the middle of the pile, the pile rotated clockwise and moved to the pullout direction, and the pivot point of the pile was located at 150–360mm depth below the ground surface. On the other hand, when the horizontal pullout load acted on the lower part of the pile, the pile rotated counterclockwise and travelled horizontally, and the rotational angle was very small.

  9. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  10. Inelastic response of PCRV structure model with star-type support under horizontal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takeda, T.

    1978-01-01

    The report presents the test results of scaled models for prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) structure with star-shaped support under horizontal loads. A scale factor of 1 / 70 to a proto-type PCRV structure for large HTGR is used for both static and dynamic loading test models, while a 1 / 15 scaled model is used for static loading tests. The static behaviors such as a load-deflection envelope of the 1 / 70 model are predicted well by an inelastic analysis in consideration with appearance of concrete cracks and reinforcing bar yielding. It is also ascertained by the test results of the 1 / 15 model under static alternative loads that the same analysis procedure can be applicable to the evaluation of the elastic and inelastic behaviors of PCRV structure with support. Based on the static loading test results of both scaled models, a tri-linearized load-deflection envelope and an equivalent linearized mathematical model for hysteresis loop are assumed in a dynamic analysis. A dynamic response analysis of the 1 / 70 model subjected to earthquake-like base motion is conducted by the similar manner above-mentioned and the calculated results show a good correlation with the test results

  11. Study on Performance of Steel Fiber Concrete Bridge Pier Specimens under Horizontal Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiben Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of that steel fiber can effectively prevent the extension and development of small cracks in the concrete, steel fiber reinforced concrete has good toughness and tensile strength. In the application of building materials, steel fiber reinforced concrete is an ideal elastic-plastic material. For the seismic performance, it has advantages. In order to analyze the seismic performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete, 4 piers of the scale model test under horizontal cyclic loading were done. The results showed that failure mode of steel fiber reinforced concrete is better than that of ordinary concrete, and has a large yield moment under the external loads.

  12. Validation of Simplified Load Equations Through Loads Measurement and Modeling of a Small Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana, Scott [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Dam, Jeroen J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-24

    As part of an ongoing effort to improve the modeling and prediction of small wind turbine dynamics, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) tested a small horizontal-axis wind turbine in the field at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine was a 2.1-kW downwind machine mounted on an 18-m multi-section fiberglass composite tower. The tower was instrumented and monitored for approximately 6 months. The collected data were analyzed to assess the turbine and tower loads and further validate the simplified loads equations from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-2 design standards. Field-measured loads were also compared to the output of an aeroelastic model of the turbine. In particular, we compared fatigue loads as measured in the field, predicted by the aeroelastic model, and calculated using the simplified design equations. Ultimate loads at the tower base were assessed using both the simplified design equations and the aeroelastic model output. The simplified design equations in IEC 61400-2 do not accurately model fatigue loads and a discussion about the simplified design equations is discussed.

  13. A method for evaluating horizontal well pumping tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langseth, David E; Smyth, Andrew H; May, James

    2004-01-01

    Predicting the future performance of horizontal wells under varying pumping conditions requires estimates of basic aquifer parameters, notably transmissivity and storativity. For vertical wells, there are well-established methods for estimating these parameters, typically based on either the recovery from induced head changes in a well or from the head response in observation wells to pumping in a test well. Comparable aquifer parameter estimation methods for horizontal wells have not been presented in the ground water literature. Formation parameter estimation methods based on measurements of pressure in horizontal wells have been presented in the petroleum industry literature, but these methods have limited applicability for ground water evaluation and are based on pressure measurements in only the horizontal well borehole, rather than in observation wells. This paper presents a simple and versatile method by which pumping test procedures developed for vertical wells can be applied to horizontal well pumping tests. The method presented here uses the principle of superposition to represent the horizontal well as a series of partially penetrating vertical wells. This concept is used to estimate a distance from an observation well at which a vertical well that has the same total pumping rate as the horizontal well will produce the same drawdown as the horizontal well. This equivalent distance may then be associated with an observation well for use in pumping test algorithms and type curves developed for vertical wells. The method is shown to produce good results for confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in the absence of delayed yield response. For unconfined aquifers, the presence of delayed yield response increases the method error.

  14. A systematic hub loads model of a horizontal wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazacoks, Romans; Jamieson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The wind turbine industry has focused offshore on increasing the capacity of a single unit through up-scaling their machines. There is however a lack of systematic studies on how loads vary due to properties of a wind turbine and scaling of wind turbines. The purpose of this paper is to study how applied blade modifications, with similarities such as mass, stiffness and dimensions, influence blade root moments and lifetime damage equivalent loads (DELs) of the rotor blades. In order to produce fatigue load blade root moment trends based on the applied modifications. It was found that a linear trend of lifetime DELs based on the applied modifications of blades, which have effect on the natural frequency of blade of the original or reference model. As the control system was tuned for the specific frequency of the reference model. The linear trend of lifetime DELs was generated as long as the natural frequency of the reference model was preserved. For larger modifications of the wind turbine the controller would need retuning

  15. Study of automatic boat loading unit and horizontal sintering process of uranium dioxide pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhongjing; Chen Yu; Yao Dengfeng; Wang Youliang; Shu Binhua; Wu Genjiu

    2014-01-01

    Sintering process is a key process for the manufacture of nuclear fuel UO_2 pellet. In our factory, the continuous high temperature sintering furnace is used for sintering process. During the sintering of green pellets, the furnace, the boat and the accumulation way can influence the quality of the final product. In this text, on the basis of early process research, The automatic loading boat Unit and horizontal sintering process is studied successively. The results show that the physical and chemical properties of the products manufactured by automatic loading boat unit and horizontal sintering process can meet the technique requirements completely, and this system is reliable and continuous. (authors)

  16. The use of GPS horizontals for loading studies, with applications to northern California and southeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahr, John; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; van Dam, Tonie

    2013-01-01

    of the horizontal motion, can help determine whether nearby loading is concentrated in a small region (for example, in a single lake or glacier), and where that region is. We illustrate this method by applying it to two specific cases: an analysis of GPS data from northern California to monitor the level of Lake......We describe how GPS measurements of horizontal crustal motion can be used to augment vertical crustal motion measurements, to improve and extend GPS studies of surface loading. We show that the ratio of the vertical displacement to the horizontal displacement, combined with the direction...... Shasta, and the analysis of data from a single GPS site in southeast Greenland to determine mass variability of two large, nearby outlet glaciers: Helheim Glacier and Midgaard Glacier. The California example serves largely as a proof-of-concept, where the results can be assessed by comparing...

  17. BEARING CAPACITY OF A HORIZONTALLY LOADED SINGLE PILE SUPPORT WITH SLEEPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buslov Anatoliy Semenovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The supports of a overhead wiring used in transport take up substantial loads both because of wires and constructions holding them and wind, dynamic and other extraordinary impacts. In case of using single-member piles a question about their stability appears. For this reason different sleepers constructions are used. In order to improve the bearing capacity of horizontally loaded single pile supports of the contact systems used in urban, road and rail transport, power lines, etc.., it is recommended to use sleepers as horizontally laid under the ground in the depth of support beams. The calculation methods for different support sleepers of different lengths and cross sections are not well investigated. The proposed calculation method allows determining the carrying capacity of horizontally loaded bearings with soil pieces of different structural dimensions and their location in the soil, which allows choosing the best option for cost and material consumption. The calculations offered by the authors prove the efficiency of sleepers use in order to increase the bearing capacity of horizontally loaded piles and the possibility to chose their size.

  18. Principal permeability determination from multiple horizontal well tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economides, M. [Texas A and M Univ., TX (United States); Munoz, A.; Ehlig-Economides, C.

    1998-12-31

    A method for obtaining principal permeability magnitudes and direction that requires only the linear flow regime from transient tests in three horizontal wells oriented in three distinct and arbitrary directions, is described. Well design optimization strategies require knowledge of both the principal permeability orientation as well as the horizontal permeability magnitudes. When the degree of horizontal permeability anisotropy (i.e. permeability in the bedding plane with respect to direction) is significant, the productivity of a long horizontal well will depend greatly on its direction, especially when the well is first brought into production. Productivities have been found to deviate substantially among wells in the same reservoir and this deviation has been attributed to differences in well orientation. In view of this fact, measuring permeability anisotropy becomes a compelling necessity. The success of the proposed method is illustrated by a case study in which the principal permeability magnitudes and direction from three wells were used to predict the productivity of a fourth well within 10 per cent. Use of the computed principal permeabilities from the case study, it was possible to forecast the cumulative production to show the significance of well trajectory optimization on the discounted cash flow and the net present value. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Stability of the Horizontal Curvature of the LHC Cryodipoles During Cold Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Cano, E D Fernandez; García-Pérez, J; Jeanneret, Jean Bernard; Poncet, A; Seyvet, F; Tovar-Gonzalez, A; Wildner, E; IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

    2006-01-01

    The LHC will be composed of 1232 horizontally curved, 15 meter long, superconducting dipole magnets cooled at 1.9 K. They are supported within their vacuum vessel by three Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy (GFRE) support posts. Each cryodipole is individually cold tested at CERN before its installation and interconnection in the LHC 27 km circumference tunnel. As the magnet geometry under cryogenic operation is extremely important for the LHC machine aperture, a new method has been developed at CERN in order to monitor the magnet curvature change between warm and cold states. It enabled us to conclude that there is no permanent horizontal curvature change of the LHC dipole magnet between warm and cold states, although a systematic horizontal transient deformation during cool-down was detected. This deformation generates loads in the dipole supporting system; further investigation permitted us to infer this behavior to the asymmetric thermal contraction of the rigid magnet thermal shield during cool-down. Controlli...

  20. Horizontal impact testing of quarter scale flasks using masonry targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufton, E.P.S.

    1985-01-01

    The programme leading up to the Train Crash Demonstration included investigation of flask impacts, in horizontal motion, against masonry targets representing abutment structures. An outline is given of a series of eight tests, of which five are described in detail. All the tests used quarter-scale flasks, and the design and construction of the appropriate brick and stone masonry targets is described. A summary of results is given in terms of damage to the model flask compared with the more severe damage seen in regulatory drop tests. (author)

  1. Correspondence Analysis of Soil around Micropile Composite Structures under Horizontal Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current approach, which is based on conformal transformation, is to map micropile holes in comparison with unit circle domain. The stress field of soil around a pile plane, as well as the plane strain solution to displacement field distribution, can be obtained by adopting complex variable functions of elastic mechanics. This paper proposes an approach based on Winkler Foundation Beam Model, with the assumption that the soil around the micropiles stemmed from a series of independent springs. The rigidity coefficient of the springs is to be obtained from the planar solution. Based on the deflection curve differential equation of Euler-Bernoulli beams, one can derive the pile deformation and internal force calculation method of micropile composite structures under horizontal load. In the end, we propose reinforcing highway landslides with micropile composite structure and conducting on-site pile pushing tests. The obtained results from the experiment were then compared with the theoretical approach. It has been indicated through validation analysis that the results obtained from the established theoretical approach display a reasonable degree of accuracy and reliability.

  2. The M-2 ocean tide loading wave in Alaska: vertical and horizontal displacements, modelled and observed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Scherneck, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    Crustal deformations caused by surface load due to ocean tides are strongly dependent on the surface load closest to the observing site. In order to correctly model this ocean loading effect near irregular coastal areas, a high-resolution coastline is required. A test is carried out using two GPS...

  3. Finite amplitude, horizontal motion of a load symmetrically supported between isotropic hyperelastic springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Millard F; Young, Todd R

    2012-03-01

    The undamped, finite amplitude horizontal motion of a load supported symmetrically between identical incompressible, isotropic hyperelastic springs, each subjected to an initial finite uniaxial static stretch, is formulated in general terms. The small amplitude motion of the load about the deformed static state is discussed; and the periodicity of the arbitrary finite amplitude motion is established for all such elastic materials for which certain conditions on the engineering stress and the strain energy function hold. The exact solution for the finite vibration of the load is then derived for the classical neo-Hookean model. The vibrational period is obtained in terms of the complete Heuman lambda-function whose properties are well-known. Dependence of the period and hence the frequency on the physical parameters of the system is investigated and the results are displayed graphically.

  4. Commissioning and operation of the horizontal test apparatus at SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL; Neustadt, Thomas S. [ORNL; Howell, Matthew P. [ORNL; Hannah, Brian S. [ORNL; Doleans, Marc [ORNL; Saunders, Jeffrey W. [ORNL

    2015-07-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) has built, commissioned and operated a Horizontal Test Apparatus (HTA) vessel in the Radiofrequency Test Facility (RFTF) test cave. It can be operated at 4.5 K using the independent Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF). The HTA is designed to be a single cavity version of an SNS cryomodule with the ability to demount and replace the cavity. It provides the functionality for testing a single dressed SNS medium or high beta Superconducting Radiofrequency (SRF) cavity. The HTA is currently being used in support of R&D for in-situ plasma processing of the cavity's inner niobium surface. The design and commissioning of the HTA at 4.5 K will be presented as well as results from operating the HTA including cool-down, warm-up and steady state operations. Results from plasma processing a warm SCRF cavity in-between cold HTA tests will also be reported.

  5. Report on full-scale horizontal cable tray fire tests, FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riches, W.M.

    1988-09-01

    In recent years, there has been much discussion throughout industry and various governmental and fire protection agencies relative to the flammability and fire propagation characteristics of electrical cables in open cable trays. It has been acknowledged that under actual fire conditions, in the presence of other combustibles, electrical cable insulation can contribute to combustible fire loading and toxicity of smoke generation. Considerable research has been conducted on vertical cable tray fire propagation, mostly under small scale laboratory conditions. In July 1987, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory initiated a program of full scale, horizontal cable tray fire tests, in the absence of other building combustible loading, to determine the flammability and rate of horizontal fire propagation in cable tray configurations and cable mixes typical of those existing in underground tunnel enclosures and support buildings at the Laboratory. The series of tests addressed the effects of ventilation rates and cable tray fill, fire fighting techniques, and effectiveness and value of automatic sprinklers, smoke detection and cable coating fire barriers in detecting, controlling or extinguishing a cable tray fire. This report includes a description of the series of fire tests completed in June 1988, as well as conclusions reached from the test results

  6. Acid loading test (pH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  7. Hydrodynamic loads of sea waves on horizontal elements of berths with wave quenching chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leshchenko Sergey Vladimirovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the process of hydraulic structures design, in particular berths with wave cancelling structures, which serve to decrease the wave impact on structures, there appears a problem of vertical wave hydrodynamic loads calculation on floor slabs. In the existing normative documents there are no requirements on calculating vertical wave loads on the horizontal floor slabs of open-type structures (enveloping, mooring, approach trestles, etc. and stairs of sloping-staired open-type structures. A mathematical model is proposed for calculation of the vertical wave loads on the floor slab through moorings. The model is based on the theory of jet impact on a solid surface. The width of the wave crest, striking in the overlap of the pier, and its vertical velocity is determined by the linear wave theory. The coefficient of transmission of waves through wave quenching chambers is calculated according to the previously developed methods. Vertical wave loading is adjusted based on the ratio of the wave length and width of the overlay. Model validation is performed according to the hydraulic modelling interaction of waves with through berths in the port of Tuapse. 7 variants of their design were considered. Data mapping mathematical and hydraulic modeling showed them a close match.

  8. Evaluation of resistance to horizontal loads and functional failure from impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça, P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the results of the serviciability and use condition tests carried on an innovative solution for partitions, designated AdjustMembrane developed within a research project. The proposed system is a modular non-loadbearing wall, tensioned between the pavements and ceiling slabs, which are used as anchoring elements. It allows several advantages, related with the weight reduction to achieve a good sustainable performance, such as the reduction of construction costs, energy, and materials, and it is easy to recycle and to reuse, allowing self-construction. Apart from a general presentation of the partition technology, this paper presents and discusses the results of experimental tests carried out. From the results obtained, it is possible to conclude that the solution fulfils the requirements for this typology of wall in terms of resistance to horizontal loads induced by soft and hard body impacts.En este trabajo se presentan y discuten los resultados de ensayos de condiciones de servicio y seguridad de uso de una solución innovadora para particiones interiores, designada por AdjustMembrane y desarrollada en un proyecto de investigación. El sistema propuesto es una solución de partición modular no estructural, tensada entre los forjados de piso y de techo, que se utilizan como elementos de anclaje. Permite varias ventajas, relacionadas con la reducción de peso para lograr buenos indicadores de sostenibilidad, tales como la reducción de los costos de construcción, energía y materiales. Es fácil de reciclar y reutilizar, lo que permite la auto-construcción. Además de una presentación general de la tecnología de pared desarrollada, se presentan y discuten los resultados de algunos ensayos experimentales efectuados. A partir de los resultados obtenidos fue posible concluir que la solución cumple con los requisitos de resistencia a cargas horizontales y daños funcionales por impacto de cuerpo duro y blando

  9. Field Test of Driven Pile Group under Lateral Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorska, Karolina; Rybak, Jaroslaw; Wyjadlowski, Marek

    2017-12-01

    All the geotechnical works need to be tested because the diversity of soil parameters is much higher than in other fields of construction. Horizontal load tests are necessary to determine the lateral capacity of driven piles subject to lateral load. Various load tests were carried out altogether on the test field in Kutno (Poland). While selecting the piles for load tests, different load combinations were taken into account. The piles with diverse length were chosen, on the basis of the previous tests of their length and integrity. The subsoil around the piles consisted of mineral soils: clays and medium compacted sands with the density index ID>0.50. The pile heads were free. The points of support of the “base” to which the dial gauges (displacement sensors) were fastened were located at the distance of 0.7 m from the side surface of the pile loaded laterally. In order to assure the independence of measurement, additional control (verifying) geodetic survey of the displacement of the piles subject to the load tests was carried out (by means of the alignment method). The trial load was imposed in stages by means of a hydraulic jack. The oil pressure in the actuator was corrected by means of a manual pump in order to ensure the constant value of the load in the on-going process of the displacement of the pile under test. On the basis of the obtained results it is possible to verify the numerical simulations of the behaviour of piles loaded by a lateral force.

  10. Numerical and Experimental Investigation on the Structural Behaviour of a Horizontal Stabilizer under Critical Aerodynamic Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sepe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the proposed research activity is to investigate the mechanical behaviour of a part of aerospace horizontal stabilizer, made of composite materials and undergoing static loads. The prototype design and manufacturing phases have been carried out in the framework of this research activity. The structural components of such stabilizer are made of composite sandwich panels (HTA 5131/RTM 6 with honeycomb core (HRH-10-1/8-4.0; the sandwich skins have been made by means of Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM process. In order to assess the mechanical strength of this stabilizer, experimental tests have been performed. In particular, the most critical inflight recorded aerodynamic load has been experimentally reproduced and applied on the stabilizer. A numerical model, based on the Finite Element Method (FEM and aimed at reducing the experimental effort, has been preliminarily developed to calibrate amplitude, direction, and distribution of an equivalent and simpler load vector to be used in the experimental test. The FEM analysis, performed by using NASTRAN code, has allowed modelling the skins of the composite sandwich plates by definition of material properties and stack orientation of each lamina, while the honeycomb core has been modelled by using an equivalent orthotropic plate. Numerical and experimental results have been compared and a good agreement has been achieved.

  11. 40 CFR 53.65 - Test procedure: Loading test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure: Loading test. 53.65... Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 § 53.65 Test procedure: Loading test. (a) Overview. (1) The loading tests are designed to quantify any appreciable changes in a candidate method sampler's...

  12. Temperature measurements from a horizontal heater test in G-Tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wunan; Ramirez, A.L.; Watwood, D.

    1991-10-01

    A horizontal heater test was conducted in G-Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, to study the hydrothermal response of the rock mass due to a thermal loading. The results of the temperature measurements are reported here. The measured temperatures agree well with a scoping calculation that was performed using a model which investigates the transport of water, vapor, air, and heat in fractured porous media. Our results indicate that the temperature field might be affected by the initial moisture content of the rock, the fractures in the rock, the distance from the free surface of the alcove wall, and the temperature distribution on the heater surface. Higher initial moisture content, higher fracture density, and cooling from the alcove wall tend to decrease the measured temperature. The temperature on top of the horizontal heater can was about 30 degrees C greater than at the bottom throughout most of the heating phase, causing the rock temperatures above the heater to be greater than those below. Along a radius from the center of the heater, the heating created a dry zone, followed by a boiling zone and condensation zone. Gravity drainage of the condensed water in the condensation zone had a strong effect on the boiling process in the test region. The temperatures below and to the side of the heater indicated a region receiving liquid drainage from an overlying region of condensation. We verified that a thermocouple in a thin-wall tubing measures the same temperature as one grouted in a borehole

  13. Characteristic Value Method of Well Test Analysis for Horizontal Gas Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of characteristic value method of well test analysis for horizontal gas well. Owing to the complicated seepage flow mechanism in horizontal gas well and the difficulty in the analysis of transient pressure test data, this paper establishes the mathematical models of well test analysis for horizontal gas well with different inner and outer boundary conditions. On the basis of obtaining the solutions of the mathematical models, several type curves are plotted with Stehfest inversion algorithm. For gas reservoir with closed outer boundary in vertical direction and infinite outer boundary in horizontal direction, while considering the effect of wellbore storage and skin effect, the pseudopressure behavior of the horizontal gas well can manifest four characteristic periods: pure wellbore storage period, early vertical radial flow period, early linear flow period, and late horizontal pseudoradial flow period. For gas reservoir with closed outer boundary both in vertical and horizontal directions, the pseudopressure behavior of the horizontal gas well adds the pseudosteady state flow period which appears after the boundary response. For gas reservoir with closed outer boundary in vertical direction and constant pressure outer boundary in horizontal direction, the pseudopressure behavior of the horizontal gas well adds the steady state flow period which appears after the boundary response. According to the characteristic lines which are manifested by pseudopressure derivative curve of each flow period, formulas are developed to obtain horizontal permeability, vertical permeability, skin factor, reservoir pressure, and pore volume of the gas reservoir, and thus the characteristic value method of well test analysis for horizontal gas well is established. Finally, the example study verifies that the new method is reliable. Characteristic value method of well test analysis for horizontal gas well makes the well test analysis

  14. Design of horizontal test cryostat for testing two 650 MHz cavities: cryogenic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, P.; Gilankar, S.; Kush, P. K.; Lakshminarayanan, A.; Choubey, R.; Ghosh, R.; Jain, A.; Patel, H.; Gupta, P. D.; Hocker, A.; Ozelis, J. P.; Geynisman, M.; Reid, C.; Poloubotko, V.; Mitchell, D.; Peterson, T. J.; Nicol, T. H.

    2017-02-01

    Horizontal Test Cryostat has been designed for testing two 650 MHz "dressed" Superconducting Radio Frequency (SCRF) cavities in a single testing cycle at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, India (RRCAT) in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA (FNAL). This cryostat will facilitate testing of two 5-cell 650 MHz SCRF cavities, in CW or pulsed regime, for upcoming High Intensity Superconducting Proton Accelerator projects at both countries. Two such HTS facilities are planned, one at RRCAT for Indian Spallation Neutron Source project (ISNS), which is on the horizon, and the other at FNAL, USA. A test cryostat, a part of horizontal test stand-2 (HTS-2) will be set up at RRCAT for Indian project. In order to maximize the utility of this facility, it can also be used to test two dressed 9-cell 1.3 GHz cavities and other similarly-sized devices. The facility assumes, as an input, the availability of liquid nitrogen at 80 K and liquid helium at 4.5 K and 2 K, with a refrigeration capacity of approximately 50 W at 2 K. Design work of cryostat has been completed and now procurement process is in progress. This paper discusses salient features of the cryostat. It also describes different design calculations and ANSYS analysis for cool down of few subsystems like cavity support system and liquid nitrogen cooled thermal radiation shield of horizontal test cryostat..

  15. Two-dimensional horizontal model seismic test and analysis for HTGR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takeshi; Honma, Toshiaki.

    1988-05-01

    The resistance against earthquakes of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) core with block-type fuels is not fully ascertained yet. Seismic studies must be made if such a reactor plant is to be installed in areas with frequent earthquakes. The paper presented the test results of seismic behavior of a half scale two-dimensional horizontal slice core model and analysis. The following is a summary of the more important results. (1) When the core is subjected to the single axis excitation and simultaneous two-axis excitations to the core across-corners, it has elliptical motion. The core stays lumped motion at the low excitation frequencies. (2) When the load is placed on side fixed reflector blocks from outside to the core center, the core displacement and reflector impact reaction force decrease. (3) The maximum displacement occurs at simultaneous two-axis excitations. The maximum displacement occurs at the single axis excitation to the core across-flats. (4) The results of two-dimensional horizontal slice core model was compared with the results of two-dimensional vertical one. It is clarified that the seismic response of actual core can be predicted from the results of two-dimensional vertical slice core model. (5) The maximum reflector impact reaction force for seismic waves was below 60 percent of that for sinusoidal waves. (6) Vibration behavior and impact response are in good agreement between test and analysis. (author)

  16. Effect of horizontal displacements due to ocean tide loading on the determination of polar motion and UT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherneck, Hans-Georg; Haas, Rüdiger

    We show the influence of horizontal displacements due to ocean tide loading on the determination of polar motion and UT1 (PMU) on the daily and subdaily timescale. So called ‘virtual PMU variations’ due to modelling errors of ocean tide loading are predicted for geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) networks. This leads to errors of subdaily determination of PMU. The predicted effects are confirmed by the analysis of geodetic VLBI observations.

  17. A Novel Repair Method for Radial Tears of the Medial Meniscus: Biomechanical Comparison of Transtibial 2-Tunnel and Double Horizontal Mattress Suture Techniques Under Cyclic Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; Civitarese, David M; Turnbull, Travis Lee; LaPrade, Christopher M; Nitri, Marco; Wijdicks, Coen A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-03-01

    Complete radial tears of the medial meniscus have been reported to be functionally similar to a total meniscectomy. At present, there is no consensus on an ideal technique for repair of radial midbody tears of the medial meniscus. Prior attempts at repair with double horizontal mattress suture techniques have led to a reportedly high rate of incomplete healing or healing in a nonanatomic (gapped) position, which compromises the ability of the meniscus to withstand hoop stresses. A newly proposed 2-tunnel radial meniscal repair method will result in decreased gapping and increased ultimate failure loads compared with the double horizontal mattress suture repair technique under cyclic loading. Controlled laboratory study. Ten matched pairs of male human cadaveric knees (average age, 58.6 years; range, 48-66 years) were used. A complete radial medial meniscal tear was made at the junction of the posterior one-third and middle third of the meniscus. One knee underwent a horizontal mattress inside-out repair, while the contralateral knee underwent a radial meniscal repair entailing the same technique with a concurrent novel 2-tunnel repair. Specimens were potted and mounted on a universal testing machine. Each specimen was cyclically loaded 1000 times with loads between 5 and 20 N before experiencing a load to failure. Gap distances at the tear site and failure load were measured. The 2-tunnel repairs exhibited a significantly stronger ultimate failure load (median, 196 N; range, 163-212 N) than did the double horizontal mattress suture repairs (median, 106 N; range, 63-229 N) (P = .004). In addition, the 2-tunnel repairs demonstrated decreased gapping at all testing states (P meniscus significantly decrease the ability of the meniscus to dissipate tibiofemoral loads, predisposing patients to early osteoarthritis. Improving the ability to repair medial meniscal radial tears in a way that withstands cyclic loads and heals in an anatomic position could significantly

  18. Experimental investigation of thermal loading of a horizontal thin plate using infrared camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the results of experimental investigations of the characteristics of thermal loading of a thin plate by discrete radiative heat sources. The carbon–steel thin plate is horizontally located above the heat sources. Temperature distribution of the plate is measured using an infrared camera. The effects of various parameters, such as the Rayleigh number, from 107 to 1011, the aspect ratio, from 0.05 to 0.2, the distance ratio, from 0.05 to 0.2, the number of heaters, from 1 to 24, the thickness ratio, from 0.003 to 0.005, and the thermal radiative emissivity, from 0.567 to 0.889 on the maximum temperature and the length of uniform temperature region on a thin plate are explored. The results indicate that the most effective parameters on the order of impact on the maximum temperature is Rayleigh number, the number of heat sources, the distance ratio, the aspect ratio, the surface emissivity, and the plate thickness ratio. Finally, the results demonstrated that there is an optimal distance ratio to maximize the region of uniform temperature on the plate.

  19. Crippling load test of Budd Pioneer Car 244, test 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This report summarizes Test 3, a crippling load test on Budd Pioneer Car 244, conducted on June 28, 2011. Before the crippling load test, Transportation Technology Center, Inc., conducted two 800,000-pound (lb) quasi-static tests on Car 244 in accord...

  20. Test method research on weakening interface strength of steel - concrete under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-wei; Zhang, Fang-hua; Su, Guang-quan

    2018-02-01

    The mechanical properties of steel - concrete interface under cyclic loading are the key factors affecting the rule of horizontal load transfer, the calculation of bearing capacity and cumulative horizontal deformation. Cyclic shear test is an effective method to study the strength reduction of steel - concrete interface. A test system composed of large repeated direct shear test instrument, hydraulic servo system, data acquisition system, test control software system and so on is independently designed, and a set of test method, including the specimen preparation, the instrument preparation, the loading method and so on, is put forward. By listing a set of test results, the validity of the test method is verified. The test system and the test method based on it provide a reference for the experimental study on mechanical properties of steel - concrete interface.

  1. Measurement of Unsteady Aerodynamics Load on the Blade of Field Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Yasunari; Maeda, Takao; Naito, Keita; Ouchi, Yuu; Kozawa, Masayoshi

    This paper describes an experimental field study of the rotor aerodynamics of wind turbines. The test wind turbine is a horizontal axis wind turbine, or: HAWT with a diameter of 10m. The pressure distributions on the rotating blade are measured with multi point pressure transducers. Sectional aerodynamic forces are analyzed from pressure distribution. Blade root moments are measured simultaneously by a pair of strain gauges. The inflow wind is measured by a three component sonic anemometer, the local inflow of the blade section are measured by a pair of 7 hole Pitot tubes. The relation between the aerodynamic moments on the blade root from pressure distribution and the mechanical moment from strain gauges is discussed. The aerodynamic moments are estimated from the sectional aerodynamic forces and show oscillation caused by local wind speed and direction change. The mechanical moment shows similar oscillation to the aerodynamic excepting the short period oscillation of the blade first mode frequency. The fluctuation of the sectional aerodynamic force triggers resonant blade oscillations. Where stall is present along the blade section, the blade's first mode frequency is dominant. Without stall, the rotating frequency is dominant in the blade root moment.

  2. Biaxial Loading Tests for steel containment vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagawa, T. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Wright, D.J.; Arai, S.

    1999-07-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has conducted a 1/10 scale of the steel containment vessel (SCV) test for the understanding of ultimate structural behavior beyond the design pressure condition. Biaxial Loading Tests were supporting tests for the 1/10 scale SCV model to evaluate the method of estimating failure conditions of thin steel plates under biaxial loading conditions. The tentative material models of SGV480 and SPV490 were obtained. And the behavior of SGV480 and SPV490 thin steel plates under biaxial loading conditions could be well simulated by FE-Analyses with the tentative material models and Mises constitutive law. This paper describes the results and the evaluations of these tests. (author)

  3. Biaxial Loading Tests for steel containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, T.; Wright, D.J.; Arai, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has conducted a 1/10 scale of the steel containment vessel (SCV) test for the understanding of ultimate structural behavior beyond the design pressure condition. Biaxial Loading Tests were supporting tests for the 1/10 scale SCV model to evaluate the method of estimating failure conditions of thin steel plates under biaxial loading conditions. The tentative material models of SGV480 and SPV490 were obtained. And the behavior of SGV480 and SPV490 thin steel plates under biaxial loading conditions could be well simulated by FE-Analyses with the tentative material models and Mises constitutive law. This paper describes the results and the evaluations of these tests. (author)

  4. Horizontal crash testing and analysis of model flatrols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowler, H.J.; Soanes, T.P.T.

    1985-01-01

    To assess the behaviour of a full scale flask and flatrol during a proposed demonstration impact into a tunnel abutment, a mathematical modelling technique was developed and validated. The work was performed at quarter scale and comprised of both scale model tests and mathematical analysis in one and two dimensions. Good agreement between model test results of the 26.8m/s (60 mph) abutment impacts and the mathematical analysis, validated the modelling techniques. The modelling method may be used with confidence to predict the outcome of the proposed full scale demonstration. (author)

  5. HEAT ENGINEERING TESTING OF AIR COOLING UNIT OF HORIZONTAL TYPE

    OpenAIRE

    Rohachov, Valerii Andriiovych; Semeniako, Oleksandr Volodymyrovych; Лазоренко, Р. О.; Середа, Р. М.; Parafeinyk, Volodymyr Petrovych

    2018-01-01

    The results of the thermal tests of the section of air cooler, the heat-exchange surface of which is made up of chess package of bimetal finned tubes are presented. The methods of research are presented, the experimental stand is described, the measurement errors are given. The efficiency of the experimental stand and the accuracy of the experimental data on it are confirmed. Proposed to use the stand for researches of air cooling units with other types and sections of finned tubes.

  6. Real-time simulation of aeroelastic rotor loads for horizontal axis wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnett, M; Wellenberg, S; Schröder, W

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine drivetrain research and test facilities with hardware-in-the-loop capabilities require a robust and accurate aeroelastic real-time rotor simulation environment. Recent simulation environments do not guarantee a computational response at real-time. Which is why a novel simulation tool has been developed. It resolves the physical time domain of the turbulent wind spectra and the operational response of the turbine at real-time conditions. Therefore, there is a trade-off between accuracy of the physical models and the computational costs. However, the study shows the possibility to preserve the necessary computational accuracy while simultaneously granting dynamic interaction with the aeroelastic rotor simulation environment. The achieved computational costs allow a complete aeroelastic rotor simulation at a resolution frequency of 100 Hz on standard computer platforms. Results obtained for the 5-MW reference wind turbine by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are discussed and compared to NREL's fatigue, aerodynamics, structures, and turbulence (FAST)- Code. The rotor loads show a convincing match. The novel simulation tool is applied to the wind turbine drivetrain test facility at the Center for Wind Power Drives (CWD), RWTH Aachen University to show the real-time hardware-in-the-loop capabilities

  7. Ice load reducer for dams : laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupien, R.; Cote, A.; Robert, A. [Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Many studies have focused on measuring static ice loads on various hydraulic structures in Canada. This paper discussed a Hydro-Quebec research project whose main purpose was to harmonize the ice thrust value in load combinations for use in general hydraulic works or for specific cases. The objectives of the project were to obtain a better understanding of existing data and to characterize sites and their influence on ice thrust; study the structural mechanisms involved in the generation of ice thrust, their consequences on the structural behaviour of ice and the natural mitigating circumstances that may be offered by ice properties or site operating procedures; and examine the relevance of developing an ice load reducer for works that might not fit the harmonized design value. The paper presented the main research goals and ice load reducer goals, with particular focus on the four pipe samples that were planned, built and tested. The experimental program involved checking the pipe shape behaviour in terms of flexibility-stiffness; maximum deformations; maximum load reduction; permanent deformations; and, ability to shape recovering. The testing also involved examining the strength versus strain rate; creep versus strain rate; and creep capacity under biaxial state of tension and compression. It was concluded that the two phenomena involved in generation of ice thrust, notably thermal expansion and water level changes, had very low strain rates. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  8. Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, S.; Kopelove, A.; Mills, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI

  9. Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, S.; Kopelove, A. [Quest Thermal Group, 6452 Fig Street Suite A, Arvada, CO 80004 (United States); Mills, G. L. [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp, 1600 Commerce Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI.

  10. Testing waste forms containing high radionuclide loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is obtaining information on radioactive waste during NRC-prescribed tests and in a disposal environment. This paper describes the resin solidification task of that program, including the present status and results to date. An unusual aspect of this investigation is the use of commercial grade, ion exchange resins that have been loaded with over five times the radioactivity normally seen in a commercial application. That dramatically increases the total radiation dose to the resins. The objective of the resin solidification task is to determine the adequacy of test procedures specified by NRC for ion exchange resins having high radionuclide loadings

  11. Evaluation of applicability of lead damper to 3-dimensional isolation system based on loading tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Akihiro

    2003-01-01

    To develop a damper for 3-dimensional base isolation system, horizontal and vertical mechanical properties, effect of loading frequency on vertical mechanical properties, coupled properties between horizontal and vertical directions, stability performance due to cyclic deformation are evaluated experimentally using scale models of lead damper originally developed for horizontal base isolation system. Loading test results are summarized as follows; 1) The lead damper has good vertical damping performance, in that the vertical yield load of the lead damper is three times as large as that for the horizontal direction, and the lead damper shows plastic behavior in the small deformation region. 2) The lead damper shows enough stability for static vertical displacement of ±40 mm. 3) the lead damper shows high stability performance for dynamic cyclic loading test using motions of isolation layer calculated by earthquake response analysis of FBR building subjected to S2-earthquake motion. Thus, applicability of the lead damper to 3-dimensional isolation system is shown from these results. (author)

  12. First cold test of TESLA superconducting RF cavity in horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminski, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the TESLA project, the horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA) was built to test a superconducting RF cavity equipped with its helium vessel, magnetic shielding, cold tuner, main coupler and higher order modes couplers under realistic conditions before final assembly of eight cavities into TESLA Test Facility cryo-module. The results of the first cold tests in CHECHIA, performed at DESY with a 9-cell cavity (C19) to be used in the TTF injector are presented. (author)

  13. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Design Load Cases Investigation and Comparison with Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galinos, Christos; Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies the applicability of the IEC 61400-1 ed.3, 2005 International Standard of wind turbine minimum design requirements in the case of an onshore Darrieus VAWT and compares the results of basic Design Load Cases (DLCs) with those of a 3-bladed HAWT. The study is based on aeroelastic...... computations using the HAWC2 aero-servo-elastic code A 2-bladed 5 MW VAWT rotor is used based on a modified version of the DeepWind rotor For the HAWT simulations the NREL 3-bladed 5 MW reference wind turbine model is utilized Various DLCs are examined including normal power production, emergency shut down...... and parked situations, from cut-in to cut-out and extreme wind conditions. The ultimate and 1 Hz equivalent fatigue loads of the blade root and turbine base bottom are extracted and compared in order to give an insight of the load levels between the two concepts. According to the analysis the IEC 61400-1 ed...

  14. Containment bellows testing under extreme loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splezter, B.L.; Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting several research programs to help develop validated methods for the prediction of the ultimate pressure capacity, at elevated temperatures, of light water reactor (LWR) containment structures. To help understand the ultimate pressure of the entire containment pressure boundary, each component must be evaluated. The containment pressure boundary consists of the containment shell and many access, piping, and electrical penetrations. The focus of the current research program is to study the ultimate behavior of flexible metal bellows that are used at piping penetrations. Bellows are commonly used at piping penetrations in steel containments; however, they have very few applications in concrete (reinforced or prestressed) containments. The purpose of piping bellows is to provide a soft connection between the containment shell and the pipe are attached while maintaining the containment pressure boundary. In this way, piping loads caused by differential movement between the piping and the containment shell are minimized. SNL is conducting a test program to determine the leaktight capacity of containment bellows when subjected to postulated severe accident conditions. If the test results indicate that containment bellows could be a possible failure mode of the containment pressure boundary, then methods will be developed to predict the deformation, pressure, and temperature conditions that would likely cause a bellows failure. Results from the test program would be used to validate the prediction methods. This paper provides a description of the use and design of bellows in containment piping penetrations, the types of possible bellows loadings during a severe accident, and an overview of the test program, including available test results at the time of writing

  15. A test section design to simulate horizontal two-phase air-water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccini, Jose Luiz H.; Cesar, Silvia B.G.; Coutinho, Jorge A.; Freitas, Sergio Carlos; Addor, Pedro N.

    2002-01-01

    In this work an air-water two-phase flow horizontal test section assembling at Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) is presented. The test section was designed to allow four-phase flow patterns to be simulated: bubble flow, stratified flow, wave flow and slug flow. These flow patterns will be identified by non-conventional ultrasonic techniques which have been developed to meet this particular application. Based on the separated flow and drift-flux models the test section design steps are shown. A description of the test section and its instrumentation and data acquisition system is also provided. (author)

  16. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Sioux County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  17. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Johnson County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  18. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Ida County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  19. A Similitude Theory for Bucket Foundations Under Monotonic Horizontal Load in Dense Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at finding force-displacement relationships to be employed in the design of bucket foundations for offshore wind turbine. This is accomplished by combining small-scale tests and element tests within a theoretical framework. A similitude theory, regarding the lateral displacement o...

  20. Full-scale horizontal cable-tray tests: Fire-propagation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    At the Fermi National Accelerator Center (Fermilab), as at any high-energy physics laboratory, the experimental program depends on complex arrays of equipment that require years to assemble and place in service. These equipment arrays are typically located in enclosed tunnels or experimental halls and could be destroyed by rapidly propagating, uncontrolled fire. Cable trays, both vertical and horizontal, are an integral and ubiquitous component of these installations. Concurrently, throughout industry and within the professional fire-fighting community, there has been concern over the flammability and fire propagation characteristics of electrical cables in open cable trays. While some information was available concerning fire propagation in vertical cable trays, little was known about fires in horizontal cable trays. In view of the potential for loss of equipment and facilities, not to mention the programmatic impact of a fire, Fermilab initiated a program of full-scale, horizontal cable-tray fire tests to determine the flammability and rate of horizontal fire propagation in cable-tray configurations and cable mixed typical of those existing in underground tunnel enclosures and support buildings as Fermilab. This series of tests addressed the effects of ventilation rates and cable-tray fill, fire-fighting techniques, and the effectiveness and value of automatic sprinklers, smoke detection, and cable-coating fire barriers in detecting, controlling, or extinguishing a cable-tray fire. Detailed descriptions of each fire test, including sketches of cable-tray configuration and contents, instrumentation, ventilation rates, Fermilab Fire Department personnel observations, photographs, and graphs of thermocouple readings are available in a report of these tests prepared by the Fermilab Safety Section

  1. First cold test of TESLA superconducting RF cavity in horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminski, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the TESLA project, the horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA) was built to test a superconducting RF cavity equipped with its helium vessel, magnetic shielding, cold tuner, main coupler and higher order modes couplers under realistic conditions before final assembly of eight cavities into TESLA Test Facility cryo-module. The results of the first cold tests in CHECHIA, performed at DESY with a 9-cell cavity (C19) to be used in the TTF injector are presented. Additional measurements of mechanical stability under RF operation (frequency variation with He pressure, Lorentz detuning) and cryogenic and electric measurements of power dissipation are presented. (author)

  2. 46 CFR 107.260 - Rated load test for cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rated load test for cranes. 107.260 Section 107.260... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.260 Rated load test for cranes. (a) To meet the requirements in § 107.231(l), each crane must meet the following rated load test at both the...

  3. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF INFILLED FRAMES UNDER HORIZONTAL LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan KARADUMAN

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seven steel frame systems which have different geometries were tested. One bay one story steel frame systems were filled with air-holed brick wall. The steel frames which were tested in the study have different span / height (L/H = 0.9, 1.2, 1.4 ratios. Each of the steel frames with different span/height ratio were tested under three different conditions, first the span was empty , in the second condition the span was filled with air holed brick wall and in the third condition the span was filled with air-holed brick wall with plaster. By applying lateral forces, lateral displacements, crack patterns, failure modes and ductility were investigated on the specimens.

  4. Extreme loads seismic testing of conduit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, G.E.; Ibanez, P.; Harrison, S.; Shi, Z.T.

    1991-01-01

    Rigid steel conduit (thin-wall tubes with threaded connections) containing electrical cabling are a common feature in nuclear power plants. Conduit systems are in many cases classified in U.S.A. practice as Seismic Category I structures. this paper summarizes results and others aspects of a dynamic test program conducted to investigate conduit systems seismic performance under three-axis excitation for designs representative at a nuclear power plant sited near Ft. Worth, Texas (a moderate seismic zone), with a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) of 0.12 g. Test specimens where subjected to postulated seismic events, including excitation well in excess of Safe Shutdown Earthquake events typical for U.S.A. nuclear power stations. A total of 18 conduit systems of 9-meter nominal lengths were shake table mounted and subjected to a variety of tests. None of the specimens suffered loss of load capacity when subjected to a site-enveloping Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). Clamp/attachment hardware failures only began to occur when earthquake input motion was scaled upward to minimum values of 2.3-4.6 times site enveloping SSE response spectra. Tensile and/or shear failure of clamp attachment bolts or studs was the failure mode in all case in which failure was induced. (author)

  5. Well completion report on installation of horizontal wells for in-situ remediation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Corey, J.C.; Wright, L.M.

    1989-08-01

    A project to drill and install two horizontal vapor extraction/air-injection wells at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina, was performed in September and October of 1988. This study was performed to test the feasibility of horizontal drilling technologies in unconsolidated sediments and to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air stripping of volatile organics from the ground water and unsaturated soils. A tremendous amount of knowledge was obtained during the drilling and installation of the two test wells. Factors of importance to be considered during design of another horizontal well drilling program follow. (1) Trips in and out of the borehole should be minimized to maintain hole stability. No reaming to enlarge the hole should be attempted. (2) Drilling fluid performance should be maximized by utilizing a low solids, low weight, moderate viscosity, high lubricity fluid. Interruption of drilling fluid circulation should be minimized. (3) Well materials should possess adequate flexibility to negotiate the curve. A flexible guide should be attached to the front of the well screen to guide the screen downhole. (4) Sands containing a minor amount of clay are recommended for completion targets, as better drilling control in the laterals was obtained in these sections

  6. Vertical and horizontal test results of 3.9-GHz accelerating cavities at FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabiboulline, T.; Edwards, H.; Foley, M.; Harms, E.; Hocker, James Andrew; Mitchell, D.; Rowe, A.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    The 3rd harmonic 3.9GHz accelerating cavity was proposed to improve the beam performance of the VUV FEL, FLASH. In the frame of a collaborative agreement, Fermilab will provide DESY with a cryomodule containing a string of four cavities. Seven 9-cell Nb cavities were tested and six of them did reach accelerating gradient up to 24 MV/m almost twice more than design value of 14 MV/m. Two of these cavities are with new HOM couplers with improved design. In this paper we present all results of the vertical and horizontal tests.

  7. Development of a load cell for mechanical testing in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, L.P.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanical testing in hydrogen environments is performed on materials to determine hydrogen compatibility. Many tests are performed on small test samples in pressure vessels where monitoring of actual sample load is difficult. A method was developed to monitor small samples by placing inside the vessel a miniature load cell which is capable of measuring loads of less than 100 lbs. The load cell monitors load by means of a Wheatstone Bridge circuit composed of four strain gages. Two of the gages are mounted on a stainless steel stub which becomes part of the vessel load string; the others are wired outside the pressure vessel. Previously, load cells have been short-lived because of hydrogen diffusion into the epoxy-phenolic adhesive used to attach the strain gages to the stub. The use of a flame-sprayed ceramic, however, rather than an organic epoxy to mount the strain gages appears to produce a load cell resistant to the hydrogen test environment

  8. The Unintentional Memory Load in Tests for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Margaret Hubbard

    The validity of certain standardized tests may be affected by the short-term memory load therein and its relation to a child's short-term memory capacity. Factors of testing which increase a test's memory load and consequently interfere with comprehension are discussed. It is hypothesized that a test which strains the short-term memory capacity of…

  9. Evaluation of load rejection to house load test at 50% power for UCN 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Gyun; Sohn, Suk Whun; Sohn, Jong Joo; Seo, Jong Tae; Lee, Sang Keun; Kim, Yong Sung; Nam, Kyu Won; Jung, Yang Mook; Chae, Kyeong Sik; Koh, Bum Jae; Oh, Chul Sung; Park, Hee Chool

    1998-01-01

    The Load Rejection to House Load test at 50% power was successfully performed during the UCN 3 PAT period. In this test, all plant control systems automatically controlled the plant from 50% power to house load operation mode. The KISPAC code, which was used in the performance analysis during the design process of UCN 3 and 4, predictions of the test agreed with the measured data demonstrating the validity of the code as well as completeness of the plant design

  10. 15 years of The Hungarian integral type test facility: horizontal SG related PMK-2 experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perneczky, L.; Ezsoel, G.; Guba, A.; Szabados, L.

    2001-01-01

    The PMK-2 experimental facility at the KFKI-AEKI, Budapest, is a full pressure, scaled down model of the primary and partly the secondary circuit of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant. This NPP is equipped with four VVER-440/213-type reactors. Such plants are slightly different from PWRs of usual design and have a number of special features as 6-loop primary circuit, horizontal steam generators, loop seal in hot and cold legs, setpoint pressure of passive safety injection tanks (SIT) higher than secondary pressure, etc. The PMK-2 was primarily designed for investigating operational and off-normal transient processes, as well as small-break loss of coolant accidents of Paks NPP. The volume and power scaling ratios are 1:2070. Due to the importance of gravitational forces in both single- and two-phase flow the elevation ratio is 1:1 except for the lower plenum and pressuriser. The six loops of the plant are modelled by a single active loop. Transients can be started from nominal operating conditions. The pressuriser (PRZ) is connected to the lower part of the hot leg as in the reference system. The core model consists of 19 electrically heated rods. The main circulating pump of the PMK-2 serves to produce the nominal operating conditions and to simulate the flow coast-down following pump trip. The horizontal design of the VVER-440 steam generator is modelled by horizontal heat transfer tubes between hot and cold vertical collectors in the primary side. The emergency core cooling systems including the SITs. High and low pressure injection systems of the Paks NPP are also modelled. The first design of the PMK-NVH facility only modelled the primary circuit of plant. This version was used until 1990. The PMK-2 facility is an upgraded version (first of all by addition of a controlled secondary heat removal system) extending the capability of the test loop to modelling transient processes evoked by initiating events in the secondary circuit or including accident sequences in

  11. Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...... in offshore pile foundations today....

  12. Model tests and numerical analyses on horizontal impedance functions of inclined single piles embedded in cohesionless soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goit, Chandra Shekhar; Saitoh, Masato

    2013-03-01

    Horizontal impedance functions of inclined single piles are measured experimentally for model soil-pile systems with both the effects of local soil nonlinearity and resonant characteristics. Two practical pile inclinations of 5° and 10° in addition to a vertical pile embedded in cohesionless soil and subjected to lateral harmonic pile head loadings for a wide range of frequencies are considered. Results obtained with low-to-high amplitude of lateral loadings on model soil-pile systems encased in a laminar shear box show that the local nonlinearities have a profound impact on the horizontal impedance functions of piles. Horizontal impedance functions of inclined piles are found to be smaller than the vertical pile and the values decrease as the angle of pile inclination increases. Distinct values of horizontal impedance functions are obtained for the `positive' and `negative' cycles of harmonic loadings, leading to asymmetric force-displacement relationships for the inclined piles. Validation of these experimental results is carried out through three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analyses, and the results from the numerical models are in good agreement with the experimental data. Sensitivity analyses conducted on the numerical models suggest that the consideration of local nonlinearity at the vicinity of the soil-pile interface influence the response of the soil-pile systems.

  13. Rapid pile load tests in the geotechnical centrifuge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.; Huy, N.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Centrifiige experiments were carried out to gain insight into the factors that affect the mobilized resistance during rapid load testing on piles in sand. The influence of generated pore water pressure during rapid load tests is shidied, and its effect on the commonly used unloadmg point method to

  14. Cone Penetrometer Load Cell Temperature and Radiation Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2013-08-28

    This report summarizes testing activities performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to verify the cone penetrometer load cell can withstand the tank conditions present in 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106. The tests demonstrated the load cell device will operate under the elevated temperature and radiation levels expected to be encountered during tank farm deployment of the device.

  15. Short Report Challenges with targeted viral load testing for medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges with targeted viral load testing 179. Malawi Medical ... targeted viral load (VL) testing for patients who have been on ART for at least .... Tuberculosis. 32. Community-acquired pneumonia. 17. Non-typhoidal Salmonella sepsis. 5. Bacterial meningitis. 5. Disseminated Kaposi sarcoma. 4. Cryptococcal meningitis. 4.

  16. CONSTRAINTS ON HELIUM ENHANCEMENT IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M3 (NGC 5272): THE HORIZONTAL BRANCH TEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catelan, M.; Valcarce, A. A. R.; Cortes, C.; Grundahl, F.; Sweigart, A. V.

    2009-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the presence of multiple populations showing various amounts of helium enhancement is the rule, rather than the exception, among globular star clusters. An important prediction of this helium enhancement scenario is that the helium-enhanced blue horizontal branch (HB) stars should be brighter than the red HB stars which are not helium enhanced. In this Letter, we test this prediction in the case of the Galactic globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272), for which the helium-enhancement scenario predicts helium enhancements of ∼>0.02 in virtually all blue HB stars. Using high-precision Stroemgren photometry and spectroscopic gravities for blue HB stars, we find that any helium enhancement among most of the cluster's blue HB stars is very likely less than 0.01, thus ruling out the much higher helium enhancements that have been proposed in the literature.

  17. Analysis of Static Load Test of a Masonry Arch Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing-xian; Fang, Tian-tian; Luo, Sheng

    2018-03-01

    In order to know whether the carrying capacity of the masonry arch bridge built in the 1980s on the shipping channel entering and coming out of the factory of a cement company can meet the current requirements of Level II Load of highway, through the equivalent load distribution of the test vehicle according to the current design specifications, this paper conducted the load test, evaluated the bearing capacity of the in-service stone arch bridge, and made theoretical analysis combined with Midas Civil. The results showed that under the most unfavorable load conditions the measured strain and deflection of the test sections were less than the calculated values, the bridge was in the elastic stage under the design load; the structural strength and stiffness of the bridge had a certain degree of prosperity, and under the in the current conditions of Level II load of highway, the bridge structure was in a safe state.

  18. Laboratory Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Hansen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical in the service......Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  19. WRAP TRUPACT loading systems operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOSRAMOS, E.V.

    1999-01-01

    This Operational Test Report documents the operational testing of the TRUPACT process equipment HNF-3918, Revision 0, TRUPACT Operational Test Procedure. The test accomplished the following: Procedure validation; Facility equipment interface; Facility personnel support; and Subcontractor personnel support interface. Field changes are documented as test exceptions with resolutions. All resolutions are completed or a formal method is identified to track the resolution through to completion

  20. [Necessity of repeated roll test in horizontal semicircular canalithasis positioned diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H H; Zhao, Y; Chen, T S; Xu, K X; Wang, W; Liu, Q; Wen, C; Li, S S; Li, X J; Han, X; Lin, P

    2016-04-07

    To investigate the influence of repeated roll test in horizontal semicircular canalithasis(HSC-Can) positioned diagnosis, so as to investigate the cecessity of repeated roll test. The patients with a chief complaint of positional vertigo accepted two consecutive cycles roll test, the evoked nystagmus characteristics of each cycle recorded by video-nystagmuograph(VNG), whose direction, intensity, time and other parameters characteristics were analyzed in 51 HSC-Can. Horizontal nystagmus in the same direction with turning were induced in HSC-Can roll test. In 51 HSC-Can, roll test cycle 1 and cycle 2 induced nystagmus same strength side in 26 cases(51.0%), of which 19 cases with stronger nystagmus intensity in cycle 2, another 7 cases were weaker; the opposite strength side of the two loops induced nystagmus, and cycle 1 evoked nystagmus intensity were weaker than cycle 2, based on cycle 2 results determined HSC-Can affected side in 25 cases (49.0%). Lesion and normal side in cycle 1 induced nystagmus duration (x±s, the same below) were (13.4±11.5)s and (14.1±9.9)s, respectively intensity (18.1±22.4)°/s and (13.0±12.0)°/s; as in cycle 2 induced nystagmus duration was (20.7±10.2)s and (18.0±12.0)s, strength respectively(40.4±28.0)°/s and (15.6 ±11.2)°/s. Cycle 2 ipsilateral rotor position evoked nystagmus showed longer duration and stronger intensity than cycle 1. Between two cycle induced ipsilateral nystagmus duration, intensity differences were statistically significant (t values were -4.233 and -5.154, P=0.000). 51 HSC-Can patients, 44 patients selected repositioning maneuver, after 1-2 times of maneuver, 41 cases (93.2%) showed complete resolution of symptoms, all cases's symptoms were improved; other 7 patients selected medication only. The proposed suspicious HSC-Can patients should receive at least two cycles roll test, and mainly in the second cycle could determine the location of the responsible semicircular canals.

  1. Probabilistic model of bridge vehicle loads in port area based on in-situ load testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jianren; Wang, Rei; Yan, Yanhong

    2017-11-01

    Vehicle load is an important factor affecting the safety and usability of bridges. An statistical analysis is carried out in this paper to investigate the vehicle load data of Tianjin Haibin highway in Tianjin port of China, which are collected by the Weigh-in- Motion (WIM) system. Following this, the effect of the vehicle load on test bridge is calculated, and then compared with the calculation result according to HL-93(AASHTO LRFD). Results show that the overall vehicle load follows a distribution with a weighted sum of four normal distributions. The maximum vehicle load during the design reference period follows a type I extremum distribution. The vehicle load effect also follows a weighted sum of four normal distributions, and the standard value of the vehicle load is recommended as 1.8 times that of the calculated value according to HL-93.

  2. Performance of a 2-megawatt high voltage test load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, D.; Kustom, R.; Ferguson, M.

    1995-01-01

    A high-power, water-cooled resistive load which simulates the electrical load characteristics of a high-power klystron, capable of 2 megawatts dissipation at 95 kV DC, was built and installed at the Advanced Photon Source for use in load-testing high voltage power supplies. During this testing, the test load has logged approximately 35 hours of operation at power levels in excess of one mezawatt. Slight variations in the resistance of the load during operation indicate that leakage currents in the cooling water may be a significant factor affecting the performance of the load. Sufficient performance data have been collected to indicate that leakage current through the deionized (DI) water coolant shunts roughly 15 percent of the full-load current around the load resistor elements. The leakage current could cause deterioration of internal components of the load. The load pressure vessel was disassembled and inspected internally for any signs of significant wear and distress. Results of this inspection and possible modifications for improved performance will be discussed

  3. Structural Test and Analysis of RC Slab After Fire Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chulhun; Im, Cho Rong; Park, Jaegyun

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the behavior of fire and the residual strength of fire-ignited RC slabs are investigated by experimental tests and numerical simulations. The fire tests of RC slabs were carried out in a furnace using the ISO 834 standard fire. The load capacity of the cooled RC slabs that were not loaded during the fire tests was evaluated by additional 3 point bending tests. The influence of the proportion of PP (polypropylene) fibers in the RC slabs on the structural behavior of the RC slabs after the fire loading was investigated. The results of the fire tests showed that the maximum temperature of concrete with PP fiber was lower than that of concrete without PP fiber. As the concrete was heated, the ultimate compressive strength decreased and the ultimate strain increased. The load-deflection relations of RC slabs after fire loading were compared by using existing stress-strain-temperature models. The comparison between the numerical analysis and the experimental tests showed that some numerical analyses were reliable and therefore, can be applied to evaluate the ultimate load of RC slabs after fire loading. The ultimate load capacity after cooling down the RC slabs without PP fiber showed a considerable reduction from that of the RC slabs with PP fiber

  4. Structural Test and Analysis of RC Slab After Fire Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chulhun; Im, Cho Rong; Park, Jaegyun [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In the present study the behavior of fire and the residual strength of fire-ignited RC slabs are investigated by experimental tests and numerical simulations. The fire tests of RC slabs were carried out in a furnace using the ISO 834 standard fire. The load capacity of the cooled RC slabs that were not loaded during the fire tests was evaluated by additional 3 point bending tests. The influence of the proportion of PP (polypropylene) fibers in the RC slabs on the structural behavior of the RC slabs after the fire loading was investigated. The results of the fire tests showed that the maximum temperature of concrete with PP fiber was lower than that of concrete without PP fiber. As the concrete was heated, the ultimate compressive strength decreased and the ultimate strain increased. The load-deflection relations of RC slabs after fire loading were compared by using existing stress-strain-temperature models. The comparison between the numerical analysis and the experimental tests showed that some numerical analyses were reliable and therefore, can be applied to evaluate the ultimate load of RC slabs after fire loading. The ultimate load capacity after cooling down the RC slabs without PP fiber showed a considerable reduction from that of the RC slabs with PP fiber.

  5. Proof load testing of reinforced concrete bridges: Experience from a program of testing in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantsoght, E.O.L.

    2017-01-01

    For existing bridges with large uncertainties, analytical methods have limitations. Therefore, to reduce these uncertainties, field testing of a bridge can be used. A type of such a field test is a proof load test, in which a load equivalent to the factored live load is applied. If the bridge can

  6. Evaluation of Load Rejection to house load test at 50% power for UCN 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Gyun; Sohn, Suk Whun; Sohn, Jong Joo; Seo, Jong Tae; Lee, Sang Keun [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Sung; Nam, Kyu Won; Jung, Yang Mook; Chae, Kyeong Sik; Koh, Bum Jae; Oh, Chul Sung; Park, Hee Chool [Korea Electric Power Corporation, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    The Load Rejection to House Load test at 50% power was successfully performed during the UCN 3 PAT period. In this test, all plant control systems automatically controlled the plant from 50% power to house load operation mode. The KISPAC code, which was used in the performance analysis during the design process of UCN 3 and 4, predictions of the test agreed with the measured data demonstrating the validity of the code as well as the completeness of the plant design. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  7. Evaluation of Load Rejection to house load test at 50% power for UCN 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Gyun; Sohn, Suk Whun; Sohn, Jong Joo; Seo, Jong Tae; Lee, Sang Keun [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Sung; Nam, Kyu Won; Jung, Yang Mook; Chae, Kyeong Sik; Koh, Bum Jae; Oh, Chul Sung; Park, Hee Chool [Korea Electric Power Corporation, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The Load Rejection to House Load test at 50% power was successfully performed during the UCN 3 PAT period. In this test, all plant control systems automatically controlled the plant from 50% power to house load operation mode. The KISPAC code, which was used in the performance analysis during the design process of UCN 3 and 4, predictions of the test agreed with the measured data demonstrating the validity of the code as well as the completeness of the plant design. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  8. High-Frequency Axial Fatigue Test Procedures for Spectrum Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    cycle runout limit. PURPOSE 2. To develop the capability to perform High-Frequency (H-F) Spectrum Fatigue tests, an in- house Basic and...response of the test specimen to the command input signal for load cycling . These cycle -by- cycle errors accumulate over the life of the test specimen...fatigue life model. It is expected that the cycle -by- cycle P-V error may vary substantially depending on the load spectrum content, the compensation

  9. Testing for time-varying loadings in dynamic factor models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jakob Guldbæk

    Abstract: In this paper we develop a test for time-varying factor loadings in factor models. The test is simple to compute and is constructed from estimated factors and residuals using the principal components estimator. The hypothesis is tested by regressing the squared residuals on the squared...... there is evidence of time-varying loadings on the risk factors underlying portfolio returns for around 80% of the portfolios....

  10. Full-scale load tests of Pearl-Chain arches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2017-01-01

    -Decks: First an investigation of the system’s elastic response (maximum load of 648kN), and second a demonstration of its collapse mechanism and ultimate capacity (maximum load of 970kN). The full-scale test showed formation of plastic hinges and clear warning signs are observed at 84% of the failure load......A full-scale load test is made of two Pearl-Chain (PC) concrete arches in order to evaluate the structural response and assess the design safety. Pearl-Chain structures and Pearl-Chain arches are invented and patented at the Technical University of Denmark. PC-Arches consist of specially designed....... The ultimate, experimental load capacity is 14% higher than the calculated mainly due to the assumed static system used for the calculation. In addition to the full-scale test bridge the first ever permanent PC-Bridge is erected in Denmark in 2015....

  11. Structural response testing of thermal barrier load bearing ceramic pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, J.L.; Black, W.E.; Luci, R.K.; Oland, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    A load-bearing insulating structure for use in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) was investigated. The structure was composed of dense ceramic materials in the form of circular pads arranged in a stack. Specifically, the test program was structured to investigate the isolation effectiveness of interface materials placed between the ceramic pads to reduce the effectiveness of mechanically induced loads. The tests were conducted at room temperature using tapered loading platens on single ceramic pads. Seventeen alumina specimens, representing two types of material and two thicknesses, were tested. Three interface material thicknesses were introduced using silica cloth and graphite foil. Pre- and post-test nondestructive examinations were conducted in an effort to identify potential damage-inducing anomalies in the ceramic pads. A total of 62 tests was conducted with all specimens eventually loaded to failure

  12. Testing of Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles with Applied Overburden Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    Small-scale tests have been conducted for the purpose of investigating the quasi-static behaviour of laterally loaded, non-slender piles installed in cohesionless soil. For that purpose, a new and innovative test setup has been developed. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank...... such that it was possible to apply an overburden pressure to the soil. Hereby, the traditional uncertainties related to low effective stresses for small-scale tests has been avoided. A scaling law for laterally loaded piles has been proposed based on dimensional analysis. The novel testing method has been validated against...... the test results by means of the scaling law....

  13. Testing of Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles with Applied Overburden Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Foglia, Aligi

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale tests have been conducted to investigate the quasi-static behaviour of laterally loaded, non-slender piles installed in cohesionless soil. For that purpose, a new and innovative test setup has been developed. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank such that it was possible...... to apply an overburden pressure to the soil. As a result of that, the traditional uncertainties related to low effective stresses for small-scale tests have been avoided. A normalisation criterion for laterally loaded piles has been proposed based on dimensional analysis. The test results using the novel...... testing method have been compared with the use of the normalisation criterion....

  14. Efficient field testing for load rating railroad bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jeffrey L.; Brett C., Commander

    1995-06-01

    As the condition of our infrastructure continues to deteriorate, and the loads carried by our bridges continue to increase, an ever growing number of railroad and highway bridges require load limits. With safety and transportation costs at both ends of the spectrum. the need for accurate load rating is paramount. This paper describes a method that has been developed for efficient load testing and evaluation of short- and medium-span bridges. Through the use of a specially-designed structural testing system and efficient load test procedures, a typical bridge can be instrumented and tested at 64 points in less than one working day and with minimum impact on rail traffic. Various techniques are available to evaluate structural properties and obtain a realistic model. With field data, a simple finite element model is 'calibrated' and its accuracy is verified. Appropriate design and rating loads are applied to the resulting model and stress predictions are made. This technique has been performed on numerous structures to address specific problems and to provide accurate load ratings. The merits and limitations of this approach are discussed in the context of actual examples of both rail and highway bridges that were tested and evaluated.

  15. Laboratory Test Setup for Cyclic Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive description and the considerations regarding the design of a new laboratory test setup for testing cyclic axially loaded piles in sand. The test setup aims at analysing the effect of axial one-way cyclic loading on pile capacity and accumulated displacements....... Another aim was to test a large diameter pile segment with dimensions resembling full-scale piles to model the interface properties between pile and sand correctly. The pile segment was an open-ended steel pipe pile with a diameter of 0.5 m and a length of 1 m. The sand conditions resembled the dense sand...... determined from the API RP 2GEO standard and from the test results indicated over consolidation of the sand. Two initial one-way cyclic loading tests provided results of effects on pile capacity and accumulated displacements in agreement with other researchers’ test results....

  16. Testing waste forms containing high radionuclide loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is obtaining information on radioactive waste during NRC-prescribed tests and in a disposal environment. This paper describes the resin solidification task of that program, including the present status and results to date

  17. Constraints on helium enhancement in the globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121): The horizontal branch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcarce, A. A. R.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Física, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Centro de Astroingeniería, Av. Vicuña Mackena 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Alonso-García, J. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Av. Vicuña Mackena 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Cortés, C. [Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Departamento de Física, Av. José Pedro Alessandri 774, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-02-20

    Recent pieces of evidence have revealed that most, and possibly all, globular star clusters are composed of groups of stars that formed in multiple episodes with different chemical compositions. In this sense, it has also been argued that variations in the initial helium abundance (Y) from one population to the next are also the rule, rather than the exception. In the case of the metal-intermediate globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121), recent high-resolution spectroscopic observations of blue horizontal branch (HB) stars (i.e., HB stars hotter than the RR Lyrae instability strip) suggest that a large fraction of blue HB stars are second-generation stars formed with high helium abundances. In this paper, we test this scenario by using recent photometric and spectroscopic data together with theoretical evolutionary computations for different Y values. Comparing the photometric data with the theoretically derived color-magnitude diagrams, we find that the bulk of the blue HB stars in M4 have ΔY ≲ 0.01 with respect to the cluster's red HB stars (i.e., HB stars cooler than the RR Lyrae strip)—a result which is corroborated by comparison with spectroscopically derived gravities and temperatures, which also favor little He enhancement. However, the possible existence of a minority population on the blue HB of the cluster with a significant He enhancement level is also discussed.

  18. Constraints on helium enhancement in the globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121): The horizontal branch test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcarce, A. A. R.; De Medeiros, J. R.; Catelan, M.; Alonso-García, J.; Cortés, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent pieces of evidence have revealed that most, and possibly all, globular star clusters are composed of groups of stars that formed in multiple episodes with different chemical compositions. In this sense, it has also been argued that variations in the initial helium abundance (Y) from one population to the next are also the rule, rather than the exception. In the case of the metal-intermediate globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121), recent high-resolution spectroscopic observations of blue horizontal branch (HB) stars (i.e., HB stars hotter than the RR Lyrae instability strip) suggest that a large fraction of blue HB stars are second-generation stars formed with high helium abundances. In this paper, we test this scenario by using recent photometric and spectroscopic data together with theoretical evolutionary computations for different Y values. Comparing the photometric data with the theoretically derived color-magnitude diagrams, we find that the bulk of the blue HB stars in M4 have ΔY ≲ 0.01 with respect to the cluster's red HB stars (i.e., HB stars cooler than the RR Lyrae strip)—a result which is corroborated by comparison with spectroscopically derived gravities and temperatures, which also favor little He enhancement. However, the possible existence of a minority population on the blue HB of the cluster with a significant He enhancement level is also discussed.

  19. Assessment of Replacement Bridge using Proof Load Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundru, Saibabu

    2017-11-01

    This work begins with an overview of the condition assessment of old bridge and explained reasons for demolishing of the bridge. Briefly presented flexural analysis of two stage post-tensioned prestressed concrete girder, which will be replace the old (new bridge). Construction of I-girder and composite girder at first stage and second stage prestressing respectively is explained with figures. Assessment of the load-caring capacity of the one span of the replacement bridge with simple supports using proof load test is presented which is mandatory according to Indian standards. Weighted sand bags were used to load the bridge up to a predetermined service load with impact factor. Deflections of the I-girders of the bridge were measured at selected locations along and across the bridge span and compared with computed values. Linear response was observed during loading and unloading. Considering the load test results, theoretical estimation and criteria as stipulated in codes of practice, it can be inferred that prestressed concrete I-girder bridge span has adequate capacity to carry the loads and hence, deemed to have passed the test.

  20. APPLICATION OF STEEL PIPE PILE LOADING TESTS TO DESIGN VERIFICATION OF FOUNDATION OF THE TOKYO GATE BRIDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Osamu; Kiyomiya, Osamu; Yoneyama, Haruo; Kawakami, Taiji

    Steel sheet pipe pile foundations with large diameter steel pipe sheet pile were used for the foundation of the main pier of the Tokyo Gateway bridge. However, as for the large diameter steel pipe pile, the bearing mechanism including a pile tip plugging effect is still unclear due to lack of the practical examinations even though loading tests are performed on Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway. In the light of the foregoing problems, static pile loading tests both vertical and horizontal directions, a dynamic loading test, and cone penetration tests we re conducted for determining proper design parameters of the ground for the foundations. Design parameters were determined rationally based on the tests results. Rational design verification was obtained from this research.

  1. Fluctuations of angle of attack and lift coefficient and the resultant fatigue loads for a large horizontal axis wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaeiha, A.; Pereira, R.; Kotsonis, M.

    2017-01-01

    Unsteady loads are a major limiting factor for further upscaling of HAWTs considering the high costs associated to strict structural requirements. Alleviation of these unsteady loads on HAWT blades, e.g. using active flow control (AFC), is of high importance. In order to devise effective AFC

  2. Drop Test Results of CRDM under Seismic Loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Kim, Gyeong-Ho; Sun, Jong-Oh; Huh, Hyung

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the test results to demonstrate the drop performance of CRDM under seismic loads. The top-mounted CRDM driven by the stepping motor for Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) has been developed in KAERI. The CRDM for JRTR has been optimized by the design improvement based on that of the HANARO. It is necessary to verify the drop performance under seismic loads such as operating basis earthquake (OBE) and safe shutdown earthquake (SSE). Especially, the CAR drop times are important data for the safety analysis. confirm the drop performance under seismic loads. The delay of drop time at Rig no. 2 due to seismic loads is greater than that at Rig no. 3. The total pure drop times under seismic loads are estimated as 1.169 and 1.855, respectively

  3. Drop Test Results of CRDM under Seismic Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Kim, Gyeong-Ho; Sun, Jong-Oh; Huh, Hyung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper describes the test results to demonstrate the drop performance of CRDM under seismic loads. The top-mounted CRDM driven by the stepping motor for Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) has been developed in KAERI. The CRDM for JRTR has been optimized by the design improvement based on that of the HANARO. It is necessary to verify the drop performance under seismic loads such as operating basis earthquake (OBE) and safe shutdown earthquake (SSE). Especially, the CAR drop times are important data for the safety analysis. confirm the drop performance under seismic loads. The delay of drop time at Rig no. 2 due to seismic loads is greater than that at Rig no. 3. The total pure drop times under seismic loads are estimated as 1.169 and 1.855, respectively.

  4. New modelling of transient well test and rate decline analysis for a horizontal well in a multiple-zone reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Ren-Shi; Guo, Jian-Chun; Jia, Yong-Lu; Zhu, Shui-Qiao; Rao, Zheng; Zhang, Chun-Guang

    2011-01-01

    The no-type curve with negative skin of a horizontal well has been found in the current research. Negative skin is very significant to transient well test and rate decline analysis. This paper first presents the negative skin problem where the type curves with negative skin of a horizontal well are oscillatory. In order to solve the problem, we propose a new model of transient well test and rate decline analysis for a horizontal well in a multiple-zone composite reservoir. A new dimensionless definition of r D is introduced in the dimensionless mathematical modelling under different boundaries. The model is solved using the Laplace transform and separation of variables techniques. In Laplace space, the solutions for both constant rate production and constant wellbore pressure production are expressed in a unified formula. We provide graphs and thorough analysis of the new standard type curves for both well test and rate decline analysis; the characteristics of type curves are the reflections of horizontal well production in a multiple-zone reservoir. An important contribution of our paper is that our model removed the oscillation in type curves and thus solved the negative skin problem. We also show that the characteristics of type curves depend heavily on the properties of different zones, skin factor, well length, formation thickness, etc. Our research can be applied to a real case study

  5. Experimental investigation of thermal-hydraulic performance of PCCS with horizontal tube heat exchangers: single U-tube test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hideo; Anoda, Yoshinari; Arai, Kenji; Kurita, Tomohisa

    2000-01-01

    JAERI and JAPC started a cooperative study to verify performance of a PCCS (Passive Containment Cooling System) using horizontal heat exchanger for next-generation BWR in 1998. A test facility with a horizontal single U-tube was constructed in JAERI in 1999 to investigate fundamental condensation behavior under influences of non-condensable gas. Preliminary pre-test analyses were performed using RELAP5/ MOD3.2.1.2 code to expect the experimental outcomes by incorporating a correlation for condensation degradation because of non-condensable gas by Ueno et al. for better prediction. Preliminary results from both experiments (shakedown) and pre-test analyses indicated that the PCCS using horizontal U-tube heat exchanger is promising. Steam generated under assumed severe accident conditions; steam generation rate approx. = 1% core power, non-condensable gas concentration of 1% and simulated containment vessel pressure of 0.7 MPa, was totally condensed with a small differential pressure across inlet and outlet plenum. Experimental data will be accumulated to develop models and correlations for a better prediction of responses of the PCCS using horizontal heat exchanger during postulated severe accidents. (author)

  6. Test Procedure for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test procedure described in the following is used when examining the effects of static or cyclic loading on the skin friction of an axially loaded pile in dense sand. The pile specimen is only loaded in tension to avoid any contribution from the base resistance. The pile dimensions are chosen...... to resemble full scale dimension of piles used in offshore pile foundations today. In this report is given a detailed description of the soil preparation and pile installation procedures as well data acquisition methods....

  7. COTRANSA simulation of Chinshan unit one generator load rejection test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    A simulation of the plant behavior during a BWR generator load rejection transient using Exxon Nuclear Company's COTRANSA code is presented in this paper. The results are compared to measurements obtained by Taiwan Power Company during a generator load rejection transient, initiated at full power condition, which was one of the Chinshan Unit 1 initial cycle startup tests. Good agreement between the COTRANSA predicted and the measured values, indicates that the COTRANSA code can simulate this transient satisfactorily

  8. Small-Scale Testing of Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    of small-scale laboratory tests. Six quasi-static tests are conducted on piles with diameters of 40mm and 100mm and a slenderness ratio, L/D, of 5. To minimise scale effects, the tests are carried out in a pressure tank at various stress levels. From the obtained load-deflection relationships......In current designs of offshore wind turbines, monopiles are often used as foundation. The behaviour of the monopoles when subjected to lateral loading has not been fully investigated. In this paper, the behaviour of two non-slender piles in sand subjected to lateral loading are analysed by means...... it is revealed that the uncertainties of the results for the pile with a diameter of 40mm are large. The load-deflection relationships normalised as H/(L2Dγ’) and y/D indicate that the lateral load, H, is proportional to L2D. Comparison of the normalised load-deflection relationships for different stress levels...

  9. FEM simulation of static loading test of the Omega beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílý, Petr; Kohoutková, Alena; Jedlinský, Petr

    2017-09-01

    The paper deals with a FEM simulation of static loading test of the Omega beam. Omega beam is a precast prestressed high-performance concrete element with the shape of Greek letter omega. Omega beam was designed as a self-supporting permanent formwork member for construction of girder bridges. FEM program ATENA Science was exploited for simulation of load-bearing test of the beam. The numerical model was calibrated using the data from both static loading test and tests of material properties. Comparison of load-displacement diagrams obtained from the experiment and the model was conducted. Development of cracks and crack patterns were compared. Very good agreement of experimental data and the FEM model was reached. The calibrated model can be used for design of optimized Omega beams in the future without the need of expensive loading tests. The calibrated material model can be also exploited in other types of FEM analyses of bridges constructed with the use of Omega beams, such as limit state analysis, optimization of shear connectors, prediction of long-term deflections or prediction of crack development.

  10. Progressive Abduction Loading Therapy with Horizontal-Plane Viscous Resistance Targeting Weakness and Flexion Synergy to Treat Upper Limb Function in Chronic Hemiparetic Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael D; Carmona, Carolina; Drogos, Justin; Dewald, Julius P A

    2018-01-01

    Progressive abduction loading therapy has emerged as a promising exercise therapy in stroke rehabilitation to systematically target the loss of independent joint control (flexion synergy) in individuals with chronic moderate/severe upper-extremity impairment. Preclinical investigations have identified abduction loading during reaching exercise as a key therapeutic factor to improve reaching function. An augmentative approach may be to additionally target weakness by incorporating resistance training to increase constitutive joint torques of reaching with the goal of improving reaching function by "overpowering" flexion synergy. The objective was, therefore, to determine the therapeutic effects of horizontal-plane viscous resistance in combination with progressive abduction loading therapy. 32 individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke were randomly allocated to two groups. The two groups had equivalent baseline characteristics on all demographic and outcome metrics including age (59 ± 11 years), time poststroke (10.1 ± 7.6 years), and motor impairment (Fugl-Meyer, 26.7 ± 6.5 out of 66). Both groups received therapy three times/week for 8 weeks while the experimental group included additional horizontal-plane viscous resistance. Quantitative standardized progression of the intervention was achieved using a robotic device. The primary outcomes of reaching distance and velocity under maximum abduction loading and secondary outcomes of isometric strength and a clinical battery were measured at pre-, post-, and 3 months following therapy. There was no difference between groups on any outcome measure. However, for combined groups, there was a significant increase in reaching distance (13.2%, effect size; d  = 0.56) and velocity (13.6%, effect size; d  = 0.27) at posttesting that persisted for 3 months and also a significant increase in abduction, elbow extension, and external rotation strength at posttesting that did not persist 3

  11. Project W320 52-inch diameter equipment container load test: Test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellomy, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    This test report summarizes testing activities and documents the results of the load tests performed on-site and off-site to structural qualify the 52-inch equipment containers designed and fabricated under Project W-320

  12. Standard test method for measuring rolling friction characteristics of a spherical shape on a flat horizontal plane

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the use of an angled launch ramp to initiate rolling of a sphere or nearly spherical shape on a flat horizontal surface to determine the rolling friction characteristics of a given spherical shape on a given surface. 1.1.1 Steel balls on a surface plate were used in interlaboratory tests (see Appendix X1). Golf balls on a green, soccer and lacrosse balls on playing surfaces, bowling balls on an a lane, basketballs on hardwood, and marbles on composite surface were tested in the development of this test method, but the test applies to any sphere rolling on any flat horizontal surface. 1.1.2 The rolling friction of spheres on horizontal surfaces is affected by the spherical shape’s stiffness, radius of curvature, surface texture, films on the surface, the nature of the counterface surface; there are many factors to consider. This test method takes all of these factors into consideration. The spherical shape of interest is rolled on the surface of interest using a standard ramp to...

  13. Load Testing of GFRP Composite U-Shape Footbridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrzowski, Łukasz; Miśkiewicz, Mikołaj; Chróścielewski, Jacek; Wilde, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the scope of load tests carried out on an innovative shell composite footbridge. The tested footbridge was manufactured in one production cycle and has no components made from materials other than GFRP laminates and PET foam. The load tests, performed on a 14-m long structure, were the final stage of a research program in the Fobridge project carried out in cooperation with: Gdańsk University of Technology (leader), Military University of Technology in Warsaw, and ROMA Co. Ltd.; and co-financed by NCBR. The aim of the tests was to confirm whether the complex U-shape sandwich structure behaves correctly. The design and technological processes involved in constructing this innovative footbridge required the solving of many problems: absence of standards for design of composite footbridges, lack of standardized material data, lack of guidelines for calculation and evaluation of material strength, and no guidelines for infusion of large, thick sandwich elements. Obtaining answers during the design process demanded extensive experimental tests, development of material models, validation of models, updating parameters and extensive numerical parametric studies. The technological aspects of infusion were tested in numerous trials involving the selection of material parameters and control of the infusion parameters. All scientific validation tests were successfully completed and market assessment showed that the proposed product has potential applications; it can be used for overcoming obstacles in rural areas and cities, as well as in regions affected by natural disasters. Load testing included static and dynamic tests. During the former, the span was examined at 117 independent measurement points. The footbridge was loaded with concrete slabs in different configurations. Their total weight ranged from 140 kN up to 202 kN. The applied load at the most heavily loaded structural points caused an effect from 89% to 120%, compared to the load specified by

  14. Investigation of stress in a circular tunnel due to overburden and thermal loading of horizontally placed 21 PWR multi purpose canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandalaft-Ladkany, N.; Wyman, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    The drift of a High Level Nuclear Waste (HLNW) Repository were subjected to 2-D thermal loading resulting from the horizontal emplacement of 125 Ton Multi-Purpose Canisters (MPC). Ten 2-D temperature profiles, resulting from 57 Kw/acre and 114 Kw/acre thermal loading conditions, were used in a finite element analysis of the drift; in which a quadrant of the drift and surrounding rock ±100m above and below the drift were modeled. Our analysis shows that the 114 Kw/acre thermal loading results in compressive stresses around the drift, 60 years after emplacement, that exceed the unconfined compressive strength of the TSW tuff analyzed. Stresses resulting from a 57 Kw/acre thermal loading are within the acceptable limit in tunnel rock. A parametric analysis of the invert backfill material showed that Young's modulus for the invert backfill should closely match that of the surrounding unconfined rock in the tunnel in order to prevent an unacceptable stress rise in both rock and backfill

  15. Ultimate load model test for Sizewell 'B' primary containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers the factors influencing the adoption of an ultimate load factor for the Sizewell 'B' PWR primary containment structure. As part of the validation process for the ultimate load analysis method, a proposal has been made by Nuclear Design Associates to build and test a 1/10th scale model of the containment structure, which would proceed following the granting of section 2 consent for Sizewell 'B'. The modelling principles, construction method and test proposals are examined in some detail. The proposal is currently being considered by the CEGB's Project Management Team. (author)

  16. Motor operated valve testing and the 'rate of loading' phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses valve design features which affect the ability to predict motor operated valve (MOV) performance and reviews factors which should be considered when selecting switch settings to limit stem loads. Considerable attention is given to the rate of loading phenomenon which affects the relationship between valve stem thrust and actuator spring pack deflection. Equations are developed, and testing is discussed which permit the construction of an MOV dynamic model. Factors which must be considered when maintaining switch settings correct throughout the life of the plant are discussed. And switch setting acceptance criteria for use with baseline Static and Design Basis testing are suggested

  17. NCAP test improvements with pretensioners and load limiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Marie

    2004-03-01

    New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) test scores, measured by the United States Department of Transportation's (USDOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), were analyzed in order to assess the benefits of equipping safety belt systems with pretensioners and load limiters. Safety belt pretensioners retract the safety belt almost instantly in a crash to remove excess slack. They tie the occupant to the vehicle's deceleration early during the crash, reducing the peak load experienced by the occupant. Load limiters and other energy management systems allow safety belts to yield in a crash, preventing the shoulder belt from directing too much energy on the chest of the occupant. In NCAP tests, vehicles are crashed into a fixed barrier at 35 mph. During the test, instruments measure the accelerations of the head and chest, as well as the force on the legs of anthropomorphic dummies secured in the vehicle by safety belts. NCAP data from model year 1998 through 2001 cars and light trucks were examined. The combination of pretensioners and load limiters is estimated to reduce Head Injury Criterion (HIC) by 232, chest acceleration by an average of 6.6 g's, and chest deflection (displacement) by 10.6 mm, for drivers and right front passengers. The unit used to measure chest acceleration (g) is defined as a unit of force equal to the force exerted by gravity. All of these reductions are statistically significant. When looked at individually, pretensioners are more effective in reducing HIC scores for both drivers and right front passengers, as well as chest acceleration and chest deflection scores for drivers. Load limiters show greater reductions in chest acceleration and chest deflection scores for right front passengers. By contrast, in make-models for which neither load limiters nor pretensioners have been added, there is little change during 1998 to 2001 in HIC, chest acceleration, or chest deflection values in NCAP tests.

  18. Locomotive fuel tank structural safety testing program : passenger locomotive fuel tank jackknife derailment load test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report presents the results of a passenger locomotive fuel tank load test simulating jackknife derailment (JD) load. The test is based on FRA requirements for locomotive fuel tanks in the Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 238, Ap...

  19. Testing and modeling of cyclically loaded rock anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joar Tistel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA is planning for an upgrade of the E39 highway route at the westcoast of Norway. Fixed links shall replace ferries at seven fjord crossings. Wide spans and large depths at the crossings combined with challenging subsea topography and environmental loads call for an extension of existing practice. A variety of bridge concepts are evaluated in the feasibility study. The structures will experience significant loads from deadweight, traffic and environment. Anchoring of these forces is thus one of the challenges met in the project. Large-size subsea rock anchors are considered a viable alternative. These can be used for anchoring of floating structures but also with the purpose of increasing capacity of fixed structures. This paper presents first a thorough study of factors affecting rock anchor bond capacity. Laboratory testing of rock anchors subjected to cyclic loading is thereafter presented. Finally, the paper presents a model predicting the capacity of a rock anchor segment, in terms of a ribbed bar, subjected to a cyclic load history. The research assumes a failure mode occurring in the interface between the rock anchor and the surrounding grout. The constitutive behavior of the bonding interface is investigated for anchors subjected to cyclic one-way tensile loads. The model utilizes the static bond capacity curve as a basis, defining the ultimate bond τbu and the slip s1 at τbu. A limited number of input parameters are required to apply the model. The model defines the bond-slip behavior with the belonging rock anchor capacity depending on the cyclic load level (τmax cy/τbu, the cyclic load ratio (R = τmin cy/τmax cy, and the number of load cycles (N. The constitutive model is intended to model short anchor lengths representing an incremental length of a complete rock anchor.

  20. Beam loading and cavity compensation for the ground test accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachim, S.P.; Natter, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) will be a heavily beam-loaded H/sup minus/ linac with tight tolerances on accelerating field parameters. The methods used in modeling the effects of beam loading in this machine are described. The response of the cavity to both beam and radio-frequency (RF) drive stimulus is derived, including the effects of cavity detuning. This derivation is not restricted to a small-signal approximation. An analytical method for synthesizing a predistortion network that decouples the amplitude and phase responses of the cavity is also outlined. Simulation of performance, including beam loading, is achieved through use of a control system analysis software package. A straightforward method is presented for extrapolating this work to model large coupled structures with closely spaced parasitic modes. Results to date have enabled the RF control system designs for GTA to be optimized and have given insight into their operation. 6 refs., 10 figs

  1. Literature review Quasi-static and Dynamic pile load tests : Primarily report on non-static pile load tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Pile testing, which plays an importance role in the field of deep foundation design, is performed by static and non-static methods to provide information about the following issues: (Poulos, 1998) - The ultimate capacity of a single pile. - The load-displacement behavior of a pile. - The performance

  2. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Pilot test at the Clean Test Site Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muck, M.T.; Kearl, P.M.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of field testing a horizontal well recirculation system at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The recirculation system uses a pair of horizontal wells, one for groundwater extraction and treatment and the other for reinjection of treated groundwater, to set up a recirculation flow field. The induced flow field from the injection well to the extraction well establishes a sweeping action for the removal and treatment of groundwater contaminants. The overall purpose of this project is to study treatment of mixed groundwater contaminants that occur in a thin water-bearing zone not easily targeted by traditional vertical wells. The project involves several research elements, including treatment-process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and pilot testing at a contaminated site. The results of the pilot test at an uncontaminated site, the Clean Test Site (CTS), are presented in this report

  3. Structural testing of salt loaded HEPA filters for WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.; Leslie, I.H.; Hensel, E.C.; Shultheis, T.M.; Walls, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The ventilation studies of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant described in this paper were performed by personnel from New Mexico State Univ. in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Westinghouse Corporation. High efficiency particulate air filters (0.61m by 0.61m by 0.3m) of the type in use at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant were loaded with salt aerosol provided from that site. The structural strength of salt-loaded, high-efficiency filters was investigated at two humidity levels, high (75%RH) and low (13-14% RH), by subjecting the filters to pressure transients of the types expected from tornadoes. Filters loaded under the high humidity condition proved to have a greater structural strength than did the filters loaded under the low humidity conditions, when both types were subjected to tornado-like pressure pulses. This unexpected results was apparently due to the crystallization of salt upon the wire face guard of the HEPA filter loaded under the high humidity condition which kept salt from penetrating the filter medium while still providing a substantial pressure drop at the standard flow rate. Results are also presented for HEPA filters pre-conditioned at 100% RH before structural testing and for HEPA filters in series with pre-filters

  4. Repair and Strengthening by Use of Superficial Fixed Laminates of Cracked Masonry Walls Sheared Horizontally-Laboratory Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubica, Jan; Kwiecien, Arkadiusz; Zajac, Boguslaw

    2008-01-01

    There are many methods of crack repairing in masonry structures. One of them is repair and strengthening by using of superficial fixed laminates, especially in case of masonry walls with plastering on their both sides. The initial laboratory tests of three different types of strengthening of diagonal cracked masonry wallettes are presented. Tests concerned three clay brick masonry walls subjected to horizontal shearing with two levels of precompression and strengthened by flexible polymer injection, superficial glass fixed by polymer fibre laminate plates and using of CRFP strips stiff fixed to the wall surface by polymer and stiff resin epoxy fixing are presented and discussed

  5. Philosophy, design and testing of a uniform applied load flat plate testing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, A.; Crook, C.

    1976-08-01

    The presence of a central crack, and its associated plastic zones may significantly affect distribution of the stress applied by a loading machine, to a test plate. As a result the fracture stress may be affected, usually optimistically. Examples of these effects are discussed. The design of a machine in which the load is uniformly applied to the test specimen is described and preliminary test data presented. (author)

  6. Comparative Study of Load Testing Tools: Apache JMeter, HP LoadRunner, Microsoft Visual Studio (TFS, Siege

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiya Abbas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is the process of verifying and validating the user’s requirements. Testing is ongoing process during whole software development. Software testing is characterized into three main types. That is, in Black box testing, user doesn’t know domestic knowledge, internal logics and design of system. In white box testing, Tester knows the domestic logic of code. In Grey box testing, Tester has little bit knowledge about the internal structure and working of the system. It is commonly used in case of Integration testing.Load testing helps us to analyze the performance of the system under heavy load or under Zero load. This is achieved with the help of a Load Testing Tool. The intention for writing this research is to carry out a comparison of four load testing tools i.e. Apache JMeter, LoadRunner, Microsoft Visual Studio (TFS, Siege based on certain criteria  i.e. test scripts generation , result reports, application support, plug-in supports, and cost . The main focus is to study these load testing tools and identify which tool is better and more efficient . We assume this comparison can help in selecting the most appropriate tool and motivates the use of open source load testing tools.

  7. Static Tension Tests on Axially Loaded Pile Segments in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This paper provides laboratory test results of static axially loaded piles in sand. With a newly developed test setup, the pile-soil interface friction was investigated by using an open-ended steel pile segment with a diameter of 0.5 m. Use of a pile length of 1 m enabled the pile-soil interface...... friction to be analyzed at a given soil horizon while increasing the vertical effective stress in the sand. Test results obtained by this approach can be analyzed as single t-z curves and compared to predictions of unit shaft friction from current design methods for offshore foundations. The test results...... showed best agreement with the traditional design method given in the American Petroleum Institute (API) design code. When t-z curves obtained from the test results were compared to t-z curve formulations found in the literature, the Zhang formulation gave good predictions of the initial and post...

  8. High rate loading tests and impact tests of concrete and reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, J.I.; Tachikawa, H.; Fujimoto, K.

    1982-01-01

    The responses of reinforced concrete structural members and structures subjected to impact or impulsive loadings are affected by the behavior of constituent concrete and reinforcement which are the synthesis of the rate effects and the contribution of propagating stress waves of them. The rate effects and the contribution of stress waves do not have the same tendency in the variation of magnitude of them with speed of impact or impulsive loadings. Therefore the rate effects, mentioned above, should be obtained by the tests minimized the effect of stress waves (high rate loading test). This paper deals with the testing techniques with high rate loadings and impact, and also reports the main results of these tests. (orig.) [de

  9. Testing of tunnel support: dynamic load testing of rock support containment systems (eg wire mesh).

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ortlepp, WD

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to determine the performance characteristics of containment elements of tunnel support in common use in South African mines under dynamic loading. The magnitude of the energy levels in this testing had...

  10. Maximum thermal loading test of BWR fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Yoshimura, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Satoshi; Ishizuka, Takao.

    1987-01-01

    Various proving tests on the reliability of nuclear power plants have been conducted at the Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center and at the Japan Power Plant Engineering and Inspection Corporation. The tests were initiated at the request of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). Toshiba undertook one of the proving tests on the reliability of nuclear fuel assembly; the maximum thermal loading test of BWR fuel assembly from the Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center. These tests are part of the proving tests mentioned above, and their purpose is to confirm the reliability of the thermal hydraulic engineering techniques. Toshiba has been engaged for the past nine years in the design, fabrication and testing of the equipment. For the project, a test model fuel assembly was used to measure the critical power of the BWR fuel assembly and the void and fluidity of the coolant. From the test results, it has been confirmed that the heat is transferred safely from the fuel assembly to the coolant in the BWR nuclear power plant. In addition, the propriety and reliability of the thermal hydraulic engineering techniques for the fuel assembly have been proved. (author)

  11. Research and field tests of staged fracturing technology for casing deformation sections in horizontal shale gas wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimeng Liao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal shale gas well fracturing is mostly carried out by pumping bridge plugs. In the case of casing deformation, the bridge plug can not be pumped down to the designated position, so the hole sections below the deformation could not be stimulated according to the design program. About 30% of horizontal shale gas wells in the Changning and Weiyuan Blocks, Sichuan Basin, suffer various casing deformation after fracturing. Previously, the hole sections which could not be stimulated due to casing deformation were generally abandoned. As a result, the resources controlled by shale gas wells weren't exploited effectively and the fracturing effect was impacted greatly. There are a lot of difficulties in investigating casing deformation, such as complex mechanisms, various influencing factors and unpredictable deformation time. Therefore, it is especially important to seek a staged fracturing technology suitable for the casing deformation sections. In this paper, the staged fracturing technology with sand plugs inside fractures and the staged fracturing technology with temporary plugging balls were tested in casing deformation wells. The staged fracturing technology with sand plugs inside fractures was carried out in the mode of single-stage perforation and single-stage fracturing. The staged fracturing technology with temporary plugging balls was conducted in the mode of single perforation, continuous fracturing and staged ball dropping. Then, two kinds of technologies were compared in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, they were tested on site. According to the pressure response, the pressure monitoring of the adjacent wells and the microseismic monitoring in the process of actual fracturing, both technologies are effective in the stimulation of the casing deformation sections, realizing well control reserves efficiently and guaranteeing fracturing effects. Keywords: Shale gas, Horizontal well, Casing deformation, Staged

  12. Optimal Control Allocation with Load Sensor Feedback for Active Load Suppression, Flight-Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Goodrick, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. The aircraft structure and the control architecture must be designed to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to utilize high structural margins, restrict control surface commands to a limited set of analyzed combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage. An optimal control technique has been explored and shown to achieve desirable vehicle control performance while limiting sensed structural loads to specified values. This technique has been implemented and flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed aircraft. The flight tests illustrate that the approach achieves the desired performance and show promising potential benefits. The flights also uncovered some important issues that will need to be addressed for production application.

  13. Commissioning and early operating experience with the Fermilab horizontal test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcagno, R.; Chase, B.; Harms, E.; Hocker, A.; Prieto, P.; Reid, J.; Rowe, A.; Theilacker, J.; Votava, M.; /Fermilab

    2007-10-01

    Fermilab has constructed a facility for testing dressed superconducting radiofrequency (RF) cavities at 1.8 K with high-power pulsed RF. This test stand was designed to test both 9-cell 1.3 GHz TESLA-style cavities and 9-cell 3.9 GHz cavities being built by Fermilab for DESY's TTF-FLASH facility. An overview of the test stand and a description of its initial commissioning is described here.

  14. HIV Viral Load: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hivviralload.html HIV Viral Load To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an HIV Viral Load? An HIV viral load is a ...

  15. Load reduction test method of similarity theory and BP neural networks of large cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruigang; Duan, Zhibin; Lu, Yi; Wang, Lei; Xu, Gening

    2016-01-01

    Static load tests are an important means of supervising and detecting a crane's lift capacity. Due to space restrictions, however, there are difficulties and potential danger when testing large bridge cranes. To solve the loading problems of large-tonnage cranes during testing, an equivalency test is proposed based on the similarity theory and BP neural networks. The maximum stress and displacement of a large bridge crane is tested in small loads, combined with the training neural network of a similar structure crane through stress and displacement data which is collected by a physics simulation progressively loaded to a static load test load within the material scope of work. The maximum stress and displacement of a crane under a static load test load can be predicted through the relationship of stress, displacement, and load. By measuring the stress and displacement of small tonnage weights, the stress and displacement of large loads can be predicted, such as the maximum load capacity, which is 1.25 times the rated capacity. Experimental study shows that the load reduction test method can reflect the lift capacity of large bridge cranes. The load shedding predictive analysis for Sanxia 1200 t bridge crane test data indicates that when the load is 1.25 times the rated lifting capacity, the predicted displacement and actual displacement error is zero. The method solves the problem that lifting capacities are difficult to obtain and testing accidents are easily possible when 1.25 times related weight loads are tested for large tonnage cranes.

  16. H-60A/L Passenger Airbag Protection: Vertical and Horizontal Impact Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    29 Figure 28. VDT6283 (L) Front left attachment (R) Back right foot disengaged ...........................30...and a custom-made rigid seat. The manikins included a 50th percentile Hybrid III (HB50) and a large male manikin (LARD – Largest Anthropometric ...Restraint w/Crotch, LARD, 24.79G, 53.07ft/s, 66ms rise time HIA8707 is the first test with LARD and the modified crotch restraint. The back left foot

  17. Development of a smart key performance indicator for in-situ load tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieteren, G.; Bigaj-van Vliet, A.J.; Yang, Y.; Sangers, A.

    2017-01-01

    In-situ load testing of reinforced concrete (RC) structures is often performed to confirm the presence of the required resistance for the intended use (Conformity Load Testing) or to support the assessments of the residual capacity by models (Supplementary Load Testing for Condition Assessment).

  18. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

  19. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  20. Small-Scale Testing Rig for Long-Term Cyclically Loaded Monopiles in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    , and the period of the cyclic loading. However, the design guidance on these issues is limited. Thus, in order to investigate the pile behaviour for cyclically long-term loaded monopiles, a test setup for small-scale tests in saturated dense cohesionless soil is constructed and presented in here. The cyclic...... loading is applied mechanically by means of a testing rig, where the important input parameters: mean level, amplitude, number of cycles, and period of the loading can be varied. The results from a monotonic and a cyclic loading test on an open-ended aluminium pile with diameter = 100 mm and embedded...... length = 600 mm proves that the test setup is capable of applying the cyclic long-term loading. The plastic deformations during loading depend not only on the loading applied but also of the relative density of the soil and, thus, the tests are carried out with relative densities of 77-88%, i.e. similar...

  1. Evaluation of laboratory tests for dengue diagnosis in clinical specimens from consecutive patients with suspected dengue in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Fernanda Oliveira; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; Totola, Antônio Helvécio; Ávila, Thiago Vinícius; Cisalpino, Daniel; Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques; da Glória de Souza, Danielle; Teixeira Júnior, Antônio Lúcio; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2013-09-01

    Dengue is a widely spread arboviral disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Dengue fever presents clinical characteristics similar to other febrile illness. Thus laboratory diagnosis is important for adequate management of the disease. The present study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of real-time PCR and serological methods for dengue in a real epidemic context. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from consecutive patients with suspected dengue who attended a primary health care unit in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Serologic methods and real-time PCR were performed in serum samples to confirm dengue diagnosis. Among the 181 consecutive patients enrolled in this study with suspected dengue, 146 were considered positive by serological criteria (positive NS1 ELISA and/or anti-dengue IgM ELISA) and 138 were positive by real-time PCR. Clinical criteria were not sufficient for distinguishing between dengue and non-dengue febrile illness. The PCR reaction was pre-optimized using samples from patients with known viral infection. It had similar sensitivity compared to NS1 ELISA (88% and 89%, respectively). We also evaluated three commercial lateral flow immunochromatographic tests for NS1 detection (BIOEASY, BIORAD and PANBIO). All three tests showed high sensitivity (94%, 91% and 81%, respectively) for dengue diagnosis. According to our results it can be suggested that lateral flow tests for NS1 detection are the most feasible methods for early diagnosis of dengue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Empirical approach based on centrifuge testing for cyclic deformations of laterally loaded piles in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truong, P.; Lehane, B. M.; Zania, Varvara

    2018-01-01

    A systematic study into the response of monopiles to lateral cyclic loading in medium dense and dense sand was performed in beam and drum centrifuge tests. The centrifuge tests were carried out at different cyclic load and magnitude ratios, while the cyclic load sequence was also varied...

  3. 77 FR 70484 - Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...-1294, ``Preoperational Testing of On-Site Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group... entitled ``Preoperational Testing of On- Site Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group... Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group Assignments, Electrical Separation, and Redundancy...

  4. Study on Determination Method of Fatigue Testing Load for Wind Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Gaohua; Wu, Jianzhong

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the load calculation method of the fatigue test was studied for the wind turbine blade under uniaxial loading. The characteristics of wind load and blade equivalent load were analyzed. The fatigue property and damage theory of blade material were studied. The fatigue load for 2MW blade was calculated by Bladed, and the stress calculated by ANSYS. Goodman modified exponential function S-N curve and linear cumulative damage rule were used to calculate the fatigue load of wind turbine blades. It lays the foundation for the design and experiment of wind turbine blade fatigue loading system.

  5. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    on bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. The test setup is described in detail and a comprehensive experimental campaign is presented. The foundation is subjected to cyclic overturning moment, cyclic horizontal loading and constant vertical loading, acting on the same plane for thousands...

  6. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  7. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrading, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  8. The Performance Test of Three Different Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT Blade Shapes Using Experimental and Numerical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tong Chong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Three different horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT blade geometries with the same diameter of 0.72 m using the same NACA4418 airfoil profile have been investigated both experimentally and numerically. The first is an optimum (OPT blade shape, obtained using improved blade element momentum (BEM theory. A detailed description of the blade geometry is also given. The second is an untapered and optimum twist (UOT blade with the same twist distributions as the OPT blade. The third blade is untapered and untwisted (UUT. Wind tunnel experiments were used to measure the power coefficients of these blades, and the results indicate that both the OPT and UOT blades perform with the same maximum power coefficient, Cp = 0.428, but it is located at different tip speed ratio, λ = 4.92 for the OPT blade and λ = 4.32 for the UOT blade. The UUT blade has a maximum power coefficient of Cp = 0.210 at λ = 3.86. After the tests, numerical simulations were performed using a full three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD method using the k-ω SST turbulence model. It has been found that CFD predictions reproduce the most accurate model power coefficients. The good agreement between the measured and computed power coefficients of the three models strongly suggest that accurate predictions of HAWT blade performance at full-scale conditions are also possible using the CFD method.

  9. Study on load test of 100m cross-reinforced deck type concrete box arch bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing Xian; Cheng, Ying Jie

    2018-06-01

    Found in the routine quality inspection of highway bridge that many vertical fractures on the main beam (10mT beam) of the steel reinforced concrete arch bridge near the hydropower station. In order to grasp the bearing capacity of this bridge under working conditions with cracks, the static load and dynamic load test of box arch bridge are carried out. The Midas civil theory is calculated by using the special plate trailer - 300 as the calculation load, and the deflection and stress of the critical section are tested by the equivalent cloth load in the test vehicle. The pulsation test, obstacles and no obstacle driving test were carried out. Experimental results show that the bridge under the condition of the test loads is in safe condition, main bearing component of the strength and stiffness meet the design requirements, the crack width does not increase, in the process of loading bridge overall work performance is good.

  10. Test methods and load simulation at roller test stand; Pruefmethoden und Lastsimulation auf Rollenpruefstaenden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, Juergen [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany); Koenig, Manfred [VISPIRON AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The development of vehicles is a time expensive process and requires a worldwide mobility, since the vehicles are tested for different environmental conditions, which only occur in specified regions and within predefined seasonal periods. To become independent of weather conditions and the local and seasonal variation, it is necessary to shift particular tests to a climatic wind tunnel. Although this offers an ideal environment for precise and reproducible results, many tests need to be performed in order to acquire knowledge about the differences between real road investigations and wind tunnel experiments. It is the work of Method developers to properly transfer specified road tests to the test facility such that comparable results are obtained. These details will be discussed in the first chapter. An important aspect, within this objective, is the realistic simulation of drive resistance on the road by dynamometers. Therefore the different forces, contributing to the drive resistance on the road, are determined in order to simulate the realistic load on the vehicle drive train by the electric drive units of the dynamometers. To increase the accuracy of the load simulation, a special feature has been added to the dyno-control. This feature includes the influence of air-density on the drive resistance at a given environmental temperature, pressure and humidity. (orig.)

  11. Full Scale Test SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT. Extreme load and PoC_InvE Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Magda; Roczek-Sieradzan, Agnieszka; Jensen, Find Mølholt

    This report is the second report covering the research and demonstration project “Eksperimentel vingeforskning: Strukturelle mekanismer i nutidens og fremtidens store vinger under kombineret last”, supported by the EUDP program. A 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S has been tested...... in edgewise direction (LTT). The blade has been submitted to thorough examination by means of strain gauges, displacement transducers and a 3D optical measuring system. This data report presents results obtained during full scale testing of the blade up to 80% Risø load, where 80% Risø load corresponds to 100...... stresses in the adhesive joints. Test results from measurements with the reinforcement have been compared to results without the coupling. The report presents only the relevant results for the 80% Risø load and the results applicable for the investigation of the influence of the invention on the profile...

  12. Evaluation of the base/subgrade soil under repeated loading : phase II, in-box and ALF cyclic plate load tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This research study aims at evaluating the performance of base and subgrade soil in flexible pavements under repeated loading test conditions. For this purpose, an indoor cyclic plate load testing equipment was developed and used to conduct a series ...

  13. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume II. Foam Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*EXPANDED PLASTICS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TEST METHODS, SHOCK WAVES, STRAIN(MECHANICS), LOADS(FORCES), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  14. Current Status and Performance Tests of Korea Heat Load Test Facility KoHLT-EB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sukkwon; Jin, Hyunggon; Shin, Kyuin; Choi, Boguen; Lee, Eohwak; Yoon, Jaesung; Lee, Dongwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duckhoi; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    A commissioning test has been scheduled to establish the installation and preliminary performance experiments of the copper hypervapotron mockups. And a qualification test will be performed to evaluate the CuCrZr duct liner in the ITER neutral beam injection facility and the ITER first wall small-scale mockups of the semi-prototype, at up to 1.5 and 5 MW/m{sup 2} high heat flux. Also, this system will be used to test other PFCs for ITER and materials for tokamak reactors. Korean high heat flux test facility(KoHLT-EB; Korea Heat Load Test facility - Electron Beam) by using an electron beam system has been constructed in KAERI to perform the qualification test for ITER blanket FW semi-prototype mockups, hypervapotron cooling devices in fusion devices, and other ITER plasma facing components. The commissioning and performance tests with the supplier of e-gun system have been performed on November 2012. The high heat flux test for hypervapotron cooling device and calorimetry were performed to measure the surface heat flux, the temperature profile and cooling performance. Korean high heat flux test facility for the plasma facing components of nuclear fusion machines will be constructed to evaluate the performance of each component. This facility for the plasma facing materials will be equipped with an electron beam system with a 60 kV acceleration gun.

  15. Modelling of pile load tests in granular soils : Loading rate effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.

    2017-01-01

    People have used pile foundations throughout history to support structures by transferring
    loads to deeper and stronger soil layers. One of the most important questions during the design of the pile foundation is the bearing capacity of the pile. The most reliable method for determining the

  16. Experience with Hepatitis B viral load testing in Nigeria | Okwuraiwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Quantification of the viral burden is an important laboratory tool in the management of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. However, widespread use of assays is still hampered by the high cost. Treatment reduces viral load to undetectable levels. HBV infected patients tend to have high HBV DNA levels, ...

  17. Pebble bed test reactor in peu-a-peu load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranz, L.

    1988-03-01

    The presented work deals with a new type of load model for high temperature reactors with spherical fuels: the peu-a-peu load system. Using this load system the reactor core is only filled partially in the beginning of the power operation. But it has to be a critical base core. With proceeding burn-off the reactor is filled up with further fuel elements the way that it stays always just critically. When the reactor is filled up completely with fuel elements, the reactor operation has to be interrupted and the reactor has to be discharged. Afterwards a new cycle can start like the one just described. A reference reactor with 100 MW thermal power is investigated in this work in detail and should make clear the way of function of the load system and the base idea of 'simplicity and safety'. The improvement proposal to use again a part of the fuel elements of a cycle for the next cycle minimizes the higher specific uranium need of a peu-a-peu reactor decisively. (orig.) [de

  18. Active Match Load Circuit Intended for Testing Piezoelectric Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    An adjustable high voltage active load circuit for voltage amplitudes above 100 volts, especially intended for resistive matching the output impedance of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) is proposed in this paper. PTs have been around for over 50 years, were C. A. Rosen is common known for his...

  19. Aeroelastic model identification of winglet loads from flight test data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijerkerk, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical computational methods are getting more and more sophisticated every day, enabling more accurate aircraft load predictions. In the structural design of aircraft higher levels of flexibility can be tolerated to arrive at a substantial weight reduction. The result is that aircraft of the

  20. 101 . experience with hepatitis b viral load testing in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Background: Quantification of the viral burden is an important laboratory tool in the management of hepatitis B virus. (HBV)-infected patients. However, widespread use of assays is still hampered by the high cost. Treatment reduces viral load to undetectable levels. HBV infected patients tend to have high HBV ...

  1. 40 CFR 85.2217 - Loaded test-EPA 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (1) Loaded mode—(i) Ford Motor Company and Honda vehicles. (Optional.) The engines of 1981-1987 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles and 1984-1985 model year Honda Preludes must be shut off for not more... Motor Company and Honda vehicles. (Optional.) The engines of 1981-1987 model year Ford Motor Company...

  2. Loading test of pile affected by soil layer deformation; Jiban henkei no eikyo wo ukeru kui no saika jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakurai, M.; Tsuchiya, T. [Takenaka Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-10

    Large soil tank developed for shearing experiments is used to study the horizontal movement of piles in earthquakes. The system comprises a soil filled (8m deep) tank, pile head loading jig, and 6 actuators. The soil tank is fabricated of 40 layers of 20cm-high iron frames of inner dimensions 2.5mtimes2.5m, and it is filled with soil that is to simulate the ground. The frames are divided into 4 groups each containing 10 frames, and the frames in each group are coupled with each other, so that all the frames in one group will move horizontally when the topmost frame in the group is moved horizontally. An actuator, which travels horizontally ganging with a computer, is mounted on the top frame in each group, and this setup enables the arbitrary simulation of ground deformation in the horizontal direction in an earthquake. The pile head loading jig, driven by 2 actuators, can keep restraining the pile head from rotation while applying load or deforming force to the pile head as desired in the vertical and horizontal direction. Experiments conducted using this system involve the force imposed on a pile in the soil tank by ground deformation and the resultant pile behavior including breakdown. 9 figs.

  3. Pile load test on large diameter steel pipe piles in Timan-Pechora, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, S. [Golder Associates Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Tart, B. [Golder Associates Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Swartz, R. [Paragon Engineering Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Pile load testing conducted in May and June of 1993 at the Polar Lights Ardalin project in Arkangelsk province, Russia, was documented. Pile load testing was conducted to determine the ultimate and allowable pile loads for varying pile lengths and ground temperature conditions and to provide creep test data for deformation under constant load. The piles consisted of 20 inch diameter steel pipe piles driven open ended through prebored holes into the permafrost soils. Ultimate pile capacities, adfreeze bond, and creep properties observed were discussed. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. 40 CFR 86.129-00 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... adjusted loaded vehicle weight, as defined in § 86.094-2 or 86.1803-01 as applicable. For all other vehicles, test weight basis shall be loaded vehicle weight, as defined in § 86.082-2 or 86.1803-01 as... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road load power, test weight, and...

  5. Full scale test SSP 34m blade, combined load. Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find M. (and others)

    2010-11-15

    This report is part of the research project where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S was tested in combined flap and edgewise load. The applied load is 55% of an imaginary extreme event based on the certification load of the blade. This report describes the reason for choosing the loads and the load direction and the method of applying the loads to the blade. A novel load introduction allows the blade to deform in a more realistic manner, allowing the observation of e.g. transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the blades' respond to repeated tests has been studied and the result from these investigations are presented, including the measurements performed. (Author)

  6. Test Plan to Determine the Maximum Surface Temperatures for a Plutonium Storage Cubicle with Horizontal 3013 Canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEARD, F.J.

    2000-01-01

    A simulated full-scale plutonium storage cubicle with 22 horizontally positioned and heated 3013 canisters is proposed to confirm the effectiveness of natural circulation. Temperature and airflow measurements will be made for different heat generation and cubicle door configurations. Comparisons will be made to computer based thermal Hydraulic models

  7. Laboratory testing and field implementation of scale inhibitor squeeze treatments to subsea and platform horizontal wells, North Sea Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, M. M.; Lewis, M. [Nalco/Exxon Energy Chemicals Ltd, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Tomlinson, C. J.; Pritchard, A. R. P. [Enterprise Oil Plc, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Field results from a number of scale squeeze treatments carried out on subsea and platform horizontal wells in the Nelson Field of the North Sea are presented. Scale inhibitor chemicals are reviewed along with factors which influence inhibitor selection for both horizontal and highly deviated wells. Formation brine/inhibitor incompatibility, formation minerals/inhibitor incompatibility, and the potential for sand production and oil-in-water process as a result of these incompatibilities, are discussed. Practical difficulties in squeezing subsea horizontal wells, the use of chemical stabilizers to reduce formation brine/inhibitor incompatibility, variation of pump rates to encourage propagation of inhibitor along the wellbore, and the potential of fluid diversion are outlined, stressing the significance of production logging data (or good reservoir simulation data), to evaluate the location of water production prior to the squeeze treatment. Results of these treatments show that with the correct laboratory evaluation of both scale inhibitor and divertor agents, and with appropriate utilization of production logging or reservoir simulation data, it is possible to carry out scale inhibitor squeeze treatments of subsea and platform horizontal wells without having to resort to coiled tubing. 22 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs

  8. Performance of a Press-Lam bridge : a 5-year load-testing and monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. S. Gromala; R. C. Moody; M. M. Sprinkel

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of load tests on an experimental highway bridge erected and put into service on the George Washington National Forest in Virginia in 1977. The bridge, made entirely of Press-Lam, a laminated veneer lumber (LVL) product, was load tested 1 month, 1 year, and 5 years after erection. The bridge continues to perform quite well and,...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1772-99 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. 86.1772-99 Section 86.1772-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1772-99 Road load power, test weight, and inertia...

  10. Field monitoring of static, dynamic, and statnamic pile loading tests using fibre Bragg grating strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Correia, Ricardo P.; Chehura, Edmon; Staines, Stephen; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph; Butcher, Antony P.; Fuentes, Raul

    2009-10-01

    Pile loading test plays an important role in the field of piling engineering. In order to gain further insight into the load transfer mechanism, strain gauges are often used to measure local strains along the piles. This paper reports a case whereby FBG strain sensors was employed in a field trial conducted on three different types of pile loading tests in a glacial till. The instrumentation systems were configured to suit the specific characteristic of each type of test. Typical test results are presented. The great potential of using FBG sensors for pile testing is shown.

  11. Aeroelastic model identification of winglet loads from flight test data

    OpenAIRE

    Reijerkerk, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical computational methods are getting more and more sophisticated every day, enabling more accurate aircraft load predictions. In the structural design of aircraft higher levels of flexibility can be tolerated to arrive at a substantial weight reduction. The result is that aircraft of the future can be bigger, have better performance and less mass. The performance of an aircraft can be even further enhanced by the use of winglets or other wing tip devices. A more flexible structure in c...

  12. A free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator controls and load interaction test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David; Santiago, Walter; Madi, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    A test facility at LeRC was assembled for evaluating free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator control options, and interaction with various electrical loads. This facility is based on a 'SPIKE' engine/alternator. The engine/alternator, a multi-purpose load system, a digital computer based load and facility control, and a data acquisition system with both steady-periodic and transient capability are described. Preliminary steady-periodic results are included for several operating modes of a digital AC parasitic load control. Preliminary results on the transient response to switching a resistive AC user load are discussed.

  13. Community-driven demand creation for the use of routine viral load testing: a model to scale up routine viral load testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingo, Bactrin M; Taro, Trisa B; Mosime, Wame N

    2017-11-01

    HIV treatment outcomes are dependent on the use of viral load measurement. Despite global and national guidelines recommending the use of routine viral load testing, these policies alone have not translated into widespread implementation or sufficiently increased access for people living with HIV (PLHIV). Civil society and communities of PLHIV recognize the need to close this gap and to enable the scale up of routine viral load testing. The International Treatment Preparedness Coalition (ITPC) developed an approach to community-led demand creation for the use of routine viral load testing. Using this Community Demand Creation Model, implementers follow a step-wise process to capacitate and empower communities to address their most pressing needs. This includes utlizing a specific toolkit that includes conducting a baseline assessment, developing a treatment education toolkit, organizing mobilization workshops for knowledge building, provision of small grants to support advocacy work and conducting benchmark evaluations. The Community Demand Creation Model to increase demand for routine viral load testing services by PLHIV has been delivered in diverse contexts including in the sub-Saharan African, Asian, Latin American and the Caribbean regions. Between December 2015 and December 2016, ITPC trained more than 240 PLHIV activists, and disbursed US$90,000 to network partners in support of their national advocacy work. The latter efforts informed a regional, community-driven campaign calling for domestic investment in the expeditious implementation of national viral load testing guidelines. HIV treatment education and community mobilization are critical components of demand creation for access to optimal HIV treatment, especially for the use of routine viral load testing. ITPC's Community Demand Creation Model offers a novel approach to achieving this goal. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of

  14. A servo controlled gradient loading triaxial model test system for deep-buried cavern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xu-guang [College of Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Qingdao 266100 (China); Research Center of Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang, Qiang-yong; Li, Shu-cai [Research Center of Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2015-10-15

    A servo controlled gradient loading model test system is developed to simulate the gradient geostress in deep-buried cavern. This system consists of the gradient loading apparatus, the digital servo control device, and the measurement system. Among them, the gradient loading apparatus is the main component which is used for exerting load onto the model. This loading apparatus is placed inside the counterforce wall/beam and is divided to several different loading zones, with each loading zone independently controlled. This design enables the gradient loading. Hence, the “real” geostress field surrounding the deep-buried cavern can be simulated. The loading or unloading process can be controlled by the human-computer interaction machines, i.e., the digital servo control system. It realizes the automation and visualization of model loading/unloading. In addition, this digital servo could control and regulate hydraulic loading instantaneously, which stabilizes the geostress onto the model over a long term. During the loading procedure, the collision between two adjacent loading platens is also eliminated by developing a guide frame. This collision phenomenon is induced by the volume shrinkage of the model when compressed in true 3D state. In addition, several accurate measurements, including the optical and grating-based method, are adopted to monitor the small deformation of the model. Hence, the distortion of the model could be accurately measured. In order to validate the performance of this innovative model test system, a 3D geomechanical test was conducted on a simulated deep-buried underground reservoir. The result shows that the radial convergence increases rapidly with the release of the stress in the reservoir. Moreover, the deformation increases with the increase of the gas production rate. This observation is consistence with field observation in petroleum engineering. The system is therefore capable of testing deep-buried engineering structures.

  15. A servo controlled gradient loading triaxial model test system for deep-buried cavern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-guang; Zhang, Qiang-yong; Li, Shu-cai

    2015-10-01

    A servo controlled gradient loading model test system is developed to simulate the gradient geostress in deep-buried cavern. This system consists of the gradient loading apparatus, the digital servo control device, and the measurement system. Among them, the gradient loading apparatus is the main component which is used for exerting load onto the model. This loading apparatus is placed inside the counterforce wall/beam and is divided to several different loading zones, with each loading zone independently controlled. This design enables the gradient loading. Hence, the "real" geostress field surrounding the deep-buried cavern can be simulated. The loading or unloading process can be controlled by the human-computer interaction machines, i.e., the digital servo control system. It realizes the automation and visualization of model loading/unloading. In addition, this digital servo could control and regulate hydraulic loading instantaneously, which stabilizes the geostress onto the model over a long term. During the loading procedure, the collision between two adjacent loading platens is also eliminated by developing a guide frame. This collision phenomenon is induced by the volume shrinkage of the model when compressed in true 3D state. In addition, several accurate measurements, including the optical and grating-based method, are adopted to monitor the small deformation of the model. Hence, the distortion of the model could be accurately measured. In order to validate the performance of this innovative model test system, a 3D geomechanical test was conducted on a simulated deep-buried underground reservoir. The result shows that the radial convergence increases rapidly with the release of the stress in the reservoir. Moreover, the deformation increases with the increase of the gas production rate. This observation is consistence with field observation in petroleum engineering. The system is therefore capable of testing deep-buried engineering structures.

  16. A servo controlled gradient loading triaxial model test system for deep-buried cavern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xu-guang; Zhang, Qiang-yong; Li, Shu-cai

    2015-01-01

    A servo controlled gradient loading model test system is developed to simulate the gradient geostress in deep-buried cavern. This system consists of the gradient loading apparatus, the digital servo control device, and the measurement system. Among them, the gradient loading apparatus is the main component which is used for exerting load onto the model. This loading apparatus is placed inside the counterforce wall/beam and is divided to several different loading zones, with each loading zone independently controlled. This design enables the gradient loading. Hence, the “real” geostress field surrounding the deep-buried cavern can be simulated. The loading or unloading process can be controlled by the human-computer interaction machines, i.e., the digital servo control system. It realizes the automation and visualization of model loading/unloading. In addition, this digital servo could control and regulate hydraulic loading instantaneously, which stabilizes the geostress onto the model over a long term. During the loading procedure, the collision between two adjacent loading platens is also eliminated by developing a guide frame. This collision phenomenon is induced by the volume shrinkage of the model when compressed in true 3D state. In addition, several accurate measurements, including the optical and grating-based method, are adopted to monitor the small deformation of the model. Hence, the distortion of the model could be accurately measured. In order to validate the performance of this innovative model test system, a 3D geomechanical test was conducted on a simulated deep-buried underground reservoir. The result shows that the radial convergence increases rapidly with the release of the stress in the reservoir. Moreover, the deformation increases with the increase of the gas production rate. This observation is consistence with field observation in petroleum engineering. The system is therefore capable of testing deep-buried engineering structures

  17. Correlation Results for a Mass Loaded Vehicle Panel Test Article Finite Element Models and Modal Survey Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasha, Rumaasha; Towner, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    High-fidelity Finite Element Models (FEMs) were developed to support a recent test program at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The FEMs correspond to test articles used for a series of acoustic tests. Modal survey tests were used to validate the FEMs for five acoustic tests (a bare panel and four different mass-loaded panel configurations). An additional modal survey test was performed on the empty test fixture (orthogrid panel mounting fixture, between the reverb and anechoic chambers). Modal survey tests were used to test-validate the dynamic characteristics of FEMs used for acoustic test excitation. Modal survey testing and subsequent model correlation has validated the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the FEMs. The modal survey test results provide a basis for the analysis models used for acoustic loading response test and analysis comparisons

  18. Methods for monitoring the initial load to critical in the fast test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.

    1975-08-01

    Conventional symmetric fuel loadings for the initial loading to critical of the Fast Test Reactor (FTR) are predicted to be more time consuming than asymmetric or trisector loadings. Potentially significant time savings can be realized by the latter, since adequate intermediate assessments of neutron multiplication can be made periodically without control rod reconnection in all trisectors. Experimental simulation of both loading schemes was carried out in the Reverse Approach to Critical (RAC) experiments in the Fast Test Reactor-Engineering Mockup Critical facility. Analyses of these experiments indicated that conventional source multiplication methods can be applied for monitoring either a symmetric or asymmetric fuel loading scheme equally well provided that detection efficiency corrections are employed. Methods for refining predictions of reactivity and count rates for the stages in a load to critical were also investigated. (auth)

  19. Bending cyclic load test for crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Soh; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi; Tanahashi, Tadanori

    2018-02-01

    The failures induced by thermomechanical fatigue within crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules are a common issue that can occur in any climate. In order to understand these failures, we confirmed the effects of compressive or tensile stresses (which were cyclically loaded on photovoltaic cells and cell interconnect ribbons) at subzero, moderate, and high temperatures. We found that cell cracks were induced predominantly at low temperatures, irrespective of the compression or tension applied to the cells, although the orientation of cell cracks was dependent on the stress applied. The fracture of cell interconnect ribbons was caused by cyclical compressive stress at moderate and high temperatures, and this failure was promoted by the elevation of temperature. On the basis of these results, the causes of these failures are comprehensively discussed in relation to the viscoelasticity of the encapsulant.

  20. Applicability of Various Load Test Interpretation Criteria in Measuring Driven Precast Concrete Pile Uplift Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia M. Marcos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a comprehensive analysis of load test interpretation criteria to determine their suitability to driven precast concrete (PC pile uplift capacity. A database was developed containing static pile load tests and utilized for the evaluation. The piles were round and square cross-sections under drained and undrained loading. To explore and compare their behavior, the stored data were categorized into four groups. In general, the trends of every criterion for the four groups were notably the same. In both drained and undrained loading, slightly larger interpreted capacities were demonstrated by square piles than by round piles. Moreover, round piles demonstrated more ductile load-displacement response than square piles especially in undrained loading. Statistical analyses presented that smaller values of displacements exhibited higher coefficient of variation. The drained and undrained tests were compared and results showed less variability in drained than undrained loading and capacity ratios (Qx/QCHIN in drained loading were slightly higher than in undrained loading. The interrelationship and applicability of these criteria as well as the design recommendations in terms of normalized capacity and displacement were given based on the analyses.

  1. Test and evaluation of load converter topologies used in the Space Station Freedom power management and distribution dc test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Ramon C.; Oliver, Angela C.; Bodi, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Power components hardware in support of the Space Station freedom dc Electric Power System were tested. One type of breadboard hardware tested is the dc Load Converter Unit, which constitutes the power interface between the electric power system and the actual load. These units are dc to dc converters that provide the final system regulation before power is delivered to the load. Three load converters were tested: a series resonant converter, a series inductor switch-mode converter, and a switching full-bridge forward converter. The topology, operation principles, and test results are described, in general. A comparative analysis of the three units is given with respect to efficiency, regulation, short circuit behavior (protection), and transient characteristics.

  2. Open Architecture Data System for NASA Langley Combined Loads Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Michael C.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1998-01-01

    The Combined Loads Test System (COLTS) is a new structures test complex that is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to test large curved panels and cylindrical shell structures. These structural components are representative of aircraft fuselage sections of subsonic and supersonic transport aircraft and cryogenic tank structures of reusable launch vehicles. Test structures are subjected to combined loading conditions that simulate realistic flight load conditions. The facility consists of two pressure-box test machines and one combined loads test machine. Each test machine possesses a unique set of requirements or research data acquisition and real-time data display. Given the complex nature of the mechanical and thermal loads to be applied to the various research test articles, each data system has been designed with connectivity attributes that support both data acquisition and data management functions. This paper addresses the research driven data acquisition requirements for each test machine and demonstrates how an open architecture data system design not only meets those needs but provides robust data sharing between data systems including the various control systems which apply spectra of mechanical and thermal loading profiles.

  3. Towards building a neural network model for predicting pile static load test curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzo’ubi A. K.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United Arab Emirates, Continuous Flight Auger piles are the most widely used type of deep foundation. To test the pile behaviour, the Static Load Test is routinely conducted in the field by increasing the dead load while monitoring the displacement. Although the test is reliable, it is expensive to conduct. This test is usually conducted in the UAE to verify the pile capacity and displacement as the load increase and decreases in two cycles. In this paper we will utilize the Artificial Neural Network approach to build a model that can predict a complete Static Load Pile test. We will show that by integrating the pile configuration, soil properties, and ground water table in one artificial neural network model, the Static Load Test can be predicted with confidence. We believe that based on this approach, the model is able to predict the entire pile load test from start to end. The suggested approach is an excellent tool to reduce the cost associated with such expensive tests or to predict pile’s performance ahead of the actual test.

  4. Modeling a constant power load for nickel-hydrogen battery testing using SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Douglas B.; Lollar, Louis F.; Nelms, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effort to design and model a constant power load for the HST (Hubble Space Telescope) nickel-hydrogen battery tests is described. The constant power load was designed for three different simulations on the batteries: life cycling, reconditioning, and capacity testing. A dc-dc boost converter was designed to act as this constant power load. A boost converter design was chosen because of the low test battery voltage (4 to 6 VDC) generated and the relatively high power requirement of 60 to 70 W. The SPICE model was shown to consistently predict variations in the actual circuit as various designs were attempted. It is concluded that the confidence established in the SPICE model of the constant power load ensures its extensive utilization in future efforts to improve performance in the actual load circuit.

  5. Acceptance test procedure, 241-SY-101/241-C-106 shot loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrom, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure is for the 241-SY-101/241-C-106 Shot Loading System. The procedure will test the components of the Shot Loading System and its capability of adequately loading shot into the annular space of the Container. The loaded shot will provide shielding as required for transporting and storage of a contaminated pump after removal from the tank. This test serves as verification that the SLS is acceptable for use in the pump removal operations for Tanks 241-SY-101, 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. The pump removal operation for these three tanks will be performed by two different organizations with different equipment, but the Shot Loading System will be compatible between the two operations

  6. Measurement and Analysis of Horizontal Vibration Response of Pile Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boominathan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pile foundations are frequently used in very loose and weak deposits, in particular soft marine clays deposits to support various industrial structures, power plants, petrochemical complexes, compressor stations and residential multi-storeyed buildings. Under these circumstances, piles are predominantly subjected to horizontal dynamic loads and the pile response to horizontal vibration is very critical due to its low stiffness. Though many analytical methods have been developed to estimate the horizontal vibration response, but they are not well validated with the experimental studies. This paper presents the results of horizontal vibration tests carried out on model aluminium single piles embedded in a simulated Elastic Half Space filled with clay. The influence of various soil and pile parameters such as pile length, modulus of clay, magnitude of dynamic load and frequency of excitation on the horizontal vibration response of single piles was examined. Measurement of various response quantities, such as the load transferred to the pile, pile head displacement and the strain variation along the pile length were done using a Data Acquisition System. It is found that the pile length, modulus of clay and dynamic load, significantly influences the natural frequency and peak amplitude of the soil-pile system. The maximum bending moment occurs at the fundamental frequency of the soil-pile system. The maximum bending moment of long piles is about 2 to 4 times higher than that of short piles and it increases drastically with the increase in the shear modulus of clay for both short and long piles. The active or effective pile length is found to be increasing under dynamic load and empirical equations are proposed to estimate the active pile length under dynamic loads.

  7. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2011-01-01

    .08 degrees, ICC = 0.91. Discussion: The present data support The Navicular Position Test as a reliable test of the navicular bone position during rest and loading measured in a simple test set-up. Conclusion: The Navicular Position Test was shown to have a high intraday-, intra- and inter-tester reliability...

  8. Color Shift Modeling of Light-Emitting Diode Lamps in Step-Loaded Stress Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Miao; Yang, Daoguo; Huang, J.; Zhang, Maofen; Chen, Xianping; Liang, Caihang; Koh, S.W.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2017-01-01

    The color coordinate shift of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps is investigated by running three stress-loaded testing methods, namely step-up stress accelerated degradation testing, step-down stress accelerated degradation testing, and constant stress accelerated degradation testing. A power

  9. Structural response testing of thermal barrier load-bearing ceramic pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, W.E.; Luci, R.K.; Pickering, J.L.; Oland, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    A load bearing insulating structure for use in a HTGR was investigated. The structure was composed of dense ceramic materials in the form of circular pads arranged in a stack. Specifically, the test program was structured to investigate the isolation effectiveness of interface materials placed between the ceramic pads to reduce the effectiveness of mechanically induced loads. The tests were conducted at room temperature using tapered loading platens on single ceramic pads. Seventeen alumina specimens, representing two types of material and two thicknesses, were tested. Three interface material thicknesses were introduced using silica cloth and graphite foil. Pre and post test nondestructive examinations were conducted in an effort to identify potential damage-inducing anomalies in the ceramic pads. A total of 62 tests was conducted with all specimens eventually loaded to failure. (orig./HP)

  10. CURVAS DE TRANSFERENCIA DE CARGA HORIZONTAL p-y PARA SUELOS LIMOSOS LOÉSSICOS CURVAS DE TRANSFERÊNCIA DE CARGA HORIZONTAL p-y PARA SOLOS LIMOSOS LOÉSSICOS HORIZOTAL LOAD TRANSFERENCE p-y CURVE FOR SILTY LOESS SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO A ARRÚA

    2009-07-01

    a cargas laterais para a construção de curvas de transferência de carga horizontal p-y em condição de umidade natural e saturado. Finalmente, se analisam dois casos de estudo, onde se avalia computacionalmente a resposta de um pilotis instalado em uma camada de limo loéssico que sofre humedecimento localizado. Os resultados mostram a importância de considerar o aumento acidental de umidade no perfil quando os pilotis se encontram instalados em solos de características instáveis.Drilled deep foundations may be subjected to horizontal loads. Under this condition, the behavior analysis is complicated due to the tridimensionality of the problem. H ow ever, the models used in engineering practice often reduce the analysis to two dimensions. In this paper the procedure proposed by Matlock and Reese (1960 is modified for its applicability to loess soils. An alternative to establish the variation of the horizontal subgrade reaction module as a function of depth, for soils with intermediate characteristics between sands and clays, such as silty soils, is developed. An analogy between the cavity expansion and deflection of a pile subjected to lateral loads is established for construction of horizontal charge transfer p-y curves under natural humidity and saturated conditions. Finally, two study cases are analyzed, where the response of pile installed on loess silty soil layer suffering localized wetting is computationally evaluated. Results show the importance of considering the accidental wetting increase, when the piles are installed in unstable soils.

  11. Effects of Reducing the Cognitive Load of Mathematics Test Items on Student Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Gillmor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores a new item-writing framework for improving the validity of math assessment items. The authors transfer insights from Cognitive Load Theory (CLT, traditionally used in instructional design, to educational measurement. Fifteen, multiple-choice math assessment items were modified using research-based strategies for reducing extraneous cognitive load. An experimental design with 222 middle-school students tested the effects of the reduced cognitive load items on student performance and anxiety. Significant findings confirm the main research hypothesis that reducing the cognitive load of math assessment items improves student performance. Three load-reducing item modifications are identified as particularly effective for reducing item difficulty: signalling important information, aesthetic item organization, and removing extraneous content. Load reduction was not shown to impact student anxiety. Implications for classroom assessment and future research are discussed.

  12. Planetary Load Sharing in Three-Point Mounted Wind Turbine Gearboxes: A Design and Test Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Zhiwei [Romax InSight, Nottingham, (United Kingdom); Lucas, Doug [The Timken Company, Jackson Township, OH (United States)

    2017-04-06

    This work compares the planetary load-sharing characteristics of wind turbine gearboxes supported by cylindrical roller bearings (CRBs) and preloaded tapered roller bearings (TRBs) when subjected to rotor moments. Planetary bearing loads were measured in field-representative dynamometer tests and compared to loads predicted by finite-element models. Preloaded TRBs significantly improved load sharing. In pure torque conditions, the upwind planet bearing load in the gearbox with preloaded TRBs was only 14% more than the assumed load compared to 47% more for the gearbox with CRBs. Consequently, the predicted fatigue life of the complete set of planetary bearings for the gearbox with preloaded TRBs is 3.5 times greater than that of the gearbox with CRBs.

  13. Successful testing of an emergency diesel generator engine at very low load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killinger, A.; Loeper, St.

    2001-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the nuclear power industry has been concerned about the ability of emergency diesel generator sets (EDGs) to operate for extended periods of time at low loads (typically less than 33% of design rating) and still be capable of meeting their design safety requirement. Most diesel engine manufacturers today still caution owners and operators to avoid running their diesel engines for extended periods of time at low loads. At one nuclear power plant, the emergency electrical bus arrangement only required approximately 25% of the EDG's design rating, which necessitated that the plant operators monitor EDG operating hours and periodically increase electrical load. In order to eliminate the plant operations burden of periodically loading the EDGs, the nuclear power plant decided to conduct a low-load test of a ''spare'' diesel engine. A SACM Model UD45V16S5D diesel engine was returned to the factory in Mulhouse, France where the week long testing at rated speed and 3% of design rating was completed. The test demonstrated that the engine was capable of operating for seven days (168 hours) at very low loads, with no loss of performance and no unusual internal wear or degradation. The planning and inspections associated with preparing the diesel engine for the test, the engine monitoring performed during the test, the final test results, and the results and material condition of the engine following the test are described. The successful diesel engine low-load test resulted in the elimination of unnecessary nuclear power plant operation restrictions that were based on old concerns about long-term, low-load operation of diesel engines. The paper describes the significance of this diesel engine test to the nuclear power plant and the entire nuclear power industry. (author)

  14. Improving laboratory efficiencies to scale-up HIV viral load testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George; Onyebujoh, Philip; Nkengasong, John N

    2017-03-01

    Viral load measurement is a key indicator that determines patients' response to treatment and risk for disease progression. Efforts are ongoing in different countries to scale-up access to viral load testing to meet the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS target of achieving 90% viral suppression among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. However, the impact of these initiatives may be challenged by increased inefficiencies along the viral load testing spectrum. This will translate to increased costs and ineffectiveness of scale-up approaches. This review describes different parameters that could be addressed across the viral load testing spectrum aimed at improving efficiencies and utilizing test results for patient management. Though progress is being made in some countries to scale-up viral load, many others still face numerous challenges that may affect scale-up efficiencies: weak demand creation, ineffective supply chain management systems; poor specimen referral systems; inadequate data and quality management systems; and weak laboratory-clinical interface leading to diminished uptake of test results. In scaling up access to viral load testing, there should be a renewed focus to address efficiencies across the entire spectrum, including factors related to access, uptake, and impact of test results.

  15. Cyclic loading tests on ceramic breeder pebble bed by discrete element modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Guo, Haibing; Shi, Tao [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Ye, Minyou [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Huang, Hongwen, E-mail: hhw@caep.cn [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Zhenghong, E-mail: inpcnyb@sina.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Methods of cyclic loading tests on the pebble beds were developed in DEM. • Size distribution and sphericity of the pebbles were considered for the specimen. • Mechanical responses of the pebble beds under cyclic loading tests were assessed. - Abstract: Complex mechanics and packing instability can be induced by loading operation on ceramic breeder pebble bed for its discrete nature. A numerical approach using discrete element method (DEM) is applied to study the mechanical performance of the ceramic breeder pebble bed under quasi-static and cyclic loads. A preloaded specimen can be made with servo-control mechanism, the quasi-static and dynamic stress-strain performances are studied during the tests. It is found that the normalized normal contact forces under quasi-static loads have the similar distributions, and increase with increasing loads. Furthermore, the relatively low volumetric strain can be absorbed by pebble bed after several loading and unloading cycles, but the peak normal contact force can be extremely high during the first cycle. Cyclic loading with target pressure is recommended for densely packing, irreversible volume reduction gradually increase with cycles, and the normal contact forces decrease with cycles.

  16. Cyclic loading tests on ceramic breeder pebble bed by discrete element modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao; Guo, Haibing; Shi, Tao; Ye, Minyou; Huang, Hongwen; Li, Zhenghong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Methods of cyclic loading tests on the pebble beds were developed in DEM. • Size distribution and sphericity of the pebbles were considered for the specimen. • Mechanical responses of the pebble beds under cyclic loading tests were assessed. - Abstract: Complex mechanics and packing instability can be induced by loading operation on ceramic breeder pebble bed for its discrete nature. A numerical approach using discrete element method (DEM) is applied to study the mechanical performance of the ceramic breeder pebble bed under quasi-static and cyclic loads. A preloaded specimen can be made with servo-control mechanism, the quasi-static and dynamic stress-strain performances are studied during the tests. It is found that the normalized normal contact forces under quasi-static loads have the similar distributions, and increase with increasing loads. Furthermore, the relatively low volumetric strain can be absorbed by pebble bed after several loading and unloading cycles, but the peak normal contact force can be extremely high during the first cycle. Cyclic loading with target pressure is recommended for densely packing, irreversible volume reduction gradually increase with cycles, and the normal contact forces decrease with cycles.

  17. Part 1 : heavy axle load revenue service mega site testing 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Since 2005, the Federal Railroad Administration : and the Association of American Railroads have : jointly funded a heavy axle load (HAL) revenue : service testing program with several objectives. : One objective is to determine the effects of HAL : ...

  18. Part 2 : heavy axle load revenue service mega site testing 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Since 2005, the Federal Railroad Administration : and the Association of American Railroads have : jointly funded a heavy axle load (HAL) revenue : service testing program, with several objectives. : One objective is to determine the effects of HAL :...

  19. Full Scale Test of SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find Mølholt; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk

    This report is a part of the research project “Eksperimentel vingeforskning: Strukturelle mekanismer i nutidens og fremtidens store vinger under kombineret last” where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S has been tested in edgewise direction (LTT). The applied load is 60......% of an unrealistic extreme event, corresponding to 75% of a certificated extreme load. This report describes the background, the test set up, the tests and the results. For this project, a new solution has been used for the load application and the solution for the load application is described in this report...... as well. The blade has been submitted to thorough examination. More areas have been examined with DIC, both global and local deflections have been measured, and also 378 strain gauge measurements have been performed. Furthermore Acoustic Emission has been used in order to detect damage while testing new...

  20. Passenger car crippling end-load test and analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI) performed a series of full-scale tests and a finite element analysis (FEA) in a case study that may become a model for manufacturers seeking to use the waiver process of Tier I crashworthiness and occ...

  1. Preventive maintenance and load testing of fixed position cranes in support of major operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detrick, C.K.

    1980-01-01

    This paper will address load testing and preventive maintenance of fixed in-place cranes in general, and maintenance and load testing of the 200 ton Polar Gantry Crane at the FFTF in particular. This paper also covers the installation of a 100-ton bridge crane in the FFTF's Reactor Service Building, as well as use of these cranes in making important lifts of FFTF equipment

  2. 1-g model loading tests: methods and results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feda, Jaroslav

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (1999), s. 371-381 ISSN 1436-6517. [Int.Conf. on Soil - Structure Interaction in Urban Civ. Engineering. Darmstadt, 08.10.1999-09.10.1999] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC C7.10 Keywords : shallow foundation * model tests * sandy subsoil * bearing capacity * subsoil failure * volume deformation Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  3. Full Scale Test of SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT. Data Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find M.; Nielsen, Per H. (and others)

    2010-01-15

    This report is a part of a research project where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S has been tested in edgewise direction (LTT). The applied load is 60% of an unrealistic extreme event, corresponding to 75% of a certificated extreme load. This report describes the background, the test set up, the tests and the results. For this project, a new solution has been used for the load application and the solution for the load application is described in this report as well. The blade has been submitted to thorough examination. More areas have been examined with DIC, both global and local deflections have been measured, and also 378 strain gauge measurements have been performed. Furthermore Acoustic Emission has been used in order to detect damage while testing new load areas. The global deflection is compared with results from a previous test and results from FEM analyses in order to validate the solution as to how the gravity load on the blade was handled. Furthermore, the DIC measurement and the displacement sensors measurements are compared in order to validate the results from the DIC measurements. The report includes the results from the test and a description of the measurement equipment and the data acquisition. (author)

  4. Experimental Testing of Monopiles in Sand Subjected to One-Way Long-Term Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    In the offshore wind turbine industry the most widely used foundation type is the monopile. Due to the wave and wind forces the monopile is subjected to a strong cyclic loading with varying amplitude, maximum loading level, and varying loading period. In this paper the soil–pile interaction...... of a monopile in sand subjected to a long-term cyclic lateral loading is investigated by means of small scale tests. The tests are conducted with a mechanical loading rig capable of applying the cyclic loading as a sine signal with varying amplitude, mean loading level, and loading period for more than 60 000...... cycles. The tests are conducted in dense saturated sand. The maximum moment applied in the cyclic tests is varied from 18% to 36% of the ultimate lateral resistance found in a static loading test. The tests reveal that the accumulated rotation can be expressed by use of a power function. Further, static...

  5. In Situ Test Study of Characteristics of Coal Mining Dynamic Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combination of coal mining dynamic load and high static stress can easily induce such dynamic disasters as rock burst, coal and gas outburst, roof fall, and water inrush. In order to obtain the characteristic parameters of mining dynamic load and dynamic mechanism of coal and rock, the stress wave theory is applied to derive the relation of mining dynamic load strain rate and stress wave parameters. The in situ test was applied to study the stress wave propagation law of coal mine dynamic load by using the SOS microseismic monitoring system. An evaluation method for mining dynamic load strain rate was proposed, and the statistical evaluation was carried out for the range of strain rate. The research results show that the loading strain rate of mining dynamic load is in direct proportion to the seismic frequency of coal-rock mass and particle peak vibration velocity and is in inverse proportion to wave velocity. The high-frequency component damps faster than the low-frequency component in the shockwave propagating process; and the peak particle vibration velocity has a power functional relationship with the transmitting distance. The loading strain rate of mining dynamic load is generally less than class 10−1/s.

  6. Structural evaluation of spent nuclear fuel storage facilities under aircraft crash impact (2). Horizontal impact test onto reduced scale metal cask due to aircraft engine missile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Kosuke; Shirai, Koji; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2009-01-01

    In this study, to confirm the sealing performance of a metal cask subjected to impact force due to possible commercial aircraft crash against a spent fuel storage facility, the horizontal impact test was carried out. In the test, an aircraft engine missile with a speed of 57.3 m/s attacked the reduced scale metal cask containing helium gas, which stands vertically. Then the leak rate and sliding displacement of the lid were measured. The leak rate increased rapidly and reached to 4.0 x 10 -6 Pa·m 3 /sec. After that, the leak rate decreased slowly and converged to 1.0x10 -6 Pa·m 3 /sec after 20 hours from the impact test. The leak rate of a full scale cask was evaluated using that of reduced scale cask obtained by the test. Then the leak rate of the full scale cask was 3.5x10 -5 Pa·m 3 /sec. This result showed that the sealing performance of the full scale metal cask would not be affected immediately by the horizontal impact of the aircraft engine with a speed of 57.3 m/s. (author)

  7. The scratch test - Different critical load determination techniques. [adhesive strength of thin hard coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekler, J.; Hintermann, H. E.; Steinmann, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Different critical load determination techniques such as microscopy, acoustic emission, normal, tangential, and lateral forces used for scratch test evaluation of complex or multilayer coatings are investigated. The applicability of the scratch test to newly developed coating techniques, systems, and applications is discussed. Among the methods based on the use of a physical measurement, acoustic emission detection is the most effective. The dynamics ratio between the signals below and above the critical load for the acoustic emission (much greater than 100) is well above that obtained with the normal, tangential, and lateral forces. The present commercial instruments are limited in load application performance. A scratch tester able to apply accurate loads as low as 0.01 N would probably overcome most of the actual limitations and would be expected to extend the scratch testing technique to different application fields such as optics and microelectronics.

  8. Parasite load and risk factors for poor outcome among children with visceral leishmaniasis. A cohort study in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vitória Assumpção Mourão

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and laboratory risk factors for death from visceral leishmaniasis (VL are relatively known, but quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR might assess the role of parasite load in determining clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors, including parasite load in peripheral blood, for VL poor outcome among children. This prospective cohort study evaluated children aged ≤ 12 years old with VL diagnosis at three times: pre-treatment (T0, during treatment (T1 and post-treatment (T2. Forty-eight patients were included and 16 (33.3% met the criteria for poor outcome. Age ≤ 12 months [relative risk (RR 3.51; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.89-6.52], tachydyspnoea (RR 3.46; 95% CI 2.19-5.47, bacterial infection (RR 3.08; 95% CI 1.27-7.48, liver enlargement (RR 3.00; 95% CI 1.44-6.23 and low serum albumin (RR 7.00; 95% CI 1.80-27.24 were identified as risk factors. qPCR was positive in all patients at T0 and the parasite DNA was undetectable in 76.1% of them at T1 and in 90.7% at T2. There was no statistical association between parasite load at T0 and poor outcome.

  9. Test-element assembly and loading parameters for the in-pile test of HCPB ceramic pebble beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laan, J.G. van der E-mail: vanderlaan@nrg-nl.com; Boccaccini, L.V.; Conrad, R.; Fokkens, J.H.; Jong, M.; Magielsen, A.J.; Pijlgroms, B.J.; Reimann, J.; Stijkel, M.P.; Malang, S

    2002-11-01

    In the framework of developing the helium cooled pebble-bed (HCPB) blanket an irradiation test of pebble-bed assemblies is prepared at the HFR Petten. The test objective is to concentrate on the effect of neutron irradiation on the thermal-mechanical behaviour of the HCPB breeder pebble-bed at DEMO representative levels of temperature and defined thermal-mechanical loads. The paper reports on the project status, and presents the results of pre-tests, material characteristics, the manufacturing of the pebble-bed assemblies, and the nuclear and thermo-mechanical loading parameters.

  10. Field testing of stiffened deep cement mixing piles under lateral cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raongjant, Werasak; Jing, Meng

    2013-06-01

    Construction of seaside and underground wall bracing often uses stiffened deep cement mixed columns (SDCM). This research investigates methods used to improve the level of bearing capacity of these SDCM when subjected to cyclic lateral loading via various types of stiffer cores. Eight piles, two deep cement mixed piles and six stiffened deep cement mixing piles with three different types of cores, H shape cross section prestressed concrete, steel pipe, and H-beam steel, were embedded though soft clay into medium-hard clay on site in Thailand. Cyclic horizontal loading was gradually applied until pile failure and the hysteresis loops of lateral load vs. lateral deformation were recorded. The lateral carrying capacities of the SDCM piles with an H-beam steel core increased by 3-4 times that of the DCM piles. This field research clearly shows that using H-beam steel as a stiffer core for SDCM piles is the best method to improve its lateral carrying capacity, ductility and energy dissipation capacity.

  11. Can manipulations of cognitive load be used to test evolutionary hypotheses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, H Clark; Frederick, David A; Haselton, Martie G; Kurzban, Robert

    2006-09-01

    D. DeSteno, M. Y. Bartlett, J. Braverman, and P. Salovey proposed that if sex-differentiated responses to infidelity are evolved, then they should be automatic, and therefore cognitive load should not attenuate them. DeSteno et al. found smaller sex differences in response to sexual versus emotional infidelity among participants under cognitive load, an effect interpreted as evidence against the evolutionary hypothesis. This logic is faulty. Cognitive load probably affects mechanisms involved in simulating infidelity experiences, thus seriously challenging the usefulness of cognitive load manipulations in testing hypotheses involving simulation. The method also entails the assumption that evolved jealousy mechanisms are necessarily automatic, an assumption not supported by theory or evidence. Regardless of how the jealousy debate is eventually settled, cognitive load manipulations cannot rule out the operation of evolved mechanisms. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Overview of the 6 Meter HIAD Inflatable Structure and Flexible TPS Static Load Test Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Greg; Kazemba, Cole; Johnson, Keith; Calomino, Anthony; Hughes, Steve; Cassell, Alan; Cheatwood, Neil

    2014-01-01

    To support NASAs long term goal of landing humans on Mars, technologies which enable the landing of heavy payloads are being developed. Current entry, decent, and landing technologies are not practical for this class of payloads due to geometric constraints dictated by current launch vehicle fairing limitations. Therefore, past and present technologies are now being explored to provide a mass and volume efficient solution to atmospheric entry, including Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs). At the beginning of 2014, a 6m HIAD inflatable structure with an integrated flexible thermal protection system (TPS) was subjected to a static load test series to verify the designs structural performance. The 6m HIAD structure was constructed in a stacked toroid configuration using nine inflatable torus segments composed of fiber reinforced thin films, which were joined together using adhesives and high strength textile woven structural straps to help distribute the loads throughout the inflatable structure. The 6m flexible TPS was constructed using multiple layers of high performance materials to protect the inflatable structure from heat loads that would be seen during atmospheric entry. To perform the static load test series, a custom test fixture was constructed. The fixture consisted of a structural tub rim with enough height to allow for displacement of the inflatable structure as loads were applied. The bottom of the tub rim had an airtight seal with the floor. The centerbody of the inflatable structure was attached to a pedestal mount as seen in Figure 1. Using an impermeable membrane seal draped over the test article, partial vacuum was pulled beneath the HIAD, resulting in a uniform static pressure load applied to the outer surface. During the test series an extensive amount of instrumentation was used to provide many data sets including: deformed shape, shoulder deflection, strap loads, cord loads, inflation pressures, and applied static load

  13. Objective effect manifestation of pectus excavatum on load-stressed pulmonary function testing: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Jason

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall that, under certain conditions, may pose functional problems due to cardiopulmonary compromise and exercise intolerance. Case presentation We present the case of an otherwise physically-adept 21-year-old Chinese sportsman with idiopathic pectus excavatum, whose symptoms manifested only on bearing a loaded body vest and backpack during physical exercise. Corroborative objective evidence was obtained via load-stressed pulmonary function testing, which demonstrated restrictive lung function. Conclusion This report highlights the possible detrimental synergism of thoracic load stress and pectus excavatum on cardiopulmonary function. Thoracic load-stressed pulmonary function testing provides objective evidence in support of such a synergistic relationship.

  14. Acoustic analysis with vocal loading test in occupational voice disorders: outcomes before and after voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kotyło, Piotr; Politański, Piotr; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2008-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of acoustic analysis with vocal loading test for evaluating the treatment outcomes in occupational voice disorders. Fifty-one female teachers with dysphonia were examined (Voice Handicap Index--VHI, laryngovideostroboscopy and acoustic analysis with vocal loading) before and after treatment. The outcomes of teachers receiving vocal training (group I) were referred to outcomes of group II receiving only voice hygiene instructions. The results of subjective assessment (VHI score) and objective evaluation (acoustic analysis) improved more significantly in group I than in group II. The post-treatment examination revealed a decreased percentage of subjects with deteriorated jitter parameters after vocal loading, particularly in group I. Acoustic analysis with vocal loading test can be a helpful tool in the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy in occupational dysphonia.

  15. Performance Test of Korea Heat Load Test Facility (KoHLT-EB) for the Plasma Facing Components of Fusion Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk-Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Dong Won; Cho, Seungyon

    2014-01-01

    The main components of the plasma facing components (PFCs) in the tokamak are the blanket first wall and divertor, which include the armour materials, the heat sink with the cooling mechanism, and the diagnostics devices for the temperature measurement. The Korea Heat Load Test facility by using electron beam (KoHLT-EB) has been operating for the plasma facing components to develop fusion engineering. This electron beam facility was constructed using a 300 kW electron gun and a cylindrical vacuum chamber. Performance tests were carried out for the calorimetric calibrations with Cu dummy mockup and for the heat load test of large Cu module. For the simulation of the heat load test of each mockup, the preliminary thermal-hydraulic analyses with ANSYS-CFX were performed. For the development of the plasma facing components in the fusion reactors, test mockups were fabricated and tested in the high heat flux test facility. To perform a beam profile test, an assessment of the possibility of electron beam Gaussian power density profile and the results of the absorbed power for that profile before the test starts are needed. To assess the possibility of a Gaussian profile, for the qualification test of the Gaussian heat load profile, a calorimeter mockup and large Cu module were manufactured to simulate real heat. For this high-heat flux test, the Korean high-heat flux test facility using an electron beam system was constructed. In this facility, a cyclic heat flux test will be performed to measure the surface heat flux, surface temperature profile, and cooling capacity

  16. Performance Test of Korea Heat Load Test Facility (KoHLT-EB) for the Plasma Facing Components of Fusion Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk-Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The main components of the plasma facing components (PFCs) in the tokamak are the blanket first wall and divertor, which include the armour materials, the heat sink with the cooling mechanism, and the diagnostics devices for the temperature measurement. The Korea Heat Load Test facility by using electron beam (KoHLT-EB) has been operating for the plasma facing components to develop fusion engineering. This electron beam facility was constructed using a 300 kW electron gun and a cylindrical vacuum chamber. Performance tests were carried out for the calorimetric calibrations with Cu dummy mockup and for the heat load test of large Cu module. For the simulation of the heat load test of each mockup, the preliminary thermal-hydraulic analyses with ANSYS-CFX were performed. For the development of the plasma facing components in the fusion reactors, test mockups were fabricated and tested in the high heat flux test facility. To perform a beam profile test, an assessment of the possibility of electron beam Gaussian power density profile and the results of the absorbed power for that profile before the test starts are needed. To assess the possibility of a Gaussian profile, for the qualification test of the Gaussian heat load profile, a calorimeter mockup and large Cu module were manufactured to simulate real heat. For this high-heat flux test, the Korean high-heat flux test facility using an electron beam system was constructed. In this facility, a cyclic heat flux test will be performed to measure the surface heat flux, surface temperature profile, and cooling capacity.

  17. High-Speed Shaft Bearing Loads Testing and Modeling in the NREL Gearbox Reliability Collaborative: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNiff, B.; Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Sethuraman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Bearing failures in the high speed output stage of the gearbox are plaguing the wind turbine industry. Accordingly, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) has performed an experimental and theoretical investigation of loads within these bearings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the instrumentation, calibrations, data post-processing and initial results from this testing and modeling effort. Measured HSS torque, bending, and bearing loads are related to model predictions. Of additional interest is examining if the shaft measurements can be simply related to bearing load measurements, eliminating the need for invasive modifications of the bearing races for such instrumentation.

  18. Analysis and test results for a two-bladed, passive cycle pitch, horizontal-axis wind turbine in free and controlled yaw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holenemser, K.H. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report surveys the analysis and tests performed at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, on a horizontal-axis, two-laded wind turbine with teeter hub. The introduction is a brief account of results obtained during the 5-year period ending December 1985. The wind tunnel model and the test turbine (7.6 m [25 ft.] in diameter) at Washington University`s Tyson Research Center had a 67{degree} delta-three angle of the teeter axis. The introduction explains why this configuration was selected and named the passive cycle pitch (PCP) wind turbine. Through the analysis was not limited to the PCP rotor, all tests, including those done from 1986 to 1994, wee conducted with the same teetered wind rotor. The blades are rather stiff and have only a small elastic coning angle and no precone.

  19. Color Shift Modeling of Light-Emitting Diode Lamps in Step-Loaded Stress Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Miao; Yang, Daoguo; Huang, J.; Zhang, Maofen; Chen, Xianping; Liang, Caihang; Koh, S.W.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2017-01-01

    The color coordinate shift of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps is investigated by running three stress-loaded testing methods, namely step-up stress accelerated degradation testing, step-down stress accelerated degradation testing, and constant stress accelerated degradation testing. A power model is proposed as the statistical model of the color shift (CS) process of LED products. Consequently, a CS mechanism constant is obtained for detecting the consistency of CS mechanisms among various s...

  20. Dynamic load testing on the bearing capacity of prestressed tubular concrete piles in soft ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuang; Liu, Songyu

    2008-11-01

    Dynamic load testing (DLT) is a high strain test method for assessing pile performance. The shaft capacity of a driven PTC (prestressed tubular concrete) pile in marine soft ground will vary with time after installation. The DLT method has been successfully transferred to the testing of prestressed pipe piles in marine soft clay of Lianyungang area in China. DLT is investigated to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of single pile at different period after pile installation. The ultimate bearing capacity of single pile was founded to increase more than 70% during the inventing 3 months, which demonstrate the time effect of rigid pile bearing capacity in marine soft ground. Furthermore, the skin friction and axial force along the pile shaft are presented as well, which present the load transfer mechanism of pipe pile in soft clay. It shows the economy and efficiency of DLT method compared to static load testing method.

  1. Assessment of Calculation Procedures for Piles in Clay Based on Static Loading Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Andersen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    College in London. The calculation procedures are assessed based on an established database of static loading tests. To make a consistent evaluation of the design methods, corrections related to undrained shear strength and time between pile driving and testing have been employed. The study indicates...... that the interpretation of the field tests is of paramount importance, both with regard to the soil profile and the loading conditions. Based on analyses of 253 static pile loading tests distributed on 111 sites, API-RP2A provides the better description of the data. However, it should be emphasised that some input......Numerous methods are available for the prediction of the axial capacity of piles in clay. In this paper, two well-known models are considered, namely the current API-RP2A (1987 to present) and the recently developed ICP method. The latter is developed by Jardine and his co-workers at Imperial...

  2. Stress corrosion evaluation of powder metallurgy aluminum alloy 7091 with the breaking load test method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, Marcia S.

    1987-01-01

    The stress corrosion behavior of the P/M aluminum alloy 7091 is evaluated in two overaged heat treatment conditions, T7E69 and T7E70, using an accelerated test technique known as the breaking load test method. The breaking load data obtained in this study indicate that P/M 7091 alloy is highly resistant to stress corrosion in both longitudinal and transverse orientations at stress levels up to 90 percent of the material yield strength. The reduction in mean breaking stress as a result of corrosive attack is smallest for the more overaged T7E70 condition. Details of the test procedure are included.

  3. Study on Load-displacement Test of Rubber Pads of Coal Mine Roadway Constructed by Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Chen, Xiaoguo; Yang, Liyun

    2017-12-01

    Shield method construction of coal mine roadway is the future trend of the development of deep coal mining. The main shaft supporting is the segment. There is rubber pads between segment and segment. The performance of compression deformation of rubber pad is essential for the overall stability of lining. Through load test, displacement of the rubber pad under load, the thrust force law of the rubber pad deformation, and provide a theoretical basis for the stability analysis of coal mine tunnel shield construction.

  4. Diagnosing acute HIV infection: The performance of quantitative HIV-1 RNA testing (viral load) in the 2014 laboratory testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiu; Cohen, Stephanie E; Westheimer, Emily; Gay, Cynthia L; Hall, Laura; Rose, Charles; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Gose, Severin; Fu, Jie; Peters, Philip J

    2017-08-01

    New recommendations for laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection in the United States were published in 2014. The updated testing algorithm includes a qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay to resolve discordant immunoassay results and to identify acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). The qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay is not widely available; therefore, we evaluated the performance of a more widely available quantitative HIV-1 RNA assay, viral load, for diagnosing AHI. We determined that quantitative viral loads consistently distinguished AHI from a false-positive immunoassay result. Among 100 study participants with AHI and a viral load result, the estimated geometric mean viral load was 1,377,793copies/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Centrifuge modeling of rapid load tests with open-ended piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.; Van Lottum, H.; Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and static load tests were conducted on open-ended and close-ended piles in the Deltares GeoCentriflige. hi flight, a pile was driven into the soil. Both fme-grained sand and silt beds were tested. Both the rapid and static soil resistances o f a close-ended pile were higher than the soil

  6. Measuring Cognitive Load in Test Items: Static Graphics versus Animated Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindar, M.; Kabakçi Yurdakul, I.; Inan Dönmez, F.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of multimedia learning studies focus on the use of graphics in learning process but very few of them examine the role of graphics in testing students' knowledge. This study investigates the use of static graphics versus animated graphics in a computer-based English achievement test from a cognitive load theory perspective. Three…

  7. 40 CFR 86.229-94 - Road load force, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inertia weight class determination. 86.229-94 Section 86.229-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 86.229-94 Road load force, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. (a) Flywheels... vehicle weight (pounds) Equivalent test weight (pounds) Inertia weight class (pounds) Up-1,062 1,000 1,000...

  8. Design and performance of a 2-megawatt high voltage dc test load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, D.; Kustom, R.; Ferguson, M.

    1994-01-01

    A high-power water-cooled resistive load which simulates the electrical load characteristics of a high-power klystron, capable of a 2 MW dissipation at 95 kV DC, is designed and installed. The load utilizes wirewound resistor elements suspended inside G-11 insulated tubing contained within a single-wall 316 stainless steel pressure vessel with flanged elliptical heads. The vessel supplies a continuous flow of deionized water. Baffles fabricated from G-10 sheets support the tubing and promote water turbulence to maximize heat removal. A companion oil tank houses resistive filament and mod-anode power supply test loads, plus an electrical interlock system which provides protection from inadequate water flow, excessive oil temperature, and arcing in either the pressure vessel or oil tank. A secondary safety system consists of both hydrostatic and steam pressure relief valves on the pressure vessel. Power supply tests indicate the load simulates the electrical load characteristics of a high-power klystron to a degree sufficient to accurately performance-test the rf high voltage power supplies used at the Advanced Photon Source

  9. Parenteral magnesium load testing with 28Mg in weanling and young adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caddell, J.L.; Calhoun, N.R.; Howard, M.P.; Patterson, K.Y.; Smith, J.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A sound diagnostic test for Mg deficiency is needed. This is a report of the parenteral Mg load test conducted in weanling and young adult rats fed a purified basal diet containing 3 mg magnesium/100 g with 150 mg of added magnesium/100 g (control) or 0 added magnesium (deficient). Weanlings were studied at about 1 week of dietary treatment and young adults at 2 weeks. The protocol included: a) a 6-hour preload urinary collection; b) an intraperitoneal load of 15 mg of magnesium/kg (weanlings) or 12 mg/kg (young adults) with 2 microCi 28Mg given simultaneously with each load; c) a 6-hour postload urinary collection; d) chemical analysis of selected tissues and urine for Mg; and e) 28Mg counting 6 and 24 hours postload. Controls all excreted large amounts of Mg pre- and postload, retaining less than 26% of nonradioactive loads. They had high urinary 28Mg counts. In Mg-deficient animals, the concentration of Mg in bone more than halved. These animals avidly conserved Mg and retained over 85% of nonradioactive Mg loads. Their 28Mg activity in vital organs was 3--6 times greater than in controls. We concluded that the parenteral Mg load test reliably identifies severe Mg deficiency

  10. Interzonal air and moisture transport through large horizontal openings in a full-scale two-story test-hut: Part 2 - CFD study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, S. [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Construction Engineering and Management, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, San Agustin building, 3rd floor, Campus San Joaquin, Macul, Santiago 6904411 (Chile); Fazio, P.; Rao, J. [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the air and moisture transport through a large horizontal opening in a full-scale two-story test-hut with mixed ventilation by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. CFD allows extending the experimental study presented in the companion paper and overcoming some limitations of experimental data. More than 80 cases were simulated for conditions similar to those tested experimentally and for additional ventilation rates and temperature difference between the two rooms. CFD simulations were performed in Airpak and the indoor zero-equation turbulence model was used. The CFD model was extensively validated with the distributions of air speed, temperature and humidity ratio measured across the two rooms, as well as with the measured interzonal mass airflows through the horizontal opening. CFD simulation results show that temperature difference between the two rooms and ventilation rate strongly influence the interzonal mass airflows through the opening when the upper room is colder than the lower room, while warm convective air currents from the baseboard heater and from the moisture source placed in the lower room cause upward mass airflows when the upper room is warmer than the lower room. Finally, empirical relationships between the upward mass airflow and the temperature difference between the two rooms are developed. (author)

  11. 40 CFR 86.129-94 - Road load power, test weight, inertia weight class determination, and fuel temperature profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road load power, test weight, inertia... Procedures § 86.129-94 Road load power, test weight, inertia weight class determination, and fuel temperature... duty trucks 1,2,3 Test weightbasis 4,5 Test equivalent test weight(pounds) Inertia weight class(pounds...

  12. Fatigue and creep to leak tests of proton exchange membranes using pressure-loaded blisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongqiang; Dillard, David A.; Case, Scott W. [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0219 (United States); Ellis, Michael W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0238 (United States); Lai, Yeh-Hung; Gittleman, Craig S.; Miller, Daniel P. [Fuel Cell Research Lab, GM R and D, General Motors Corporation, 10 Carriage Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472-0603 (United States)

    2009-12-01

    In this study, three commercially available proton exchange membranes (PEMs) are biaxially tested using pressure-loaded blisters to characterize their resistance to gas leakage under either static (creep) or cyclic fatigue loading. The pressurizing medium, air, is directly used for leak detection. These tests are believed to be more relevant to fuel cell applications than quasi-static uniaxial tensile-to-rupture tests because of the use of biaxial cyclic and sustained loading and the use of gas leakage as the failure criterion. They also have advantages over relative humidity cycling test, in which a bare PEM or catalyst coated membrane is clamped with gas diffusion media and flow field plates and subjected to cyclic changes in relative humidity, because of the flexibility in allowing controlled mechanical loading and accelerated testing. Nafion {sup registered} NRE-211 membranes are tested at three different temperatures and the time-temperature superposition principle is used to construct stress-lifetime master curve. Tested at 90 C, 2%RH extruded Ion Power {sup registered} N111-IP membranes have a longer lifetime than Gore trademark -Select {sup registered} 57 and Nafion {sup registered} NRE-211 membranes. (author)

  13. Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid: Some prototype studies conducted in G Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chornack, M.P.; French, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid has been conducted in the G Tunnel Underground Facility (GTUF) at the Nevada Test Site. This work is part of the prototype investigations of hydrogeology for the Yucca Mountain Project. The work is being conducted to develop methods and procedures that will be used at the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Site, a candidate site for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository, during the site characterization phase of the investigations. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting this prototype testing under the guidance of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and in conjunction with Reynolds Electrical ampersand Engineering Company (REECo), the drilling contractor. 7 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Fracture assessment of shallow-flaw cruciform beams tested under uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.; Pennell, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow, surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a far-field, out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for an RPV material. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies, namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness; the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect. A three-parameter Weibull model based on the hydrostatic stress criterion is shown to correlate with the experimentally observed biaxial effect on cleavage fracture toughness by providing a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states. (orig.)

  15. Failure Load Test of a CFRP Strengthened Railway Bridge in Oumlrnskoumlldsvik, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Bergström, Markus; Carolin, Anders

    2009-01-01

    using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) rectangular rods epoxy bonded in sawed up slots, e.g., near surface mounted reinforcement. The strengthening was very successful and resulted in a desired shear failure when the bridge was loaded to failure. The load-carrying capacity in bending...... steel reinforcement by approximately 10%, and increased the height of the compressed zone by 100 mm. When the shear failure occurred, the utilization of the compression concrete and CFRP rods were 100 and 87.5%, respectively. This indicates that a bending failure indeed was about to occur, even though......, Sweden is presented. In this particular test the shear capacity of the concrete girders was of primary interest. However, for any reasonable placement of the load (a line load placed transverse to the track direction) a bending failure would occur. This problem was solved by strengthening for flexure...

  16. Bafômetro positivo: correlatos do comportamento de beber e dirigir na cidade de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Alcoholímetro positivo: interrelación entre la conducta de beber y conducir en la ciudad de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Positive breathalyzer test: factors associated with drinking and driving in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Ribeiro Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As características dos condutores que adotam o comportamento do beber e dirigir ainda não foram bem estudadas no país. O presente estudo apresenta dados da prevalência e características dos motoristas sob a influência de álcool nas nove regionais da cidade de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram entrevistados 1.656 condutores. Desses, 1.254 (76% aceitaram responder a um questionário estruturado e fazer o teste do bafômetro. O teste do bafômetro foi positivo para 15% dos condutores. O modelo de regressão logística prediz bafômetro positivo com chance 1,5 vez maior para os condutores com idade acima de 31 anos e 4,5 vezes maior para quem tem frequência de consumo de álcool pelo menos semanal. Além disso, condutores da regional Barreiro tem 2 vezes mais chances de apresentarem bafômetro positivo. Estudos localizados com metodologia dos postos de checagem da sobriedade podem monitorar o comportamento e características dos condutores, riscos no trânsito e direcionar políticas públicas para o beber e dirigir.Las características de los conductores que adoptan la conducta de beber y conducir todavía no han sido bien estudiadas en el país. El presente estudio muestra datos de la prevalencia y características de los conductores bajo la influencia de alcohol en las nueve carreteras regionales de la ciudad de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Se entrevistaron a 1.656 conductores. De ellos, 1.254 (76% aceptaron responder a un cuestionario estructurado y hacer el test del alcoholímetro. El test del alcoholímetro fue positivo para un 15% de los conductores. El modelo de regresión logística predice un alcoholímetro positivo con una probabilidad 1,5 vez mayor para los conductores de edad por encima de los 31 años y 4,5 veces mayor para quien tiene una frecuencia de consumo de alcohol por lo menos semanal. Asimismo, conductores de la regional Barreiro tienen 2 veces más probabilidad de presentar positivo en el alcohol

  17. Applicability of laboratory data to large scale tests under dynamic loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Klenk, A.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of dynamic loading and subsequent fracture must be based on reliable data for loading and deformation history. This paper describes an investigation to examine the applicability of parameters which are determined by means of small-scale laboratory tests to large-scale tests. The following steps were carried out: (1) Determination of crack initiation by means of strain gauges applied in the crack tip field of compact tension specimens. (2) Determination of dynamic crack resistance curves of CT-specimens using a modified key-curve technique. The key curves are determined by dynamic finite element analyses. (3) Determination of strain-rate-dependent stress-strain relationships for the finite element simulation of small-scale and large-scale tests. (4) Analysis of the loading history for small-scale tests with the aid of experimental data and finite element calculations. (5) Testing of dynamically loaded tensile specimens taken as strips from ferritic steel pipes with a thickness of 13 mm resp. 18 mm. The strips contained slits and surface cracks. (6) Fracture mechanics analyses of the above mentioned tests and of wide plate tests. The wide plates (960x608x40 mm 3 ) had been tested in a propellant-driven 12 MN dynamic testing facility. For calculating the fracture mechanics parameters of both tests, a dynamic finite element simulation considering the dynamic material behaviour was employed. The finite element analyses showed a good agreement with the simulated tests. This prerequisite allowed to gain critical J-integral values. Generally the results of the large-scale tests were conservative. 19 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Validation of IEEE P1547.1 Interconnection Test Procedures: ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Englebretson, S.; Pink, C.; Daley, J.; Siciliano, R.; Hinton, D.

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of testing the ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System according to IEEE P1547.1 procedures. The ASCO system interconnects synchronous generators with the electric power system and provides monitoring and control for the generator and grid connection through extensive protective functions. The purpose of this testing is to evaluate and give feedback on the contents of IEEE Draft Standard P1547.1 Conformance Tests Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  19. Full Scale Test SSP 34m blade, Combined load. Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Hørlyk; Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find Mølholt

    This report is part of the research project entitled “Eksperimentel vingeforskning: Strukturelle mekanismer i nutidens og fremtidens store vinger under kombineret last” where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S was tested in combined flap and edgewise load. The applied load is 55...... of e.g. transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the blades’ respond to repeated tests has been studied and the result from these investigations are presented, including the measurements performed....

  20. Reliability demonstration test for load-sharing systems with exponential and Weibull components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyu Xu

    Full Text Available Conducting a Reliability Demonstration Test (RDT is a crucial step in production. Products are tested under certain schemes to demonstrate whether their reliability indices reach pre-specified thresholds. Test schemes for RDT have been studied in different situations, e.g., lifetime testing, degradation testing and accelerated testing. Systems designed with several structures are also investigated in many RDT plans. Despite the availability of a range of test plans for different systems, RDT planning for load-sharing systems hasn't yet received the attention it deserves. In this paper, we propose a demonstration method for two specific types of load-sharing systems with components subject to two distributions: exponential and Weibull. Based on the assumptions and interpretations made in several previous works on such load-sharing systems, we set the mean time to failure (MTTF of the total system as the demonstration target. We represent the MTTF as a summation of mean time between successive component failures. Next, we introduce generalized test statistics for both the underlying distributions. Finally, RDT plans for the two types of systems are established on the basis of these test statistics.

  1. Application of self-balanced loading test to socketed pile in weak rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ye; Gong, Weiming; Dai, Guoliang; Wu, JingKun

    2008-11-01

    Method of self-balanced loading test differs from the traditional methods of pile test. The key equipment of the test is a cell. The cell specially designed is used to exert load which is placed in pile body. During the test, displacement values of the top plate and the bottom plate of the cell are recorded according to every level of load. So Q-S curves can be obtained. In terms of test results, the bearing capacity of pile can be judged. Equipments of the test are simply and cost of it is low. Under some special conditions, the method will take a great advantage. In Guangxi Province, tertiary mudstone distributes widely which is typical weak rock. It is usually chosen as the bearing stratum of pile foundation. In order to make full use of its high bearing capacity, pile is generally designed as belled pile. Foundations of two high-rise buildings which are close to each other are made up of belled socketed piles in weak rock. To obtain the bearing capacity of the belled socketed pile in weak rock, loading test in situ should be taken since it is not reasonable that experimental compression strength of the mudstone is used for design. The self-balanced loading test was applied to eight piles of two buildings. To get the best test effect, the assembly of cell should be taken different modes in terms of the depth that pile socketed in rock and the dimension of the enlarged toe. The assembly of cells had been taken three modes, and tests were carried on successfully. By the self-balanced loading test, the large bearing capacities of belled socketed piles were obtained. Several key parameters required in design were achieved from the tests. For the data of tests had been analyzed, the bearing performance of pile tip, pile side and whole pile was revealed. It is further realized that the bearing capacity of belled socketed pile in the mudstone will decrease after the mudstone it socketed in has been immerged. Among kinds of mineral ingredient in the mudstone

  2. The use of point load test for Dubai weak calcareous sandstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Farouk Elhakim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Intact rock is typically described according to its uniaxial compressive strength (UCS. The UCS is needed in the design of geotechnical engineering problems including stability of rock slopes and design of shallow and deep foundations resting on and/or in rocks. Accordingly, a correct measurement/evaluation of the UCS is essential to a safe and economic design. Typically, the UCS is measured using the unconfined compression tests performed on cylindrical intact specimens with a minimum length to width ratio of 2. In several cases, especially for weak and very weak rocks, it is not possible to extract intact specimens with the needed minimum dimensions. Thus, alternative tests (e.g. point load test, Schmidt hammer are used to measure rock strength. The UCS is computed based on the results of these tests through empirical correlations. The literature includes a plethora of these correlations that vary widely in estimating rock strength. Thus, it is paramount to validate these correlations to check their suitability for estimating rock strength for a specific location and geology. A review of the available correlations used to estimate the UCS from the point load test results is performed and summarized herein. Results of UCS, point load strength index and Young's modulus are gathered for calcareous sandstone specimens extracted from the Dubai area. A correlation for estimating the UCS from the point load strength index is proposed. Furthermore, the Young's modulus is correlated to the UCS.

  3. Development of a 20 MeV Dielectric-Loaded Accelerator Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, Steven H.; Fliflet, Arne W.; Kinkead, Allen K.; Gai Wei; Power, John G.; Konecny, Richard; Jing Chunguang; Tantawi, Sami G.; Nantista, Christopher D.; Hu, Y.; Chen, H.; Tang, C.; Lin, Y.; Bruce, Ralph W.; Bruce, Robert L.; Lewis, David III

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a joint project by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in collaboration with the StanFord Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), to develop a dielectric-loaded accelerator (DLA) test facility powered by a high-power 11.424-GHz magnicon amplifier. The magnicon can presently produce 25 MW of output power in a 250-ns pulse at 10 Hz, and efforts are in progress to increase this to 50 MW. The facility will include a 5 MeV electron injector being developed by the Accelerator Laboratory of Tsinghua University in Beijing, China. The DLA test structures are being developed by ANL, and some have undergone testing at NRL at gradients up to ∼8 MV/m. SLAC is developing a means to combine the two magnicon output arms, and to drive an injector and accelerator with separate control of the power ratio and relative phase. RWBruce Associates, Inc., working with NRL, is developing a means to join short ceramic sections into a continuous accelerator tube by ceramic brazing using an intense millimeter-wave beam. The installation and testing of the first dielectric-loaded test accelerator, including injector, DLA structure, and spectrometer, should take place within the next year. The facility will be used for testing DLA structures using a variety of materials and configurations, and also for testing other X-band accelerator concepts. The initial goal is to produce a compact 20 MeV dielectric-loaded test accelerator

  4. The Analysis of process optimization during the loading distribution test for steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangwei; Cao Yuhua; Li Dawei

    2014-01-01

    The loading distribution of steam turbine needs six times to complete in total, the first time is completed when the turbine cylinder buckles, the rest must be completed orderly in the process of installing GVP pipe. To complete 5 tests of loading distribution and installation of GVP pipe, it usually takes around 90 days for most nuclear plants while the unit l of Fuqing Nuclear Power Station compress it into about 45 days by optimizing the installation process. this article describes the successful experience of how the Unit l of Fuqing Nuclear Power Station finished 5 tests of loading distribution and installation of GVP pipe in 45 days by optimizing the process, Meanwhile they analysis the advantages and disadvantages through comparing it with the process provide by suppliers, which brings up some rationalization proposals for installation work to the follow-up units of our plant. (authors)

  5. Deformation Behavior of Recycled Concrete Aggregate during Cyclic and Dynamic Loading Laboratory Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA is a relatively new construction material, whose applications can replace natural aggregates. To do so, extensive studies on its mechanical behavior and deformation characteristics are still necessary. RCA is currently used as a subbase material in the construction of roads, which are subject to high settlements due to traffic loading. The deformation characteristics of RCA must, therefore, be established to find the possible fatigue and damage behavior for this new material. In this article, a series of triaxial cyclic loading and resonant column tests is used to characterize fatigue in RCA as a function of applied deviator stress after long-term cyclic loading. A description of the shakedown phenomenon occurring in the RCA and calculations of its resilient modulus (Mr as a function of fatigue are also presented. Test result analysis with the stress-life method on the Wohler S-N diagram shows the RCA behavior in accordance with the Basquin law.

  6. Experiences with tungsten coatings in high heat flux tests and under plasma load in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A; Greuner, H; Fuchs, J C; Marne, P de; Neu, R

    2009-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade was operated with about 6400 s plasma discharge during the scientific program in 2007/2008 exploring tungsten as a first wall material in tokamaks. In the first phase, the heating power was restricted to 10 MW. It was increased to 15 MW in the second phase. During this operational period, a delamination of the 200 μm W-VPS coating happened at 2 out of 128 tiles of the outer divertor and an unscheduled opening was required. In the third phase, ASDEX Upgrade was operated with partly predamaged tiles and up to 15 MW heating power. The target load was actively controlled by N 2 -seeding. This paper presents the screening test of target tiles in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS, experiences with operation and detected damages of the outer divertor as well as the heat load to the outer divertor and the reasons for the toroidal asymmetry of the divertor load.

  7. Effects of Motion in the Far Peripheral Visual Field on Cognitive Test Performance and Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Andy; Paas, Fred; Krigbaum, Genomary

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive load theory posits that limited attention is in actuality a limitation in working memory resources. The load theory of selective attention and cognitive control sees the interplay between attention and awareness as separate modifying functions that act on working memory. Reconciling the theoretical differences in these two theories has important implications for learning. Thirty-nine adult participants performed a cognitively demanding test, with and without movement in the far peripheral field. Although the results for movement effects on cognitive load in this experiment were not statistically significant, men spent less time on the cognitive test in the peripheral movement condition than in the conditions without peripheral movement. No such difference was found for women. The implications of these results and recommendations for future research that extends the present study are presented. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Elysium region, mars: Tests of lithospheric loading models for the formation of tectonic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.L.; Solomon, S.C.; Head, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The second largest volcanic province on Mars lies in the Elysium region. Like the larger Tharsis province, Elysium is marked by a topographic rise and a broad free air gravity anomaly and also exhibits a complex assortment of tectonic and volcanic features. We test the hypothesis that the tectonic features in the Elysium region are the product of stresses produced by loading of the Martian lithosphere. We consider loading at three different scales: local loading by individual volcanoes, regional loading of the lithosphere from above or below, and quasi-global loading by Tharsis. A comparison of flexural stresses with lithospheric strength and with the inferred maximum depth of faulting confirms that concentric graben around Elysium Mons can be explained as resulting from local flexure of an elastic lithosphere about 50 km thick in response to the volcano load. Volcanic loading on a regional scale, however, leads to predicted stresses inconsistent with all observed tectonic features, suggesting that loading by widespread emplacement of thick plains deposits was not an important factor in the tectonic evolution of the Elysium region. A number of linear extensional features oriented generally NW-SE may have been the result of flexural uplift of the lithosphere on the scale of the Elysium rise. The global stress field associated with the support of the Tharsis rise appears to have influenced the development of many of the tectonic features in the Elysium region, including Cerberus Rupes and the systems of ridges in eastern and western Elysium. The comparisons of stress models for Elysium with the preserved tectonic features support a succession of stress fields operating at different times in the region

  9. Evaluation of Many Load Tests of Passive Rock Bolts in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holý Ondřej

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the research project “FR-TI4/329 Research and development - creating an application system for the design and analysis of soil and rock anchors including the development of monitoring elements”, an extensive stage of field load tests of rock bolts was carried out. The tests were conducted at 14 locations with varied rock composition. Before the initial tests, a loading stand was designed and constructed. A total of 201 pieces of tensile tests of bolts having lengths from 0.5 up to 2.5 m, a diameter of 22-32 mm, were performed. These were fully threaded rods, self-drilling rods, and fiberglass rods. The bolts were clamped into the cement and resin. The loading tests were always performed until material failure of bolts or shear stress failure at the interface cement-rock. At each location, basic geotechnical survey was carried out in the form of core drilling in a length of 3.0 metres with the assessment of the rock mass in situ, and laboratory testing of rock mechanics. Upon the completion of testing protocols, rock mass properties analysis was performed focusing on the evaluation of shear friction at the grouting-rock interface.

  10. Static pile load tests on driven piles into Intermediate-Geo Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) has concerns with both predicting pile lengths and pile capacities for H-piles driven into Intermediate-Geo Materials (IGM). The goal of the research was to perform 7 static axial load tests at 7 lo...

  11. The effect on road load due to variations in valid coast down tests for passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensch, P. van; Ligterink, N.E.; Cuelenaere, R.F.A.

    2014-01-01

    Real-world CO2 emissions of passenger cars very often deviate from the Type Approval value. The Type Approval value for CO2 emissions of passenger cars is based on a chassis dynamometer test in a laboratory. The total vehicle resistance of a vehicle, or 'road load', is simulated on the chassis

  12. Small-Scale Testing of Laterally Loaded Non-Slender Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    in sand subjected to lateral loading are analysed by means of small-scale laboratory tests. The six quasi-static tests are conducted on piles with diameters of 40 mm and 100 mm and a slenderness ratio, L/D, of 5. In order to minimise scale effects, the tests are carried out in a pressure tank at stress...... levels of 0 kPa, 50 kPa, and 100 kPa, respectively. From the tests load-deflection relationships of the piles at three levels above the soil surface are obtained. The load-deflection relationships reveal that the uncertainties of the results for the pile with diameter of 40~mm are large due to the small......In current design of offshore wind turbines, monopiles are often used as foundation. The behaviour of the monopiles when subjected to lateral loading has not been fully investigated, e.g. the diameter effect on the soil response. In this paper the behaviour of two non-slender aluminium piles...

  13. Realization of an Electronic Load for Testing Low Power PEM Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordje Šaponjić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A realized electronic load system intended for testing and characterization of hydrogen fuel sells is described. The system is based on microcontroller PIC16F877 by applying the concept of virtual instrumentation. The accomplished accuracy of the developed electronic system allows performing efficiently investigations of the electro-chemical phenomena involved in the process of designing hydrogen fuel cells.

  14. Testing measurements at horizontal channels of the MARIA reactor performed using neutron spectrometers; Pomiary testowe przy kanalach poziomych reaktora MARIA wykonane przy uzyciu spektrometrow neutronow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murasik, A. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    By means of neutron diffraction, using the standard polycrystalline sample of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, measurements on three (of four spectrometers) already installed in the front of horizontal channels of MARIA reactor have been performed. Basing on these experiments as well as on activation measurements carried out earlier, the fluxes of monoenergetic neutrons have been estimated. These experiments allowed to determine (for a given geometry and kind of monochromators chosen) the resolution efficiency of instruments and high order contamination in the reflected beam. With the help of polycrystalline vanadium and TbBr{sub 3} sample, the possibility of studies using the inelastic scattering process have been tested. (author) 7 refs, 15 figs, 7 tabs

  15. Development of Vehicle Model Test for Road Loading Analysis of Sedan Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nor, M. K.; Noordin, A.; Ruzali, M. F. S.; Hussen, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    Simple Structural Surfaces (SSS) method is offered as a means of organizing the process for rationalizing the basic vehicle body structure load paths. The application of this simplified approach is highly beneficial in the design development of modern passenger car structure especially during the conceptual stage. In Malaysia, however, there is no real physical model of SSS available to gain considerable insight and understanding into the function of each major subassembly in the whole vehicle structures. Based on this motivation, a physical model of SSS for sedan model with the corresponding model vehicle tests of bending and torsion is proposed in this work. The proposed approach is relatively easy to understand as compared to Finite Element Method (FEM). The results show that the proposed vehicle model test is capable to show that satisfactory load paths can give a sufficient structural stiffness within the vehicle structure. It is clearly observed that the global bending stiffness reduce significantly when more panels are removed from a complete SSS model. It is identified that parcel shelf is an important subassembly to sustain bending load. The results also match with the theoretical hypothesis, as the stiffness of the structure in an open section condition is shown weak when subjected to torsion load compared to bending load. The proposed approach can potentially be integrated with FEM to speed up the design process of automotive vehicle.

  16. Accelerated fatigue testing of dentin-composite bond with continuously increasing load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Guo, Jiawen; Li, Yuping; Heo, Young Cheul; Chen, Jihua; Xin, Haitao; Fok, Alex

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an accelerated fatigue test method that used a continuously increasing load for testing the dentin-composite bond strength. Dentin-composite disks (ϕ5mm×2mm) made from bovine incisor roots were subjected to cyclic diametral compression with a continuously increasingly load amplitude. Two different load profiles, linear and nonlinear with respect to the number of cycles, were considered. The data were then analyzed by using a probabilistic failure model based on the Weakest-Link Theory and the classical stress-life function, before being transformed to simulate clinical data of direct restorations. All the experimental data could be well fitted with a 2-parameter Weibull function. However, a calibration was required for the effective stress amplitude to account for the difference between static and cyclic loading. Good agreement was then obtained between theory and experiments for both load profiles. The in vitro model also successfully simulated the clinical data. The method presented will allow tooth-composite interfacial fatigue parameters to be determined more efficiently. With suitable calibration, the in vitro model can also be used to assess composite systems in a more clinically relevant manner. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pad stress tests with increasing load for the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimstad, Liv; Larsen, Elsa Skjønhaug; Schiøtz, Hjalmar A; Kulseng-Hanssen, Sigurd

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to test the ability of pad stress tests with increasing load (supine, jumping on the floor, and jumping on a trampoline) to document stress incontinence in subjectively stress incontinent women. In this prospective study 147 subjectively stress and mixed incontinent women performed consecutively the three pad stress tests with a bladder volume of 300 ml. Nineteen women performed a second trampoline pad stress test to test repeatability of the test. Nine continent women performed a trampoline pad stress test in order to determine if subjectively continent women would leak during the test. Seventy-two women (49%) leaked during the supine, 136 (93%) leaked during the jumping, and 146 (99%) leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The differences between pad stress tests were significant with P trampoline pad stress tests was high at 0.8. None of the nine continent women leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The supine pad stress test has low sensitivity and is therefore often falsely negative. The jumping pad stress test is a simple test to perform and is satisfactory for everyday use. Subjectively stress incontinent women who do not leak during the jumping pad stress test may perform a trampoline pad stress test to document stress incontinence. The trampoline pad stress test is also simple to perform and detected leakage in 91% of the women who did not leak during the jumping pad stress test. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Testing to determine the leakage behavior of inflatable seals subject to severe accident loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Sandia National Laboratories is currently developing test validated methods to predict the pressure capacity, at elevated temperatures, of light water reactor (LWR) nuclear containment vessels subject to loads well beyond their design basis - the so-called severe accident. Scale model tests of containments with the major penetrations represented have been carried to functional failure by internal pressurization. Also, combined pressure and elevated temperature tests of typical compression seals and gaskets, a full size personnel airlock, and of typical electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs), have been conducted in order to better understand the leakage behavior of containment penetrations. Because inflatable seals are also a part of the pressure boundary of some containments, it is important to understand their leakage behavior as well. This paper discusses the results of tests that were performed to better define the leakage behavior of inflatable seals when subjected to loads well beyond their design basis

  19. Material Compressing Test of the High Polymer Part Used in Draft Gear of Heavy Load Locomotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yangang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the actual load cases of heavy load locomotive, the material compressing tests of the high polymer parts used in the locomotive are researched. The relationship between stress and strain during the material compressing are acquired by means of comparing the many results of the material compressing tests under different test condition. The relationship between stress and strain during the material compressing is nonlinear in large range of strain, but the relationship is approximately linear in small range of strain. The material of the high polymer made in China and the material of the high polymer imported are compared through the tests. The results show that the compressing property of the material of the high polymer made in China and the material of the high polymer imported are almost same. The research offers the foundation to study the structure elasticity of the draft gear.

  20. Back Squat Potentiates Both Vertical and Horizontal Jump Performance in Collegiate Ice Hockey Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cale Bechtel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Back squats (BSQ have been shown to transiently improve performance in explosive vertical movements such as the vertical jump (VJ. Still, understanding of this phenomenon, termed post-activation potentiation (PAP, remains nebulous as it relates to explosive horizontal movements. Objective: Therefore, the purpose of the present investigation was to assess whether heavy BSQ can potentiate both VJ and horizontal jump (HJ performance. Method: Nine male ice hockey players from the Long Beach State ice hockey team performed five testing sessions separated by 96-hours. The first testing session consisted of a one repetition maximum (1-RM BSQ to determine subsequent testing loads. The four subsequent testing sessions, which were randomized for order, consisted of five repetitions of BSQ at 87% 1-RM followed by horizontal jump (BSQ-HJ, five repetitions of BSQ at 87% 1-RM followed by vertical jump (BSQ-VJ, horizontal jump only (CT-HJ and vertical jump only (CT-VJ. During the potentiated conditions, rest intervals were set at five minutes between the BSQ and either VJ or HJ. Alpha-level was set a priori at 0.05. Results: The results indicate that both vertical (p=0.017 and horizontal (p=0.003 jump were significantly increased (VJ= +5.51cm, HJ= +11.55cm following a BSQ.  Conclusion: These findings suggest that BSQ may improve both vertical and horizontal jump performance in athletes who participate in sports emphasizing horizontal power, such as ice hockey.

  1. Load test of the 272E Building high bay roof deck and support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The 272E Building high bay roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure. The 272E Building is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: Roof deck -- wood decking supported by 4 x 14 timber purlins; Roof membrane -- tar and gravel; Roof slope -- flat (<10 deg); and Roof elevation -- maximum height of about 63 ft. The 272 Building was visited in August 1992 for a visual inspection. During this inspection, cracked areas were visible in the decking, but it was not possible to determine whether these cracks extended completely through the decking, which is 2-in. thick. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof requires personnel access, a test was determine to be the best way to qualify the roof. The pre-test briefing consisted of filling out the pre-test checklist, discussing proper lifting techniques, reviewing the fall-protection plan, reviewing the job hazards analysis, and reviewing the robot travel path. The load-test results consist of visual observations and the test engineer's conclusions. Visual observations found no adverse conditions such as large deflections or permanent deformations. No deflection measurements were recorded because the tar and gravel on roof get displaced by the robot tracks; the result is large variations in deflection measurements. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ''No Roof Access'' signs can be changed to ''Roof Access Restricted'' signs

  2. Loading rate and test temperature effects on fracture of in situ niobium silicide-niobium composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, J.D.; Lewandowski, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Arc cast, extruded, and heat-treated in situ composites of niobium silicide (Nb 5 Si 3 ) intermetallic with niobium phases (primary--Nb p and secondary--Nb s ) exhibited high fracture resistance in comparison to monolithic Nb 5 Si 3 . In toughness tests conducted at 298 K and slow applied loading rates, the fracture process proceeded by the microcracking of the Nb 5 Si 3 and plastic deformation of the Nb p and Nb s phases, producing resistance-curve behavior and toughnesses of 28 MPa√m with damage zone lengths less than 500 microm. The effects of changes in the Nb p yield strength and fracture behavior on the measured toughnesses were investigated by varying the loading rates during fracture tests at both 77 and 298 K. Quantitative fractography was utilized to completely characterize each fracture surface created at 298 K in order to determine the type of fracture mode (i.e., dimpled, cleavage) exhibited by the Nb p . Specimens tested at either higher loading rates or lower test temperatures consistently exhibited a greater amount of cleavage fracture in the Nb p , while the Nb s always remained ductile. However, the fracture toughness values determined from experiments spanning six orders of magnitude in loading rate at 298 and 77 K exhibited little variation, even under conditions when the majority of Nb p phases failed by cleavage at 77 K. The changes in fracture mode with increasing loading rate and/or decreasing test temperature and their effects on fracture toughness are rationalized by comparison to existing theoretical models

  3. Static Load Test on Instrumented Pile – Field Data and Numerical Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasiński Adam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Static load tests on foundation piles are generally carried out in order to determine load – the displacement characteristic of the pile head. For standard (basic engineering practices this type of test usually provides enough information. However, the knowledge of force distribution along the pile core and its division into the friction along the shaft and the resistance under the base can be very useful. Such information can be obtained by strain gage pile instrumentation [1]. Significant investigations have been completed on this technology, proving its utility and correctness [8], [10], [12]. The results of static tests on instrumented piles are not easy to interpret. There are many factors and processes affecting the final outcome. In order to understand better the whole testing process and soil-structure behavior some investigations and numerical analyses were done. In the paper, real data from a field load test on instrumented piles is discussed and compared with numerical simulation of such a test in similar conditions. Differences and difficulties in the results interpretation with their possible reasons are discussed. Moreover, the authors used their own analytical solution for more reliable determination of force distribution along the pile. The work was presented at the XVII French-Polish Colloquium of Soil and Rock Mechanics, Łódź, 28–30 November 2016.

  4. Static Load Test on Instrumented Pile - Field Data and Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasiński, Adam; Wiszniewski, Mateusz

    2017-09-01

    Static load tests on foundation piles are generally carried out in order to determine load - the displacement characteristic of the pile head. For standard (basic) engineering practices this type of test usually provides enough information. However, the knowledge of force distribution along the pile core and its division into the friction along the shaft and the resistance under the base can be very useful. Such information can be obtained by strain gage pile instrumentation [1]. Significant investigations have been completed on this technology, proving its utility and correctness [8], [10], [12]. The results of static tests on instrumented piles are not easy to interpret. There are many factors and processes affecting the final outcome. In order to understand better the whole testing process and soil-structure behavior some investigations and numerical analyses were done. In the paper, real data from a field load test on instrumented piles is discussed and compared with numerical simulation of such a test in similar conditions. Differences and difficulties in the results interpretation with their possible reasons are discussed. Moreover, the authors used their own analytical solution for more reliable determination of force distribution along the pile. The work was presented at the XVII French-Polish Colloquium of Soil and Rock Mechanics, Łódź, 28-30 November 2016.

  5. Present knowledge about Laboratory Testing of Axial Loading on Suction Caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzotti, E.; Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Offshore wind turbines are increasing in both efficiency and size. More economical foundations for such light structures are under investigation, and suction caisson was shown to be particularly suitable for this purpose. In multi-pod foundation configuration, the overturning moment given by loads...... on the structure is resisted by push-pull loads on the vertical axis of each suction caisson. Relevant works where this situation is examined by means of laboratory testing are summarized in this article, then different conclusions are followed by discussion and comparison. In the initial theoretical section...

  6. Modeling of the Jacked Pile Static Load Test with PLAX 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tautvydas Statkus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article jacked pile installation technology and its current processes, altering the base physical and mechanical characteristics are discussed. For the jacked pile static load test simulation Plax 3D software was selected, the opportunities and developments were described. Model building, materials, models, model geometry, finite elements, boundary conditions and assumptions adopted in addressing problems described in detail. Three different tasks formulated and load-settlement dependence a comparison of the results with the experiment given. Conclusions are formulated according to the modeling results.

  7. Erosion and break-up of light-gas layers by a horizontal jet in a multi-vessel, large-scale containment test system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zboray, Robert, E-mail: robert.zboray@psi.ch; Mignot, Guillaume; Kapulla, Ralf; Paladino, Domenico

    2015-09-15

    The distribution and eventual stratification of hydrogen released during a hypothetical severe accident and the stability of the stratification formed in the early phase of the transient is of particular safety concern in Light Water Reactors (LWRs). The large-scale containment test facility PANDA (PSI, Switzerland) has been used to perform a series of four tests examining the erosion and break-up of stratified light-gas layers in the frame of the OECD SETH-2 project. The ultimate goal of the test program is to set-up an experimental data base of high-quality and high-density data that can challenge and validate 3D containment codes like e.g. GOTHIC, GASFLOW or MARS and validate the applicability of CFD codes like FLUENT or CFX for LWR containment problems. The test series discussed here focuses on the erosion of a stratified, helium-rich layer by horizontal steam injection at different locations below the layer. An approach with step-wise increasing complexity has been chosen to examine this problem allowing control over the rate of pressure increase and the occurrence of condensation. The step-wise approach enables a thorough understanding of the influence of different phenomena like position of steam injection, diffusion, pressurization and condensation on the behavior and erosion of the stratified layer.

  8. A Novel Two-Axis Load Sensor Designed for in Situ Scratch Testing inside Scanning Electron Microscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengli Shi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of a lack of available miniaturized multiaxial load sensors to measure the normal load and the lateral load simultaneously, quantitative in situ scratch devices inside scanning electron microscopes and the transmission electron microscopes have barely been developed up to now. A novel two-axis load sensor was designed in this paper. With an I-shaped structure, the sensor has the function of measuring the lateral load and the normal load simultaneously, and at the same time it has compact dimensions. Finite element simulations were carried out to evaluate stiffness and modal characteristics. A decoupling algorithm was proposed to resolve the cross-coupling between the two-axis loads. Natural frequency of the sensor was tested. Linearity and decoupling parameters were obtained from the calibration experiments, which indicate that the sensor has good linearity and the cross-coupling between the two axes is not strong. Via the decoupling algorithm and the corresponding decoupling parameters, simultaneous measurement of the lateral load and the normal load can be realized via the developed two-axis load sensor. Preliminary applications of the load sensor for scratch testing indicate that the load sensor can work well during the scratch testing. Taking advantage of the compact structure, it has the potential ability for applications in quantitative in situ scratch testing inside SEMs.

  9. Standardization of formulations for the acute amino acid depletion and loading tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Abdulla A-B; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-04-01

    The acute tryptophan depletion and loading and the acute tyrosine plus phenylalanine depletion tests are powerful tools for studying the roles of cerebral monoamines in behaviour and symptoms related to various disorders. The tests use either amino acid mixtures or proteins. Current amino acid mixtures lack specificity in humans, but not in rodents, because of the faster disposal of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) by the latter. The high content of BCAA (30-60%) is responsible for the poor specificity in humans and we recommend, in a 50g dose, a control formulation with a lowered BCAA content (18%) as a common control for the above tests. With protein-based formulations, α-lactalbumin is specific for acute tryptophan loading, whereas gelatine is only partially effective for acute tryptophan depletion. We recommend the use of the whey protein fraction glycomacropeptide as an alternative protein. Its BCAA content is ideal for specificity and the absence of tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine render it suitable as a template for seven formulations (separate and combined depletion or loading and a truly balanced control). We invite the research community to participate in standardization of the depletion and loading methodologies by using our recommended amino acid formulation and developing those based on glycomacropeptide. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Quantification of loading in biomechanical testing: the influence of dissection sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Martha; El-Rich, Marwan; Prasad, Narasimha; Kawchuk, Gregory N

    2015-09-18

    Sequential dissection is a technique used to investigate loads experienced by articular tissues. When the joint of interest is tested in an unconstrained manner, its kinematics change with each tissue removal. To address this limitation, sufficiently rigid robots are used to constrain joint kinematics. While this approach can quantify loads experienced by each tissue, it does not assure similar results when removal order is changed. Specifically, structure loading is assumed to be independent of removal order if the structure behaves linearly (i.e. principle of superposition applies), but dependent on removal order when response is affected by material and/or geometry nonlinearities and/or viscoelasticiy (e.g. biological tissues). Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate if structure loading created through robotic testing is dependent on the order in which connectors are removed. Six identical models were 3D printed. Each model was composed of 2 rigid bodies and 3 connecting structures with nonlinear time-dependent behavior. To these models, pure rotations were applied about a predefined static center of rotation using a parallel robot. A unique dissection sequence was used for each of the six models and the same movements applied robotically after each dissection. When comparing the moments experienced by each structure between different removal sequences, a statistically significant difference (probotic testing are specific to removal order. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tank Applied Testing of Load-Bearing Multilayer Insulation (LB-MLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley L.; Valenzuela, Juan G.; Feller, Jerr; Plachta, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The development of long duration orbital cryogenic storage systems will require the reduction of heat loads into the storage tank. In the case of liquid hydrogen, complete elimination of the heat load at 20 K is currently impractical due to the limitations in lift available on flight cryocoolers. In order to reduce the heat load, without having to remove heat at 20 K, the concept of Reduced Boil-Off uses cooled shields within the insulation system at approximately 90 K. The development of Load-Bearing Multilayer Insulation (LB-MLI) allowed the 90 K shield with tubing and cryocooler attachments to be suspended within the MLI and still be structurally stable. Coupon testing both thermally and structurally were performed to verify that the LB-MLI should work at the tank applied level. Then tank applied thermal and structural (acoustic) testing was performed to demonstrate the functionality of the LB-MLI as a structural insulation system. The LB-MLI showed no degradation of thermal performance due to the acoustic testing and showed excellent thermal performance when integrated with a 90 K class cryocooler on a liquid hydrogen tank.

  12. Tests of a Higgins contactor for the engineering-scale resin loading of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Haas, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    The loading of uranium on weak-acid ion exchange resin is a basic step in the production of fuel particles for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). In the work reported here, an engineering-scale continuous resin loader (2-in.-ID Higgins contactor) was tested with existing engineering-scale process equipment. The Higgins contactor was first successfully used to convert Na + -form resin to the H + -form; then it was evaluated as a uranium loader. Results show that the 2-in.-ID Higgins contactor can easily load 25 kg of uranium per day, indicating that a 4-in.-ID contactor could load 100 kg/day. Process control was achieved by monitoring and controlling the density, pH, and inventory volume of the uranium feed solution. This control scheme is amenable to remote operation

  13. Tests and calculations of reinforced concrete beams subject to dynamic reversed loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livolant, M.; Hoffmann, A.; Gauvain, J.

    1978-01-01

    This study presents the tests of a reinforced concrete beam conducted by the Department of Mechanical and Thermal Studies at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay, France. The actual behavior of nuclear power plant buildings submitted to seismic loads is generally non linear even for moderate seismic levels. The non linearity is specially important for reinforced concrete beams type buildings. To estimate the safety factors when the building is designed by standard methods, accurate non linear calculations are necessary. For such calculations one of the most difficult point is to define a correct model for the behavior of a reinforced beam subject to reversed loads. For that purpose, static and dynamic experimental tests on a shaking table have been carried out and a model reasonably accurate has been established and checked on the tests results

  14. Load test of the 3701U Building roof deck and support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The 3701U Building roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure. The 3701U Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: Roof deck--metal decking supported by steel purlins; Roof membrane--tar and gravel; Roof slope--flat (<10 deg); and Roof elevation--height of about 12.5 ft. The 3701U Building was visited in August 1992 for a visual inspection, but because of insulation an inspection could not be performed. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof could not be inspected, a test was determined to be the best way to qualify the roof for personnel access. The test procedure called for the use of a remotely-controlled robot. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ''No Roof Access'' signs can be changed to ''Roof Access Restricted'' signs

  15. Comparison of Numerical Analyses with a Static Load Test of a Continuous Flight Auger Pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoľko, Michal; Stacho, Jakub

    2014-12-01

    The article deals with numerical analyses of a Continuous Flight Auger (CFA) pile. The analyses include a comparison of calculated and measured load-settlement curves as well as a comparison of the load distribution over a pile's length. The numerical analyses were executed using two types of software, i.e., Ansys and Plaxis, which are based on FEM calculations. Both types of software are different from each other in the way they create numerical models, model the interface between the pile and soil, and use constitutive material models. The analyses have been prepared in the form of a parametric study, where the method of modelling the interface and the material models of the soil are compared and analysed. Our analyses show that both types of software permit the modelling of pile foundations. The Plaxis software uses advanced material models as well as the modelling of the impact of groundwater or overconsolidation. The load-settlement curve calculated using Plaxis is equal to the results of a static load test with a more than 95 % degree of accuracy. In comparison, the load-settlement curve calculated using Ansys allows for the obtaining of only an approximate estimate, but the software allows for the common modelling of large structure systems together with a foundation system.

  16. Test Procedure for Axially Loaded Bucket Foundations in Sand (Large Yellow Box)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina

    This is a practical guide for preparing the soil, running a CPT test, installing a scaled bucket foundation model and running a test in the large yellow sand box cos(Kristina) in the geotechnical laboratory at Aalborg University. The test procedure is used for the examination of statically...... and cyclically axially loaded bucket foundation model In dense sand. The foundation model in scale of approximately 1:10 compared to the prototype size. The guide describes the step-by-step procedure for tests with and without surface pressure. A detailed description of test setup using the large yellow sand box...... for a monopile testing was provided by Thomassen (2015a), procedure for monopile testing can be found in Thomassen (2015b), while safety instructions were given by Vaitkunaite et al. (2014)....

  17. Software Sub-system in Loading Automatic Test System for the Measurement of Power Line Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The loading automatic test system for measurement of power line filters are in urgent demand. So the software sub-system of the whole test system was proposed. Methods: structured the test system based on the virtual instrument framework, which consisted of lower and up computer and adopted the top down approach of design to perform the system and its modules, according to the measurement principle of the test system. Results: The software sub-system including human machine interface, data analysis and process software, expert system, communication software, control software in lower computer, etc. had been designed. Furthermore, it had been integrated into the entire test system. Conclusion: This sub-system provided a fiendly software platform for the whole test system, and had many advantages such as strong functions, high performances, low prices. It not only raises the test efficiency of EMI filters, but also renders some creativities.

  18. In-situ load-deformation characterization of the CSM/OCRD jointed test block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, A.M.; Hustrulid, W.; Brown, S.; Ubbes, W.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive ambient-temperature test series has recently been completed on a block of Precambrian Gneiss at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) Experimental Mine in Idaho Springs, Colorado. Block tests came into existence out of a desire to test a relatively large volume of rock and thereby minimize the scaling problems encountered when laboratory test results are used to obtain modeling parameters for full-size structures. A typical block test involves isolation of a large, approximately two-meter cube of rock by cutting slots on four sides and inserting flatjacks for loading. Much interest has recently centered around block tests as a promising method for in-situ characterization of rock-masses for licensing future commercial nuclear-waste repositories in crystalline rock. To date only a few block tests have been conducted

  19. Force Limited Vibration Testing: Computation C2 for Real Load and Probabilistic Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijker, J. J.; de Boer, A.; Ellenbroek, M. H. M.

    2014-06-01

    To prevent over-testing of the test-item during random vibration testing Scharton proposed and discussed the force limited random vibration testing (FLVT) in a number of publications, in which the factor C2 is besides the random vibration specification, the total mass and the turnover frequency of the load(test item), a very important parameter. A number of computational methods to estimate C2 are described in the literature, i.e. the simple and the complex two degrees of freedom system, STDFS and CTDFS, respectively. Both the STDFS and the CTDFS describe in a very reduced (simplified) manner the load and the source (adjacent structure to test item transferring the excitation forces, i.e. spacecraft supporting an instrument).The motivation of this work is to establish a method for the computation of a realistic value of C2 to perform a representative random vibration test based on force limitation, when the adjacent structure (source) description is more or less unknown. Marchand formulated a conservative estimation of C2 based on maximum modal effective mass and damping of the test item (load) , when no description of the supporting structure (source) is available [13].Marchand discussed the formal description of getting C 2 , using the maximum PSD of the acceleration and maximum PSD of the force, both at the interface between load and source, in combination with the apparent mass and total mass of the the load. This method is very convenient to compute the factor C 2 . However, finite element models are needed to compute the spectra of the PSD of both the acceleration and force at the interface between load and source.Stevens presented the coupled systems modal approach (CSMA), where simplified asparagus patch models (parallel-oscillator representation) of load and source are connected, consisting of modal effective masses and the spring stiffnesses associated with the natural frequencies. When the random acceleration vibration specification is given the CMSA

  20. Mechanically braked elliptical Wingate test: modification considerations, load optimization, and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Ozgur; Colakoglu, Muzaffer; Kuzucu, Erinc O; Yildiztepe, Engin

    2012-05-01

    The 30-second, all-out Wingate test evaluates anaerobic performance using an upper or lower body cycle ergometer (cycle Wingate test). A recent study showed that using a modified electromagnetically braked elliptical trainer for Wingate testing (EWT) leads to greater power outcomes because of larger muscle group recruitment. The main purpose of this study was to modify an elliptical trainer using an easily understandable mechanical brake system instead of an electromagnetically braked modification. Our secondary aim was to determine a proper test load for the EWT to reveal the most efficient anaerobic test outcomes such as peak power (PP), average power (AP), minimum power (MP), power drop (PD), and fatigue index ratio (FI%) and to evaluate the retest reliability of the selected test load. Delta lactate responses (ΔLa) were also analyzed to confirm all the anaerobic performance of the athletes. Thirty healthy and well-trained male university athletes were selected to participate in the study. By analysis of variance, an 18% body mass workload yielded significantly greater test outcomes (PP = 19.5 ± 2.4 W·kg, AP = 13.7 ± 1.7 W·kg, PD = 27.9 ± 5 W·s, FI% = 58.4 ± 3.3%, and ΔLa = 15.4 ± 1.7 mM) than the other (12-24% body mass) tested loads (p braked modification of an elliptical trainer successfully estimated anaerobic power and capacity. A workload of 18% body mass was optimal for measuring maximal and reliable anaerobic power outcomes. Anaerobic testing using an EWT may be more useful to athletes and coaches than traditional cycle ergometers because a greater proportion of muscle groups are worked during exercise on an elliptical trainer.

  1. Recent results on high thermal energy load testing of beryllium for ITER first wall application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanov, I. B.; Roedig, M.; Nikolaev, G. N.; Kurbatova, L. A.; Linke, J.; Gervash, A. A.; Giniyatulin, R. N.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Muzichenko, A. D.; Khimchenko, L.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, progress in the high heat flux (HHF) qualification testing of TGP-56FW beryllium grade for ITER first wall applications is presented. Two actively cooled Be/CuCrZr brazing mock-ups were tested under complex thermal loading conditions in the electron beam facility JUDITH-1 (step 1: vertical displacement event test at 40 MJ m-2, 0.3 s, 1 shot; step 2: disruption tests at 3 MJ m-2, 1 shot, Δt=5 ms; step 3: repetitive fatigue test at 80 MW m-2, 1000 shots, Δt=25 ms). After testing, metallographic investigations on the microstructure and crack morphology were carried out. The results of these studies of Be tiles are reported and discussed. The overall results of TGP-56FW grade qualification testing have demonstrated the reliable performance capability of TGP-56FW for application as the armor of the ITER first wall. In addition, the results of first experiments with TGP-56FW and S-65C beryllium grades in the QSPA-Be plasma gun facility are also reported. In these experiments, beryllium tiles (80×80×10 mm3) were tested in a hydrogen plasma stream (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration 0.5 ms and heat loads of 0.5-2 MJ m-2. Experiments were performed at room temperature. The evolution of the surface microstructure and mass loss of beryllium exposed to up to 100 shots is presented.

  2. Recent results on high thermal energy load testing of beryllium for ITER first wall application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, I B; Nikolaev, G N; Kurbatova, L A; Roedig, M; Linke, J; Gervash, A A; Giniyatulin, R N; Podkovyrov, V L; Muzichenko, A D; Khimchenko, L

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, progress in the high heat flux (HHF) qualification testing of TGP-56FW beryllium grade for ITER first wall applications is presented. Two actively cooled Be/CuCrZr brazing mock-ups were tested under complex thermal loading conditions in the electron beam facility JUDITH-1 (step 1: vertical displacement event test at 40 MJ m - 2, 0.3 s, 1 shot; step 2: disruption tests at 3 MJ m - 2, 1 shot, Δt=5 ms; step 3: repetitive fatigue test at 80 MW m - 2, 1000 shots, Δt=25 ms). After testing, metallographic investigations on the microstructure and crack morphology were carried out. The results of these studies of Be tiles are reported and discussed. The overall results of TGP-56FW grade qualification testing have demonstrated the reliable performance capability of TGP-56FW for application as the armor of the ITER first wall. In addition, the results of first experiments with TGP-56FW and S-65C beryllium grades in the QSPA-Be plasma gun facility are also reported. In these experiments, beryllium tiles (80×80×10 mm 3 ) were tested in a hydrogen plasma stream (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration 0.5 ms and heat loads of 0.5-2 MJ m - 2. Experiments were performed at room temperature. The evolution of the surface microstructure and mass loss of beryllium exposed to up to 100 shots is presented.

  3. New aspects in distribution of population dose loads in Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Pivovarov, S.; Rukhin, A.; Seredavina, T.; Sushkova, N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The question on dose loads of Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) region population is not fully solved till now. There is rather different estimations of doses, received by people of nearest to SNTS settlements. It may be explain by absence of individual dosimeters during and after nuclear weapon tests and also many various ways of radiation exposure receiving. During last some years we have done a people dose loads estimations by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) tooth enamel dosimetry method - one of the best and reliable for retrospective dosimetry. It was studied tooth enamel people from settlements Dolon, Bodene, Cheremushki, Mostik, which was irradiated mainly by the first atomic explosion 1949, settlement Sarjal, irradiated by the first thermonuclear explosion in 1953, and control settlement Maysk, which is sited close to SNTS, but there was no any radioactive traces due to east wind. The results display a not expected rather surprising picture: in all settlements, including control one Maysk, the dose loads distribution was rather similar, it has ex fast bimodal form with rather high doses in the second one. The possible reasons of such situation is discussed. The results obtained is compared with last estimations of Semipalatinsk region dose loads of population, which were specially attentively discussed at International Symposiums in Hiroshima (Japan, 2005) and Bethesda (MD, USA, 2006). (author)

  4. Ultimate load design and testing of a cylindrical prestressed concrete vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanou, G.D.

    1982-01-01

    The object of this research was to design, construct and test to failure a prestressed concrete pressure vessel model that could be used to investigate the behavior of a full scale structure underworking and ultimate load. The properties and the design of the model was based generally on full scale vessels already constructed to house the nuclear reactors used in atomic power stations. To design the model the ultimate load approach was adopted throughout. All load factors associated with the prestressing have been defined and kept to a minimum in order that the vessel's behavior may be predicted. The tests on the vessel were carried out first on the elastic range to observe its behavior at working load and then at the ultimate range to observe the modes of failure and compare the actual results in both cases with the predicted values. Although full agreement between observed results and predicted values was not obtained, the conclusions drawn from the study were useful for the design of full scale vessels. (author)

  5. Load test of the 277W Building high bay roof deck and support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The 277W Building high bay roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure, WHC-SD-GN-TP-30015, Revision 1. The 277W Building is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: roof deck -- wood decking supported by 4 x 14 timber purlins; roof membrane -- tar and gravel; roof slope -- flat (<10 deg); and roof elevation -- maximum height of about 63 ft. The 227W Building was visited in March 1994 for a visual inspection. During this inspection, cracked areas were visible in the decking, but it was not possible to determine whether these cracks extended completely through the decking, which is 2-in. thick. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof requires personnel access, a test was determined to be the best way to qualify the roof. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ''No Roof Access'' signs can be changed to ''Roof Access Restricted'' signs

  6. High power RF performance test of an improved SiC load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, W.H.; Kim, S.H.; Park, Y.J. [Pohang Accelerator Lab., Pohang Inst. of Sceince and Technology, Pohang (KR)] [and others

    1998-11-01

    Two prototypes of SiC loads sustaining a maximum peak power of 50 MW were fabricated by Nihon Koshuha Co. in Japan. The PAL conducted the high power RF performance tests of SiC loads to verify the operation characteristics for the application to the PLS Linac. The in-situ facility for the K 12 module was used for the test, which consists of a modulator and klystron system, waveguide network, vacuum and cooling system, and RF analyzing equipment. As the test results, no breakdown appeared up to 50 MW peak power of 1 {mu}s pulse width at a repetition rate of 50 Hz. However, as the peak power increased above 20 MW at 4 {mu}s with 10 Hz, the breakdown phenomena has been observed. Analysing the test results with the current operation power level of PLS Linac, it is confirmed that the SiC loads well satisfy the criteria of the PLS Linac operation. (author)

  7. Field Testing of Telemetry for Demand Response Control of Small Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Weber, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liao, Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schetrit, Oren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-01-30

    The electricity system in California, from generation through loads, must be prepared for high renewable penetration and increased electrification of end uses while providing increased resilience and lower operating cost. California has an aggressive renewable portfolio standard that is complemented by world-leading greenhouse gas goals. The goal of this project was to evaluate methods of enabling fast demand response (DR) signaling to small loads for low-cost site enablement. We used OpenADR 2.0 to meet telemetry requirements for providing ancillary services, and we used a variety of low-cost devices coupled with open-source software to enable an end-to-end fast DR. The devices, architecture, implementation, and testing of the system is discussed in this report. We demonstrate that the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Home movements provide an opportunity for diverse small loads to provide fast, low-cost demand response. We used Internet-connected lights, thermostats, load interruption devices, and water heaters to demonstrate an ecosystem of controllable devices. The system demonstrated is capable of providing fast load shed for between 20 dollars and $300 per kilowatt (kW) of available load. The wide range results from some loads may have very low cost but also very little shed capability (a 10 watt [W] LED light can only shed a maximum of 10 W) while some loads (e.g., water heaters or air conditioners) can shed several kilowatts but have a higher initial cost. These costs, however, compare well with other fast demand response costs, with typically are over $100/kilowatt of shed. We contend these loads are even more attractive than their price suggests because many of them will be installed for energy efficiency or non-energy benefits (e.g., improved lighting quality or controllability), and the ability to use them for fast DR is a secondary benefit. Therefore the cost of enabling them for DR may approach zero if a software-only solution can be

  8. Device Design and Test of Fatigue Behaviour of Expansion Anchor Subjected to Tensile Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study on the fatigue behaviour of expansion anchor (M16, grade 8.8 for overhead contact system in electrification railways, a set of safe, practical loading device is designed and a fatigue test campaign was carried out at structural laboratory of China Academy of Building Research on expansion anchor embedded in concrete block. The mobile frame of the loading device was designed well by finite-element simulation. According to some fatigue performance test of expansion anchor with different size and form, the device have been assessed experimentally its dependability. The results were found that no fatigue damage phenomenon occurred in all specimens after 2×106 cycles tensile fatigue test in this specific series. It shows that in the condition of medium level or slightly lower maximum stress limit and nominal stress range, expansion bolt has good fatigue resistance. The biggest relative displacement and the residual relative displacement after test (Δδ = δ2-δ1 was also strongly lower than the symbol of the fatigue test failure index of this specific series (0.5mm in the high cycle fatigue regime. The ultimate tension failures mode after fatigue tests in all tested samples take place in the concrete anchorage zone. The reduction range of the ultimate tensile strength properties of the anchorage system was not obvious, and the concrete was seen to be the weakest link of the system.

  9. Horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubra, O. [SKODA Praha Company, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Doubek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-09-01

    Horizontal steam generators are typical components of nuclear power plants with pressure water reactor type VVER. Thermal-hydraulic behavior of horizontal steam generators is very different from the vertical U-tube steam generator, which has been extensively studied for several years. To contribute to the understanding of the horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics a computer program for 3-D steady state analysis of the PGV-1000 steam generator has been developed. By means of this computer program, a detailed thermal-hydraulic and thermodynamic study of the horizontal steam generator PGV-1000 has been carried out and a set of important steam generator characteristics has been obtained. The 3-D distribution of the void fraction and 3-D level profile as functions of load and secondary side pressure have been investigated and secondary side volumes and masses as functions of load and pressure have been evaluated. Some of the interesting results of calculations are presented in the paper.

  10. Creep testing and creep loading experiments on friction stir welds in copper at 75 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Henrik C.M.; Seitisleam, Facredin; Sandstroem, Rolf

    2007-08-01

    Specimens cut from friction stir welds in copper canisters for nuclear waste have been used for creep experiments at 75 deg C. The specimens were taken from a cross-weld position as well as heat affected zone and weld metal. The parent metal specimens exhibited longer creep lives than the weld specimens by a factor of three in time. They in turn were longer than those for the crossweld and HAZ specimens by an order of magnitude. The creep exponent was in the interval 50 to 69 implying that the material was well inside the power-law breakdown regime. The ductility properties expressed as reduction in area were not significantly different and all the rupture specimens demonstrated values exceeding 80%. Experiments were also carried out on the loading procedure of a creep test. Similar parent metal specimens and test conditions were used and the results show that the loading method has a large influence on the strain response of the specimen

  11. Comparison of Analysis with Test for Static Loading of Two Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    Acceptance of new spacecraft structural architectures and concepts requires validated design methods to minimize the expense involved with technology demonstration via flight-testing. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) architectures are attractive for spacecraft deceleration because they are lightweight, store compactly, and utilize the atmosphere to decelerate a spacecraft during entry. However, designers are hesitant to include these inflatable approaches for large payloads or spacecraft because of the lack of flight validation. This publication summarizes results comparing analytical results with test data for two concepts subjected to representative entry, static loading. The level of agreement and ability to predict the load distribution is considered sufficient to enable analytical predictions to be used in the design process.

  12. Thermal Vacuum Test Correlation of a Zero Propellant Load Case Thermal Capacitance Propellant Gauging Analytical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckim, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and correlation of a thermal model that forms the foundation of a thermal capacitance spacecraft propellant load estimator. Specific details of creating the thermal model for the diaphragm propellant tank used on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft using ANSYS and the correlation process implemented are presented. The thermal model was correlated to within plus or minus 3 degrees Celsius of the thermal vacuum test data, and was determined sufficient to make future propellant predictions on MMS. The model was also found to be relatively sensitive to uncertainties in applied heat flux and mass knowledge of the tank. More work is needed to improve temperature predictions in the upper hemisphere of the propellant tank where predictions were found to be 2 to 2.5 C lower than the test data. A road map for applying the model to predict propellant loads on the actual MMS spacecraft toward its end of life in 2017-2018 is also presented.

  13. Model Tests of Under Frequency Load Shedding (UFLS for Connected Systems of Continental Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Głaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The task force set up by working group System Protection and Dynamics within ENTSO-E model tests of Under Frequency Load Shedding (UFLS for connected systems of continental Europe were carried out. Over 360 simulation scenarios were performed including 16 strategies UFLS, 2 variants of load, 6 types of contingency, with and without considering the impact of dispersed generation. On the basis of calculation results conditions for improving the effectiveness of the UFLS were specified,, including recommended changes of UFLS settings, necessary to achieve this aim. The following report contains a summary description of the test method together with the presentation of selected results of summary calculations and conclusions of the study.

  14. Creep testing and creep loading experiments on friction stir welds in copper at 75 deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Henrik C.M.; Seitisleam, Facredin; Sandstroem, Rolf [Corrosion an d Metals Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    Specimens cut from friction stir welds in copper canisters for nuclear waste have been used for creep experiments at 75 deg C. The specimens were taken from a cross-weld position as well as heat affected zone and weld metal. The parent metal specimens exhibited longer creep lives than the weld specimens by a factor of three in time. They in turn were longer than those for the crossweld and HAZ specimens by an order of magnitude. The creep exponent was in the interval 50 to 69 implying that the material was well inside the power-law breakdown regime. The ductility properties expressed as reduction in area were not significantly different and all the rupture specimens demonstrated values exceeding 80%. Experiments were also carried out on the loading procedure of a creep test. Similar parent metal specimens and test conditions were used and the results show that the loading method has a large influence on the strain response of the specimen.

  15. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an in balance between the strength (structural integrity......) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakage is caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are difficult to investigate due to non-linear scaling laws. The paper describes a method by which impact loads on....... slender armour units can be studied. by load-cell technique. Moreover, the paper presents DoJos design diagrams for the prediction of both breakage and hydraulic stability...

  16. Load test with the mobile telescopic crane (160 T) for handling LHC magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    CERN has taken delivery of a new telescopic mobile crane. The new crane will be required to load LHC dipole magnets made in Building SM18 onto a trailer that will take them to the Prévessin site, where they will be put in storage until they can be lowered into the tunnel. It has passed its first operating tests, which consisted of lifting a 37-tonne concrete block.

  17. Standard test method for determination of breaking strength of ceramic tiles by three-point loading

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of breaking strength of ceramic tiles by three-point loading. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse arewidely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of suchstructures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealingan in balance between the strength (structural integrity) of the units and thehydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakageis caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are difficu...

  19. Full scale test SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT. Extreme load and PoC{sub I}nvE Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Magda; Roczek-Sieradzan, A.; Jensen, Find M. (and others)

    2010-09-15

    This report is the second report covering the research and demonstration project 'Experimental blade research: Structural mechanisms in current and future large blades under combined loading', supported by the EUDP program. A 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S has been tested in edgewise direction (LTT). The blade has been submitted to thorough examination by means of strain gauges, displacement transducers and a 3D optical measuring system. This data report presents results obtained during full scale testing of the blade up to 80% Risoe load, where 80% Risoe load corresponds to 100% certification load. These pulls at 80% Risoe load were repeated and the results from these pulls were compared. The blade was reinforced according to a Risoe DTU invention, where the trailing edge panels are coupled. The coupling is implemented to prevent the out of plane deformations and to reduce peeling stresses in the adhesive joints. Test results from measurements with the reinforcement have been compared to results without the coupling. The report presents only the relevant results for the 80% Risoe load and the results applicable for the investigation of the influence of the invention on the profile deformation. (Author)

  20. Quasi-brittle material behavior under cyclic loading: from virtual testing to structural computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassaux, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Macroscopic constitutive laws are developed not only because they allow for large-scale computations but also because refine dissipative mechanisms observed at lower scales. Within the framework of this study, the development of such models is carried out in the context of seismic loading, that is to say reverse cyclic loading, applied to the quasi-brittle materials and more precisely, concrete-like materials. Nowadays, robust and predictive macroscopic constitutive laws are still rare because of the complexity of cracking related phenomena. Among the challenges to face, the material parameters identification is far from being the easiest due to the lack of experimental data. Indeed, the difficulties to carry out cyclic tests on concrete-like materials are numerous. To overcome these difficulties, a virtual testing approach based on a refine model is proposed in this study in order to feed continuum models with the missing material parameters. Adopting a microscopic point of view, a representative volume element is seen as a structure. The microscopic model has been developed with the aim to require a minimal number of material parameters which only need basic mechanical tests to be identified. From an existing lattice model developed to deal with monotonic loading, several enhancements have been realized in order to extend its range of applicability, making it capable of dealing with complex multi-axial cyclic loadings. The microscopic model has been validated as a virtual testing machine that is able to help the identification procedure of continuous constitutive laws. This identification approach has been applied on a new constitutive law developed within the framework of isotropic continuum damage mechanics accounting for cyclic related effects. In particular, the concept of regularized unilateral effect has been introduced to describe the progressive crack closure. The macroscopic model has been calibrated with the help from the aforementioned virtual testing

  1. Transient dynamic finite element analysis of hydrogen distribution test chamber structure for hydrogen combustion loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Redlinger, R.; Breitung, W.

    2005-09-01

    Design and analysis of blast resistant structures is an important area of safety research in nuclear, aerospace, chemical process and vehicle industries. Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies (IKET) of Research Centre- Karlsruhe (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe or FZK) in Germany is pursuing active research on the entire spectrum of safety evaluation for efficient hydrogen management in case of the postulated design basis and beyond the design basis severe accidents for nuclear and non-nuclear applications. This report concentrates on the consequence analysis of hydrogen combustion accidents with emphasis on the structural safety assessment. The transient finite element simulation results obtained for 2gm, 4gm, 8gm and 16gm hydrogen combustion experiments concluded recently on the test-cell structure are described. The frequencies and damping of the test-cell observed during the hammer tests and the combustion experiments are used for the present three dimensional finite element model qualification. For the numerical transient dynamic evaluation of the test-cell structure, the pressure time history data computed with CFD code COM-3D is used for the four combustion experiments. Detail comparisons of the present numerical results for the four combustion experiments with the observed time signals are carried out to evaluate the structural connection behavior. For all the combustion experiments excellent agreement is noted for the computed accelerations and displacements at the standard transducer locations, where the measurements were made during the different combustion tests. In addition inelastic analysis is also presented for the test-cell structure to evaluate the limiting impulsive and quasi-static pressure loads. These results are used to evaluate the response of the test cell structure for the postulated over pressurization of the test-cell due to the blast load generated in case of 64 gm hydrogen ignition for which additional sets of computations were

  2. Triaxial extensometer for volumetric strain measurement in a hydro-compression loading test for foam materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Bo; Xu, Ming-long; Zhao, Tian-fei; Zhang, Zhi-jun; Lu, Tian-jian

    2010-01-01

    A new strain gauge-based triaxial extensometer (radial extensometers x, y and axial extensometer z) is presented to improve the volumetric strain measurement in a hydro-compression loading test for foam materials. By the triaxial extensometer, triaxial deformations of the foam specimen can be measured directly, from which the volumetric strain is determined. Sensitivities of the triaxial extensometer are predicted using a finite-element model, and verified through experimental calibrations. The axial extensometer is validated by conducting a uniaxial compression test in aluminium foam and comparing deformation measured by the axial extensometer to that by the advanced optical 3D deformation analysis system ARAMIS; the result from the axial extensometer agrees well with that from ARAMIS. A new modus of two-wire measurement and transmission in a hydrostatic environment is developed to avoid the punching and lead sealing techniques on the pressure vessel for the hydro-compression test. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the triaxial extensometer is determined through an experimental test. An application in an aluminium foam hydrostatic compression test shows that the triaxial extensometer is effective for volumetric strain measurement in a hydro-compression loading test for foam materials

  3. Development of a 20 MeV Dielectric-Loaded Test Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, Steven H.; Fliflet, Arne W.; Lombardi, Marcie; Kinkead, Allen K.; Gai, Wei; Power, John G.; Konecny, Richard; Long, Jidong; Jing, Chunguang; Tantawi, Sami G.; Nantista, Christopher D.; Bruce, Ralph W.; Lewis, David III

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a progress report on a joint project by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in collaboration with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), to develop a dielectric-loaded test accelerator in the magnicon facility at NRL. The accelerator will be powered by an experimental 11.424-GHz magnicon amplifier that presently produces 25 MW of output power in a ∼250-ns pulse at up to 10 Hz. The accelerator will include a 5-MeV electron injector originally developed at the Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, and can incorporate DLA structures up to 0.5 m in length. The DLA structures are being developed by ANL, and shorter test structures fabricated from a variety of dielectric materials have undergone testing at NRL at gradients up to ∼8 MV/m. SLAC has developed components to distribute the power from the two magnicon output arms to the injector and to the DLA accelerating structure with separate control of the power ratio and relative phase. RWBruce Associates, Inc., working with NRL, has investigated means to join short ceramic sections into a continuous accelerator tube by a brazing process using an intense 83-GHz beam. The installation and testing of the first dielectric-loaded test accelerator, including injector, DLA test structure, and spectrometer, should take place within the next year

  4. Characterization and testing of a 238Pu loaded ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will describe the preparation and progress of the effort at Argonne National Laboratory-West to produce ceramic waste forms loaded with 238 Pu. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent of damage, if any, that alpha decay events will play over time to the ceramic waste form under development at Argonne. The ceramic waste form is glass-bonded sodalite. The sodalite is utilized to encapsulate the fission products and transuranics which are present in a chloride salt matrix which results from a spent fuel conditioning process. 238 Pu possesses approximately 250 times the specific activity of 239 Pu and thus allows for a much shorter time frame to address the issue. In preparation for production of 238 Pu loaded waste forms 239 Pu loaded samples were produced. Data is presented for samples produced with typical reactor grade plutonium. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron micrographs and durability test results will be presented. The ramifications for the production of the 238 Pu loaded samples will be discussed

  5. Associations between socioeconomic status and allostatic load: effects of neighborhood poverty and tests of mediating pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Amy J; Mentz, Graciela; Lachance, Laurie; Johnson, Jonetta; Gaines, Causandra; Israel, Barbara A

    2012-09-01

    We examined relationships between neighborhood poverty and allostatic load in a low- to moderate-income multiracial urban community. We tested the hypothesis that neighborhood poverty is associated with allostatic load, controlling for household poverty. We also examined the hypotheses that this association was mediated by psychosocial stress and health-related behaviors. We conducted multilevel analyses using cross-sectional data from a probability sample survey in Detroit, Michigan (n = 919) and the 2000 US Census. The outcome measure was allostatic load. Independent variables included neighborhood and household poverty, psychosocial stress, and health-related behaviors. Covariates included neighborhood and individual demographic characteristics. Neighborhood poverty was positively associated with allostatic load (P poverty and controlling for potential confounders. Relationships between neighborhood poverty were mediated by self-reported neighborhood environment stress but not by health-related behaviors. Neighborhood poverty is associated with wear and tear on physiological systems, and this relationship is mediated through psychosocial stress. These relationships are evident after accounting for household poverty levels. Efforts to promote health equity should focus on neighborhood poverty, associated stressful environmental conditions, and household poverty.

  6. A 2-megawatt load for testing high voltage DC power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, D.; Kustom, R.; Ferguson, M.; Primdahl, K.

    1993-01-01

    A high power water-cooled resistive load, capable of dissipating 2 Megawatts at 95 kilovolts is being designed and built. The load utilizes wirewound resistor elements suspended inside insulating tubing contained within a pressure vessel which is supplied a continuous flow of deionized water for coolant. A sub-system of the load is composed of non-inductive resistor elements in an oil tank. Power tests conducted on various resistor types indicate that dissipation levels as high as 22 times the rated dissipation in air can be achieved when the resistors are placed in a turbulent water flow of at least 15 gallons per minute. Using this data, the load was designed using 100 resistor elements in a series arrangement. A single-wall 316 stainless steel pressure vessel with flanged torispherical heads is built to contain the resistor assembly and deionized water. The resistors are suspended within G-11 tubing which span the cylindrical length of the vessel. These tubes are supported by G-10 baffles which also increase convection from the tubes by promoting turbulence within the surrounding water

  7. The history, development and application of a uniformly applied load wide plate testing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, A.; Bevitt, E.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes early attempts to use a rigid end wide plate testing machine to investigate the behaviour of centre cracked flat plates. Confusing and inconsistent results arising from the above tests lead to a detailed investigation of the loading characteristics of rigid end machines in general and the difficulties which can arise in the interpretation of data obtained by the use of such machines. In order to overcome the above difficulties which stem largely from uneven load distribution, a versatile testing machine was designed which by use of cheap and easily obtainable components allows the application of a uniformly distributed applied load to a centre cracked test plate. The machine which was commissioned in its original form in 1975 was initially capable of testing plate of 820 mm width and 25 or 48 mm thickness up to maximum stress levels of 488 or 254 MPa respectively. The ease of adaptability of the machine has since permitted its capacity to be increased to handle plate up to 2032 mm wide and 76 mm thickness and by use of double-banked hydraulic jacks stress levels up to 350 MPa can be achieved on plate of these dimensions. The configuration of the machine allows adequate access for strain gauging, crack tip observation and measurements, and temperature control, tests having been conducted in the temperature range -40 0 C to 290 0 C. Advantages and potential for further development of the machine are given together with details of two of a number of fracture studies which have been conducted since its commissioning. (orig.)

  8. Numerical-experimental investigation of load paths in DP800 dual phase steel during Nakajima test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergs, Thomas; Nick, Matthias; Feuerhack, Andreas; Trauth, Daniel; Klocke, Fritz

    2018-05-01

    Fuel efficiency requirements demand lightweight construction of vehicle body parts. The usage of advanced high strength steels permits a reduction of sheet thickness while still maintaining the overall strength required for crash safety. However, damage, internal defects (voids, inclusions, micro fractures), microstructural defects (varying grain size distribution, precipitates on grain boundaries, anisotropy) and surface defects (micro fractures, grooves) act as a concentration point for stress and consequently as an initiation point for failure both during deep drawing and in service. Considering damage evolution in the design of car body deep drawing processes allows for a further reduction in material usage and therefore body weight. Preliminary research has shown that a modification of load paths in forming processes can help mitigate the effects of damage on the material. This paper investigates the load paths in Nakajima tests of a DP800 dual phase steel to research damage in deep drawing processes. Investigation is done via a finite element model using experimentally validated material data for a DP800 dual phase steel. Numerical simulation allows for the investigation of load paths with respect to stress states, strain rates and temperature evolution, which cannot be easily observed in physical experiments. Stress triaxiality and the Lode parameter are used to describe the stress states. Their evolution during the Nakajima tests serves as an indicator for damage evolution. The large variety of sheet metal forming specific load paths in Nakajima tests allows a comprehensive evaluation of damage for deep drawing. The results of the numerical simulation conducted in this project and further physical experiments will later be used to calibrate a damage model for simulation of deep drawing processes.

  9. Validation Tests of Fiber Optic Strain-Based Operational Shape and Load Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalyar, John A.; Jutte, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Aircraft design has been progressing toward reduced structural weight to improve fuel efficiency, increase performance, and reduce cost. Lightweight aircraft structures are more flexible than conventional designs and require new design considerations. Intelligent sensing allows for enhanced control and monitoring of aircraft, which enables increased structurally efficiency. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has developed an instrumentation system and analysis techniques that combine to make distributed structural measurements practical for lightweight vehicles. Dryden's Fiber Optic Strain Sensing (FOSS) technology enables a multitude of lightweight, distributed surface strain measurements. The analysis techniques, referred to as the Displacement Transfer Functions (DTF) and Load Transfer Functions (LTF), use surface strain values to calculate structural deflections and operational loads. The combined system is useful for real-time monitoring of aeroelastic structures, along with many other applications. This paper describes how the capabilities of the measurement system were demonstrated using subscale test articles that represent simple aircraft structures. Empirical FOSS strain data were used within the DTF to calculate the displacement of the article and within the LTF to calculate bending moments due to loads acting on the article. The results of the tests, accuracy of the measurements, and a sensitivity analysis are presented.

  10. Strain Gage Load Calibration of the Wing Interface Fittings for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric J.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Cruz, Josue; Lokos, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This is the presentation to follow conference paper of the same name. The adaptive compliant trailing edge (ACTE) flap experiment safety of flight requires that the flap to wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the wing structural load limits are not exceeded. This paper discusses the strain gage load calibration testing and load equation derivation methodology for the ACTE interface fittings. Both the left and right wing flap interfaces will be monitored and each contains four uniquely designed and instrumented flap interface fittings. The interface hardware design and instrumentation layout are discussed. Twenty one applied test load cases were developed using the predicted in-flight loads for the ACTE experiment.

  11. Illustration of the WPS benefit through BATMAN test series: Tests on large specimens under WPS loading configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuritzinn, T.; Ferry, L.; Chapuliot, S.; Mongabure, P.; Moinereau, D.; Dahl, A.; Gilles, P.

    2008-01-01

    To study the effects of warm pre-stressing on the toughness of reactor pressure vessel steel, the 'Commissariat a l Energie Atomique', in collaboration with 'Electricite de France' and AREVA-NP, has made a study combining modeling and a series of experiments on large specimens submitted to a thermal shock or isothermal cooling. The tests were made on 18MND5 ferritic steel bars, containing a short or large fatigue pre-crack. The effect of 'warm pre-stressing' was confirmed, in the two cases of a fast thermal shock creating a gradient across the thickness of the bar and for gradual uniform cooling. In both cases, no propagation was observed during the thermal transient. Fracture occurred under low temperature conditions, at the end of the test when the tensile load was increased. The failure loads recorded were substantially higher than during pre-stressing. To illustrate the benefit of the WPS effect, numerical interpretations were performed using either global approach or local approach criteria. WPS effect and capability of models to predict it were then clearly shown. (authors)

  12. Corrosion tests with uranium- and plutonium-loaded ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morss, L. R.; Johnson, S. G.; Ebert, W. L.; DiSanto, T.; Frank, S. M.; Holly, J. L.; Kropf, A. J.; Mertz, C. J.; O'Holleran, T. P.; Richmann, M. K.; Sinkler, W.; Tsai, Y.; Warren, A. R.; Noy, M.

    2003-01-01

    Tests were conducted with ceramic waste form (CWF) materials that contained small amounts of uranium and plutonium to study their release behavior as the CWF corroded. Materials made using the hot isostatic press (HIP) and pressureless consolidation (PC) methods were examined and tested. Four different materials were made using the HIP method with two salts having different U:Pu mole ratios and two zeolite reagents having different residual water contents. Tests with the four HIP U,Pu-loaded CWF materials were conducted at 90 and 120 C, at CWF-to-water mass ratios of 1:10 and 1:20, and for durations between 7 and 365 days. Materials made using two PC processing conditions were also tested. Tests with the two PC U,Pu-loaded CWF materials were conducted at 90 and 120 C, at a CWF-to-water mass ratio of 1:10, and for durations between 7 and 182 days. The releases of matrix elements, U, and Pu in tests conducted under different test conditions and with different materials are compared to evaluate the effects of composition and processing conditions on the release behavior of U and Pu and the chemical durabilities of the different materials. The distributions of released elements among the fractions that were dissolved, in colloidal form in the solution, and fixed to test vessel walls were measured and compared. Characterization of Pu-bearing colloidal particles recovered from the test solutions using solids analysis techniques are also reported. The principal findings from this study are: (1) The release of U and Pu is about 10X less than the release of Si and 50X less than the release of B under all test conditions. This implies that U and Pu are in a phase that is less soluble than the sodalite and binder glass matrix. (2) Almost all of the plutonium that is released from U,Pu-loaded CWF is present either as colloidal-sized particles in the size range between 5 and 100 nm in the test solution (about 15% of the total) or becomes fixed on stainless steel test vessel

  13. Performance testing of the finance platform based on LoadRunner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Mengyun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,a performance testing scheme is designed to test the software interface of the financial management platform based on LoadRunner,and the scheme has been used for the performance testing of the interactive interface of the financial management platform of Shanghai Zuo Hao Network Technology Co.Ltd.The result shows that the performance characteristics of the system interface are different under different scenarios,and TPS and CPU usage performance characteristics are in an optimal status when the number of concurrent users is 40,while CPU becomes the bottleneck which is need to be addressed by system when the number of concurrent users is 50.At last,the effectiveness of the scheme has been proved.

  14. Testing-Based Approach to Determining the Divergence Speed of Slung Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Komerath

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available When a rotorcraft carries an external slung load, flight speed is often limited by the fear of divergent oscillations, rather than vehicle performance. Since slung objects can be of any shape, incorporating the aerodynamics with sufficient accuracy to predict safe speed has been a problem. The uncertainty forces certifying authorities to set conservative limits on speed to avoid divergence. Obtaining the aerodynamic coefficients of bluff bodies was excessively time-consuming in experiments, and impractical in computations. This review traces the evolution of progress in the area. Prior thinking was to use computations for prediction, with the computational codes validated using a few samples of experiments. This approach has not led to valid general predictions. Data were sparse and a-priori predictions were rarer. A continuous rotation approach has enabled swift measurements of 6-degrees-of-freedom aerodynamic load maps with high resolution about several axes of rotation. The resulting knowledge base in turn permits a swift determination of dynamics up to divergence, with wind tunnel tests where necessary to fill interpolation gaps in the knowledge base. The essence of efficient and swift dynamics simulation with a few well-tested assumptions is described. Under many relevant conditions, the vehicle flight dynamics can be safely decoupled from those of the slung load. While rotor wake swirl causes the payload to rotate at liftoff and landing, this effect can be incorporated into the simulation. Recent success in explaining two well-documented flight test cases provides strong evidence that predictions can be made for most missions swiftly.

  15. Preparation of Pd-Loaded Hierarchical FAU Membranes and Testing in Acetophenone Hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Raffaele; Lavorato, Cristina; Mastropietro, Teresa F; Argurio, Pietro; Drioli, Enrico; Poerio, Teresa

    2016-03-22

    Pd-loaded hierarchical FAU (Pd-FAU) membranes, containing an intrinsic secondary non-zeolitic (meso)porosity, were prepared and tested in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone (AP) to produce phenylethanol (PE), an industrially relevant product. The best operating conditions were preliminarily identified by testing different solvents and organic hydrogen donors in a batch hydrogenation process where micron-sized FAU seeds were employed as catalyst support. Water as solvent and formic acid as hydrogen source resulted to be the best choice in terms of conversion for the catalytic hydrogenation of AP, providing the basis for the design of a green and sustainable process. The best experimental conditions were selected and applied to the Pd-loaded FAU membrane finding enhanced catalytic performance such as a five-fold higher productivity than with the unsupported Pd-FAU crystals (11.0 vs. 2.2 mgproduct gcat(-1)·h(-1)). The catalytic performance of the membrane on the alumina support was also tested in a tangential flow system obtaining a productivity higher than that of the batch system (22.0 vs. 11.0 mgproduct gcat(-1)·h(-1)).

  16. Preparation of Pd-Loaded Hierarchical FAU Membranes and Testing in Acetophenone Hydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Molinari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pd-loaded hierarchical FAU (Pd-FAU membranes, containing an intrinsic secondary non-zeolitic (mesoporosity, were prepared and tested in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone (AP to produce phenylethanol (PE, an industrially relevant product. The best operating conditions were preliminarily identified by testing different solvents and organic hydrogen donors in a batch hydrogenation process where micron-sized FAU seeds were employed as catalyst support. Water as solvent and formic acid as hydrogen source resulted to be the best choice in terms of conversion for the catalytic hydrogenation of AP, providing the basis for the design of a green and sustainable process. The best experimental conditions were selected and applied to the Pd-loaded FAU membrane finding enhanced catalytic performance such as a five-fold higher productivity than with the unsupported Pd-FAU crystals (11.0 vs. 2.2 mgproduct gcat−1·h−1. The catalytic performance of the membrane on the alumina support was also tested in a tangential flow system obtaining a productivity higher than that of the batch system (22.0 vs. 11.0 mgproduct gcat−1·h−1.

  17. Thermal Vacuum Test Correlation of A Zero Propellant Load Case Thermal Capacitance Propellant Gauging Analytics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and test data validation of the thermal model that is the foundation of a thermal capacitance spacecraft propellant load estimator. Specific details of creating the thermal model for the diaphragm propellant tank used on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft using ANSYS and the correlation process implemented to validate the model are presented. The thermal model was correlated to within plus or minus 3 degrees Centigrade of the thermal vacuum test data, and was found to be relatively insensitive to uncertainties in applied heat flux and mass knowledge of the tank. More work is needed, however, to refine the thermal model to further improve temperature predictions in the upper hemisphere of the propellant tank. Temperatures predictions in this portion were found to be 2-2.5 degrees Centigrade lower than the test data. A road map to apply the model to predict propellant loads on the actual MMS spacecraft toward its end of life in 2017-2018 is also presented.

  18. Thermal-vacuum facility with in-situ mechanical loading. [for testing space construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Hansen, J. S.; Holzer, R. P.; Uffen, B.; Mabson, G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes a thermal-vacuum space simulator used to assess property changes of fiber-reinforced polymer composite systems. The facility can achieve a vacuum of approximately .0000001 torr with temperatures ranging from -200 to +300 F. Some preliminary experimental results are presented for materials subjected to thermal loading up to 200 F. The tests conducted include the evaluation of matrix modulus and strength, coefficients of thermal expansion, and fracture toughness. Though the experimental program is at an early stage, the data appear to indicate that these parameters are influenced by hard vacuum.

  19. Electronic load as part of the test complex of the power processing unit of electric and plasma propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Chubov, S. V.; Soldatov, Aleksey Ivanovich

    2017-01-01

    This article provides the advantages and technical solutions for the use of electronic loads as part of a testing complex of power and management systems of electric and plasma propulsion of three types. The paper shows the parameters that were applied to select the electronic loads and describes their functionality.

  20. Full-scale locomotive dynamic crash testing and correlations : C-39 type locomotive colliding with a loaded hopper car (test 7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report presents the results of a locomotive and three loaded hopper car consist traveling at 29 miles per hour colliding with a stationary consist of 35 loaded hopper cars. The details of test instrumentation, LS-DYNA finite element simulation, ...

  1. Tests of an alternating current propulsion subsystem for electric vehicles on a road load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, F. J.

    1982-12-01

    The test results of a breadboard version of an ac electric-vehicle propulsion subsystem are presented. The breadboard was installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center Road Load Simulator facility and tested under steady-state and transient conditions. Steady-state tests were run to characterize the system and component efficiencies over the complete speed-torque range within the capability of the propulsion subsystem in the motoring mode of operation. Transient tests were performed to determine the energy consumption of the breadboard over the acceleration and cruise portions of SAE J227 and driving schedules B, C, and D. Tests in the regenerative mode were limited to the low-gear-speed range of the two speed transaxle used in the subsystem. The maximum steady-state subsystem efficiency observed for the breadboard was 81.5 percent in the high-gear-speed range in the motoring mode, and 76 percent in the regenerative braking mode (low gear). The subsystem energy efficiency during the transient tests ranged from 49.2 percent for schedule B to 68.4 percent for Schedule D.

  2. Electric Resistance Tests on Compacted Clay Material under Dynamic Load Coupled with Dry-Wet Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of compacted clay material under dynamic load coupled with dry-wet cycling is one of the most important areas in the field of transportation. In this paper, experiments in terms of compacted clay under dynamic load coupled with dry-wet cycling are performed, and synchronous resistivity tests are also conducted. According to the test results, the influences of cumulative plastic strain, dry-wet cycles, and amplitudes on the soil resistivity are analyzed. Then a new damage factor based on resistivity is proposed to evaluate the long-term performance of compacted clay material. The result of research shows that the evolution of the soil resistivity can be divided into two stages, which has a contrary tendency with that of cumulative plastic strain. The dry-wet cycles and amplitudes have a significant effect on the damage of the compacted soil, which indicates that the dry-wet cycling of compacted soil materials should not be ignored in road engineering, especially in rainy and humid areas.

  3. When interference helps: Increasing executive load to facilitate deception detection in the Concealed Information Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eVisu-Petra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to enhance the detection efficiency of the Concealed Information Test (CIT by increasing executive load was investigated, using an interference design. After learning and executing a mock crime scenario, subjects underwent three deception detection tests: an RT-based CIT, an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent memory task (CITMem, and an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent set-shifting task (CITShift. The concealed information effect, consisting in increased RT and lower response accuracy for probe items compared to irrelevant items, was evidenced across all three conditions. The group analyses indicated a larger difference between RTs to probe and irrelevant items in the dual-task conditions, but this difference was not translated in a significantly increased detection efficiency at an individual level. Signal detection parameters based on the comparison with a simulated innocent group showed accurate discrimination for all conditions. Overall response accuracy on the CITMem was highest and the difference between response accuracy to probes and irrelevants was smallest in this condition. Accuracy on the concurrent tasks (Mem and Shift was high, and responses on these tasks were significantly influenced by CIT stimulus type (probes vs. irrelevants. The findings are interpreted in relation to the cognitive load/dual-task interference literature, generating important insights for research on the involvement of executive functions in deceptive behavior.

  4. Performance of the JT-60SA cryogenic system under pulsed heat loads during acceptance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, C.; Bonne, F.; Roussel, P.; Lamaison, V.; Girard, S.; Fejoz, P.; Goncalves, R.; Vallet, J. C.; Legrand, J.; Fabre, Y.; Pudys, V.; Wanner, M.; Cardella, A.; Di Pietro, E.; Kamiya, K.; Natsume, K.; Ohtsu, K.; Oishi, M.; Honda, A.; Kashiwa, Y.; Kizu, K.

    2017-12-01

    The JT-60SA cryogenic system a superconducting tokamak currently under assembly at Naka, Japan. After one year of commissioning, the acceptance tests were successfully completed in October 2016 in close collaboration with Air Liquide Advanced Technologies (ALaT), the French atomic and alternative energies commission (CEA), Fusion for Energy (F4E) and the Quantum Radiological Science and Technology (QST). The cryogenic system has several cryogenic users at various temperatures: the superconducting magnets at 4.4 K, the current leads at 50 K, the thermal shields at 80 K and the divertor cryo-pumps at 3.7 K. The cryogenic system has an equivalent refrigeration power of about 9.5 kW at 4.5 K, with peak loads caused by the nuclear heating, the eddy currents in the structures and the AC losses in the magnets during cyclic plasma operation. The main results of the acceptance tests will be reported, with emphasis on the management of the challenging pulsed load operation using a liquid helium volume of 7 m3 as a thermal damper.

  5. Test of 6-in.-thick pressure vessels. Series 3: intermediate test vessel V-7A under sustained loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, R.H.; Cate, T.M.; Holz, P.P.; King, T.A.; Merkle, J.G.; Robinson, G.C.; Smith, G.C.; Smith, J.E.; Whitman, G.D.

    1978-01-01

    HSST intermediate test vessel V-7 was repaired after being tested hydrostatically to leakage and was retested pneumatically as vessel V-7A. Except for the method of applying the load, the conditions in both tests were nearly identical. In each case, a sharp outside surface flaw 547 mm long (18 in.) by about 135 mm deep (5.3 in.) was prepared in the 152-mm-thick (6-in.) test cylinder of A533, grade B, class 1 steel. The inside surface of vessel V-7A was sealed in the region of the flaw by a thin metal patch so that pressure could be sustained after rupture. Vessel V-7A failed by rupture of the flaw ligament without burst, as expected. Rupture occurred at 144.3 MPa (20.92 ksi), after which pressure was sustained for 30 min without any indication of instability. The rupture pressure of vessel V-7A was about 2 percent less than that of vessel V-7

  6. Implementation of DSC model and application for analysis of field pile tests under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Changming; Desai, Chandra S.

    2000-05-01

    The disturbed state concept (DSC) model, and a new and simplified procedure for unloading and reloading behavior are implemented in a nonlinear finite element procedure for dynamic analysis for coupled response of saturated porous materials. The DSC model is used to characterize the cyclic behavior of saturated clays and clay-steel interfaces. In the DSC, the relative intact (RI) behavior is characterized by using the hierarchical single surface (HISS) plasticity model; and the fully adjusted (FA) behavior is modeled by using the critical state concept. The DSC model is validated with respect to laboratory triaxial tests for clay and shear tests for clay-steel interfaces. The computer procedure is used to predict field behavior of an instrumented pile subjected to cyclic loading. The predictions provide very good correlation with the field data. They also yield improved results compared to those from a HISS model with anisotropic hardening, partly because the DSC model allows for degradation or softening and interface response.

  7. Primary beam-loading tests on DC-SC photoinjector at Peking University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jiankui; Lu Xiangyang; Ding, Yuantao; Quan Shengwen; Huang Senlin; Zhao Kui; Zhang Baocheng; Wang Lifang; Lin Lin; Jiao Fei; Wang Guimei; Xie Datao; Zhu Feng; Xiao Binping; Xiang Rong; Chen Jia'er

    2006-01-01

    The DC-SC photoinjector is a compact electron gun integrating a DC pierce gun with a 1.3 GHz 1+1/2 cell superconducting cavity. A test facility of the DC-SC photoinjector had been installed in Peking University and beam-loading tests at 4.4 K have been finished. To date the gradient of 6 MV/m has been achieved. The maximum energy gain is 1.1 MeV at 4.4 K. With average beam current of 270 μA, the measured rms emittance is about 5 mm mrad at the beam energy of 500 keV. In this paper some of the experimental results are summarized

  8. Comparative thermal cyclic test of different beryllium grades previously subjected to simulated disruption loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervash, A.; Giniyatulin, R.; Mazul, I.

    1999-01-01

    Considering beryllium as plasma facing armour this paper presents recent results obtained in Russia. A special process of joining beryllium to a Cu-alloy material structure is described and recent results of thermal cycling tests of such joints are presented. Summarizing the results, the authors show that a Cu-alloy heat sink structure armoured with beryllium can survive high heat fluxes (≥10 MW/m 2 ) during 1000 heating/cooling cycles without serious damage to the armour material and its joint. The principal feasibility of thermal cycling of beryllium grades and their joints directly in the core of a nuclear reactor is demonstrated and the main results of this test are presented. The paper also describes the thermal cycling of different beryllium grades having cracks initiated by previously applied high heat loads simulating plasma disruptions. (orig.)

  9. High power testing oa ANL X-band dielectric-loaded accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, J. G.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Konecny, R.; Gold, S. H.; Kinkead, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    In the second phase of a program to develop a compact accelerator based on a dielectric-loaded accelerating structure, we have conducted high power tests on a traveling-wave and a standing-wave prototype. Indications are that the traveling-wave structure achieved an accelerating gradient of 3-5 MV/m before the input coupling window failed, while the standing wave structure was poorly matched at high power due to contamination of copper residue on its coupling window. To solve both of these problems, a new method for coupling RF into the structures has been developed. The new couplers and the rest of the modular structure are currently under construction and will be tested at the Naval Research Laboratory shortly

  10. Pilot project - demonstration of capabilities and benefits of bridge load rating through physical testing : tech transfer summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This project demonstrated the capabilities for load testing bridges in Iowa, developed and presented a webinar to local and state engineers, and produced a spreadsheet and benefit evaluation matrix that others can use to preliminarily assess where br...

  11. Sub-Pixel Accuracy Crack Width Determination on Concrete Beams in Load Tests by Triangle Mesh Geometry Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebold, F.; Maas, H.-G.

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with the determination of crack widths of concrete beams during load tests from monocular image sequences. The procedure starts in a reference image of the probe with suitable surface texture under zero load, where a large number of points is defined by an interest operator. Then a triangulated irregular network is established to connect the points. Image sequences are recorded during load tests with the load increasing continuously or stepwise, or at intermittently changing load. The vertices of the triangles are tracked through the consecutive images of the sequence with sub-pixel accuracy by least squares matching. All triangles are then analyzed for changes by principal strain calculation. For each triangle showing significant strain, a crack width is computed by a thorough geometric analysis of the relative movement of the vertices.

  12. Experimental tests of a superposition hypothesis to explain the relationship between the vestibuloocular reflex and smooth pursuit during horizontal combined eye-head tracking in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, W. P.; Leigh, R. J.; Seidman, S. H.; Thomas, C. W.; Billian, C.; DiScenna, A. O.; Dell'Osso, L. F.

    1992-01-01

    1. We used a modeling approach to test the hypothesis that, in humans, the smooth pursuit (SP) system provides the primary signal for cancelling the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) during combined eye-head tracking (CEHT) of a target moving smoothly in the horizontal plane. Separate models for SP and the VOR were developed. The optimal values of parameters of the two models were calculated using measured responses of four subjects to trials of SP and the visually enhanced VOR. After optimal parameter values were specified, each model generated waveforms that accurately reflected the subjects' responses to SP and vestibular stimuli. The models were then combined into a CEHT model wherein the final eye movement command signal was generated as the linear summation of the signals from the SP and VOR pathways. 2. The SP-VOR superposition hypothesis was tested using two types of CEHT stimuli, both of which involved passive rotation of subjects in a vestibular chair. The first stimulus consisted of a "chair brake" or sudden stop of the subject's head during CEHT; the visual target continued to move. The second stimulus consisted of a sudden change from the visually enhanced VOR to CEHT ("delayed target onset" paradigm); as the vestibular chair rotated past the angular position of the stationary visual stimulus, the latter started to move in synchrony with the chair. Data collected during experiments that employed these stimuli were compared quantitatively with predictions made by the CEHT model. 3. During CEHT, when the chair was suddenly and unexpectedly stopped, the eye promptly began to move in the orbit to track the moving target. Initially, gaze velocity did not completely match target velocity, however; this finally occurred approximately 100 ms after the brake onset. The model did predict the prompt onset of eye-in-orbit motion after the brake, but it did not predict that gaze velocity would initially be only approximately 70% of target velocity. One possible

  13. Regression Test on the Rotational Speed between Two Loads as the Preparation for Braking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwanti, B S R; Yusivar, F; Garniwa M K, I

    2013-01-01

    This paper is preparing the mathematic model of braking control, continuously of determination the error (e), delta error (de) of speed reduction [9]. Load-1 and Load-2 are driven by an electric motor located on the same shaft. Both loads are driven clock wise (CW), counter clock wise (CCW) by an asynchronous three-phase motor (M3). The mass of each load is also differentiated to simulate slip phenomena. Rotational speed of M3 is equal to Load-1, detected by Sensor-1, while speed rotation of Load-2 is detected by Sensor-2. The rotation for Load-1 and Load-2 can be adjusted on several position H j (j = 1, 2, 3). Once Load-1 and Load-2 reach a constant speed, current source will be disconnected. Speed reduction from (ω±1475 rpm) to stagnant (ω=0 rpm) on Load-1 and Load-2 is considered time function. Data collected from both load (ω (t)) known as e, de; on each position of H j . It uses covariance analysis to make sure that both loads are concurrent with each other against time difference. The objective of this research is to determine slip phenomena of speed reduction of each load. The expectations are to generate smoother braking and minimize the time needed when implemented with ANFIS.

  14. Multilevel microvibration test for performance predictions of a space optical load platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiqi; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Shiping; Wang, Yue

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a framework for the multilevel microvibration analysis and test of a space optical load platform. The test framework is conducted on three levels, including instrument, subsystem, and system level. Disturbance source experimental investigations are performed to evaluate the vibration amplitude and study vibration mechanism. Transfer characteristics of space camera are validated by a subsystem test, which allows the calculation of transfer functions from various disturbance sources to optical performance outputs. In order to identify the influence of the source on the spacecraft performance, a system level microvibration measurement test has been performed on the ground. From the time domain analysis and spectrum analysis of multilevel microvibration tests, we concluded that the disturbance source has a significant effect on its installation position. After transmitted through mechanical links, the residual vibration reduces to a background noise level. In addition, the angular microvibration of the platform jitter is mainly concentrated in the rotation of y-axes. This work is applied to a real practical application involving the high resolution satellite camera system.

  15. Changes in Contact Area in Meniscus Horizontal Cleavage Tears Subjected to Repair and Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Brandon S; Walley, Kempland C; Okajima, Stephen; Manoukian, Ohan S; Perez-Viloria, Miguel; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Ramappa, Arun J; Nazarian, Ara

    2017-03-01

    To assess the changes in tibiofemoral contact pressure and contact area in human knees with a horizontal cleavage tear before and after treatment. Ten human cadaveric knees were tested. Pressure sensors were placed under the medial meniscus and the knees were loaded at twice the body weight for 20 cycles at 0°, 10°, and 20° of flexion. Contact area and pressure were recorded for the intact meniscus, the meniscus with a horizontal cleavage tear, after meniscal repair, after partial meniscectomy (single leaflet), and after subtotal meniscectomy (double leaflet). The presence of a horizontal cleavage tear significantly increased average peak contact pressure and reduced effective average tibiofemoral contact area at all flexion angles tested compared with the intact state (P contact pressure after creation of the horizontal cleavage tear. Repairing the horizontal cleavage tear restored peak contact pressures and areas to within 15% of baseline, statistically similar to the intact state at all angles tested (P contact pressure and reduced average contact area at all degrees of flexion compared with the intact state (P contact area and a significant elevation in contact pressure. These changes may accelerate joint degeneration. A suture-based repair of these horizontal cleavage tears returns the contact area and contact pressure to nearly normal, whereas both partial and subtotal meniscectomy lead to significant reductions in contact area and significant elevations in contact pressure within the knee. Repairing horizontal cleavage tears may lead to improved clinical outcomes by preserving meniscal tissue and the meniscal function. Understanding contact area and peak contact pressure resulting from differing strategies for treating horizontal cleavage tears will allow the surgeon to evaluate the best strategy for treating his or her patients who present with this meniscal pathology. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier

  16. Identification of exponent from load-deformation relation for soft materials from impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciornei, F. C.; Alaci, S.; Romanu, I. C.; Ciornei, M. C.; Sopon, G.

    2018-01-01

    When two bodies are brought into contact, the magnitude of occurring reaction forces increase together with the amplitude of deformations. The load-deformation dependency of two contacting bodies is described by a function having the form F = Cxα . An accurate illustration of this relationship assumes finding the precise coefficient C and exponent α. This representation proved to be very useful in hardness tests, in dynamic systems modelling or in considerations upon the elastic-plastic ratio concerning a Hertzian contact. The classical method for identification of the exponent consists in finding it from quasi-static tests. The drawback of the method is the fact that the accurate estimation of the exponent supposes precise identification of the instant of contact initiation. To overcome this aspect, the following observation is exploited: during an impact process, the dissipated energy is converted into heat released by internal friction in the materials and energy for plastic deformations. The paper is based on the remark that for soft materials the hysteresis curves obtained for a static case are similar to the ones obtained for medium velocities. Furthermore, utilizing the fact that for the restitution phase the load-deformation dependency is elastic, a method for finding the α exponent for compression phase is proposed. The maximum depth of the plastic deformations obtained for a series of collisions, by launching, from different heights, a steel ball in free falling on an immobile prism made of soft material, is evaluated by laser profilometry method. The condition that the area of the hysteresis loop equals the variation of kinetical energy of the ball is imposed and two tests are required for finding the exponent. Five collisions from different launching heights of the ball were taken into account. For all the possible impact-pair cases, the values of the exponent were found and close values were obtained.

  17. Development of postcompressional textural tests to evaluate the mechanical properties of medicated chewing gum tablets with high drug loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hagbani, Turki; Nazzal, Sami

    2018-02-01

    Medicated chewing gum tablets (CGTs) represent a unique platform for drug delivery. Loading directly compressible gums with high concentrations of powdered medication, however, results in compacts with hybrid properties between a chewable gum and a brittle tablet. The aim of the present study was to develop textural tests that can identify the point at which CGTs begin to behave like a solid tablet upon drug incorporation. Curcumin (CUR) CGTs made with Health in gum were prepared with increasing CUR load from 0 to 100% and were characterized for their mechanical properties by a single-bite (knife) and a two-bite tests. From each test several parameters were extracted and correlated with drug loading. In the single-bite test, the change in the resistance of the compacts to plastic deformation was found to give a definitive guide on whether they behave as gums or tablets. A more in depth analysis of the impact of CUR loading on the chewability of the CGTs was provided by the two-bite test where CUR loading was found to have a nonlinear impact on the mechanical properties of compacts. An upper limit of 10% was found to yield compacts with gum-like properties, which were abolished at higher CUR loads. The textural test procedure outlined in this study are expected to assist those involved in the formulation of medicated gums for pharmaceutical applications in making an informed decision on the impact of drug loading on gum behavior before proceeding with clinical testing. There is a growing interest in utilizing medicated chewing gums for drug delivery, especially those made using directly compressible gum bases, such as Health in gum. Directly compressing a gum base with high amounts of solid drug powder, however, poses a challenge as it may result in compressed compacts with hybrid properties between a chewing gum and a hard tablet. Currently, official Pharmacopeias do not specify a testing procedure for the estimation of the mechanical and textural properties of

  18. A compression and shear loading test of concrete filled steel bearing wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sekimoto, Hisashi; Fukihara, Masaaki; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Hara, Kiyoshi.

    1991-01-01

    Concrete-filled steel bearing walls called SC structure which are the composite structure of concrete and steel plates have larger load-carrying capacity and higher ductility as compared with conventional RC structures, and their construction method enables the rationalization of construction procedures at sites and the shortening of construction period. Accordingly, the SC structures have become to be applied to the inner concrete structures of PWR nuclear power plants, and subsequently, it is planned to apply them to the auxiliary buildings of nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to establish a rational design method for the SC structures which can be applied to the auxiliary buildings of nuclear power plants. In this study, the buckling strength of surface plates and the ultimate strength of the SC structure were evaluated with the results of the compression and shear tests which have been carried out. The outline of the study and the tests, the results of the compression test and the shear test and their evaluation are reported. Stud bolts were effective for preventing the buckling of surface plates. The occurrence of buckling can be predicted analytically. (K.I.)

  19. Development, field testing and implementation of automated hydraulically controlled, variable volume loading systems for reciprocating compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, Dwayne A. [ACI Services, Inc., Cambridge, OH (United States); Slupsky, John [Kvaerner Process Systems, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Chrisman, Bruce M.; Hurley, Tom J. [Cooper Energy Services, Oklahoma City, OK (United States). Ajax Division

    2003-07-01

    Automated, variable volume unloaders provide the ability to smoothly load/unload reciprocating compressors to maintain ideal operations in ever-changing environments. Potential advantages provided by this load control system include: maximizing unit capacity, optimizing power economy, maintaining low exhaust emissions, and maintaining process suction and discharge pressures. Obstacles foreseen include: reliability, stability, serviceability and automation integration. Results desired include: increased productivity for the compressor and its operators, increased up time, and more stable process control. This presentation covers: system design features with descriptions of how different types of the devices were developed, initial test data, and how they can be effectively operated; three actual-case studies detailing the reasons why automated, hydraulically controlled, variable volume, head-end unloaders were chosen over other types of unloading devices; sophisticated software used in determining the device sizing and predicted performance; mechanical and field considerations; installation, serviceability and operating considerations; device control issues, including PC and PLC considerations; monitoring of actual performance and comparison of such with predicted performance; analysis of mechanical reliability and stability; and preliminary costs versus return on investment analysis. (author)

  20. Specificity of the Acute Tryptophan and Tyrosine plus Phenylalanine Depletion and Loading Tests Part II:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla A.-B. Badawy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current formulations for acute tryptophan (Trp or tyrosine (Tyr plus phenylalanine (Phe depletion and loading cause undesirable decreases in ratios of Trp or Tyr + Phe to competing amino acids (CAA, thus undermining the specificities of these tests. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA cause these unintended decreases, and lowering their content in a new balanced control formulation in the present study led to normalization of all ratios. Four groups (n = 12 each of adults each received one of four 50 g control formulations, with 0% (traditional, 20%, 30%, or 40% less of the BCAA. The free and total [Trp]/[CAA] and [Phe + Tyr]/[BCAA+ Trp] ratios all decreased significantly during the first 5 h following the traditional formulation, but were fully normalized by the formulation containing 40% less of the BCAA. We recommend the latter as a balanced control formulation and propose adjustments in the depletion and loading formulations to enhance their specificities for 5-HT and the catecholamines.

  1. Design, implementation, and testing of a cryogenic loading capability on an engineering neutron diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, T. R.; Krishnan, V. B.; Vaidyanathan, R. [Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center (AMPAC), University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Clausen, B.; Sisneros, T.; Livescu, V.; Brown, D. W.; Bourke, M. A. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    A novel capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during loading at cryogenic temperatures on the spectrometer for materials research at temperature and stress at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This capability allowed for the application of dynamic compressive forces of up to 250 kN on standard samples controlled at temperatures between 300 and 90 K. The approach comprised of cooling thermally isolated compression platens that in turn conductively cooled the sample in an aluminum vacuum chamber which was nominally transparent to the incident and diffracted neutrons. The cooling/heat rate and final temperature were controlled by regulating the flow of liquid nitrogen in channels inside the platens that were connected through bellows to the mechanical actuator of the load frame and by heaters placed on the platens. Various performance parameters of this system are reported here. The system was used to investigate deformation in Ni-Ti-Fe shape memory alloys at cryogenic temperatures and preliminary results are presented.

  2. Performance testing of prototype live loaded packed stem seals for large gate valves in pressurized hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothier, N.E.

    1976-01-01

    Prototype live loaded packed stem seals for large gate valves have been tested in a laboratory. The test fluid was demineralized water at 547 K, 8.27 MPa and pH 10. Nine packing configurations were tested; three different commercial brands of asbestos/graphite valve packings and three different sizes for each packing brand. Conventional and live loaded packed stem seals are briefly described. Stem leakage, packing consolidation and stem friction data are given. For all tests, leakage rates of less than 10 g d -1 were observed. It was also observed that stem friction was significantly affected by thermal expansion of the stem. (author)

  3. Basin Testing of Wave Energy Converters in Trondheim: Investigation of Mooring Loads and Implications for Wider Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Krivtsov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the physical model testing of an array of wave energy devices undertaken in the NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim basin between 8 and 20 October 2008 funded under the EU Hydralabs III initiative, and provides an analysis of the extreme mooring loads. Tests were completed at 1/20 scale on a single oscillating water column device and on close-packed arrays of three and five devices following calibration of instrumentation and the wave and current test environment. One wave energy converter (WEC was fully instrumented with mooring line load cells, optical motion tracker and accelerometers and tested in regular waves, short- and long-crested irregular waves and current. The wave and current test regimes were measured by six wave probes and a current meter. Arrays of three and five similar WECs, with identical mooring systems, were tested under similar environmental loading with partial monitoring of mooring forces and motions. The majority of loads on the mooring lines appeared to be broadly consistent with both logistic and normal distribution; whilst the right tail appeared to conform to the extreme value distribution. Comparison of the loads at different configurations of WEC arrays suggests that the results are broadly consistent with the hypothesis that the mooring loads should differ. In particular; the results from the tests in short crested seas conditions give an indication that peak loads in a multi WEC array may be considerably higher than in 1-WEC configuration. The test campaign has contributed essential data to the development of Simulink™ and Orcaflex™ models of devices, which include mooring system interactions, and data have also been obtained for inter-tank comparisons, studies of scale effects and validation of mooring system numerical models. It is hoped that this paper will help to draw the attention of a wider scientific community to the dataset freely available from the

  4. Vertical and horizontal subsidiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Daniluk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article makes an attempt to analyze the principle of subsidiarity in its two main manifestations, namely vertical and horizontal, to outline the principles of relations between the state and regions within the vertical subsidiarity, and features a collaboration of the government and civil society within the horizontal subsidiarity. Scientists identify two types, or two levels of the subsidiarity principle: vertical subsidiarity and horizontal subsidiarity. First, vertical subsidiarity (or territorial concerning relations between the state and other levels of subnational government, such as regions and local authorities; second, horizontal subsidiarity (or functional concerns the relationship between state and citizen (and civil society. Vertical subsidiarity expressed in the context of the distribution of administrative responsibilities to the appropriate higher level lower levels relative to the state structure, ie giving more powers to local government. However, state intervention has subsidiary-lower action against local authorities in cases of insolvency last cope on their own, ie higher organisms intervene only if the duties are less authority is insufficient to achieve the goals. Horizontal subsidiarity is within the relationship between power and freedom, and is based on the assumption that the concern for the common good and the needs of common interest community, able to solve community members (as individuals and citizens’ associations and role of government, in accordance horizontal subsidiarity comes to attracting features subsidiarity assistance, programming, coordination and possibly control.

  5. In-pile testing of ITER first wall mock-ups at relevant thermal loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litunovsky, N.; Gervash, A.; Lorenzetto, P.; Mazul, I.; Melder, R.

    2009-04-01

    The paper describes the experimental technique and preliminary results of thermal fatigue testing of ITER first wall (FW) water-cooled mock-ups inside the core of the RBT-6 experimental fission reactor (RIAR, Dimitrovgrad, Russia). This experiment has provided simultaneous effect of neutron fluence and thermal cycling damages on the mock-ups. A PC-controlled high-temperature graphite ohmic heater was applied to provide cyclic thermal load onto the mock-ups surface. This experiment lasted for 309 effective irradiation days with a final damage level (CuCrZr) of 1 dpa in the mock-ups. About 3700 thermal cycles with a heat flux of 0.4-0.5 MW/m 2 onto the mock-ups were realized before the heater fails. Then, irradiation was continued in a non-cycling mode.

  6. Using squat testing to predict training loads for lower-body exercises in elite karate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Tan, Erik C H; Chaouachi, Anis; Carling, Christopher; Castagna, Carlo; Bloomfield, Jonathan; Behm, David G

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between squat loads and 2 bilateral and 2 unilateral stepping lower-body exercises in predominantly unilateral movement elite athletes (Karate). Equations to predict loads for lower-body exercises based on the squat load were also determined. Fourteen male elite Karate athletes (age = 22.6 ± 1.2 years) performed 6 repetition maximum (RM) of the following free-weight bilateral exercises: back half squat, deadlift, leg press and unilateral stepping exercises, lunge; and step-up. Results showed that 6RM squat load was significantly (p squat load was a significant predictor for deadlift, leg press, lunge, and step-up (R2 range from 0.57 to 0.85, p squat load (1.12)-16.60 kg, (b) Leg press = squat load (1.66) + 16.10 kg, (c) Lunge = squat load (0.61) + 9.39 kg, and (d) step-up = squat load (0.85)-10.36 kg. Coaches and fitness professionals can use the 6RM squat load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for both bilateral and unilateral lower-body exercises with quadriceps as the prime mover. Load prescriptions for unilateral exercises should take into account the type of athletic population.

  7. Evaluation of constraint methodologies applied to a shallow-flaw cruciform bend specimen tested under biaxial loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.; Pennell, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a prototypic, far-field. out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for RPV materials. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies. namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness, the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect

  8. Aging and failure mode of electrochemical double layer capacitors during accelerated constant load tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koetz, R.; Ruch, P.W.; Cericola, D. [General Energy Research Department, Electrochemistry Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2010-02-01

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors of the BCAP0350 type (Maxwell Technologies) were tested under constant load conditions at different voltages and temperatures. The aging of the capacitors was monitored during the test in terms of capacitance, internal resistance and leakage current. Aging was significantly accelerated by elevated temperature or increased voltage. Only for extreme conditions at voltages of 3.5 V or temperatures above 70 C the capacitors failed due to internal pressure build-up. No other failure events such as open circuit or short circuit were detected. Impedance measurements after the tests showed increased high frequency resistance, an increased distributed resistance and most likely an increase in contact resistance between electrode and current collector together with a loss of capacitance. Capacitors aged at elevated voltages (3.3 V) exhibited a tilting of the low frequency component, which implies an increase in the heterogeneity of the electrode surface. This feature was not observed upon aging at elevated temperatures (70 C). (author)

  9. Development of a mechanical testing and loading system for trabecular bone studies for long term culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DB Jones

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A highly accurate (�3% mechanical loading and measurement system combined with a trabecular bone diffusion culture-loading chamber has been developed, which provides the ability to study trabecular bone (and possibly cartilage under controlled culture and loading conditions over long periods of time. The loading device has been designed to work in two main modes, either to apply a specific compressive strain to a trabecular bone cylinder or to apply a specific force and measure the resulting deformation. Presently, precisely machined bone cylinders can be loaded at frequencies between 0.1 Hz to 50 Hz and amplitudes over 7,000�e. The system allows accurate measurement of many mechanical properties of the tissue in real time, including visco-elastic properties. This paper describes the technical components, reproducibility, precision, and the calibration procedures of the loading system. Data on long term culture and mechanical responses to different loading patterns will be published separately.

  10. Variability of plasma and urine betaine in diabetes mellitus and its relationship to methionine load test responses: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Lever, Michael; Slow, Sandy; McGregor, David O; Dellow, Warwick J; George, Peter M; Chambers, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Since betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor, and abnormal betaine loss is common in diabetes mellitus (>20% patients), we investigated the relationship between betaine and the post-methionine load rise in homocysteine, in diabetes and control subjects. The post-methionine load test is reported to be both an independent vascular risk factor and a measure of betaine sufficiency. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 34) and control subjects (n = 17) were recruited. We...

  11. Gust load alleviation wind tunnel tests of a large-aspect-ratio flexible wing with piezoelectric control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Bi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An active control technique utilizing piezoelectric actuators to alleviate gust-response loads of a large-aspect-ratio flexible wing is investigated. Piezoelectric materials have been extensively used for active vibration control of engineering structures. In this paper, piezoelectric materials further attempt to suppress the vibration of the aeroelastic wing caused by gust. The motion equation of the flexible wing with piezoelectric patches is obtained by Hamilton’s principle with the modal approach, and then numerical gust responses are analyzed, based on which a gust load alleviation (GLA control system is proposed. The gust load alleviation system employs classic proportional-integral-derivative (PID controllers which treat piezoelectric patches as control actuators and acceleration as the feedback signal. By a numerical method, the control mechanism that piezoelectric actuators can be used to alleviate gust-response loads is also analyzed qualitatively. Furthermore, through low-speed wind tunnel tests, the effectiveness of the gust load alleviation active control technology is validated. The test results agree well with the numerical results. Test results show that at a certain frequency range, the control scheme can effectively alleviate the z and x wingtip accelerations and the root bending moment of the wing to a certain extent. The control system gives satisfying gust load alleviation efficacy with the reduction rate being generally over 20%.

  12. Deformed Shape Calculation of a Full-Scale Wing Using Fiber Optic Strain Data from a Ground Loads Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Christine V.; Ko, William L.; Stephens, Craig A.; Bakalyar, John A.; Richards, W. Lance

    2011-01-01

    A ground loads test of a full-scale wing (175-ft span) was conducted using a fiber optic strain-sensing system to obtain distributed surface strain data. These data were input into previously developed deformed shape equations to calculate the wing s bending and twist deformation. A photogrammetry system measured actual shape deformation. The wing deflections reached 100 percent of the positive design limit load (equivalent to 3 g) and 97 percent of the negative design limit load (equivalent to -1 g). The calculated wing bending results were in excellent agreement with the actual bending; tip deflections were within +/- 2.7 in. (out of 155-in. max deflection) for 91 percent of the load steps. Experimental testing revealed valuable opportunities for improving the deformed shape equations robustness to real world (not perfect) strain data, which previous analytical testing did not detect. These improvements, which include filtering methods developed in this work, minimize errors due to numerical anomalies discovered in the remaining 9 percent of the load steps. As a result, all load steps attained +/- 2.7 in. accuracy. Wing twist results were very sensitive to errors in bending and require further development. A sensitivity analysis and recommendations for fiber implementation practices, along with, effective filtering methods are included

  13. Elevated-temperature tests of simply-supported beams and circular plates subjected to time-varying loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.; Richardson, M.

    1975-01-01

    The measured elastic-plastic and elastic-plastic-creep responses of a number of simply-supported type 304 stainless steel beams and circular plates are presented. Beams and plates exhibit the essential features of inelastic structural behavior; yet they are relatively simple. In beams, the stress fields are largely uniaxial, while multiaxial effects are introduced in plates. The specimens were laterally loaded at the center, and the tests were performed by subjecting the specimens to either a prescribed load or center-deflection history. The specimens were machined from a common, well-characterized heat of material, and all of the tests were performed at a temperature of 1100 F. The elastic-plastic tests consisted of short-time cycling of the center load, or deflection, between fixed limits. In the elastic-plastic-creep tests the center load, or deflection, was held constant for periods of time, but was periodically subjected to a step increase or decrease, including reversals. The test results are presented in terms of the load and center-deflection behaviors, which typify the overall structural behavior. (U.S.)

  14. GABA sensitivity of spectrally classified horizontal cells in goldfish retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.; Kamermans, M.; Negishi, K.; Spekreijse, H.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the GABA sensitivity of horizontal cells in the isolated goldfish retina. After the glutamatergic input to the horizontal cells was blocked with DNQX, GABA depolarized the monophasic and biphasic horizontal cells. The pharmacology of these GABA-induced depolarizations was tested with the

  15. The Different Methods of Displacement Monitoring at Loading Tests of Bridges or Different Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačič Boštjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By measuring the displacements and deformations at different structures we deal in the Faculty of Civil Engineering, transportation Engineering and Architecture in University of Maribor for about 20 years. At that time we measured over 600 structures. Most loading tests of bridges and Viaducts were made. The measurements of movements needed to be as precise and accurate as possible. To do that laboratory test of instruments were made to see which instrument gives us reliable results. Displacements can be determined by geodetic and physical methods, depends of the construction. The use of geodetic methods are still preferable. In the paper the measurements with the total station, the level and rotation level, photogrammetry and solutions on the field by physical methods with inductive transducers are presented. We need to measure displacements as quick as possible but efficiently because we can not repeat the measurements under the same conditions. Also the surveying on the bridge and in the lab with the comparison of methods is presented under the different hard terrain conditions - water beneath the construction, big height of the structure, unapproachability, large span structures.

  16. Effect of horizontal reinforcement in strengthening of masonry members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, S.H.; Ilyas, M.; Ggaffar, A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental research program was undertaken to ascertain the effectiveness of a new technique for strengthening masonry wall panels using steel strips on compressive and shear strength enhancement. The experimental work includes eight wall panels, four each for compressive and shear strength evaluation. This work was the phase I of extensive research project which include testing of strengthened masonry wall panels under monotonic load (Phase-I), static cyclic load (Phase-2) and dynamic load (Phase-3). The wall panels were strengthened with different steel strip arrangements, which consist of single/double face application of coarse and fine steel strip mesh with reduced spacing of horizontal strips. This paper investigates only the effectiveness of horizontal steel strips on strength enhancement. Four masonry wall panels are considered in two groups and in each group, one wall was retrofitted with coarse steel mesh on single face and on second wall fine steel mesh was applied on one side. Furthermore, test results of strengthened specimens are also compared with the un-strengthened specimen (REFE). The mechanisms by which load was carried were observed, varying from the initial, uncracked state, and the final, fully cracked state. The results demonstrate a quite significant increase in the compressive and shear capacity of strengthened panels as compared to REFE-panel. However, increase in the compressive strength of fine mesh above that of coarse mesh is negligible. The technique/approach is found quite viable for strengthening of masonry walls, for rehabilitation of old deteriorated buildings and unreinforced masonry structures in seismic zones. (author)

  17. Collection of in-Field Impact Loads Acting on a Rugby Wheelchair Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bettella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was included in a wider project oriented to the improvement of residual neuromuscular skills in disabled athletes playing wheelchair rugby: the wheelchair rugby Italian national team was involved and tests allowed to analyse the impact loads on a rugby wheelchair frame. The frame of a rugby wheelchair offensive model, made by OffCarr Company, was instrumented with four strain gauge bridges in four different points. Then, three test types were conducted in laboratory: two static calibrations with the application of known loads, the first with horizontal load and the second with vertical load, and a dynamic horizontal calibration, impacting against a fix load cell in order to validate the results of horizontal static calibration. Finally, a test session took place in the field with the collaboration of two team players. The test consisted in voluntary frontal impacts between the two players, starting from 6 meters distance each other. The opponent of the instrumented wheelchair was a defender. From this test, the value of the horizontal load received by the frame in the impact instant was quantified. Moreover, also the vertical load acting on the wheelchair during the rebound of the player after the hit was evaluated: these informations were useful to the wheelchair frame manufacturer for the proper static, impact and fatigue design.

  18. Environmental restoration using horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.; Hazen, T.C.; Corey, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems

  19. Cyclic fatigue resistance tests of Nickel-Titanium rotary files using simulated canal and weight loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-In Cho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study compared the cyclic fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi files obtained in a conventional test using a simulated canal with a newly developed method that allows the application of constant fatigue load conditions. Materials and Methods ProFile and K3 files of #25/.06, #30/.06, and #40/.04 were selected. Two types of testing devices were built to test their fatigue performance. The first (conventional device prescribed curvature inside a simulated canal (C-test, the second new device exerted a constant load (L-test whilst allowing any resulting curvature. Ten new instruments of each size and brand were tested with each device. The files were rotated until fracture and the number of cycles to failure (NCF was determined. The NCF were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Duncan's post-hoc test for each method. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was computed to examine any association between methods. Results Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (ρ = -0.905 showed a significant negative correlation between methods. Groups with significant difference after the L-test divided into 4 clusters, whilst the C-test gave just 2 clusters. From the L-test, considering the negative correlation of NCF, K3 gave a significantly lower fatigue resistance than ProFile as in the C-test. K3 #30/.06 showed a lower fatigue resistance than K3 #25/.06, which was not found by the C-test. Variation in fatigue test methodology resulted in different cyclic fatigue resistance rankings for various NiTi files. Conclusions The new methodology standardized the load during fatigue testing, allowing determination fatigue behavior under constant load conditions.

  20. The Medial Stitch in Transosseous-Equivalent Rotator Cuff Repair: Vertical or Horizontal Mattress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanez, Anthony; Makarewich, Christopher A; Burks, Robert T; Henninger, Heath B

    2016-09-01

    Despite advances in surgical technique, rotator cuff repair retears continue to occur at rates of 10%, 22%, and 57% for small, medium, and large tears, respectively. A common mode of failure in transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repairs is tissue pullout of the medial mattress stitch. While the medial mattress stitch has been studied extensively, no studies have evaluated a vertical mattress pattern placed near the musculotendinous junction in comparison with a horizontal mattress pattern. Vertical mattress stitches will have higher load to failure and lower gapping compared with horizontal mattress stitches in a transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair. Controlled laboratory study. Double-row transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repairs were performed in 9 pairs of human male cadaveric shoulders (mean age ± SD, 58 ± 10 years). One shoulder in each pair received a medial-row suture pattern using a vertical mattress stitch, and the contralateral shoulder received a horizontal mattress. Specimens were mounted in a materials testing machine and tested in uniaxial tensile deformation for cyclic loading (500 cycles at 1 Hz to 1.0 MPa of effective stress), followed by failure testing carried out at a rate of 1 mm/s. Construct gapping and applied loads were monitored continuously throughout the testing. Vertical mattress sutures were placed in 5 right and 4 left shoulders. Peak cyclic gapping did not differ between vertical (mean ± SD, 2.8 ± 1.1 mm) and horizontal mattress specimens (3.0 ± 1.2 mm) (P = .684). Vertical mattress sutures failed at higher loads compared with horizontal mattress sutures (568.9 ± 140.3 vs 451.1 ± 174.3 N; P = .025); however, there was no significant difference in failure displacement (8.0 ± 1.6 vs 6.0 ± 2.1 mm; P = .092). Failure stiffness did not differ between the suture patterns (P = .204). In transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repairs near the musculotendinous junction, a vertical mattress suture used as the medial stitch

  1. Pulse Jet Mixer Overblow Testing for Assessment of Loadings During Multiple Overblows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfund, David M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Michener, Thomas E.; Nigl, Franz; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Leigh, Richard J.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Baumann, Aaron W.; Kurath, Dean E.; Hoza, Mark; Combs, William H.; Fort, James A.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

    2009-07-20

    contents for PJM operation, and maximum and minimum rheological properties). Test data collected from the PJM overblow tests were provided to Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) for assessing hydrostatic, dynamic, and acoustic pressure loadings on in-tank structures during 1) single overblows; 2) multiple overlapping overblows of two to four PJMs; 3) simultaneous overblows of pairs of PJMs.

  2. Pulse Jet Mixer Overblow Testing for Assessment of Loadings During Multiple Overblows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfund, David M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Michener, Thomas E.; Nigl, Franz; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Leigh, Richard J.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Baumann, Aaron W.; Kurath, Dean E.; Hoza, Mark; Combs, William H.; Fort, James A.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

    2008-03-03

    contents for PJM operation, and maximum and minimum rheological properties). Test data collected from the PJM overblow tests were provided to Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) for assessing hydrostatic, dynamic, and acoustic pressure loadings on in-tank structures during 1) single overblows; 2) multiple overlapping overblows of two to four PJMs; 3) simultaneous overblows of pairs of PJMs.

  3. Spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaerd, L.; Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Peterson, L.; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh

    1989-01-01

    The frequency of spondylolysis and the relationship between spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in 143 athletes and 30 non-athletes is reported. Athletes had a larger sacro-horizontal angle than non-athletes. The sacro-horizontal angle was larger in athletes with spondylolysis as compared with those without. An increased incidence of spondylolysis with an increased angle was demonstrated. It is suggested that an increased sacro-horizontal angle may predispose to spondylolysis, especially in combination with the high mechanical loads sustained in certain sports. (orig.)

  4. Spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaerd, L.; Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Peterson, L. (Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Radiology)

    The frequency of spondylolysis and the relationship between spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in 143 athletes and 30 non-athletes is reported. Athletes had a larger sacro-horizontal angle than non-athletes. The sacro-horizontal angle was larger in athletes with spondylolysis as compared with those without. An increased incidence of spondylolysis with an increased angle was demonstrated. It is suggested that an increased sacro-horizontal angle may predispose to spondylolysis, especially in combination with the high mechanical loads sustained in certain sports. (orig.).

  5. Thermal load testing of erosion-monitoring beryllium marker tile for the ITER-Like Wall Project at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, T.; Linke, J.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Likonen, J.; Lungu, C.P.; Matthews, G.F.; Philipps, V.; Wessel, E.

    2008-01-01

    ITER-Like Wall Project has been launched at JET in order to perform a fully integrated test of plasma-facing materials. During the next major shutdown a full metal wall will be installed: tungsten in the divertor and beryllium in the main chamber. Beryllium erosion is one of key issues to be addressed. Special marker tiles have been designed for this purpose. Test coupons of such markers have been manufactured and examined. The performance test under high power deposition was carried in the electron beam facility JUDITH. The results of material characterization before and after high heat flux loads are presented. The samples survived, without macroscopic damage, power loads of up to 4.5 MW/m 2 for 10 s (surface temperature ∼650 deg. C) and 50 cyclic loads at 3.5 MW/m 2 lasting 10 s each (surface temperature ∼600 deg. C)

  6. Development status of the experimental and numerical load analysis of package units CASTOR registered under drop test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelzer, Walter; Schaefer, Marc; Rumanus, Erkan; Liedtke, Ralph; Brehmer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical integrity of package units CASTOR registered for a 9-m drop test under accident conditions has to be demonstrated according the requirements of IAEA among others. For reduction of the loads the containers have to be equipped with shock absorbers on the bottom and top sides. The determination of loads under drop test conditions can be performed with experimental or numerical methods. Due to the complexity of the load state and the verification of results both methods are usually used for integrity demonstration. The numerical codes have to model the short-term dynamic behavior of the whole container for different drop orientations and temperatures, local stress states have to be quantifiable for assessment. One of the problems is the modeling of the material behavior of wood that is used in the shock absorbers. The so far used energetic calculation approach will be replaced by a dynamic approach, the numerical models will have to be verified by experimental drop tests.

  7. Accelerated in vitro release testing method for naltrexone loaded PLGA microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andhariya, Janki V; Choi, Stephanie; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yuan; Burgess, Diane J; Shen, Jie

    2017-03-30

    The objective of the present study was to develop a discriminatory and reproducible accelerated release testing method for naltrexone loaded parenteral polymeric microspheres. The commercially available naltrexone microsphere product (Vivitrol ® ) was used as the testing formulation in the in vitro release method development, and both sample-and-separate and USP apparatus 4 methods were investigated. Following an in vitro drug stability study, frequent media replacement and addition of anti-oxidant in the release medium were used to prevent degradation of naltrexone during release testing at "real-time" (37°C) and "accelerated" (45°C), respectively. The USP apparatus 4 method was more reproducible than the sample-and-separate method. In addition, the accelerated release profile obtained using USP apparatus 4 had a shortened release duration (within seven days), and good correlation with the "real-time" release profile. Lastly, the discriminatory ability of the developed accelerated release method was assessed using compositionally equivalent naltrexone microspheres with different release characteristics. The developed accelerated USP apparatus 4 release method was able to detect differences in the release characteristics of the prepared naltrexone microspheres. Moreover, a linear correlation was observed between the "real-time" and accelerated release profiles of all the formulations investigated, suggesting that the release mechanism(s) may be similar under both conditions. These results indicate that the developed accelerated USP apparatus 4 method has the potential to be an appropriate fast quality control tool for long-acting naltrexone PLGA microspheres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fracture assessment of HSST Plate 14 shallow-flaw cruciform bend specimens tested under biaxial loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.; Pennell, W.E.

    1998-06-01

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow, surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a far-field, out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for an RPV material. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies, namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness; the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect. A three-parameter Weibull model based on the hydrostatic stress criterion is shown to correlate the experimentally observed biaxial effect on cleavage fracture toughness by providing a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states.

  9. Reliability and validity of a low load endurance strength test for upper and lower extremities in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the reliability, standard error of the mean (SEM), clinical significant change, and known group validity of 2 assessments of endurance strength to low loads in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FS). Cross-sectional reliability and comparative study. University Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain. Middle-aged women with FS (n=95) and healthy women (n=64) matched for age, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were recruited for the study. Not applicable. The endurance strength to low loads tests of the upper and lower extremities and anthropometric measures (BMI) were used for the evaluations. The differences between the readings (tests 1 and 2) and the SDs of the differences, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model (2,1), 95% confidence interval for the ICC, coefficient of repeatability, intrapatient SD, SEM, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine reliability. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the differences in test values between the patient group and the control group. We hypothesized that patients with FS would have an endurance strength to low loads performance in lower and upper extremities at least twice as low as that of the healthy controls. Satisfactory test-retest reliability and SEMs were found for the lower extremity, dominant arm, and nondominant arm tests (ICC=.973-.979; P.05 for all). The Bland-Altman plots showed 95% limits of agreement for the lower extremity (4.7 to -4.5), dominant arm (3.8 to -4.4), and nondominant arm (3.9 to -4.1) tests. The endurance strength to low loads test scores for the patients with FS were 4-fold lower than for the controls in all performed tests (P<.001 for all). The endurance strength to low loads tests showed good reliability and known group validity and can be recommended for evaluating endurance strength to low loads in patients with FS. For individual evaluation, however, an improved score of at least 4 and 5 repetitions for the upper and lower extremities

  10. Transient and Steady-state Tests of the Space Power Research Engine with Resistive and Motor Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has been testing free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternators (FPSE/LA) to develop advanced power convertors for space-based electrical power generation. Tests reported herein were performed to evaluate the interaction and transient behavior of FPSE/LA-based power systems with typical user loads. Both resistive and small induction motor loads were tested with the space power research engine (SPRE) power system. Tests showed that the control system could maintain constant long term voltage and stable periodic operation over a large range of engine operating parameters and loads. Modest resistive load changes were shown to cause relatively large voltage and, therefore, piston and displacer amplitude excursions. Starting a typical small induction motor was shown to cause large and, in some cases, deleterious voltage transients. The tests identified the need for more effective controls, if FPSE/LAs are to be used for stand-alone power systems. The tests also generated a large body of transient dynamic data useful for analysis code validation.

  11. Transient and steady-state tests of the space power research engine with resistive and motor loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has been testing free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternators (FPSE/LA) to develop advanced power convertors for space-based electrical power generation. Tests reported herein were performed to evaluate the interaction and transient behavior of FPSE/LA-based power systems with typical user loads. Both resistive and small induction motor loads were tested with the space power research engine (SPRE) power system. Tests showed that the control system could maintain constant long term voltage and stable periodic operation over a large range of engine operating parameters and loads. Modest resistive load changes were shown to cause relatively large voltage and, therefore, piston and displacer amplitude excursions. Starting a typical small induction motor was shown to cause large and, in some cases, deleterious voltage transients. The tests identified the need for more effective controls, if FPSE/LAs are to be used for stand-alone power systems. The tests also generated a large body of transient dynamic data useful for analysis code validation.

  12. High temperature testing - a contribution to alloy development, alloy qualification and simulation of component Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, A.; Schwienheer, M.; Mueller, F.; Linn, S.; Schein, M.; Walther, C.; Berger, C.

    2007-01-01

    In parallel to continued developments of steam and gas turbines as well as traffic engineering machines on the one hand, and marginal conditions like low specific fuel consumption and sufficient environment-friendliness on the other hand, the aim of improving the degree of efficiency by augmenting process parameters such as temperature and pressure is being followed. These efforts impact especially components of thermic machines and facilities subject to high thermal and mechanic exposure. Still largely unexplored is the interaction between microstructure characteristics determined through chemical composition, production processes and heat treatment, changes in the microstructure due to multiaxial load and the time-dependent deformation and stability resulting hereof. With regard to this background, improved methods of material properties determination, their modelling and transfer on the component enable to optimize wall thicknesses and degrees of efficiency. In the course of evaluation of static and cyclic material properties carried out also on faulty specimens, uncertainties occur which can originate from the testing process and analysis, as well as being influenced by the material itself and its process of production. Altogether, the demand for reliable determination of material properties and methods of scatterband treatment and their mathematical-statistical evaluation is in business. For simulation, consistent material datasets that describe the complex interaction between temperature, period of exposure and type of exposure are needed. Summarizing, the tasks dealt with qualify the entire process from production to the operational behaviour of components. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  13. Comparison of Internal Fixations for Distal Clavicular Fractures Based on Loading Tests and Finite Element Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Sakai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to apply strong and stable internal fixation to a fracture of the distal end of the clavicle because it is unstable, the distal clavicle fragment is small, and the fractured region is near the acromioclavicular joint. In this study, to identify a superior internal fixation method for unstable distal clavicular fracture, we compared three types of internal fixation (tension band wiring, scorpion, and LCP clavicle hook plate. Firstly, loading tests were performed, in which fixations were evaluated using bending stiffness and torsional stiffness as indices, followed by finite element analysis to evaluate fixability using the stress and strain as indices. The bending and torsional stiffness were significantly higher in the artificial clavicles fixed with the two types of plate than in that fixed by tension band wiring (P<0.05. No marked stress concentration on the clavicle was noted in the scorpion because the arm plate did not interfere with the acromioclavicular joint, suggesting that favorable shoulder joint function can be achieved. The stability of fixation with the LCP clavicle hook plate and the scorpion was similar, and plate fixations were stronger than fixation by tension band wiring.

  14. Analytical Model of Coil Spring Damper Based on the Loading Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Gook; Park, Woong Ki [INNOSE TECH Co. LTD, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Furuya, Osamu [Tokyo City University, Tokyo (Japan); Kurabayashi, Hiroshi [Vibro-System, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The one way of solving such problems is to enhance and to develop an improved damping element used in base-isolation and response control system. A cost reduction of damper for a large scale structure is another important task to upgrade the total response control abilities in the near future. This study has examined a response control device using elastoplastic hysteresis damping of metal material. The proposed damper is designed to be coil spring element shape for a uniform stress of metal and for a reduction of low cyclic fatigue in large deformation to upgrade a repetitive strength during the earthquake motions. By using the metal material of SS400 general structural rolled steel, the corresponding cost issues of the damping element will be effectively reduced. The analytical of elasto-plastic coil spring damper (CSD) is introduced, and basic mechanical properties evaluated experimentally and analytically. This study has been examined the response control damper using elasto-plastic hysteresis characteristics of metal material. The paper described the design method of elasto-plastic coil spring damper, basic mechanical properties evaluated from loading test, and analytical model of damper are summarized. It was confirmed that the damping force and mechanical characteristics of elasto-plastic coil spring damper are almost satisfied the design specifications.

  15. MEMS resonant load cells for micro-mechanical test frames: feasibility study and optimal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrents, A.; Azgin, K.; Godfrey, S. W.; Topalli, E. S.; Akin, T.; Valdevit, L.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents the design, optimization and manufacturing of a novel micro-fabricated load cell based on a double-ended tuning fork. The device geometry and operating voltages are optimized for maximum force resolution and range, subject to a number of manufacturing and electromechanical constraints. All optimizations are enabled by analytical modeling (verified by selected finite elements analyses) coupled with an efficient C++ code based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm. This assessment indicates that force resolutions of ~0.5-10 nN are feasible in vacuum (~1-50 mTorr), with force ranges as large as 1 N. Importantly, the optimal design for vacuum operation is independent of the desired range, ensuring versatility. Experimental verifications on a sub-optimal device fabricated using silicon-on-glass technology demonstrate a resolution of ~23 nN at a vacuum level of ~50 mTorr. The device demonstrated in this article will be integrated in a hybrid micro-mechanical test frame for unprecedented combinations of force resolution and range, displacement resolution and range, optical (or SEM) access to the sample, versatility and cost.

  16. Redirecting learners' attention during training: effects on cognitive load, transfer test performance and training efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Merriënboer, J.J.G.; Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; de Croock, M.B.M.; Paas, F.G.W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive load theory provides guidelines for improving the training of complex cognitive skills and their transfer to new situations. One guideline states that extraneous cognitive load that is irrelevant to the construction of cognitive schemata should be minimised. Experiment 1 (N=26) compares

  17. Testing the feasibility of using a conveyor belt to load weanling and nursery pigs for transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation is known to be a multi-faceted stressor, with the process of loading being one of the most significant factors impacting the stress to which animals are exposed. This project was designed to determine if using a conveyor to load pigs into the top deck of a simulated straight deck trai...

  18. Horizontal violence in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsimoulaki Evangelia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One’s effort to clarify the definition of horizontal labour violence is of great importance, due to the variety of definitions that are mentioned in the worldwide scientific literature. Furthermore, the reference of multiple forms of such violence herein the nurse professional group is challenging, as well. Another fact of great importance is that, any form of professional violence (horizontal violence, horizontal mobbing in the work place environment can be possibly escalated and include even physical abuse (Bullying, besides the psychological and emotional impact for the victim. The definitions of Horizontal violence, Mobbing and Bullying, include a repeated negative behaviour emanating from at least one “predator” towards at least one “victim”, with work status differences and the existence or lack of physical abuse (Bullying. Horizontal violence is a hostile, aggressive and harmful behaviour which is either overt or concealed and is pointed from an individual to another individual of the same working rank and causes intense emotional pain at the victim. The manifestations vary from humiliating tasks assignment or the victim’s efforts undermining to clearly aggressive behaviors (criticism, intimidation, sarcasm etc.. The reason behind this phenomenon is multifactorial extended not only towards the working environment but also to the personal characteristics of the “predator” as well as the possible “victim”. The researchers emphasize the high incidence of the phenomenon, as well as the cost that is induced by the violent behaviors to both the health professionals and the hospital. Finally, they point out the paradox of the presence of violence inside a system that is designed to promote health.

  19. Mechanical Loads Test Report for the U.S. Department of Energy 1.5-Megawatt Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rick [Santos Wind Engineering Technologies, Inc., Portland, ME (United States); van Dam, Jeroen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-16

    The objective of the test was to obtain a baseline characterization of the mechanical loads of the DOE 1.5 wind turbine located at NREL. The test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Specification, IEC 61400-13 Wind Turbine Generator Systems – Part 13: Measurement of mechanical loads; First Edition 2001-06 [1]. The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at NREL conducted this test in accordance with its quality system procedures so that the final test report meets the full requirements of its accreditation by the American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA). NREL’s quality system requires that all applicable requirements specified by A2LA and International Standards Organization/IEC 17025 be met or to note any exceptions in the test report.

  20. Full-scale testing and early production results from horizontal air sparging and soil vapor extraction wells remediating jet fuel in soil and groundwater at JFK International Airport, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.J.; Bianco, P.; Pressly, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    Jet fuel contaminated soil and groundwater contaminated at the International Arrivals Building (IAB) of the JFK International Airport in Jamaica, New York, are being remediated using soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS). The areal extent of the contaminated soil is estimated to be 70 acres and the volume of contaminated groundwater is estimated to be 2.3 million gallons. The remediation uses approximately 13,000 feet of horizontal SVE (HSVE) wells and 7,000 feet of horizontal AS (HAS) wells. The design of the HSVE and HAS wells was based on a pilot study followed by a full-scale test. In addition to the horizontal wells, 28 vertical AS wells and 15 vertical SVE wells are used. Three areas are being remediated, thus, three separate treatment systems have been installed. The SVE and AS wells are operated continuously while groundwater will be intermittently extracted at each HAS well, treated by liquid phase activated carbon and discharged into stormwater collection sewerage. Vapors extracted by the SVE wells are treated by vapor phase activated carbon and discharged into ambient air. The duration of the remediation is anticipated to be between two and three years before soil and groundwater are remediated to New York State cleanup criteria for the site. Based on the monitoring data for the first two months of operation, approximately 14,600 lbs. of vapor phase VOCs have been extracted. Analyses show that the majority of the VOCs are branched alkanes, branched alkenes, cyclohexane and methylated cyclohexanes

  1. An examination of vehicles at the brake-chassis test bed in the range of the partial engine load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł MARZEC

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a ZI engine is presented in the paper, as well as a project involving a device for applying a partial load in the performed examinations of a brakechassis test bed. The device was prepared for an Opel Astra and enabled the determination of exterior characteristics of the engine for different values of the engine load. The indicating pressure sensor and the angle marker on the crankshaft allowed for the recording of the indicating pressure obtained at different values of the load. The analysis of heat evolution in the process of burning, based on the registered results of the measurements at the brake-chassis test bed, has also been included in the presentation.

  2. Use of a 33 MJ high-energy rotary impact testing machine for investigations into material behaviour under impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issler, W.

    1989-01-01

    To investigate material behaviour under impact loads, previously very different testing machines have been developed. One of these concepts is the rotary impact testing machine which stores rotational energy and on which a tension impact test can be performed with almost unchanged trigger speed. With this device maximum trigger speeds can be achieved by using mechanical, elastically stored or hydraulic energy. Usable sample geometries include in particular smooth or notched round or flat tensile specimen up to 30 mm in diameter and CT10 or CT15 mechanical strength test specimen, permitting a direct comparison with results from quasi-static tests. For present speeds of load application the elastic modulus of steel can be considered as being constant. For Poisson's ratio, measurements indicated changes by approximately -8% to +20%. Early tests to investigate the strain rate showed that the strain rate under purely elastic loads applied to smooth round tensile specimen is approximately 3-10 times slower than the strain rate under plastic deformation, while this ratio may have an order of magnitude of 1:100 for notched tensile specimen. Therefore it is unreasonable to indicate only one value for the strain rate as a test characterising parameter. (orig./MM) [de

  3. Elevated-temperature benchmark tests of simply supported beams and circular plates subjected to time-varying loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.; Richardson, M.; Clinard, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    This report presents the measured elastic-plastic-creep responses of eight simply supported type 304 stainless steel beams and circular plates that were subjected to time-varying loadings at elevated temperature. The tests were performed to provide experimental benchmark problem data suitable for assessing inelastic analysis methods and for validating computer programs. Beams and plates exhibit the essential features of inelastic structural behavior; yet they are relatively simple and the experimental results are generally easy to interpret. The stress fields are largely uniaxial in beams, while multiaxial effects are introduced in plates. The specimens tested were laterally loaded at the center and subjected to either a prescribed load or a center deflection history. The specimens were machined from a common well-characterized heat of material, and all the tests were performed at a temperature of 593 0 C (1100 0 F). Test results are presented in terms of the load and center deflection behaviors, which typify the overall structural behavior. Additional deflection data, as well as strain gage results and mechanical properties data for the beam and plate material, are provided in the appendices

  4. Effects of feeding and organism loading rate on PCB accumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in sediment bioaccumulation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methods published by USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specify that the Lumbriculus variegatus, a freshwater oligochaete, should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry we...

  5. BWR Mark I pressure suppression study: characterization of the vertical load function utilizing bench top model tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Lai, W.

    1977-02-01

    A study was conducted to characterize the mechanisms which give rise to observed oscillations in the vertical load function (VLF) of bench top pool dynamics tests. This is part of a continuing investigation at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the General Electric Mark I Nuclear Reactor pressure suppression system

  6. Variability of plasma and urine betaine in diabetes mellitus and its relationship to methionine load test responses: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lever Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor, and abnormal betaine loss is common in diabetes mellitus (>20% patients, we investigated the relationship between betaine and the post-methionine load rise in homocysteine, in diabetes and control subjects. The post-methionine load test is reported to be both an independent vascular risk factor and a measure of betaine sufficiency. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 34 and control subjects (n = 17 were recruited. We measured baseline fasting plasma and 4-hour post-methionine load (L-methionine, 0.1 mg/kg body weight concentrations of homocysteine, betaine, and the betaine metabolite N,N-dimethylglycine. Baseline urine excretions of betaine, dimethylglycine and glucose were measured on morning urine samples as the ratio to urine creatinine. Statistical determinants of the post-methionine load increase in homocysteine were identified in multiple linear regression models. Results Plasma betaine concentrations and urinary betaine excretions were significantly (p p = 0.00014 and plasma dimethylglycine concentrations (p = 0.039 were also more variable. In diabetes, plasma betaine was a significant negative determinant (p  Conclusions Both high and low plasma betaine concentrations, and high and low urinary betaine excretions, are more prevalent in diabetes. The availability of betaine affects the response in the methionine load test. The benefits of increasing betaine intake should be investigated.

  7. Grips for testing of electrical characteristics of a specimen under a mechanical load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Timothy; Loyola, Bryan

    2018-04-24

    Various technologies to facilitate coupled electrical and mechanical measurement of conductive materials are disclosed herein. A gripping device simultaneously holds a specimen in place and causes contact to be made between the specimen and a plurality of electrodes connected to an electrical measuring device. An electrical characteristic of the specimen is then measured while a mechanical load is applied to the specimen, and a relationship between the mechanical load and changes in the electrical characteristic can be identified.

  8. Low diagnostic value of fasting and post-methionine load homocysteine tests. A study in Dutch subjects with homocysteine test indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; van Doormaal, J J; Reijngoud, D J; Muskiet, F A J

    BACKGROUND: Homocysteine is a cardiovascular disease risk factor. We investigated, both in subjects with past plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) test indications and healthy adults, the diagnostic value of a fasting (tHcy) (f-tHcy) and the added value of a post-methionine-load tHcy (postload-tHcy).

  9. Testing and Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Aircraft Fuselage Structure. Part 1; Ultimate Design Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rouse, Marshall; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aimed to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration were not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One airframe concept identified by the project as having the potential to dramatically improve aircraft performance was a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presented inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses finite element analysis and testing of a large-scale hybrid wing body center section structure developed and constructed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. Part I of the paper considers the five most critical load conditions, which are internal pressure only and positive and negative g-loads with and without internal pressure. Analysis results are compared with measurements acquired during testing. Performance of the test article is found to be closely aligned with predictions and, consequently, able to support the hybrid wing body design loads in pristine and barely visible impact damage conditions.

  10. Dynamic loads on human and animal surrogates at different test locations in compressed-gas-driven shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alay, E.; Skotak, M.; Misistia, A.; Chandra, N.

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic loads on specimens in live-fire conditions as well as at different locations within and outside compressed-gas-driven shock tubes are determined by both static and total blast overpressure-time pressure pulses. The biomechanical loading on the specimen is determined by surface pressures that combine the effects of static, dynamic, and reflected pressures and specimen geometry. Surface pressure is both space and time dependent; it varies as a function of size, shape, and external contour of the specimens. In this work, we used two sets of specimens: (1) anthropometric dummy head and (2) a surrogate rodent headform instrumented with pressure sensors and subjected them to blast waves in the interior and at the exit of the shock tube. We demonstrate in this work that while inside the shock tube the biomechanical loading as determined by various pressure measures closely aligns with live-fire data and shock wave theory, significant deviations are found when tests are performed outside.

  11. A method for predicting the fatigue life of pre-corroded 2024-T3 aluminum from breaking load tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenberg, Karl Martin

    Characterization of material properties is necessary for design purposes and has been a topic of research for many years. Over the last several decades, much progress has been made in identifying metrics to describe fracture mechanics properties and developing procedures to measure the appropriate values. However, in the context of design, there has not been as much success in quantifying the susceptibility of a material to corrosion damage and its subsequent impact on material behavior in the framework of fracture mechanics. A natural next step in understanding the effects of corrosion damage was to develop a link between standard material test procedures and fatigue life in the presence of corrosion. Simply stated, the goal of this investigation was to formulate a cheaper and quicker method for assessing the consequences of corrosion on remaining fatigue life. For this study, breaking load specimens and fatigue specimens of a single nominal gage (0.063″) of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 were exposed to three levels of corrosion. The breaking load specimens were taken from three different material lots, and the fatigue tests were carried out at three stress levels. All failed specimens, both breaking load and fatigue specimens, were examined to characterize the damage state(s) and failure mechanism(s). Correlations between breaking load results and fatigue life results in the presence of corrosion damage were developed using a fracture mechanics foundation and the observed mechanisms of failure. Where breaking load tests showed a decrease in strength due to increased corrosion exposure, the corresponding set of fatigue tests showed a decrease in life. And where breaking load tests from different specimen orientations exhibited similar levels of strength, the corresponding set of fatigue specimens showed similar lives. The spread from shortest to longest fatigue lives among the different corrosion conditions decreased at the higher stress levels. Life predictions based

  12. Shielding requirements on-site loading and acceptance testing on the Leksell gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitz, A.H.; Lunsford, L.D.; Wu, A.; Lindner, G.; Flickinger, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    On August 14, 1987, the first stereotactic radiosurgical procedure using the gamma knife was performed in North America. Located in a self-contained radiosurgical suite in the basement of Presbyterian-University Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This device uses 201 highly focused beams 60Co for the single-treatment closed-skull irradiation of brain lesions localized by stereotactic techniques (radiosurgery). One hundred and fifty-two patients with intracranial arteriovenous malformations or brain tumors were treated in the first year of operation. The Presbyterian University Hospital of Pittsburgh gamma knife is the first such unit in which the 60Co sources were loaded on-site. This effort required us to solve some difficult and unusual problems encountered during site preparation, delivery, and loading of the unit in a busy hospital setting. The solutions developed enabled installation and use of the gamma knife with minimal disruption of hospital activities while maintaining acceptable levels of exposure to radiation. Environmental surveys performed during the loading of the 201 radioactive sources (total, 219 TBq) confirmed that on-site loading is possible and practical. Our experience in the design, construction, and implementation of the first North American gamma knife supports the practicality and safety of on-site loading and may be of value in the planning and development of future gamma knife installations

  13. An Integrated Monitoring System Through 3d Laser Scanner and Traditional Instruments for Load Test on Arch Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, D.; Ferrando, I.

    2017-05-01

    The experimental campaign represents an example of how the careful design of the different test phases and the choice of the needed instrumentation are fundamental aspects to obtain a proper interpretation of the results, for future application on the real structures. Additionally, the present work represents a successful example of a combined monitoring system, integrating the traditional and innovative technical instrumentation for loading tests and geomatics survey techniques. The monitoring system has been designed with the aim of defining the load carrying capacity of a masonry arch bridge scaled model and to test the performances of a new retrofitting method. In particular, two different configuration have been considered: a first one with isolated arch and a second one with gravel fill on the arch.

  14. AN INTEGRATED MONITORING SYSTEM THROUGH 3D LASER SCANNER AND TRADITIONAL INSTRUMENTS FOR LOAD TEST ON ARCH BRIDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The experimental campaign represents an example of how the careful design of the different test phases and the choice of the needed instrumentation are fundamental aspects to obtain a proper interpretation of the results, for future application on the real structures. Additionally, the present work represents a successful example of a combined monitoring system, integrating the traditional and innovative technical instrumentation for loading tests and geomatics survey techniques. The monitoring system has been designed with the aim of defining the load carrying capacity of a masonry arch bridge scaled model and to test the performances of a new retrofitting method. In particular, two different configuration have been considered: a first one with isolated arch and a second one with gravel fill on the arch.

  15. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

    2009-12-30

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat

  16. Design and testing of a surface switch for the dynamic load current multiplier on the SPHINX microsecond LTD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maysonnave, T.; Bayol, F.; Demol, G.; Almeida, T. d'; Morell, A.; Lassalle, F.; Grunenwald, J.; Chuvatin, A.S.; Pecastaing, L.; De Ferron, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    SPHINX is a microsecond linear transformer driver located at Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) Gramat (France), which can deliver a current pulse of 6 MA within 800 ns in a Z-pinch load. Using the concept of the dynamic load current multiplier (DLCM), which was proposed by Chuvatin, we expect to increase the load current above 6 MA, while decreasing its rise time to ∼300 ns. The DLCM developed by the CEA Gramat and International Technologies for High Pulsed Power (ITHPP) is a compact system made up of concentric electrodes (auto-transformer), a dynamic flux extruder (cylindrical wire array), a vacuum convolute (eight post-hole rods), and a closing switch (compact vacuum surface switch). The latter is a key component of the system, which is used to prevent the current from flowing into the load until the inductance builds up due to the implosion of the wire array. This paper presents the design and testing of the DLCM surface switch, resulting from both electrostatic simulations and experiments on the SPHINX generator. These studies, carried out either with or without load (open circuit), were valuable for a first experimental evaluation of the DLCM scheme in a microsecond regime and provided detailed information on the surface switch behavior. (authors)

  17. A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, N. D.

    1995-01-01

    The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

  18. Titanium tritide radioisotope heat source development: palladium-coated titanium hydriding kinetics and tritium loading tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Blarigan, Peter; Shugard, Andrew D.; Walters, R. Tom

    2012-01-01

    We have found that a 180 nm palladium coating enables titanium to be loaded with hydrogen isotopes without the typical 400-500 C vacuum activation step. The hydriding kinetics of Pd coated Ti can be described by the Mintz-Bloch adherent film model, where the rate of hydrogen absorption is controlled by diffusion through an adherent metal-hydride layer. Hydriding rate constants of Pd coated and vacuum activated Ti were found to be very similar. In addition, deuterium/tritium loading experiments were done on stacks of Pd coated Ti foil in a representative-size radioisotope heat source vessel. The experiments demonstrated that such a vessel could be loaded completely, at temperatures below 300 C, in less than 10 hours, using existing department-of-energy tritium handling infrastructure.

  19. Results of the critical experiments concerning OTTO loading at the critical HTR-test facility KAHTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drueke, V.; Litzow, W.; Paul, N.

    1982-12-01

    Critical experiments concerning OTTO loading are described. In the KAHTER facility an OTTO loading has been simulated, therefore the original KAHTER assembly was reconstructed. The determination of critical masses and reactivity worths of control rods and of additional absorber rods in the top reflector and in the upper cavity was of main interest for comparison with reactor following calculations. Besides this, reaction rates in different energy regions were measured in the upper part of the core, in the cavity and top reflector. (orig.) [de

  20. An accurate definition of the status of inactive hepatitis B virus carrier by a combination of biomarkers (FibroTest-ActiTest and viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Ngo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The combination of transaminases (ALT, biopsy, HBeAg and viral load have classically defined the inactive status of carriers of chronic hepatitis B. The use of FibroTest (FT and ActiTest (AT, biomarkers of fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity, has been previously validated as alternatives to biopsy. We compared the 4-year prognostic value of combining FT-AT and viral load for a better definition of the inactive carrier status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 1,300 consecutive CHB patients who had been prospectively followed since 2001 were pre-included. The main endpoint was the absence of liver-related complications, transplantation or death. We used the manufacturers' definitions of normal FT (< = 0.27, normal AT (< = 0.29 and 3 standard classes for viral load. The adjustment factors were age, sex, HBeAg, ethnic origin, alcohol consumption, HIV-Delta-HCV co-infections and treatment. RESULTS: 1,074 patients with baseline FT-AT and viral load were included: 41 years old, 47% African, 27% Asian, 26% Caucasian. At 4 years follow-up, 50 complications occurred (survival without complications 93.4%, 36 deaths occurred (survival 95.0%, including 27 related to HBV (survival 96.1%. The prognostic value of FT was higher than those of viral load or ALT when compared using area under the ROC curves [0.89 (95%CI 0.84-0.93 vs 0.64 (0.55-0.71 vs 0.53 (0.46-0.60 all P<0.001], survival curves and multivariate Cox model [regression coefficient 5.2 (3.5-6.9; P<0.001 vs 0.53 (0.15-0.92; P = 0.007 vs -0.001 (-0.003-0.000;P = 0.052] respectively. A new definition of inactive carriers was proposed with an algorithm combining "zero" scores for FT-AT (F0 and A0 and viral load classes. This new algorithm provides a 100% negative predictive value for the prediction of liver related complications or death. Among the 275 patients with the classic definition of inactive carrier, 62 (23% had fibrosis presumed with FT, and 3 died or had complications at 4 year

  1. Further Examination of the Vibratory Loads Reduction Results from the NASA/ARMY/MIT Active Twist Rotor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Sekula, Martin K.

    2002-01-01

    The vibration reduction capabilities of a model rotor system utilizing controlled, strain-induced blade twisting are examined. The model rotor blades, which utilize piezoelectric active fiber composite actuators, were tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel using open-loop control to determine the effect of active-twist on rotor vibratory loads. The results of this testing have been encouraging, and have demonstrated that active-twist rotor designs offer the potential for significant load reductions in future helicopter rotor systems. Active twist control was found to use less than 1% of the power necessary to operate the rotor system and had a pronounced effect on both rotating- and fixed-system loads, offering reductions in individual harmonic loads of up to 100%. A review of the vibration reduction results obtained is presented, which includes a limited set of comparisons with results generated using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) rotorcraft comprehensive analysis.

  2. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS, TEST PLAN 09T1690-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Matlack, K.S.; Kot, W.K.; Pegg, I.L.; Joseph, I.

    2009-01-01

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and

  3. Evaluation of voice acoustic parameters related to the vocal-loading test in professionally active teachers with dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kotyło, Piotr; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    Teachers are at risk of developing voice disorders. A clinical battery of vocal function tests should include non-invasive and accurate measurements. The quantitative methods (e.g., voice acoustic analysis) make it possible to objectively evaluate voice efficiency and outcomes of dysphonia treatment. To identify possible signs of vocal fatigue, acoustic waveform perturbations during sustained phonation were measured before and after the vocal-loading test in 51 professionally active female teachers with functional voice disorders, using IRIS software. All the participants were also subjected to laryngological/phoniatric examination involving videostroboscopy combined with self-estimation by voice handicap index (VHI)-based scale. The phoniatric examination revealed glottal insufficiency with bowed vocal folds in 35.2%, soft vocal nodules in 31.4%, and hyperfunctional dysphonia with a tendency towards vestibular phonation in 19.6% of the patients. In the VHI scale, 66% of the female teachers estimated their own voice problems as moderate disability. An acoustic analysis performed after the vocal-loading test showed an increased rate of abnormal frequency perturbation parameters (pitch perturbation quotient (Jitter), relative average perturbation (RAP), and pitch period perturbation quotient (PPQ)) compared to the pre-test outcomes. The same was true of pitch-intensity contour of vowel /a:/, an indication of voice instability during sustained phonation. The recorded impairments of voice acoustic parameters related to vocal loading provide further evidence of dysphonia. The voice acoustic analysis performed before and after the vocal-loading test can significantly contribute to objective voice examinations useful in diagnosis of dysphonia among teachers.

  4. Results of a Round Robin ballistic load sensing headform test series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippens, M.A.G.; Anctil, B.; Markwardt, K.C.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of methods to assess the behind armour blunt trauma (BABT) risk for ballistic helmets is based on plastic deformable headforms. An alternative, the Ballistic Load Sensing Headform (BLSH) can record the dynamic contact force between helmet back face and the skull. Helmet BABT methods are

  5. Manipulation of Cognitive Load Variables and Impact on Auscultation Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruth; Grierson, Lawrence; Norman, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Health profession educators have identified auscultation skill as a learning need for health professional students. This article explores the application of cognitive load theory (CLT) to designing cardiac and respiratory auscultation skill instruction for senior-level undergraduate nursing students. Three experiments assessed student auscultation…

  6. Small-Scale Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Dense Saturated Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    Monopiles are currently the most common foundations for offshore wind turbines, which are subjected to millions of cyclic loads that are still not well interpreted in the design guidelines. The accumulated rotation of the turbine and the change of foundation stiffness due to the long-term cyclic ...

  7. Horizontal wells in subsurface remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losonsky, G.; Beljin, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on horizontal wells which offer an effective alternative to vertical wells in various environmental remediation technologies. Hydrogeological advantages of horizontal wells over vertical wells include a larger zone of influence, greater screen length, higher specific capacity and lower groundwater screen entrance velocity. Because of these advantages, horizontal wells can reduce treatment time and costs of groundwater recovery (pump-and-treat), in situ groundwater aeration (sparging) and soil gas extraction (vacuum extraction). Horizontal wells are also more effective than vertical wells in landfill leachate collection (under-drains), bioremediation, and horizontal grout injection

  8. Options to Expand HIV Viral Load Testing in South Africa: Evaluation of the GeneXpert® HIV-1 Viral Load Assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Gous

    Full Text Available Expansion of HIV viral load (VL testing services are required to meet increased targets for monitoring patients on antiretroviral treatment. South Africa currently tests >4million VLs per annum in 16 highly centralised, automated high-throughput laboratories. The Xpert HIV-1 VL assay (Cepheid was evaluated against in-country predicates, the Roche Cobas Taqmanv2 and Abbott HIV-1RT, to investigate options for expanding VL testing using GeneXpert's random access, polyvalent capabilities and already established footprint in South Africa with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (207 sites. Additionally, the performance of Xpert HIV-1VL on alternative, off-label specimen types, Dried Blood Spots (DBS and whole blood, was investigated.Precision, accuracy (agreement and clinical misclassification (1000cp/ml of Xpert HIV-1VL plasma was compared to Taqmanv2 (n = 155 and Abbott HIV-1 RT (n = 145. Misclassification of Xpert HIV-1VL was further tested on DBS (n = 145 and whole blood (n = 147.Xpert HIV-1VL demonstrated 100% concordance with predicate platforms on a standardised frozen, plasma panel (n = 42 and low overall percentage similarity CV of 1.5% and 0.9% compared to Taqmanv2 and Abbott HIV-1 RT, respectively. On paired plasma clinical specimens, Xpert HIV-1VL had low bias (SD 0.32-0.37logcp/ml and 3% misclassification at the 1000cp/ml threshold compared to Taqmanv2 (fresh and Abbott HIV-1 RT (frozen, respectively. Xpert HIV-1VL on whole blood and DBS increased misclassification (upward by up to 14% with increased invalid rate. All specimen testing was easy to perform and compatible with concurrent Xpert MTB/RIF Tuberculosis testing on the same instrument.The Xpert HIV-1VL on plasma can be used interchangeably with existing predicate platforms in South Africa. Whole blood and DBS testing requires further investigation, but polyvalency of the GeneXpert offers a solution to extending VL testing services.

  9. Spectral analysis of the electromyograph of the erector spinae muscle before and after a dynamic manual load-lifting test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Cardozo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the spectral behavior of the erector spinae muscle during isometric contractions performed before and after a dynamic manual load-lifting test carried out by the trunk in order to determine the capacity of muscle to perform this task. Nine healthy female students participated in the experiment. Their average age, height, and body mass (± SD were 20 ± 1 years, 1.6 ± 0.03 m, and 53 ± 4 kg, respectively. The development of muscle fatigue was assessed by spectral analysis (median frequency and root mean square with time. The test consisted of repeated bending movements from the trunk, starting from a 45º angle of flexion, with the application of approximately 15, 25 and 50% of maximum individual load, to the stand up position. The protocol used proved to be more reliable with loads exceeding 50% of the maximum for the identification of muscle fatigue by electromyography as a function of time. Most of the volunteers showed an increase in root mean square versus time on both the right (N = 7 and the left (N = 6 side, indicating a tendency to become fatigued. With respect to the changes in median frequency of the electromyographic signal, the loads used in this study had no significant effect on either the right or the left side of the erector spinae muscle at this frequency, suggesting that a higher amount and percentage of loads would produce more substantial results in the study of isotonic contractions.

  10. The impact of medical gymnastics on load on the lower limb after knee twisting, on the basis of selected tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The issue of knee sprain is increasingly raised in connection with the large number of people that visit rehabilitation centres to recover efficiency and eliminate the pain of an injured joint. Aim of the research study: To determine the usefulness of medical gymnastics (kinesiotherapy in the process of limb loading and overcoming the discomfort and pain. Material and methods: The study included 50 rehabilitated patients of the Rehabilitation Unit of the District Hospital in Staszow, who were troubled with a history of knee sprains. The subjects were selected from 327 patients admitted to the rehabilitation unit within a 3-month period. Two groups of subjects were established (each with 25 people. Evaluation was focused on certain parameters related to the load of the rehabilitated limb, the rate of occurrence of pain felt during standing and walking, and the disappearance of complaints during resting. The group consisted of patients aged 20–64 years, and the median age of those tested was 42 years. The patients came from villages and towns in the county of Staszow, and a significant percentage of them were economically active. Results: The applied physiotherapy was beneficial as it increased the load on the diseased limbs (two-scales test and standing-on-one-leg test and improved quality of life, thanks to the palliation of pain to a considerable or complete degree. Conclusions: Physiotherapy enriched with physical exercise allows for faster recovery of an injured leg.

  11. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume III. Mechanical Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*SPRINGS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TORSION BARS, ELASTOMERS, DAMPING, EQUATIONS OF MOTION, MODEL TESTS, TEST METHODS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  12. Comparison of Numerical Analyses with a Static Load Test of a Continuous Flight Auger Pile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoľko Michal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with numerical analyses of a Continuous Flight Auger (CFA pile. The analyses include a comparison of calculated and measured load-settlement curves as well as a comparison of the load distribution over a pile's length. The numerical analyses were executed using two types of software, i.e., Ansys and Plaxis, which are based on FEM calculations. Both types of software are different from each other in the way they create numerical models, model the interface between the pile and soil, and use constitutive material models. The analyses have been prepared in the form of a parametric study, where the method of modelling the interface and the material models of the soil are compared and analysed.

  13. The operating performance tests of power unit A1 in HPP 'Zvornik' in load-frequency control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojčić Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The turbine-governing system characteristics derived from testing hydropower unit A1 in HPP 'Zvornik' are presented. These tests give insights into the setup state and parameters of the governing system, as well as the qualitative analysis of load-frequency control response of the case study power unit within the power system of Serbia. Verification of relevant turbine-governing parameters was performed by direct application of appropriate standards and policies. The presented results can be used as a basis for the derivation of a turbine governor mathematical model and for a complete mathematical model of a hydropower unit as an element embedded in the power system.

  14. Development of new testing methods for the numerical load analysis for the drop test of steel sheet containers for the final repository Konrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protz, C.; Voelzke, H.; Zencker, U.; Hagenow, P.; Gruenewald, H.

    2011-01-01

    The qualification of steel sheet containers as intermediate-level waste container for the final repository is performed by the BAM (Bundeasmt fuer Materialpruefung) according to the BfS (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz) requirements. The testing requirements include the stacking pressure tests, lifting tests, drop tests thermal tests (fire resistance) and tightness tests. Besides the verification using model or prototype tests and transferability considerations numerical safety analyses may be performed alternatively. The authors describe the internal BAM research project ConDrop aimed to develop extended testing methods for the drop test of steel sheet containers for the final repository Konrad using numerical load analyses. A finite element model was developed using The FE software LS-PrePost 3.0 and ANSYS 12.0 and the software FE-Code LS-DYNA for the simulation of the drop test (5 m height). The results were verified by experimental data from instrumented drop tests. The container preserves its integrity after the drop test, plastic deformation occurred at the bottom plate, the side walls, the cask cover and the lateral uprights.

  15. Influence of steel fibers on the shear and flexural performance of high-strength concrete beams tested under blast loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algassem, O.; Li, Y.; Aoude, H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a study examining the effect of steel fibres on the blast behaviour of high-strength concrete beams. As part of the study, a series of three large-scale beams built with high-strength concrete and steel fibres are tested under simulated blast loading using the shock-tube testing facility at the University of Ottawa. The specimens include two beams built with conventional high-strength concrete (HSC) and one beam built with high-strength concrete and steel fibres (HSFRC). The effect of steel fibres on the blast behaviour is examined by comparing the failure mode, mid-span displacements and, overall blast resistance of the specimens. The results show that the addition of steel fibres in high-strength concrete beams can prevent shear failure and substitute for shear reinforcement if added in sufficient quantity. Moreover, the use of steel fibres improves flexural response under blast loading by reducing displacements and increasing blast capacity. Finally, the provision of steel fibres is found to improve the fragmentation resistance of high-strength concrete under blast loads.

  16. Strain measurements by fiber Bragg grating sensors for in situ pile loading tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia; Straub, Tilmann; Naumann, Marcel; Borm, Günter; Lauerer, Robert; Beck, Christoph; Schwarz, Wolfgang

    2003-07-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network has been installed into a large diameter concrete pile on a real construction site. The intention was to monitor its deformation behavior during several quasi-static loading cycles. The skin friction between pile and subsoil affecting the ultimate bearing capacity of the pile as well as the settlement behavior of the structure under investigation has been derived from our measurements. A comparison between the results of the fiber Bragg grating sensors and conventional concrete strain gages (CSG) has shown excellent correspondence.

  17. Development of methodology for component testing under impact loading for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Phillip; Taylor, Nicholas; Perkinson, Marie-Claire; Wishart, Alex; Vijendran, Sanjay; Braithwaite, Chris

    2017-06-01

    A number of recent studies have highlighted the scientific benefits of penetrator technology in conducting exploration on other planetary bodies and moons within the solar system. Such a ``hard landing'' approach is cheaper and easier than the traditional ``soft landing'' method. However it is necessary for the science package of such a mission to withstand the rapid decelerations that will occur upon impact. This paper outlines an approach that has been developed to simulate the loading appropriate to Europa and also to monitor component performance before, during and after the impact.

  18. Test plan: Effects of phase separation on waste loading for high level waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the Tanks Focus Area's (TFA) effort to increase waste loading for high-level waste (HLW) vitrification at various facilities in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, the occurrence of phase separation in waste glasses spanning the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) composition ranges were studied during FY99. The type, extent, and impact of phase separation on glass durability for a series of HLW glasses, e.g., SRS-type and INEEL-type, were examined

  19. Horizontal and vertical seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonomou, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a study for the horizontal and vertical seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant with a base isolation system, developed by the author, called the Alexisismon. This system -- which comprises different schemes for horizontal or vertical or both horizontal and vertical isolation -- is a linear system based on the principle of separation of functions. That is, horizontal and vertical isolation are realized through different components and act independently from each other. As far as horizontal isolation is concerned, the role of transmitting vertical loads is uncoupled from the role of inducing horizontal restoring forces so that both functions can be performed without instability. It is possible either to provide both horizontal and vertical isolation to the whole nuclear plant or to isolate the whole plant horizontally and to provide vertical isolation to sensitive and costly equipment only. When the fundamental period of the plant or equipment is 2 seconds and when the vertical displacements are of the order of + or - 20 inches, the structure or equipment are protected against earthquakes up to 1.10 and 1.30 g for actual and 0.60 and 1.50 g for artificial accelerograms. In both cases all the isolation elements behave elastically up to these acceleration limits as well as the superstructure and equipment

  20. Steady-state and dynamic evaluation of the electric propulsion system test bed vehicle on a road load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    The propulsion system of the Lewis Research Center's electric propulsion system test bed vehicle was tested on the road load simulator under the DOE Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. This propulsion system, consisting of a series-wound dc motor controlled by an infinitely variable SCR chopper and an 84-V battery pack, is typical of those used in electric vehicles made in 1976. Steady-state tests were conducted over a wide range of differential output torques and vehicle speeds. Efficiencies of all of the components were determined. Effects of temperature and voltage variations on the motor and the effect of voltage changes on the controller were examined. Energy consumption and energy efficiency for the system were determined over the B and C driving schedules of the SAE J227a test procedure.

  1. Influence of relative humidity and physical load during storage on dustiness of inorganic nanomaterials: implications for testing and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Marcus; Rojas, Elena; Vanhala, Esa

    2015-01-01

    water uptake showed an apparent link with the decreasing dustiness index. Effects of powder compaction appeared more material specific with both increasing and decreasing dustiness indices observed as an effect of compaction. Tests of control banding exposure models using the measured dustiness indices......Dustiness testing using a down-scaled EN15051 rotating drum was used to investigate the effects of storage conditions such as relative humidity and physical loading on the dustiness of five inorganic metal oxide nanostructured powder materials. The tests consisted of measurements of gravimetrical...... respirable dustiness index and particle size distributions. Water uptake of the powders during 7 days of incubation was investigated as an explanatory factor of the changes. Consequences of these varying storage conditions in exposure modelling were tested using the control banding and risk management tool...

  2. 40 CFR 86.129-00 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inertia weight class determination. 86.129-00 Section 86.129-00 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. Applicability. Section 86.129-94 (a) applies... testing using paragraphs (e)(1) and (e)(2) of this section. (f)(1) Required test dynamometer inertia...

  3. Thermodynamic constitutive model for load-biased thermal cycling test of shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Sung; Nam, Tae-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thermodynamic calculation model for martensitic transformation of shape memory alloy was proposed. • Evolution of the self-accommodation was considered independently by a rate-dependent kinetic equation. • Finite element calculation was conducted for B2–B19′ transformation of Ti–44.5Ni–5Cu–0.5 V (at.%). • Three-dimensional numerical results predict the macroscopic strain under bias loading accurately. - Abstract: This paper presents a three-dimensional calculation model for martensitic phase transformation of shape memory alloy. Constitutive model based on thermodynamic theory was provided. The average behavior was accounted for by considering the volume fraction of each martensitic variant in the material. Evolution of the volume fraction of each variant was determined by a rate-dependent kinetic equation. We assumed that nucleation rate is faster for the self-accommodation than for the stress-induced variants. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was conducted and the results were compared with the experimental data of Ti–44.5Ni–5Cu–0.5 V (at.%) alloy under bias loading

  4. In vitro validation of a novel mechanical model for testing the anchorage capacity of pedicle screws using physiological load application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Christian; Zimmermann, Julia; Graf, Nicolas; Schilling, Christoph; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Kienle, Annette

    2018-01-01

    Biomechanical in vitro tests analysing screw loosening often include high standard deviations caused by high variabilities in bone mineral density and pedicle geometry, whereas standardized mechanical models made of PU foam often do not integrate anatomical or physiological boundary conditions. The purpose of this study was to develop a most realistic mechanical model for the standardized and reproducible testing of pedicle screws regarding the resistance against screw loosening and the holding force as well as to validate this model by in vitro experiments. The novel mechanical testing model represents all anatomical structures of a human vertebra and is consisting of PU foam to simulate cancellous bone, as well as a novel pedicle model made of short carbon fibre filled epoxy. Six monoaxial cannulated pedicle screws (Ø6.5 × 45mm) were tested using the mechanical testing model as well as human vertebra specimens by applying complex physiological cyclic loading (shear, tension, and bending; 5Hz testing frequency; sinusoidal pulsating forces) in a dynamic materials testing machine with stepwise increasing load after each 50.000 cycles (100.0N shear force + 20.0N per step, 51.0N tension force + 10.2N per step, 4.2Nm bending moment + 0.8Nm per step) until screw loosening was detected. The pedicle screw head was fixed on a firmly clamped rod while the load was applied in the vertebral body. For the in vitro experiments, six human lumbar vertebrae (L1-3, BMD 75.4 ± 4.0mg/cc HA, pedicle width 9.8 ± 0.6mm) were tested after implanting pedicle screws under X-ray control. Relative motions of pedicle screw, specimen fixture, and rod fixture were detected using an optical motion tracking system. Translational motions of the mechanical testing model experiments in the point of load introduction (0.9-2.2mm at 240N shear force) were reproducible within the variation range of the in vitro experiments (0.6-3.5mm at 240N shear force). Screw loosening occurred continuously in

  5. Horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobzheva, Ya.V.; Krasnov, V.M.; Sokolova, O.I.

    2001-01-01

    The horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions have been experimentally determined for 13 explosions conducted at the Balapan test site of the Semipalatinsk test site. (author)

  6. Progress in generating fracture data base as a function of loading rate and temperature using small-scale tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couque, H.; Hudak, S.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Structural integrity assessment of nuclear pressure vessels requires small specimen fracture testing to generate data over a wide range of material loading, and temperature conditions. Small scale testing is employed since extensive testing is required including small radiation embrittled samples from nuclear surveillance capsules. However, current small scale technology does not provide the needed dynamic fracture toughness relevant to the crack arrest/reinitiation events that may occur during pressurized thermal shock transients following emergency shutdown. This paper addresses the generation of this much needed dynamic toughness data using a novel experimental-computational approach involving a coupled pressure bars (CPB) technique and a viscoplastic dynamic fracture code. CPB data have been generated to testing temperatures never before reached: 37 to 100 degrees C -- 60 to 123 degrees C above the nil ductility transition temperature. Fracture behavior of pressure vessel steel from lower shelf to upper shelf temperatures and previous toughness estimates for the 10 6 MPa√m s -1 loading rate regime are assessed in light of the new CPB data. 26 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Design and testing of a magnetorheological damper to control both vibration and shock loads for a vehicle crew seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, Andrew; Hu, Wei; Hiemenz, Gregory J.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2010-04-01

    A magnetorheological shock absorber (MRSA) prototype is designed, fabricated and tested to integrate semiactive shock and vibration mitigation technology into the existing Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) forward seating positions. Utilizing Bingham-Plastic (BP) constitutive fluid relationships and a steady state fluid flow model, the MR valve parameters are determined using magnetic circuit analysis, and subsequently validated via electromagnetic finite element analysis (FEA). Low speed (up to 0.9 m/s) simulations of normal vibration mode operation are conducted on the MRSA prototype using single frequency sinusoidal displacements by a servohydraulic testing machine. The high speed (up to 2.2 m/s) design procedure is verified by using a rail-guided drop test stand to impact a known payload mass onto the damper shaft. A refined hydromechanical model of the MRSA under both cyclic and impact loadings is developed and validated using the measured test data. This ratedependent, mechanisms-based model predicts the time response of the MRSA under both loading conditions. The hydromechanical analysis marks a significant improvement over previous linear models. Key design considerations for the MRSA to accommodate both vibration and shock spectra using a single MR device are presented.

  8. Development, manufacturing and testing of a gas-loaded variable conductance methanol heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbuggenum, R. I. J.; Daniels, D. H. W.

    1987-02-01

    The experimental technology required to measure the performance of moderate temperature heat pipes is presented. The heat pipe manufacturing process is described. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the porous structure inside the heat pipe envelope were examined using a specially developed test rig, based upon a steady-state evaporation test. A fully automated test facility was developed and validated by testing constant conductance and variable conductance heat pipes (VCHP). Theoretical performance predictions are illustrated in terms of pressure, depicted in 3D-plots, and compared with the test results of the heat pipe performance tests. The design of the VCHP was directed towards the verification of the VCHP mathematical model. The VCHP design is validated and ready for the final testing and model verification.

  9. NDE Evidence for the Damage Arrestment Performance of PRSEUS Composite Cube During High-Pressure Load Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Patrick H.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2013-01-01

    As an approach to light-weight, cost-effective and manufacturable structures required to enable the hybrid wing body aircraft, The Boeing Company, Inc. and NASA have developed the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept. A PRSEUS pressure cube was developed as a risk reduction test article to examine a new integral cap joint concept as part of a building block approach for technology development of the PRSEUS concept. The overall specimen strength exceeded the 18.4 psi load requirement as testing resulted in the cube reaching a final pressure load of around 48 psi prior to catastrophic failure. The cube pressure test verified that the joints and structure were capable of sustaining the required loads, and represented the first testing of joined PRSEUS structure. This paper will address the damage arrestment performance of the stitched PRSEUS structure. Following catastrophic failure of the cube, ultrasonic pulse-echo inspection found that the localized damage, surrounding a barely-visible impact damage site, did not change noticeably between just after impact and catastrophic failure of the cube, and did not play a role in the catastrophic failure event. Ultrasonic inspection of the remaining intact cube panels presented three basic types of indications: delaminations between laminae parallel to the face sheets, lying between face sheet and tear strap layers, or between tear strap and flange layers; delaminations above the noodles of stringers, frames or integral caps, lying within face sheet or tear strap layers; and delaminations between the laminae in the inner fillets of the integral caps, where pulloff stresses were expected to be highest. Delaminations of all three types were predominantly contained by the first row of stitches encountered. For the small fraction of delaminations extending beyond the first row of stitches, all were contained by the second stitch row.

  10. Testing of tunnel support : dynamic load testing of rockbolt elements to provide data for safer support design.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ortlepp, WD

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This research report discusses the development of a realistic and controllable method of testing support tendons dynamically, which has been achieved in this research project, offers a new and fresh opportunity for improving the design methodology...

  11. Flight Testing and Real-Time System Identification Analysis of a UH-60A Black Hawk Helicopter with an Instrumented External Sling Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Allen H.

    1998-01-01

    Helicopter external air transportation plays an important role in today's world. For both military and civilian helicopters, external sling load operations offer an efficient and expedient method of handling heavy, oversized cargo. With the ability to reach areas otherwise inaccessible by ground transportation, helicopter external load operations are conducted in industries such as logging, construction, and fire fighting, as well as in support of military tactical transport missions. Historically, helicopter and load combinations have been qualified through flight testing, requiring considerable time and cost. With advancements in simulation and flight test techniques there is potential to substantially reduce costs and increase the safety of helicopter sling load certification. Validated simulation tools make possible accurate prediction of operational flight characteristics before initial flight tests. Real time analysis of test data improves the safety and efficiency of the testing programs. To advance these concepts, the U.S. Army and NASA, in cooperation with the Israeli Air Force and Technion, under a Memorandum of Agreement, seek to develop and validate a numerical model of the UH-60 with sling load and demonstrate a method of near real time flight test analysis. This thesis presents results from flight tests of a U.S. Army Black Hawk helicopter with various external loads. Tests were conducted as the U.S. first phase of this MOA task. The primary load was a container express box (CONEX) which contained a compact instrumentation package. The flights covered the airspeed range from hover to 70 knots. Primary maneuvers were pitch and roll frequency sweeps, steps, and doublets. Results of the test determined the effect of the suspended load on both the aircraft's handling qualities and its control system's stability margins. Included were calculations of the stability characteristics of the load's pendular motion. Utilizing CIFER(R) software, a method for near

  12. Regenerative electronic load for electric power sources tests using capacitive idling converter; Carga eletronica regenerativa para testes de fontes de energia eletrica utilizando conversor com capacitor flutuante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendrusculo, Edson Adriano

    1996-07-01

    The conventional method for testing power supplies, batteries, uninterruptible power supply and other sources of electric power uses resistors as load. This results in wasted heat and increases the equipment production cost. This work presents a Regenerative electronic Load to substitute those resistors. The basic topology is a capacitive idling Cuk converter. This converter allows to control independently the input current and permits to provide a sinusoidal output current. An appropriate gate command allows to have some soft-commutation without the use of any auxiliary circuit. The same converter, with input and output changed, can operate as a Power Supply with Input Power Factor Correction. The characteristics of soft-commutation and high efficiency are maintained. A simple high-efficiency transformer allows output isolation. All theoretical results are experimentally verified. (author)

  13. A Pilot Study to Increase the Efficiency of HIV Outreach Testing Through the Use of Timely and Geolocated HIV Viral Load Surveillance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jacky M.; Schumacher, Christina; Perin, Jamie; Myers, Tanya; Fields, Nathan; Greiner Safi, Amelia; Chaulk, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Background Eliminating HIV transmission in a population necessitates identifying population reservoirs of HIV infection and subgroups most likely to transmit. HIV viral load is the single most important predictor of HIV transmission. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate whether a public health practice pilot project based on community viral load resulted in increases in the proportion of time spent testing in high viral load areas (process measure) and 3 outcome measures—the number and percent of overall HIV diagnoses, new diagnoses, and high viral load positives—in one mid-Atlantic US city with a severe HIV epidemic. Methods The evaluation was conducted during three, 3-month periods for 3 years and included the use of community viral load, global positioning system tracking data, and statistical testing to evaluate the effectiveness of the pilot project. Results The proportion of time spent outreach testing in high viral load areas (69%–84%, P the overall number and percent of HIV positives ((60 (3%) to 127 (6%), P The number and percent of new diagnoses (3 (0.1%) to 6 (0.2%)) and high viral load positives (5 (0.2%) to 9 (0.4%)) increased, but the numbers were too small for statistical testing. Discussion These results suggest that using community viral load to increase the efficiency of HIV outreach testing is feasible and may be effective in identifying more HIV positives. The pilot project provides a model for other public health practice demonstration projects. PMID:29420450

  14. Crash-Resistant Crewseat Limit-Load Optimization through Dynamic Testing with Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    shell on each surface of the verte- bral centrum is referred to as the bony end plate. Facing this bony end plate is a thin layer of hyaline cartilage ...most realistically, two vertebrae with the included intervertebral disc and hyaline cartilage . This section is referred to as the intervertebral joint...strengths of vertebrae from various studies ......... ... .......................... 5 2 Sumary of the test matrix for the cadaver test program . 33 3 Test

  15. The diagnosis of symptomatic acute antiretroviral syndrome during the window period with antigen/antibody testing and HIV viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O. Griffin

    Full Text Available Despite much focus on moving toward a cure to end the epidemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic there are still thousands of new infections occurring every year in the United States. Although there is ongoing transmission of HIV in the United States and a growing population of people living with HIV, the acute presentation of HIV infection can be challenging to diagnose and is often not considered when patients present to healthcare providers. Although in certain states there are HIV testing laws that require that all persons between the ages of 13 and 64 be offered HIV testing in an opt-out approach, many patient presenting with an acute illness, that would warrant diagnostic testing for HIV, leave without having an HIV test performed for either diagnostic or screening purposes.We describe the case of a woman who presented to medical attention with symptoms later confirmed to be due to acute HIV infection. She was initially discharged from the hospital and only underwent HIV testing with confirmation of her diagnosis after readmission. We describe the algorithm where fourth generation testing combined with HIV viral load testing allowed for the diagnosis of acute HIV prior to the development of a specific immunoglobulin response. Consideration of this diagnosis, improved HIV screening, and understanding of the use of antigen/antibody screening tests, combined with Multispot and HIV viral RNA detection, when appropriate, can allow for early diagnosis of HIV before progression of disease and before undiagnosed patient spread the infection to new contacts.

  16. Expansion of Viral Load Testing and the Potential Impact on HIV Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizes, Elliot; Hader, Shannon; Birx, Deborah

    2017-12-01

    The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supports aggressive scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in high-burden countries and across all genders and populations at risk toward global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic control. PEPFAR recognizes the risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) as a consequence of aggressive ART scale-up and is actively promoting 3 key steps to mitigate the impact of HIVDR: (1) routine access to routine viral load monitoring in all settings; (2) optimization of ART regimens; and (3) routine collection and analysis of HIVDR data to monitor the success of mitigation strategies. The transition to dolutegravir-based regimens in PEPFAR-supported countries and the continuous evolution of HIVDR surveillance strategies are essential elements of PEPFAR implementation. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Dynamic response of infrastructure to environmentally induced loads analysis, measurements, testing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Manolis, George

    2017-01-01

    This book provides state of the art coverage of important current issues in the analysis, measurement, and monitoring of the dynamic response of infrastructure to environmental loads, including those induced by earthquake motion and differential soil settlement. The coverage is in five parts that address numerical methods in structural dynamics, soil–structure interaction analysis, instrumentation and structural health monitoring, hybrid experimental mechanics, and structural health monitoring for bridges. Examples that give an impression of the scope of the topics discussed include the seismic analysis of bridges, soft computing in earthquake engineering, use of hybrid methods for soil–structure interaction analysis, effects of local site conditions on the inelastic dynamic analysis of bridges, embedded models in wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring, recent developments in seismic simulation methods, and seismic performance assessment and retrofit of structures. Throughout, the empha...

  18. Almost horizontal turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolmogorov, A N

    2004-01-01

    The paper is published without modifications. Kolmogorov's manuscript was apparently prepared during his participation in one of expeditions of the ship 'D. Mendeleev' to the Atlantic Ocean (1969) or in a circumnavigation of the world (1971) organized by the Institute for Oceanology led at the time by A.S. Monin. As Kolmogorov himself wrote, the choice of the topic was stimulated by observations concerning '...meanders with horizontal sizes of hundreds of kilometers on a flow involving a layer of hundreds of meters, with subsequent disintegration of these meanders into vortices gradually decreasing in size to several kilometers'. In modern terminology, the paper is devoted to the problem of intensive mixing in pycnoclines, that is, thin layers of stratified fluid, caused by internal waves whose frequencies are less than the Brent-Vaeisaelae frequency. Here I would like to note two circumstances. The first is the scientific insight characteristic for Kolmogorov; this very approach was later reflected in numerous publications (see, for instance, the monograph by V.S. Modevich, V.I. Nikulin, and A.G. Stetsenko 'Dynamics of internal mixing in a stratified medium', Institute for Hydromechanics, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Naukova Dumka, Kiev 1988). The second, the more significant in my opinion, is the genuine intellectual curiosity and breadth of thought of this great thinker, who studied not only the most abstract mathematical constructions but also got his head out of the clouds with great interest to solve concrete applied problems

  19. Advantages of the in-situ LTP distortion profile test on high-heat-load mirrors and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, S.; Jark, W.; Sostero, G.; Gambitta, A.; Mazzolini, F.; Savoia, A.

    1996-01-01

    The first in-situ distortion profile measurement of a high heat load mirror by use of the penta-prism LTP is presented. A maximum height distortion of 0.47 micron in tangential direction over a length of 180 mm was measured for an internally water-cooled mirror of a undulator beam line at ELETTRA while exposed to a total emitted power of 600 W (undulator gap 30 mm and current 180 mA). The experiment has an accuracy and repeatability of 0.04 micron. The test schematic and the test equipment are presented. Two measuring methods to scan a penta-prism being installed either outside or inside the vacuum chamber are introduced. Advantages and some possible applications of adopting the penta-prism LTP to make the in-situ profile test are explained

  20. Testing a two-scale focused conservation strategy for reducing phosphorus and sediment loads from agricultural watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvin, Rebecca; Good, Laura W.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Diehl, Curt; Songer, Katherine; Meyer, Kimberly J.; Panuska, John C.; Richter, Steve; Whalley, Kyle

    2018-01-01

    This study tested a focused strategy for reducing phosphorus (P) and sediment loads in agricultural streams. The strategy involved selecting small watersheds identified as likely to respond relatively quickly, and then focusing conservation practices on high-contributing fields within those watersheds. Two 5,000 ha (12,360 ac) watersheds in the Driftless Area of south central Wisconsin, previously ranked in the top 6% of similarly sized Wisconsin watersheds for expected responsiveness to conservation efforts to reduce high P and sediment loads, were chosen for the study. The stream outlets from both watersheds were monitored from October of 2006 through September of 2016 for streamflow and concentrations of sediment, total P, and, beginning in October of 2009, total dissolved P. Fields and pastures having the highest potential P delivery to the streams in each watershed were identified using the Wisconsin P Index (Good et al. 2012). After three years of baseline monitoring (2006 to 2009), farmers implemented both field- and farm-based conservation practices in one watershed (treatment) as a means to reduce sediment and P inputs to the stream from the highest contributing areas, whereas there were no out-of-the-ordinary conservation efforts in the second watershed (control). Implementation occurred primarily in 2011 and 2012. In the four years following implementation of conservation practices (2013 through 2016), there was a statistically significant reduction in storm-event suspended sediment loads in the treatment watershed compared to the control watershed when the ground was not frozen (p = 0.047). While there was an apparent reduction in year-round suspended sediment event loads, it was not statistically significant at the 95% confidence level (p = 0.15). Total P loads were significantly reduced for runoff events (p < 0.01) with a median reduction of 50%. Total P and total dissolved P concentrations for low-flow conditions were also significantly reduced (p

  1. Two frequency beam-loading compensation in the drive-beam accelerator of the CLIC Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Hans Heinrich

    1999-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility (CTF) is a prototype two-beam accelerator, in which a high-current "drive beam" is used to generate the RF power for the main-beam accelerator. The drive-beam accelerator consists of two S-band structures which accelerate a bunch train with a total charge of 500 nC. The substantial beam loading is compensated by operating the two accelerating structures at 7.81 MHz above and below the bunch repetition frequency, respectively. This introduces a change of RF phase from bunch to bunch, which leads, together with off-crest injection into the accelerator, to an approximate compensation of the beam loading. Due to the sinusoidal time-dependency of the RF field, an energy spread of about 7% remains in the bunch train. A set of idler cavities has been installed to reduce this residual energy spread further. In this paper, the considerations that motivated the choice of the parameters of the beam-loading compensation system, together with the experimental results, are presented.

  2. Full-scale testing of leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room exposed to external air blast loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, R.; Ambrosini, D.

    2018-03-01

    For the last few decades, the effects of blast loading on structures have been studied by many researchers around the world. Explosions can be caused by events such as industrial accidents, military conflicts or terrorist attacks. Urban centers have been prone to various threats including car bombs, suicide attacks, and improvised explosive devices. Partially vented constructions subjected to external blast loading represent an important topic in protective engineering. The assessment of blast survivability inside structures and the development of design provisions with respect to internal elements require the study of the propagation and leakage of blast waves inside buildings. In this paper, full-scale tests are performed to study the effects of the leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room that is subjected to different external blast loadings. The results obtained may be useful for proving the validity of different methods of calculation, both empirical and numerical. Moreover, the experimental results are compared with those computed using the empirical curves of the US Defense report/manual UFC 3-340. Finally, results of the dynamic response of the front masonry wall are presented in terms of accelerations and an iso-damage diagram.

  3. Results of high heat flux tests of tungsten divertor targets under plasma heat loads expected in ITER and tokamaks (review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budaev, V. P., E-mail: budaev@mail.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Heat loads on the tungsten divertor targets in the ITER and the tokamak power reactors reach ~10MW m{sup −2} in the steady state of DT discharges, increasing to ~0.6–3.5 GW m{sup −2} under disruptions and ELMs. The results of high heat flux tests (HHFTs) of tungsten under such transient plasma heat loads are reviewed in the paper. The main attention is paid to description of the surface microstructure, recrystallization, and the morphology of the cracks on the target. Effects of melting, cracking of tungsten, drop erosion of the surface, and formation of corrugated and porous layers are observed. Production of submicron-sized tungsten dust and the effects of the inhomogeneous surface of tungsten on the plasma–wall interaction are discussed. In conclusion, the necessity of further HHFTs and investigations of the durability of tungsten under high pulsed plasma loads on the ITER divertor plates, including disruptions and ELMs, is stressed.

  4. 40 CFR 86.129-80 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inertia weight class determination. 86.129-80 Section 86.129-80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. (a) Flywheels, electrical or other means of... weight (pounds) Equivalent test weight (pounds) Inertia weight class (pounds) Up to 1,062 1,000 1,000 1...

  5. Hydrogen breath test for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance, is the routine sugar load the best one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argnani, Fiorenza; Di Camillo, Mauro; Marinaro, Vanessa; Foglietta, Tiziana; Avallone, Veronica; Cannella, Carlo; Vernia, Piero

    2008-10-28

    To evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) following a load of 12.5 g in patients diagnosed as high-grade malabsorbers using the hydrogen breath test (HBT)-25. Ninety patients showing high-grade malabsorption at HBT-25 were submitted to a second HBT with a lactose load of 12.5 g. Peak hydrogen production, area under the curve of hydrogen excretion and occurrence of symptoms were recorded. Only 16 patients (17.77%) with positive HBT-25 proved positive at HBT-12.5. Hydrogen production was lower as compared to HBT-25 (peak value 21.55 parts per million (ppm) +/- 29.54 SD vs 99.43 ppm +/- 40.01 SD; P lactose and a strict lactose restriction on the basis of a "standard" HBT is, in most instances, unnecessary. Thus, the 25 g lactose tolerance test should probably be substituted by the 12.5 g test in the diagnosis of LI, and in providing dietary guidelines to patients with suspected lactose malabsorption/intolerance.

  6. Large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavazanjian, Edward; Gutierrez, Angel

    2017-10-01

    A large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading was conducted to help validate a numerical model for performance based design of geomembrane liner systems. The test was conducted using the 240g-ton centrifuge at the University of California at Davis under the U.S. National Science Foundation Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research (NEESR) program. A 0.05mm thin film membrane was used to model the liner. The waste was modeled using a peat-sand mixture. The side slope membrane was underlain by lubricated low density polyethylene to maximize the difference between the interface shear strength on the top and bottom of the geomembrane and the induced tension in it. Instrumentation included thin film strain gages to monitor geomembrane strains and accelerometers to monitor seismic excitation. The model was subjected to an input design motion intended to simulate strong ground motion from the 1994 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. Results indicate that downdrag waste settlement and seismic loading together, and possibly each phenomenon individually, can induce potentially damaging tensile strains in geomembrane liners. The data collected from this test is publically available and can be used to validate numerical models for the performance of geomembrane liner systems. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of Hydraulic Loads on the Runner Blades of a Kaplan Turbine using CFD Simulation and Model Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan-Iosif Korka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic is today a standard procedure for analyzing and simulating the flow through several hydraulic machines. In this process, the fluid flow domain is divided into small volumes where the governing equations are converted into algebraic ones, which are numerically solved. Computational results strongly depend on the applied mathematical model and on the numerical methods used for converting the governing equations into the algebraic ones. The goal of the paper is to evaluate, by numerical simulation, the hydraulic loads (forces and torques on the runner blades of an existent Kaplan turbine and to compare them with the experimental results obtained from model test.

  8. Does vertical integration have an effect on load factor? - A test on coal-fired plants in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Jose A.; Salies, Evens

    2006-02-01

    Today in the British electricity industry, most electricity suppliers hedge a large proportion of their residential customer base requirements by owning their own plant. The non-storability of electricity and the corresponding need for an instantaneous matching of generation and consumption creates a business need for integration. From a sample of half-hour data on load factor for coal-fired power plants in England and Wales, this paper tests the hypothesis that vertical integration with retail businesses affects the extent to which producers utilize their capacity. We also pay attention to this potential effect during periods of peak demand. (authors)

  9. Functional loading test for expert estimation of health candidates in cosmonauts (the innovative approach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronkov, Yury; Skedina, Marina; Degterenkova, Natalia; Stepanova, Galina

    Long stay of cosmonauts in conditions of International Space Station demands the increased medical control over their health during selection. Various parameters of cardiovascular system (CVS) undergo significant changes both during adaptation to space flight (period of removing into an orbit), directly under conditions of weightlessness and during readaptation to terrestrial environment. The CVS is sensitive indicator of adaptation reaction of total organism. Therefore much attention is given to the research of CVS regulation, its opportunities to adapt to various stress conditions, detection of pre-nozological changes in mechanisms of its regulation. One of the informative methods for detecting problems in CVS regulation is a postural orthostatic test. This work was designed to research regulation of hemodynamics during passive orthostatic test. 21 practically healthy people in the age from 18 to 36 years old have passed the test. During test the following parameters were registered: 12 Lead ECG and the BP, parameters of a myocardium by means of "CardioVisor-06" (CV) device, and also a condition of microcirculatory bloodstream (MCB) was estimated by means of ultrasonic high-frequency dopplerograph "Minimax-Doppler-K" with 20 MHz sensor. The impedance method of rheoencephalography (REG) by means of the "Encephalan-EEGR-13103" device was used to research a cerebral blood circulation. All subjects had normal parameters of ECG during test. However, during analysis data of CV, REG and MCB high tolerability to the test was observed in 14 test subjects. In other 7 subjects dynamics of parameters during test reflected problems in mechanisms of CVS regulation in its separate parts. Changes in parameters of REG and ultrasound in 4 test subjects reflected a hypotensive reaction. The parameter of a tone of arterioles in carotid and vertebral arteries system decreased for 15,3 % and 55,2 % accordingly. The parameters of MCB: average speed, vascular tone and peripheric

  10. Physical Modelling of Bucket Foundation Under Long-Term Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind farms are a promising renewable energy source. The monopod bucket foundation has the potential to become a reliable and cost-effective concept for offshore wind turbines. The bucket foundation must be designed by accounting for the cyclic loading which might endanger the turbine...... functioning. In this article a 1g physical model of bucket foundation under horizontal and moment cyclic loading is described. A testing program including four tests was carried out. Every test was conducted for at least 30000 cycles, each with different loading features. The capability of the model...

  11. Disgruntled employees challenge GPU on TMI-2 polar crane safety, say load test needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smock, R.

    1983-01-01

    Workers at the Three Mile Island No. 2 unit have gone public with their complaint that General Public Utilities (GPU) Corp. is ignoring safety at the cleanup site. With the exception of a specific concern over an overhead crane inside the containment building, however, the charges are vague. The polar crane will be used to lift the 170 to 180-ton reactor vessel head later this year, but a plant engineer faults the planned test procedure because it calls for lifting 40-ton missile shields from above the reactor before the crane is tested for strength. If the crane fails when lifting the missile shields, the engineer contends, there could be another loss of coolant. GPU rejected a 50-ton test of the crane because it is not required and because the risk is virtually zero. The utility also argues that additional testing will only increase exposure for the workers. 1 figure

  12. Static pile load tests on driven piles in Intermediate-Geo Materials : research brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Research Objectives: : Investigate the use of modified standard penetration tests (MSPT) : Compare field results with predictions made by the WisDOT driving formula, PDA and CAPWAP : Improve prediction of pile lengths and pile capacities ...

  13. Determination of minimum height and lateral design load for MASH test level 4 bridge rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH) prescribes higher design vehicle impact speed and mass for test level 4 barriers compared to its predecessor National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 350. This has resulted in a 56 p...

  14. Simulation of dynamic traffic loading based on accelerated pavement testing (APT)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to introduce the latest Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) technology as part of the South African Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT) efforts, its capabilities and expected impact on road pavement analysis....

  15. Vertical and horizontal seismometric observations of tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambotte, S.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tidal signals have been largely studied with gravimeters, strainmeters and tiltmeters, but can also be retrieved from digital records of the output of long-period seismometers, such as STS-1, particularly if they are properly isolated. Horizontal components are often noisier than the vertical ones, due to sensitivity to tilt at long periods. Hence, horizontal components are often disturbed by local effects such as topography, geology and cavity effects, which imply a strain-tilt coupling. We use series of data (duration larger than 1 month) from several permanent broadband seismological stations to examine these disturbances. We search a minimal set of observable signals (tilts, horizontal and vertical displacements, strains, gravity) necessary to reconstruct the seismological record. Such analysis gives a set of coefficients (per component for each studied station), which are stable over years and then can be used systematically to correct data from these disturbances without needing heavy numerical computation. A special attention is devoted to ocean loading for stations close to oceans (e.g. Matsushiro station in Japon (MAJO)), and to pressure correction when barometric data are available. Interesting observations are made for vertical seismometric components; in particular, we found a pressure admittance between pressure and data 10 times larger than for gravimeters for periods larger than 1 day, while this admittance reaches the usual value of -3.5 nm/s 2/mbar for periods below 3 h. This observation may be due to instrumental noise, but the exact mechanism is not yet understood.

  16. Responses and Injuries to PMHS in Side-Facing and Oblique Seats in Horizontal Longitudinal Sled Tests per FAA Emergency Landing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humm, John R; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; DeWeese, Richard L; Moorcroft, David M; Taylor, Amanda M; Peterson, Brian

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the present exploratory study is to understand occupant responses in oblique and side-facing seats in the aviation environment, which are increasingly installed in modern aircrafts. Sled tests were conducted using intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) seated in custom seats approximating standard aircraft geometry. End conditions were selected to represent candidate aviation seat and restraint configurations. Three-dimensional head center-of-gravity linear accelerations, head angular velocities, and linear accelerations of the T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes, and sacrum were obtained. Three-dimensional kinematics relative to the seat were obtained from retroreflective targets attached to the head, T1, T6, T12, and sacrum. All specimens sustained spinal injuries, although variations existed by vertebral level. While the tension mechanism was associated with cervical spine injuries, complex distraction-coupled with bending and tension was attributed to thoracolumbar spine injuries. Skeletal fractures to the ribcage were attributed to compression induced by the restraint from the seatbelt, the presence of the armrest, and/or severe motions of the unconstrained torso. Pelvic injuries were also attributed to restraint offered by the lap belt on the accelerating torso-pelvis complex in the absence of the armrest. Lower extremity injuries occurred due to the unconstrained motion (flailing mechanism). These results serve as an initial dataset to understand the kinematics of different body regions, injuries and patterns, and potential injury mechanisms describing PMHS responses in the aviation environment.

  17. Study of the efficiency of transplantation of human neural stem cells to rats with spinal trauma: the use of functional load tests and BBB test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, S V; Karasev, A V; Chekhonin, V P; Savchenko, E A; Viktorov, I V; Chelyshev, Yu A; Shaimardanova, G F

    2010-09-01

    Human ensheating neural stem cells of the olfactory epithelium were transplanted to adult male rats immediately after contusion trauma of the spinal cord at T9 level rostrally and caudally to the injury. Voluntary movements (by a 21-point BBB scale), rota-rod performance, and walking along a narrowing beam were monitored weekly over 60 days. In rats receiving cell transplantation, the mean BBB score significantly increased by 11% by the end of the experiment. The mean parameters of load tests also regularly surpassed the corresponding parameters in controls. The efficiency of transplantation (percent of animals with motor function recovery parameters surpassing the corresponding mean values in the control groups) was 62% by the state of voluntary motions, 37% by the rota-rod test, and 32% by the narrowing beam test. Morphometry revealed considerable shrinking of the zone of traumatic damage in the spinal cord and activation of posttraumatic remyelination in animals receiving transplantation of human neural stem cells.

  18. Structural and textural characteristics of slate and its response to the point load test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mladenovič

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available From the geomechanical point of view slate is considered to be one of more trying rock varieties. The results of research have shown close relationship between structural, textural and mineralogical characteristics on the one hand, and its strength and resistance to point loads on the other hand. Its weakened zones are the result of anisotropy. They develop mainly due to dynamo-metamorphosis of the primary mudstone, resulting in the formation of the secondary slaty cleavage, with a pronounced preferred orientation of the hyllosilicates. Low strength is the consequence of the weak Van der Waals chemical bond between individual packets of the internal crystal structure of the sheet minerals, particularly sericite. Bedding and microfolds with a crenulated structure and partial preferred orientation of sheet minerals, as well as directions that are weakened with sigmoidal shear deformations as the predecessors of microfaults, also result in significant but less problematicanisotropy. Thin lepidoblastic lamina, in apparently massive sandy metasiltstone beds in the slate represent discontinuities, which have a decisive influence on the reduction of their strength.

  19. Influence of Hydraulic Design on Stability and on Pressure Pulsations in Francis Turbines at Overload, Part Load and Deep Part Load based on Numerical Simulations and Experimental Model Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnoli, M V; Maiwald, M

    2014-01-01

    Francis turbines have been running more and more frequently in part load conditions, in order to satisfy the new market requirements for more dynamic and flexible energy generation, ancillary services and grid regulation. The turbines should be able to be operated for longer durations with flows below the optimum point, going from part load to deep part load and even speed-no-load. These operating conditions are characterised by important unsteady flow phenomena taking place at the draft tube cone and in the runner channels, in the respective cases of part load and deep part load. The current expectations are that new Francis turbines present appropriate hydraulic stability and moderate pressure pulsations at overload, part load, deep part load and speed-no-load with high efficiency levels at normal operating range. This study presents series of investigations performed by Voith Hydro with the objective to improve the hydraulic stability of Francis turbines at overload, part load and deep part load, reduce pressure pulsations and enlarge the know-how about the transient fluid flow through the turbine at these challenging conditions. Model test measurements showed that distinct runner designs were able to influence the pressure pulsation level in the machine. Extensive experimental investigations focused on the runner deflector geometry, on runner features and how they could reduce the pressure oscillation level. The impact of design variants and machine configurations on the vortex rope at the draft tube cone at overload and part load and on the runner channel vortex at deep part load were experimentally observed and evaluated based on the measured pressure pulsation amplitudes. Numerical investigations were employed for improving the understanding of such dynamic fluid flow effects. As example for the design and experimental investigations, model test observations and pressure pulsation curves for Francis machines in mid specific speed range, around n qopt = 50

  20. Simulation of Model Force-Loading with Changing Its Position in the Wind Tunnel Test Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Bui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When planning and implementing an aerodynamic experiment, model sizes and its position in the test section of the wind tunnel (WT play very important role. The paper focuses on the value variations of the aerodynamic characteristics of a model through changing its position in the WT test section and on the attenuation of the velocity field disturbance in front of the model. Flow around aerodynamic model profile in the open test section of the low-speed WT T-500 is simulated at BMSTU Department SM3. The problem is solved in a two-dimensional case using the ANSYS Fluent package. The mathematical model of flow is based on the Reynolds equations closed by the SST turbulence model. The paper also presents the results of the experiment. Experiments conducted in WT T-500 well correlate with the calculated data and show the optimal position in the middle of the test section when conducting the weighing and drainage experiments. Disturbance of tunnel dynamic pressure (velocity head and flow upwash around the model profile and circular cylinder in the WT test section is analyzed. It was found that flow upstream from the front stagnation point on the body weakly depends on the Reynolds number and obtained results can be used to assess the level of disturbances in the flow around a model by incompressible airflow.

  1. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  2. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  3. A study on special test stand of automatic and manual descent control in presence of simulated g-load effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazkov, Yury; Artjuchin, Yury; Astakhov, Alexander; Vas'kov, Alexander; Malyshev, Veniamin; Mitroshin, Edward; Glinsky, Valery; Moiseenko, Vasily; Makovlev, Vyacheslav

    The development of aircraft-type reusable space vehicles (RSV) involves the problem of complete compatibility of automatic, director and manual control. Task decision is complicated, in particular, due to considerable quantitative and qualitative changes of vehicle dynamic characteristics, little stability margins (and even of unstability) of the RSV, and stringent requirements to control accuracy at some flight phases. Besides, during control a pilot is affected by g-loads which hamper motor activity and deteriorate its accuracy, alter the functional status of the visual analyser, and influence higher nervous activity. A study of g-load effects on the control efficiency, especially in manual and director modes, is of primary importance. The main tools for study of a rational selection of manual and director vehicle control systems and as an aid in formulating recommendations for optimum crew-automatic control system interactions are special complex and functional flight simulator test stands. The proposed simulator stand includes a powerful digital computer complex combined with the control system of the centrifuge. The interior of a pilot's vehicle cabin is imitated. A situation image system, pyscho-physical monitoring system, physician, centrifuge operator, and instructor stations are linked with the test stand.

  4. Numerical ductile tearing simulation of circumferential cracked pipe tests under dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun Suk; Kim, Ji Soo; Ryu, Ho Wan; Kim, Yun Jae [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Weon [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents a numerical method to simulate ductile tearing in cracked components under high strain rates using finite element damage analysis. The strain rate dependence on tensile properties and multiaxial fracture strain is characterized by the model developed by Johnson and Cook. The damage model is then defined based on the ductility exhaustion concept using the strain rate dependent multiaxial fracture strain concept. The proposed model is applied to simulate previously published three cracked pipe bending test results under two different test speed conditions. Simulated results show overall good agreement with experimental results.

  5. Design and commission of an experimental test rig to apply a full-scale pressure load on composite sandwich panels representative of an aircraft secondary structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, D A; Dulieu-Barton, J M; Savage, J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a test rig, which is used to apply a representative pressure load to a full-scale composite sandwich secondary aircraft structure. A generic panel was designed with features to represent those in the composite sandwich secondary aircraft structure. To provide full-field strain data from the panels, the test rig was designed for use with optical measurement techniques such as thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) and digital image correlation (DIC). TSA requires a cyclic load to be applied to a structure for the measurement of the strain state; therefore, the test rig has been designed to be mounted on a standard servo-hydraulic test machine. As both TSA and DIC require an uninterrupted view of the surface of the test panel, an important consideration in the design is facilitating the optical access for the two techniques. To aid the test rig design a finite element (FE) model was produced. The model provides information on the deflections that must be accommodated by the test rig, and ensures that the stress and strain levels developed in the panel when loaded in the test rig would be sufficient for measurement using TSA and DIC. Finally, initial tests using the test rig have shown it to be capable of achieving the required pressure and maintaining a cyclic load. It was also demonstrated that both TSA and DIC data can be collected from the panels under load, which are used to validate the stress and deflection derived from the FE model

  6. Loading of fuel and reflector elements in the Fort St. Vrain initial core (results of start-up test A-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.C.; Brown, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    R A description is given of the experimental equipment and techniques used in the fuel and reflector loading. The analysis methods are described and test data are compared with predicted results. (U.S.)

  7. Design data sheets Near-Surface Test Facility Bottom Loading Transporter (BLT): Title 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    This document is an accumulation of all the Design Data Sheets relative to the handling equipment in the transporter for the Near-Surface Test Facility. The Data Sheets are in ascending numerical order. Each Data Sheet, regardless of the number of pages, shall stand by itself within this document

  8. Cracking and load-deformation behavior of fiber reinforced concrete: Influence of testing method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paegle, Ieva; Minelli, Fausto; Fischer, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    cementitious composites with strain hardening and strain softening behavior. Digital Image Correlation was utilized in the experimental program to detect and quantify the formation of cracks. Results show that the different test methodologies valuate specific aspects of material performance. The outcome...

  9. A high power pulsed plasma system for material testing under simultaneous continuous and transient loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The research described in this thesis is done in the frame of the development of nuclear fusion as a source of clean, safe and virtually inexhaustible power. Fusion energy is being developed in an international program, which is presently culminating in the construction of the test reactor ITER.

  10. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2011-01-01

    Lower limb injuries are a large problem in athletes. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the relationship between alignment of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) of the foot and development of such injuries. A reliable and valid test to quantify foot type is needed to be able to investiga...

  11. Testing of the Impact Load and Tribological Behaviour of W-C:H Hard Composite Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fořt, Tomáš; Vítů, T.; Novák, R.; Grossman, Jan; Sobota, Jaroslav; Vyskočil, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 14 (2011), s102-s104 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : PVD * DLC * impact test * pin-on-disc * friction coefficient Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 0.529, year: 2011

  12. Influence of relative humidity and physical load during storage on dustiness of inorganic nanomaterials: implications for testing and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Marcus; Rojas, Elena; Vanhala, Esa; Vippola, Minnamari; Liguori, Biase; Kling, Kirsten I.; Koponen, Ismo K.; Mølhave, Kristian; Tuomi, Timo; Gregurec, Danijela; Moya, Sergio; Jensen, Keld A.

    2015-01-01

    Dustiness testing using a down-scaled EN15051 rotating drum was used to investigate the effects of storage conditions such as relative humidity and physical loading on the dustiness of five inorganic metal oxide nanostructured powder materials. The tests consisted of measurements of gravimetrical respirable dustiness index and particle size distributions. Water uptake of the powders during 7 days of incubation was investigated as an explanatory factor of the changes. Consequences of these varying storage conditions in exposure modelling were tested using the control banding and risk management tool NanoSafer. Drastic material-specific effects on powder respirable dustiness index were observed with the change in TiO 2 from 30 % RH (639 mg/kg) to 50 % RH (1.5 mg/kg). All five tested materials indicate a decreasing dustiness index with relative humidity increasing from 30 to 70 % RH. Test of powder water uptake showed an apparent link with the decreasing dustiness index. Effects of powder compaction appeared more material specific with both increasing and decreasing dustiness indices observed as an effect of compaction. Tests of control banding exposure models using the measured dustiness indices in three different exposure scenarios showed that in two of the tested materials, one 20 % change in RH changed the exposure banding from the lowest level to the highest. The study shows the importance of powder storage conditions prior to tests for classification of material dustiness indices. It also highlights the importance of correct storage information and relative humidity and expansion of the dustiness test conditions specifically, when using dustiness indices as a primary parameter for source strength in exposure assessment

  13. Influence of relative humidity and physical load during storage on dustiness of inorganic nanomaterials: implications for testing and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Marcus, E-mail: mle@nrcwe.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Micro and Nanotechnology (Denmark); Rojas, Elena [CIC biomaGUNE (Spain); Vanhala, Esa; Vippola, Minnamari [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (Finland); Liguori, Biase; Kling, Kirsten I.; Koponen, Ismo K. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Mølhave, Kristian [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Micro and Nanotechnology (Denmark); Tuomi, Timo [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (Finland); Gregurec, Danijela; Moya, Sergio [CIC biomaGUNE (Spain); Jensen, Keld A. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark)

    2015-08-15

    Dustiness testing using a down-scaled EN15051 rotating drum was used to investigate the effects of storage conditions such as relative humidity and physical loading on the dustiness of five inorganic metal oxide nanostructured powder materials. The tests consisted of measurements of gravimetrical respirable dustiness index and particle size distributions. Water uptake of the powders during 7 days of incubation was investigated as an explanatory factor of the changes. Consequences of these varying storage conditions in exposure modelling were tested using the control banding and risk management tool NanoSafer. Drastic material-specific effects on powder respirable dustiness index were observed with the change in TiO{sub 2} from 30 % RH (639 mg/kg) to 50 % RH (1.5 mg/kg). All five tested materials indicate a decreasing dustiness index with relative humidity increasing from 30 to 70 % RH. Test of powder water uptake showed an apparent link with the decreasing dustiness index. Effects of powder compaction appeared more material specific with both increasing and decreasing dustiness indices observed as an effect of compaction. Tests of control banding exposure models using the measured dustiness indices in three different exposure scenarios showed that in two of the tested materials, one 20 % change in RH changed the exposure banding from the lowest level to the highest. The study shows the importance of powder storage conditions prior to tests for classification of material dustiness indices. It also highlights the importance of correct storage information and relative humidity and expansion of the dustiness test conditions specifically, when using dustiness indices as a primary parameter for source strength in exposure assessment.

  14. Pilot Scale Testing of Adsorbent Amended Filters under High Hydraulic Loads for Highway Runoff in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Monrabal-Martinez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an estimation of the service life of three filters composed of sand and three alternative adsorbents for stormwater treatment according to Norwegian water quality standards for receiving surface waters. The study conducted pilot scale column tests on three adsorbent amended filters for treatment of highway runoff in cold climates under high hydraulic loads. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of high hydraulic loads and the application of deicing salts on the performance of these filters. From previous theoretical and laboratory analysis granulated activated charcoal, pine bark, and granulated olivine were chosen as alternative adsorbent materials for the present test. Adsorption performance of the filters was evaluated vis-à-vis four commonly found hazardous metals (Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in stormwater. The results showed that the filters were able to pass water at high inflow rates while achieving high removal. Among the filters, the filters amended with olivine or pine bark provided the best performance both in short and long-term tests. The addition of NaCl (1 g/L did not show any adverse impact on the desorption of already adsorbed metals, except for Ni removal by the charcoal amended filter, which was negatively impacted by the salt addition. The service life of the filters was found to be limited by zinc and copper, due to high concentrations observed in local urban runoff, combined with moderate affinity with the adsorbents. It was concluded that both the olivine and the pine bark amended filter should be tested in full-scale conditions.

  15. Corrosion testing of a plutonium-loaded lanthanide borosilicate glass made with Frit B.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L.; Chemical Engineering

    2006-09-30

    Laboratory tests were conducted with a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass made with Frit B and added PuO2 (the glass is referred to herein as Pu LaBS-B glass) to measure the dependence of the glass dissolution rate on pH and temperature. These results are compared with the dependencies used in the Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model that was developed to account for HLW glasses in total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations for the Yucca Mountain repository to determine if that model can also be used to represent the release of radionuclides from disposed Pu LaBS glass by using either the same parameter values that are used for HLW glasses or parameter values specific for Pu LaBS glass. Tests were conducted by immersing monolithic specimens of Pu LaBS-B glass in six solutions that imposed pH values between about pH 3.5 and pH 11, and then measuring the amounts of glass components released into solution. Tests were conducted at 40, 70, and 90 C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days at low glass-surface-area-to-solution volume ratios. As intended, these test conditions maintained sufficiently dilute solutions that the impacts of solution feedback effects on the dissolution rates were negligible in most tests. The glass dissolution rates were determined from the concentrations of Si and B measured in the test solutions. The dissolution rates determined from the releases of Si and B were consistent with the 'V' shaped pH dependence that is commonly seen for borosilicate glasses and is included in the Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model. The rate equation in that model (using the coefficients determined for HLW glasses) provides values that are higher than the Pu LaBS-B glass dissolution rates that were measured over the range of pH and temperature values that were studied (i.e., an upper bound). Separate coefficients for the rate expression in acidic and alkaline solutions were also determined from the test results to model Pu LaBS-B glass dissolution

  16. Evaluation of a new methodology to simulate damage and wear of polyethylene hip replacements subjected to edge loading in hip simulator testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Susan; Tipper, Joanne L; Al-Hajjar, Mazen; Isaac, Graham H; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie

    2018-05-01

    Wear and fatigue of polyethylene acetabular cups have been reported to play a role in the failure of total hip replacements. Hip simulator testing under a wide range of clinically relevant loading conditions is important. Edge loading of hip replacements can occur following impingement under extreme activities and can also occur during normal gait, where there is an offset deficiency and/or joint laxity. This study evaluated a hip simulator method that assessed wear and damage in polyethylene acetabular liners that were subjected to edge loading. The liners tested to evaluate the method were a currently manufactured crosslinked polyethylene acetabular liner and an aged conventional polyethylene acetabular liner. The acetabular liners were tested for 5 million standard walking cycles and following this 5 million walking cycles with edge loading. Edge loading conditions represented a separation of the centers of rotation of the femoral head and the acetabular liner during the swing phase, leading to loading of the liner rim on heel strike. Rim damage and cracking was observed in the aged conventional polyethylene liner. Steady-state wear rates assessed gravimetrically were lower under edge loading compared to standard loading. This study supports previous clinical findings that edge loading may cause rim cracking in liners, where component positioning is suboptimal or where material degradation is present. The simulation method developed has the potential to be used in the future to test the effect of aging and different levels of severity of edge loading on a range of cross-linked polyethylene materials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1456-1462, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Long-Term Durability Test for the Left Ventricular Assist System EVAHEART under the Physiologic Pulsatile Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Tomoya; Iwasaki, Kiyotaka

    The EVAHEART Left Ventricular Assist System (LVAS) was designed for the long-term support of a patient with severe heart failure. It has an original water lubrication system for seal and bearing and wear on these parts was considered one of its critical failure modes. A durability test focusing on wear was designed herein. We developed a mock loop, which generates a physiologic pulsatile flow and is sufficiently durable for a long-term test. The pulsatile load and the low fluid viscosity enable the creation of a severe condition for the mechanical seal. A total of 18 EVAHEART blood pumps completed 2 years of operation under the pulsatile condition without any failure. It indicated the EVAHEART blood pump had a greater than 90% reliability with a 88% confidence level. The test was continued with six blood pumps and achieved an average of 8.6 years, which was longer than the longest clinical use in Japan. The test result showed that no catastrophic, critical, marginal, or minor failures of the blood pump or their symptoms were observed. The seal performance was maintained after the test. Moreover, the surface roughness did not change, which showed any burn or abnormal wear occurred. The original water lubrication system equipped in EVAHEART LVAS prevent severe wear on the seal and the bearing, and it can be used in the bridge to transplant and destination therapy.

  18. Evaluation of horizontal magnification on panoramic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Raoof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluated the horizontal magnification of images taken from adults and pediatrics with PM 2002 CC Planmeca analogue machine. Materials and Methods: A series of 120 panoramic radiographs were obtained of 60 adults and 60 pediatrics. For all patients, negative impressions were used to make positive casts of the teeth. A caliper was used to measure the maximum mesiodistal length of the buccal surface of all teeth except canines on both casts and radiographs. The horizontal magnification factor was calculated for incisor, premolar, and molar regions by dividing the values obtained from the casts by the values obtained from the radiographs. Statistical Analysis: Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: The results indicated that with regard to adults, maxillary and mandibular incisor regions, unlike the other two sessions, didn′t show significant difference of the mean magnification of horizontal dimension (P = 0.5. In pediatrics, the comparison between mean magnification factors of all subgroups showed significant difference (P < 0.0001. Despite the adults′ radiographs, the results of pediatrics′ radiographs showed significantly higher magnification than the index listed by the manufacturer of the radiographic machine used. Conclusion: The present study results point to the fact that PM 2002 CC Proline panoramic machine makes possible precise measurements on radiographs of adults′ jaws in the horizontal dimension.

  19. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 3. Vibration Testing, Instrumentation and Data Analysis, Loads and Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    procedure previously described cannot be K’. 1,. , .L" - Initialize ..’.:_"....- _-’ __- array IRAN ( NLINE = number of . . Pseudo- spectral lines) IRAN(K...random---- Inumber " ..-. ’.: •.-.-. 1 , NACT ...-- T - • - - Convert to complex K 1 , NLINE and randot..ize the phase of each spectral line of the...sensitivity and calibration while installed in the test set-up. THE COMPONENTS OF THE SYSTEM.- There is available on the market , a photo- - diode which

  20. Horizontal drilling under Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, R.

    2001-07-01

    Drilling oil wells under Lake Erie calls for horizontal drilling wells to be drilled from shore out into the pay-zone under the lake. The nature and characteristics of horizontal wells as compared to vertical wells are explored. Considerations that have to be taken into account in drilling horizontal wells are explained (the degree of curvature, drilling fluid quality, geosteering in the pay-zone, steering instrumentation, measurements while drilling (MWD), logging while drilling (LWD)). The concept and reasons for extended reach wells are outlined, along with characteristic features of multilateral wells.

  1. Development of procedures for calculating stiffness and damping properties of elastomers in engineering applications. Part 4: Testing of elastomers under a rotating load. [resonance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, M. S.; Smalley, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    A test rig designed to measure stiffness and damping of elastomer cartridges under a rotating load excitation is described. The test rig employs rotating unbalance in a rotor which runs to 60,000 RPM as the excitation mechanism. A variable resonant mass is supported on elastomer elements and the dynamic characteristics are determined from measurements of input and output acceleration. Five different cartridges are considered: three of these are buttons cartridges having buttons located in pairs, with 120 between each pair. Two of the cartridges consist of 360 elastomer rings with rectangular cross-sections. Dynamic stiffness and damping are measured for each cartridge and compared with predictions at different frequencies and different strains.

  2. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation of Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) During Large-Scale Load Testing and Rod Push-Out Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Patrick H.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) is a structural concept developed by the Boeing Company to address the complex structural design aspects associated with a pressurized hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft configuration. The HWB has long been a focus of NASA's environmentally responsible aviation (ERA) project, following a building block approach to structures development, culminating with the testing of a nearly full-scale multi-bay box (MBB), representing a segment of the pressurized, non-circular fuselage portion of the HWB. PRSEUS is an integral structural concept wherein skins, frames, stringers and tear straps made of variable number of layers of dry warp-knit carbon-fiber stacks are stitched together, then resin-infused and cured in an out-of-autoclave process. The PRSEUS concept has the potential for reducing the weight and cost and increasing the structural efficiency of transport aircraft structures. A key feature of PRSEUS is the damage-arresting nature of the stitches, which enables the use of fail-safe design principles. During the load testing of the MBB, ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) was used to monitor several sites of intentional barely-visible impact damage (BVID) as well as to survey the areas surrounding the failure cracks after final loading to catastrophic failure. The damage-arresting ability of PRSEUS was confirmed by the results of NDE. In parallel with the large-scale structural testing of the MBB, mechanical tests were conducted of the PRSEUS rod-to-overwrap bonds, as measured by pushing the rod axially from a short length of stringer.

  3. Testing Re-entrained Aerosol Kinetic Emissions from Roads : a new approach to infer silt loading on roadways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, H.; Etyemezian, V.; Landwehr, D.; MacDougall, C.; Pitchford, M.; Green, M.

    PM 10 and PM 2.5 emissions from roadways are currently estimated using the silt loading on the road surface as a surrogate for the emissions potential of road dust. While the United States Environmental Protection Agency prescribes this method in AP-42, there is considerable cost associated with silt loading measurements; it is feasible to sample only a small portion of a roadway network. A new approach for measuring the concentration of suspendable PM 10 above road surfaces has been developed to obtain a more spatially representative estimate of a road's potential to emit dust. The Testing Re-entrained Aerosols Kinetic Emissions from Roads (TRAKER) system uses real-time aerosol sensors mounted on a vehicle to measure the concentration of dust suspended from the road while the vehicle is in motion. When coupled with a Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument, TRAKER can be used to efficiently survey the changes in suspendable particles due to varying road conditions over a large spatial domain. In a recent study on paved roads in Las Vegas, the TRAKER system was compared with collocated silt loading measurements. The TRAKER system was also used to survey the relative amounts of suspendable road dust on approximately 300 miles of paved roads. The system provides a unique perspective on road dust sources and their spatial distribution. Results of this study indicated that the difference of the PM 10 concentrations measured behind the tire and on the hood is exponentially related to vehicle speed. This was an interesting finding because current AP-42 road dust emissions estimation methods do not include vehicle speed as a factor in the emissions calculations. The experiment also demonstrated that the distribution of suspendable material on roadways is highly variable and that a large number of samples are needed to represent road dust emissions potential on an urban scale for a variety of road and activity conditions.

  4. Analysis on Adhesively-Bonded Joints of FRP-steel Composite Bridge under Combined Loading: Arcan Test Study and Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper is an experimental study and numerical analysis on mechanical behavior of the adhesively-bonded joint between FRP sandwich bridge deck and steel girder. Generally, there are three typical stress states in the adhesively-bonded joint: shear stress, tensile stress, and combination of both. To realize these stress states in the adhesively-bonded joint during tests, a specific loading device is developed with the capacity of providing six different loading angles, which are 0°(pure tension, 18°, 36°, 54°, 72° and 90°(pure shear. Failure modes of adhesively-bonded joints are investigated. It indicates that, for the pure shear loading, the failure mode is the cohesive failure (near the interface between the adhesive layer and the steel support in the adhesive layer. For the pure tensile and combined loading conditions, the failure mode is the combination of fiber breaking, FRP delamination and interfacial adhesion failure between the FRP sandwich deck and the adhesive layer. The load-bearing capacities of adhesive joints under combined loading are much lower than those of the pure tensile and pure shear loading conditions. According to the test results of six angle loading conditions, a tensile/shear failure criterion of the adhesively-bonded joint is obtained. By using Finite Element (FE modeling method, linear elastic simulations are performed to characterize the stress distribution throughout the adhesively-bonded joint.

  5. Vertical and horizontal access configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    A number of configuration features and maintenance operations are influenced by the choice of whether a design is based on vertical or horizontal access for replacing reactor components. The features which are impacted most include the first wall/blanket segmentation, the poloidal field coil locations, the toroidal field coil number and size, access port size for in-vessel components, and facilities. Since either configuration can be made to work, the choice between the two is not clear cut because both have certain advantages. It is apparent that there are large cost benefits in the poloidal field coil system for ideal coil locations for high elongation plasmas and marginal savings for the INTOR case. If we assume that a new tokamak design will require a higher plasma elongation, the recommendation is to arrange the poloidal field coils in a cost-effective manner while providing reasonable midplane access for heating interfaces and test modules. If a new design study is not based on a high elongation plasma, it still appears prudent to consider this approach so that in-vessel maintenance can be accomplished without moving very massive structures such as the bulk shield. 10 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Impact Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Columns with Side Openings Subjected to Eccentric Axial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Kamil Ali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research the behavior of reinforced concrete columns with large side openings under impact loads was studied. The overall cross sectional dimensions of the column specimens used in this research were (500*1400 mm with total height of (14000 mm. The dimensions of side openings were (600*2000 mm. The column was reinforced with (20 mm diameter in longitudinal direction, while (12 mm ties were used in the transverse direction. The effect of eccentric impact loads on the horizontal and vertical displacement for this column was studied. Nonlinear finite element analysis has been carried out using ready computer finite element package (ANSYS to simulate the behavior of the reinforced concrete column with large side openings. Two load cases were considered in this investigation (C1, C2 with three different load values for each case. In the first case (C1 the loads was applied to one side of the column and in the second case (C2 the loads was applied to both sides. An Equilateral triangular load-time function was used for simulation the impact load results from gantry cranes supported by the column with total time duration (0.1 sec. In order to verify the analysis method, as no experimental data exist for comparing the obtained results, another analysis is made for tested conventional column under impact load at mid-height and good agreement has been obtained. For the above mentioned column, the maximum displacements were (33.3, 22.2 mm in the horizontal and longitudinal direction respectively, location of the maximum horizontal displacement was at the crown of the column. By comparing the results of the first loading case with the second one it is shown that in the horizontal direction, maximum displacement increases by (139%, (208%, and (147% respectively, also the maximum vertical displacement increases by (150%, (172%, and (172% respectively.

  7. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel integrity insurance by crack arrestability evaluation using load from CVN tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.

    1997-01-01

    The present work is undertaken in the framework of nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) surveillance and aims at revisiting the crack arrest approach to structural integrity insurance. This approach, performed under normal plant operation conditions, can also offer an attractive alternative to the crack initiation philosophy promoted for accidental analysis. To this end, an accidental conservative, cost effective and robust methodology is forwarded and demonstrated: it makes use of the crack arrest information contained in the instrumented Charpy V-notch impact test and/or in the shear fracture appearance of broken samples. Particular attention is paid to the appraisal of uncertainties and the related safety margin. The resulting capability is placed in perspective with the state-of-the-art crack initiation methodology based on the slow bend testing of recracked specimens, presently under standardization world-wide. The investigation leads to highlight three conceptual weaknesses of current enfgineering and regulatory practices. Improved crack arrestability evaluation emerges as an optimal approach to insure safe PWR operation up to design end-of-life and beyond

  8. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel integrity insurance by crack arrestability evaluation using load from CVN tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, A.

    1997-10-15

    The present work is undertaken in the framework of nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) surveillance and aims at revisiting the crack arrest approach to structural integrity insurance. This approach, performed under normal plant operation conditions, can also offer an attractive alternative to the crack initiation philosophy promoted for accidental analysis. To this end, an accidental conservative, cost effective and robust methodology is forwarded and demonstrated: it makes use of the crack arrest information contained in the instrumented Charpy V-notch impact test and/or in the shear fracture appearance of broken samples. Particular attention is paid to the appraisal of uncertainties and the related safety margin. The resulting capability is placed in perspective with the state-of-the-art crack initiation methodology based on the slow bend testing of recracked specimens, presently under standardization world-wide. The investigation leads to highlight three conceptual weaknesses of current enfgineering and regulatory practices. Improved crack arrestability evaluation emerges as an optimal approach to insure safe PWR operation up to design end-of-life and beyond.

  9. Horizontal vibrations of piles in a centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdin, B.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is the study of soil dynamics for important structures like nuclear power plants, offshore platforms, dams etc. Experimental results of horizontal vibrations on a pile partially anchored in a soil scale model put into a centrifuge are presented. Mechanical similitude conditions from equilibrium equations or rheologic laws are described. After a description of testing equipment (centrifuge, electrodynamic excitator) experimental results are interpreted with a model. Non-linearities on frequency response curves are characterized [fr

  10. Influences of Traction Load Shock on Artificial Partial Discharge Faults within Traction Transformer—Experimental Test for Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibing Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge (PD measurement and its pattern recognition are vital to fault diagnosis of transformers, especially to those traction substation transformers undergoing repetitive traction load shocks. This paper presents the primary factors induced by traction load shocks including high total harmonics distortion (THD, transient voltage impulse and high-temperature rise, and their effects on the feature parameters of PD. Experimental tests are conducted on six artificial PD models with these factors introduced one by one. Results reveal that the maximum PD quantity and the PD repetitive rate are favorable to be enlarged when the oil temperature exceeds 80 °C or the THD is higher than 16% with certain orders of harmonic. The decline in PD inception voltage can mainly be attributed to the transient voltage impulse. The variation in central frequency of the fast Fourier transformation (FFT spectra transformed from ultra-high frequency signals can mainly be attributed to high THD, especially when it exceeds 20%. The temperature rise has no significant influence on the FFT spectra; the transient voltage impulse, however, can result in a central frequency shift of the floating particle discharge. With the rapid development of high-speed railways, the study presented in this paper will be helpful for field PD detection and recognition of traction substation transformers in the future.

  11. Determination of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Particulate Matter Samples with Low Mass Loading: An Approach to Test Method Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana García-Alonso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized analytical procedure to determine selected polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs in low mass loadings (<10 mg of particulate matter (PM is evaluated. The proposed method is based on a simple sonication/agitation method using small amounts of solvent for extraction. The use of a reduced sample size of particulate matter is often limiting for allowing the quantification of analytes. This also leads to the need for changing analytical procedures and evaluating its performance. The trueness and precision of the proposed method were tested using ambient air samples. Analytical results from the proposed method were compared with those of pressurized liquid and microwave extractions. Selected PACs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD. Taking results from pressurized liquid extractions as reference values, recovery rates of sonication/agitation method were over 80% for the most abundant PAHs. Recovery rates of selected NPAHs were lower. Enhanced rates were obtained when methanol was used as a modifier. Intermediate precision was estimated by data comparison from two mathematical approaches: normalized difference data and pooled relative deviations. Intermediate precision was in the range of 10–20%. The effectiveness of the proposed method was evaluated in PM aerosol samples collected with very low mass loadings (<0.2 mg during characterization studies from turbofan engine exhausts.

  12. Experimental data on load test and performance parameters of a LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine in open environment condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivamani, Seralathan; T, Micha Premkumar; Sohail, Mohammed; T, Mohan; V, Hariram

    2017-12-01

    Performance and load testing data of a three bladed two stage LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine from the experiments conducted in an open environment condition at Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai (location 23.2167°N, 72.6833°E) are presented here. Low-wind velocity ranging from 2 to 11 m/s is available everywhere irrespective of climatic seasons and this data provides the support to the researchers using numerical tool to validate and develop an enhanced Lenz type design. Raw data obtained during the measurements are processed and presented in the form so as to compare with other typical outputs. The data is measured at different wind speeds prevalent in the open field condition ranging from 3 m/s to 9 m/s.

  13. Experimental data on load test and performance parameters of a LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine in open environment condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seralathan Sivamani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance and load testing data of a three bladed two stage LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine from the experiments conducted in an open environment condition at Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai (location 23.2167°N, 72.6833°E are presented here. Low-wind velocity ranging from 2 to 11 m/s is available everywhere irrespective of climatic seasons and this data provides the support to the researchers using numerical tool to validate and develop an enhanced Lenz type design. Raw data obtained during the measurements are processed and presented in the form so as to compare with other typical outputs. The data is measured at different wind speeds prevalent in the open field condition ranging from 3 m/s to 9 m/s. Keywords: Vertical axis wind turbine, Lenz type, Performance, Two-stage, Open environment measurement

  14. Design of load-to-failure tests of high-voltage insulation breaks for ITER's cryogenic network

    CERN Document Server

    Langeslag, S A E; Aviles Santillana, I; Sgobba, S; Foussat, A

    2015-01-01

    The development of new generation superconducting magnets for fusion research, such as the ITER experiment, is largely based on coils wound with so-called cable-in-conduit conductors. The concept of the cable-in-conduit conductor is based on a direct cooling principle, by supercritical helium, flowing through the central region of the conductor, in close contact with the superconducting strands. Consequently, a direct connection exists between the electrically grounded helium coolant supply line and the highly energised magnet windings. Various insulated regions, constructed out of high-voltage insulation breaks, are put in place to isolate sectors with different electrical potential. In addition to high voltages and significant internal helium pressure, the insulation breaks will experience various mechanical forces resulting from differential thermal contraction phenomena and electro-magnetic loads. Special test equipment was designed, prepared and employed to assess the mechanical reliability of the insul...

  15. Is the timed loaded standing test a valid measure of back muscle endurance in people with vertebral osteoporosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M; Newman, R; Hughes, T; Vadher, K; Barker, K L

    2018-04-01

    Timed loaded standing (TLS) is a suggested measure of back muscle endurance for people with vertebral osteoporosis. Surface electromyography revealed back muscles work harder and fatigue during TLS. The test end-point and total time were associated with back fatigue. The findings help demonstrate the concurrent validity of the TLS test. The TLS test is suggested as a measure of back muscle endurance for patients with vertebral osteoporosis. However, to date, no study has demonstrated that TLS does measure back extensor or erector spinae (ES) muscle endurance. We used surface electromyography (sEMG) to investigate the performance of the thoracic ES muscles during TLS. Thirty-six people with vertebral osteoporosis with a mean age of 71.6 (range 45-86) years participated. sEMG recordings were made of the ES at T3 and T12 bilaterally during quiet standing (QS) and TLS. The relative (%) change in sEMG amplitude between conditions was compared. Fatigue was evaluated by analysing the change in median frequency (MF) of the sEMG signal during TLS, and the correlation between maximal TLS time and rate of MF decline was examined. Activity in the ES increased significantly during TLS at all electrode locations. During TLS, the MF declined at a mean rate of -24.2% per minute (95% C.I. -26.5 to -21.9%). The MF slope and test time were strongly correlated (r 2  = 0.71), and at test end, the final MF dropped to an average 89% (95% C.I. 85 to 93%) of initial MF. Twenty-eight participants (78%) reported fatigue was the main reason for stopping, and for eight (22%), it was pain. This study demonstrates that TLS challenges the ES muscles in the thoracic region and results in ES fatigue. Endurance time and the point at which the TLS test ends are strongly related to ES fatigue.

  16. Tests of load resilient matching procedures for the ITER ICRH system on a mock-up and layout proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumortier, P.; Lamalle, P.; Messiaen, A.; Vervier, M.

    2006-01-01

    The ICRH antenna of ITER consists of an array of 24 radiating straps and must radiate 20 MW with resilience to load variations due to the ELMs. Because of its compactness the mutual coupling effects between the straps are far from negligible. Moreover they considerably increase the difficulty of matching and lead to coupling between the generators. Different external matching system layouts are under consideration. A reduced scale (1/5) mock-up loaded by a movable water tank is used for their experimental investigation. A first layout using full passive power distribution among the straps and a single matching circuit with one '' Conjugate-T '' (CT) or one hybrid has already been successfully tested. Its drawbacks are the difficulty of changing the toroidal phasing and the use of a single 20 MW feeding line section. In this paper we describe the mock-up tests of a second layout based on two 10 MW CT circuits, and allowing switching between heating or current drive phasings without any hardware modification. Two decouplers are used to minimize the effect of mutual coupling on matching. A robust four-parameter CT matching procedure has been developed based on adjusting the two first parameters - the positions of the line stretchers in the CT branches - of each CT in vacuum conditions (this is done once for all for each frequency). High load resilience, i.e. a VSWR remaining < 1.5 for an 8-fold increase of antenna resistance, can be obtained for the 4 toroidal phasing configurations considered: (0π/2π3π/2), (0-π/2-π-3π/2), (00ππ) and (0ππ0). The change of phasing only requires the adjustment of the phase difference between the two power sources and of the two last parameters (stub and line stretcher in the common line) of each of the two CT circuits. These properties have first been derived from the experimental scattering matrix of the antenna array and are verified by reflection measurements on the mock-up. Feedback control of the phasing and the last two

  17. Accelerated Stability Testing of a Clobetasol Propionate-Loaded Nanoemulsion as per ICH Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Sajid; Alam, Mohammad Sarfaraz; Alam, Nawazish; Anwer, Tarique; Safhi, Mohammed Mohsen A

    2013-01-01

    The physical and chemical degradation of drugs may result in altered therapeutic efficacy and even toxic effects. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study the stability of clobetasol propionate (CP) in a nanoemulsion. The nanoemulsion formulation containing CP was prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method. For the formulation of the nanoemulsion, Safsol, Tween 20, ethanol, and distilled water were used. The drug was incorporated into an oil phase in 0.05% w/v. The lipophilic nature of the drug led to the O/W nanoemulsion formulation. This was characterized by droplet size, pH, viscosity, conductivity, and refractive index. Stability studies were performed as per ICH guidelines for a period of three months. The shelf life of the nanoemulsion formulation was also determined after performing accelerated stability testing (40°C ± 2°C and 75% ± 5% RH). We also performed an intermediate stability study (30°C ± 2°C/65% RH ± 5% RH). It was found that the droplet size, conductivity, and refractive index were slightly increased, while the viscosity and pH slightly decreased at all storage conditions during the 3-month period. However, the changes in these parameters were not statistically significant (p≥0.05). The degradation (%) of the optimized nanoemulsion of CP was determined and the shelf life was found to be 2.18 years at room temperature. These studies confirmed that the physical and chemical stability of CP were enhanced in the nanoemulsion formulation.

  18. Implementation and Assessment of Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) Based Questions in an Electronic Homework and Testing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmke, Derek A.; Atwood, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    To a first approximation, human memory is divided into two parts, short-term and long-term. Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) attempts to minimize the short-term memory load while maximizing the memory available for transferring knowledge from short-term to long-term memory. According to CLT there are three types of load, intrinsic, extraneous, and…

  19. Estimation of the strength of Nubian sandstone formation from point load test index and other simple parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein Abdul Karim M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the correlation of the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS and the point load test (PLT index Is(50, bulk density, water absorption and the RQD properties of the Sudanese Nubian sandstone formation. The UCS being is the rock property needed in engineering practice but its determination is tedious, time consuming and expensive. Alternatively, the UCS may be indirectly evaluated through establishing relationships with rock parameters which are easier, cheaper and more convenient to determine in the laboratory or in the field. An extensive laboratory testing was executed to determine the above rock properties for many NSF samples taken from Khartoum State and other areas. Statistical analysis was performed on the test data and a reliable linear regression equation has been developed with a UCS to PLT Is(50 conversion factor of 10.18 and may be applied to estimate the strength of the Sudanese sandstone formation. The developed correlation is in good agreement with few of the many methods published for similar rock types which indicates that large errors may result in from applying an inappropriate UCS prediction method. Thus, it is important to establish separate correlations or validate published correlations to check their suitability for a specific rock types and local geologies. Useful correlation relationships of reasonable accuracy were also established for rough estimation of the UCS from the bulk density, water absorption and the RQD properties of the Nubian sandstone formation.

  20. Chest tcpO2 changes during constant-load treadmill walking tests in patients with claudication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, N; Leftheriotis, G; Abraham, P; Feuilloy, M; Mahe, G; Saumet, J-L

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chest transcutaneous-pO 2 at rest (ΔtcpO 2 ) mimic absolute changes in arterial-pO 2 during moderate exercise, although the absolute starting values may dramatically differ. We retrospectively studied 485 patients (group 1), prospectively studied 292 new patients (group 2) and estimated the intra-test and the test–retest reproducibility of ΔtcpO 2 during constant-load treadmill tests: 3.2 km h −1 , 10% grade, using the cross correlation technique. Patients were classified into groups according to their best fit to nine pre-defined mathematic models. Respectively, 71% and 76% of patients of groups 1 and 2 fitted with a model showing a ΔtcpO 2 increase during and a decrease following exercise. Another 18% and 12% of the patients of groups 1 and 2 respectively fitted with a model that showed an abrupt decrease at exercise onset, a slow increase during walking and an overshoot in the recovery period, referred here as a walking-induced transcutaneous hack (WITH) profile. The mean r max value for the cross-correlation analysis was 0.919 ± 0.091 and 0.800 ± 0.129 for intra-test and test–retest reproducibility. Most profiles show the expected ΔtcpO 2 exercise-induced increase. Future studies are needed to confirm and explain the WITH profiles that we found, and screen for potential-associated diseases