WorldWideScience

Sample records for horizontal drains annual

  1. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation using horizontal drains. Annual report, April 1994--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J.

    1995-08-01

    Crystal Field in Montcalm County, MI, was selected as a field trial site for this project. Analysis of production data for Crystal Field suggests that an additional 200,000 bbls of oil can be produced using one strategically located horizontal well. Total addition production from the Crystal Field could be as much as 6--8 MMBO. Application of the technology developed in this project to other Dundee fields in the area has the potential to increase Dundee production in Michigan by 35%, adding 80--100 MMBO to ultimate recovery. This project will demonstrate through a field trial that horizontal wells can be substantially increase oil production in older reservoirs that are at or near their economic limit. To maximize the potential of the horizontal well and to ensure that a comprehensive evaluation can be made, extensive reservoir characterization will be performed. In addition to the proposed field trial at Crystal Field, 29 additional Dundee fields in a seven-county area have been selected for study in the reservoir characterization portion of this project.

  2. Collecting underground seawater with directed horizontal drains on the coast; Captacion en el litroal de agua marina subterranea con drenes horizontales dirigidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camps Querol, J.

    2007-07-01

    On the face of it, given the huge amount of seawater available on the sea coast, obtaining such water for use as a raw material should be a relatively simple task. It certainly is when we collect some in a bucket at the beach, but it is not so simple when large quantities are required so that they can be desalinised, as there are various factors that make collecting it more difficult. That is why this article presents a collection technique that uses directed horizontal drains under the sea bed which makes it possible to collect seawater that is unclouded and free of organic matter, properties that greatly facilities its subsequent treatment with membrane techniques. (Author) 7 refs.

  3. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil-shale-retorting process. Fourth annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.L. (ed.)

    1981-03-01

    The Geokinetics in situ shale oil project is a cooperative venture between Geokinetics Inc. and the US Department of Energy. The objective is to develop a true in situ process for recovering shale oil using a fire front moving in a horizontal direction. The project is being conducted at a field site, Kamp Kerogen, located 70 miles south of Vernal, Utah. This Fourth Annual Report covers work completed during the calendar year 1980. During 1980 one full-size retort was blasted. Two retorts, blasted the previous year, were burned. A total of 4891 barrels of oil was produced during the year.

  4. Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells. Annual report for the period, March 10, 1994--March 9, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayers, F.J.

    1995-07-01

    Contents of this annual report include the following: (1) detailed well model for reservoir simulation--task 1; (2) comparative aspects of coning behavior in vertical and horizontal wells--task 1; (3) skin factor calculations for vertical, deviated, and horizontal wells--task 2; (4) a dissipation-based coarse grid system and its application to the scaleup of two phase problems--tasks 2 and 4; (5) analyses of experiments at Marathon Oil Company--task 3; (6) development of mechanistic model for multiphase flow in horizontal wells--task 3; and (7) sensitivity studies of wellbore friction and inflow for a horizontal well--task 8.

  5. Integrated approach towards the application of horizontal wells to improve waterflooding performance. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.; Liner, C.; Kerr, D.

    1995-05-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of the project on Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance. This project is funded under the Department of Energy`s Class I program which is targeted towards improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in fluvial-dominated deltaic deposits. The project involves an integrated approach to characterize the reservoir followed by the drilling of horizontal injection wells to improve production performance. The type of data we have integrated include cross bore hole seismic surveys, geological interpretation based on logs and cores, and engineering information. This report covers the second phase of the project which includes a detailed reservoir description of the field by integrating all the available information, followed by flow simulation of the Self Unit under various operating conditions. Based on an examination of the various operating parameters, we observed that the best possible solution to improve the Self Unit performance is to recomplete and stimulate most of the wells followed by an increase in the water injection rate. Drilling of horizontal injection well, although helpful in improving the performance, was not found to be economically feasible. The proposed reservoir management plan will be implemented shortly.

  6. Horizontal wells in subsurface remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losonsky, G.; Beljin, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on horizontal wells which offer an effective alternative to vertical wells in various environmental remediation technologies. Hydrogeological advantages of horizontal wells over vertical wells include a larger zone of influence, greater screen length, higher specific capacity and lower groundwater screen entrance velocity. Because of these advantages, horizontal wells can reduce treatment time and costs of groundwater recovery (pump-and-treat), in situ groundwater aeration (sparging) and soil gas extraction (vacuum extraction). Horizontal wells are also more effective than vertical wells in landfill leachate collection (under-drains), bioremediation, and horizontal grout injection

  7. Containment vessel drain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  8. Integrated approach towards the application of horizontal wells to improve waterflooding performance. Annual progress report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.; Liner, C.; Kerr, D.

    1997-01-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the fourth year of the project on {open_quotes}Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance{close_quotes}. The project involves using an integrated approach to characterize the reservoir followed by proposing an appropriate reservoir management strategy to improve the field performance. In the first stage of the project, the type of data we integrated include cross borehole seismic surveys, geological interpretation based on the logs and the cores, and the engineering information. In contrast, during the second stage of the project, we intend to use only conventional data to construct the reservoir description. This report covers the results of the implementation from the first stage of the project. It also discusses the work accomplished so far for the second stage of the project. The production from the Self Unit (location of Stage 1) has sustained an increase of 30 bbls/day over a year with an additional increase anticipated with further implementation. We have collected available core, log and production data from Section 16 in the Berryhill Glenn Unit and have finished the geological description. Based on the geological description and the associated petrophysical properties, we have developed a new indexing procedure for identifying the areas with the most potential. We are also investigating an adjoining tract formerly operated by Chevron where successful miceller-polymer flood was conducted. This will help us in evaluating the reasons for the success of the flood. Armed with this information, we will conduct a detailed geostatistical and flow simulation study and recommend the best reservoir management plan to improve the recovery of the field.

  9. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  10. Generation of airborne Listeria innocua from model floor drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, Mark E; Frank, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities, remaining present even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to avoid spraying hoses directly into drains in an effort to prevent the escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which an inadvertent water spray into a colonized floor drain can cause the spread of airborne Listeria. Listeria innocua was used to inoculate a polyvinyl chloride model floor drain, resulting in approximately 10(8) cells per ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(4) attached cells per square centimeter of inner surface. Each model drain was subjected to a 2-s spray of tap water at 68.9 kPa from a distance of 1 m. Drains were sprayed while filled and again after emptying. Airborne cells were collected by using sedimentation plates containing Listeria selective agar which were placed on the floor and walls of a contained room at incremental horizontal and vertical distances of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, or 4.0 m from the drain. Sedimentation plates were exposed for 10 min. A mechanical sampler was used to also collect air by impaction on the surface of Listeria selective agar to determine the number of cells per liter of air. The experiment was conducted in triplicate rooms for each of four replications. L. innocua was detected on sedimentation plates on the floor as far as 4.0 m from the drain and on walls as high as 2.4 m above the floor and 4 m from the drain. A 2-s spray with a water hose into a contaminated drain can cause airborne spread of Listeria, resulting in the potential for cross-contamination of food contact surfaces, equipment, and exposed product.

  11. Thailand and brain drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Commins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain drain has been the subject of research since the 1960s. This research has been hampered by a lack of accurate data from both source and receiving countries on migration and on the losses and gains to developing economies of skilled migration. However, despite these handicaps, research has been able to clearly show that trends are changing and the effect this is having is usually quite different for individual source countries.Thailand, as a developing economy, could be regarded as a source country. Fortunately, Thailand has never ranked highly in terms of brain drain when compared to other states in Asia and while it may not be a significant problem it nonetheless needs to be monitored. Thailand is also somewhat unique in that the migration that has occurred has been almost equally split between secondary and tertiary educated Thais. Thailand also ranks low in terms of tertiary educated population who have migrated when compared to other countries in the region. Globalisation is having a profound effect on the migration of skilled workers. As trade becomes increasingly free, barriers to the movement of services or people are also freed. As the better educated are encouraged to think globally, so too will they be inclined to move globally into the world community.This paper examines Thailand’s position with respect to brain drain, some of the lessons we have learned and some of the steps that are being taken to minimise the impact of the loss of skilled workers, with a particular focus on science and technology. The conclusion is that brain drain should not be viewed as an entirely negative development and that the positive outcomes should be recognised, encouraged and incorporated into policy.

  12. Globalization, Brain Drain, and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Docquier, Frédéric; Rapoport, Hillel

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews four decades of economics research on the brain drain, with a focus on recent contributions and on development issues. We first assess the magnitude, intensity, and determinants of the brain drain, showing that brain drain (or high-skill) migration is becoming a dominant pattern of international migration and a major aspect of globalization. We then use a stylized growth model to analyze the various channels through which a brain drain affects the sending countries and revi...

  13. Thailand and brain drain

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Commins

    2009-01-01

    Brain drain has been the subject of research since the 1960s. This research has been hampered by a lack of accurate data from both source and receiving countries on migration and on the losses and gains to developing economies of skilled migration. However, despite these handicaps, research has been able to clearly show that trends are changing and the effect this is having is usually quite different for individual source countries.Thailand, as a developing economy, could be regarded as a sou...

  14. Drains and Drainage Capabilities: Quantitative Analysis of Drain Efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andaç Aykan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to compare the efficiency of the same type of but different-sized silicone drains at different surgical procedures. Material and Methods: Twenty-four patients, who had different diagnoses and were operated between 2011 and 2013, were included. In all patients, 7- and 10-mm silicone-ended, Jackson–Pratt drains were used. Drains that were under 30 cc/day removed. The connection tube and perforated silicone end were examined due to the clot content. All drain efficiencies were calculated, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: Seven of the 24 patients (29.2% were males and 17 (70.8% were females; the mean age was 39.0±11.4 years. Totally, 49 drains were used, of which 25 (51% were 7 mm and 24 (49% were 10 mm in size. Median removal time was the 5th day (2–12 for the 7-mm drains and the 6th day (3–14 for the 10-mm drains. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for drain removal time (p=0.268. Further, there was no difference at the connection tube and silicone end for clot content between the 7- and 10-mm drains (p=0.58. For the drainage volume and efficiency, no difference was observed between the groups (p=0.146. Conclusion: In this study it was observed that there is no difference in the drainage volume and efficiency between different-sized Jackson–Pratt drains.

  15. Brain drain: Propulsive factors and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan ILIC

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When speaking about the total number of highly educated individuals’ migration, it is easy to spot that it is rapidly increasing. The brain drain issues should be taken very seriously especially in under developed and in the developing countries, knowing that the human capital is globally mobile and that highly educated individuals can without any issues market their knowledge around the globe. Dealing with it requires a carefully tailored strategy for these countries, which are suffering from severe human capital losses on annual basis. Since the labor markets of today are highly competitive, it is necessary for these countries to secure good advancement and doing business opportunities. The purpose of this research is to provide an insight into the key propulsive factors and potential consequences caused by the brain drain. The method used in order to conduct the research was a carefully designed questionnaire taken by the date subject enrolled at the third and fourth years of state governed and privately owned universities. This research shows that one of the key reasons for brain drain in underdeveloped and in the developing countries is shortage of further educational advancement opportunities.

  16. Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Coria, Jessica; He, Hongxing; Liu, Xiangping; Nordén, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden - which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, - to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG'es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC

  17. Plumbing the brain drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravia, Nancy Gore; Miranda, Juan Francisco

    2004-08-01

    Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. Brazil, China and India have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. As a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants.

  18. Estimating drain flow from measured water table depth in layered soils under free and controlled drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Samaneh; Bowling, Laura; Frankenberger, Jane; Kladivko, Eileen

    2018-01-01

    Long records of continuous drain flow are important for quantifying annual and seasonal changes in the subsurface drainage flow from drained agricultural land. Missing data due to equipment malfunction and other challenges have limited conclusions that can be made about annual flow and thus nutrient loads from field studies, including assessments of the effect of controlled drainage. Water table depth data may be available during gaps in flow data, providing a basis for filling missing drain flow data; therefore, the overall goal of this study was to examine the potential to estimate drain flow using water table observations. The objectives were to evaluate how the shape of the relationship between drain flow and water table height above drain varies depending on the soil hydraulic conductivity profile, to quantify how well the Hooghoudt equation represented the water table-drain flow relationship in five years of measured data at the Davis Purdue Agricultural Center (DPAC), and to determine the impact of controlled drainage on drain flow using the filled dataset. The shape of the drain flow-water table height relationship was found to depend on the selected hydraulic conductivity profile. Estimated drain flow using the Hooghoudt equation with measured water table height for both free draining and controlled periods compared well to observed flow with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency values above 0.7 and 0.8 for calibration and validation periods, respectively. Using this method, together with linear regression for the remaining gaps, a long-term drain flow record for a controlled drainage experiment at the DPAC was used to evaluate the impacts of controlled drainage on drain flow. In the controlled drainage sites, annual flow was 14-49% lower than free drainage.

  19. Cryogenic Fuel Tank Draining Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Donald

    1999-01-01

    One of the technological challenges in designing advanced hypersonic aircraft and the next generation of spacecraft is developing reusable flight-weight cryogenic fuel tanks. As an aid in the design and analysis of these cryogenic tanks, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed specifically for the analysis of flow in a cryogenic fuel tank. This model employs the full set of Navier-Stokes equations, except that viscous dissipation is neglected in the energy equation. An explicit finite difference technique in two-dimensional generalized coordinates, approximated to second-order accuracy in both space and time is used. The stiffness resulting from the low Mach number is resolved by using artificial compressibility. The model simulates the transient, two-dimensional draining of a fuel tank cross section. To calculate the slosh wave dynamics the interface between the ullage gas and liquid fuel is modeled as a free surface. Then, experimental data for free convection inside a horizontal cylinder are compared with model results. Finally, cryogenic tank draining calculations are performed with three different wall heat fluxes to demonstrate the effect of wall heat flux on the internal tank flow field.

  20. Annual emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O from a temperate peat bog: Comparison of an undrained and four drained sites under permanent grass and arable crop rotations with cereals and potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka; Lærke, Poul Erik; Elsgaard, Lars

    2018-01-01

    intervals using static chambers, and auxiliary data were obtained, such as temperature, depth of water table, ratio-vegetation index, pH and soil mineral N. Annual CO2 emissions were derived from empirical modelling, whereas CH4 and N2O emissions were linearly interpolated between measurement dates...

  1. Closed suction drain with bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of gloves. Put a new bandage around the drain tube site. Use surgical tape to hold it down ... small amount of redness is normal). There is drainage from the skin around the tube site. There is more tenderness and swelling at ...

  2. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report April 6, 2003 - October 5, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-01-01

    the upper Ismay zone, where microporosity is well developed. In Bug field, the most productive wells are located structurally downdip from the updip porosity pinch out in the dolomitized lower Desert Creek zone, where micro-box-work porosity is well developed. Microporosity and micro-box-work porosity have the greatest hydrocarbon storage and flow capacity, and potential horizontal drilling target in these fields. Diagenesis is the main control on the quality of Ismay and Desert Creek reservoirs. Most of the carbonates present within the lower Desert Creek and Ismay have retained a marine-influenced carbon isotope geochemistry throughout marine cementation as well as through post-burial recycling of marine carbonate components during dolomitization, stylolitization, dissolution, and late cementation. Meteoric waters do not appear to have had any effect on the composition of the dolomites in these zones. Light oxygen values obtained from reservoir samples for wells located along the margins or flanks of Bug field may be indicative of exposure to higher temperatures, to fluids depleted in 18 O relative to sea water, or to hypersaline waters during burial diagenesis. The samples from Bug field with the lightest oxygen isotope compositions are from wells that have produced significantly greater amounts of hydrocarbons. There is no significant difference between the oxygen isotope compositions from lower Desert Creek dolomite samples in Bug field and the upper Ismay limestones and dolomites from Cherokee field. Carbon isotopic compositions for samples from Patterson Canyon field can be divided into two populations: isotopically heavier mound cement and isotopically lighter oolite and banded cement. Technology transfer activities consisted of exhibiting a booth display of project materials at the annual national convention of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, a technical presentation, a core workshop, and publications. The project home page was updated on

  3. HORIZONTAL WELL DRILL-IN FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of horizontal driling is to place a drain-hole for a long distance within the pay zone to enhance productivity or injectivity. In drilling horizontal wells, more serious problems appear than in drilling vertical wells. These problems are: poor hole cleaning, excessive torque and drag, hole filling, pipe stucking, wellbore instability, loss of circulation, formation damage, poor cement job, and difficulties at logging jobs. From that reason, successful drilling and production of horizontal well depends largely on the fluid used during drilling and completion phases. Several new fluids, that fulfill some or all of required properties (hole cleaning, cutting suspension, good lubrication, and relative low formation damage, are presented in this paper.

  4. Method of processing laundry drain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y; Oda, A; Yusa, H; Kitamura, M; Horiuchi, S

    1979-09-28

    Purpose: To subject the laundry drain to flocculation precipitation treatment in the prior stage of an inverse osmotic treatment, and subject only the supernatant to the inverse osmotic treatment and the precipitate directly to the condensation treatment, thereby decreasing the frequency of exchange of the inverse osmotic membranes, and reducing the quantity of purifying water. Method: The laundry drain is supplied to a flocculation precipitation tank, and added and mixed with a flocculant and a neutralizing agent, thus being subjected to a flocculation precipitation treatment. The supernatant is transported to a circulation tank through a transportation pipe, and is subjected to an inverse osmotic treatment in inverse osmotic module through the circulation tank, a filter and a high tension pump, and then returned to the circulation tank. The supernatant is thus concentrated to a predetermined concentration by repeating such operations. On the other hand, the precipitate at the bottom part of the flocculation precipitation tank is supplied through the transportation pipe to an evaporator supply tank together with the concentrate from the drain circulation tank, and evaporated and concentrated in the evaporator.

  5. Application of Prefabricated Vertical Drain in Soil Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedjakusuma B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of Prefabricated Vertical Drain (PVD in soil improvement is not new, this paper is interesting since it gives the full spectrum from preliminary design stage; trial embankment and pilot test to final soil improvement. The final installation of the PVD was based on the soil investigation report and the results of instrumentation monitoring. Finally, using back analysis, vertical and horizontal coefficients of consolidation and compression index can be determined, which can be applied to predict a more accurate prediction of settlement.

  6. Groundwater hydrology and estimation of horizontal groundwater flux from the Rio Grande at selected locations in Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Dale R.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Goeff J.M. Moret,; Jeffery A. Worthington,; Kimberly M. Bandy-Baldwin,

    2016-03-17

    The Albuquerque area of New Mexico has two principal sources of water: (1) groundwater from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, and (2) surface water from the Rio Grande. From 1960 to 2002, pumping from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system caused groundwater levels to decline more than 120 feet while water-level declines along the Rio Grande in Albuquerque were generally less than 40 feet. These differences in water-level declines in the Albuquerque area have resulted in a great deal of interest in quantifying the river-aquifer interaction associated with the Rio Grande.In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, acting as fiscal agent for the Middle Rio Grande Endangered Species Collaborative Program, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, began a study to characterize the hydrogeology of the Rio Grande inner valley alluvial aquifer in the Albuquerque area of New Mexico. The study provides hydrologic data in order to enhance the understanding of rates of water leakage from the Rio Grande to the alluvial aquifer, groundwater flow through the aquifer, and discharge of water from the aquifer to riverside drains. The study area extends about 20 miles along the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area. Piezometers and surface-water gages were installed in paired transects at eight locations. Nested piezometers, completed at various depths in the alluvial aquifer, and surface-water gages, installed in the Rio Grande and riverside drains, were instrumented with pressure transducers. Water-level and water-temperature data were collected from 2009 to 2010.Water levels from the piezometers indicated that groundwater movement was usually away from the river towards the riverside drains. Annual mean horizontal groundwater gradients in the inner valley alluvial aquifer ranged from 0.0024 (I-25 East) to 0.0144 (Pajarito East). The median hydraulic conductivity values of the inner valley alluvial aquifer, determined from slug tests, ranged from 30

  7. Continuous 'Passive' Registration of Non-Point Contaminant Loads Via Agricultural Subsurface Drain Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Jansen, S.; de Jonge, H.; Lindblad Vendelboe, A.

    2014-12-01

    Considering their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring and modeling of agricultural subsurface tube drain systems is important for adequate water quality management. For example, previous work in lowland agricultural catchments has shown that subsurface tube drain effluent contributed up to 80% of the annual discharge and 90-92% of the annual NO3 loads from agricultural fields towards the surface water. However, existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant loads from tube drains are expensive and labor-intensive. Therefore, despite the unambiguous relevance of this transport route, tube drain monitoring data are scarce. The presented study aimed developing a cheap, simple, and robust method to monitor loads from tube drains. We are now ready to introduce the Flowcap that can be attached to the outlet of tube drains and is capable of registering total flow, contaminant loads, and flow-averaged concentrations. The Flowcap builds on the existing SorbiCells, a modern passive sampling technique that measures average concentrations over longer periods of time (days to months) for various substances. By mounting SorbiCells in our Flowcap, a flow-proportional part of the drain effluent is sampled from the main stream. Laboratory testing yielded good linear relations (R-squared of 0.98) between drainage flow rates and sampling rates. The Flowcap was tested in practice for measuring NO3 loads from two agricultural fields and one glasshouse in the Netherlands. The Flowcap registers contaminant loads from tube drains without any need for housing, electricity, or maintenance. This enables large-scale monitoring of non-point contaminant loads via tube drains, which would facilitate the improvement of contaminant transport models and would yield valuable information for the selection and evaluation of mitigation options to improve water quality.

  8. Americium/curium bushing melter drain tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.; Hardy, B.J.; Smith, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    Americium and curium were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. They have been stored in a nitric acid solution in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of the americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution will allow the material to be safely stored or transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. Oak Ridge is responsible for marketing radionuclides for research and medical applications. The bushing melter technology being used in the Am/Cm vitrification research work is also under consideration for the stabilization of other actinides such as neptunium and plutonium. A series of melter drain tests were conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center to determine the relationship between the drain tube assembly operating variables and the resulting pour initiation times, glass flowrates, drain tube temperatures, and stop pour times. Performance criteria such as ability to start and stop pours in a controlled manner were also evaluated. The tests were also intended to provide support of oil modeling of drain tube performance predictions and thermal modeling of the drain tube and drain tube heater assembly. These drain tests were instrumental in the design of subsequent melter drain tube and drain tube heaters for the Am/Cm bushing melter, and therefore in the success of the Am/Cm vitrification and plutonium immobilization programs

  9. Vacuum horizontal drainage for depressurization of uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakalnis, R.; Chedsey, G.; Robertson, A.M.; Follin, S.

    1985-01-01

    A recent advance in tailings slope depressurization is the application of vacuum assist horizontal drainage. Horizontal drains have been used for several decades to reduce water pressures in slopes in order to improve stability. The benefit from vacuum assist arises from an increased hydraulic gradient caused by induced negative atmospheric pressures. The vacuum assist system has, since its inception in 1982, been successfully employed at two soil and four rock slope projects located in Western Canada. This paper describes the first application of this system in the United States. The technical feasibility of employing vacuum assisted horizontal drains to depressurize a uranium tailings dam near Riverton, Wyoming has been evaluated. Two horizontal drains (300 ft.) were installed and their effect monitored by nine piezometers. The study was conducted over a three-week internal with vacuum being applied for three and four day periods. The drawdowns achieved through vacuum drainage was found to be approximately double that obtained by gravity alone. The volume of water exhausted under vacuum during the seven day interval was approximately double that obtained by gravity alone

  10. DETERMINATION OF LIQUID FILM THICKNESS FOLLOWING DRAINING OF CONTACTORS, VESSELS, AND PIPES IN THE MCU PROCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) identified the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process as the preferred technology to remove cesium from radioactive waste solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As a result, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) in the SRS tank farm to process liquid waste for an interim period until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) begins operations. Both the solvent and the strip effluent streams could contain high concentrations of cesium which must be removed from the contactors, process tanks, and piping prior to performing contactor maintenance. When these vessels are drained, thin films or drops will remain on the equipment walls. Following draining, the vessels will be flushed with water and drained to remove the flush water. The draining reduces the cesium concentration in the vessels by reducing the volume of cesium-containing material. The flushing, and subsequent draining, reduces the cesium in the vessels by diluting the cesium that remains in the film or drops on the vessel walls. MCU personnel requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers conduct a literature search to identify models to calculate the thickness of the liquid films remaining in the contactors, process tanks, and piping following draining of salt solution, solvent, and strip solution. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The predicted film thickness of the strip effluent is 0.010 mm on vertical walls, 0.57 mm on horizontal walls and 0.081 mm in horizontal pipes. (2) The predicted film thickness of the salt solution is 0.015 mm on vertical walls, 0.74 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.106 mm in horizontal pipes. (3) The predicted film thickness of the solvent is 0.022 mm on vertical walls, 0.91 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.13 mm in horizontal pipes. (4) The calculated film volume following draining is: (a) Salt solution receipt tank--1.6 gallons; (b) Salt solution feed

  11. Multiyear nutrient removal performance of three constructed wetlands intercepting tile drain flows from grazed pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Chris C; Sukias, James P S

    2011-01-01

    Subsurface tile drain flows can be a major s ource of nurient loss from agricultural landscapes. This study quantifies flows and nitrogen and phosphorus yields from tile drains at three intensively grazed dairy pasture sites over 3- to 5-yr periods and evaluates the capacity of constructed wetlands occupying 0.66 to 1.6% of the drained catchments too reduce nutrient loads. Continuous flow records are combined with automated flow-proportional sampling of nutrient concentrations to calculate tile drain nutrient yields and wetland mass removal rates. Annual drainage water yields rangedfrom 193 to 564 mm (16-51% of rainfall) at two rain-fed sites and from 827 to 853 mm (43-51% of rainfall + irrigation) at an irrigated site. Annually, the tile drains exported 14 to 109 kg ha(-1) of total N (TN), of which 58 to 90% was nitrate-N. Constructed wetlands intercepting these flows removed 30 to 369 gTN m(-2) (7-63%) of influent loadings annually. Seasonal percentage nitrate-N and TN removal were negatively associated with wetland N mass loadings. Wetland P removal was poor in all wetlands, with 12 to 115% more total P exported annually overall than received. Annually, the tile drains exported 0.12 to 1.38 kg ha of total P, of which 15 to 93% was dissolved reactive P. Additional measures are required to reduce these losses or provide supplementary P removal. Wetland N removal performance could be improved by modifying drainage systems to release flows more gradually and improving irrigation practices to reduce drainage losses.

  12. Horizontal drilling assessment in Western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catania, Peter; Wilson, Malcolm

    1999-01-01

    least partially responsible for every significant benefit to the provincial economy. In Saskatchewan, horizontal wells have (i) paid over CDN $400 million in royalties since 1990, (ii) annually generated CDN $525 million in investment and (iii) sustained 4350 jobs. Details pertaining to the Winter Cummings Sand Pool and others as examples of the success of the horizontal well program in Saskatchewan are discussed in this paper. (Author)

  13. Development of rationalized system treating floor drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Serizawa, Kenichi; Komatsu, Akihiro; Shimizu, Takayuki

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive liquid wastes generated at BWR plants are collected and treated as required. These days, however, generation of floor drain has deceased and HFF (Hollow Fiber Filter) has experienced a wide applicability to several kinds of liquid wastes. We should consider that the floor drain can be mixed and diluted with equipment drain and be purified by HFF. That enables some of the sumps and long priming pipes to be combined. From this point of view, we have developed a highly rationalized waste liquid system. We have evaluated the applicability of this system after an investigation into the generation and properties of floor drain and equipment drain at the latest BWR'S and an on-site test at a typical BWR. (author)

  14. 216-Z-8 French drain characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marratt, M.C.; Kasper, R.B.; Van Luik, A.E.

    1984-09-01

    The 216-Z-8 French drain study is one of a series of studies examining historical transuranic waste facilities no longer in use at the Hanford Site. The 216-Z-8 French drain underground disposal system consisted of a large settling tank that overflowed into a French drain. The French drain consisted of two large-diameter, gravel filled, vitrified clay pipes placed on end, end-to-end, over a gravel-filled excavation. The top of the drain was sealed with concrete to prevent the upward flow of waste solution. The waste solution discharged to the 216-Z-8 waste disposal system was a neutralized, transuranic recovery process, filter cake, backflush slurry. The primary objective of this study was to determine the distribution of plutonium and americium beneath the French drain. Transuranic activity under the French drain did not exceed 5 nCi/g in the soil samples obtained from a well within 1 m of the drain structure. Conservative estimates indicated that 4 to 5 m 3 of radioactive contaminated sediments, 10 nCi/g may lie directly under the 216-Z-8 French drain. The secondary objective of the study was to evaluate the possibility of a leak in the settling tank. Results from the analysis of soil samples from wells drilled around the settling tank indicated the presence of low-level transuranic contamination (on the order of 0.001 nci/g) in the soil surrounding the tank. However, the distribution of the contamination does not support a leak as a plausible mechanism to account for the observed activity surrounding the tank. The bulk of the plutonium was confirmed to be in the sludge that remained in the tank; thus, no significant environmental impact would be expected even if there has been a leak

  15. QUALIFIED VERSION OF MIGRATION: BRAIN DRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan GENCLER

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Though globalization suggests an international exchange of people besides goods and capital, developed countries often tended to put forward some restrictions on the migration of workers from developed countries. However, there has been an increase in skilled international migration especially during the last two decades. Skilled international migration or brain drain points out the emigration of educated and highly skilled workers. It seems that, in general, developing or underdeveloped countries experience the negative consequences of the brain drain and suffer from the decreases in their human capital. The paper explains the phenomenon of skilled international migration, or brain drain, and summarizes the main global trends in this area.

  16. Local response of a glacier to annual filling and drainage of an ice-marginal lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, J.S.; Trabant, D.C.; Cunico, M.; Fountain, A.G.; Anderson, S.P.; Anderson, R. Scott; Malm, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ice-marginal Hidden Creek Lake, Alaska, USA, outbursts annually over the course of 2-3 days. As the lake fills, survey targets on the surface of the 'ice dam' (the glacier adjacent to the lake) move obliquely to the ice margin and rise substantially. As the lake drains, ice motion speeds up, becomes nearly perpendicular to the face of the ice dam, and the ice surface drops. Vertical movement of the ice dam probably reflects growth and decay of a wedge of water beneath the ice dam, in line with established ideas about jo??kulhlaup mechanics. However, the distribution of vertical ice movement, with a narrow (50-100 m wide) zone where the uplift rate decreases by 90%, cannot be explained by invoking flexure of the ice dam in a fashion analogous to tidal flexure of a floating glacier tongue or ice shelf. Rather, the zone of large uplift-rate gradient is a fault zone: ice-dam deformation is dominated by movement along high-angle faults that cut the ice dam through its entire thickness, with the sense of fault slip reversing as the lake drains. Survey targets spanning the zone of steep uplift gradient move relative to one another in a nearly reversible fashion as the lake fills and drains. The horizontal strain rate also undergoes a reversal across this zone, being compressional as the lake fills, but extensional as the lake drains. Frictional resistance to fault-block motion probably accounts for the fact that lake level falls measurably before the onset of accelerated horizontal motion and vertical downdrop. As the overall fault pattern is the same from year to year, even though ice is lost by calving, the faults must be regularly regenerated, probably by linkage of surface and bottom crevasses as ice is advected toward the lake basin.

  17. Vertical and horizontal subsidiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Daniluk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article makes an attempt to analyze the principle of subsidiarity in its two main manifestations, namely vertical and horizontal, to outline the principles of relations between the state and regions within the vertical subsidiarity, and features a collaboration of the government and civil society within the horizontal subsidiarity. Scientists identify two types, or two levels of the subsidiarity principle: vertical subsidiarity and horizontal subsidiarity. First, vertical subsidiarity (or territorial concerning relations between the state and other levels of subnational government, such as regions and local authorities; second, horizontal subsidiarity (or functional concerns the relationship between state and citizen (and civil society. Vertical subsidiarity expressed in the context of the distribution of administrative responsibilities to the appropriate higher level lower levels relative to the state structure, ie giving more powers to local government. However, state intervention has subsidiary-lower action against local authorities in cases of insolvency last cope on their own, ie higher organisms intervene only if the duties are less authority is insufficient to achieve the goals. Horizontal subsidiarity is within the relationship between power and freedom, and is based on the assumption that the concern for the common good and the needs of common interest community, able to solve community members (as individuals and citizens’ associations and role of government, in accordance horizontal subsidiarity comes to attracting features subsidiarity assistance, programming, coordination and possibly control.

  18. Drain Back, Low Flow Solar Combi Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU and 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...... in Sorö Denmark. Detailed monitoring and modelling of the system in the DTU lab is done to be able to generalize the results, to other climates and loads and to make design optimizations. The advantage with drain back, low flow systems, is that the system can be made more simple with less components...... and that the performance can be enhanced. A combination of the drain back- and system expansion vessel was tested successfully. Small initial problems with installation and proposals for design improvements to avoid these in practice are described in the paper. Installer education and training is an important step to have...

  19. Prefabricated vertical drains, vol. I : engineering guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    This volume presents procedures and guidelines applicable to the design and instal : tion of prefabricated vertical drains to accelerate consolidation of soils. The : contents represent the Consultant's interpretation of the state-of-the-art as of : ...

  20. Penrose Drain Migration After Laparoscopic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazouki AbdolReza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopy has made a revolution in surgical procedures and treatment of various diseases but its complications are still under investigation. Intra-abdominal visceral and vessel injuries, trocar site hernia, and leaving foreign bodies into the peritoneal cavity are among some laparoscopic surgery complications. This is a rare report of Penrose drain migration following incomplete laparoscopic Fundoplication surgery. The patient was a 47- year- old woman, who was a candidate for Touplet Fundoplication via laparoscopic approach due to refractory gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD. While wrapping a Penrose drain around the esophagus, the patient had a cardiorespiratory arrest. Attempts to remove the Penrose drain were unsuccessful and the surgical procedure was terminated due to patient's condition. Four months later, after a long period of dysphagia and abdominal pain, the Penrose drain was defecated via rectum.

  1. Brain drain of China and India

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Under the background of globalization, brain drain is a common phenomenon in many countries. Talents flow from developing countries to developed countries, and this phenomenon unavoidably exerts various and profound influences to both the source countries and the receiving countries. This thesis deals with the phenomenon of brain drain with the aim to investigate the phenomenon further and carry out two case studies of China and India. The research method is main...

  2. Necessity of suction drains in gynecomastia surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Sutcu, Mustafa; Cigsar, Bulent; Karacaoglan, Naci

    2014-05-01

    The aim of gynecomastia surgery is to restore a normal chest contour with minimal signs of breast surgery. The authors examine the rate of complications in gynecomastia surgery when no closed-suction drains are placed. One hundred thirty-eight consecutive male patients who underwent gynecomastia surgery without drains were retrospectively analyzed to determine whether the absence of drains adversely affected patient outcomes. Patients were managed by ultrasonic-assisted liposuction both with and without the pull-through technique. The mean age of the patients was 29 years, and the mean volume of breast tissue aspirated was 350 mL per beast. Pull-through was needed in 23 cases. There was only 1 postoperative hematoma. These results are comparable with previously published data for gynecomastia surgery in which drains were placed, suggesting that the absence of drains does not adversely affect postoperative recovery. Routine closed-suction drainage after gynecomastia surgery is unnecessary, and it may be appropriate to omit drains after gynecomastia surgery.

  3. How to remove a chest drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allibone, Elizabeth

    2015-10-07

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to undertake the removal of a chest drain in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. This procedure requires two practitioners. The chest drain will have been inserted aseptically to remove air, blood, fluid or pus from the pleural cavity. ▶ Chest drains may be small or wide bore depending on the underlying condition and clinical setting. They may be secured with a mattress suture and/or an anchor suture. ▶ Chest drains are usually removed under medical instructions when the patient's lung has inflated, the underlying condition has resolved, there is no evidence of respiratory compromise or failure, and their anticoagulation status has been assessed as satisfactory. ▶ Chest drains secured with a mattress suture should be removed by two practitioners. One practitioner is required to remove the tube and the other to tie the mattress suture (if present) and secure the site. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How reading this article will change your practice. 2. How this article could be used to educate patients with chest drains. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .

  4. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: omitting a pelvic drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Canes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Our goal was to assess outcomes of a selective drain placement strategy during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP with a running urethrovesical anastomosis (RUVA using cystographic imaging in all patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients undergoing LRP between January 2003 and December 2004. The anastomosis was performed using a modified van Velthoven technique. A drain was placed at the discretion of the senior surgeon when a urinary leak was demonstrated with bladder irrigation, clinical suspicion for a urinary leak was high, or a complex bladder neck reconstruction was performed. Routine postoperative cystograms were obtained. RESULTS: 208 patients underwent LRP with a RUVA. Data including cystogram was available for 206 patients. The overall rate of cystographic urine leak was 5.8%. A drain was placed in 51 patients. Of these, 8 (15.6% had a postoperative leak on cystogram. Of the 157 undrained patients, urine leak was radiographically visible in 4 (2.5%. The higher leak rate in the drained vs. undrained cohort was statistically significant (p = 0.002. Twenty-four patients underwent pelvic lymph node dissection (8 drained, 16 undrained. Three undrained patients developed lymphoceles, which presented clinically on average 3 weeks postoperatively. There were no urinomas or hematomas in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Routine placement of a pelvic drain after LRP with a RUVA is not necessary, unless the anastomotic integrity is suboptimal intraoperatively. Experienced clinical judgment is essential and accurate in identifying patients at risk for postoperative leakage. When suspicion is low, omitting a drain does not increase morbidity.

  5. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report April 6, 2000 - October 5, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m 3 ) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m 3 ) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing, vertical, field wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the third project year (April 6 through October 5, 2002). This work included capillary pressure/mercury injection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pore casting on selected samples from Cherokee and Bug fields, Utah. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found at these fields are indicators of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for enhanced oil recovery via horizontal drilling. The reservoir quality of Cherokee and Bug fields has been affected by multiple generations of dissolution, anhydrite plugging

  6. Mechanical decontamination techniques for floor drain systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palau, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    The unprecedented nature of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) following the 1979 accident has necessitated the development of new techniques to deal with radiation and contamination in the plant. One of these problems was decontamination of floor drain systems, which had become highly contaminated with various forms of dirt and sludge containing high levels of fission products and fuel from the damaged reactor core. The bulk of this contamination is loosely adherent to the drain pipe walls; however, significant amounts of contamination have become incorporated into pipe wall oxide and corrosion layers and embedded in microscopic pits and fissures in the pipe wall material. The need to remove this contamination was recognized early in the TMI-2 cleanup effort. A program consisting of development and laboratory testing of floor drain decontamination techniques was undertaken early in the cleanup with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Based on this initial research, two techniques were judged to show promise for use at TMI-2: a rotating brush hone system and a high-pressure water mole nozzle system. Actual use of these devices to clean floor drains at TMI-2 has yielded mixed decontamination results. The decontamination effectiveness that has been obtained is highly dependent on the nature of the contamination in the drain pipe and the combination of decontamination techniques used

  7. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in ventilator...

  8. Using Smoke Injection in Drains to Identify Potential Preferential Pathways in a Drained Arable Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M. H.; Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Macropores forming a continuous pathway between the soil surface and subsurface drains favour the transport of many contaminants from agricultural fields to surface waters. The smoke injection method presented by Shipitalo and Gibbs (2000) used for demonstrating and quantifying such pathways has been further developed and used on a drained Danish sandy loam. In order to identify the preferential pathways to drains, smoke was injected in three 1.15 m deep tile drains (total drain length 93 m), and smoke emitting macropores (SEMP) at the soil surface were counted and characterized as producing either strong or weak plumes compared to reference plumes from 3 and 6 mm wide tubes. In the two situations investigated in the present study - an early spring and an autumn situation, smoke only penetrated the soil surface layer via earthworm burrows located in a 1.0 m wide belt directly above the drain lines. However, it is known from previous studies that desiccation fractures in a dry summer situation also can contribute to the smoke pattern. The distance between SEMP measured along the drain lines was on average 0.46 m whereas the average spacing between SEMP with strong plumes was 2.3 m. Ponded water was applied in 6 cm wide rings placed above 52 burrows including 17 reference burrows which did not emit smoke. Thirteen pathways in the soil were examined using dye tracer and profile excavation. SEMP with strong plumes marked the entrance of highly efficient transport pathways conducting surface applied water and dye tracer into the drain. However, no single burrow was traced all the way from the surface into the drain, the dye patterns branched off in a network of other macropores. Water infiltration rates were significantly higher (P drains and surface waters, pathways being associated primarily with unevenly distributed SEMP producing strong smoke plumes.

  9. Horizontal violence in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsimoulaki Evangelia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One’s effort to clarify the definition of horizontal labour violence is of great importance, due to the variety of definitions that are mentioned in the worldwide scientific literature. Furthermore, the reference of multiple forms of such violence herein the nurse professional group is challenging, as well. Another fact of great importance is that, any form of professional violence (horizontal violence, horizontal mobbing in the work place environment can be possibly escalated and include even physical abuse (Bullying, besides the psychological and emotional impact for the victim. The definitions of Horizontal violence, Mobbing and Bullying, include a repeated negative behaviour emanating from at least one “predator” towards at least one “victim”, with work status differences and the existence or lack of physical abuse (Bullying. Horizontal violence is a hostile, aggressive and harmful behaviour which is either overt or concealed and is pointed from an individual to another individual of the same working rank and causes intense emotional pain at the victim. The manifestations vary from humiliating tasks assignment or the victim’s efforts undermining to clearly aggressive behaviors (criticism, intimidation, sarcasm etc.. The reason behind this phenomenon is multifactorial extended not only towards the working environment but also to the personal characteristics of the “predator” as well as the possible “victim”. The researchers emphasize the high incidence of the phenomenon, as well as the cost that is induced by the violent behaviors to both the health professionals and the hospital. Finally, they point out the paradox of the presence of violence inside a system that is designed to promote health.

  10. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The conclusions suggest that Romania could benefit from the diaspora option, through an active implication at institutional level and the implementation of a strategy in this area.

  11. Heterotrophic soil respiration in forestry-drained peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkkinen, K.; Shurpali, N. J.; Alm, J.; Penttilae, T.

    2007-01-01

    Heterotrophic soil respiration (CO 2 efflux from the decomposition of peat and root litter) in three forestry-drained peatlands with different site types and with a large climatic gradient from the hemi-boreal (central Estonia) to south (southern Finland) and north boreal (northern Finland) conditions was studied. Instantaneous fluxes varied between 0 and 1.3 g CO 2 -C m -2 h -1 , and annual fluxes between 248 and 515 g CO 2 -C m -2 a -1 . Variation in the annual fluxes among site types was studied only in the south-boreal site where we found a clear increase from nutrient-poor to nutrient-rich site types. More than half of the within-site variation was temporal and explained by soil surface (-5 cm) temperature (T5). The response of soil respiration to T5 varied between the sites; the most northerly site had the highest response to T5 and the most southerly the lowest. This trend further resulted in increased annual fluxes towards north. This unexpected result is hypothesised to be related to differences in site factors like substrate quality, nutrient status and hydrology but also to temperature acclimation, i.e., adaptation of decomposer populations to different climates. (orig.)

  12. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES. Semi-annual Technical Report October 6, 2002 - April 5, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eby, David E.; Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; McClure, Kevin; Morgan, Craig D.

    2003-01-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m 3 ) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m 3 ) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the second half of the third project year (October 6, 2002, through April 5, 2003). The primary work included describing and mapping regional facies of the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Regional cross sections show the development of ''clean carbonate'' packages that contain all of the productive reservoir facies. These clean carbonates abruptly change laterally into thick anhydrite packages that filled several small intra-shelf basins in the upper Ismay zone. Examination of upper Ismay cores

  13. Numerical simulation of draining and drying procedure for the ITER Generic Equatorial Port Plug cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanchuk, Victor; Grigoriev, Sergey; Lyublin, Boris; Maquet, Philippe; Senik, Konstantin; Pak, Sunil; Udintsev, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The cooling system of the ITER Generic Equatorial Port Plug (GEPP) is of a complicated combination of horizontal and vertical channels. • The calculation model for the entire GEPP cooling circuit comprising 12 sub-circuits and built up of 2421 finite-volume elements has been developed. • Transient analysis of this model simulating the draining procedure by the KORSAR/B1 code has been performed. • Water in amount of 263 g of initial 531 kg in the GEPP remains in the dead-ends of the DSM and DFW channels in 150 s of draining procedure. • Almost 3 h are required to boil off 263 g of water trapped in the dead-ends. - Abstract: For effective vacuum leak testing all cooling circuits serving the ITER vessel and in-vessel components shall be drained and dried so that after this procedure taking less than 100 h the purge gas passing through a component has water content less than 100 ppm. This process is four-stage, with the first stage using a short blast of compressed nitrogen to blow most of water in the coolant channels out of the circuit. This process is hindered by volumes which trap water due to gravity. To remove the trapped water, it is necessary, first, to heat up the structure by hot and compressed nitrogen, and then water is evaporated by depressurized nitrogen. The cooling system of the ITER Diagnostic Equatorial Port Plugs is of a complicated hydraulic configuration. The system branching might make difficult removal of water from the piping in the scheduled draining mode. The authors have proposed the KORSAR computation code to simulate draining of the GEPP cooling circuit. The numerical simulation performed has made it possible to describe the process dynamics during draining of the entire GEPP cooling circuit and to define the process time, amount and location of residual water and evolution of two-phase flow regime.

  14. Numerical simulation of draining and drying procedure for the ITER Generic Equatorial Port Plug cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanchuk, Victor, E-mail: Victor.Tanchuk@sintez.niiefa.spb.su [JSC “D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus”, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Grigoriev, Sergey; Lyublin, Boris [JSC “D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus”, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Maquet, Philippe [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Senik, Konstantin [JSC “D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus”, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pak, Sunil [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Udintsev, Victor [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The cooling system of the ITER Generic Equatorial Port Plug (GEPP) is of a complicated combination of horizontal and vertical channels. • The calculation model for the entire GEPP cooling circuit comprising 12 sub-circuits and built up of 2421 finite-volume elements has been developed. • Transient analysis of this model simulating the draining procedure by the KORSAR/B1 code has been performed. • Water in amount of 263 g of initial 531 kg in the GEPP remains in the dead-ends of the DSM and DFW channels in 150 s of draining procedure. • Almost 3 h are required to boil off 263 g of water trapped in the dead-ends. - Abstract: For effective vacuum leak testing all cooling circuits serving the ITER vessel and in-vessel components shall be drained and dried so that after this procedure taking less than 100 h the purge gas passing through a component has water content less than 100 ppm. This process is four-stage, with the first stage using a short blast of compressed nitrogen to blow most of water in the coolant channels out of the circuit. This process is hindered by volumes which trap water due to gravity. To remove the trapped water, it is necessary, first, to heat up the structure by hot and compressed nitrogen, and then water is evaporated by depressurized nitrogen. The cooling system of the ITER Diagnostic Equatorial Port Plugs is of a complicated hydraulic configuration. The system branching might make difficult removal of water from the piping in the scheduled draining mode. The authors have proposed the KORSAR computation code to simulate draining of the GEPP cooling circuit. The numerical simulation performed has made it possible to describe the process dynamics during draining of the entire GEPP cooling circuit and to define the process time, amount and location of residual water and evolution of two-phase flow regime.

  15. Radiation dose associated with CT-guided drain placement for pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Cody J.; Isaacson, Ari J.; Fordham, Lynn Ansley; Ivanovic, Marija; Dixon, Robert G.; Taylor, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    To date, there are limited radiation dose data on CT-guided procedures in pediatric patients. Our goal was to quantify the radiation dose associated with pediatric CT-guided drain placement and follow-up drain evaluations in order to estimate effective dose. We searched the electronic medical record and picture archiving and communication system (PACS) to identify all pediatric (<18 years old) CT-guided drain placements performed between January 2008 and December 2013 at our institution. We compiled patient data and radiation dose information from CT-guided drain placements as well as pre-procedural diagnostic CTs and post-procedural follow-up fluoroscopic abscess catheter injections (sinograms). Then we converted dose-length product, fluoroscopy time and number of acquisitions to effective doses using Monte Carlo simulations and age-appropriate conversion factors based on annual quality-control testing. Fifty-two drainages were identified with mean patient age of 11.0 years (5 weeks to 17 years). Most children had diagnoses of appendicitis (n=23) or inflammatory bowel disease (n=11). Forty-seven patients had diagnostic CTs, with a mean effective dose of 7.3 mSv (range 1.1-25.5 mSv). Drains remained in place for an average of 16.9 days (range 0-75 days), with an average of 0.9 (0-5) sinograms per patient in follow-up. The mean effective dose for all drainages and follow-up exams was 5.3 mSv (0.7-17.1) and 62% (32/52) of the children had effective doses less than 5 mSv. The majority of pediatric patients who have undergone CT-guided drain placements at our institution have received total radiation doses on par with diagnostic ranges. This information could be useful when describing the dose of radiation to parents and providers when CT-guided drain placement is necessary. (orig.)

  16. Radiation dose associated with CT-guided drain placement for pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Cody J.; Isaacson, Ari J.; Fordham, Lynn Ansley; Ivanovic, Marija; Dixon, Robert G. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Radiology, UNC Health Care, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Taylor, J.B. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Environment, Health and Safety, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2017-05-15

    To date, there are limited radiation dose data on CT-guided procedures in pediatric patients. Our goal was to quantify the radiation dose associated with pediatric CT-guided drain placement and follow-up drain evaluations in order to estimate effective dose. We searched the electronic medical record and picture archiving and communication system (PACS) to identify all pediatric (<18 years old) CT-guided drain placements performed between January 2008 and December 2013 at our institution. We compiled patient data and radiation dose information from CT-guided drain placements as well as pre-procedural diagnostic CTs and post-procedural follow-up fluoroscopic abscess catheter injections (sinograms). Then we converted dose-length product, fluoroscopy time and number of acquisitions to effective doses using Monte Carlo simulations and age-appropriate conversion factors based on annual quality-control testing. Fifty-two drainages were identified with mean patient age of 11.0 years (5 weeks to 17 years). Most children had diagnoses of appendicitis (n=23) or inflammatory bowel disease (n=11). Forty-seven patients had diagnostic CTs, with a mean effective dose of 7.3 mSv (range 1.1-25.5 mSv). Drains remained in place for an average of 16.9 days (range 0-75 days), with an average of 0.9 (0-5) sinograms per patient in follow-up. The mean effective dose for all drainages and follow-up exams was 5.3 mSv (0.7-17.1) and 62% (32/52) of the children had effective doses less than 5 mSv. The majority of pediatric patients who have undergone CT-guided drain placements at our institution have received total radiation doses on par with diagnostic ranges. This information could be useful when describing the dose of radiation to parents and providers when CT-guided drain placement is necessary. (orig.)

  17. QUALIFIED VERSION OF MIGRATION: BRAIN DRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Ayhan GENCLER

    2009-01-01

    Though globalization suggests an international exchange of people besides goods and capital, developed countries often tended to put forward some restrictions on the migration of workers from developed countries. However, there has been an increase in skilled international migration especially during the last two decades. Skilled international migration or brain drain points out the emigration of educated and highly skilled workers. It seems tha...

  18. The European Politics of Brain Drain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob

    This qualitative multi-method studymaps the politics of brain drain at the level of the European Union and follows the evolution of the issue over the last four parliamentary periods. By utilizing a novel combination of interviews with a content and network analysis of parliamentary questions...

  19. A Rare Complication of Abdominal Drain: Fallopian Tube Herniation Through the Drain Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Uygur

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic drainage of the peritoneal cavity after obstetrical and gynecological surgery is widely practiced. The idea of “when in doubt, drain” is accepted and applied clinically by many surgeons. However, surgically placed drains are not without risk. The present case describes herniation of fallopian tube during the removal of a surgical drain placed after a cesarean section.

  20. A Rare Complication of Abdominal Drain: Fallopian Tube Herniation Through the Drain Site

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Uygur; Seval Erdinç; Hülya Dede; Ümit Taşdemir; Oktay Kaymak; Nuri Danışman

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic drainage of the peritoneal cavity after obstetrical and gynecological surgery is widely practiced. The idea of “when in doubt, drain” is accepted and applied clinically by many surgeons. However, surgically placed drains are not without risk. The present case describes herniation of fallopian tube during the removal of a surgical drain placed after a cesarean section.

  1. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung

    2016-08-30

    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T(-1)), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device.

  2. Carbon accumulation in pristine and drained mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekilae, M.

    2011-07-01

    The carbon accumulation of 73 peat columns from 48 pristine and drained mires was investigated using a total of 367 dates and age-depth models derived from bulk density measurements. Peat columns were collected from mires of varying depth, age, degree of natural state and nutrient conditions in aapa mire and raised bog regions and coastal mires from southern and central Finland and Russian Karelia. Particular attention was paid to the accumulation of carbon over the last 300 years, as this period encompasses the best estimates of the oxic layer (acrotelm) age across the range of sites investigated. In general, drained mires are initially more nutrient-rich than pristine mires. Organic matter decomposes more rapidly at drained sites than at pristine sites, resulting in thinner peat layers and carbon accumulation but a higher dry bulk density and carbon content. The average carbon accumulation was calculated as 24.0 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine sites and 19.4 g m-2 yr-1 at drained sites, while for peat layers younger than 300 years the respective figures were 45.3 and 34.5 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine and drained sites. For the <300-year-old peat layers studied here, the average thickness was 19 cm less and the carbon accumulation rate 10.8 g m-2 yr-1 lower in drained areas than in pristine areas. The amount carbon accumulation of surface peat layers depends upon the mire site type, vegetation and natural state; variations reflect differences in plant communities as well as factors that affect biomass production and decay rates. The highest accumulation rates and thus carbon binding for layers younger than 300 years were measured in the ombrotrophic mire site types (Sphagnum fuscum bog and Sphagnum fuscum pine bog), and the second highest rates in wet, treeless oligotrophic and minerotrophic mire site types. The lowest values of carbon accumulation over the last 300 years were obtained for the most transformed, sparsely forested and forested mire site types, where the water

  3. Processing method of radioactive cleaning drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Shigemitsu; Murakami, Tadashi; Kitao, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    Upon processing of radioactive cleaning drains, contained Co-60 is removed by a selectively adsorbing adsorbent. In addition, after removing suspended materials by a filtering device, Co-60 as predominant nuclides in the drain is selectively adsorbed. The concentration of objective Co-60 is in the order of 0.1 Bq/cc, and non-radioactive metal ions such as Na + ions are present in the order of ppm in addition to Co-60. A granular adsorbent for selectively adsorbing Co-60 is oxine-added activated carbon, and has a grain size of from 20 to 48 mesh. The granular adsorbent is used while being filled in an adsorbing tower. Since a relatively simple device comprising the filtering device and the adsorbing tower in combination is provided, the reduction of the construction cost can be expected. In addition, since no filtering aid is used in the filtering device, the amount of secondary wastes is small. (N.H.)

  4. Percutaneous Retrieval of a Retained Jackson-Pratt Drain Fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namyslowski, Jan; Halin, Neil J.; Greenfield, Alan J.

    1996-01-01

    A retained intraabdominal Jackson-Pratt drain fragment was percutaneously retrieved using an inflated angioplasty balloon that had been maneuvered inside of the drain lumen over a hydrophilic-coated steerable guidewire

  5. Device for discharging drain in a control rod driving apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Tadasu; Ikuta, Takuzo; Yoshida, Tomiji; Tsukahara, Katsumi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To efficiently and safely collect and discharge drain by a simple construction in which a drain cover and a drain tank in a control rod driving apparatus are integrally formed, and an overhauling wrench of said apparatus and a drain hose are mounted on the drain tank. Structure: When a mounting bolt is untightened by a torque wrench so as to be removed from a flange surface of the control rod driving apparatus in a nuclear reactor, axial movement of said apparatus is absorbed by a spring so that drain containing a radioactive material is discharged into a drain tank through the flange surface of said apparatus and is then guided into a collecting tank through a drain hose. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Water Table Recession in Subsurface Drained Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Mahmoud Mohamed; Yomota, Atsushi

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical drainage equations are intensively tested in many parts of humid and arid regions and are commonly used in drainage design. However, this is still a great concern in Japan as the drainage design is exclusively based on local experiences and empirical basis. There is a need therefore to evaluate the theoretical drainage equations under Japanese field conditions to recommend equations for design of subsurface drainage systems. This was the main motivation for this study. While drain...

  7. Drained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    In the process of understanding and developing models for geomaterials, the stress-strain behaviour is commonly studied by performing triaxial tests. In the present study static triaxial tests have been performed to gain knowledge of the stress-strain behaviour of frictional materials during...... monotonic loading. The tests reported herein are all drained tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. AIl the tests are performed on reconstituted medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  8. QUALIFIED VERSION OF MIGRATION: BRAIN DRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Gencler, Ayhan

    2009-01-01

    Though globalization suggests an international exchange of people besides goods and capital, developed countries often tended to put forward some restrictions on the migration of workers from developed countries. However, there has been an increase in skilled international migration especially during the last two decades. Skilled international migration or brain drain points out the emigration of educated and highly skilled workers. It seems that, in general, developing or underdeveloped...

  9. Fallopian Tube Herniation: An Unusual Complication of Surgical Drain

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Lipi; Singh, Alpana; Bhaskaran, Sruthi; Radhika, A. G.; Radhakrishnan, Gita

    2012-01-01

    Background. Surgical drains have been used since time immemorial, but their use is not without complications. By presenting this case we aim to describe an uncommon complication of herniation of fallopian tube following the simple procedure of surgical drain removal. Case Presentation. This case describes a 23-year G2P1L1 who underwent an emergency cesarean section for obstructed labor with intraperitoneal drain insertion. The patient had an uneventful postoperative period, drain was removed ...

  10. Fallopian Tube Herniation through Left Sided Abdominal Drain Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Khalid; Masood, Jovaria

    2016-06-01

    Intra-abdominal drains have been used since long to prevent intra-abdominal collection, and detect any anastomotic leaks. We report a case of left sided fallopian tube herniation from a left lower abdominal drain site in a 27-year female who underwent caesarian section for breach presentation. Several complications related to drain usage has been described but left sided fallopian tube prolapse through drain site has not been reported in literature.

  11. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from spaces...

  12. MEDICAL BRAIN DRAIN - A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boncea Irina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical brain drain is defined as the migration of health personnel from developing countries to developed countries and between industrialized nations in search for better opportunities. This phenomenon became a global growing concern due to its impact on both the donor and the destination countries. This article aims to present the main theoretical contributions starting from 1950 until today and the historical evolution, in the attempt of correlating the particular case of medical brain drain with the theory and evolution of the brain drain in general. This article raises questions and offers answers, identifies the main issues and looks for possible solutions in order to reduce the emigration of medical doctors. Factors of influence include push (low level of income, poor working conditions, the absence of job openings and social recognition, oppressive political climate and pull (better remuneration and working conditions, prospects for career development, job satisfaction, security factors. Developing countries are confronting with the loss of their most valuable intellectuals and the investment in their education, at the benefit of developed nations. An ethical debate arises as the disparities between countries increases, industrialized nations filling in the gaps in health systems with professionals from countries already facing shortages. However, recent literature emphasizes the possibility of a “beneficial brain drain” through education incentives offered by the emigration prospects. Other sources of “brain gain” for donor country are the remittances, the scientific networks and return migration. Measures to stem the medical brain drain involve the common effort and collaboration between developing and developed countries and international organizations. Measures adopted by donor countries include higher salaries, better working conditions, security, career opportunities, incentives to stimulate return migration. Destination

  13. Three-dimensional modelling of an embankment built on a soft soil improved with prefabricated vertical drains

    OpenAIRE

    Venda Oliveira, P.J.; Cruz, R.F.P.M.L.; Lemos, L.J.L.; Almeida e Sousa, J.N.V.

    2015-01-01

    This work compares the field measurements of a non-symmetric embankment built on a Portuguese soft soil improved with prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs), with the numerical predictions of a 3D modelling where the PVDs are simulated according to the field flow conditions. The change in the permeability with the void ratio and the effect of the smear zone are also included in the numerical analysis. The numerical predictions are compared with the field data in terms of settlement, horizontal ...

  14. Brain drain and health workforce distortions in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, Kenneth; Mussa, Antonio; Chilundo, Baltazar; Gimbel, Sarah; Pfeiffer, James; Hagopian, Amy; Gloyd, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Trained human resources are fundamental for well-functioning health systems, and the lack of health workers undermines public sector capacity to meet population health needs. While external brain drain from low and middle-income countries is well described, there is little understanding of the degree of internal brain drain, and how increases in health sector funding through global health initiatives may contribute to the outflow of health workers from the public sector to donor agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and the private sector. An observational study was conducted to estimate the degree of internal and external brain drain among Mozambican nationals qualifying from domestic and foreign medical schools between 1980-2006. Data were collected 26-months apart in 2008 and 2010, and included current employment status, employer, geographic location of employment, and main work duties. Of 723 qualifying physicians between 1980-2006, 95.9% (693) were working full-time, including 71.1% (493) as clinicians, 20.5% (142) as health system managers, and 6.9% (48) as researchers/professors. 25.5% (181) of the sample had left the public sector, of which 62.4% (113) continued working in-country and 37.6% (68) emigrated from Mozambique. Of those cases of internal migration, 66.4% (75) worked for NGOs, 21.2% (24) for donor agencies, and 12.4% (14) in the private sector. Annual incidence of physician migration was estimated to be 3.7%, predominately to work in the growing NGO sector. An estimated 36.3% (41/113) of internal migration cases had previously held senior-level management positions in the public sector. Internal migration is an important contributor to capital flight from the public sector, accounting for more cases of physician loss than external migration in Mozambique. Given the urgent need to strengthen public sector health systems, frank reflection by donors and NGOs is needed to assess how hiring practices may undermine the very systems they seek

  15. Brain drain and health workforce distortions in Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Sherr

    Full Text Available Trained human resources are fundamental for well-functioning health systems, and the lack of health workers undermines public sector capacity to meet population health needs. While external brain drain from low and middle-income countries is well described, there is little understanding of the degree of internal brain drain, and how increases in health sector funding through global health initiatives may contribute to the outflow of health workers from the public sector to donor agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs, and the private sector.An observational study was conducted to estimate the degree of internal and external brain drain among Mozambican nationals qualifying from domestic and foreign medical schools between 1980-2006. Data were collected 26-months apart in 2008 and 2010, and included current employment status, employer, geographic location of employment, and main work duties.Of 723 qualifying physicians between 1980-2006, 95.9% (693 were working full-time, including 71.1% (493 as clinicians, 20.5% (142 as health system managers, and 6.9% (48 as researchers/professors. 25.5% (181 of the sample had left the public sector, of which 62.4% (113 continued working in-country and 37.6% (68 emigrated from Mozambique. Of those cases of internal migration, 66.4% (75 worked for NGOs, 21.2% (24 for donor agencies, and 12.4% (14 in the private sector. Annual incidence of physician migration was estimated to be 3.7%, predominately to work in the growing NGO sector. An estimated 36.3% (41/113 of internal migration cases had previously held senior-level management positions in the public sector.Internal migration is an important contributor to capital flight from the public sector, accounting for more cases of physician loss than external migration in Mozambique. Given the urgent need to strengthen public sector health systems, frank reflection by donors and NGOs is needed to assess how hiring practices may undermine the very systems they

  16. A prospective randomized study of use of drain versus no drain after burr-hole evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Suryanarayanan, Bhaskar; Choudhary, Ajay; Prasad, Akhila; Singh, Sachin; Gupta, Laxmi Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) recurs after surgical evacuation in 5-30% of patients. Inserting subdural drain might reduce the recurrence rate, but is not commonly practiced. There are few prospective studies to evaluate the effect of subdural drains. A prospective randomized study to investigate the effect of subdural drains in the on recurrence rates and clinical outcome following burr-hole drainage (BHD) of CSDH was undertaken. During the study period, 246 patients with CSDH were assessed for eligibility. Among 200 patients fulfilling the eligibility criteria, 100 each were assigned to "drain group" (drain inserted into the subdural space following BHD) and "without drain group" (subdural drain was not inserted following BHD) using random allocation software. The primary end point was recurrence needing re-drainage up to a period of 6 months from surgery. Recurrence occurred in 9 of 100 patients with a drain, and 26 of 100 patients in without drain group (P = 0.002). The mortality was 5% in patients with drain and 4% in patients without drain group (P = 0.744). The medical and surgical complications were comparable between the two study groups. Use of a subdural drain after burr-hole evacuation of a CSDH reduces the recurrence rate and is not associated with increased complications.

  17. Sediment and Nutrient Contributions from Subsurface Drains and Point Sources to an Agricultural Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Ball Coelho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Excess sediment and nutrients in surface waters can threaten aquatic life. To determine the relative importance of subsurface drainage as a pathway for movement of sediment and nutrients to surface waters, loading from various tile systems was compared to that from sewage treatment plants (STP within the same watershed. Movement through tiles comprised 1 to 8% of estimated total (overland plus tile annual sediment loading from the respective areas drained by the tile. Load during the growing season from five closed drain- age systems without surface inlets averaged 5 kg sediment/ha, 0.005 kg dissolved reactive P (DRP/ha, 0.003 kg NH4-N/ha, and 3.8 kg NO3-N/ha; and from two open drainage systems with surface inlets averaged 14 kg sediment/ha, 0.03 kg DRP/ha, 0.04 kg NH4-N/ha, and 3.1 kg NO3-N/ha. The eight STP contributed about 44 530 kg suspended sediments, 3380 kg total P, 1340 kg NH4-N, and 116 900 kg NO3-N to the watershed annually. Drainage systems added less NH4-N and P, but more NO3-N and suspended solids to surface waters than STP. Tile drainage pathways for NO3-N, STP in the case of P, and overland pathways for sediment are indicated as targets to control loading in artificially drained agricultural watersheds.

  18. Almost horizontal turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolmogorov, A N

    2004-01-01

    The paper is published without modifications. Kolmogorov's manuscript was apparently prepared during his participation in one of expeditions of the ship 'D. Mendeleev' to the Atlantic Ocean (1969) or in a circumnavigation of the world (1971) organized by the Institute for Oceanology led at the time by A.S. Monin. As Kolmogorov himself wrote, the choice of the topic was stimulated by observations concerning '...meanders with horizontal sizes of hundreds of kilometers on a flow involving a layer of hundreds of meters, with subsequent disintegration of these meanders into vortices gradually decreasing in size to several kilometers'. In modern terminology, the paper is devoted to the problem of intensive mixing in pycnoclines, that is, thin layers of stratified fluid, caused by internal waves whose frequencies are less than the Brent-Vaeisaelae frequency. Here I would like to note two circumstances. The first is the scientific insight characteristic for Kolmogorov; this very approach was later reflected in numerous publications (see, for instance, the monograph by V.S. Modevich, V.I. Nikulin, and A.G. Stetsenko 'Dynamics of internal mixing in a stratified medium', Institute for Hydromechanics, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Naukova Dumka, Kiev 1988). The second, the more significant in my opinion, is the genuine intellectual curiosity and breadth of thought of this great thinker, who studied not only the most abstract mathematical constructions but also got his head out of the clouds with great interest to solve concrete applied problems

  19. Roundtable. Strategies to discourage brain drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Linda; Hofman, Karen; Jarawan, Raya; McDermott, Jeanne; Bridbord, Ken

    2004-08-01

    Building health research expertise in developing countries often requires personnel to receive training beyond national borders. For research funding agencies that sponsor this type of training, a major goal is to ensure that trainees return to their country of origin: attaining this objective requires the use of proactive strategies. The strategies described were developed under the extramural acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) International Training and Research Program (AITRP) funded by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) at the National Institutes of Health, United States. This programme supports universities in the United States that provide research training to scientists from developing countries to enable them to address the global epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS and the related tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. This paper describes the strategies employed to discourage brain drain by the principle investigators (PIs) of five of the longest-funded AITRPs (funded for 15 years). Long-term trainees in these programmes spent from 11 to 96 months (an average of 26 months) studying. Using scientific, political and economic strategies that address brain drain issues, PIs working in AITRPs have attained an average rate of return home for their trainees of 80%.

  20. Groundwater hydrology and estimation of horizontal groundwater flux from the Rio Grande at selected locations in Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2003-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Dale R.; McCoy, Kurt J.; More, Geoff J.M.; Worthington, Jeffrey A.; Bandy-Baldwin, Kimberly M.

    2013-01-01

    The Albuquerque, New Mexico, area has two principal sources of water: groundwater from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system and surface water from the San Juan-Chama Diversion Project. From 1960 to 2002, groundwater withdrawals from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system have caused water levels to decline more than 120 feet in some places within the Albuquerque area, resulting in a great deal of interest in quantifying the river-aquifer interaction associated with the Rio Grande. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, the Middle Rio Grande Endangered Species Collaborative Program, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began a detailed characterization of the hydrogeology of the Rio Grande riparian corridor in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, area to provide hydrologic data and enhance the understanding of rates of water leakage from the Rio Grande to the alluvial aquifer, groundwater flow through the aquifer, and discharge of water from the aquifer to the riverside drains. A simple conceptual model of flow indicates that the groundwater table gently slopes from the Rio Grande towards riverside drains and the outer boundaries of the inner valley. Water infiltrating from the Rio Grande initially moves vertically below the river, but, as flow spreads farther into the Rio Grande inner valley alluvial aquifer, flow becomes primarily horizontal. The slope of the water-table surface may be strongly controlled by the riverside drains and influenced by other more distal hydrologic boundary conditions, such as groundwater withdrawals by wells. Results from 35 slug tests performed in the Rio Grande inner valley alluvial aquifer during January and February 2009 indicate that hydraulic-conductivity values ranged from 5 feet per day to 160 feet per day with a median hydraulic-conductivity for all transects of 40 feet per day. Median annual horizontal hydraulic gradients in the Rio Grande inner valley alluvial aquifer ranged from 0.011 to 0

  1. Vertical + horizontal unlimited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    The movie theatre has largely been unchanged since its very start. Still people are sitting in front of a large white screen looking at images projected from a traditional film projector. However, as movie and movie making becomes increasingly digitized and a vast array of distributed media...... is available, new forms of cinematic experience are emerging. This presentation aims to inspire to new ideas by giving a brief introduction to recent international research in new cinematic forms taking a few examples from the MIT Media Lab in Boston - from interactive cinema to media fabrics - and The Future...... is the computer sports performance "Otopia" developed at Performance-design at The Roskilde University just north of Copenhagen for the annual Roskilde Festival. The presentation ends with an outline of possible projects in the future discussing the promises of the merger of genres as computer games and film...

  2. Liquefaction under drained condition, from the lab to reality ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Cécile; Aharonov, Einat; Stojanova, Menka; Toussaint, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    horizontal shaking our model predicts that the soil remains rigid. Under stronger accelerations, some of the particles, which constitute the medium, slide past each other, and the medium slowly rearranges. Yet, in this regime of shaking, the shaking is insufficient to cause the building to slide. The building sinks simply due to hydrostatic considerations, and since it is a static object in a dynamically rearranging medium. This is the case we call liquefaction. Eventually, for even stronger accelerations, both the particles and the building can slide and we predict convective movement. To test this model we run numerical simulations (granular dynamics DEM algorithm) and laboratory experiments. The numerical experiments do not include pore pressure, and only simulate buoyancy effects of water. The controlling parameters are the amplitude and frequency of the shaking, and the water level. With a saturated medium, experiments and simulations display three different behaviors: rigid, liquefaction, and convection, in agreement with our theoretical model. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) is the decisive parameter. It is important to note that for dry media and for a case when the building is fully submerged underwater, both in experiments and in simulations, the liquefaction effect disappears. Based on our work we suggest that elevated pore pressure conditions are not necessary for inducing liquefaction, and that liquefaction can occur under well drained and highly compacted soils, in situations previously considered to be safe from liquefaction. Références [1] Chi-Yuen Wang and Michael Manga. Earthquakes and Water, volume 114. Springer Verlag, 2010. [2] L. Goren, E. Aharonov, D. Sparks, and R. Toussaint. Pore pressure evolution in deforming granu- lar material : A general formulation and the infinitely stiff approximation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115(B9), Sep 2010. [3] Liran Goren, Einat Aharonov, David Sparks, and Renaud Toussaint. The mechanical coupling of fluid

  3. Evapotranspiration from drained wetlands: drivers, modeling, storage functions, and restoration implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Wu, C. L.; Shrestha, N.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component of wetland and watershed water budgets. The effect of wetland drainage on ET is not well understood. We tested whether the current understanding of insignificant effect of drainage on ET in the temperate region wetlands applies to those in the sub-tropics. Eddy covariance (EC) based ET measurements were made for two years at two previously drained and geographically close wetlands in the Everglades region of Florida. One wetland was significantly drained with 97% of its storage capacity lost. The other was a more functional wetland with 42% of storage capacity lost. Annual average ET at the significantly drained wetland was 836 mm, 34% less than the function wetland (1271 mm) and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Such differences in wetland ET in the same climatic region have not been observed. The difference in ET was mainly due to drainage driven differences in inundation and associated effects on net radiation (Rn) and local relative humidity. Two daily ET models, a regression (r2 = 0.80) and a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) model (r2 = 0.84), were developed with the latter being more robust. These models, when used in conjunction with hydrologic models, improved ET predictions for drained wetlands. Predictions from an integrated model showed that more intensely drained wetlands at higher elevation should be targeted for restoration of downstream flows (flooding) because they have the ability to loose higher water volume through ET which increases available water storage capacity of wetlands. Daily ET models can predict changes in ET for improved evaluation of basin-scale effects of restoration programs and climate change scenarios.

  4. Evapotranspiration from drained wetlands with different hydrologic regimes: Drivers, modeling, and storage functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Lung; Shukla, Sanjay; Shrestha, Niroj K.

    2016-07-01

    We tested whether the current understanding of insignificant effect of drainage on evapotranspiration (ET) in the temperate region wetlands applies to those in the subtropics. Hydro-climatic drivers causing the changes in drained wetlands were identified and used to develop a generic model to predict wetland ET. Eddy covariance (EC)-based ET measurements were made for two years at two differently drained but close by wetlands, a heavily drained wetland (SW) (97% reduced surface storage) and a more functional wetland (DW) (42% reduced storage). Annual ET for more intensively drained SW was 836 mm, 34% less than DW (1271 mm) and the difference was significant (p = 0.001). This difference was mainly due to drainage driven differences in inundation and associated effects on net radiation (Rn) and local relative humidity. Two generic daily ET models, a regression model (MSE = 0.44 mm2, R2 = 0.80) and a machine learning-based Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) model (MSE = 0.36 mm2, R2 = 0.84), were developed with the latter being more robust. The RVM model can predict changes in ET for different restoration scenarios; a 1.1 m rise in drainage level showed 7% increase ET (18 mm) at SW while the increase at DW was negligible. The additional ET, 28% of surface flow, can enhance water storage, flood protection, and climate mitigation services at SW compared to DW. More intensely drained wetlands at higher elevation should be targeted for restoration for enhanced storage through increased ET. The models developed can predict changes in ET for improved evaluation of basin-scale effects of restoration programs and climate change scenarios.

  5. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  6. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  7. Horizontal drilling under Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, R.

    2001-07-01

    Drilling oil wells under Lake Erie calls for horizontal drilling wells to be drilled from shore out into the pay-zone under the lake. The nature and characteristics of horizontal wells as compared to vertical wells are explored. Considerations that have to be taken into account in drilling horizontal wells are explained (the degree of curvature, drilling fluid quality, geosteering in the pay-zone, steering instrumentation, measurements while drilling (MWD), logging while drilling (LWD)). The concept and reasons for extended reach wells are outlined, along with characteristic features of multilateral wells.

  8. Brain drain from developing countries: how can brain drain be converted into wisdom gain?

    OpenAIRE

    Dodani, Sunita; LaPorte, Ronald E

    2005-01-01

    Brain drain is defined as the migration of health personnel in search of the better standard of living and quality of life, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide. This migration of health professionals for better opportunities, both within countries and across international borders, is of growing concern worldwide because of its impact on health systems in developing countries. Why do talented people leave their count...

  9. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Engeman, Jason K.; Gunter, Jason R.; Joslyn, Cameron C.; Vazquez, Brandon J.; Venetz, Theodore J.; Garfield, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line

  10. Horner's syndrome caused by an intercostal chest drain.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, P; Neil, T; Wake, P N

    1989-01-01

    Horner's syndrome occurred in a young woman as a complication of the treatment of a traumatic pneumothorax with an intercostal drain. The nerve damage probably occurred when the lung had fully re-expanded, pressing the tip of the intercostal drain, lying at the apex of the pleural cavity, on to the sympathetic chain.

  11. Rethinking "Brain Drain" in the Era of Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a range of issues concerning the idea of "brain drain" within the context of recent thinking on transnational mobility. It argues that the traditional analyses of brain drain are not sufficient, and that we can usefully approach the topic from a postcolonial perspective concerned with issues of identity, national…

  12. A new specifically designed forceps for chest drain insertion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Andrews, Emmet

    2012-02-03

    Insertion of a chest drain can be associated with serious complications. It is recommended that the drain is inserted with blunt dissection through the chest wall but there is no specific instrument to aid this task. We describe a new reusable forceps that has been designed specifically to facilitate the insertion of chest drains.A feasibility study of its use in patients who required a chest drain as part of elective cardiothoracic operations was undertaken. The primary end-point was successful and accurate placement of the drain. The operators also completed a questionnaire rating defined aspects of the procedure. The new instrument was used to insert the chest drain in 30 patients (19 male, 11 female; median age 61.5 years (range 16-81 years)). The drain was inserted successfully without the trocar in all cases and there were no complications. Use of the instrument rated as significantly easier relative to experience of previous techniques in all specified aspects. The new device can be used to insert intercostal chest drains safely and efficiently without using the trocar or any other instrument.

  13. The health workforce crisis: the brain drain scourge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Samuel O

    2007-01-01

    The magnitude of the health workforce crisis engendered by brain drain particularly in Africa, and nay more especially Nigeria, has been assuming increasingly alarming proportions in the past three decades. The challenge it poses in meeting the manpower needs in the healthcare sector as well as in the larger economy of the sending countries is enormous. This paper thus sets out to highlight the scope of this brain drain, its effects and the reasons sustaining it, as well as makes concrete suggestions to help stern the tide. A review of the literature on brain drain with particular emphasis on the health workforce sector was done, with focus on Africa, and specifically Nigeria. Literature search was done using mainly the Medline, as well as local journals. The historical perspectives, with the scope of external and internal brain drain are explored. The glaring effects of brain drain both in the global workforce terrain and specifically in the health sectors are portrayed. The countries affected most and the reasons for brain drain are outlined. Strategic steps to redress the brain drain crisis are proffered in this paper. The health workforce crisis resulting from brain drain must be brought to the front-burner of strategic policy decisions leading to paradigm shift in political, social and economic conditions that would serve as incentives to curb the scourge.

  14. SLD-MOSCNT: A new MOSCNT with step-linear doping profile in the source and drain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahne, Behrooz Abdi; Naderi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new structure, step-linear doping MOSCNT (SLD-MOSCNT), is proposed to improve the performance of basic MOSCNTs. The basic structure suffers from band to band tunneling (BTBT). We show that using SLD profile for source and drain regions increases the horizontal distance between valence and conduction bands at gate to source/drain junction which reduces BTBT probability. SLD performance is compared with other similar structures which have recently been proposed to reduce BTBT such as MOSCNT with lightly-doped drain and source (LDDS), and with double-light doping in source and drain regions (DLD). The obtained results using a nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) method show that the SLD-MOSCNT has the lowest leakage current, power consumption and delay time, and the highest current ratio and voltage gain. The ambipolar conduction in the proposed structure is very low and can be neglected. In addition, these structures can improve short-channel effects. Also, the investigation of cutoff frequency of the different structures shows that the SLD has the highest cutoff frequency. Device performance has been investigated for gate length from 8 to 20 nm which demonstrates all discussions regarding the superiority of the proposed structure are also valid for different channel lengths. This improvement is more significant especially for channel length less than 12 nm. Therefore, the SLD can be considered as a candidate to be used in the applications with high speed and low power consumption.

  15. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  16. Surface runoff and subsurface tile drain losses of neonicotinoids and companion herbicides at edge-of-field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrétien, François; Giroux, Isabelle; Thériault, Georges; Gagnon, Patrick; Corriveau, Julie

    2017-05-01

    With their application as seed coatings, the use of neonicotinoid insecticides increased dramatically during the last decade. They are now frequently detected in aquatic ecosystems at concentrations susceptible to harm aquatic invertebrates at individual and population levels. This study intent was to document surface runoff and subsurface tile drain losses of two common neonicotinoids (thiamethoxam and clothianidin) compared to those of companion herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate, S-metolachlor and mesotrione) at the edge of a 22.5-ha field under a corn-soybean rotation. A total of 14 surface runoff and tile drain discharge events were sampled over two years. Events and annual unit mass losses were computed using flow-weighted concentrations and total surface runoff and tile drain flow volumes. Detection frequencies close to 100% in edge-of-field surface runoff and tile drain water samples were observed for thiamethoxam and clothianidin even though only thiamethoxam had been applied in the first year. In 2014, thiamethoxam median concentrations in surface runoff and tile drain samples were respectively 0.46 and 0.16 μg/L, while respective maximum concentrations of 2.20 and 0.44 μg/L were measured in surface runoff and tile drain samples during the first post-seeding storm event. For clothianidin, median concentrations in surface runoff and tile drain samples were 0.02 and 0.01, μg/L, and respective maximum concentrations were 0.07 μg/L and 0.05 μg/L. Surface runoff and tile drain discharge were key transport mechanisms with similar contributions of 53 and 47% of measured mass losses, respectively. Even if thiamethoxam was applied at a relatively low rate and had a low mass exportation value (0.3%), the relative toxicity was one to two orders of magnitude higher than those of the other chemicals applied in 2014 and 2015. Companion herbicides, except glyphosate in tile drains, exceeded their water quality guideline during one sampling campaign after

  17. Decommissioning of fast reactors after sodium draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    Acknowledging the importance of passing on knowledge and experience, as well mentoring the next generation of scientists and engineers, and in response to expressed needs by Member States, the IAEA has undertaken concrete steps towards the implementation of a fast reactor data retrieval and knowledge preservation initiative. Decommissioning of fast reactors and other sodium bearing facilities is a domain in which considerable experience has been accumulated. Within the framework and drawing on the wide expertise of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), the IAEA has initiated activities aiming at preserving the feedback (lessons learned) from this experience and condensing those to technical recommendations on fast reactor design features that would ease their decommissioning. Following a recommendation by the TWG-FR, the IAEA had convened a topical Technical Meeting (TM) on 'Operational and Decommissioning Experience with Fast Reactors', hosted by CEA, Centre d'Etudes de Cadarache, France, from 11 to 15 March 2002 (IAEA-TECDOC- 1405). The participants in that TM exchanged detailed technical information on fast reactor operation and decommissioning experience with various sodium cooled fast reactors, and, in particular, reviewed the status of the various decommissioning programmes. The TM concluded that the decommissioning of fast reactors to reach safe enclosure presented no major difficulties, and that this had been accomplished mainly through judicious adaptation of processes and procedures implemented during the reactor operation phase, and the development of safe sodium waste treatment processes. However, the TM also concluded that, on the path to achieving total dismantling, challenges remain with regard to the decommissioning of components after sodium draining, and suggested that a follow-on TM be convened, that would provide a forum for in-depth scientific and technical exchange on this topic. This publication constitutes the Proceedings of

  18. Advances in chest drain management in thoracic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    An adequate chest drainage system aims to drain fluid and air and restore the negative pleural pressure facilitating lung expansion. In thoracic surgery the post-operative use of the conventional underwater seal chest drainage system fulfills these requirements, however they allow great variability amongst practices. In addition they do not offer accurate data and they are often inconvenient to both patients and hospital staff. This article aims to simplify the myths surrounding the management of chest drains following chest surgery, review current experience and explore the advantages of modern digital chest drain systems and address their disease-specific use. PMID:26941971

  19. Shearon Harris steam generator channel head drain line leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    All three Shearon Harris steam generators were equipped with Inconel 600 drain penetrations inserted into clearance holes on the bottom center line of the plenums, roll expanded into the plenum shell, and seal welded to the stainless steel cladding. Eddy current inspections showed axial cracks in the drain lines of B and C generators, but not on the leaking A generator. The drain lines of the three generators were repaired by cutting off the pipe under the plenum, applying Inconel 600 cladding to the underside of the plenum by a temper bead process, spot facing the overlay cladding and welding a new Inconel 600 pipe coupling to the clad surface. 3 figs

  20. The removal of blockage from a BWR bottom head drain line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGough, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Low flow through the 2-inch schedule 160 bottom head drain line at Carolina Power and Light's Brunswick Unit 2 indicated that the line was probably plugged. Since this low flow condition had existed since startup, it was suspected that the plug consisted of construction debris. However, the makeup of the plug was unknown, and the suspected location was inaccessible for nondestructive examination techniques. Evaluation of techniques possible, both from the vessel ID and from outside the vessel resulted in the selection of a hot-tapping device and a self-propelled high-pressure water lance which was inserted in the trapped line from the undervessel area. Removal of the plug was complicated by undervessel space restrictions, dose rates, and the torturous path of elbows and horizontal and vertical pipe runs which had to be negotiated with the water lance. This paper describes the technique applied to this problem

  1. Stackelberg equilibria and horizontal differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lambertini, Luca

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes a taxonomy of the Stackelberg equilibria emerging from a standard game of horizontal differentiation à la Hotelling in which the strategy set of the sellers in the location stage is the real axis. Repeated leadership appears the most advantageous position. Furthermore, this endogenously yields vertical differentiation between products at equilibrium.

  2. Horizontal Diplopia Following Upper Blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ortiz-Basso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diplopia is an infrequent complication after blepharoplasty. Most of the cases are in its vertical form due to trauma of the extraocular muscles. In this article, we present a case of horizontal diplopia following cosmetic upper blepharoplasty; we review the literature on this unexpected complication and offer some recommendations to avoid it.

  3. Predicting artificailly drained areas by means of selective model ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Bjørn; Beucher, Amélie; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    . The approaches employed include decision trees, discriminant analysis, regression models, neural networks and support vector machines amongst others. Several models are trained with each method, using variously the original soil covariates and principal components of the covariates. With a large ensemble...... out since the mid-19th century, and it has been estimated that half of the cultivated area is artificially drained (Olesen, 2009). A number of machine learning approaches can be used to predict artificially drained areas in geographic space. However, instead of choosing the most accurate model....... The study aims firstly to train a large number of models to predict the extent of artificially drained areas using various machine learning approaches. Secondly, the study will develop a method for selecting the models, which give a good prediction of artificially drained areas, when used in conjunction...

  4. Development of Charge Drain Coatings: Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-17

    The primary goal of this CRADA project was to develop and optimize tunable resistive coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as charge-drain coatings on the KLA-Tencor digital pattern generators (DPGs).

  5. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during ir...... findings can find application in off-shore, seismic and other engi- neering practice, or inspire new branches of research and modelling wherever dynamic, cyclic or transient loaded sand is encountered....

  6. Drain Back Systems in Laboratory and in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    in the collector loop to have a safe reliable operation. The components should also be designed and marked so that only one correct mounting option is possible, like forward and return pipes to/from the collector of slightly different sizes or color. Adapted installer education and training is a very important...... step to have success with drain back systems. Practices used in glycol systems may give serious failures. Key-words: Drain Back, Low Flow, Solar Combi System, ETC collectors....

  7. Cold Vacuum Drying facility effluent drain system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) effluent drain system (EFS). The primary function of the EFS is to collect and transport fire suppression water discharged into a CVDF process bay to a retention basin located outside the facility. The EFS also provides confinement of spills that occur inside a process bay and allows non-contaminated water that drains to the process bay sumps to be collected until sampling and analysis are complete

  8. Steam generator fitted with a dynamic draining device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaix, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    This generator has, at its upper part, at least one drying structure for holding the water carried with the steam and communicating at its lower part with at least one discharge pipe for draining off the water, each pipe communicating with a dynamic draining device capable of creating a depression in order to suck up the water contained in the drying structure. Application is for pressurized water nuclear reactors [fr

  9. Circuital model for the spherical geodesic waveguide perfect drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan C.; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.

    2012-08-01

    The perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) is a non-magnetic dissipative region placed in the focal point to absorb all the incident radiation without reflection or scattering. The perfect drain was recently designed as a material with complex permittivity that depends on frequency. However, this material is only a theoretical material, so it cannot be used in practical devices. The perfect drain has been claimed as necessary for achieving super-resolution (Leonhardt 2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040), which has increased the interest in practical perfect drains suitable for manufacturing. Here, we present a practical perfect drain that is designed using a simple circuit (made of a resistance and a capacitor) connected to the coaxial line. Moreover, we analyze the super-resolution properties of a device equivalent to the MFE, known as a spherical geodesic waveguide, loaded with this perfect drain. The super-resolution analysis for this device is carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics. The results of simulations predict a super-resolution of up to λ/3000.

  10. Circuital model for the spherical geodesic waveguide perfect drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Juan C; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C

    2012-01-01

    The perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) is a non-magnetic dissipative region placed in the focal point to absorb all the incident radiation without reflection or scattering. The perfect drain was recently designed as a material with complex permittivity that depends on frequency. However, this material is only a theoretical material, so it cannot be used in practical devices. The perfect drain has been claimed as necessary for achieving super-resolution (Leonhardt 2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040), which has increased the interest in practical perfect drains suitable for manufacturing. Here, we present a practical perfect drain that is designed using a simple circuit (made of a resistance and a capacitor) connected to the coaxial line. Moreover, we analyze the super-resolution properties of a device equivalent to the MFE, known as a spherical geodesic waveguide, loaded with this perfect drain. The super-resolution analysis for this device is carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics. The results of simulations predict a super-resolution of up to λ/3000. (paper)

  11. Brain drain from developing countries: how can brain drain be converted into wisdom gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodani, Sunita; LaPorte, Ronald E

    2005-01-01

    Brain drain is defined as the migration of health personnel in search of the better standard of living and quality of life, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide. This migration of health professionals for better opportunities, both within countries and across international borders, is of growing concern worldwide because of its impact on health systems in developing countries. Why do talented people leave their countries and go abroad? What are the consequences of such migrations especially on the educational sector? What policies can be adopted to stem such movements from developing countries to developed countries? This article seeks to raise questions, identify key issues and provide solutions which would enable immigrant health professionals to share their knowledge, skills and innovative capacities and thereby enhancing the economic development of their countries. PMID:16260795

  12. Study of the patency of different peritoneal drains used prophylactically in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado Júnior, Wilson; Macedo Neto, Marcelo Martins; dos Santos, José Sebastião; Sakarankutty, Ajith Kumar; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; de Castro e Silva, Orlando

    2009-05-21

    To compare the performance of different types of abdominal drains used in bariatric surgery. A vertical banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was performed in 33 morbidly obese patients. Drainage of the peritoneal cavity was performed in each case using three different types of drain selected in a randomized manner: a latex tubular drain, a Watterman tubulolaminar drain, and a silicone channeled drain. Drain permeability, contamination of the drained fluid, ease of handling, and patient discomfort were evaluated postoperatively over a period of 7 d. The patients with the silicone channeled drain had larger volumes of drainage compared to patients with tubular and tubulolaminar drains between the third and seventh postoperative days. In addition, a lower incidence of discomfort and of contamination with bacteria of a more pathogenic profile was observed in the patients with the silicone channeled drain. The silicone channeled drain was more comfortable and had less chance of occlusion, which is important in the detection of delayed dehiscence.

  13. The Winfrith horizontal impact rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, P.

    1985-12-01

    The Horizontal Impact Rig has been designed to allow studies of the impact of radioactive material transport containers and their associated transport vehicles and impact limiters, using large scale models, and to allow physically large missiles to be projected for studying the impact behaviour of metal and concrete structures. It provides an adequately rigid support structure for impact experiments with targets of large dimensions. Details of its design, instrumentation, performance prediction and construction are given. (U.K.)

  14. Atmospheric horizontal divergence and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castans, M.

    1981-01-01

    The action of horizontal divergence on diffusion near the ground is established through.a very simple flow model. The shape of the well-known Pasquill-Gifford-Turner curves, that apparently take account in some way of divergence, is justified. The possibility of explaining the discre--pancies between the conventional straight line model and experimental results, mainly under low-wind-speed satable conditions, is considered. Some hints for further research are made. (auth.)

  15. Nurses’ Knowledge Levels of Chest Drain Management: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Tarhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The physician is responsible for inserting one or more chest tubes into the pleural space or the mediastinal space and connecting them to an appropriate drainage system. When the general principles about care of patients with chest drains were implemented correctly and effectively by nurses, nurse will contribute to accelerate the healing process of patients. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the nurses’ level of knowledge regarding the care of patients with chest drains. Methods: The study was conducted with 153 nurses who worked in a chest diseases and thoracic surgery hospital in July 2014. Questionnaire form of 35 questions prepared by investigators was used to collect data. For the analysis of results, frequency tests, independent sample t-test and oneway ANOVA test were used. Results: 69.3% of nurses stated that they had obtained information from colleguages. 35.3% considered their knowledge about chest drain management to be inadequate. 55.6% scored 13 points and above from knowledge questionnaire about chest drain management. There were statistically significant difference between knowledge level and educational background, clinic work type, working unit, years of professional experience and institutional experience, frequency of contact patients with chest drain and perception of knowledge level (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that lack of evidence-based nursing care and insufficient training has resulted in uncertainty and knowledge deficit in important aspects of chest drain care. It can be concluded that nurses receive training needs and training protocols are about chest drain management.

  16. DRAINMOD-FOREST: Integrated Modeling of Hydrology, Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics, and Plant Growth for Drained Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shiying; Youssef, Mohamed A; Skaggs, R Wayne; Amatya, Devendra M; Chescheir, G M

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid and stand-level forest ecosystem model, DRAINMOD-FOREST, for simulating the hydrology, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics, and tree growth for drained forest lands under common silvicultural practices. The model was developed by linking DRAINMOD, the hydrological model, and DRAINMOD-N II, the soil C and N dynamics model, to a forest growth model, which was adapted mainly from the 3-PG model. The forest growth model estimates net primary production, C allocation, and litterfall using physiology-based methods regulated by air temperature, water deficit, stand age, and soil N conditions. The performance of the newly developed DRAINMOD-FOREST model was evaluated using a long-term (21-yr) data set collected from an artificially drained loblolly pine ( L.) plantation in eastern North Carolina, USA. Results indicated that the DRAINMOD-FOREST accurately predicted annual, monthly, and daily drainage, as indicated by Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of 0.93, 0.87, and 0.75, respectively. The model also predicted annual net primary productivity and dynamics of leaf area index reasonably well. Predicted temporal changes in the organic matter pool on the forest floor and in forest soil were reasonable compared to published literature. Both predicted annual and monthly nitrate export were in good agreement with field measurements, as indicated by Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients above 0.89 and 0.79 for annual and monthly predictions, respectively. This application of DRAINMOD-FOREST demonstrated its capability for predicting hydrology and C and N dynamics in drained forests under limited silvicultural practices. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. comparative evaluation of pressure distribution between horizontal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This paper presents comparative analysis between the pressure behavior of ... Green and source function were used to evaluate the performance of horizontal well and ..... Superscript. ' derivative. D = dimensionless. h = horizontal. = change.

  18. Leaching of dissolved phosphorus from tile-drained agricultural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, H E; Windolf, J; Kronvang, B

    2016-01-01

    We investigated leaching of dissolved phosphorus (P) from 45 tile-drains representing animal husbandry farms in all regions of Denmark. Leaching of P via tile-drains exhibits a high degree of spatial heterogeneity with a low concentration in the majority of tile-drains and few tile-drains (15% in our investigation) having high to very high concentration of dissolved P. The share of dissolved organic P (DOP) was high (up to 96%). Leaching of DOP has hitherto been a somewhat overlooked P loss pathway in Danish soils and the mechanisms of mobilization and transport of DOP needs more investigation. We found a high correlation between Olsen-P and water extractable P. Water extractable P is regarded as an indicator of risk of loss of dissolved P. Our findings indicate that Olsen-P, which is measured routinely in Danish agricultural soils, may be a useful proxy for the P leaching potential of soils. However, we found no straight-forward correlation between leaching potential of the top soil layer (expressed as either degree of P saturation, Olsen-P or water extractable P) and the measured concentration of dissolved P in the tile-drain. This underlines that not only the source of P but also the P loss pathway must be taken into account when evaluating the risk of P loss.

  19. Current practice patterns of drain usage amongst UK and Irish surgeons performing bilateral breast reductions: Evidence down the drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrue, Conor M; McInerney, Niall; Joyce, Cormac W; Jones, Deidre; Hussey, Alan J; Kelly, Jack L; Kerin, Michael J; Regan, Padraic J

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral breast reduction (BBR) is one of the most frequently performed female breast operations. Despite no evidence supporting efficacy of drain usage in BBRs, postoperative insertion is common. Recent high quality evidence demonstrating potential harm from drain use has subsequently challenged this traditional practice. The aim of this study is to assess the current practice patterns of drains usage by Plastic & Reconstructive and Breast Surgeons in UK and Ireland performing BBRs. An 18 question survey was created evaluating various aspects of BBR practice. UK and Irish Plastic & Reconstructive and Breast Surgeons were invited to participate by an email containing a link to a web-based survey. Statistical analysis was performed with student t-test and chi-square test. Two hundred and eleven responding surgeons were analysed, including 80.1% (171/211) Plastic Surgeons and 18.9% (40/211) Breast Surgeons. Of the responding surgeons, 71.6% (151/211) routinely inserted postoperative drains, for a mean of 1.32 days. Drains were used significantly less by surgeons performing ≥20 BBRs (p = 0.02). With the majority of BBRs performed as an inpatient procedure, there was a trend towards less drain usage in surgeons performing this procedure as an outpatient; however, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). Even with the high level of evidence demonstrating the safety of BBR without drains, they are still routinely utilised. In an era of evidence- based medicine, surgeons performing breast reductions must adopt the results from scientific research into their clinical practice.

  20. Bubble shape in horizontal and near horizontal intermittent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Hanyang; Guo, Liejin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The bubble shapes in intermittent flows are presented experimentally. • The nose-tail inversion phenomenon appears at a low Froude number in downward pipe. • Transition from plug to slug flow occurs when the bubble tail changes from staircase pattern to hydraulic jump. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study of the shape of isolated bubbles in horizontal and near horizontal intermittent flows. It is found that the shapes of the nose and body of bubble depend on the Froude number defined by gas/liquid mixture velocity in a pipe, whereas the shape of the back of bubble region depends on both the Froude number and bubble length. The photographic studies show that the transition from plug to slug flow occurs when the back of the bubble changes from staircase pattern to hydraulic jump with the increase of the Froude number and bubble length. The effect of pipe inclination on characteristics of bubble is significant: The bubble is inversely located in a downwardly inclined pipe when the Froude number is low, and the transition from plug flow to slug flow in an upward inclined pipe is more ready to occur compared with that in a downwardly inclined pipe

  1. A study of the complications of small bore 'Seldinger' intercostal chest drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Helen E; Merchant, Shairoz; McGown, Anne

    2008-06-01

    Use of small bore chest drains (drainage over a 12-month period. One hundred consecutive small bore Seldinger (12F) chest drain insertions were evaluated. Few serious complications occurred. However, 21% of the chest drains were displaced ('fell out') and 9% of the drains became blocked. This contributed to high morbidity rates, with 13% of patients requiring repeat pleural procedures. The frequency of drain blockage in pleural effusion was reduced by administration of regular normal saline drain flushes (odds ratio for blockage in flushed drains compared with non-flushed drains 0.04, 95% CI: 0.01-0.37, P < 0.001). Regular chest drain flushes are advocated in order to reduce rates of drain blockage, and further studies are needed to determine optimal fixation strategies that may reduce associated patient morbidity.

  2. Environmental restoration using horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.; Hazen, T.C.; Corey, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems

  3. Frequency dependence and passive drains in fish-eye lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo-Teruel, O.; Mitchell-Thomas, R. C.; Hao, Y.

    2012-11-01

    The Maxwell fish eye lens has previously been reported as being capable of the much sought after phenomenon of subwavelength imaging. The inclusion of a drain in this system is considered crucial to the imaging ability, although its role is the topic of much debate. This paper provides a numerical investigation into a practical implementation of a drain in such systems, and analyzes the strong frequency dependence of both the Maxwell fish eye lens and an alternative, the Miñano lens. The imaging capability of these types of lens is questioned, and it is supported by simulations involving various configurations of drain arrays. Finally, a discussion of the near-field and evanescent wave contribution is given.

  4. The effect of drains on the alkalinity of agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.A.; Butt, T.; Anwar-ul-Haque; Haroon, M.; Haq, I.U.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to observe the effect of industrial and domestic drains on the nearby agricultural areas which are either irrigated or not by the waste water but are close to drains. For this purpose 48 soil samples were collected from the selected areas of Faisalabad and were analyzed for alkali metals like Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Li/sup +/ and some alkaline earth metals like Ba/sup 2+/> Mg/sup 3+/> Na/sup +/> K/sup +/> Li/sup +/ the levels of Ba/sup +2/ and K/sup +/ were found higher than permissible levels in almost all the soil samples. It was also concluded that the agricultural areas near the industrial drain which are either irrigated or not by the industrial waste water are found highly contaminated with mobile alkali metals (K, Na etc.) and higher values of percentage salinity. (author)

  5. Fibredrain method. Environmentally friendly vertical drain; Fiberdrain koho. Kankyo ni yasashii vertical drain koho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, Y.; Inoue, T. [Fukken Co. Ltd., Hiroshima (Japan); Miura, N. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Yoshida, Y.; Hamada, K. [Hiroshima Prefectural Government Office, Hiroshima (Japan); Aboshi, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Ground improvement using fibredrain (FD) material has not been used in Japan. For its practical use in Japan, laboratory experiment was made on such technological characteristics of FD material as tensile strength and permeability, and field test was also made to verify its improvement effect. A plane FD specimen of nearly 90mm wide and 9mm thick is composed of a folded double jute fabrics band and 4 twisted coir ropes arranged between the jute fabrics at even intervals, and the band is sewn up along center lines between the ropes. A mean permeability coefficient is estimated to be {kappa} = 1.0times10{sup -1}cm/s and {kappa} = 1.0times10{sup -2}cm/s at {sigma}{sup 3} = 0.5kgf/cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sup 3} = 2.0kgf/cm{sup 2} in lateral pressure, respectively, showing sufficient permeabilities for vertical drain material. The tensile strength of fresh FD material is estimated to be a little stronger than 900kg/material width which is far stronger than that of conventional FD materials. The field test result showed that the FD material achieved the target for ground improvement, and has sufficient functions as a substitute for SD material. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  6. A Worldwide Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Drained Organic Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Nicola Tubiello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of organic soils, including peatlands, in the global carbon cycle, detailed information on regional and global emissions is scarce. This is due to the difficulty to map, measure, and assess the complex dynamics of land, soil, and water interactions needed to assess the human-driven degradation of organic soils. We produced a new methodology for the comprehensive assessment of drained organic soils in agriculture and the estimation of the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Results indicated that over 25 million hectares of organic soils were drained worldwide for agriculture use, of which about 60% were in boreal and temperate cool areas, 34% in tropical areas, and 5% in warm temperate areas. Total emissions from the drainage were globally significant, totaling nearly one billion tonnes CO2eq annually. Of this, the CO2 component, about 780 million tonnes, represented more than one-fourth of total net CO2 emissions from agriculture, forestry, and land use. The bulk of these emissions came from a few tropical countries in Southeast Asia, and was linked to land clearing and drainage for crop cultivation. Geospatial data relative to this work were disseminated via the FAO geospatial server GeoNetwork, while the national aggregated statistics were disseminated via the FAOSTAT database.

  7. Replacement of the drain system of secondary circuit at Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kenji; Onuki, Koji; Tomobe, Katsuma; Taniyama, Sadami

    2003-01-01

    Monju is as a Japan's prototype fast breeder reactor cooled by liquid sodium. In the course of power buildup tests, the sodium leakage accident broke out on 8th December 1995. Though Monju has been already equipped with countermeasure systems against the sodium leakage accident, some additional improvements will be taken in order to reduce the damage by the leaked sodium when another leakage accident should recur. The most characteristic work is the drain system modification that leads to shorten the drain time and to reduce the quantity of leaked sodium in the event of sodium leakage. (author)

  8. Optimization design for drain to nuclear power condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jiapeng; Jiang Chengren

    2010-01-01

    Characters and varieties of drain to nuclear power condenser are discussed in this paper. Take the main steam system of a nuclear power as an example, normal and detailed optimization design are introduced, related expatiate are used as a reference for the drain of other systems. According to the characters of nuclear power instant operation, the influence and needed actions related with the optimization design are also analyzed. Based on the above research, the scheme has been carried out in a nuclear power station and safety for the condenser operation of the nuclear power has been improved largely. (authors)

  9. Rare bile duct anomaly: B3 duct draining to gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old girl presented with recurrent right upper abdominal pain and dyspepsia. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a dilated common channel of intrahepatic bile duct of segment 3 (B3 and segment 4 (B4 drained into the gallbladder directly. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy (B3-jejunostomy. Among the anatomical variability of the biliary system, the cholecystohepatic ducts are controversial in existence and incidence. We report a very rare variant of a cholecystohepatic duct in which the B3 duct drained into gallbladder directly and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report.

  10. N loss to drain flow and N2O emissions from a corn-soybean rotation with winter rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, K; Malone, R W; Kaspar, T C; Ma, L; Parkin, T B; Jaynes, D B; Fang, Q X; Hatfield, J L; Feyereisen, G W; Kersebaum, K C

    2018-03-15

    Anthropogenic perturbation of the global nitrogen cycle and its effects on the environment such as hypoxia in coastal regions and increased N 2 O emissions is of increasing, multi-disciplinary, worldwide concern, and agricultural production is a major contributor. Only limited studies, however, have simultaneously investigated NO 3 - losses to subsurface drain flow and N 2 O emissions under corn-soybean production. We used the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) to evaluate NO 3 - losses to drain flow and N 2 O emissions in a corn-soybean system with a winter rye cover crop (CC) in central Iowa over a nine year period. The observed and simulated average drain flow N concentration reductions from CC were 60% and 54% compared to the no cover crop system (NCC). Average annual April through October cumulative observed and simulated N 2 O emissions (2004-2010) were 6.7 and 6.0kgN 2 O-Nha -1 yr -1 for NCC, and 6.2 and 7.2kgNha -1 for CC. In contrast to previous research, monthly N 2 O emissions were generally greatest when N loss to leaching were greatest, mostly because relatively high rainfall occurred during the months fertilizer was applied. N 2 O emission factors of 0.032 and 0.041 were estimated for NCC and CC using the tested model, which are similar to field results in the region. A local sensitivity analysis suggests that lower soil field capacity affects RZWQM simulations, which includes increased drain flow nitrate concentrations, increased N mineralization, and reduced soil water content. The results suggest that 1) RZWQM is a promising tool to estimate N 2 O emissions from subsurface drained corn-soybean rotations and to estimate the relative effects of a winter rye cover crop over a nine year period on nitrate loss to drain flow and 2) soil field capacity is an important parameter to model N mineralization and N loss to drain flow. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Horizontal gene transfer in chromalveolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Debashish

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, the non-genealogical transfer of genetic material between different organisms, is considered a potentially important mechanism of genome evolution in eukaryotes. Using phylogenomic analyses of expressed sequence tag (EST data generated from a clonal cell line of a free living dinoflagellate alga Karenia brevis, we investigated the impact of HGT on genome evolution in unicellular chromalveolate protists. Results We identified 16 proteins that have originated in chromalveolates through ancient HGTs before the divergence of the genera Karenia and Karlodinium and one protein that was derived through a more recent HGT. Detailed analysis of the phylogeny and distribution of identified proteins demonstrates that eight have resulted from independent HGTs in several eukaryotic lineages. Conclusion Recurring intra- and interdomain gene exchange provides an important source of genetic novelty not only in parasitic taxa as previously demonstrated but as we show here, also in free-living protists. Investigating the tempo and mode of evolution of horizontally transferred genes in protists will therefore advance our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in eukaryotes.

  12. Improved waterflooding efficiency by horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, C. G. [Petroleum and Gas Univ., Ploesti (Romania); Clipea, M. [SNP Petrom SA, ICPT Campina (Romania)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of well pattern involving the use of horizontal wells on the overall efficiency of the waterflooding process was analyzed. Three different scenarios were examined: (1) a pattern of using two parallel horizontal wells, one for injection, the other for production, (2) a pattern of one horizontal well for water injection and several vertical wells for production, and (3) a pattern of using vertical wells for injection and one horizontal well for production. In each case, the waterflooding process was simulated using a two phase two dimensional numerical model. Results showed that the pressure loss along the horizontal section had a large influence on the sweep efficiency whether the horizontal well was used for injection or production. Overall, the most successful combination appeared to be using vertical wells for injection and horizontal wells for production. 4 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

  13. An Equal-Strain Analytical Solution for the Radial Consolidation of Unsaturated Soils by Vertical Drains considering Drain Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing an analytical solution for the consolidation of unsaturated soils remains a challenging task due to the complexity of coupled governing equations for air and water phases. This paper presents an equal-strain model for the radial consolidation of unsaturated soils by vertical drains, and the effect of drain resistance is also considered. Simplified governing equations are established, and an analytical solution to calculate the excess pore-air and pore-water pressures is derived by using the methods of matrix analysis and eigenfunction expansion. The average degrees of consolidation for air and water phases and the ground surface settlement are also given. The solutions of the equal-strain model are verified by comparing the proposed free-strain model with the equal-strain model, and reasonably good agreement is obtained. Moreover, parametric studies regarding the drain resistance effect are graphically presented.

  14. Does the suction drain diameter matter? Bleeding analysis after total knee replacement comparing different suction drain gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos George de Souza Leao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To evaluate bleeding and the estimated blood loss in patients who underwent total knee replacement (TKR with different closed suction drains (3.2-mm and 4.8-mm gauge. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled trial with 22 patients who underwent TKR and were divided into two groups: Group I, with 11 patients in whom the 3.2-mm suction drain was used, and Group II, with 11 patients in whom the 4.8-mm suction drain was used. The hematocrit was measured after 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery in order to calculate the estimated blood loss. The drained volume was measured 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after TKR, and thereafter both groups were compared. RESULTS: Regarding the hematocrit, there were no differences between groups in measured periods (24, 48, and 72 h after surgery. The total bleeding measured at the suction drains within 48 h was higher in Group II, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.005; in the first 24 h, there was major bleeding in Group II (mean 893 mL, with a significant difference (p = 0.004. Between 24 and 48 h, there was no statistically significant difference in both groups (p = 0.710. The total estimated bleeding was higher in Group I, with mean of 463 mL, versus 409 mL in Group II, with no statistical significance (p = 0.394. CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding was higher in the group that used the 4.8 mm gauge suction drain, with no differences in hematocrit and estimated blood loss.

  15. Test of a simplified modeling approach for nitrogen transfer in agricultural subsurface-drained catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henine, Hocine; Julien, Tournebize; Jaan, Pärn; Ülo, Mander

    2017-04-01

    In agricultural areas, nitrogen (N) pollution load to surface waters depends on land use, agricultural practices, harvested N output, as well as the hydrology and climate of the catchment. Most of N transfer models need to use large complex data sets, which are generally difficult to collect at larger scale (>km2). The main objective of this study is to carry out a hydrological and a geochemistry modeling by using a simplified data set (land use/crop, fertilizer input, N losses from plots). The modelling approach was tested in the subsurface-drained Orgeval catchment (Paris Basin, France) based on following assumptions: Subsurface tile drains are considered as a giant lysimeter system. N concentration in drain outlets is representative for agricultural practices upstream. Analysis of observed N load (90% of total N) shows 62% of export during the winter. We considered prewinter nitrate (NO3) pool (PWNP) in soils at the beginning of hydrological drainage season as a driving factor for N losses. PWNP results from the part of NO3 not used by crops or the mineralization part of organic matter during the preceding summer and autumn. Considering these assumptions, we used PWNP as simplified input data for the modelling of N transport. Thus, NO3 losses are mainly influenced by the denitrification capacity of soils and stream water. The well-known HYPE model was used to perform water and N losses modelling. The hydrological simulation was calibrated with the observation data at different sub-catchments. We performed a hydrograph separation validated on the thermal and isotopic tracer studies and the general knowledge of the behavior of Orgeval catchment. Our results show a good correlation between the model and the observations (a Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of 0.75 for water discharge and 0.7 for N flux). Likewise, comparison of calibrated PWNP values with the results from a field survey (annual PWNP campaign) showed significant positive correlation. One can conclude that

  16. Modified APEX model for Simulating Macropore Phosphorus Contributions to Tile Drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, William I; King, Kevin W; Williams, Mark R; Confesor, Remegio B

    2017-11-01

    The contribution of macropore flow to phosphorus (P) loadings in tile-drained agricultural landscapes remains poorly understood at the field scale, despite the recognized deleterious impacts of contaminant transport via macropore pathways. A new subroutine that couples existing matrix-excess and matrix-desiccation macropore flow theory and a modified P routine is implemented in the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model. The original and modified formulation were applied and evaluated for a case study in a poorly drained field in Western Ohio with 31 months of surface and subsurface monitoring data. Results highlighted that a macropore subroutine in APEX improved edge-of-field discharge calibration and validation for both tile and total discharge from satisfactory and good, respectively, to very good and improved dissolved reactive P load calibration and validation statistics for tile P loads from unsatisfactory to very good. Output from the calibrated macropore simulations suggested median annual matrix-desiccation macropore flow contributions of 48% and P load contributions of 43%, with the majority of loading occurring in winter and spring. While somewhat counterintuitive, the prominence of matrix-desiccation macropore flow during seasons with less cracking reflects the importance of coupled development of macropore pathways and adequate supply of the macropore flow source. The innovative features of the model allow for assessments of annual macropore P contributions to tile drainage and has the potential to inform P site assessment tools. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. The management of vacuum neck drains in head and neck surgery and the comparison of two different practice protocols for drain removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbekar, A V; Davies, F; Upile, N; Ho, M W; Roland, N J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of vacuum neck drains in head and neck surgery is varied. We aimed to improve early drain removal and therefore patient discharge in a safe and effective manner. Methods The postoperative management of head and neck surgical patients with vacuum neck drains was reviewed retrospectively. A new policy was then implemented to measure drainage three times daily (midnight, 6am, midday). The decision for drain removal was based on the most recent drainage period (at Measuring drainage volumes three times daily allows for more accurate assessment of wound drainage, and this can lead to earlier removal of neck drains and safe discharge.

  18. Brain drain or brain gain : The case of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W. Dulam (Tina)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Brain drain refers to the emigration of highly skilled individuals mostly from a less developed (home) to a developed country (destination) thereby reducing the capacity of the home country to generate welfare for its population. In the literature there is much written

  19. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field

  20. Outcome in Chronic Subdural Hematoma After Subdural vs. Subgaleal Drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishfaq, Asim

    2017-07-01

    To compare the outcome after surgery for chronic subdural hematoma when the drain is placed in subdural space or subgaleal space. Quasi experimental study. Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from July 2015 to June 2016. Patients with chronic subdural hematoma of both genders and age, ranging between 55 to 85 years, were included. Patients on antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy and acute on chronic subdural hematoma were excluded. Patients were divided in two equal groups each depending on whether drain was placed in subgaleal space (Group 1), and subdual space (Group 2), (n=31 patients each). Patients were positioned flat in bed after surgery. Clinical and radiological parameters and clinical outcome were compared between the two groups. Statistical test with significance of p hematoma was 15 ±6.5 mm. Patients with subdural drain placement had more complications such as pneumocephalus 11 (35.4%) vs. 6 (19.3%), and intracerebral hemorrhage 4 (12.9%) vs. 2 (6.4%). Clinical outcome was good in both groups 27 (87%) in Group 1 and 28 (90%) in Group 2. Patients of both groups had good outcome after surgery. Complications like pneumocephalus and intracerebral hemorrhage were more common in subdural location of drain, though not reaching statistically significance level to favor one technique over another.

  1. On the use of drains in orthopedic and trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-08

    Nov 8, 2013 ... Even major procedures like total knee and arthroplasties are being performed without drains. We set to find ... discourage wound healing while encouraging bacterial ... a period of two days or if drainage over the first twenty‑four hours was found ... Three of the twenty Kuntscher nailings for femoral fracture.

  2. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  3. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  4. Moving Policy Forward: "Brain Drain" as a Wicked Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    The mobility of scientists and the concerns surrounding "brain drain" are not new. Even in the Ptolemic dynasty, the first king set out to attract and influence the movements of scholars to shift the centre of learning from Athens to Alexandria. Yet after all this time, there is still much policy discourse and debate focused on attempting to…

  5. Xpand chest drain: assessing equivalence to current standard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leakage from 'open to air' system or breakage of glass bottle (with associated risk to ... and an air-leak detection system. It is connected to a ... need to add water. Xpand chest drain: assessing equivalence to current standard therapy – a randomised controlled trial. CHARL COOPER, M.B. CH.B. TIMOTHY HARDCASTLE ...

  6. An Improvised Active Drain | Ogirima | Nigerian Journal of Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An improvised active drain is designed from intravenous infusion set and recycled RedivacR or Haemovac® bottle. Outcome of the use of this system on 100 patients is presented. This suction drainage system had been used in major orthopaedic and common minor surgical procedures and no significant complication was ...

  7. Case Report: Supernumerary right renal vein draining inferior to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With recent increase in renal transplantations, renovascular reconstructions and imaging advances, meticulous knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the renal vasculature is important to avoid potential pitfalls. We report a case of an accessory renal vein arising from the right kidney, and draining into the inferior ...

  8. Xpand chest drain: assessing equivalence to current standard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Xpand chest drain is an external medical device made of plastic that incorporates a fluid reservoir, a one-way valve and an air-leak detection system ... conect ed to a 2 000 ml drainage bag) prevents exposure of body fluids to nursing staff.

  9. English and the Brain Drain : An Uncertain Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtkamp, C.

    2016-01-01

    In his book Linguistic Justice for Europe and the World, Van Parijs analyses in one of his chapters the brain drain from non-Anglophone to Anglophone countries, which hurts the economic development of the nonAnglophone states. Van Parijs deems it clear that English is a very important factor to

  10. Organic loss in drained wetland: managing the carbon footprint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durham, B.; van de Noort, R.; Martens, V.V.; Vorenhout, M.

    2012-01-01

    The recent installation of land drains at Star Carr, Yorkshire, UK, has been linked with loss of preservation quality in this important Mesolithic buried landscape, challenging the PARIS principle. Historically captured organic carbon, including organic artefacts, is being converted to soluble

  11. Brain Drain in Higher Education: Lost Hope or Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, George

    2012-01-01

    The flight of human capital is a phenomenon that has been of concern to academics and development practitioners for decades but unfortunately, there is no systematic record of the number of skilled professionals that many African countries have continued to lose to the developed world. Termed the "brain drain", it represents the loss of…

  12. Draining Collars and Lenses in Liquid-Lined Vertical Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen

    2000-01-01

    The speed at which an annular liquid collar drains under gravity g in a vertical tube of radius a, when the tube has an otherwise thin viscous liquid lining on its interior, is determined by a balance between the collar's weight and viscous shear stresses confined to narrow regions in the neighborhood of the collar's effective contact lines. Whether a collar grows or shrinks in volume as it drains depends on the modified Bond number B=rho g a(2)/(sigmaepsilon), where rho is the fluid density, sigma is its surface tension, and epsilona is the thickness of the thin film immediately ahead of the collar. Asymptotic methods are used here to determine the following nonlinear stability criteria for an individual collar, valid in the limit of small epsilon. For 0draining collars grow in volume and, in sufficiently long tubes, ultimately "snap off" to form stable lenses. For 0.5960drain, so that any lens ultimately ruptures, unless stabilizing intermolecular forces allow the formation of a lamella supported by a macroscopic Plateau border. If surfactant immobilizes the liquid's free surface, these critical values of B are reduced by a factor of 2 but the distance a collar must travel before it snaps off is unchanged. Gravitationally driven snap off is therefore most likely to occur in long tubes with radii substantially less than the capillary lengthscale sigma/rhog)(1/2). Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. Phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  14. Drains after Thyroidectomy for Benign Thyroid Disorders; Are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prophylactic drainage after thyroidectomy has been a regular practice at Kenyatta National Hospital( KNH). This has been ... stay and post-operative pain. Introduction. Prophylactic drains are still regularly used in ..... Total versus subtotal thyroidectomy for the management of benign multinodular goiter in an endemic region.

  15. Influence of Hudiara Drain Water Irrigation on Trace Elements Load ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Drain Water Irrigation on Trace Elements Load In Soil And Uptake By Vegetables. ... This polluted water not only contains organic matter and crop nutrients but also ... Plant samples were collected at maturity from all the monitoring points. ... (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) ...

  16. Anomie and the "Brain Drain": A Sociological Explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, Oscar

    The concept of anomie is proposed as one sociological variable that may explain the "brain drain" phenomenon (i.e., the movement of highly qualified personnel from their country of origin to another, most often a more developed, technologically advanced country). It is hypothesized that the higher the level of anomie found among…

  17. Explorando nuevos horizontes en NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, G. L.

    A pesar de la incesante expansión del Universo iniciada con el Big Bang 14 mil millones de años atrás, nuestro Universo se siente cada día más cercano. La inquebrantable vocación de la humanidad por descubrir nuevos horizontes ha permitido el acercamiento de civilizaciones en nuestro planeta y nos ha permitido conocer nuestro lugar en el Universo como nunca antes. En este artículo presento una breve sinopsis de nuestro trabajo que se relaciona con diversas investigaciones con implicaciones astrobiológicas, desde el origen de los ingredientes de la "sopa de la vida", hasta la evolución y composición de la atmósfera de Marte.

  18. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel, a reactor guard vessel, a thermal insulation shell and a horizontal seismic restraint, a restraint is described comprising: a. a first ring on the wall of the reactor vessel; b. a second ring on the wall of the reactor guard vessel in alignment with the first ring; c. a first block attached to the second ring proximate the first ring so as to provide a predetermined clearance between the first block and the first ring which is reduced to zero during thermal expansion; d. motion limit means extending through an aperture in the thermal insulation shell in alignment with the second ring and the first block; the e. a second block attached to the motion limit means proximate the second ring and in alignment the first block so as to provide a predetermined clearance between the second block and the second ring which is reduced to zero during thermal expansion

  19. Timing of Re-Transfusion Drain Removal Following Total Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, MF; Costa, ML; Costello, E; Edwards, D

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The use of postoperative drains following total knee replacement (TKR) has recently been modified by the use of re-transfusion drains. The aim of our study was to investigate the optimal time for removal of re-transfusion drains following TKR. PATIENTS AND METHODS The medical records of 66 patients who had a TKR performed between October 2003 and October 2004 were reviewed; blood drained before 6 h and the total volume of blood drained was recorded. RESULTS A total of 56 patients had complete records of postoperative drainage. The mean volume of blood collected in the drain in the first 6 h was 442 ml. The mean total volume of blood in the drain was 595 ml. Therefore, of the blood drained, 78% was available for transfusion. CONCLUSION Re-transfusion drains should be removed after 6 h, when no further re-transfusion is permissible. PMID:16551400

  20. Greenhouse gas flux measurements in a forestry-drained peatland indicate a large carbon sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lohila

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Drainage for forestry purposes increases the depth of the oxic peat layer and leads to increased growth of shrubs and trees. Concurrently, the production and uptake of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O change: due to the accelerated decomposition of peat in the presence of oxygen, drained peatlands are generally considered to lose peat carbon (C. We measured CO2 exchange with the eddy covariance (EC method above a drained nutrient-poor peatland forest in southern Finland for 16 months in 2004–2005. The site, classified as a dwarf-shrub pine bog, had been ditched about 35 years earlier. CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured at 2–5-week intervals with the chamber technique. Drainage had resulted in a relatively little change in the water table level, being on average 40 cm below the ground in 2005. The annual net ecosystem exchange was −870 ± 100 g CO2 m−2 yr−1 in the calendar year 2005, indicating net CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. The site was a small sink of CH4 (−0.12 g CH4 m−2 yr−1 and a small source of N2O (0.10 g N2O m−2 yr−1. Photosynthesis was detected throughout the year when the air temperature exceeded −3 °C. As the annual accumulation of C in the above and below ground tree biomass (175 ± 35 g C m−2 was significantly lower than the accumulation observed by the flux measurement (240 ± 30 g C m−2, about 65 g C m−2 yr−1 was likely to have accumulated as organic matter into the peat soil. This is a higher average accumulation rate than previously reported for natural northern peatlands, and the first time C accumulation has been shown by EC measurements to occur in a forestry-drained peatland. Our results suggest that forestry

  1. Potential for horizontal well technology in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biglarbigi, K.; Mohan, H.; Ray, R.M.; Meehan, D.N.

    2000-01-01

    In the past decade, the use of horizontal well technology has increased significantly in the U.S., contributing to the drilling of 600 to 1000 horizontal oil wells annually. A total of 86 per cent of the existing horizontal wells have been drilled in three formations, the Austin chalk in Texas, the Bakken shale in North Dakota, and the Niobrara in Colorado and Wyoming. A unique analytical system has been developed by the United States Department of Energy, National Petroleum Technology Office (USDOE/NPTO) to assess the potential for greater use of horizontal well technology for other oil resources in other geological formations. The analytical system is designed to be used in association with other enhanced recovery methods that make up the DOE's Total Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). The DOE/NPTO collaborated with industry to identify the target resource for horizontal well technology and to evaluate its future recovery potential under different economic and technological conditions. This paper provides a national summary of the potential for additional production and reserves with more diverse application of horizontal wells in various types of U.S. oil resources, including the rest of the fractured reservoirs in the Austin chalk, other fractured reservoirs in the north and northwestern states, thin-bed reservoirs, and mature waterflood field. The results were presented in terms of production, reserves and national economic benefits with a full cash-flow analysis at oil prices in the range of $16 to $24 U.S. per bbl. It is estimated that 541 million to 1 billion bbls of new reserves are economically producible at these prices. The reserves estimates pertain to future horizontal wells in known fields only and are in addition to the reserves for the existing wells as of 1 January 1998. Potential production is substantial, ranging from 50 million to 85 million bbl per year by 2004 and then declining at a rate of 8 per cent per year in the following years

  2. Improved simulation of poorly drained forests using Biome-BGC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Gower, Stith T; Ahl, Douglas E

    2007-05-01

    Forested wetlands and peatlands are important in boreal and terrestrial biogeochemical cycling, but most general-purpose forest process models are designed and parameterized for upland systems. We describe changes made to Biome-BGC, an ecophysiological process model, that improve its ability to simulate poorly drained forests. Model changes allowed for: (1) lateral water inflow from a surrounding watershed, and variable surface and subsurface drainage; (2) adverse effects of anoxic soil on decomposition and nutrient mineralization; (3) closure of leaf stomata in flooded soils; and (4) growth of nonvascular plants (i.e., bryophytes). Bryophytes were treated as ectohydric broadleaf evergreen plants with zero stomatal conductance, whose cuticular conductance to CO(2) was dependent on plant water content. Individual model changes were parameterized with published data, and ecosystem-level model performance was assessed by comparing simulated output to field data from the northern BOREAS site in Manitoba, Canada. The simulation of the poorly drained forest model exhibited reduced decomposition and vascular plant growth (-90%) compared with that of the well-drained forest model; the integrated bryophyte photosynthetic response accorded well with published data. Simulated net primary production, biomass and soil carbon accumulation broadly agreed with field measurements, although simulated net primary production was higher than observed data in well-drained stands. Simulated net primary production in the poorly drained forest was most sensitive to oxygen restriction on soil processes, and secondarily to stomatal closure in flooded conditions. The modified Biome-BGC remains unable to simulate true wetlands that are subject to prolonged flooding, because it does not track organic soil formation, water table changes, soil redox potential or anaerobic processes.

  3. Origin of the water drained by the tunnel Graton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata B, A.

    1992-12-01

    The research of the origin of the water drained by the Graton tunnel was attempted using isotope techniques. During the period of studies (April 1989-October 1992), four field work was executed to sample waters for chemistry, stable isotope and Tritium analysis, an to inject tracers and verify the possible infiltration from the Rimac and Blanco rivers to the tunnel. The results of the stable isotope analysis show that the water drained by the Graton tunnel comes from a basin around 300 meters above the average altitude of the basin where the Graton is located. The Tritium analysis show that the water is relatively modern. Using the model of total mixing, the residence times of the water drained at the km 0.5 and 2.5 are in the order to 45 years. The conductivities of the water of the tunnel is higher than the Rimac river ones because the influence of mine water. The chemical analysis of the water sampled at the downstream end of the tunnel, show that the conservative ions of the water kept almost constant during more than two years. The results of the work with artificial tracer show that there is no significant leakage from the Rimac and Blanco rivers to the Graton tunnel. So far, it can be concluded as a preliminary approach that the Graton tunnel drains relatively modern water originated in another basin. The hydrodynamics of the area of study seems to include a large storage on underground water in the system. The topography, geology and isotopic composition of the water samples, points to the upper Mantaro river basin as the possible source of part of the water drained by the Graton tunnel. (authors). 20 p. 2 figs., 7 ills., 4 tabs

  4. Perioperative lumbar drain utilization in transsphenoidal pituitary resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Shatha; Harsh, Griffith; Ajlan, Abdulrazag

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate lumbar drain (LD) efficacy in transnasal resection of pituitary macroadenomas in preventing postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, technique safety, and effect on length of hospital stay. We conducted a retrospective data review of pituitary tumor patients in our institution who underwent surgery between December 2006 and January 2013. All patients were operated on for complete surgical resection of pituitary macroadenoma tumors. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 received a preoperative drain, while LD was not preoperatively inserted in group 2. In cases of tumors with suprasellar extension with anticipation of high-flow leak, LD was inserted after the patient was intubated and in a lateral position. Lumbar drain was used for 48 hours, and the drain was removed if no leak was observed postoperatively. In documented postoperative CSF leak patients with no preoperative drain, the leak was treated by LD trial prior to surgical reconstruction. Cases in which leak occurred 6 months postoperatively were excluded. Our study population consisted of 186 patients, 99 women (53%) and 87 men (47%), with a mean age of 50.3+/-16.1 years. Complications occurred in 7 patients (13.7%) in group 1 versus 21 (15.5%) in group 2 (p=0.72). Postoperative CSF leak was observed in 1 patient (1.9%) in group 1 and 7 (5%) in group 2 (Fisher exact test=0.3). Length of hospital stay was a mean of 4.7+/-1.9 days in group 1 and a mean of 2.7+/-2.4 days in group 2 (pLD insertion is generally considered safe with a low risk of complications, it increases the length of hospitalization. Minor complications include headaches and patient discomfort.

  5. Analytical solution for vacuum preloading considering the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Peng

    Full Text Available The vacuum preloading is an effective method which is widely used in ground treatment. In consolidation analysis, the soil around prefabricated vertical drain (PVD is traditionally divided into smear zone and undisturbed zone, both with constant permeability. In reality, the permeability of soil changes continuously within the smear zone. In this study, the horizontal permeability coefficient of soil within the smear zone is described by an exponential function of radial distance. A solution for vacuum preloading consolidation considers the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone is presented and compared with previous analytical results as well as a numerical solution, the results show that the presented solution correlates well with the numerical solution, and is more precise than previous analytical solution.

  6. Penetrating particles in horizontal air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlenberg, J.; Boehm, E.

    1975-01-01

    Particle density and arrival time of muons has been measured in Horizontal Air Showers. 5,600 showers have been recorded in 7,800 hours. Using stringent selection criteria 155 showers have been found horizontal (zenith angle larger 70 0 ) in the size range 4.1 > lg N > 5.5. The muons observed in these showers can be explained by purely electromagnetic origin of horizontal showers. (orig.) [de

  7. Vertical and horizontal access configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    A number of configuration features and maintenance operations are influenced by the choice of whether a design is based on vertical or horizontal access for replacing reactor components. The features which are impacted most include the first wall/blanket segmentation, the poloidal field coil locations, the toroidal field coil number and size, access port size for in-vessel components, and facilities. Since either configuration can be made to work, the choice between the two is not clear cut because both have certain advantages. It is apparent that there are large cost benefits in the poloidal field coil system for ideal coil locations for high elongation plasmas and marginal savings for the INTOR case. If we assume that a new tokamak design will require a higher plasma elongation, the recommendation is to arrange the poloidal field coils in a cost-effective manner while providing reasonable midplane access for heating interfaces and test modules. If a new design study is not based on a high elongation plasma, it still appears prudent to consider this approach so that in-vessel maintenance can be accomplished without moving very massive structures such as the bulk shield. 10 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Horizontal vortex single chamber hydroturbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Antonio Zarate-Orrego

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó una máquina con alta resistencia de forma para extraer energía de una quebrada, río o corriente marina, y generar electricidad. Sin instrumentos adecuados, la investigación fue cualitativa. Se supuso que si aun así funcionaba, su comportamiento podía mejorar suavizándose la forma. El aparato tiene una tobera semi-convergente de paredes planas, una cámara de vórtice cilíndrica y un rodete. Capta agua por su sección mayor y la descarga tangencialmente por su sección menor en la cámara de vórtice; ésta tiene un orificio en una de sus paredes laterales. Así forma un vórtice horizontal que hace girar un rodete cuyo eje acciona un generador eléctrico. El trabajo experimental realizado mostró que sí es posible producir energía eléctrica con este dispositivo pese a las condiciones adversas en que se ensayó.

  9. Horizontal gene transfer between bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia

    2007-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) refers to the acquisition of foreign genes by organisms. The occurrence of HGT among bacteria in the environment is assumed to have implications in the risk assessment of genetically modified bacteria which are released into the environment. First, introduced genetic sequences from a genetically modified bacterium could be transferred to indigenous micro-organisms and alter their genome and subsequently their ecological niche. Second, the genetically modified bacterium released into the environment might capture mobile genetic elements (MGE) from indigenous micro-organisms which could extend its ecological potential. Thus, for a risk assessment it is important to understand the extent of HGT and genome plasticity of bacteria in the environment. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge on HGT between bacteria as a crucial mechanism contributing to bacterial adaptability and diversity. In view of the use of GM crops and microbes in agricultural settings, in this mini-review we focus particularly on the presence and role of MGE in soil and plant-associated bacteria and the factors affecting gene transfer.

  10. An experimental study about efficacy of the drain catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Bum Gyu; Nho, Joon Young; Woo, Hyo Cheol; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Park, Choong Ki; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    Although percutaneous abscess drainage has become and accepted alternative from of therapy for selected patients with abscess, it is well known that there are several factors in the failure of adequate drainage such as pre- and post-procedural management, technique itself, various features of abscess, and selection and application of catheters. Among these factors, we made an experiment about drainage efficacy of commonly used various catheters with different viscosities of water-glycerin solution under the two different pressure gradients. The experimental values of flow rate were very lower than the calculated values. An efficacy of experimental value was 4-14%. Because the inner diameter of fittings and stopcocks was usually smaller than the inner diameter of catheters, these factors also affected the drain efficacy. Finally, we thought that it will be very helpful to the treatment of patient as well as to study about the catheter drainage, if the drain efficacy of individual catheters has been notified.

  11. External Suction and Fluid Output in Chest Drains After Lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lijkendijk, Marike; Neckelmann, Kirsten; Licht, Peter B

    2018-01-01

    influences the amount of fluid. METHODS: We randomly assigned (1:1) 106 patients who underwent lobectomy to either low (-5 cm H2O) or high (-20 cm H2O) external suction using an electronic chest drainage system. Only one chest drain was allowed, and we used strict algorithms for chest drain removal, which...... was delegated to staff nurses: air leakage less than 20 mL/min for 6 hours regardless of fluid output, provided it was serous. The primary end point was fluid output after 24 and 48 hours. RESULTS: Mean fluid output was significantly higher with high suction after both 24 (338 ± 265 mL versus 523 ± 215 m...

  12. 'Brain drain' from Serbia: One face of globalization of education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we point out the role of the practice and ideology of globalization in brain drain process from Serbia. The listed data are based on the large-scale departure of highly educated persons from Serbia to the counties of West Europe and the USA. The dynamics, proportions and tendencies are analysed the role of the educational system in the process of departure of highly educated people and the reasons and consequences of the departure of scientist and engineering experts. In this article, education policy as state financial support are critical analysed. For Serbia, as the relatively undeveloped country in the middle of the modernization processes, this process has far-reaching effects on the social development. So, here we implied the possible solutions for the problem of brain drain.

  13. Horizontal Heat Exchanger Design and Analysis for Passive Heat Removal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierow, Karen

    2005-08-29

    This report describes a three-year project to investigate the major factors of horizontal heat exchanger performance in passive containment heat removal from a light water reactor following a design basis accident LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The heat exchanger studied in this work may be used in advanced and innovative reactors, in which passive heat removal systems are adopted to improve safety and reliability The application of horizontal tube-bundle condensers to passive containment heat removal is new. In order to show the feasibility of horizontal heat exchangers for passive containment cooling, the following aspects were investigated: 1. the condensation heat transfer characteristics when the incoming fluid contains noncondensable gases 2. the effectiveness of condensate draining in the horizontal orientation 3. the conditions that may lead to unstable condenser operation or highly degraded performance 4. multi-tube behavior with the associated secondary-side effects This project consisted of two experimental investigations and analytical model development for incorporation into industry safety codes such as TRAC and RELAP. A physical understanding of the flow and heat transfer phenomena was obtained and reflected in the analysis models. Two gradute students (one funded by the program) and seven undergraduate students obtained research experience as a part of this program.

  14. Reduction in wick drain effectiveness with spacing for Utah silts and clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Although decreasing the spacing of vertical drains usually decreases the time for consolidation, previous field tests have shown that there is a critical drain spacing for which tighter spacing does not decrease the time for consolidation. This...

  15. Brain drain: a challenge to global mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Oladeji, Bibilola D.; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    The brain drain of medical professionals from lower-income to higher-income countries contributes to the current inequity that characterises access to mental healthcare by those in need across the world and hinders efforts to scale up mental health services in resource-constrained settings, especially in Nigeria and other West African countries. The migration of skilled workers is driven by a combination of the globalisation of the labour market and the ability of highly resourced countries t...

  16. Outcome in Chronic Subdural Hematoma After Subdural vs. Subgaleal Drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishfaq, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcome after surgery for chronic subdural hematoma when the drain is placed in subdural space or subgaleal space. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from July 2015 to June 2016. Methodology: Patients with chronic subdural hematoma of both genders and age, ranging between 55 to 85 years, were included. Patients on antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy and acute on chronic subdural hematoma were excluded. Patients were divided in two equal groups each depending on whether drain was placed in subgaleal space (Group 1), and subdual space (Group 2), (n=31 patients each). Patients were positioned flat in bed after surgery. Clinical and radiological parameters and clinical outcome were compared between the two groups. Statistical test with significance of p <0.05 was utilized using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS version 17). Results: Median age of the 62 patients was 72 +-12.5 years. Headache was the most common symptom reported in both groups, (n=47,75.8%) patients. Median thickness of hematoma was 15 +-6.5 mm. Patients with subdural drain placement had more complications such as pneumocephalus 11 (35.4%) vs. 6 (19.3%), and intracerebral hemorrhage 4 (12.9%) vs. 2 (6.4%). Clinical outcome was good in both groups 27 (87%) in Group 1 and 28 (90%) in Group 2. Conclusion: Patients of both groups had good outcome after surgery. Complications like pneumocephalus and intracerebral hemorrhage were more common in subdural location of drain, though not reaching statistically significance level to favor one technique over another. (author)

  17. Consolidation by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with a Threshold Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Guo; Kang-He Xie; Yue-Bao Deng

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the development of an approximate analytical solution of radial consolidation by prefabricated vertical drains with a threshold gradient. To understand the effect of the threshold gradient on consolidation, a parametric analysis was performed using the present solution. The applicability of the present solution was demonstrated in two cases, wherein the comparisons with Hansbo’s results and observed data were conducted. It was found that (1) the flow with the threshold gradie...

  18. Globalization and migration: A "unified brain drain" model

    OpenAIRE

    Brezis, Elise S.; Soueri, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Globalization has led to a vast flow of migration of workers but also of students. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the migration of individuals encompassing decisions already at the level of education. We develop a unified brain drain model that incorporates the decisions of an individual vis - à - vis both education and migration. In the empirical part, this paper addresses international flows of migration within the EU and presents strong evidence of concentration of students in cou...

  19. Theoretical computation background for transformation of foundations using pile drains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Martirosyan Zaven

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the design of foundations for buildings and structures of various purposes, including improved risk, weak water-saturated clay soils with low mechanical characteristics are often found on a construction site. One of the possible ways of using them as a foundation is to seal them in various ways, including using pile drains of sand or rock stone material that are capable of both absorbing the load at the base and accelerating the process of filtration consolidation. This paper describes an analytical solution to the problem of interaction between the pile and the mattress with the surrounding soil of the foundation, taking into account the possibility of expanding the pile shaft. Solutions are obtained for determining the stresses in the shaft of the pile drain and in the soil under the mattress. The solution takes into account the influence of the pre-stressed state of the foundation after compaction on the formation of a stress-strain state during the erection and operation of structures. The solutions are relevant for consolidating pile drains made of rubble or for jet grouting piles, the rigidity of which is comparable to the rigidity of the surrounding soil. The paper describes the technique for determining the characteristics of the strength and deformability of the converted foundation and the results of large-scale tests at the experimental site for the construction of a large energy facility in Russia.

  20. The Process of Horizontal Differentiation: Two Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daft, Richard L.; Bradshaw, Patricia J.

    1980-01-01

    Explores the process of horizontal differentiation by examining events leading to the establishment of 30 new departments in five universities. Two types of horizontal differentiation processes--administrative and academic--were observed and each was associated with different organizational conditions. (Author/IRT)

  1. Powerful Software to Simulate Soil Consolidation Problems with Prefabricated Vertical Drains

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo García-Ros; Iván Alhama; Manuel Cánovas

    2018-01-01

    The present work describes the program Simulation of Consolidation with Vertical Drains (SICOMED_2018), a tool for the solution of consolidation processes in heterogeneous soils, with totally or partially penetrating prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) and considering both the effects of the smear zone, generated when introducing the drain into the ground, and the limitation in the discharge capacity of the drain. In order to provide a completely free program, the code Next-Generation Simulat...

  2. Drain site evisceration of fallopian tube, another reason to discourage abdominal drain: report of a case and brief review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Pradeep; Faridi, M S; Agarwal, Nitin; Gupta, Arun; Kaur, Navneet

    2012-04-01

    Placement of a drain following abdominal surgery is common despite a lack of convincing evidence in the current literature to support this practice. The use of intra-abdominal drain is associated with many potential and serious complications. We report a drain site evisceration of the right fallopian tube after the removal of an intra-abdominal drain. The drain was placed in the right iliac fossa in a patient who underwent a lower segment Caesarean section (LSCS) for meconium liquor with fetal distress. The Pfannenstiel incision made for LSCS was reopened and the protruding inflamed fimbrial end of the right fallopian tube was excised. The patient made an uneventful recovery. Routine intra-abdominal prophylactic drain following an abdominal surgery including LSCS should be discouraged.

  3. The Simple Urine Bag as Wound Drain Post-Craniotomy in a Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A 4-year prospective cohort study of the effectiveness, outcome with use and complications of the Uribag as post craniotomy wound drain in a consecutive cohort of neurosurgical patients. Data analyzed include the patients' brief demographics; the types of cranial surgery in which drain was used; the drain ...

  4. 76 FR 62605 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... the VGB Act defines an ``unblockable drain'' as ``a drain of any size and shape that a human body... intentions. They claim that for this reason, backup systems are necessary, and a swimming pool or spa with a... of an ``unblockable drain,'' at 16 CFR 1450.2(b) and believe it was in error. Regardless of the size...

  5. Draining after breast reduction: a randomised controlled inter-patient study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corion, Leonard U. M.; Smeulders, Mark J. C.; van Zuijlen, Paul P. M.; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and seven bilateral breast reductions were prospectively randomised during surgery to receive or not receive wound drains. Fifty-five patients were randomised to have a drain and 52 to not have a drain. There was no statistical difference in the number of complications between the

  6. An economic perspective on Malawi's medical "brain drain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiddin Abdu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical "brain drain" has been described as rich countries "looting" doctors and nurses from developing countries undermining their health systems and public health. However this "brain-drain" might also be seen as a success in the training and "export" of health professionals and the benefits this provides. This paper illustrates the arguments and possible policy options by focusing on the situation in one of the poorest countries in the world, Malawi. Discussion Many see this "brain drain" of medical staff as wrong with developed countries exploiting poorer ones. The effects are considerable with Malawi facing high vacancy rates in its public health system, and with migration threatening to outstrip training despite efforts to improve pay and conditions. This shortage of staff has made it more challenging for Malawi to deliver on its Essential Health Package and to absorb new international health funding. Yet, without any policy effort Malawi has been able to demonstrate its global competitiveness in the training ("production" of skilled health professionals. Remittances from migration are a large and growing source of foreign exchange for poor countries and tend to go directly to households. Whilst the data for Malawi is limited, studies from other poor countries demonstrate the power of remittances in significantly reducing poverty. Malawi can benefit from the export of health professionals provided there is a resolution of the situation whereby the state pays for training and the benefits are gained by the individual professional working abroad. Solutions include migrating staff paying back training costs, or rich host governments remitting part of a tax (e.g. income or national insurance to the Malawi government. These schemes would allow Malawi to scale up training of health professionals for local needs and to work abroad. Summary There is concern about the negative impacts of the medical "brain-drain". However a

  7. An economic perspective on Malawi's medical "brain drain"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Richard; Mohiddin, Abdu

    2006-01-01

    Background The medical "brain drain" has been described as rich countries "looting" doctors and nurses from developing countries undermining their health systems and public health. However this "brain-drain" might also be seen as a success in the training and "export" of health professionals and the benefits this provides. This paper illustrates the arguments and possible policy options by focusing on the situation in one of the poorest countries in the world, Malawi. Discussion Many see this "brain drain" of medical staff as wrong with developed countries exploiting poorer ones. The effects are considerable with Malawi facing high vacancy rates in its public health system, and with migration threatening to outstrip training despite efforts to improve pay and conditions. This shortage of staff has made it more challenging for Malawi to deliver on its Essential Health Package and to absorb new international health funding. Yet, without any policy effort Malawi has been able to demonstrate its global competitiveness in the training ("production") of skilled health professionals. Remittances from migration are a large and growing source of foreign exchange for poor countries and tend to go directly to households. Whilst the data for Malawi is limited, studies from other poor countries demonstrate the power of remittances in significantly reducing poverty. Malawi can benefit from the export of health professionals provided there is a resolution of the situation whereby the state pays for training and the benefits are gained by the individual professional working abroad. Solutions include migrating staff paying back training costs, or rich host governments remitting part of a tax (e.g. income or national insurance) to the Malawi government. These schemes would allow Malawi to scale up training of health professionals for local needs and to work abroad. Summary There is concern about the negative impacts of the medical "brain-drain". However a closer look at the evidence

  8. Water and nutrient balances in a large tile-drained agricultural catchment: a distributed modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and implementation of a distributed model of coupled water nutrient processes, based on the representative elementary watershed (REW approach, to the Upper Sangamon River Basin, a large, tile-drained agricultural basin located in central Illinois, mid-west of USA. Comparison of model predictions with the observed hydrological and biogeochemical data, as well as regional estimates from literature studies, shows that the model is capable of capturing the dynamics of water, sediment and nutrient cycles reasonably well. The model is then used as a tool to gain insights into the physical and chemical processes underlying the inter- and intra-annual variability of water and nutrient balances. Model predictions show that about 80% of annual runoff is contributed by tile drainage, while the remainder comes from surface runoff (mainly saturation excess flow and subsurface runoff. It is also found that, at the annual scale nitrogen storage in the soil is depleted during wet years, and is supplemented during dry years. This carryover of nitrogen storage from dry year to wet year is mainly caused by the lateral loading of nitrate. Phosphorus storage, on the other hand, is not affected much by wet/dry conditions simply because the leaching of it is very minor compared to the other mechanisms taking phosphorous out of the basin, such as crop harvest. The analysis then turned to the movement of nitrate with runoff. Model results suggested that nitrate loading from hillslope into the channel is preferentially carried by tile drainage. Once in the stream it is then subject to in-stream denitrification, the significant spatio-temporal variability of which can be related to the variation of the hydrologic and hydraulic conditions across the river network.

  9. Iatrogenic Perforation of the Left Ventricle during Insertion of a Chest Drain

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dongmin; Lim, Seong-Hoon; Seo, Pil Won

    2013-01-01

    Chest draining is a common procedure for treating pleural effusion. Perforation of the heart is a rare often fatal complication of chest drain insertion. We report a case of a 76-year-old female patient suffering from congestive heart failure. At presentation, unilateral opacity of the left chest observed on a chest X-ray was interpreted as massive pleural effusion, so an attempt was made to drain the left pleural space. Malposition of the chest drain was suspected because blood was draining ...

  10. A retrospective study of the use of active suction wound drains in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, P C; Halfacree, Z J; Baines, S J

    2015-05-01

    To report indications for use and complications associated with commonly used closed active suction wound drains in a large number of clinical cases. Retrospective review of medical case records (from 2004 to 2010) for dogs and cats that had a closed active suction drain placed into a wound. Only the four most common drain types were included: Mini Redovac®, Redovac®, Jackson Pratt® and Wound Evac®. Two hundred and fifty-three drains were placed in 33 cats and 195 dogs. Mini Redovac drains were used most frequently in cats (76 · 5%) and Redovac drains in dogs (54 · 3%). The infection rate for clean surgeries in dogs was 15 · 6% (unattainable in cats). Major complications occurred in four dogs; minor complications occurred in 12 drains in cats (35 · 3%), and in 74 drains in dogs (33 · 8%). There was no statistically significant association between the type of drain and complication rate for either species. Although closed active suction drains can be used with low risk of major complications, they lead to a high rate of infection in clean surgeries in dogs. It is recommended that such drains are kept in place for the shortest time possible and that strict asepsis is adhered to both during placement and management. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  11. Comparison of a large and small-calibre tube drain for managing spontaneous pneumothoraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Ian J; Benfield, Grant F A

    2009-10-01

    To compare treatment success of large- and small-bore chest drains in the treatment of spontaneous pneumothoraces the case-notes were reviewed of those admitted to our hospital with a total of 73 pneumothoraces and who were treated by trainee doctors of varying experience. Both a large- and a small-bore intercostal tube drain system were in use during the two-year period reviewed. Similar pneumothorax profile and numbers treated with both drains were recorded, resulting in a similar drain time and numbers of successful and failed re-expansion of pneumothoraces. Successful pneumothorax resolution was the same for both drain types and the negligible tube drain complications observed with the small-bore drain reflected previously reported experiences. However the large-bore drain was associated with a high complication rate (32%) with more infectious complications (24%). The small-bore drain was prone to displacement (21%). There was generally no evidence of an increased failure and morbidity, reflecting poorer expertise, in the non-specialist trainees managing the pneumothoraces. A practical finding however was that in those large pneumothoraces where re-expansion failed, the tip of the drain had not been sited at the apex of the pleural cavity irrespective of the drain type inserted.

  12. Evisceration of Appendix through the Drain Site: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankaran, Praveen; Rajamani, A

    2013-06-01

    Placing a drain after surgery is a usual procedure in any emergency abdominal operation. The drain is removed as soon as its purpose of draining the intraabdominal collection in served. Evisceration of intraabdominal organs through the drain site is a rare occurance. This case report is about an 12 year old girl who was admitted with blunt trauma abdomen. After completion of emergency laparotomy a drain was placed in the right lower quadrant. When the drain was removed on the 6th post operative day, the appendix eviscerated out of the drain site. The wound was extended a little and an appendectomy was done. This case is presented for its rarity as only two similar instances have been reported in literature so far.

  13. Réduction du nombre de puits par l'utilisation de forages horizontaux Reducing the Number of Wells by Using Horizontal Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giger F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'un des intérêts du forage horizontal est le gain de productivité sur chaque puits. L'objet de cet article est de proposer des éléments d'analyse, comme la productivité surfacique, destinés à aider l'instance responsable du développement d'un champ confrontée au choix économique entre un schéma classique par puits verticaux et un autre schéma intégrant des puits d'un autre type, et notamment des drains horizontaux. Des méthodes de résolution approchées d'emploi simple sont proposées pour évaluer le nombre de puits verticaux que peut remplacer un drain ho-rizontal. One of the advantages of horizontal drilling is the increase in productivity of each well. The aim of this article is to propose bases for making an analysis, such as areal productivity, so as to help the decision-maker responsible for the development of a field when confronted with an economic choice between a conventional system using vertical wells and an alternative system including other types of wells, and in particular horizontal wells. Simple and approximate solutions are proposed for evaluating the number of vertical wells that can be replaced by a horizontal wells.

  14. India: 'brain drain' or the migration of talent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, T K

    1989-09-01

    2 views on "brain drain" exist: 1) LDCs lose their enormous investments on higher education when skilled people migrate to other countries and 2) LDCs are exaggerating the problem and only a few skilled people migrate at 1 time. India does not completely lose its investment in education when professionals migrate, since the migrants still contribute to knowledge and also send remittances to relatives in India. Unemployed educated people would cause a greater drain on India's resources than educated migrants. The author prefers the phrase migration of talent to brain drain, since the former indicates a 2-way movement. Most migrants from LDCs are students. About 11,000 university graduates leave India every year for advanced study and/or work. A conservative estimate is that 2500 will remain abroad permanently. Most professionals who migrate go to the US and Canada. Factors promoting migration include 1) unemployment, 2) immigration rules, 3) colonial links, 4) financial incentives and material benefits, 5) pursuit of higher education, 6) improvement of working conditions and facilities, 7) avoidance of excessive bureaucratic procedures, and 8) compensation for the mismatch between Indian education and employment. Reasons for returning to India include 1) deference to wives who were unable to adjust to a foreign way of life, 2) contributing to Indian development, and 3) racial discrimination. It will probably not be possible to lure back migrants who left for material reasons. Attractive job offers could entice back those who left for advanced training. To encourage the return of those who left to pursue high quality research, India must 1) increase expenditure on research and development, possibly through the private industrial sector, 2) promote travel to other countries for professional enrichment, and 3) improve conditions of research work. The article concludes with an analysis of migration of talent from 3 perspectives: 1) the individual, 2) the nation

  15. Processing method for drained water containing ethanol amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakuta, Kuniharu; Ogawa, Naoki; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Kamiyoshi, Hideki; Fukunaga, Kazuo; Iwamoto, Ken; Miki, Tsuyoshi; Hirata, Toshio

    1998-01-01

    Drained water containing ethanol amine is processed with microorganisms such as hydrazine resistant denitrification bacteria in a biodegrading vessel (A) in the coexistence of nitrous ions and/or nitric ions under an anaerobic condition, and then it is processed with microorganisms such as nitrification bacteria in another biotic oxidation vessel (B) under an aerobic condition to generate the coexistent nitrate ion and/or nitric ion, and returned to the biodegrading vessel (A). Further, they are exposed to air or incorporated with an oxidant and optionally a copper compound such as copper sulfate as a catalyst is added in a step of removing hydrazine. (T.M.)

  16. Characterization Plan for Soils Around Drain Line PLA-100115

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-05-24

    This Characterization Plan supports the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) closure of soils that may have been contaminated by releases from drain line PLA-100115, located within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The requirements to address the closure of soils contaminated by a potential release from this line in a characterization plan was identified in the "HWMA/RCRA Less Than 90-day Generator Closure Report for the VES-SFE-126."

  17. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Batisse, Alain [Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, Paris (France); Vouhe, Pascal [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Ou, Phalla [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

    2008-08-15

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  18. Laparoscopic primary repair and isoperistaltic endoluminal drain for Boerhaave's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, Francesco; Pezzolla, Angela; Nitti, Paolo; Prete, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous oesophageal rupture, also known as Boerhaave syndrome (BS), is a rare and potentially lethal pathological condition. BS recognition is difficult, while rapidity of diagnosis, along with extension of the lesion, affects type and outcome of treatment. BS was classically treated by thoracotomy, but laparoscopic (LS), thoracoscopic (TS) surgery, and nonsurgical procedures as endoscopic stent positioning or use of glues have been described. Still, there is no model treatment, and selection of the most appropriate therapeutic procedure is complex in the absence of standardised criteria. We successfully managed a patient affected with BS by LS approach and present our experience along with a review of treatment options so far described. Our treatment integrated positioning of an oesophageal isoperistaltic endoluminal drain (IED), that we routinely use in oesophageal sutures at risk of leakage, and of which there is no previous report in the setting of BS. A 68 year old man presented to our attention with true BS, suspected on chest-abdominal CT scan and confirmed by upper GI contrast swallow test, showing leakage of hydro-soluble contrast from the lower third of the oesophagus. Of note, pleural cavities appeared intact. We performed an urgent laparoscopy 12 hours after the onset of symptoms. Laparoscopic toilet of the inferior mediastinum and dual layer oesophageal repair with pedicled omental flap were complemented by positioning of IED, feeding jejunostomy and two tubular drains. The patient had a slow but consistent recovery where IED played as a means of oesophageal suture protection, until he could be discharged home. We think that, when integrity of the pleura is documented, LS should be priority choice to avoid contamination of the pleural cavities. We have to consider every type of oesophageal repair in BS at risk of failure, and every means of protection of the suture is opportune. In our patient the oesophageal suture, covered with a flap of omentum

  19. Consequences assessment for fuel channel failure with consequential moderator drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, N.N.; Bayoumi, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper documents the consequences of spontaneous pressure tube/consequential calandria tube rupture followed by the ejection of end fittings (as a result of guillotine failure of pressure tube) leading to the drain of the moderator. The event is postulated to occur in conjunction with an independent failure of Emergency Coolant Injection System (ECIS). The results of the detailed consequence assessments are used to propose a course of action to mitigate the consequences of such an event. A methodology based on a lumped-parameter model was developed to assess the consequences of the postulated event. (author)

  20. Interior drains for open pit disposal of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptualized interior drainage system is presented for reducing the environmental impact on natural groundwater by disposal of uranium mill tailings in the mined-out open pit. The evaporation/seepage ratio can be increased through the use of interior drains, long-term monitoring of groundwater quality can be eliminated, and the open pit will not require an extensive liner. Other advantages not related to groundwater are: control of fugitive dust and radon emanation during mill operations and timely reclamation after the impoundment is filled with tailings

  1. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien; Batisse, Alain; Vouhe, Pascal; Ou, Phalla

    2008-01-01

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  2. Horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubra, O. [SKODA Praha Company, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Doubek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-09-01

    Horizontal steam generators are typical components of nuclear power plants with pressure water reactor type VVER. Thermal-hydraulic behavior of horizontal steam generators is very different from the vertical U-tube steam generator, which has been extensively studied for several years. To contribute to the understanding of the horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics a computer program for 3-D steady state analysis of the PGV-1000 steam generator has been developed. By means of this computer program, a detailed thermal-hydraulic and thermodynamic study of the horizontal steam generator PGV-1000 has been carried out and a set of important steam generator characteristics has been obtained. The 3-D distribution of the void fraction and 3-D level profile as functions of load and secondary side pressure have been investigated and secondary side volumes and masses as functions of load and pressure have been evaluated. Some of the interesting results of calculations are presented in the paper.

  3. Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Khalid

    2000-03-06

    One of the key issues addressed was pressure drop in long horizontal wells and its influence on well performance. Very little information is available in the literature on flow in pipes with influx through pipe walls. Virtually all of this work has been in small diameter pipes and with single-phase flow. In order to address this problem new experimental data on flow in horizontal and near horizontal wells have been obtained. Experiments were conducted at an industrial facility on typical 6 1/8 ID, 100 feet long horizontal well model. The new data along with available information in the literature have been used to develop new correlations and mechanistic models. Thus it is now possible to predict, within reasonable accuracy, the effect of influx through the well on pressure drop in the well.

  4. Horizontal cooperation in transport and logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with horizontal cooperation in transport and logistics. It contains a comprehensive discussion of the available academic literature on this topic, many practical examples, and an empirical investigation of opportunities and impediments. Furthermore, three enabling concepts for

  5. Optimization model for rotor blades of horizontal axis wind turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiong; CHEN Yan; YE Zhiquan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization model for rotor blades of horizontal axis wind turbines. The model refers to the wind speed distribution function on the specific wind site, with an objective to satisfy the maximum annual energy output. To speed up the search process and guarantee a global optimal result, the extended compact genetic algorithm (ECGA) is used to carry out the search process.Compared with the simple genetic algorithm, ECGA runs much faster and can get more accurate results with a much smaller population size and fewer function evaluations. Using the developed optimization program, blades of a 1.3 MW stall-regulated wind turbine are designed. Compared with the existing blades, the designed blades have obviously better aerodynamic performance.

  6. Consolidation by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with a Threshold Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the development of an approximate analytical solution of radial consolidation by prefabricated vertical drains with a threshold gradient. To understand the effect of the threshold gradient on consolidation, a parametric analysis was performed using the present solution. The applicability of the present solution was demonstrated in two cases, wherein the comparisons with Hansbo’s results and observed data were conducted. It was found that (1 the flow with the threshold gradient would not occur instantaneously throughout the whole unit cell. Rather, it gradually occurs from the vertical drain to the outside; (2 the moving boundary would never reach the outer radius of influence if R+1

  7. Global estimates of high-level brain drain and deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2004-06-01

    Brain drain, the international migration of scientists in search of better opportunities, has been a long-standing concern, but quantitative measurements are uncommon and limited to specific countries or disciplines. We need to understand brain drain at a global level and estimate the extent to which scientists born in countries with low opportunities never realize their potential. Data on 1523 of the most highly cited scientists for 1981-1999 are analyzed. Overall, 31.9% of these scientists did not reside in the country where they were born (range 18.1-54.6% across 21 different scientific fields). There was great variability across developed countries in the proportions of foreign-born resident scientists and emigrating scientists. Countries without a critical mass of native scientists lost most scientists to migration. This loss occurred in both developed and developing countries. Adjusting for population and using the U.S. as reference, the number of highly cited native-born scientists was at least 75% of the expected number in only 8 countries other than the U.S. It is estimated that approximately 94% of the expected top scientists worldwide have not been able to materialize themselves due to various adverse conditions. Scientific deficit is only likely to help perpetuate these adverse conditions.

  8. Drain Insertion in Chronic Subdural Hematoma: An International Survey of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleman, Jehuda; Kamenova, Maria; Lutz, Katharina; Guzman, Raphael; Fandino, Javier; Mariani, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    To investigate whether, after the publication of grade I evidence that it reduces recurrence rates, the practice of drain insertion after burr-hole drainage of chronic subdural hematoma has changed. Further, we aimed to document various practice modalities concerning the insertion of a drain adopted by neurosurgeons internationally. We administered a survey to neurosurgeons worldwide with questions relating to the surgical treatment of chronic subdural hematoma, with an emphasis on their practices concerning the use of a drain. The preferred surgical technique was burr-hole drainage (89%). Most surgeons prefer to place a drain (80%), whereas in 56% of the cases the reason for not placing a drain was brain expansion after evacuation. Subdural drains are placed by 50% and subperiosteal drains by 27% of the responders, whereas 23% place primarily a subdural drain if possible and otherwise a subperiosteal drain. Three quarters of the responders leave the drain for 48 hours and give prophylactic antibiotic treatment, mostly a single-shot dose intraoperatively (70%). Routine postoperative computed tomography is done by 59% mostly within 24-48 hours after surgery (94%). Adjunct treatment to surgery rarely is used (4%). The publication of grade I evidence in favor of drain use influenced positively this practice worldwide. Some surgeons are still reluctant to insert a drain, especially when the subdural space is narrow after drainage of the hematoma. The insertion of a subperiosteal drain could be a good alternative solution. However, its outcome and efficacy must be evaluated in larger studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  10. Localized Glacier Deformation Associated with Filling and Draining of a Glacier-Dammed Lake and Implications for Outburst Flood Hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunico, M. L.; Walder, J. S.; Fountain, A. G.; Trabant, D. C.

    2001-12-01

    During the summer of 2000, we measured displacements of 22 survey targets on the surface of Kennicott Glacier, Alaska, in the vicinity of Hidden Creek Lake, an ice-dammed lake in a tributary valley that fills and drains annually. Targets were distributed over a domain about equal in width to the lake, from near the glacier/lake margin to a distance of about 1 km from the margin. Targets were surveyed over a 24-day period as the lake filled and then drained. Lake stage was independently monitored. Vertical movement of targets generally fell off with distance d from the lake. As the lake filled, targets with d typically about 0.5 m/d--with a few targets rising slightly faster than the lake. The rate of vertical movement fell off rapidly with distance from the lake: for d = ca. 600 m--roughly twice the local ice thickness--targets moved upward only about 10% as fast as lake stage. Vertical movement of targets with d > ca. 1 km seemed to be uncorrelated with lake stage. The general pattern is consistent with the idea that a wedge of water extended beneath the glacier to a distance of perhaps 300 to 400 m from the visible margin of the lake and exerts buoyant stresses on the ice that were transmitted into the main body of the glacier and caused flexure. This scenario bears some resemblance to tidal deflections of ice shelves or tidewater glaciers. For a given value of lake stage, target elevations were invariably higher as the lake drained than as the lake filled. Moreover, survey targets at a distance of about 400 m or more from the lake continued to rise for some time even after the lake began to drain. The lag time between the beginning of lake drainage and the beginning of target downdrop increased with distance from the lake, with the lag being about 14 hours at a distance of 400 m from the lake. (The lake drained completely in approximately 75 hours.) The likeliest explanations for the departure from reversibility and the existence of the time lag are either (i) a

  11. Characterizing phosphorus dynamics in tile-drained agricultural fieldsof eastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Allison; Ruark, Matthew; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Good, Laura W.; Drummy, Nancy; Cooley, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Artificial subsurface drainage provides an avenue for the rapid transfer of phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields to surface waters. This is of particular interest in eastern Wisconsin, where there is a concentrated population of dairy farms and high clay content soils prone to macropore development. Through collaboration with private landowners, surface and tile drainage was measured and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) losses at four field sites in eastern Wisconsin between 2005 and 2009. These sites, which received frequent manure applications, represent a range of crop management practices which include: two chisel plowed corn fields (CP1, CP2), a no-till corn–soybean field (NT), and a grazed pasture (GP). Subsurface drainage was the dominant pathway of water loss at each site accounting for 66–96% of total water discharge. Average annual flow-weighted (FW) TP concentrations were 0.88, 0.57, 0.21, and 1.32 mg L−1 for sites CP1, CP2, NT, and GP, respectively. Low TP concentrations at the NT site were due to tile drain interception of groundwater flow where large volumes of tile drainage water diluted the FW-TP concentrations. Subsurface pathways contributed between 17% and 41% of the TP loss across sites. On a drainage event basis, total drainage explained between 36% and 72% of the event DRP loads across CP1, CP2, and GP; there was no relationship between event drainflow and event DRP load at the NT site. Manure applications did not consistently increase P concentrations in drainflow, but annual FW-P concentrations were greater in years receiving manure applications compared to years without manure application. Based on these field measures, P losses from tile drainage must be integrated into field level P budgets and P loss calculations on heavily manured soils, while also acknowledging the unique drainage patterns observed in eastern Wisconsin.

  12. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, A.; Rohini, S.; Naveen, A.; Haritha, A.; Reddy, Krishnanjeneya

    2010-01-01

    Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician’s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs) (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care), which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm) or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36%) OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2%) teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8%) of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001). Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3%) have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7%) have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment modalities for

  13. Greenhouse gases emission from the sewage draining rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Beibei; Wang, Dongqi; Zhou, Jun; Meng, Weiqing; Li, Chongwei; Sun, Zongbin; Guo, Xin; Wang, Zhongliang

    2018-01-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) concentration, saturation and fluxes in rivers (Beitang drainage river, Dagu drainage rive, Duliujianhe river, Yongdingxinhe river and Nanyunhe river) of Tianjin city (Haihe watershed) were investigated during July and October in 2014, and January and April in 2015 by static headspace gas chromatography method and the two-layer model of diffusive gas exchange. The influence of environmental variables on greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration under the disturbance of anthropogenic activities was discussed by Spearman correlative analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that the concentration and fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O were seasonally variable with >winter>fall>summer, spring>summer>winter>fall and summer>spring>winter>fall for concentrations and spring>summer>fall>winter, spring>summer>winter>fall and summer>spring>fall>winter for fluxes respectively. The GHGs concentration and saturation were higher in comprehensively polluted river sites and lower in lightly polluted river sites. The three GHGs emission fluxes in two sewage draining rivers of Tianjin were clearly higher than those of other rivers (natural rivers) and the spatial variation of CH 4 was more obvious than the others. CO 2 and N 2 O air-water interface emission fluxes of the sewage draining rivers in four seasons were about 1.20-2.41 times and 1.13-3.12 times of those in the natural rivers. The CH 4 emission fluxes of the sewage draining rivers were 3.09 times in fall to 10.87 times in spring of those in the natural rivers in different season. The wind speed, water temperature and air temperature were related to GHGs concentrations. Nitrate and nitrite (NO 3 - +NO 2 - -N) and ammonia (NH 4 + -N) were positively correlated with CO 2 concentration and CH 4 concentration; and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was negatively correlated with CH 4 concentration and N 2 O concentration. The effect of

  14. Horizontal well impact on heavy oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, B.; Bielecki, J.; Hu, J.; Wall, B.; Drummond, K.

    1993-01-01

    Horizontal wells can take advantage of gravity drainage mechanisms, which can be important in conventional heavy oil and bitumen recovery. Horizontal drilling will impact on the development of established conventional heavy oil pools by infill drilling and application of enhanced recovery techniques. There will also be an impact on the development of extensions to established and newly discovered heavy oil pools, as well as a major impact on development of bitumen resources. To assess the impact of horizontal drilling on heavy oil supply, high-impact and low-impact scenarios were evaluated under specified oil-price assumptions for four heavy oil areas in Saskatchewan and Alberta. Horizontal well potential for infill drilling, waterflood projects, and thermal projects was assessed and estimates were made of such developments as reserves additions and heavy oil development wells under the two scenarios. In the low case, projected supply of conventional heavy oil and bitumen stabilizes at a level in the 90,000-94,000 m 3 /d after 1994. In the high case, overall supply continuously grows from 80,000 m 3 /d in 1992 to 140,000 m 3 /d in 2002. Through application of horizontal drilling, reserves additions in western Canada could be improved by ca 100 million m 3 by 2002. 14 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Effect of an intervention in storm drains to prevent Aedes aegypti reproduction in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Raquel Lima; Mugabe, Vánio André; Paploski, Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S; Moreira, Patrícia Sousa Dos Santos; Nascimento, Leile Camila Jacob; Roundy, Christopher Michael; Weaver, Scott C; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa

    2017-07-11

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, is a synanthropic species that uses stagnant water to complete its reproductive cycle. In urban settings, rainfall water draining structures, such as storm drains, may retain water and serve as a larval development site for Aedes spp. reproduction. Herein, we describe the effect of a community-based intervention on preventing standing water accumulation in storm drains and their consequent infestation by adult and immature Ae. aegypti and other mosquitoes. Between April and May of 2016, local residents association of Salvador, Brazil, after being informed of water accumulation and Ae. aegypti infestation in the storm drains in their area, performed an intervention on 52 storm drains. The intervention consisted of placing concrete at the bottom of the storm drains to elevate their base to the level of the outflow tube, avoiding water accumulation, and placement of a metal mesh covering the outflow tube to avoid its clogging with debris. To determine the impact of the intervention, we compared the frequency at which the 52 storm drains contained water, as well as adult and immature mosquitoes using data from two surveys performed before and two surveys performed after the intervention. During the pre-intervention period, water accumulated in 48 (92.3%) of the storm drains, and immature Ae. aegypti were found in 11 (21.2%) and adults in 10 (19.2%). After the intervention, water accumulated in 5 (9.6%) of the storm drains (P Aedes mosquitoes (mainly Culex spp.) in the storm drains also decreased after the intervention. This study exemplifies how a simple intervention targeting storm drains can result in a major reduction of water retention, and, consequently, impact Ae. aegypti larval populations. Larger and multi-center evaluations are needed to confirm the potential of citywide structural modifications of storm drains to reduce Aedes spp. infestation level.

  16. Pesticide transport to tile-drained fields in SWAT model – macropore flow and sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Shenglan; Trolle, Dennis; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Tool (SWAT) to simulate transport of both mobile (e.g. Bentazon) and strongly sorbed (e.g. Diuron) pesticides in tile drains. Macropore flow is initiated when soil water content exceeds a threshold and rainfall intensity exceeds infiltration capacity. The amount of macropore flow is calculated...... to macropore sediment transport. Simulated tile drain discharge, sediment and pesticide loads are calibrated against data from intensively monitored tile-drained fields and streams in Denmark....

  17. Brain drain in globalization A general equilibrium analysis from the sending countries’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Luca MARCHIORI; I-Ling SHEN; Frederic DOCQUIER

    2009-01-01

    The paper assesses the global effects of brain drain on developing economies and quantifies the relative sizes of various static and dynamic impacts. By constructing a unified generic framework characterized by overlapping generations dynamics and calibrated to real data, this study incorporates many direct impacts of brain drain whose interactions, along with other indirect effects, are endogenously and dynamically generated. Our findings suggest that the short-run impact of brain drain on r...

  18. Stress corrosion on austenitic stainless steels components after sodium draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champeix, L.; Baque, P.; Chairat, C.

    1980-04-01

    The damage study performed on 316 pipes of a loop after two leakages allows to conclude that a stress corrosion process in sodium hydroxide environment has induced trans-crystaline cracks. The research of conditions inducing such a phenomenon is developed, including parametric tests under uniaxial load and some tests on pipe with welded joints. In aqueous sodium hydroxide, two corrosion processes have been revealed: a general oxidization increasing with environment aeration and a transcrystalline cracking appearing for stresses of the order of yield strength. Other conditions such a temperature (upper than 100 0 C) and time exposures (some tens of hours) are necessary. Cautions in order to limit introduction of wet air into drained loop and a choice of appropriate preheating conditions when restarting the installation must permit to avoid such a type of incident

  19. Brain drain: a challenge to global mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeji, Bibilola D; Gureje, Oye

    2016-08-01

    The brain drain of medical professionals from lower-income to higher-income countries contributes to the current inequity that characterises access to mental healthcare by those in need across the world and hinders efforts to scale up mental health services in resource-constrained settings, especially in Nigeria and other West African countries. The migration of skilled workers is driven by a combination of the globalisation of the labour market and the ability of highly resourced countries to attract and retain specialists from poorer countries. If we are to ameliorate the worldwide shortage of mental health professionals, we need to find innovative ways of attracting young doctors into psychiatric training in all countries. We must also introduce measures to improve health worker retention in low- and middle-income countries.

  20. Reducing resin use in floor drain processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, W.; Hobart, S.A.; Miller, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant utilizes two mixed bed demineralizers for processing floor drain wastes. These demineralizers were originally designed for stream generator blowdown treatment, but were not needed for that purpose. Effluent from the resin beds is monitored for radioactivity and released for discharge. Plant radwaste inleakage volumes and resin disposal volumes were low in comparison with industry averages, but decontamination factors through the treatment system were less than desirable. Release criteria for discharges always had been met, but plant personnel wished to decrease their already low discharges of radioactive species, reduce their resin disposal costs, and provide a margin of safety in the unlikely event that fuel damage would be experienced during an operating cycle. This paper describes the study initiated to address those issues, the findings of the study, and results of implementing some of the study recommendations

  1. Nuclear power plant laundry drain treatment using membrane bio reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Masaaki; Kohanawa, Osamu; Kinugasa, Atsushi; Ogawa, Naoki; Murogaki, Kenta

    2012-01-01

    In nuclear power plant, the radioactive effluent generated by washing the clothes worn in controlled area and the hand and shower water used at the controlled area are treated in laundry drain treatment system. Although various systems which treat such liquid waste preexist, the traditional treatment system has disadvantages such as high running cost and a large amount of secondary waste generation. To solve these matters, we have considered application of an activated sludge system, membrane bio reactor, which has been practically used in general industry. For nuclear power plant, the activated sludge system has been developed, tested in its adaptability and the adequacy has been proved. Some preexisting treatment systems have been replaced with this activated sludge system for the first time in a domestic nuclear power plant, and the renewal system is now in operation. The result is reported. (author)

  2. Centrifuge modelling of drained lateral pile - soil response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte

    of rigid piles. The tests have been performed in homogeneously dense dry or saturated Fontainebleau sand in order to mimic simplified drained offshore soil conditions. Approximately half of the tests have been carried out to investigate the centrifuge procedure in order to create a methodology of testing...... tests were used to investigate the pile - soil interaction to gain a better in-sight into the complex problem. A monotonic test series was carried out initially and then pile - soil interaction curves were deduced from these tests and compared with methodologies used today. The results indicate...... that the current methodologies can be improved and a modification to the methodology has been proposed. Secondly, a cyclic test series was carried out. The accumulation of displacement and the change in secant stiffness of the total response of these tests were evaluated. A simple mathematical model was proposed...

  3. Horizontal bridges in polar dielectric liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woisetschläger, Jakob; Wexler, Adam D.; Holler, Gert; Eisenhut, Mathias; Gatterer, Karl; Fuchs, Elmar C.

    2012-01-01

    When a high-voltage direct-current is applied to two beakers filled with polar liquid dielectrica like water or methanol, a horizontal bridge forms between the two beakers. By repeating a version of Pellat's experiment, it is shown that a horizontal bridge is stable by the action of electrohydrodynamic pressure. Thus, the static and dynamic properties of the phenomenon called a `floating water bridge' can be explained by the gradient of Maxwell pressure, replenishing the liquid within the bridge against any drainage mechanism. It is also shown that a number of liquids can form stable and long horizontal bridges. The stability of such a connection, and the asymmetry in mass flow through such bridges caused by the formation of ion clouds in the vicinity of the electrodes, is also discussed by two further experiments.

  4. Horizontal bridges in polar dielectric liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woisetschlaeger, Jakob [Graz University of Technology, Experimental Turbomachinery Research and Optical Measurement Group, Institute for Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics, Graz (Austria); Wexler, Adam D.; Fuchs, Elmar C. [Wetsus, Center of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Holler, Gert [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz (Austria); Eisenhut, Mathias [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Food Chemistry, Graz (Austria); Gatterer, Karl [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Graz (Austria)

    2012-01-15

    When a high-voltage direct-current is applied to two beakers filled with polar liquid dielectrica like water or methanol, a horizontal bridge forms between the two beakers. By repeating a version of Pellat's experiment, it is shown that a horizontal bridge is stable by the action of electrohydrodynamic pressure. Thus, the static and dynamic properties of the phenomenon called a 'floating water bridge' can be explained by the gradient of Maxwell pressure, replenishing the liquid within the bridge against any drainage mechanism. It is also shown that a number of liquids can form stable and long horizontal bridges. The stability of such a connection, and the asymmetry in mass flow through such bridges caused by the formation of ion clouds in the vicinity of the electrodes, is also discussed by two further experiments. (orig.)

  5. CSER 94-011: Use of glovebags for demister draining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    A criticality safety review is presented for the use of plastic-sheet glovebags for the operations of draining demisters on the 26-inch vacuum system headers. A criticality drain is required because of the possibility for spilling liquid of sufficient volume and fissile content for criticality. It is recommended that the glovebag design include a rigid, 2ft x 2ft floor with a central drain feeding a geometrically favorable spill-catch vessel, plus a screen grid above the bottom for drain protection

  6. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, Russell L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  7. Estimation of local and regional components of drain - flow from an irrigated field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eching, S.O.; Hopmans, J.W.; Wallender, W.W.; Macyntyre, J.L.; Peters, D.

    1995-01-01

    The contribution of regional ground water and deep percolation from a furrow irrigated field to total drain flow was estimated using salt load analysis. It was found that 64% of the drain flow comes from regional ground water flow. The electrical conductivity of the drain water was highly correlated with the drain flow rate. From the field water balance with deep percolation as estimated from the salt load analysis, using yield function derived evapotranspiration, and measured changes in root zone water storage, it was shown that 14% of the crop evapotranspiration comes from ground water during the study period. 8 figs; 5 tabs; 15 refs ( Author )

  8. Heavy crude production from shallow formations: long horizontal wells versus horizontal fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valko, P.; Economides, M. J. [Texas A and M Univ., TX (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility of producing heavy oil from shallow formations using either horizontal wells or short horizontal wells fractured horizontally is demonstrated. The problem of optimum proppant placement is solved in two steps. In step one, the finite productivity performance is considered in general terms showing that the performance is a function of two dimensionless parameters. Following derivation of optimum conditions, the solution is applied to the horizontal fracture consideration. The limiting factor is that to create an effective finite conductivity fracture, the dimensionless fracture conductivity must be on the order of unity, a fracture that is difficult to realize in higher permeability formations. The best candidates for the suggested configuration are shallow or moderate formations, or formations otherwise proven to accept horizontal fractures, and formations with low permeability/viscosity ratio. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs., 2 appendices.

  9. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, H. [ed.] [IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H. [ed.] [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V. [ed.] [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.

  10. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, H [ed.; IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H [ed.; VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V [ed.; Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.

  11. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomisto, H.; Purhonen, H.; Kouhia, V.

    1997-01-01

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries

  12. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  13. High soil solution carbon and nitrogen concentrations in a drained Atlantic bog are reduced to natural levels by 10 years of rewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S.; Tiemeyer, B.; Gelbrecht, J.; Freibauer, A.

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic drainage of peatlands releases additional greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and dissolved carbon (C) and nutrients to downstream ecosystems. Rewetting drained peatlands offers a possibility to reduce nitrogen (N) and C losses. In this study, we investigate the impact of drainage and rewetting on the cycling of dissolved C and N as well as on dissolved gases, over a period of 1 year and a period of 4 months. We chose four sites within one Atlantic bog complex: a near-natural site, two drained grasslands with different mean groundwater levels and a former peat cutting area rewetted 10 years ago. Our results clearly indicate that long-term drainage has increased the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonium, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compared to the near-natural site. DON and ammonium contributed the most to the total dissolved nitrogen. Nitrate concentrations below the mean groundwater table were negligible. The concentrations of DOC and N species increased with drainage depth. In the deeply-drained grassland, with a mean annual water table of 45 cm below surface, DOC concentrations were twice as high as in the partially rewetted grassland with a mean annual water table of 28 cm below surface. The deeply drained grassland had some of the highest-ever observed DOC concentrations of 195.8 ± 77.3 mg L-1 with maximum values of >400 mg L-1. In general, dissolved organic matter (DOM) at the drained sites was enriched in aromatic moieties and showed a higher degradation status (lower DOC to DON ratio) compared to the near-natural site. At the drained sites, the C to N ratios of the uppermost peat layer were the same as of DOM in the peat profile. This suggests that the uppermost degraded peat layer is the main source of DOM. Nearly constant DOM quality through the profile furthermore indicated that DOM moving downwards through the drained sites remained largely biogeochemically unchanged. Unlike DOM concentration, DOM

  14. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  15. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues.

  16. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues

  17. Electroluminescence from completely horizontally oriented dye molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komino, Takeshi [Education Center for Global Leaders in Molecular System for Devices, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Sagara, Yuta [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Oki, Yuji [Japan Science and Technology Agency, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Nakamura, Nozomi [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Fujimoto, Hiroshi [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Fukuoka i" 3-Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (i3-OPERA), Fukuoka 819-0388 (Japan); and others

    2016-06-13

    A complete horizontal molecular orientation of a linear-shaped thermally activated delayed fluorescent guest emitter 2,6-bis(4-(10Hphenoxazin-10-yl)phenyl)benzo[1,2-d:5,4-d′] bis(oxazole) (cis-BOX2) was obtained in a glassy host matrix by vapor deposition. The orientational order of cis-BOX2 depended on the combination of deposition temperature and the type of host matrix. Complete horizontal orientation was obtained when a thin film with cis-BOX2 doped in a 4,4′-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1′-biphenyl (CBP) host matrix was fabricated at 200 K. The ultimate orientation of guest molecules originates from not only the kinetic relaxation but also the kinetic stability of the deposited guest molecules on the film surface during film growth. Utilizing the ultimate orientation, a highly efficient organic light-emitting diode with the external quantum efficiency of 33.4 ± 2.0% was realized. The thermal stability of the horizontal orientation of cis-BOX2 was governed by the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of the CBP host matrix; the horizontal orientation was stable unless the film was annealed above T{sub g}.

  18. Rectifying Horizontal Inequalities: Lessons from African Conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and demonstrate the link between horizontal inequalities and conflict. Section two will ... the US race riots in the 1960's and the 2005 Paris riots to the genocides that .... be seen as a combination of ethnic fighting between the black population.

  19. Flow mapping for ESS horizontal target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y.; Kikura, H.; Taishi, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Flow behaviour for ESS horizontal target is studied experimentally using two dimensional water model. A velocity field of stationary flow in reaction zone has been obtained. Three dimensional effect was also studied as a spanwise flow structure. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  20. Determinants Of Vertical And Horizontal Export Diversification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also reveals domestic investment plays an important role to enhance vertical as well as horizontal export diversification for East Asia, while it only ... resource-based industries and gradually shift production and exports from customary products to more dynamic ones by developing competitive advantage in the ...

  1. Modelling Nitrogen Transformation in Horizontal Subsurface Flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mathematical model was developed to permit dynamic simulation of nitrogen interaction in a pilot horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland receiving effluents from primary facultative pond. The system was planted with Phragmites mauritianus, which was provided with root zone depth of 75 cm. The root zone was ...

  2. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  3. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues.

  4. The horizontal plane appearances of scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illés, Tamás S.; Burkus, Máté; Somoskeőy, Szabolcs

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two-/three-dimen......Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two...... cases of a normal spine and a thoracic scoliosis are presented. Results: For a normal spine, vector projections in the transverse plane are aligned with the posterior-anterior anatomical axis. For a scoliotic spine, vector projections in the horizontal plane provide information on the lateral...... decompensation of the spine and the lateral displacement of vertebrae. In the horizontal plane view, vertebral rotation and projections of the sagittal curves can also be analyzed simultaneously. Conclusions: The use of posterior-anterior vertebral vector facilitates the understanding of the 3D nature...

  5. Cues for localization in the horizontal plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jakob; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    manipulated in HRTFs used for binaural synthesis of sound in the horizontal plane. The manipulation of cues resulted in HRTFs with cues ranging from correct combinations of spectral information and ITDs to combinations with severely conflicting cues. Both the ITD and the spectral information seem...

  6. Evaluation of horizontal magnification on panoramic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Raoof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluated the horizontal magnification of images taken from adults and pediatrics with PM 2002 CC Planmeca analogue machine. Materials and Methods: A series of 120 panoramic radiographs were obtained of 60 adults and 60 pediatrics. For all patients, negative impressions were used to make positive casts of the teeth. A caliper was used to measure the maximum mesiodistal length of the buccal surface of all teeth except canines on both casts and radiographs. The horizontal magnification factor was calculated for incisor, premolar, and molar regions by dividing the values obtained from the casts by the values obtained from the radiographs. Statistical Analysis: Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: The results indicated that with regard to adults, maxillary and mandibular incisor regions, unlike the other two sessions, didn′t show significant difference of the mean magnification of horizontal dimension (P = 0.5. In pediatrics, the comparison between mean magnification factors of all subgroups showed significant difference (P < 0.0001. Despite the adults′ radiographs, the results of pediatrics′ radiographs showed significantly higher magnification than the index listed by the manufacturer of the radiographic machine used. Conclusion: The present study results point to the fact that PM 2002 CC Proline panoramic machine makes possible precise measurements on radiographs of adults′ jaws in the horizontal dimension.

  7. Draining Water from Aircraft Fuel Using Nitrogen Enriched Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Frank

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns a computational study of the process of removing water from an aircraft’s fuel tank by pumping nitrogen enriched air (NEA from the bottom of the tank. This is an important procedure for the smooth, efficient, and safe operation of the aircraft’s engine. Due to the low partial pressure of water in the pumped NEA, it absorbs water from the fuel. The water-laden bubbles enter the ullage, the empty space above the fuel, and escape into the environment. The effects of the number of NEA inlets and the NEA mass flow rate on the timescale of the NEA pumping were investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The results reveal that the absorption of water by the NEA bubbles is low and is not affected by the number of the inlets used. Yet, the water content in the fuel decreases fast during the procedure, which is the desired outcome. We show that this is due to the relatively dry NEA entering the ullage and displacing the moist air, thus reducing the partial pressure of water at the fuel/ullage interface. This shift from equilibrium conditions forces water to evaporate from the fuel’s entire surface. Furthermore, the amount of water migrating from the fuel directly into the ullage is significantly greater than that absorbed by the rising bubbles. In turn, the rate of decrease of the water content in the ullage is determined by the total NEA mass flow rate and this is the dominant contributor to the draining time, with the number of NEA nozzles playing a minor role. We confirmed this by pumping NEA directly into the ullage, where we observe a significant decrease of water even when the NEA is not pumped through the fuel. We also show that doubling the mass flow rate halves the draining time. When considering the capability of most modern aircraft to pump NEA through the fuel as part of their inerting system, the proposed method for removing water is particularly attractive, requiring very little (if at all design modification.

  8. Filling, storing and draining. Three key aspects of landslide hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, Thom; Greco, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides are among the most widespread hazards in the world. The hydrology in and around a landslide area is key to pore pressure build-up in the soil skeleton which reduces shear strength due to the buoyancy force exerted by water in a saturated soil and to soil suction in an unsaturated soil. Extraordinary precipitation events trigger most of the landslides, but, at the same time, the vast majority of slopes do not fail. The intriguing question is: 'When and where exactly can a slope become triggered to slide and flow downwards?' The objective of this article is to present and discuss landslide hydrology at three scales - pore, hillslope, and catchment - which, taken together, give an overview of this interdisciplinary science. In fact, for rainfall-triggered landslides to occur, an unfavourable hydrological interplay should exist between fast and/or prolonged infiltration, and a relatively 'slow' drainage. The competition of water storage, pressure build-up and the subsequently induced drainage contains the importance of the timing, which is indisputably one of the more delicate but relevant aspects of landslide modelling, the overlay of hydrological processes with different time scales. As slopes generally remain stable, we can argue that effective drainage mechanisms spontaneously develop, as the best for a slope to stay stable is getting rid of the overload of water (above field capacity), either vertically or laterally. So, landslide hydrology could be framed as 'Filling-Storing-Draining'. Obviously, 'Storing' is added to stress the importance of dynamic pressure build-up for slope stability. 'Draining' includes all removal of water from the system (vertical and lateral flow, evaporation and transpiration) and thus pore water pressure release. Furthermore, by addressing landslide hydrology from both earth sciences and soil mechanics perspectives, we aim to manifest the hydrological processes in hillslopes and their influence on behaviour

  9. On the coupled unsaturated–saturated flow process induced by vertical, horizontal, and slant wells in unconfined aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liang

    2017-03-01

    established with special consideration of the coupled unsaturated–saturated flow process and the well orientation. Groundwater flow in the saturated zone is described by a three-dimensional governing equation and a linearized three-dimensional Richards' equation in the unsaturated zone. A solution in the Laplace domain is derived by the Laplace–finite-Fourier-transform and the method of separation of variables, and the semi-analytical solutions are obtained using a numerical inverse Laplace method. The solution is verified by a finite-element numerical model. It is found that the effects of the unsaturated zone on the drawdown of a pumping test exist at any angle of inclination of the pumping well, and this impact is more significant in the case of a horizontal well. The effects of the unsaturated zone on the drawdown are independent of the length of the horizontal well screen. The vertical well leads to the largest water volume drained from the unsaturated zone (W during the early pumping time, and the effects of the well orientation on W values become insignificant at the later time. The screen length of the horizontal well does not affect W for the whole pumping period. The proposed solutions are useful for the parameter identification of pumping tests with a general well orientation (vertical, horizontal, and slant in unconfined aquifers affected from above by the unsaturated flow process.

  10. Management of Chest Drains: A National Survey on Surgeons‑in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    triangle of safety [Figure 1]. Just above a quarter of respondents (27.2%) always utilized different sizes of tubes for different pathologies and the same proportion of respondents always positioned the tip of the tube apically to drain pneumothorax and basally to drain pleural effusion. In contrast, 9.9% and 6.2% of respondents.

  11. Controlling the ambipolarity and improvement of RF performance using Gaussian Drain Doped TFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Kaushal; Gupta, Sarthak; Pandey, Sunil; Kondekar, P. N.; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2018-05-01

    Ambipolar conduction in tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) has been occurred as an inherent issue due to drain-channel tunneling. It makes TFET less efficient and restricts its application in complementary digital circuits. Therefore, this manuscript reports the application of Gaussian doping profile on nanometer regime silicon channel TFETs to completely eliminate the ambipolarity. For this, Gaussian doping is used in the drain region of conventional gate-drain overlap TFET to control the tunneling of electrons from the valence band of channel to the conduction band of drain. As a result, barrier width at the drain/channel junction increases significantly leading to the suppression of an ambipolar current even when higher doping concentration (1 ? 10 ? cm ?) is considered in the drain region. However, significant improvement in terms of RF figure-of-merits such as cut-off frequency (f ?), gain bandwidth product (GBW), and gate-to-drain capacitance (C ?) is achieved with Gaussian doped gate on drain overlap TFET as compared to its counterpart TFET.

  12. 77 FR 30886 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... interpretation and installed unblockable drain covers and now would have to go back and ``re-do'' their work... compliance and whether the pool operator is seeking a plan review and not just limited advice about how to... secondary anti-entrapment system to come into compliance, unless the pool uses a gravity drain system or the...

  13. Laparoscopic elective cholecystectomy with and without drain: A controlled randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouda El-labban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the main method of treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Routine drainage after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is an issue of considerable debate. Therefore, a controlled randomised trial was designed to assess the value of drains in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: During a two-year period (From April 2008 to January 2010, 80 patients were simply randomised to have a drain placed (group A, an 8-mm pentose tube drain was retained below the liver bed, whereas 80 patients were randomised not to have a drain (group B placed in the subhepatic space. End points of this trial were to detect any differences in morbidity, postoperative pain, wound infection and hospital stay between the two groups. Results : There was no mortality in either group and no statistically significant difference in postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting, wound infection or abdominal collection between the two groups. However, hospital stay was longer in the drain group than in group without drain and it is appearing that the use of drain delays hospital discharge. Conclusion : The routine use of a drain in non-complicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy has nothing to offer; in contrast, it is associated with longer hospital stay.

  14. Drain Tube-Induced Jejunal Penetration Masquerading as Bile Leak following Whipple's Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang Ho; Lee, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sae Hwan; Lee, Suck-Ho; Park, Sang-Heum; Kim, Sun-Joo; Kim, Chang Ho

    2011-05-01

    A 70-year-old man had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy due to a distal common bile duct malignancy. After the operation, serous fluid discharge decreased from two drain tubes in the retroperitoneum. Over four weeks, the appearance of the serous fluid changed to a greenish bile color and the patient persistently drained over 300 ml/day. Viewed as bile leak at the choledochojejunostomy, treatment called for endoscopic diagnosis and therapy. Cap-fitted forward-viewing endoscopy demonstrated that the distal tip of a pancreatic drain catheter inserted at the pancreaticojejunostomy site had penetrated the opposite jejunum wall. One of the drain tubes primarily placed in the retroperitoneum had also penetrated the jejunum wall, with the distal tip positioned near the choledochojejunostomy site. No leak of contrast appeared beyond the jejunum or anastomosis site. Following repositioning of a penetrating catheter of the pancreaticojejunostomy, four days later, the patient underwent removal of two drain tubes without additional complications. In conclusion, the distal tip of the catheter, placed to drain pancreatic juice, penetrated the jejunum wall and may have caused localized perijejunal inflammation. The other drain tube, placed in the retroperitoneal space, might then have penetrated the inflamed wall of the jejunum, allowing persistent bile drainage via the drain tube. The results masqueraded as bile leakage following pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  15. Nurses’ knowledge of care of chest drain: A survey in a Nigerian semiurban university hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesieme, Emeka Blessius; Essu, Ifeanyichukwu Stanley; Arekhandia, Bruno Jeneru; Welcker, Katrin; Prisadov, Georgi

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: Inefficient nursing care of chest drains may associated with unacceptable and sometimes life-threatening complications. This report aims to ascertain the level of knowledge of care of chest drains among nurses working in wards in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study among nurses at teaching hospital using pretested self-administered questionnaires. Results: The majority were respondents aged between 31 and 40 years (45.4%) and those who have nursing experience between 6 and 10 years. Only 37 respondents (26.2%) had a good knowledge of nursing care of chest drains. Knowledge was relatively higher among nurses who cared for chest drains daily, nurses who have a work experience of 0.05). Performance was poor on the questions on position of drainage system were not statistically significant with relationship to waist level while mobilizing the patient, application of suction to chest drains, daily changing of dressing over chest drain insertion site, milking of tubes and drainage system with dependent loop. Conclusion: The knowledge of care of chest drains among nurses is poor, especially in the key post procedural care. There is an urgent need to train them so as to improve the nursing care of patients managed with chest drains. PMID:26857934

  16. Drain Tube-Induced Jejunal Penetration Masquerading as Bile Leak following Whipple’s Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ho Bae

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old man had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy due to a distal common bile duct malignancy. After the operation, serous fluid discharge decreased from two drain tubes in the retroperitoneum. Over four weeks, the appearance of the serous fluid changed to a greenish bile color and the patient persistently drained over 300 ml/day. Viewed as bile leak at the choledochojejunostomy, treatment called for endoscopic diagnosis and therapy. Cap-fitted forward-viewing endoscopy demonstrated that the distal tip of a pancreatic drain catheter inserted at the pancreaticojejunostomy site had penetrated the opposite jejunum wall. One of the drain tubes primarily placed in the retroperitoneum had also penetrated the jejunum wall, with the distal tip positioned near the choledochojejunostomy site. No leak of contrast appeared beyond the jejunum or anastomosis site. Following repositioning of a penetrating catheter of the pancreaticojejunostomy, four days later, the patient underwent removal of two drain tubes without additional complications. In conclusion, the distal tip of the catheter, placed to drain pancreatic juice, penetrated the jejunum wall and may have caused localized perijejunal inflammation. The other drain tube, placed in the retroperitoneal space, might then have penetrated the inflamed wall of the jejunum, allowing persistent bile drainage via the drain tube. The results masqueraded as bile leakage following pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  17. A mathematical model to optimize the drain phase in gravity-based peritoneal dialysis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akonur, Alp; Lo, Ying-Cheng; Cizman, Borut

    2010-01-01

    Use of patient-specific drain-phase parameters has previously been suggested to improve peritoneal dialysis (PD) adequacy. Improving management of the drain period may also help to minimize intraperitoneal volume (IPV). A typical gravity-based drain profile consists of a relatively constant initial fast-flow period, followed by a transition period and a decaying slow-flow period. That profile was modeled using the equation VD(t) = (V(D0) - Q(MAX) x t) xphi + (V(D0) x e(-alphat)) x (1 - phi), where V(D)(t) is the time-dependent dialysate volume; V(D0), the dialysate volume at the start of the drain; Q(MAX), the maximum drain flow rate; alpha, the exponential drain constant; and phi, the unit step function with respect to the flow transition. We simulated the effects of the assumed patient-specific maximum drain flow (Q(MAX)) and transition volume (psi), and the peritoneal volume percentage when transition occurs,for fixed device-specific drain parameters. Average patient transport parameters were assumed during 5-exchange therapy with 10 L of PD solution. Changes in therapy performance strongly depended on the drain parameters. Comparing 400 mL/85% with 200 mL/65% (Q(MAX/psi), drain time (7.5 min vs. 13.5 min) and IPV (2769 mL vs. 2355 mL) increased when the initial drain flow was low and the transition quick. Ultrafiltration and solute clearances remained relatively similar. Such differences were augmented up to a drain time of 22 minutes and an IPV of more than 3 L when Q(MAX) was 100 mL/min. The ability to model individual drain conditions together with water and solute transport may help to prevent patient discomfort with gravity-based PD. However, it is essential to note that practical difficulties such as displaced catheters and obstructed flow paths cause variability in drain characteristics even for the same patient, limiting the clinical applicability of this model.

  18. Oculo-peritoneal shunt: draining aqueous humor to the peritoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maldonado-Junyent

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, there were estimated to be approximately 60.5 million people with glaucoma. This number is expected to increase to 79.6 million by 2020. In 2010, there were 8.4 million people with bilateral blindness caused by glaucoma, and this number is expected in increase to 11.2 million by 2020. Filtering implants are special devices that have been developed to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with refractory glaucoma. The success rate of these implants is relatively low, and they continue to fail over time. To avoid failure caused by the formation of scar tissue around the implants, attempts have been made to drain the aqueous humor to various sites, including the venous system, lacrimal sac, sinuses, and conjunctival fornix. Recently, a system to shunt aqueous humor from the anterior chamber to the peritoneum has been developed. The surgical technique involved in this system is a modification of the technique currently used by neurosurgeons for the treatment of hydrocephalus. We present the first case operated using this technique.

  19. Crud separation from equipment drain of BWR atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masaru; Yamaguchi, Hisashi; Moriya, Yasuhiro; Koshiba, Yukihiko; Ota, Yoshiharu.

    1977-01-01

    In the primary cooling systems of BWR nuclear power stations, radioactive crud is generated and accumulates in reactors and circulating systems, which causes the radiation exposure of workers at the time of the inspection and maintenance of reactors. The chemical composition and grain size distribution of crud differ largely according to the construction of primary systems, the operational conditions of reactors, and the process of operation. The study on the application of nuclear pore membrane filter NPMF to the separation of crud in the waste water from equipment drain systems has been carried out. With the NPMF, clarified filtrate can be obtained without any filter aid, therefore the secondary waste of filter sludge is not generated. When the filter is clogged, the filtration capability can be regenerated by reverse flow washing, and continuous filtration is possible actually because the regeneration takes only short time. The NPMF is the polycarbonate membrane of about 10 μm thick, to which charged particles are irradiated vertically, and the flight tracks are etched with alkali solution, thus the required pore treatment is applied. The basic investigation of waste liquid, the endurance test of actual filters, the filtration test with the pilot apparatus, the demonstration test with an actual equipment, and the design of the actual equipment have been carried out for three years. (Kako, I.)

  20. Molten salt fueled reactors with a fast salt draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventre, Edmond; Blum, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a molten salt nuclear reactor which comprises a new arrangement for shutting it down in complete safety. This nuclear reactor has a molten salt primary circuit comprising, in particular, the core of this reactor. It includes a leak tight vessel the capacity of which is appreciably greater than that of the molten salt volume of the circuit and placed so that the level of the molten salt, when all the molten salt of the circuit is contained in this vessel, is less than that of the base of the core. There are facilities for establishing and maintaining an inert gas pressure in the vessel above the molten salt, for releasing the compressed gas and for connecting the vessel to the primary circuit entering this vessel at a lower level than that of the molten salt and enabling molten salt to enter or leave the vessel according to the pressure of the inert gas. The particular advantage of this reactor is that it can be shut down safely since the draining of the primary circuit no longer results from a 'positive action' but from the suppression of an arrangement essential for the operation of the reactor consisting of the build-up of the said inert gas pressure in the said vessel [fr

  1. Dynamic Looping of a Free-Draining Polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Felix X. -F.; Stinis, Panos; Qian, Hong

    2018-01-11

    Here, we revisit the celebrated Wilemski--Fixman (WF) treatment for the looping time of a free-draining polymer. The WF theory introduces a sink term into the Fokker--Planck equation for the $3(N+1)$-dimensional Ornstein--Uhlenbeck process of polymer dynamics, which accounts for the appropriate boundary condition due to the formation of a loop. The assumption for WF theory is considerably relaxed. A perturbation method approach is developed that justifies and generalizes the previous results using either a delta sink or a Heaviside sink. For both types of sinks, we show that under the condition of a small dimensionless $\\epsilon$, the ratio of capture radius to the Kuhn length, we are able to systematically produce all known analytical and asymptotic results obtained by other methods. This includes most notably the transition regime between the $N^2$ scaling of Doi, and $N\\sqrt{N}/\\epsilon$ scaling of Szabo, Schulten, and Schulten. The mathematical issue at play is the nonuniform convergence of $\\epsilon\\to 0$ and $N\\to\\infty$, the latter being an inherent part of the theory of a Gaussian polymer. Our analysis yields a novel term in the analytical expression for the looping time with small $\\epsilon$, which was previously unknown. Monte Carlo numerical simulations corroborate the analytical findings. The systematic method developed here can be applied to other systems modeled by multidimensional Smoluchowski equations.

  2. Safety of thyroidectomy and cervical neck dissection without drains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Bassam; Sleilaty, Ghassan; Rizk, Habib; Abadjian, Gerard; Ghorra, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies have reported that drainage after thyroidectomy does not decrease the rate of local postoperative complications. We sought to review the safety of thyroidectomy combined with cervical neck dissection (CND) without drainage. Methods The medical records of consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomy without drainage were retrospectively reviewed. Two groups were defined depending on whether CND was or was not performed. The main outcome was identification of patients with cervical bleeding, hematoma or seroma. Results We included 1127 patients (139 who had CND and 988 who did not). Of these, 207 patients (18%) had transient postoperative hypocalcemia, 9 (0.8%) had permanent postoperative hypoparathyroidism, 56 (5%) had transient postoperative hoarseness and 7 (0.6%) had permanent vocal cord paralysis. A total of 44 patients (4%) experienced postoperative hematoma and/or seroma: 8 patients (6%) who had CND and 36 (4%) who did not. There was no major bleeding in the 2 groups; all patients had minor bleeding or seroma not requiring surgical intervention. The postoperative stay in hospital for both groups was 1 day in 92% of patients. Wound infection occurred in 0.8% of all patients: 1 (0.7%) who had CND and 8 (0.8%) who did not. There was no significant difference between the groups in overall perioperative complications or in time of hospital discharge. Conclusion Thyroidectomy without drains is safe and effective, even in combination with CND. PMID:22449723

  3. Draining down of a nuclear steam generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawor, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The method is described of draining down contained reactor-coolant water from the inverted vertical U-tubes of a vertical-type steam generator in which the upper, inverted U-shaped ends of the tubes are closed and the lower ends thereof are open. The steam generator is part of a nuclear powered steam generating system wherein the reactor coolant water is normally circulated from and back into the reactor via a loop comprising the steam generator and inlet and outlet conduits connected to the lower end of the steam generator. The method comprises continuously introducing a gas which is inert to the system and which is under pressure above atmospheric pressure into at least one of the downwardly facing open ends of each of the U-tubes from below the tube sheet in which the open ends of the U-tubes are mounted adjacent the lower end of the steam generator, while permitting the water to flow out from the open ends of the U-tubes

  4. Reverse brain drain in South Korea: state-led model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, B L

    1992-01-01

    Korea's reverse brain drain (RBD) has been an organized government effort, rather than a spontaneous social phenomenon, in that various policies and the political support of President Park, Chung-Hee were instrumental in laying the groundwork for its success. Particular features of Korea's RBD policies are the creation of a conducive domestic environment (i.e., government-sponsored strategic R & D institution-building, legal, and administrative reforms), and importantly, the empowerment of returnees (via, i.e., exceptionally good maternal benefits, guarantees of research autonomy). President Park played the cardinal role in empowering repatriates at the expense of his own civil bureaucracy, and his capacity for such patronage derived from Korea's bureaucratic-authoritarian political system. Returning scientists and engineers directly benefitted from this political system as well as Park's personal guardianship. For Park, empowerment of returning "brains" was necessary to accomplish his national industrialization plan, thereby enhancing his political legitimacy in domestic politics. An alliance with the R & D cadre was functionally necessary to successfully consolidate strong presidential power, and politically nonthreatening due to the particular form of "pact of domination" in Korea's power structure. RBD in Korea will continue in the near future given Korea's drive for high technology, and the remarkable expansion of local industrial and educational sectors. Korea's future RBD, however, needs to pay closer attention to the following 4 problems: research autonomy; equality issues; skill-based repatriation of technicians and engineers rather than Ph.Ds; and subsidies to small and medium industry for RBD.

  5. BRAIN DRAIN IN THE GLOBALIZATION ERA: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA BĂLAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration is an old phenomenon in the history of humankind. However, the magnitude, complexity, and structure of migration flows in the global era are all unprecedented. According to the United Nations Report “Trends in International Migrant Stock: the 2015 Revision” at world level 244 million international migrants were recorded in 2015. With the increase in the number of migrants, the emigration of ‘high-skilled’ individuals is also growing. OECD and United Nation Statistics show that in the last decade the number of migrants with tertiary education increased by about 70%. Brain drain is also a well-known phenomenon. Highly educated individuals and scientists have travelled the world in all centuries in search of better study and research, and working conditions, and of new opportunities. Nowadays, in the era of globalisation and, implicitly, of swifter development of international markets, the emigration rate of high-skilled experts exceeds the total emigration rate, which shows the selectiveness of migration at educational level. The paper presents a brief analysis of the interdependencies between migration and globalisation and of the effects of globalisation on the migration of high-skilled individuals. The trends, structure, and volume of high-skilled labour force from Romania are analysed along with the effects generated by them.

  6. BRAIN DRAIN – BRAIN GAIN: SLOVAK STUDENTS AT CZECH UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FISCHER, Jakub

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Slovak Republic is experiencing a growing brain drain of elite secondary school students. Slovak human capital flows chiefly to Czech Higher Education Institutes (HEIs. The aim of this paper is to analyse who these Slovak students are to create a complete profile of Slovak students at Czech HEIs. We used a unique dataset based on the surveys EUROSTUDENT V and DOKTORANDI 2014 to explore differences between Czech and Slovak students, their financial situation and the functionality of the intergenerational transmission mechanism. We have found that Slovak students at Czech HEIs come from highly educated families and from the middle and higher class families significantly more often than Czech students at Czech HEIs or Slovak students at Slovak HEIs. Approximately 80% of them came from grammar schools. Slovak students also often have better language skills. We have discovered that Slovak students at Czech HEIs enjoy certain social benefits, slightly more often they have higher monthly income compared to Czech students, and they work slightly less often during their studies. Finally, according to our findings, Slovak doctoral students are often reluctant to return back to the Slovak Republic or to stay in the Czech Republic.

  7. Criticality safety considerations for MSRE fuel drain tank uranium aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary criticality safety study of some potential effects of uranium reduction and aggregation in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel drain tanks (FDTs) during salt removal operations. Since the salt was transferred to the FDTs in 1969, radiological and chemical reactions have been converting the uranium and fluorine in the salt to UF 6 and free fluorine. Significant amounts of uranium (at least 3 kg) and fluorine have migrated out of the FDTs and into the off-gas system (OGS) and the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The loss of uranium and fluorine from the salt changes the chemical properties of the salt sufficiently to possibly allow the reduction of the UF 4 in the salt to uranium metal as the salt is remelted prior to removal. It has been postulated that up to 9 kg of the maximum 19.4 kg of uranium in one FDT could be reduced to metal and concentrated. This study shows that criticality becomes a concern when more than 5 kg of uranium concentrates to over 8 wt% of the salt in a favorable geometry

  8. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  9. Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening...... and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The basic nature of airflow through single-sided openings, including airflow rate, air velocity, temperature difference between the rooms and the dimensions of the horizontal openings, were measured. A bi-directional airflow rate was measured using the constant...... quite well with the Epstein's formula ratio are presented. In some cases the measured airflow rates fit quite well with the Epstein's formula but in other cases the measured data show clear deviations from the Epstein's formula. Thus, revised formulas for natural ventilation are proposed....

  10. Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Li, Zhigang

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening...... and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The basic nature of airflow through single-sided openings, including airflow rate, air velocity, temperature difference between the rooms and the dimensions of the horizontal openings, were measured. A bi-directional airflow rate was measured using the constant...... quite well with the Epstein's formula but in other cases the measured data show clear deviations from the Epstein's formula. Thus, revised formulas for natural ventilation are proposed....

  11. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  12. Improving horizontal completions on heterogeneous tight shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Rivera, Roberto; Deenadayalu, Chaitanya; Chertov, Maxim; Novalo Hartanto, Ricardo; Gathogo, Patrick [Schlumberger (United States); Kunjir, Rahul [University of Utah (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Evaluation of the two formation characteristics conducive to economic well production is important when tight shale formation characterization and completion design are being considered. This paper presents the basic understanding required to improve the efficiency of horizontal completions in oil and gas producing shales. Guidelines are defined for effective perforation and fracturing to improve the efficiency and sustainability of horizontal completions using extensive laboratory characterization of mechanical properties on core, core/log integration and continuous mapping of these properties by logging-while-drilling (LWD) methods. The objective is to improve completion design efficiency. This is accomplished by suitable selection of perforation intervals based on an understanding of the relevant physical processes and rock characterization. Conditions at two reservoir regions, the near-wellbore and the far-wellbore, are outlined and are essential to completion design. From the study, it can be concluded that tight shales are strongly anisotropic and cannot be approximated using isotropic models.

  13. Formation evaluation of a horizontal well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najia, W.K.; Habib, K.H.; Asada, J.

    1991-01-01

    In Upper Zakum Field, the interest in horizontal drilling has continued. A second horizontal well was drilled during the second half of 1989. This necessitated running logging tools for well control and to evaluate the reservoir characteristics. The logging tool selected for this well is that of Sperry-Sun. Tools configuration and tolerance were found to fulfil SADCO's requirements and specifications. This paper reports on the services produced which included Measurement While Drilling (MWD) directional services and RLL (Recorded Lithology Logging). The RLL services cover Dual Gamma Ray (DGR), Electromagnetic Wave Resistivity (EWR) and Compensated Neutron Porosity (CN porosity). All the RLL tools were an integrated part of the Bottom Hole Drilling Assembly. Data acquired while surveying was recorded in a recording sub down-hole and retrieved when the tools were up at the surface. A PC assisted quick look interpretation was carried out using Archie's equation in shale free limestone to calculate: Effective porosity, Water Saturation and, Bulk water volume

  14. Conservative management of displaced horizontal root fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kunhappan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries of teeth are the main cause of emergency treatment in dental practice. Radicular fractures in permanent teeth are uncommon, being only 0.5-7% of the cases. Horizontal root fractures are more frequently observed in the maxillary anterior region of young male patients and vary in severity from enamel fractures to avulsions. Fracture occurs often in the middle-third of the root followed by apical and coronal third. The present case report describes a clinical case of a horizontal root fracture located at the middle third of a maxillary left-central incisor treated endodontically after approximating fracture segment with the help of orthodontic appliance. After 6 months follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic with normal periodontal health.

  15. Active vibration suppression of helicopter horizontal stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquemani, Simone; Cazzulani, Gabriele; Resta, Ferruccio

    2017-04-01

    Helicopters are among the most complex machines ever made. While ensuring high performance from the aeronautical point of view, they are not very comfortable due to vibration mainly created by the main rotor and by the interaction with the surrounding air. One of the most solicited structural elements of the vehicle are the horizontal stabilizers. These elements are particularly stressed because of their composite structure which, while guaranteeing lightness and strength, is characterized by a low damping. This work makes a preliminary analysis on the dynamics of the structure and proposes different solutions to actively suppress vibrations. Among them, the best in terms of the relationship between performance and weight / complexity of the system is that based on inertial actuators mounted on the inside of the horizontal stabilizers. The work addresses the issue of the design of the device and its use in the stabilizer from both the numerical and the experimental points of view.

  16. Surgical treatment for paralytic horizontal strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhou*

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the effect of surgery for paralytic horizontal strabismus and the paralytic horizontal strabismus performed by Jensen procedure with antagonist muscle of paralytic muscle recession and medial or lateral rectus extra large resection/recession.METHODS: Fifteen cases(17 eyeswith complete or nearly complete paralytic horizontal strabismus from January 2005 to August. 2014 in our hospital were assessed retrospectively,7 eyes of 7 cases with treatment group A were performed Jensen procedure combined antagonist muscle of paralytic muscle recession, 10 eyes of 8 cases with treatment group B were performed medial or lateral rectus extra large resection/recession. seventeen eyes of 15 cases with an average of 21±8.71mo follow-up were observed.RESULTS: All 17 eyes of 15 cases after the operation obtained satisfied effects, 16 eyes of 14 cases obtained ideal long-term effect. One eye of a patient with a 6mo follow-up was undercorrected of 30△. We found a varying degree of postoperative improvement in visual function. There was a significant reduction in the strabismus angle for distance and near(t=28.71, Pt=36.21, Pt=17.96, Pt=9.20,PCONCLUSION: Jensen procedure combined antagonist muscle of paralytic muscle recession and medial or lateral rectus extra large resection/recession is a safe and successful method of treatment in complete or nearly complete paralysis horizontal strabismus. Patients achieve orthophoria, improvement of the motor ability, and larger field of binocular single vision for long time.

  17. Search for horizontal bosons at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, C.H.; Deshpande, N.G.; Gunion, J.F.; Haber, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    The production process anti p p → l - l' + + X, where the leptons belong to two different generations and X refers to spectator jets, provides a clear signature for horizontal (generation-changing) bosons when the leptons are emitted nearly back-to-back and p/sub T//sup miss/ = 0. Cross sections and p/sub T/ distributions for each lepton are presented, and discovery limits on M/sub H/ are extracted for several different channels

  18. Improving steamflood effectiveness by horizontal producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, B. [Wintershall AG, Barnstorf (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    The Emlichheim oilfield is located in North-West-Germany on the Dutch-German border being the Southern downdip part of the Schoonebeek anticline. The field was discovered in 1943 and came on production in 1944. Since production startup, Wintershall operates the field as owner of the concession (90% share of interest) in a joint venture with Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH (10%). For more than 50 years an average crude oil production of 150.000 t/year has been maintained. Starting with huff ''n'' puff and hot water flooding in the late 60's, the first steam flood project was implemented in 1981. Further steamflood projects started in 1989, 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1998 in different areas of the field. Until 1997, only vertical production wells were drilled in the field. Wellbore stability seemed to be a major problem for drilling horizontal wells in the unconsolidated sandstone reservoir at that time. In 1999 an innovative steamflood project was started with three newly drilled horizontal producers surrounding a vertical steam injector. First results are showing a significant improvement in the performance as compared to the earlier projects and offer new chances for further development of the field. Today, the field could no longer be operated without the steam projects as roughly 95% of the field production is coming from thermal EOR. This paper gives a brief overview of the field and its production history, the planning and realization of a current steamflood project using horizontal well technology as well as its performance compared to the earlier projects. It also describes the experience of drilling horizontal wells in the unconsolidated sandstone. A brief outlook to the future field development is given. (orig.)

  19. Horizontal infiltration and trace element measurements for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory investigations of horizontal infiltration were carried out on three Zaria soils (Samaru, Tudun Wada and the Kubanni river basin Fadama wet-land soils) in Nigeria, which are principally alfisols. Diffusivity was found to be -77.5 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1, -8.4 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 and -117.0 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 respectively for the ...

  20. Cues for localization in the horizontal plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jakob; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Spatial localization of sound is often described as unconscious evaluation of cues given by the interaural time difference (ITD) and the spectral information of the sound that reaches the two ears. Our present knowledge suggests the hypothesis that the ITD roughly determines the cone of the perce...... independently in HRTFs used for binaural synthesis. The ITD seems to be dominant for localization in the horizontal plane even when the spectral information is severely degraded....

  1. Horizontal vibrations of piles in a centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdin, B.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is the study of soil dynamics for important structures like nuclear power plants, offshore platforms, dams etc. Experimental results of horizontal vibrations on a pile partially anchored in a soil scale model put into a centrifuge are presented. Mechanical similitude conditions from equilibrium equations or rheologic laws are described. After a description of testing equipment (centrifuge, electrodynamic excitator) experimental results are interpreted with a model. Non-linearities on frequency response curves are characterized [fr

  2. Natural convection in horizontal fluid layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo-Antilla, A.J.

    1977-02-01

    The experimental work includes developing and using a thermal convection cell to obtain measurements of the heat flux and turbulent core temperature of a horizontal layer of fluid heated internally and subject to both stabilizing and destabilizing temperature differences. The ranges of Rayleigh numbers tested were 10 7 equal to or less than R/sub I/ equal to or less than 10 13 and -10 10 equal to or less than R/sub E/ equal to or less than 10 10 . Power integral methods were found to be adequate for interpolating and extrapolating the data. The theoretical work consists of the derivation, solution and use of the mean field equations for study of thermally driven convection in horizontal layers of infinite extent. The equations were derived by a separation of variables technique where the horizontal directions were described by periodic structures and the vertical being some function of z. The derivation resulted in a coupled set of momentum and energy equations. The equations were simplified by using the infinite Prandtl number limit and neglecting direct intermodal interaction. Solutions to these equations are used to predict the existence of multi-wavenumber flows at all supercritical Rayleigh numbers. Subsequent inspection of existing experimental photographs of convecting fluids confirms their existence. The onset of time dependence is found to coincide with the onset of the second convective mode. Each mode is found to consist of two wavenumbers and typically the velocity and temperature fields of the right modal branch are found to be out of phase

  3. Thermal transient analysis applied to horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong, A.N. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery process used to recover bitumen and heavy oil. This paper presented a newly developed model to estimate cooling time and formation thermal diffusivity by using a thermal transient analysis along the horizontal wellbore under a steam heating process. This radial conduction heating model provides information on the heat influx distribution along a horizontal wellbore or elongated steam chamber, and is therefore important for determining the effectiveness of the heating process in the start-up phase in SAGD. Net heat flux estimation in the target formation during start-up can be difficult to measure because of uncertainties regarding heat loss in the vertical section; steam quality along the horizontal segment; distribution of steam along the wellbore; operational conditions; and additional effects of convection heating. The newly presented model can be considered analogous to pressure transient analysis of a buildup after a constant pressure drawdown. The model is based on an assumption of an infinite-acting system. This paper also proposed a new concept of a heating ring to measure the heat storage in the heated bitumen at the time of testing. Field observations were used to demonstrate how the model can be used to save heat energy, conserve steam and enhance bitumen recovery. 18 refs., 14 figs., 2 appendices.

  4. Vertical and horizontal seismometric observations of tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambotte, S.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tidal signals have been largely studied with gravimeters, strainmeters and tiltmeters, but can also be retrieved from digital records of the output of long-period seismometers, such as STS-1, particularly if they are properly isolated. Horizontal components are often noisier than the vertical ones, due to sensitivity to tilt at long periods. Hence, horizontal components are often disturbed by local effects such as topography, geology and cavity effects, which imply a strain-tilt coupling. We use series of data (duration larger than 1 month) from several permanent broadband seismological stations to examine these disturbances. We search a minimal set of observable signals (tilts, horizontal and vertical displacements, strains, gravity) necessary to reconstruct the seismological record. Such analysis gives a set of coefficients (per component for each studied station), which are stable over years and then can be used systematically to correct data from these disturbances without needing heavy numerical computation. A special attention is devoted to ocean loading for stations close to oceans (e.g. Matsushiro station in Japon (MAJO)), and to pressure correction when barometric data are available. Interesting observations are made for vertical seismometric components; in particular, we found a pressure admittance between pressure and data 10 times larger than for gravimeters for periods larger than 1 day, while this admittance reaches the usual value of -3.5 nm/s 2/mbar for periods below 3 h. This observation may be due to instrumental noise, but the exact mechanism is not yet understood.

  5. Oxic limestone drains for treatment of dilute, acidic mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Limestone treatment systems can be effective for remediation of acidic mine drainage (AMD) that contains moderate concentrations of dissolved O2 , Fe3+ , or A13+ (1‐5 mg‐L‐1 ). Samples of water and limestone were collected periodically for 1 year at inflow, outflow, and intermediate points within underground, oxic limestone drains (OLDs) in Pennsylvania to evaluate the transport of dissolved metals and the effect of pH and Fe‐ and Al‐hydrolysis products on the rate of limestone dissolution. The influent was acidic and relatively dilute (pH 1 mg‐L‐1 ) but was near neutral (pH = 6.2‐7.0); Fe and Al decreased to less than 5% of influent concentrations. As pH increased near the inflow, hydrous Fe and Al oxides precipitated in the OLDs. The hydrous oxides, nominally Fe(OH)3 and AI(OH)3, were visible as loosely bound, orange‐yellow coatings on limestone near the inflow. As time elapsed, Fe(OH)3 and AI(OH)3 particles were transported downflow. During the first 6 months of the experiment, Mn 2+ was transported conservatively through the OLDs; however, during the second 6 months, concentrations of Mn in effluent decreased by about 50% relative to influent. The accumulation of hydrous oxides and elevated pH (>5) in the downflow part of the OLDs promoted sorption and coprecipitation of Mn as indicated by its enrichment relative to Fe in hydrous‐oxide particles and coatings on limestone. Despite thick (~1 mm) hydrous‐oxide coatings on limestone near the inflow, CaCO3 dissolution was more rapid near the inflow than at downflow points within the OLD where the limestone was not coated. The rate of limestone dissolution decreased with increased residence time, pH, and concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3‐ and decreased PCO2. The following overall reaction shows alkalinity as an ultimate product of the iron hydrolysis reaction in an OLD:Fe2+ + 0.25 O2 +CaCO3 + 2.5 H2O --> Fe(OH)3 + 2 Ca2+ + 2 HCO3-where 2 moles of CaCO3 dissolve for each mole of Fe(OH)3 produced

  6. Assessing the biodegradability of microparticles disposed down the drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kathleen; Itrich, Nina; Casteel, Kenneth; Menzies, Jennifer; Williams, Tom; Krivos, Kady; Price, Jason

    2017-05-01

    Microparticles made from naturally occurring materials or biodegradable plastics such as poly(3-hydroxy butyrate)-co-(3-hydroxy valerate), PHBV, are being evaluated as alternatives to microplastics in personal care product applications but limited data is available on their ultimate biodegradability (mineralization) in down the drain environmental compartments. An OECD 301B Ready Biodegradation Test was used to quantify ultimate biodegradability of microparticles made of PHBV foam, jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, stearyl stearate, blueberry seeds and walnut shells. PHBV polymer was ready biodegradable reaching 65.4 ± 4.1% evolved CO 2 in 5 d and 90.5 ± 3.1% evolved CO 2 in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles (125-500 μm) were mineralized extensively with >66% CO 2 evolution in 28 d and >82% CO 2 evolution in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles were mineralized at a similar rate and extent as microparticles made of jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, and stearyl stearate which reached 84.8  ± 4.8, 84.9  ± 2.2, 82.7  ± 4.7, and 86.4 ± 3.2% CO 2 evolution respectively in 80 d. Blueberry seeds and walnut shells mineralized more slowly only reaching 39.3  ± 6.9 and 5.1 ± 2.8% CO 2 evolution in 80 d respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Schaefer, Kevin; Gusmeroli, Alessio; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Tinjun; Parsekian, Andrew; Zebker, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3–4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10–35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  8. Traditional Foley drainage systems--do they drain the bladder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maurice M; Gulati, Shelly; Liepmann, Dorian; Stackhouse, G Bennett; Greene, Kirsten; Stoller, Marshall L

    2007-01-01

    Foley catheters are assumed to drain the bladder to completion. Drainage characteristics of Foley catheter systems are poorly understood. To investigate unrecognized retained urine with Foley catheter drainage systems, bladder volumes of hospitalized patients were measured with bladder scan ultrasound volumetrics. Additionally, an in vitro bench top mock bladder and urinary catheter system was developed to understand the etiology of such residual volumes. A novel drainage tube design that optimizes indwelling catheter drainage was also designed. Bedside bladder ultrasound volumetric studies were performed on patients hospitalized in ward and intensive care unit. If residual urine was identified the drainage tubing was manipulated to facilitate drainage. An ex vivo bladder-urinary catheter model was designed to measure flow rates and pressures within the drainage tubing of a traditional and a novel drainage tube system. A total of 75 patients in the intensive care unit underwent bladder ultrasound volumetrics. Mean residual volume was 96 ml (range 4 to 290). In 75 patients on the hospital ward mean residual volume was 136 ml (range 22 to 647). In the experimental model we found that for every 1 cm in curl height, obstruction pressure increased by 1 cm H2O within the artificial bladder. In contrast, the novel spiral-shaped drainage tube demonstrated rapid (0.5 cc per second), continuous and complete (100%) reservoir drainage in all trials. Traditional Foley catheter drainage systems evacuate the bladder suboptimally. Outflow obstruction is caused by air-locks that develop within curled redundant drainage tubing segments. The novel drainage tubing design eliminates gravity dependent curls and associated air-locks, optimizes flow, and minimizes residual bladder urine.

  9. Variable carbon losses from recurrent fires in drained tropical peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecny, Kristina; Ballhorn, Uwe; Navratil, Peter; Jubanski, Juilson; Page, Susan E; Tansey, Kevin; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Siegert, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Tropical peatland fires play a significant role in the context of global warming through emissions of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. However, the state of knowledge on carbon loss from these fires is still poorly developed with few studies reporting the associated mass of peat consumed. Furthermore, spatial and temporal variations in burn depth have not been previously quantified. This study presents the first spatially explicit investigation of fire-driven tropical peat loss and its variability. An extensive airborne Light Detection and Ranging data set was used to develop a prefire peat surface modelling methodology, enabling the spatially differentiated quantification of burned area depth over the entire burned area. We observe a strong interdependence between burned area depth, fire frequency and distance to drainage canals. For the first time, we show that relative burned area depth decreases over the first four fire events and is constant thereafter. Based on our results, we revise existing peat and carbon loss estimates for recurrent fires in drained tropical peatlands. We suggest values for the dry mass of peat fuel consumed that are 206 t ha(-1) for initial fires, reducing to 115 t ha(-1) for second, 69 t ha(-1) for third and 23 t ha(-1) for successive fires, which are 58-7% of the current IPCC Tier 1 default value for all fires. In our study area, this results in carbon losses of 114, 64, 38 and 13 t C ha(-1) for first to fourth fires, respectively. Furthermore, we show that with increasing proximity to drainage canals both burned area depth and the probability of recurrent fires increase and present equations explaining burned area depth as a function of distance to drainage canal. This improved knowledge enables a more accurate approach to emissions accounting and will support IPCC Tier 2 reporting of fire emissions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Inverse problem in anisotropic poroelasticity: drained constants from undrained ultrasound measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, James G; Nakagawa, Seiji

    2010-02-01

    Poroelastic analysis has traditionally focused on the relationship between dry and drained constants, which are assumed known, and the saturated or undrained constants, which are assumed unknown. However, there are many applications in this field of study for which the main measurements can only be made on the saturated/undrained system, and then it is uncertain what the effects of the fluids were on the system, since the drained constants remain a mystery. The work presented here shows how to deduce drained constants from undrained constants for anisotropic systems having symmetries ranging from isotropic to orthotropic. Laboratory ultrasound data are then inverted for the drained constants in three granular packings: one of glass beads, and two others for distinct types of more or less angular sand grain packings. Experiments were performed under uniaxial stress, which resulted in hexagonal (transversely isotropic) symmetry of the poroelastic response. One important conclusion from the general analysis is that the drained constants are uniquely related to the undrained constants, assuming that porosity, grain bulk modulus, and pore fluid bulk modulus are already known. Since the resulting system of equations for all the drained constants is linear, measurement error in undrained constants also propagates linearly into the computed drained constants.

  12. Inverse problem in anisotropic poroelasticity: Drained constants from undrained ultrasound measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, J.G.; Nakagawa, S.

    2009-11-20

    Poroelastic analysis has traditionally focused on the relationship between dry or drained constants which are assumed known and the saturated or undrained constants which are assumed unknown. However, there are many applications in this field of study for which the main measurements can only be made on the saturated/undrained system, and then it is uncertain what the eects of the uids were on the system, since the drained constants remain a mystery. The work presented here shows how to deduce drained constants from undrained constants for anisotropic systems having symmetries ranging from isotropic to orthotropic. Laboratory ultrasound data are then inverted for the drained constants in three granular packings: one of glass beads, and two others for distinct types of more or less angular sand grain packings. Experiments were performed under uniaxial stress, which resulted in hexagonal (transversely isotropic) symmetry of the poroelastic response. One important conclusion from the general analysis is that the drained constants are uniquely related to the undrained constants, assuming that porosity, grain bulk modulus, and pore uid bulk modulus are already known. Since the resulting system of equations for all the drained constants is linear, measurement error in undrained constants also propagates linearly into the computed drained constants.

  13. Homogenization of one-dimensional draining through heterogeneous porous media including higher-order approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel M.; McLaughlin, Richard M.; Miller, Cass T.

    2018-02-01

    We examine a mathematical model of one-dimensional draining of a fluid through a periodically-layered porous medium. A porous medium, initially saturated with a fluid of a high density is assumed to drain out the bottom of the porous medium with a second lighter fluid replacing the draining fluid. We assume that the draining layer is sufficiently dense that the dynamics of the lighter fluid can be neglected with respect to the dynamics of the heavier draining fluid and that the height of the draining fluid, represented as a free boundary in the model, evolves in time. In this context, we neglect interfacial tension effects at the boundary between the two fluids. We show that this problem admits an exact solution. Our primary objective is to develop a homogenization theory in which we find not only leading-order, or effective, trends but also capture higher-order corrections to these effective draining rates. The approximate solution obtained by this homogenization theory is compared to the exact solution for two cases: (1) the permeability of the porous medium varies smoothly but rapidly and (2) the permeability varies as a piecewise constant function representing discrete layers of alternating high/low permeability. In both cases we are able to show that the corrections in the homogenization theory accurately predict the position of the free boundary moving through the porous medium.

  14. Placement of percutaneous transhepatic biliary stent using a silicone drain with channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Mineta, Sho; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawano, Yoichi; Sasaki, Junpei; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Aimoto, Takayuki; Tajiri, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a method for percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting with a BLAKE Silicone Drain, and discusses the usefulness of placement of the drain connected to a J-VAC Suction Reservoir for the treatment of stenotic hepaticojejunostomy. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed under ultrasonographic guidance in a patient with stenotic hepaticojejunostomy after hepatectomy for hepatic hilum malignancy. The technique used was as follows. After dilatation of the drainage root, an 11-Fr tube with several side holes was passed through the stenosis of the hepaticojejunostomy. A 10-Fr BLAKE Silicone Drain is flexible, which precludes one-step insertion. One week after insertion of the 11-Fr tube, a 0.035-inch guidewire was inserted into the tube. After removal of the 11-Fr tube, the guidewire was put into the channel of a 10-Fr BLAKE Silicone Drain. The drain was inserted into the jejunal limb through the intrahepatic bile duct and was connected to a J-VAC Suction Reservoir. Low-pressure continued suction was applied. Patients can be discharged after insertion of the 10-Fr BLAKE Silicone Drain connected to the J-VAC Suction Reservoir. Placement of a percutaneous transhepatic biliary stent using a 10-Fr BLAKE Silicone Drain connected to a J-VAC Suction Reservoir is useful for the treatment of stenotic hepaticojejunostomy. PMID:19725159

  15. Measurement and modelling of CO2 flux from a drained fen peatland cultivated with reed canary grass and spring barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka Prasad; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation of bioenergy crops has been suggested as a promising option for reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from arable organic soils (Histosols). Here, we report the annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) fluxes of CO2 as measured with a dynamic closed chamber method at a drained fen......-C m−2 in RCG and SB plots, respectively, with Rfb accounting for 32 and 22% respectively. Total estimated annual GP was −1818 ± 42 and −1329 ± 66 g CO2-C m−2 in RCG and SB plots leading to a NEE of 69 ± 36 g CO2-C m−2 yr−1 in RCG plots (i.e., a weak net source) and −41 ± 47 g CO2-C m−2 yr−1 in SB...

  16. Drain tube migration into the anastomotic site of an esophagojejunostomy for gastric small cell carcinoma: short report

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Long-Wei; Lo Chiao; Lai Peng-Sheng; Lee Po-Chu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Intraluminal migration of a drain through an anastomotic site is a rare complication of gastric surgery. Case Presentation We herein report the intraluminal migration of a drain placed after a lower esophagectomy and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis for gastric small cell carcinoma. Persistent drainage was noted 1 month after surgery, and radiographic studies were consistent with drain tube migration. Endoscopy revealed the drain had migrated into the esophagoj...

  17. Horizontal Multinational Firms, Vertical Multinational Firms and Domestic Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Emami Namini (Julian); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe build a dynamic general equilibrium model with 2 countries, horizontal and vertical multinational activity and endogenous domestic and foreign investment. It is found that horizontal multinational activity always leads to a complementary relationship between domestic and foreign

  18. Drainage of shallow peat harvesting areas with pipe drains; Madaltuneen turvetuotantokentaen kuivatustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemetti, V. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    This study aims to develop pipe draining techniques in peat harvesting areas, which have been in active use so long time that the remaining peat layer is about one meter thick. The method should be technically and economically feasible as well as environmentally acceptable. Special attention is paid to pipe installation techniques, drain spacing and impacts on watercourses, which receive the drainage waters. After pipe installation the area was monitored by measuring pipe runoffs, water tables, moisture content of peat and quality of drain water. These are the results of second year. (orig.)

  19. Theory of Maxwell's fish eye with mutually interacting sources and drains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Sahebdivan, Sahar

    2015-11-01

    Maxwell's fish eye is predicted to image with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. However, interactions between sources and drains may ruin the subwavelength imaging capabilities of this and similar absolute optical instruments. Nevertheless, as we show in this paper, at resonance frequencies of the device, an array of drains may resolve a single source, or alternatively, a single drain may scan an array of sources, no matter how narrowly spaced they are. It seems that near-field information can be obtained from far-field distances.

  20. Drainage of shallow peat harvesting areas with pipe drains; Mataloituneen turvekentaen kuivatus putkisalaojilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemetti, V.; Saenkiaho, K. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rautiainen, O. [Ojamarkkinointi Oy, Heinola (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This study aims to develop pipe draining technics in peat harvesting areas, which have been in active use so long time that the remaining peat layer is about one meter thick. The method should be technically and economically feasible as well as environmentally acceptable. Special attention is paid to pipe installation techniques, drain spacing and impacts on watercourses, which receive the drainage waters. After pipe installation the area is monitored by measuring pipe runoffs, water tables, moisture content of peat and quality of drain water

  1. Implications of Nash Bargaining for Horizontal Industry Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Richard E. Just; Siddhartha Mitra; Sinaia Netanyahu

    2005-01-01

    This article shows how horizontal industry integration can arise from transferable asymmetry of technologies and endowments. The Nash bargaining solution suggests that greater technological diversity among coordinating parties yields greater gains from horizontal integration. The framework fits the case where a firm with a superior technology franchises the technology by horizontal integration. The results appear to fit hog production where integration has been primarily horizontal and, in pa...

  2. Study of the Local Horizon. (Spanish Title: Estudio del Horizonte Local.) Estudo do Horizonte Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-12-01

    The study of the horizon is fundamental to easy the first observations of the students at any education center. A simple model, to be developed in each center, allows to easy the study and comprehension of the rudiments of astronomy. The constructed model is presented in turn as a simple equatorial clock, other models (horizontal and vertical) may be constructed starting from it. El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical). O estudo do horizonte é fundamental para facilitar as primeiras observações dos alunos num centro educativo. Um modelo simples, que deve ser feito para cada centro, permite facilitar o estudo e a compreensão dos primeiros rudimentos astronômicos. O modelo construído apresenta-se, por sua vez, como um modelo simples de relógio equatorial e a partir dele pode-se construir outros modelos (horizontal e vertical)

  3. Detecting peatland drains with Object Based Image Analysis and Geoeye-1 imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J; Holden, N M

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They provide important ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and storage. Drainage disturbs peatland ecosystem services. Mapping drains is difficult and expensive and their spatial extent is, in many cases, unknown. An object based image analysis (OBIA) was performed on a very high resolution satellite image (Geoeye-1) to extract information about drain location and extent on a blanket peatland in Ireland. Two accuracy assessment methods: Error matrix and the completeness, correctness and quality (CCQ) were used to assess the extracted data across the peatland and at several sub sites. The cost of the OBIA method was compared with manual digitisation and field survey. The drain maps were also used to assess the costs relating to blocking drains vs. a business-as-usual scenario and estimating the impact of each on carbon fluxes at the study site. The OBIA method performed well at almost all sites. Almost 500 km of drains were detected within the peatland. In the error matrix method, overall accuracy (OA) of detecting the drains was 94% and the kappa statistic was 0.66. The OA for all sub-areas, except one, was 95-97%. The CCQ was 85%, 85% and 71% respectively. The OBIA method was the most cost effective way to map peatland drains and was at least 55% cheaper than either field survey or manual digitisation, respectively. The extracted drain maps were used constrain the study area CO 2 flux which was 19% smaller than the prescribed Peatland Code value for drained peatlands. The OBIA method used in this study showed that it is possible to accurately extract maps of fine scale peatland drains over large areas in a cost effective manner. The development of methods to map the spatial extent of drains is important as they play a critical role in peatland carbon dynamics. The objective of this study was to extract data on the spatial extent of drains on a blanket bog in the west of Ireland. The

  4. Detecting peatland drains with Object Based Image Analysis and Geoeye-1 imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Connolly

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They provide important ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and storage. Drainage disturbs peatland ecosystem services. Mapping drains is difficult and expensive and their spatial extent is, in many cases, unknown. An object based image analysis (OBIA was performed on a very high resolution satellite image (Geoeye-1 to extract information about drain location and extent on a blanket peatland in Ireland. Two accuracy assessment methods: Error matrix and the completeness, correctness and quality (CCQ were used to assess the extracted data across the peatland and at several sub sites. The cost of the OBIA method was compared with manual digitisation and field survey. The drain maps were also used to assess the costs relating to blocking drains vs. a business-as-usual scenario and estimating the impact of each on carbon fluxes at the study site. Results The OBIA method performed well at almost all sites. Almost 500 km of drains were detected within the peatland. In the error matrix method, overall accuracy (OA of detecting the drains was 94% and the kappa statistic was 0.66. The OA for all sub-areas, except one, was 95–97%. The CCQ was 85%, 85% and 71% respectively. The OBIA method was the most cost effective way to map peatland drains and was at least 55% cheaper than either field survey or manual digitisation, respectively. The extracted drain maps were used constrain the study area CO2 flux which was 19% smaller than the prescribed Peatland Code value for drained peatlands. Conclusions The OBIA method used in this study showed that it is possible to accurately extract maps of fine scale peatland drains over large areas in a cost effective manner. The development of methods to map the spatial extent of drains is important as they play a critical role in peatland carbon dynamics. The objective of this study was to extract data on the spatial extent of

  5. Horizontal gene transfers with or without cell fusions in all categories of the living matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkovics, Joseph G

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the history of widespread exchanges of genetic segments initiated over 3 billion years ago, to be part of their life style, by sphero-protoplastic cells, the ancestors of archaea, prokaryota, and eukaryota. These primordial cells shared a hostile anaerobic and overheated environment and competed for survival. "Coexist with, or subdue and conquer, expropriate its most useful possessions, or symbiose with it, your competitor" remain cellular life's basic rules. This author emphasizes the role of viruses, both in mediating cell fusions, such as the formation of the first eukaryotic cell(s) from a united crenarchaeon and prokaryota, and the transfer of host cell genes integrated into viral (phages) genomes. After rising above the Darwinian threshold, rigid rules of speciation and vertical inheritance in the three domains of life were established, but horizontal gene transfers with or without cell fusions were never abolished. The author proves with extensive, yet highly selective documentation, that not only unicellular microorganisms, but the most complex multicellular entities of the highest ranks resort to, and practice, cell fusions, and donate and accept horizontally (laterally) transferred genes. Cell fusions and horizontally exchanged genetic materials remain the fundamental attributes and inherent characteristics of the living matter, whether occurring accidentally or sought after intentionally. These events occur to cells stagnating for some 3 milliard years at a lower yet amazingly sophisticated level of evolution, and to cells achieving the highest degree of differentiation, and thus functioning in dependence on the support of a most advanced multicellular host, like those of the human brain. No living cell is completely exempt from gene drains or gene insertions.

  6. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareg, Walter F.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for confining molten metal with a horizontal alternating magnetic field. In particular, this invention employs a magnet that can produce a horizontal alternating magnetic field to confine a molten metal at the edges of parallel horizontal rollers as a solid metal sheet is cast by counter-rotation of the rollers.

  7. GABA sensitivity of spectrally classified horizontal cells in goldfish retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.; Kamermans, M.; Negishi, K.; Spekreijse, H.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the GABA sensitivity of horizontal cells in the isolated goldfish retina. After the glutamatergic input to the horizontal cells was blocked with DNQX, GABA depolarized the monophasic and biphasic horizontal cells. The pharmacology of these GABA-induced depolarizations was tested with the

  8. Annual Site Environmental Report: 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    sabba, d

    2007-02-03

    This report provides information about environmental programs during 2005 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Seasonal activities that span calendar years are also included. Production of an annual site environmental report (ASER) is a requirement established by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for all management and operating (M&O) contractors throughout the DOE complex. SLAC is a federally-funded research and development center with Stanford University as the M&O contractor. SLAC effectively applied environmental management in meeting the site's integrated safety and environmental management system (ISEMS) goals. For normal daily activities, all SLAC managers and supervisors are responsible for ensuring that proper procedures are followed so that: (1) Worker safety and health are protected; (2) The environment is protected; and (3) Compliance is ensured. Throughout 2005, SLAC focused on these activities through the SLAC management systems (described in Chapter 3). These systems were also the way SLAC approached implementing ''greening of the government'' initiatives such as Executive Order 13148. The management systems at SLAC are effective, supporting compliance with all relevant statutory and regulatory requirements. There were no reportable releases to the environment from SLAC operations during 2005. In addition, many improvements were continued during 2005, in waste minimization, recycling, stormwater drain system, groundwater restoration, and implementing a chemical management system (CMS) to better manage chemical use. Program-specific details are discussed.

  9. Annual Site Environmental Report: 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuckolls, H.; /SLAC

    2006-04-19

    This report provides information about environmental programs during 2002 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Seasonal activities that span calendar years are also included. Production of an annual site environmental report (ASER) is a requirement established by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for all management and operating (M&O) contractors throughout the DOE complex. SLAC is a federally-funded, research and development center with Stanford University as the M&O contractor. The most noteworthy information in this report is summarized in this section. This summary demonstrates the effective application of SLAC environmental management in meeting the site's integrated safety management system (ISMS) goals. For normal daily activities, all SLAC managers and supervisors are responsible for ensuring that proper procedures are followed so that worker safety and health are protected; the environment is protected; and compliance is ensured. Throughout 2002, SLAC focused on these activities through the SLAC management systems (described in Chapter 3). These systems were also the way SLAC approached implementing ''greening of the government'' initiatives such as Executive Order 13148. The management systems at SLAC are effective, supporting compliance with all relevant statutory and regulatory requirements. SLAC did not receive any notices of violation during 2002. In addition, many improvements were continued during 2002, in decreasing air emission rates, the storm drain system, groundwater restoration, and planning for a chemical management system to manage chemical use better.

  10. Crossflow Ultra-filter Module Draining and Flush Testing for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - Lessons Learned in De-clogging Crossflow Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townson, P.S.; Brackenbury, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes test work conducted in order to study crossflow ultra-filter module draining and flushing for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. The objective of the testing was to demonstrate that the current design, with a flush tank at elevation 29.9 m (98'-00'') has enough pressure head to drain (to a minimum elevation ∼1.5 m [∼5'-00'']) and clean out the ultra-filter tube side. Without demonstrating this, a potential failure of the flush system could cause immovable solids to plug the tubular membranes of the filters causing serious adverse impacts to plant availability and/or throughput, and could permit deleterious flammable gas accumulations. In conjunction with the water flush, the plant also utilizes air purging to prevent build up of flammable gases. Two filter configurations were investigated, one being the baseline horizontal layout and one being an alternative vertical layout. The slurry used in the tests was a non radioactive simulant (kaolin-bentonite clay), and it mimicked the rheological properties of the real waste slurry. The filter modules were full scale items, being 2.44 m (8') in length and containing 241 by 1.3 cm (1/2'') id sintered stainless steel filter tubes. (authors)

  11. Kinetic Analysis of Horizontal Plyometric Exercise Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossow, Andrew J; Ebben, William P

    2018-05-01

    Kossow, AJ, DeChiara, TG, Neahous, SM, and Ebben, WP. Kinetic analysis of horizontal plyometric exercise intensity. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1222-1229, 2018-Plyometric exercises are frequently performed as part of a strength and conditioning program. Most studies assessed the kinetics of plyometric exercises primarily performed in the vertical plane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the multiplanar kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises, which have a significant horizontal component. This study also sought to assess sex differences in the intensity progression of these exercises. Ten men and 10 women served as subjects. The subjects performed a variety of plyometric exercises including the double-leg hop, standing long jump, single-leg standing long jump, bounding, skipping, power skipping, cone hops, and 45.72-cm hurdle hops. Subjects also performed the countermovement jump for comparison. All plyometric exercises were evaluated using a force platform. Dependent variables included the landing rate of force development and landing ground reaction forces for each exercise in the vertical, frontal, and sagittal planes. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance with repeated-measures for plyometric exercise type demonstrated main effects for exercise type for all dependent variables (p ≤ 0.001). There was no significant interaction between plyometric exercise type and sex for any of the variable assessed. Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons identified a number of differences between the plyometric exercises for the dependent variables assessed (p ≤ 0.05). These findings should be used to guide practitioners in the progression of plyometric exercise intensity, and thus program design, for those who require significant horizontal power in their sport.

  12. Horizontal well geosteering: planning, monitoring and geosteering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottahedeh, R.

    2008-11-15

    The geosteering process should not be seen as a process solely designated for the most expensive or highest profile horizontal wells. It can be regarded as another tool for improving the odds of success by remaining in the productive zone for longer periods of drilling. Also, it can be used to optimize the positioning of a horizontal wellbore in the sweet spots within the reservoir. The current process has been successfully applied to large infill drilling programs at over 40 wells for heavy oil, tight gas, conventional oil and gas plays and for Mannville coalbed methane (CBM) in Alberta. The service has been provided irrespective of location, as long as the Wellsite Information Transfer Standard Markup Language (WITSML)/Pason Satellite service is available. Exploration and production (E&P) companies are continuously being driven to reduce the cost per barrel of oil equivalent (BOE). E&P needs and technologies related to advanced and accurate directional drilling, communication of vital data in real-time through the internet, as well as reduced cycle time associated with advanced forward-looking 3D geo-modelling and visualization technologies, are currently converging. The motivation to reduce costs has been responsible for advancing the horizontal well geosteering process by incorporating the Measurement While Drilling (MWD) tool into mainstream drilling practices. The universal economic benefits gained can be found in all resource play types (conventional oil and gas, heavy oil, tight gas and coalbed methane). It is important to note that the process described here is essentially collaborative. For best results, there must be cooperation between the E&P operational geologist, wellsite geologist, directional driller and geo-modelling staff, as well as the engineering consultants involved in the project (i.e. the team as a whole).

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) for Phosphorus Loads in Tile-Drained Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W; King, K; Williams, M; Williams, J; Fausey, N

    2015-07-01

    Numerical modeling is an economical and feasible approach for quantifying the effects of best management practices on dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) loadings from agricultural fields. However, tools that simulate both surface and subsurface DRP pathways are limited and have not been robustly evaluated in tile-drained landscapes. The objectives of this study were to test the ability of the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX), a widely used field-scale model, to simulate surface and tile P loadings over management, hydrologic, biologic, tile, and soil gradients and to better understand the behavior of P delivery at the edge-of-field in tile-drained midwestern landscapes. To do this, a global, variance-based sensitivity analysis was performed, and model outputs were compared with measured P loads obtained from 14 surface and subsurface edge-of-field sites across central and northwestern Ohio. Results of the sensitivity analysis showed that response variables for DRP were highly sensitive to coupled interactions between presumed important parameters, suggesting nonlinearity of DRP delivery at the edge-of-field. Comparison of model results to edge-of-field data showcased the ability of APEX to simulate surface and subsurface runoff and the associated DRP loading at monthly to annual timescales; however, some high DRP concentrations and fluxes were not reflected in the model, suggesting the presence of preferential flow. Results from this study provide new insights into baseline tile DRP loadings that exceed thresholds for algal proliferation. Further, negative feedbacks between surface and subsurface DRP delivery suggest caution is needed when implementing DRP-based best management practices designed for a specific flow pathway. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. The cost of health professionals' brain drain in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbary Akpa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past attempts to estimate the cost of migration were limited to education costs only and did not include the lost returns from investment. The objectives of this study were: (i to estimate the financial cost of emigration of Kenyan doctors to the United Kingdom (UK and the United States of America (USA; (ii to estimate the financial cost of emigration of nurses to seven OECD countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, UK, USA; and (iii to describe other losses from brain drain. Methods The costs of primary, secondary, medical and nursing schools were estimated in 2005. The cost information used in this study was obtained from one non-profit primary and secondary school and one public university in Kenya. The cost estimates represent unsubsidized cost. The loss incurred by Kenya through emigration was obtained by compounding the cost of educating a medical doctor and a nurse over the period between the average age of emigration (30 years and the age of retirement (62 years in recipient countries. Results The total cost of educating a single medical doctor from primary school to university is US$ 65,997; and for every doctor who emigrates, a country loses about US$ 517,931 worth of returns from investment. The total cost of educating one nurse from primary school to college of health sciences is US$ 43,180; and for every nurse that emigrates, a country loses about US$ 338,868 worth of returns from investment. Conclusion Developed countries continue to deprive Kenya of millions of dollars worth of investments embodied in her human resources for health. If the current trend of poaching of scarce human resources for health (and other professionals from Kenya is not curtailed, the chances of achieving the Millennium Development Goals would remain bleak. Such continued plunder of investments embodied in human resources contributes to further underdevelopment of Kenya and to keeping a majority of her people in the vicious

  15. Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed

  16. Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The basic nature of airflow through single-sided openings, including airflow rate, air velocity, temperature difference between the rooms and the dimensions...

  17. Sea water desalination by horizontal tubes evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, H.K.; Mohit, M.

    1986-01-01

    Desalinated water supplies are one of the problems of the nuclear power plants located by the seas. This paper explains saline water desalination by a Horizontal Tube Evaporator (HTE) and compares it with flash evaporation. A thermo compressor research project using HTE method has been designed, constructed, and operated at the Esfahan Nuclear Technology Center ENTC. The poject's ultimate goal is to obtain empirical formulae based on data gathered during operation of the unit and its subsequent development towards design and construction of desalination plants on an industrial scale

  18. Horizontal, floating, plastic hose oil skimmer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    A horizontal, floating, plastic hose oil skimmer operates at -20/sup 0/ to +100/sup 0/C as a moving belt driven by a motor at 0.7 kw at 1400 rpm to pick up oil by adhesion from a surface such as that of used cooling water or cutting oil for subsequent stripping and collection by gravity flow. Two models provide collection rates of 10-45 l./hr for diesel oil, 35-115 l./hr for hydraulic oil, and 170-455 l./hr for gear oils and heavy heating oils.

  19. A horizontal multi-purpose microbeam system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Marino, S. A.; Garty, G.; Harken, A.; Brenner, D. J.

    2018-04-01

    A horizontal multi-purpose microbeam system with a single electrostatic quadruplet focusing lens has been developed at the Columbia University Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF). It is coupled with the RARAF 5.5 MV Singleton accelerator (High Voltage Engineering Europa, the Netherlands) and provides micrometer-size beam for single cell irradiation experiments. It is also used as the primary beam for a neutron microbeam and microPIXE (particle induced x-ray emission) experiment because of its high particle fluence. The optimization of this microbeam has been investigated with ray tracing simulations and the beam spot size has been verified by different measurements.

  20. Polarized proton target with horizontal spin orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyatova, Eh.I.; Kiselev, Yu.F.; Kozlenko, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Proton target, the polarization vector of which may be arbitrary oriented in horizontal plane relatively to the beam, is developed and tested. 70% value of polarization is obtained. 0.6 K temperature is acquired through 3 He pumping out continuous cycle. 1.2-propylene glycol - Cr(V) was used as working medium. Magnetic system is made in the form of Helmholtz sperconducting coils with working curren close to critical one. Target polarization is measured by NMR technique using original system of proton signal processing

  1. Bifurcation in a buoyant horizontal laminar jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Das, Debopam; Srinivasan, J.

    2000-06-01

    The trajectory of a laminar buoyant jet discharged horizontally has been studied. The experimental observations were based on the injection of pure water into a brine solution. Under certain conditions the jet has been found to undergo bifurcation. The bifurcation of the jet occurs in a limited domain of Grashof number and Reynolds number. The regions in which the bifurcation occurs has been mapped in the Reynolds number Grashof number plane. There are three regions where bifurcation does not occur. The various mechanisms that prevent bifurcation have been proposed.

  2. Pork consumer market in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, I.G.; Ferreira, J.M.; Garcia, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se o comportamento do mercado consumidor de carne suína e seus derivados em Belo Horizonte. Foram entrevistados 401 consumidores, homens e mulheres, maiores de 19 anos de idade, mantendo-se a proporcionalidade observada no censo populacional. Além de sexo e faixa etária, escolaridade, ocupação e renda familiar foram levantadas para compor os fatores condicionantes da pesquisa. A carne suína in natura é consumida até três vezes por semana pela maioria da população (61,6%), em função de...

  3. Systematic review and meta-analysis of wound drains after thyroid surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Woods, R S R

    2014-04-01

    Drainage after routine thyroid and parathyroid surgery remains controversial. However, there is increasing evidence from a number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) suggesting no benefit from the use of drains.

  4. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... restricts wind motion across the open area between the pipe and the drain) that encloses the space between...., there is no pump) or is operated with no more than slight fluctuations in the liquid level, the owner or...

  5. Modelling Technique for the Assessment of the Sub-Soil Drain for Groundwater Seepage Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajul Baharuddin Mohamad Faizal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater simulation technique was carried out for examining the performance of sub-soil drain at problematic site area. Subsoil drain was proposed as one of solution for groundwater seepage occurred at the slope face by reducing groundwater table at Taman Botani Park Kuala Lumpur. The simulation technique used Modular Three-Dimensional Finite Difference Groundwater Flow (MODFLOW software. In transient conditions, the results of simulation showed that heads increases surpass 1 to 2 m from the elevation level of the slope area that caused groundwater seepage on slope face. This study attempt to decrease the heads increase surpass by using different sub-soil drain size in simulation technique. The sub-soil drain capable to decline the heads ranges of 1 to 2 m.

  6. Accounting for the risks of phosphorus losses through tile drains in a phosphorus index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D Keith; Ball, Bonnie; Zhang, T Q

    2012-01-01

    Tile drainage systems have been identified as a significant conduit for phosphorus (P) losses to surface water, but P indices do not currently account for this transport pathway in a meaningful way. Several P indices mention tile drains, but most account for either the reduction in surface runoff or the enhanced transport through tiles rather than both simultaneously. A summary of the current state of how tile drains are accounted for within P indices is provided, and the challenges in predicting the risk of P losses through tile drains that are relative to actual losses are discussed. A framework for a component P Index is described, along with a proposal to incorporate predictions of losses through tile drains as a component within this framework. Options for calibrating and testing this component are discussed. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Influence of pleural drain insertion in lung function of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozelami Vieira, Irinea Beatriz Carvalho; Vieira, Fabiano F; Abrão, João; Gastaldi, Ada Clarice

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal, prospective, randomized, blinded Trial to assess the influence of pleural drain (non-toxic PVC) site of insertion on lung function and postoperative pain of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in the first three days post-surgery and immediately after chest tube removal. Thirty six patients scheduled for elective myocardial revascularization with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were randomly allocated into two groups: SX group (subxiphoid) and IC group (intercostal drain). Spirometry, arterial blood gases, and pain tests were recorded. Thirty one patients were selected, 16 in SX group and 15 in IC group. Postoperative (PO) spirometric values were higher in SX than in IC group (ppleural drain location on breathing. PaO(2) on the second PO increased significantly in SX group compared with IC group (pDrain with insertion in the subxiphoid region causes less change in lung function and discomfort, allowing better recovery of respiratory parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Strip-drains for in situ clean up of contaminated fine-grained soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowders, J.J.; Gabr, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for in situ remediation of contaminated soils, such as bioremediation, vacuum/air stripping and soil flushing have been found to be less effective under fine-grained soil conditions. To enhance the performance of these techniques, it was proposed that strip-drains or wick drains also known as prefabricated vertical (PV) drains be used. The research objective was to determine the feasibility of using PV drains to enhance the soil flushing process. Bench top and intermediate-scale laboratory experiments were conducted. An overview of the work, results and future considerations were presented. Results indicated that the technology is feasible. A preliminary model for the technology to be used in any field situation was developed. The model is currently being tested with data from physical experiments on both intermediate and field tests. 5 figs

  9. Preliminary design studies of the draining tanks for the Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Allibert, M.; Heuer, D.; Brovchenko, M.; Laureau, A.; Ghetta, V.; Rubiolo, P.

    2014-01-01

    reactor called the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). The reference MSFR design is a 3000 MWth reactor with a total fuel salt volume of 18 m3, operated at a mean fuel temperature of 750 deg. C. The first confinement barrier of the reactor includes a salt draining system. In case of a planned reactor shut down or in case of accidents leading to an excessive increase of the temperature in the fuel circuit, the fuel configuration may be changed passively by gravitational draining of the fuel salt in dedicated draining tank located under the reactor and designed to provide adequate reactivity margins while insuring a passive cooling of the fuel salt to extract the residual heat from the short to the long term. The present preliminary assessment of this sub-critical draining system has been performed to identify the physical constraints and to give some orders of magnitude of characteristic time periods (authors)

  10. Numerical Simulation of Liquids Draining From a Tank Using OpenFOAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakri, Fadhilah Mohd; Sukri Mat Ali, Mohamed; Zaki Shaikh Salim, Sheikh Ahmad; Muhamad, Sallehuddin

    2017-08-01

    Accurate simulation of liquids draining is a challenging task. It involves two phases flow, i.e. liquid and air. In this study draining a liquid from a cylindrical tank is numerically simulated using OpenFOAM. OpenFOAM is an open source CFD package and it becomes increasingly popular among the academician and also industries. Comparisons with theoretical and results from previous published data confirmed that OpenFOAM is able to simulate the liquids draining very well. This is done using the gas-liquid interface solver available in the standard library of OpenFOAM. Additionally, this study was also able to explain the physics flow of the draining tank.

  11. Carbon balance of rewetted and drained peat soils used for biomass production: A mesocosm study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Kandel, Tanka

    2016-01-01

    of lower CO2 emissions without losing agricultural land. The present study quantified the carbon balance (CO2, CH4 and harvested biomass C) of rewetted and drained peat soils under intensively managed reed canary grass (RCG) cultivation. Mesocosms were maintained at five different ground water levels (GWL......), i.e., 0, 10, 20 cm below the soil surface, representing rewetted peat soils, and 30 and 40 cm below the soil surface, representing drained peat soils. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 and CH4 emissions were measured during the growing period of RCG (May to September) using transparent and opaque...... closed chamber methods. The average dry biomass yield was significantly lower from rewetted peat soils (12 Mg ha−1) than drained peat soils (15 Mg ha−1). Also, CO2 fluxes of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) from rewetted peat soils were significantly lower than drained peat...

  12. Use of a Nasal Speculum for Chest-Drain Insertion: A Simple Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Pankaj; Konstantinov, Igor E.; Newman, Mark A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Tube thoracostomy is a very commonly performed procedure in cardiothoracic surgery. Insertion of a chest drain requires expertise to minimize complications. We describe a simple technique of using a nasal speculum to perform this procedure.

  13. Postoperative intraabdominal fluid collections : a modified percutaneous drainage method using a surgical drain track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deok Hee; Kim, Gab Choul; Hwang, Jae Cheol; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Song, Ho Young; Sung, Kyu Bo

    2000-01-01

    In the management of postoperative fluid collection, the conventional percutaneous drainage method can be employed. Because of abdominal incisions and various types of surgical drains and/or T-tubes, the application of this method is not always easy, however. We inserted a drainage catheter through a pre-existing percutaneous track formed by a surgical drain located adjacent to the site of abnormal fluid collection. There was no need to remove the drain nor make an additional puncture in the abdominal wall. A dilator was inserted along the drain, and a guide wire was used to negotiate its intraperitoneal track and reach the accumulated fluid. The procedure was simple and safe. We briefly describe our experience of this modified percutaneous drainage technique, as used in three cases involving postoperative fluid collection. (author)

  14. Drain-Site Hernia Containing the Vermiform Appendix: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gass

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The herniated vermiform appendix has been described as content of every hernia orifice in the right lower quadrant. While the femoral and inguinal herniated vermiform appendix is frequent enough to result in an own designation, port-site or even drain-site hernias are less frequently described. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with right lower quadrant pain seven years after Roux-en-Y Cystojejunostomy for a pancreatic cyst. CT scan showed herniation of the vermiform appendix through a former drain-site. A diagnostic laparoscopy with appendectomy and direct closure of the abdominal wall defect combined with mesh reinforcement was performed. Despite the decreasing use of intraperitoneal drains over the recent years, a multitude of patients had intraperitoneal drainage in former times. These patients face nowadays the risk of drain-site hernias with sometimes even unexpected structures inside.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyes to track moving objects. Up-and-down (vertical) eye movements are typically normal. In people with ... Shattuck DW, Hageman N, Rüb U, Salamon N, Drain AE, Demer JL, Engle EC, Alger JR, Baloh ...

  16. Indwelling pleural drain for mobile management of malignant pleural effusion-combining benefits of both methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Mehta; Anshu Gupta; Sameer Singhal; Sachin Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusion is a leading cause of morbidity in lung cancer patients requiring repeated pleural aspirations or persistent intercostal drainage tube. Using an indigenous method of putting icd tube of smaller size with subcutaneous tunneling would allow draining fluid from lungs easily and painlessly when needed and avoid the need for repeated injections and chest tube insertion every time the fluid is to be drained.

  17. Indwelling pleural drain for mobile management of malignant pleural effusion-combining benefits of both methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural effusion is a leading cause of morbidity in lung cancer patients requiring repeated pleural aspirations or persistent intercostal drainage tube. Using an indigenous method of putting icd tube of smaller size with subcutaneous tunneling would allow draining fluid from lungs easily and painlessly when needed and avoid the need for repeated injections and chest tube insertion every time the fluid is to be drained.

  18. In-situ bioremediation via horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazen, T.C.; Looney, B.B.; Enzien, M.; Franck, M.M.; Fliermans, C.B.; Eddy, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade TCE, PCE and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work (Radian 1989). Subsurface soils and water adjacent to an abandoned process sewer line at the SRS have been found to have elevated levels of TCE (Marine and Bledsoe 1984). This area of subsurface and groundwater contamination is the focus of a current integrated demonstration of new remediation technologies utilizing horizontal wells. Bioremediation has the potential to enhance the performance of in situ air stripping as well as offering stand-alone remediation of this and other contaminated sites (Looney et al. 1991). Horizontal wells could also be used to enhance the recovery of groundwater contaminants for bioreactor conversions from deep or inaccessible areas (e.g., under buildings) and to enhance the distribution of nutrient or microbe additions in an in situ bioremediation

  19. Horizontal Gene Transfers in Mycoplasmas (Mollicutes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citti, C; Dordet-Frisoni, E; Nouvel, L X; Kuo, C H; Baranowski, E

    2018-04-12

    The class Mollicutes (trivial name "mycoplasma") is composed of wall-less bacteria with reduced genomes whose evolution was long thought to be only driven by gene losses. Recent evidences of massive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within and across species provided a new frame to understand the successful adaptation of these minimal bacteria to a broad range of hosts. Mobile genetic elements are being identified in a growing number of mycoplasma species, but integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are emerging as pivotal in HGT. While sharing common traits with other bacterial ICEs, such as their chromosomal integration and the use of a type IV secretion system to mediate horizontal dissemination, mycoplasma ICEs (MICEs) revealed unique features: their chromosomal integration is totally random and driven by a DDE recombinase related to the Mutator-like superfamily. Mycoplasma conjugation is not restricted to ICE transmission, but also involves the transfer of large chromosomal fragments that generates progenies with mosaic genomes, nearly every position of chromosome being mobile. Mycoplasmas have thus developed efficient ways to gain access to a considerable reservoir of genetic resources distributed among a vast number of species expanding the concept of minimal cell to the broader context of flowing information.

  20. Plankton bloom controlled by horizontal stirring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiver, W.; Neufeld, Z.; Scheuring, I.

    2009-10-01

    Here we show a simple mechanism in which changes in the rate of horizontal stirring by mesoscale ocean eddies can trigger or suppress plankton blooms and can lead to an abrupt change in the average plankton density. We consider a single species phytoplankton model with logistic growth, grazing and a spatially non-uniform carrying capacity. The local dynamics have multiple steady states for some values of the carrying capacity that can lead to localized blooms as fluid moves across the regions with different properties. We show that for this model even small changes in the ratio of biological timescales relative to the flow timescales can greatly enhance or reduce the global plankton productivity. Thus, this may be a possible mechanism in which changes in horizontal mixing can trigger plankton blooms or cause regime shifts in some oceanic regions. Comparison between the spatially distributed model and Lagrangian simulations considering temporal fluctuations along fluid trajectories, demonstrates that small scale transport processes also play an important role in the development of plankton blooms with a significant influence on global biomass.

  1. Management of extensive surgical emphysema with subcutaneous drain: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quoc Tran

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subcutaneous emphysema (SE is a frequent and often self-limiting complication of tube thoracostomy or other cardiothoracic procedures. On rare occasions, severe and extensive surgical emphysema marked by palpable cutaneous tension, dysphagia, dysphonia, palpebral closure or associated with pneumoperitoneum, airway compromise, “tension phenomenon” and respiratory failure require treatment. Presentation of case: A 67 year old lady presented with a large spontaneous pneumothorax on the background of end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and newly diagnosed lung cancer, developed extensive surgical emphysema following insertion of a chest drain. Immediate improvement was observed after insertion of a large-bore, 26 French (Fr. intercostal catheter, subcutaneous drain which was maintained under low suction (−5 cm H2O for a further 24 h. Discussion: Several methods have been described in the literature for the treatment of extensive subcutaneous emphysema, including: emergency tracheostomy, multisite subcutaneous drainage, infraclavicular “blow holes” incisions and subcutaneous drains or simply increasing suction on an in situ chest drain. Here a large-bore, fenestrated, subcutaneous drain maintained on low negative pressure also provided the necessary decompression. Conclusion: In the absence of a comparative study to identify the most effective method to manage extensive subcutaneous emphysema, this case highlights an effective, simple and safe management option. Keywords: Pneumothorax, Subcutaneous emphysema, Drain, Low suction, Intercostal catheter, Case report

  2. The development of Canadian leadership in horizontal drilling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, J R

    1989-01-01

    Horizontal wells are of increasing interest in the oil and gas industry, as is evident from the increase in the numbers of such wells being drilled. Horizontal well technology is used to improve production rates, notably in low permeability formations; to capture reserves if a reservoir is not economic using non-horizontal wells; to manage breakthrough of sweep fluids and increase sweep efficiency; and to extend the areal reach from a single surface location, especially in offshore production. The types of horizontal wells, differentiated on the basis of how quickly the well becomes horizontal, are briefly outlined and a short history of horizontal wells is presented. Canadian accomplishments in this field are then described, including steerable drilling systems, measurement-while-drilling systems, management of hole drag and torque, and well completion techniques. About 25 horizontal wells are forecast to be drilled in Canada in 1989, indicating the favorable future of this technology. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Proceedings of the 2002 Petroleum Society of CIM/SPE/CHOA International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, International Conference on Horizontal Well Technology, and Canadian Heavy Oil Association Business Conference : Resources 2 Reserves 2 Results. CD ROM ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This three day conference combined the Petroleum Society's International Horizontal Well and Technology Conference, the Society of Petroleum Engineer's (SPE) International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, and the Canadian Heavy Oil Association's (CHOA) Annual Business Meeting. The 87 presentations covered all aspects of heavy oil, thermal, and horizontal well technology from geosciences and drilling to economics and environment. The themes included financing, turning projects into results, eliminating the downstream barriers to oil sand development in North America and the world, and emerging technologies for horizontal or heavy oil applications. The conference included the following 20 sessions: (1) thermal operations/engineering, (2) well testing/productivity of horizontal wells, (3) heavy oil operations, (4) environmental aspects of heavy oil projects, (5) upgrading/pipelines, (6) economics and project appraisal, (7) simulation studies of thermal projects, (8) multilaterals, (9) horizontal wells in conventional reservoirs, (10) cold production of heavy oil, (11) horizontal drilling in thermal projects, (12) simulation studies of horizontal wells, (13) horizontal drilling technology, (14) thermal field studies and horizontal wells in heavy oil, (15) completion/production technology of horizontal and thermal wells, (16) physics and PVT of heavy oil recovery processes, (17) reservoir characterization/geosciences, (18) horizontal injectors/produced water technology, (19) emerging technologies, and (20) reservoir geomechanics/fracturing. Tutorials were also organized to provide opportunity to review areas that have undergone major changes. A total of 73 papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the database. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. To drain or not to drain? Predictors of tube thoracostomy insertion and outcomes associated with drainage of traumatic hemothoraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Bryan J; Roberts, Derek J; Grondin, Sean; Navsaria, Pradeep H; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Dunham, Michael B; Ball, Chad G

    2015-09-01

    Historical data suggests that many traumatic hemothoraces (HTX) can be managed expectantly without tube thoracostomy (TT) drainage. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of TT, including whether the quantity of pleural blood predicted tube placement, and to evaluate outcomes associated with TT versus expected management (EM) of traumatic HTXs. A retrospective cohort study of all trauma patients with HTXs and an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥12 managed at a level I trauma centre between April 1, 2005 and December 31, 2012 was completed. Mixed-effects models with a subject-specific random intercept were used to identify independent risk factors for TT. Logistic and log-linear regression were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) for mortality and empyema and percent increases in length of hospital and intensive care unit stay between patients managed with TT versus EM, respectively. A total of 635 patients with 749 HTXs were included in the study. Overall, 491 (66%) HTXs were drained while 258 (34%) were managed expectantly. Independent predictors of TT placement included concomitant ipsilateral flail chest [OR 3.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-8.80; p=0.04] or pneumothorax (OR 6.19; 95% CI 1.79-21.5; p<0.01) and the size of the HTX (OR per 10cc increase 1.12; 95% CI 1.04-1.21; p<0.01). Although the adjusted odds of mortality were not significantly different between groups (OR 3.99; 95% CI 0.87-18.30; p=0.08), TT was associated with a 47.14% (95% CI, 25.57-69.71%; p<0.01) adjusted increase in hospital length of stay. Empyemas (n=29) only occurred among TT patients. Expectant management of traumatic HTX was associated with a shorter length of hospital stay, no empyemas, and no increase in mortality. Although EM of smaller HTXs may be safe, these findings must be confirmed by a large multi-centre cohort study and randomized controlled trials before they are used to guide practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Safety of peritoneal and pleural drain placement in pediatric stem cell transplant recipients with severe veno-occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenci, Arin L; Stetson, Alyssa; Weldon, Christopher B; Lehmann, Leslie E

    2016-08-01

    Hepatic VOD (veno-occlusive disease) is a serious complication of HSCT (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) and has historically been associated with high mortality. This obstruction to hepatic flow often results in fluid collections in the peritoneal and pleural cavities. Catheter placement to drain ascites or pleural fluid may reduce intra-abdominal hypertension and/or improve respiratory parameters. The safety of these interventions among critically ill, immunocompromised children is unknown. Among 32 HSCT recipients (2000-2012) with severe VOD, we assessed the primary outcome of procedural complication from peritoneal drain placement. Twenty-four (75%) patients underwent peritoneal drain placement. No patient sustained visceral perforation or hemorrhage with drain placement. Overall mortality was 47% (n = 15). The procedure was not associated with increased overall mortality (p > 0.99). Eight (25%) peritoneal drains required replacement for malfunction. Of 24 patients with peritoneal drains, one (4%) patient had a positive culture from ascitic fluid. Eight (25%) patients underwent pleural drain placement. No pleural drain-related procedural complication or infection occurred. Four (50%) of the eight patients with pleural drains had de-escalation in oxygen requirement at drain removal, compared to time of placement. In this study, peritoneal and pleural drains were safe interventions for children with severe VOD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Charge plasma based source/drain engineered Schottky Barrier MOSFET: Ambipolar suppression and improvement of the RF performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Sumit; Kondekar, Pravin N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports a novel device structure for charge plasma based Schottky Barrier (SB) MOSFET on ultrathin SOI to suppress the ambipolar leakage current and improvement of the radio frequency (RF) performance. In the proposed device, we employ dual material for the source and drain formation. Therefore, source/drain is divided into two parts as main source/drain and source/drain extension. Erbium silicide (ErSi1.7) is used as main source/drain material and Hafnium metal is used as source/drain extension material. The source extension induces the electron plasma in the ultrathin SOI body resulting reduction of SB width at the source side. Similarly, drain extension also induces the electron plasma at the drain side. This significantly increases the SB width due to increased depletion at the drain end. As a result, the ambipolar leakage current can be suppressed. In addition, drain extension also reduces the parasitic capacitances of the proposed device to improve the RF performance. The optimization of length and work function of metal used in the drain extension is performed to achieve improvement in device performance. Moreover, the proposed device makes fabrication simpler, requires low thermal budget and free from random dopant fluctuations.

  7. Intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid via a drain plus drain-clamping to reduce blood loss in cementless total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuzaki Hirotaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA sometimes suffer large blood loss. In a retrospective study, we explored whether postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of tranexamic acid (TA and leaving a drain clamp in place for 1 h reduced blood loss. Patients and methods Patients (n = 140 treated with unilateral primary cementless TKA (posterior cruciate ligament retained were divided into two groups: those who had an intra-articular injection of TA (1000 mg and drain clamping for 1 h postoperatively (study group, n = 70 and those who were not given TA and did not undergo clamping of their drains (control group, n = 70. Postoperative total blood loss, volume of drainage, hemoglobin level, transfusion amounts and rates, D-dimer level at postoperative day (POD 7, and complications were recorded. Results Total blood loss, total drainage, mean transfusion volume, and transfusion rates were lower in the study group than in controls (P P P  Conclusions Immediately postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of TA and 1 h of drain-clamping effectively reduced blood loss and blood transfusion after cementless TKA. We believe that this method is simple, easy, and suitable for these patients.

  8. Reverse blocking characteristics and mechanisms in Schottky-drain AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a drain field plate and floating field plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mao; Wei-Bo, She; Cui, Yang; Jin-Feng, Zhang; Xue-Feng, Zheng; Chong, Wang; Yue, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a Schottky drain and a compound field plate (SD-CFP HEMT) is presented for the purpose of better reverse blocking capability. The compound field plate (CFP) consists of a drain field plate (DFP) and several floating field plates (FFPs). The physical mechanisms of the CFP to improve the reverse breakdown voltage and to modulate the distributions of channel electric field and potential are investigated by two-dimensional numerical simulations with Silvaco-ATLAS. Compared with the HEMT with a Schottky drain (SD HEMT) and the HEMT with a Schottky drain and a DFP (SD-FP HEMT), the superiorities of SD-CFP HEMT lie in the continuous improvement of the reverse breakdown voltage by increasing the number of FFPs and in the same fabrication procedure as the SD-FP HEMT. Two useful optimization laws for the SD-CFP HEMTs are found and extracted from simulation results. The relationship between the number of the FFPs and the reverse breakdown voltage as well as the FP efficiency in SD-CFP HEMTs are discussed. The results in this paper demonstrate a great potential of CFP for enhancing the reverse blocking ability in AlGaN/GaN HEMT and may be of great value and significance in the design and actual manufacture of SD-CFP HEMTs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61204085, 61334002, 61306017, 61474091, 61574112, and 61574110).

  9. Reverse blocking characteristics and mechanisms in Schottky-drain AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a drain field plate and floating field plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Wei; She Wei-Bo; Zhang Jin-Feng; Zheng Xue-Feng; Wang Chong; Hao Yue; Yang Cui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a Schottky drain and a compound field plate (SD-CFP HEMT) is presented for the purpose of better reverse blocking capability. The compound field plate (CFP) consists of a drain field plate (DFP) and several floating field plates (FFPs). The physical mechanisms of the CFP to improve the reverse breakdown voltage and to modulate the distributions of channel electric field and potential are investigated by two-dimensional numerical simulations with Silvaco-ATLAS. Compared with the HEMT with a Schottky drain (SD HEMT) and the HEMT with a Schottky drain and a DFP (SD-FP HEMT), the superiorities of SD-CFP HEMT lie in the continuous improvement of the reverse breakdown voltage by increasing the number of FFPs and in the same fabrication procedure as the SD-FP HEMT. Two useful optimization laws for the SD-CFP HEMTs are found and extracted from simulation results. The relationship between the number of the FFPs and the reverse breakdown voltage as well as the FP efficiency in SD-CFP HEMTs are discussed. The results in this paper demonstrate a great potential of CFP for enhancing the reverse blocking ability in AlGaN/GaN HEMT and may be of great value and significance in the design and actual manufacture of SD-CFP HEMTs. (paper)

  10. Drain tube migration into the anastomotic site of an esophagojejunostomy for gastric small cell carcinoma: short report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Long-Wei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraluminal migration of a drain through an anastomotic site is a rare complication of gastric surgery. Case Presentation We herein report the intraluminal migration of a drain placed after a lower esophagectomy and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis for gastric small cell carcinoma. Persistent drainage was noted 1 month after surgery, and radiographic studies were consistent with drain tube migration. Endoscopy revealed the drain had migrated into the esophagojejunostomy anastomotic site. The drain was removed from outside of abdominal wound while observing the anastomotic site endoscopically. The patient was treated with suction via a nasogastric tube drain for 5 days, and thereafter had an uneventful recovery. Conclusions Though drain tube migration is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in patients with persistent drainage who have undergone gastric surgery.

  11. Drain tube migration into the anastomotic site of an esophagojejunostomy for gastric small cell carcinoma: short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Peng-Sheng; Lo, Chiao; Lin, Long-Wei; Lee, Po-Chu

    2010-05-21

    Intraluminal migration of a drain through an anastomotic site is a rare complication of gastric surgery. We herein report the intraluminal migration of a drain placed after a lower esophagectomy and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis for gastric small cell carcinoma. Persistent drainage was noted 1 month after surgery, and radiographic studies were consistent with drain tube migration. Endoscopy revealed the drain had migrated into the esophagojejunostomy anastomotic site. The drain was removed from outside of abdominal wound while observing the anastomotic site endoscopically. The patient was treated with suction via a nasogastric tube drain for 5 days, and thereafter had an uneventful recovery. Though drain tube migration is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in patients with persistent drainage who have undergone gastric surgery.

  12. Sinking during earthquakes: Critical acceleration criteria control drained soil liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, C.; Toussaint, R.; Stojanova, M.; Aharonov, E.

    2018-02-01

    This article focuses on liquefaction of saturated granular soils, triggered by earthquakes. Liquefaction is defined here as the transition from a rigid state, in which the granular soil layer supports structures placed on its surface, to a fluidlike state, in which structures placed initially on the surface sink to their isostatic depth within the granular layer. We suggest a simple theoretical model for soil liquefaction and show that buoyancy caused by the presence of water inside a granular medium has a dramatic influence on the stability of an intruder resting at the surface of the medium. We confirm this hypothesis by comparison with laboratory experiments and discrete-element numerical simulations. The external excitation representing ground motion during earthquakes is simulated via horizontal sinusoidal oscillations of controlled frequency and amplitude. In the experiments, we use particles only slightly denser than water, which as predicted theoretically increases the effect of liquefaction and allows clear depth-of-sinking measurements. In the simulations, a micromechanical model simulates grains using molecular dynamics with friction between neighbors. The effect of the fluid is captured by taking into account buoyancy effects on the grains when they are immersed. We show that the motion of an intruder inside a granular medium is mainly dependent on the peak acceleration of the ground motion and establish a phase diagram for the conditions under which liquefaction happens, depending on the soil bulk density, friction properties, presence of water, and peak acceleration of the imposed large-scale soil vibrations. We establish that in liquefaction conditions, most cases relax toward an equilibrium position following an exponential in time. We also show that the equilibrium position itself, for most liquefaction regimes, corresponds to the isostatic equilibrium of the intruder inside a medium of effective density. The characteristic time to relaxation is

  13. Statistical analysis of global horizontal solar irradiation GHI in Fez city, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, Z.; Mechaqrane, A.

    2018-05-01

    An accurate knowledge of the solar energy reaching the ground is necessary for sizing and optimizing the performances of solar installations. This paper describes a statistical analysis of the global horizontal solar irradiation (GHI) at Fez city, Morocco. For better reliability, we have first applied a set of check procedures to test the quality of hourly GHI measurements. We then eliminate the erroneous values which are generally due to measurement or the cosine effect errors. Statistical analysis show that the annual mean daily values of GHI is of approximately 5 kWh/m²/day. Daily monthly mean values and other parameter are also calculated.

  14. In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles H N; Lang, Sommer A; Bilal, Haris; Rammohan, Kandadai S

    2014-06-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: 'In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?'. Altogether more than 200 papers were found using the reported search, of which 14 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Subcutaneous emphysema is usually a benign, self-limiting condition only requiring conservative management. Interventions are useful in the context of severe patient discomfort, respiratory distress or persistent air leak. In the absence of any comparative study, it is not possible to choose definitively between infraclavicular incisions, drain insertion and increasing suction on an in situ drain as the best method for managing severe subcutaneous emphysema. All the three techniques described have been shown to provide effective relief. Increasing suction on a chest tube already in situ provided rapid relief in patients developing SE following pulmonary resection. A retrospective study showed resolution in 66%, increasing to 98% in those who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery with identification and closure of the leak. Insertion of a drain into the subcutaneous tissue also provided rapid sustained relief. Several studies aided drainage by using regular compressive massage. Infraclavicular incisions were also shown to provide rapid relief, but were noted to be more invasive and carried the potential for cosmetic defect. No major complications were illustrated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. Autologous transfusion of drain contents in elective primary knee arthroplasty: its value and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinay Kumar; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Javed, Sadaf; Kumar, Kuldeep; Tomar, Juhi

    2011-07-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is associated with significant post-operative blood loss often necessitating blood transfusions. Blood transfusions may be associated with transfusion reactions and may transmit human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus, with devastating consequences. After total knee arthroplasty, transfusion of the contents of an autologous drain is becoming common practice. The aim of our study was to look at the effectiveness of these drains in elective primary total knee arthroplasty. A prospective study was conducted including 70 non-randomised patients. A normal suction drain was used in 35 patients (group A), whereas in the other 35 patients, a CellTrans™ drain was used (group B). All the operations were performed by four surgeons using a tourniquet with a medial parapatellar approach. Pre- and post-operative haemoglobin concentrations were recorded in both groups. A Student's t-test was applied to determine the statistical significance of the data collected. The average fall in post-operative haemoglobin was 3.66 g/dL (SD 1.46; range, 0.6-7.0) among patients in whom the simple drain was used (group A) and 2.29 g/dL (SD 0.92; range, 0.6-5.9) among those in whom the CellTrans™ drain was used (group B) (p<0.0001). Twenty-five units of allogeneic blood were required in group A compared to four units in group B. The rate of transfusion was 5.7% (2 patients) in the group in which CellTrans™ drain was used and 25.7% (9 patients) in the group in which a simple suction drain was used. Total knee arthroplasty is associated with significant post-operative blood loss despite best operative technique. Autologous reinfusion of the contents of a CellTrans™ drain significantly reduces the rate of post-operative blood transfusion. This study indicates that the use of an autologous drain could be recommended as routine practice in primary total knee arthroplasty.

  16. NUMERICAL DETERMINATION OF HORIZONTAL SETTLERS PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Horizontal settlers are one of the most important elements in the technological scheme of water purification. Their use is associated with the possibility to pass a sufficiently large volume of water. The important task at the stage of their designing is evaluating of their effectiveness. Calculation of the efficiency of the settler can be made by mathematical modeling. Empirical, analytical models and techniques that are currently used to solve the problem, do not allow to take into account the shape of the sump and various design features that significantly affects the loyalty to a decision on the choice of the size of the settling tank and its design features. The use of analytical models is limited only to one-dimensional solutions, does not allow accounting for nonuniform velocity field of the flow in the settler. The use of advanced turbulence models for the calculation of the hydrodynamics in the settler complex forms now requires very powerful computers. In addition, the calculation of one variant of the settler may last for dozens of hours. The aim of the paper is to build a numerical model to evaluate the effectiveness of horizontal settling tank modified design. Methodology. Numerical models are based on: 1 equation of potential flow; 2 equation of inviscid fluid vortex flow; 3 equation of viscous fluid dynamics; 4 mass transfer equation. For numerical simulation the finite difference schemes are used. The numerical calculation is carried out on a rectangular grid. For the formation of the computational domain markers are used. Findings.The models allow calculating the clarification process in the settler with different form and different configuration of baffles. Originality. A new approach to investigate the mass transfer process in horizontal settler was proposed. This approach is based on the developed CFD models. Three fluid dynamics models were used for the numerical investigation of flows and waste waters purification

  17. Modelling the horizontal steam generator with APROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylijoki, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palsinajaervi, C.; Porkholm, K. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper the capability of the five- and six-equation models of the simulation code APROS to simulate the behaviour of the horizontal steam generator is discussed. Different nodalizations are used in the modelling and the results of the stationary state runs are compared. Exactly the same nodalizations have been created for the five- and six-equation models. The main simulation results studied in this paper are void fraction and mass flow distributions in the secondary side of the steam generator. It was found that quite a large number of simulation volumes is required to simulate the distributions with a reasonable accuracy. The simulation results of the different models are presented and their validity is discussed. (orig.). 4 refs.

  18. Automating horizontal boring and milling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.A.R.; Mahmood, T.; Choudhry, M.A.; Hanif, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the requirements of modification for many old import machine tools in industry, the schemes suited to the renovation are presented in this paper. A horizontal boring and milling machine (HBM) involved in machining of tank Al-Khalid has been modified using Mitsubishi FX-1N and FX-2N PLC. The developed software is for control of all the functions of the said machine. These functions include power on/off oil pump, spindle rotation and machine movement in all axes. All the decisions required by the machine for actuation of instructions are based on the data acquired from the control panel, timers and limit switches. Also the developed software minimize the down time, safety of operator and error free actuation of instructions. (author)

  19. Mixed convection flow past a horizontal plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixed convection flow past a horizontal plate being aligned through a small angle of attack to a uniform free stream will be considered in the limit of large Reynolds number and small Richardson number. Even a small angle of inclination of the wake is sufficient for the buoyancy force to accelerate the flow in the wake which causes a velocity overshoot in the wake. Moreover a hydrostatic pressure difference across the wake induces a correction to the potential flow which influences the inclination of the wake. Thus the wake and the correction of the potential flow have to be determined simultaneously. However, it turns out that solutions exist only if the angle of attack is sufficiently large. Solutions are computed numerically and the influence of the buoyancy on the lift coefficient is determined.

  20. Modelling the horizontal steam generator with APROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylijoki, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palsinajaervi, C; Porkholm, K [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the capability of the five- and six-equation models of the simulation code APROS to simulate the behaviour of the horizontal steam generator is discussed. Different nodalizations are used in the modelling and the results of the stationary state runs are compared. Exactly the same nodalizations have been created for the five- and six-equation models. The main simulation results studied in this paper are void fraction and mass flow distributions in the secondary side of the steam generator. It was found that quite a large number of simulation volumes is required to simulate the distributions with a reasonable accuracy. The simulation results of the different models are presented and their validity is discussed. (orig.). 4 refs.

  1. Horizontal beam tubes in FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coors, D.; Vanvor, D.

    2001-01-01

    The new research reactor in Garching FRM-II is equipped with 10 leak tight horizontal beam tubes (BT1 - BT10), each of them consisting of a beam tube structure taking an insert with neutron channels. The design of all beam tube structures is similar whereas the inserts are adapted to the special requirements of the using of each beam tube. Inside the reflector tank the beam tube structures are shaped by the inner cones which are made of Al-alloy with circular and rectangular cross sections. They are located in the region of maximum neutron flux (exception BT10), they are directly connected to the flanges of the reflector tank, their lengths are about 1.5 m (exception BT10) and their axes are directed tagentially to the core centre thus contributing to a low γ-noise at the experiments. (orig.)

  2. A horizontal dilution refrigerator for polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isagawa, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Masaike, A.; Morimoto, K.

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal dilution refrigerator was constructed with a view to the spin frozen target and the deuteron polarized target. High cooling power at high temperature such as 3.7 mW at 400 mK serves for overcoming a heat load of microwave to polarize the nuclear spins in the target material. The cooling power at 50 mK was 50 μW, which is sufficient to hold the high nuclear polarization for long time. The lowest temperature reached was 26 mK. The refrigerator has rather simple heat exchangers, a long stainless steel double tube heat exchanger and two coaxial type heat exchangers with sintered copper. The mixing chamber is made of polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and demountable so that the target material can be easily put into it. (Auth.)

  3. Flame spread along thermally thick horizontal rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera, F. J.

    2002-06-01

    An analysis is carried out of the spread of a flame along a horizontal solid fuel rod, for which a weak aiding natural convection flow is established in the underside of the rod by the action of the axial gradient of the pressure variation that gravity generates in the warm gas surrounding the flame. The spread rate is determined in the limit of infinitely fast kinetics, taking into account the effect of radiative losses from the solid surface. The effect of a small inclination of the rod is discussed, pointing out a continuous transition between upward and downward flame spread. Flame spread along flat-bottomed solid cylinders, for which the gradient of the hydrostatically generated pressure drives the flow both along and across the direction of flame propagation, is also analysed.

  4. In situ bioremediation via horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazen, T.C.; Looney, B.B.; Enzien, M.; Dougherty, J.M.; Wear, J.; Fliermans, C.B.; Eddy, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    The test consisted of methane mixed with air into the contaminated aquifer via a horizontal well and extraction from the vadose zone via a parallel horizontal well. This configuration has the advantage of simultaneously stimulating methanotrophic activity in both the groundwater and vadose zone, and inhibiting spread of the contaminant plume. Groundwater was monitored biweekly from 13 wells for a variety of chemical and microbiological parameters. Groundwater from wells in affected areas showed increases in methanotrophs of more than 1 order of magnitude every 2 weeks for several weeks after 1% methane-in-air injection was started. Some wells had increases as much as 7 orders of magnitude. Simultaneous with the increase in methanotrophs was a decrease in water and soil gas concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethane (PCE). Two wells declined in TCE/PCE concentration in the water by more than 90% to below 2 ppb. All of the wells in the affected zone showed significant decreases in contaminants in less than one month. Chloride concentrations in the water were inversely correlated with TCE/PCE concentration. Four of five vadose zone piezometers declined from concentration as high as 10,000 ppm to less than 5 ppm in less than 6 weeks. The fifth cluster also declined by more than 95%. After only three months on injection, a decline in TCE/PCE in the sediment of more than 30% was also observed, with TCE/PCE being undetectable in most sediments at the end of the 14-month test. Gene probes and direct isolation from the water and sediment revealed that the right types of methanotrophs were being stimulated and that isolates could degrade TCE at a high rate

  5. Annual Precipitation Cycle in Regional Climate Models: the Influence of Horizontal Resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zíková, Naděžda; Holtanová, E.; Kalvová, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, 3-4 (2013), s. 521-533 ISSN 0177-798X Grant - others:GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1A6/108/07; ENSEMBLES(XE) 505539; CECILIA(XE) GOCE 037005; MFF UK(CZ) SVV-2012-265308 Program:SP; FP6 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : central europe * simulations * temperature Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.742, year: 2013

  6. 1999 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    horizontal and directional drilling business. This annual report provides an extended review of operations in Western Canada, in the United States, Venezuela and Abu Dhabi, a review of EM technologies, and a full accounting of the Company's financial performance

  7. Gauze Impregnated With Quaternary Ammonium Salt Reduces Bacterial Colonization of Surgical Drains After Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Amy L; Wolfe, Emily T; Shank, Nina; Chaffin, Abigail E; Jansen, David A

    2018-06-01

    Surgical site infection after breast reconstruction is associated with increased length of hospital stay, readmission rates, cost, morbidity, and mortality. Identifying methods to reduce surgical site infection without the use of antibiotics may be beneficial at reducing antimicrobial resistance, reserving the use of antibiotics for more severe cases. Quaternary ammonium salts have previously been shown to be a safe and effective antimicrobial agent in the setting of in vitro and in vivo animal experiments. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial properties of a quaternary ammonium salt, 3-trimethoxysilyl propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (QAS-3PAC; Bio-spear), at reducing surgical drain site colonization and infection after breast reconstruction (deep inferior epigastric perforator flap reconstruction or tissue expander placement). Twenty patients were enrolled, with 14 surgical drains covered with nonimpregnated gauze and 17 surgical drains covered with QAS-3PAC impregnated gauze, for the purposes of investigating bacterial colonization. Antibiotic sensitivity analysis was also conducted when bacterial cultures were positive. The overall incidence of bacterial colonization of surgical drains was lower in the treatment group compared with the control group (17.6% vs 64.3%, respectively; P = 0.008). QAS-3PAC impregnated gauze reduced the incidence of bacterial colonization of surgical drains during the first (0.0% vs 33.3%) and second (33.3% vs 87.5%; P = 0.04) postoperative week. Furthermore, no enhanced antibiotic resistance was noted on drains treated with QAS-3PAC impregnated gauze. The results of this study suggest that QAS-3PAC impregnated gauze applied over surgical drains may be an effective method for reducing the incidence of bacterial colonization.

  8. Comparative effect of tube drain on post operative inflammatory complications of impacted mandibular third molar surgery College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obimakinde, O S; Fasola, A O; Arotiba, J T; Okoje, V N; Obiechina, A E

    2010-09-01

    Swelling, pain and trismus are acute reversible inflammatory complications of impacted mandibular third molar (M3) surgery. They contribute to the deterioration of quality of life and loss of several useful working hours. This study aimed to investigate whether the use of a surgical drain following M3 surgery can minimise these inflammatory complications. Eighty consecutive patients who gave consent were enrolled into the study. Patients were assigned into two groups (drain and no drain) by systematic sampling method which was modified to ensure matching of patients by age, sex and spatial relationship of the impacted mandibular third molar. The patients in the drain group (n=40) had a Foley's catheter drain inserted into the wound after the surgical procedure while the patients in the no drain group (n=40) had their wound closed without the use of drain. All patients had primary wound closure with 3.0 black silk sutures after the procedure. Demographic data, cheek dimension and maximal mouth opening were recorded before the procedure. Pain, swelling and trismus were evaluated in the two groups at 24 hours, 48 hours and 7th day after surgery. Post operative swelling and visual analogue scale score for pain were comparatively lesser in the drain group patients. The maximal interincisal distance was also more in the drain group patients. The findings from this study indicated that there is a significant benefit of using a surgical drain in minimising postoperative oedema, pain and trismus following surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar.

  9. Performance of horizontal versus vertical vapor extraction wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsell, K.H.; Roseberg, N.D.; Edlund, K.M.

    1994-06-01

    Vapor extraction wells used for site remediation of volatile organic chemicals in the vadose zone are typically vertical wells. Over the past few years, there has been an increased interest in horizontal wells for environmental remediation. Despite the interest and potential benefits of horizontal wells, there has been little study of the relative performance of horizontal and vertical vapor extraction wells. This study uses numerical simulations to investigate the relative performance of horizontal versus vertical vapor extraction wells under a variety of conditions. The most significant conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that in a homogeneous medium, a single, horizontal vapor extraction well outperforms a single, vertical vapor extraction well (with surface capping) only for long, linear plumes. Guidelines are presented regarding the use of horizontal wells

  10. Topological properties of the limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minggang; Vilela, André L. M.; Du, Ruijin; Zhao, Longfeng; Dong, Gaogao; Tian, Lixin; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-05-01

    The limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph algorithm was recently introduced to map time series in complex networks. In this work, we extend this algorithm to create a directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph and an image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph. We define two algorithms and provide theoretical results on the topological properties of these graphs associated with different types of real-value series. We perform several numerical simulations to check the accuracy of our theoretical results. Finally, we present an application of the directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph to measure real-value time series irreversibility and an application of the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph that discriminates noise from chaos. We also propose a method to measure the systematic risk using the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph, and the empirical results show the effectiveness of our proposed algorithms.

  11. Characterizing subsurface water flow to artificial drain lines using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, D.; Brooks, E. S.; Heinse, R.; Keller, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last several years growers have experienced increasingly wet spring conditions in the Palouse Region located in North Idaho, Eastern Washington and Eastern Oregon. As a result more artificial drain lines are being installed so growers can access their fields earlier in the growing season. Additionally there has been increasing adoption of no-tillage practices among growers in order minimize erosion and runoff in the region. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests long-term no-tillage may lead to the establishment of large macropore networks through increased earthworm activity and the preservation of root channels. These macropore networks, in conjunctions with the presence of artificial drains lines, may create connected preferential flow paths from agricultural fields to receiving streams. This connectivity of flow paths from agricultural fields to receiving water bodies may increase the loading of nutrients and agricultural chemicals as some flow paths may largely bypass soil matrix interaction where materials can be sequestered. Our primary objective for this study was to characterize subsurface flow to two artificial drain lines, one under conventional tillage and the other under no-tillage, using distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technology. During the study (November 2016-April 2017) the near surface soil-water temperature was consistently colder than that of deeper depths. Temperature was thus used as a tracer as snow melt and soil-water moved from the near surface to the drain lines during snowmelt and precipitation events. The spatial and temporal variability of the temperature along the artificial drain line under no-tillage practices was found to be greater than that of the conventional tilled field. It is hypothesized that preferential flow paths are responsible for the increased variability of temperature seen in the drain line under long term no-till management. The temperature along the conventional till drain line showed a

  12. Effectiveness of Horizontal Rebar on Concrete Block Retaining Wall Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Krishpersad Manohar; Rikhi Ramkissoon

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of including a horizontal rebar compared to only a vertical rebar in concrete filled core interlocking concrete block retaining wall sections was investigated with respect to the horizontal retaining force. Experimental results for three specimens of interlocking blocks with vertical rebar and concrete filled cores showed an average horizontal retaining force of 24546 N ± 5.7% at an average wall deflection of 13.3 mm. Experimental results for three wall specimens of interloc...

  13. Horizontal and Vertical Rule Bases Method in Fuzzy Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Aminifar, Sadegh; bin Marzuki, Arjuna

    2013-01-01

    Concept of horizontal and vertical rule bases is introduced. Using this method enables the designers to look for main behaviors of system and describes them with greater approximations. The rules which describe the system in first stage are called horizontal rule base. In the second stage, the designer modulates the obtained surface by describing needed changes on first surface for handling real behaviors of system. The rules used in the second stage are called vertical rule base. Horizontal...

  14. Widespread of horizontal gene transfer in the human genome

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wenze; Tsai, Lillian; Li, Yulong; Hua, Nan; Sun, Chen; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-01-01

    Background A fundamental concept in biology is that heritable material is passed from parents to offspring, a process called vertical gene transfer. An alternative mechanism of gene acquisition is through horizontal gene transfer (HGT), which involves movement of genetic materials between different species. Horizontal gene transfer has been found prevalent in prokaryotes but very rare in eukaryote. In this paper, we investigate horizontal gene transfer in the human genome. Results From the pa...

  15. Differences in microbial community structure and nitrogen cycling in natural and drained tropical peatland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenberg, Mikk; Truu, Marika; Mander, Ülo; Kasak, Kuno; Nõlvak, Hiie; Ligi, Teele; Oopkaup, Kristjan; Maddison, Martin; Truu, Jaak

    2018-03-16

    Tropical peatlands, which play a crucial role in the maintenance of different ecosystem services, are increasingly drained for agriculture, forestry, peat extraction and human settlement purposes. The present study investigated the differences between natural and drained sites of a tropical peatland in the community structure of soil bacteria and archaea and their potential to perform nitrogen transformation processes. The results indicate significant dissimilarities in the structure of soil bacterial and archaeal communities as well as nirK, nirS, nosZ, nifH and archaeal amoA gene-possessing microbial communities. The reduced denitrification and N 2 -fixing potential was detected in the drained tropical peatland soil. In undisturbed peatland soil, the N 2 O emission was primarily related to nirS-type denitrifiers and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, while the conversion of N 2 O to N 2 was controlled by microbes possessing nosZ clade I genes. The denitrifying microbial community of the drained site differed significantly from the natural site community. The main reducers of N 2 O were microbes harbouring nosZ clade II genes in the drained site. Additionally, the importance of DNRA process as one of the controlling mechanisms of N 2 O fluxes in the natural peatlands of the tropics revealed from the results of the study.

  16. Use of laterally placed vacuum drains for management of aural hematomas in five dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavletic, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    5 dogs (a Newfoundland, Golden Retriever, Shiba Inu, Staffordshire Terrier, and Vizsla) were referred for evaluation and treatment of unilateral aural hematomas within a week after their formation. Aural hematomas involved the left (3) or right (2) ears. With patients under anesthesia, the aural hematomas were approached surgically from the convex, or lateral, pinnal surface. Two small incisions were used to position a vacuum drain into the incised hematoma cavity. The drain exited at the base of the pinna and adjacent cervical skin. The free end of the drain was attached to a vacuum reservoir for 18 to 21 days. Drains and skin sutures were removed at this time along with the protective Elizabethan collar. All hematomas resolved and surgical sites healed during the minimum 6-month follow-up period. Cosmetic results were considered excellent in 4 of 5 patients. Slight wrinkling of the pinna in 1 patient resulted from asymmetric enlargement of the cartilaginous walls of the hematoma, where vacuum application resulted in a slight folding of the redundant lateral cartilage wall. The described treatment was efficient, economical, and minimally invasive and required no bandaging or wound care. Placement of the drain tubing on the convex (lateral) aspect sheltered the system from displacement by patients with an Elizabethan collar in place. Overall cosmetic results were excellent; asymmetric enlargement of the cartilaginous walls of the hematoma with slight folding of the pinna was seen in 1 patient.

  17. Is a drain tube necessary for minimally invasive lumbar spine fusion surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pei-I; Chang, Ming-Chau; Chou, Po-Hsin; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Wang, Shih-Tien; Liu, Chien-Lin

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate if closed suction wound drainage is necessary in minimally invasive surgery of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). This is a prospective randomized clinical study. Fifty-six patients who underwent MIS TLIF were randomly divided into groups A (with a closed suction wound drainage) and B (without tube drainage). Surgical duration, intraoperative blood loss, timing of ambulation, length of hospital stay and complications were recorded. Patients were followed up for an average of 25.3 months. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Oswestry disability index and visual analogue scale (VAS). Fusion rate was classified with the Bridwell grading system, based on plain radiograph. Both groups had similar patient demographics. The use of drains had no significant influence on perioperative parameters including operative time, estimated blood loss, length of stay and complications. Patients in group B started ambulation 1 day earlier than patients in group A (p drain tube can lead to pain, anxiety and discomfort during the postoperative period. We conclude that drain tubes are not necessary for MIS TLIF. Patients without drains had the benefit of earlier ambulation than those with drains.

  18. Condensation of refrigerants in horizontal, spirally grooved microfin tubes: Numerical analysis of heat transfer in the annular flow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozu, S; Honda, H

    2000-02-01

    A method is presented for estimating the condensation heat transfer coefficient in a horizontal, spirally grooved microfin tube. Based on the flow observation study performed by the authors, a laminar film condensation model in the annular flow regime is proposed. The model assumes that all the condensate flow occurs through the grooves. The condensate film is segmented into thin and thick film regions. In the thin film region formed on the fin surface, the condensate is assumed to be drained by the combined surface tension and vapor shear forces. In the thick film region formed in the groove, on the other hand, the condensate is assumed to be driven by the vapor shear force. The present and previous local heat transfer data including four fluids (CFC11, HCFC22, HCFC123, and HFCl34a) and three microfin tubes are found to agree with the present predictions to a mean absolute deviation of 15.1%.

  19. Spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaerd, L.; Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Peterson, L.; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh

    1989-01-01

    The frequency of spondylolysis and the relationship between spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in 143 athletes and 30 non-athletes is reported. Athletes had a larger sacro-horizontal angle than non-athletes. The sacro-horizontal angle was larger in athletes with spondylolysis as compared with those without. An increased incidence of spondylolysis with an increased angle was demonstrated. It is suggested that an increased sacro-horizontal angle may predispose to spondylolysis, especially in combination with the high mechanical loads sustained in certain sports. (orig.)

  20. Spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaerd, L.; Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Peterson, L. (Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Radiology)

    The frequency of spondylolysis and the relationship between spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in 143 athletes and 30 non-athletes is reported. Athletes had a larger sacro-horizontal angle than non-athletes. The sacro-horizontal angle was larger in athletes with spondylolysis as compared with those without. An increased incidence of spondylolysis with an increased angle was demonstrated. It is suggested that an increased sacro-horizontal angle may predispose to spondylolysis, especially in combination with the high mechanical loads sustained in certain sports. (orig.).

  1. Small horizontal emittance in the TESLA damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decking, W.

    2001-01-01

    The present TESLA damping ring is designed for a normalized horizontal emittance of 8x10 -6 m. γ-γ collisions at the TESLA linear collider will benefit from a further decrease of the horizontal emittance. This paper reviews the processes which limit the horizontal emittance in the damping ring. Preliminary estimates on the smallest horizontal emittance for the present TESLA damping ring design as well as an ultimate limit of the emittance reachable with the TESLA damping ring concept will be given

  2. Postoperative use of drain in thyroid lobectomy – a randomized clinical trial conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memon Zahid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroidectomy is a common surgical procedure, after which drains are placed routinely. This study aims to assess the benefits of placing postoperative drains, its complications and affects on postoperative stay, in thyroid lobectomy. Methodology Randomized Clinical Trial of 60 goitre patients undergoing lobectomy was conducted at Civil Hospital Karachi, during July’11-December’11. Patients were randomly assigned into drain and non drain groups. Patient demographics, labs and complications were noted. Ultrasound of neck was performed on both groups. For drain group, the amount of fluid present in the surgical bed and redivac drain was added to calculate fluid collection while in non drain group it was calculated by ultrasound of neck on first and second post-op days. Data was entered and analyzed on SPSS v16 using Independent T tests. Result The mean total drain output for 2 days in non-drain group was significantly lower 10.67 (±9.072 ml while in drain group was 30.97 (±42.812 ml (p = 0.014. The mean postoperative stay of drain group (79.2 ±15.63 hours was significantly higher, as compared to mean postoperative stay of non drain group (50.4 ±7.32 hours. Mean Visual Analogue Score (VAS for pain day 1 (6.2 ±0.997 and day 2 (4.17 ±0.95 in drain group were significantly higher compared to day 1 (2.6 ±1.163 and day 2 (1.3 ±0.877 of non drain group. From drain group, 2 patients complained of stridor, dyspnea on Day 1 which subsided by Day 2 and 1 case of voice change, with no such complains in non drain group. No patients from both groups developed seroma, wound infection or hematoma. Conclusion In uncomplicated surgeries especially for lobectomy, use of drain can be omitted.

  3. Demonstration of a utility industry horizontal drilling system: Horizontal well AMH-5 installation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development initiated an integrated demonstration of innovative technologies and systems for cleanup of VOCs in soils and groundwater at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1989. The overall goal of the program is demonstration of multiple technologies and systems in the fields of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation at a single test bed. Innovative technologies are compared to one another and to baseline technologies in terms of technical performance and cost effectiveness. Transfer of successfully demonstrated technologies and systems to DOE environmental restoration organizations, to other government agencies, and to industry is a critical part of the program. Directional drilling has been shown to be a successful technique for enhancing access to the subsurface, thus improving remediation systems, especially remediation systems which perform in situ. Demonstration of an innovative directional drilling system at the Integrated Demonstration Site at the SRS, was initiated in June of 1992. The directional drilling system was designed to install an in situ remediation system. The drilling system is an experimental compaction/dry drilling technique developed by Charles Machine Works (Ditch Witch reg-sign) of Perry, Oklahoma. A horizontal well was installed in the M Area of the SRS below and parallel to an abandoned tile process sewer line. The installation of the horizontal well was a two-part process. Part one consisted of drilling the borehole, and part two was the horizontal well completion

  4. Prefabricated Vertical Drain (PVD) and Deep Cement Mixing (DCM)/Stiffened DCM (SDCM) techniques for soft ground improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergado, D. T.; Long, P. V.; Chaiyaput, S.; Balasubramaniam, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Soft ground improvement techniques have become most practical and popular methods to increase soil strength, soil stiffness and reduce soil compressibility including the soft Bangkok clay. This paper focuses on comparative performances of prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) using surcharge, vacuum and heat preloading as well as the cement-admixed clay of Deep Cement Mixing (DCM) and Stiffened DCM (SDCM) methods. The Vacuum-PVD can increase the horizontal coefficient of consolidation, Ch, resulting in faster rate of settlement at the same magnitudes of settlement compared to Conventional PVD. Several field methods of applying vacuum preloading are also compared. Moreover, the Thermal PVD and Thermal Vacuum PVD can increase further the coefficient of horizontal consolidation, Ch, with the associated reduction of kh/ks values by reducing the drainage retardation effects in the smear zone around the PVD which resulted in faster rates of consolidation and higher magnitudes of settlements. Furthermore, the equivalent smear effect due to non-uniform consolidation is also discussed in addition to the smear due to the mechanical installation of PVDs. In addition, a new kind of reinforced deep mixing method, namely Stiffened Deep Cement Mixing (SDCM) pile is introduced to improve the flexural resistance, improve the field quality control, and prevent unexpected failures of the Deep Cement Mixing (DCM) pile. The SDCM pile consists of DCM pile reinforced with the insertion of precast reinforced concrete (RC) core. The full scale test embankment on soft clay improved by SDCM and DCM piles was also analysed. Numerical simulations using the 3D PLAXIS Foundation finite element software have been done to understand the behavior of SDCM and DCM piles. The simulation results indicated that the surface settlements decreased with increasing lengths of the RC cores, and, at lesser extent, increasing sectional areas of the RC cores in the SDCM piles. In addition, the lateral movements

  5. Mechanism of improving forward and reverse blocking voltages in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs by using Schottky drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Sheng-Lei; Mi Min-Han; Luo Jun; Wang Yi; Dai Yang; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Ma Xiao-Hua; Hao Yue; Hou Bin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that a Schottky drain can improve the forward and reverse blocking voltages (BVs) simultaneously in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The mechanism of improving the two BVs is investigated by analysing the leakage current components and by software simulation. The forward BV increases from 72 V to 149 V due to the good Schottky contact morphology. During the reverse bias, the buffer leakage in the Ohmicdrain HEMT increases significantly with the increase of the negative drain bias. For the Schottky-drain HEMT, the buffer leakage is suppressed effectively by the formation of the depletion region at the drain terminal. As a result, the reverse BV is enhanced from −5 V to −49 V by using a Schottky drain. Experiments and the simulation indicate that a Schottky drain is desirable for power electronic applications. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  6. Modeling the drain current and its equation parameters for lightly doped symmetrical double-gate MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhartia, Mini; Chatterjee, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A 2D model for the potential distribution in silicon film is derived for a symmetrical double gate MOSFET in weak inversion. This 2D potential distribution model is used to analytically derive an expression for the subthreshold slope and threshold voltage. A drain current model for lightly doped symmetrical DG MOSFETs is then presented by considering weak and strong inversion regions including short channel effects, series source to drain resistance and channel length modulation parameters. These derived models are compared with the simulation results of the SILVACO (Atlas) tool for different channel lengths and silicon film thicknesses. Lastly, the effect of the fixed oxide charge on the drain current model has been studied through simulation. It is observed that the obtained analytical models of symmetrical double gate MOSFETs are in good agreement with the simulated results for a channel length to silicon film thickness ratio greater than or equal to 2. (paper)

  7. Modeling the drain current and its equation parameters for lightly doped symmetrical double-gate MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, Mini; Chatterjee, Arun Kumar

    2015-04-01

    A 2D model for the potential distribution in silicon film is derived for a symmetrical double gate MOSFET in weak inversion. This 2D potential distribution model is used to analytically derive an expression for the subthreshold slope and threshold voltage. A drain current model for lightly doped symmetrical DG MOSFETs is then presented by considering weak and strong inversion regions including short channel effects, series source to drain resistance and channel length modulation parameters. These derived models are compared with the simulation results of the SILVACO (Atlas) tool for different channel lengths and silicon film thicknesses. Lastly, the effect of the fixed oxide charge on the drain current model has been studied through simulation. It is observed that the obtained analytical models of symmetrical double gate MOSFETs are in good agreement with the simulated results for a channel length to silicon film thickness ratio greater than or equal to 2.

  8. An analytical drain current model for symmetric double-gate MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An analytical surface-potential-based drain current model of symmetric double-gate (sDG MOSFETs is described as a SPICE compatible model in this paper. The continuous surface and central potentials from the accumulation to the strong inversion regions are solved from the 1-D Poisson’s equation in sDG MOSFETs. Furthermore, the drain current is derived from the charge sheet model as a function of the surface potential. Over a wide range of terminal voltages, doping concentrations, and device geometries, the surface potential calculation scheme and drain current model are verified by solving the 1-D Poisson’s equation based on the least square method and using the Silvaco Atlas simulation results and experimental data, respectively. Such a model can be adopted as a useful platform to develop the circuit simulator and provide the clear understanding of sDG MOSFET device physics.

  9. An analytical drain current model for symmetric double-gate MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Huang, Gongyi; Lin, Wei; Xu, Chuanzhong

    2018-04-01

    An analytical surface-potential-based drain current model of symmetric double-gate (sDG) MOSFETs is described as a SPICE compatible model in this paper. The continuous surface and central potentials from the accumulation to the strong inversion regions are solved from the 1-D Poisson's equation in sDG MOSFETs. Furthermore, the drain current is derived from the charge sheet model as a function of the surface potential. Over a wide range of terminal voltages, doping concentrations, and device geometries, the surface potential calculation scheme and drain current model are verified by solving the 1-D Poisson's equation based on the least square method and using the Silvaco Atlas simulation results and experimental data, respectively. Such a model can be adopted as a useful platform to develop the circuit simulator and provide the clear understanding of sDG MOSFET device physics.

  10. PWSCC Potential on the Drain Tubes of WEC Model 51F Steam Generators in Domestic Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, B. I.; Song, M. S.; Yoon, K. S.; Kim, I. Y.

    2009-01-01

    The drain couplings of Westinghouse Model 51F steam generators that had been operated in the domestic Nuclear Power Plants were modified and repaired in accordance with the corrective action of replacing the existing Alloy 600 weld build-up with Alloy 690(Alloy 52/152) weld build-up in order to increase its resistance to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). The drain tube made of alloy 600, however, was not replaced and left susceptible to the PWSCC. Among the environmental, metallurgical and mechanical factors controlling a susceptibility to the PWSCC, it is believed that tensile stresses play an important role. The objective of this study is to conservatively estimate stress state of the drain tube during fabrication and when exposed to normal plant operations, and to investigate its potential for the PWSCC

  11. Leak or Fistula After Sleeve Gastrectomy: Treatment with Pigtail Drain by the Rendezvous Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufron, Jacques

    2015-10-01

    After a sleeve gastrectomy, a leak or fistula is a serious complication. Laparoscopic drainage, drainage under US or CT scan control, or endoscopic insertion of a stent can be used, but a major re-operation is sometimes unavoidable. Endoscopic drainage with a pigtail catheter could give more success and fewer complications, but the insertion of the drain is not always possible nor does it always provide a perfect drainage. If a laparoscopic second look appears necessary, it is possible to insert a pigtail drain laparoscopically, but under endoscopic control, ensuring a correct positioning of the drain both in the peritoneal cavity and in the gastric tube. This simultaneous "rendezvous" technique could combine in this situation the advantages of purely surgical techniques and of purely endoscopic or image-guided techniques.

  12. Axisymmetric, Ventilated Supercavitation in Unsteady, Horizontal Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ellison; Lee, Seung-Jae; Arndt, Roger

    2012-11-01

    Drag reduction and/or speed augmentation of marine vehicles by means of supercavitation is a topic of great interest. During the initial launch of a supercavitating vehicle, an artificial supercavity is required until the vehicle can reach conditions at which a natural supercavity can be sustained. Previous studies at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) focused on the behavior of ventilated supercavities in steady horizontal flows. In open waters, vehicles can encounter unsteady flows, especially when traveling under waves. A study has been carried out at SAFL to investigate the effects of unsteady flow on axisymmetric supercavities. An attempt is made to duplicate sea states seen in open waters. In an effort to track cavity dimensions throughout a wave cycle, an automated cavity tracking script has been developed. Using a high speed camera and the proper software, it is possible to synchronize cavity dimensions with pressure measurements taken inside the cavity. Results regarding supercavity shape, ventilation demand, cavitation parameters and closure methods are presented. It was found that flow unsteadiness caused a decrease in the overall length of the supercavity while having only a minimal effect on the maximum diameter. The supercavity volume varied with cavitation number and a possible relationship between the two is being explored. (Supported by ONR)

  13. Sheared bioconvection in a horizontal tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, O. A.; Ashraf, E. E.; Bees, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    The recent interest in using microorganisms for biofuels is motivation enough to study bioconvection and cell dispersion in tubes subject to imposed flow. To optimize light and nutrient uptake, many microorganisms swim in directions biased by environmental cues (e.g. phototaxis in algae and chemotaxis in bacteria). Such taxes inevitably lead to accumulations of cells, which, as many microorganisms have a density different to the fluid, can induce hydrodynamic instabilites. The large-scale fluid flow and spectacular patterns that arise are termed bioconvection. However, the extent to which bioconvection is affected or suppressed by an imposed fluid flow and how bioconvection influences the mean flow profile and cell transport are open questions. This experimental study is the first to address these issues by quantifying the patterns due to suspensions of the gravitactic and gyrotactic green biflagellate alga Chlamydomonas in horizontal tubes subject to an imposed flow. With no flow, the dependence of the dominant pattern wavelength at pattern onset on cell concentration is established for three different tube diameters. For small imposed flows, the vertical plumes of cells are observed merely to bow in the direction of flow. For sufficiently high flow rates, the plumes progressively fragment into piecewise linear diagonal plumes, unexpectedly inclined at constant angles and translating at fixed speeds. The pattern wavelength generally grows with flow rate, with transitions at critical rates that depend on concentration. Even at high imposed flow rates, bioconvection is not wholly suppressed and perturbs the flow field.

  14. Bubble growth in a narrow horizontal space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, Benoit; Goulet, Remi [CETHIL, UMR5008, CNRS, INSA-Lyon, Universite Lyon1 (France); Passos, Julio Cesar [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. LABSOLAR

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an axis-symmetric two-phase flow model describing the growth of a single bubble squeezed between a horizontal heated upward-facing disc and an insulating surface placed parallel to the heated surface. Heat transfers at the liquid-vapour interfaces are predicted by the kinetic limit of vaporisation. The depths of the liquid films deposed on the surfaces (heated surface and confinement space) are determined using the Moriyama and Inoue correlation (1996). Transient heat transfers within the heated wall are taken into account. The model is applied to pentane bubble growth. The influence of the gap size, the initial temperature of the system, the thermal effusivity of the heated wall and the kinetic limit of vaporisation are studied. The results show that the expansion of the bubbles strongly depends on the gap size and can be affected by the effusivity of the material. Mechanical inertia effects are mainly dominant at the beginning of the bubble expansion. Pressure drop induced by viscous effects have to be taken into account for high capillary numbers. Heat transfers at the meniscus are negligible except at the early stages of the bubble growth. (author)

  15. Horizontal gene transfer in silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is the model insect for the order Lepidoptera, has economically important values, and has gained some representative behavioral characteristics compared to its wild ancestor. The genome of B. mori has been fully sequenced while function analysis of BmChi-h and BmSuc1 genes revealed that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) maybe bestow a clear selective advantage to B. mori. However, the role of HGT in the evolutionary history of B. mori is largely unexplored. In this study, we compare the whole genome of B. mori with those of 382 prokaryotic and eukaryotic species to investigate the potential HGTs. Results Ten candidate HGT events were defined in B. mori by comprehensive sequence analysis using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian method combining with EST checking. Phylogenetic analysis of the candidate HGT genes suggested that one HGT was plant-to- B. mori transfer while nine were bacteria-to- B. mori transfer. Furthermore, functional analysis based on expression, coexpression and related literature searching revealed that several HGT candidate genes have added important characters, such as resistance to pathogen, to B. mori. Conclusions Results from this study clearly demonstrated that HGTs play an important role in the evolution of B. mori although the number of HGT events in B. mori is in general smaller than those of microbes and other insects. In particular, interdomain HGTs in B. mori may give rise to functional, persistent, and possibly evolutionarily significant new genes. PMID:21595916

  16. Bubble growth in a narrow horizontal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutz, Benoit; Goulet, Remi; Passos, Julio Cesar

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an axis-symmetric two-phase flow model describing the growth of a single bubble squeezed between a horizontal heated upward-facing disc and an insulating surface placed parallel to the heated surface. Heat transfers at the liquid-vapour interfaces are predicted by the kinetic limit of vaporisation. The depths of the liquid films deposed on the surfaces (heated surface and confinement space) are determined using the Moriyama and Inoue correlation (1996). Transient heat transfers within the heated wall are taken into account. The model is applied to pentane bubble growth. The influence of the gap size, the initial temperature of the system, the thermal effusivity of the heated wall and the kinetic limit of vaporisation are studied. The results show that the expansion of the bubbles strongly depends on the gap size and can be affected by the effusivity of the material. Mechanical inertia effects are mainly dominant at the beginning of the bubble expansion. Pressure drop induced by viscous effects have to be taken into account for high capillary numbers. Heat transfers at the meniscus are negligible except at the early stages of the bubble growth. (author)

  17. Yaw dynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.C. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Designers of a horizontal axis wind turbine yaw mechanism are faced with a difficult decision. They know that if they elect to use a yaw- controlled rotor then the system will suffer increased initial cost and increased inherent maintenance and reliability problems. On the other hand, if they elect to allow the rotor to freely yaw they known they will have to account for unknown and random, though bounded, yaw rates. They will have a higher-risk design to trade-off against the potential for cost savings and reliability improvement. The risk of a yaw-free system could be minimized if methods were available for analyzing and understanding yaw behavior. The complexity of yaw behavior has, until recently, discouraged engineers from developing a complete yaw analysis method. The objectives of this work are to (1) provide a fundamental understanding of free-yaw mechanics and the design concepts most effective at eliminating yaw problems, and (2) provide tested design tools and guidelines for use by free-yaw wind systems manufacturers. The emphasis is on developing practical and sufficiently accurate design methods.

  18. Fusion reactor horizontal versus vertical maintenance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charruyer, Ph.; Djerassi, H.; Leger, D.; Maupou, M.; Rouillard, J.; Salpietro, E.; Holloway, C.; Suppan, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper concerns the comparison of horizontal versus vertical maintenance options of internal components (blanket and segment) of fusion reactors NET (Next European Torus) and INTOR Design. The described mechanical options are taken to ensure the handling of internals with the required precision, taking into account the problems raised by the safety and confinement requirements. Handling is obviously performed remotely. The option comparisons are performed according to the criteria of feasibility, building size, duration of maintenance operations, safety, flexibility, availability and cost. The first conclusions point on that the vertical handling option offers advantages, as regards the ease of handling and confinement possibilities. From the building size point of view, the two solutions are almost equivalent, while other criteria do not provide a basis for choice. It is emphasized that the confinement option C.T.U. (Containment Transfer Unit) or T.I.C. (Tight Intermediate Confinement) should be the major factor in determining the best options. In additions, a cost comparative analysis emphasizes the best cost/benefit ratio for the different options studied

  19. A Drain Current Model Based on the Temperature Effect of a-Si:H Thin-Film Transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Lei; Yao Ruo-He

    2012-01-01

    Based on the differential Ohm's law and Poisson's equation, an analytical model of the drain current for a-Si:H thin-film transistors is developed. This model is proposed to elaborate the temperature effect on the drain current, which indicates that the drain current is linear with temperature in the range of 290-360 K, and the results fit well with the experimental data

  20. A vapor generator equipped with an advanced drain device for the secondary side of the tubes plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadon, C.

    1995-01-01

    A draining design is proposed for the tube plate secondary side in a PWR type reactor, that does not interfere with the water flush 'street' thus allowing for an easy inspection and maintenance in the lower part of the tube bundle. The draining system is composed of a main groove on the upper side of the tube plate, which is connected to draining means situated outside the vapor generator. 6 fig

  1. Pontine infarction caused by medial branch injury of the basilar artery as a rare complication of cisternal drain placement

    OpenAIRE

    Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Yasunaga; Kuroiwa, Masafumi; Rahmah, Nunung Nur; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare complication of cisternal drain placement during aneurysm surgery. A ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm was clipped through a right pterional approach. A cisternal drain was inserted from the retro-carotid to the prepontine cistern. Postoperatively, a left-sided paresis of the upper extremity had developed. A CT brain scan revealed that the drain was located between the pons and the basilar artery, resulting in a pontine infarction. Vascular neurosurgeons should...

  2. The Treatment Of The RSU In Controlled Drains: Their Sanitary Problem To The Production Of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon U, Rafael A.

    1995-01-01

    The limitless world production of residuals generates constant concerns with relationship to its administration. The classic elimination methods as the drains controlled in front of the controversial incineration plants and gasification as well as the expectations created around the recycle practices, are reason of intense debates among city councils, specialist, environmentalist technicians and the public in general. The certain thing is that the residuals in the last 30 years have been valued economically. Today in day the residuals are appreciated by certain sectors that begin to monopolize the line of the recycle because they come them an excellent business. All the methods of elimination of residuals produce in turn others. Those of solid nature in general go to the drain, the semi-liquids becomes dehydrated for the same end. Presently work, without seeking to say that the employment of the drains is the best option, thinks about how it has more than enough they are possible to optimize its use. Showing beside their eminently sanitary vocation an energy alternative that allows the use of the combustible gas that is generated in them. An added value that is interesting if this it becomes source of well-being for social excluded nuclei and economically like it happens for example in the peripheries of the drains of the big Latin American cities. They are considered which are the main aspects that intervene in the generation, production and quality of the gas methane of the drains. Their reception methods and their use alternatives. Lastly emphasis is made in the environmental situation to European and international level about the gases of the drain, how it thinks about the topic of the greenhouse effect and which are the actions for the horizon of the year 2000. They are related some experiences in Europe on the use of the biogas

  3. Effects of Drains on Pain, Comfort and Anxiety in Patients Undergone Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummu Yildiz Findik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Surgical drains negatively affect patients’ comfort, cause anxiety along with pain, as they are used to promote healing after surgery.Purpose: This study aimed to determine pain, comfort and anxiety levels of patients with drains postoperatively.Methodology: Research was performed with 192 patients undergone abdominal, neck, breast and open heart surgery and had surgical and underwater chest drains at the postoperative period. Patient Information Form, Numerical Pain Scale, General Comfort Questionnaire and Trait Anxiety Scale was used for collection of data. In evaluating the data, we used the t-test, variance and correlation analysis, mean, percentage and frequency.Results: The patients’ mean score of pain was 4.67±2.93, comfort was 2.75±0.29 and anxiety was 39.31±9.21. It was found statistically significant that the comfort level decreases as the pain level increases and that the patients undergone open heart surgery and with underwater chest drains have higher pain levels. It was found statistically significant that, comfort level in patients undergone abdominal or cardiac surgery is lower than patients undergone breast or neck surgery, and that the comfort level decreases as the duration of drains increases. The increasing state anxiety while pain increases and comfort decreases was found statistically significant.Conclusions: Surgeries and drains applied after these procedures decrease the comfort level of the patients as increases the pain level. Also, pain and discomfort increase the patients’ anxiety. Nurses who providing care to these patients are suggested to improve measures about pain and anxiety reduction for maintaining of comfort.

  4. The hydrology of a drained topographical depression within an agricutlural field in north-central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    North-central Iowa is an agriculturally intensive area comprising the southeastern portion of the Prairie Pothole Region, a landscape containing a high density of enclosed topographical depressions. Artificial drainage practices have been implemented throughout the area to facilitate agricultural production. Vertical surface drains are utilized to drain the topographical depressions that accumulate water. This study focuses on the hydrology of a drained topographical depression located in a 39.5 ha agricultural field. To assess the hydrology of the drained depression, a water balance was constructed for 11 ponding events during the 2008 growing season. Continuous pond and groundwater level data were obtained with pressure transducers. Flows into the vertical surface drain were calculated based on pond depth. Precipitation inflows and evaporative outflows of the ponds were calculated using climatic data. Groundwater levels were used to assess groundwater/pond interactions. Results of the water balances show distinct differences between the inflows to and outflows from the depression based on antecedent conditions. In wet conditions, groundwater inflow sustained the ponds. The ponds receded only after the groundwater level declined to below the land surface. In drier conditions, groundwater was not a source of water to the depression. During these drier conditions, infiltration comprised 30% of the outflows from the depression during declining pond stages. Over the entire study period, the surface drain, delivering water to the stream, was the largest outflow from the pond, accounting for 97% of the outflow, while evapotranspiration was just 2%. Precipitation onto the pond surface proved to be a minor component, accounting for 4% of the total inflows.

  5. Should I stay or should I go? An institutional approach to brain drain

    OpenAIRE

    Cassar, Lea; Frey, Bruno S

    2010-01-01

    This paper suggests that institutional factors which reward social net- works at the expenses of productivity can play an important role in ex- plaining brain drain. The e€ects of social networks on brain drain are analyzed in a decision theory framework with asymmetric information. We distinguish between the role of insidership and personal connections. The larger the cost of being an outsider, the smaller is the number and the average ability of researchers working in the domestic job mar...

  6. Sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for WESF drains and TK-100 sump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    The intent of this project is to determine whether the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) floor drain piping and the TK-100 sump are free from contamination. TK-100 is currently used as a catch tank to transfer low level liquid waste from WESF to Tank Farms via B Plant. This system is being modified as part of the WESF decoupling since B Plant is being deactivated. As a result of the 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) discovery in TK-100, the associated WESF floor drains and the pit sump need to be sampled. Breakdown constituents have been reviewed and found to be non-hazardous. There are 29 floor drains that tie into a common header leading into the tank. To prevent high exposure during sampling of the drains, TK-100 will be removed into the B Plant canyon and a new tank will be placed in the pit before any floor drain samples are taken. The sump will be sampled prior to TK-100 removal. A sample of the sludge and any liquid in the sump will be taken and analyzed for TCA and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). After the sump has been sampled, the vault floor will be flushed. The flush will be transferred from the sump into TK-100. TK-100 will be moved into B Plant. The vault will then be cleaned of debris and visually inspected. If there is no visual indication of TCA or PCB staining, the vault will be painted and a new tank installed. If there is an indication of TCA or PCB from laboratory analysis or staining, further negotiations will be required to determine a path forward. A total of 8 sets of three 40ml samples will be required for all of the floor drains and sump. The sump set will include one 125ml solid sample. The only analysis required will be for TCA in liquids. PCBs will be checked in sump solids only. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) is written to provide direction for the sampling and analytical activities of the 29 WESF floor drains and the TK-100 sump. The intent of this plan is to define the responsibilities of the various organizations

  7. High performance AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with 2.4 μm source-drain spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongfang; Wei Ke; Yuan Tingting; Liu Xinyu

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with 2.4 μm source-drain spacing. So far these are the smallest source-drain spacing AlGaN/GaN HEMTs which have been implemented with a domestic wafer and domestic process. This paper also compares their performance with that of 4 μm source-drain spacing devices. The former exhibit higher drain current, higher gain, and higher efficiency. It is especially significant that the maximum frequency of oscillation noticeably increased. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  8. Global, direct and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal and tilted surfaces in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sebaii, A.A.; Al-Hazmi, F.S.; Al-Ghamdi, A.A.; Yaghmour, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    The measured data of global and diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface, the number of bright sunshine hours, mean daily ambient temperature, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures, relative humidity and amount of cloud cover for Jeddah (lat. 21 o 42'37''N, long. 39 o 11'12''E), Saudi Arabia, during the period (1996-2007) are analyzed. The monthly averages of daily values for these meteorological variables have been calculated. The data are then divided into two sets. The sub-data set I (1996-2004) are employed to develop empirical correlations between the monthly average of daily global solar radiation fraction (H/H 0 ) and the various weather parameters. The sub-data set II (2005-2007) are then used to evaluate the derived correlations. Furthermore, the total solar radiation on horizontal surfaces is separated into the beam and diffuses components. Empirical correlations for estimating the diffuse solar radiation incident on horizontal surfaces have been proposed. The total solar radiation incident on a tilted surface facing south H t with different tilt angles is then calculated using both Liu and Jordan isotropic model and Klucher's anisotropic model. It is inferred that the isotropic model is able to estimate H t more accurate than the anisotropic one. At the optimum tilt angle, the maximum value of H t is obtained as ∼36 (MJ/m 2 day) during January. Comparisons with 22 years average data of NASA SSE Model showed that the proposed correlations are able to predict the total annual energy on horizontal and tilted surfaces in Jeddah with a reasonable accuracy. It is also found that at Jeddah, the solar energy devices have to be tilted to face south with a tilt angle equals the latitude of the place in order to achieve the best performance all year round.

  9. Full GHG balance of a drained fen peatland cropped to spring barley and reed canary grass using comparative assessment of CO2 fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Kandel, Tanka P; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2015-03-01

    Empirical greenhouse gas (GHG) flux estimates from diverse peatlands are required in order to derive emission factors for managed peatlands. This study on a drained fen peatland quantified the annual GHG balance (Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and C exported in crop yield) from spring barley (SB) and reed canary grass (RCG) using static opaque chambers for GHG flux measurements and biomass yield for indirectly estimating gross primary production (GPP). Estimates of ecosystem respiration (ER) and GPP were compared with more advanced but costly and labor-intensive dynamic chamber studies. Annual GHG balance for the two cropping systems was 4.0 ± 0.7 and 8.1 ± 0.2 Mg CO2-Ceq ha(-1) from SB and RCG, respectively (mean ± standard error, n = 3). Annual CH4 emissions were negligible (peatland cropped to SB and RCG and presented a valid alternative to estimating the full GHG balance by dynamic chambers.

  10. Horizontally viscous effects in a tidal basin: extending Taylor's problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Pieter C.; Schuttelaars, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The classical problem of Taylor (Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., vol. 20, 1921, pp. 148–181) of Kelvin wave reflection in a semi-enclosed rectangular basin of uniform depth is extended to account for horizontally viscous effects. To this end, we add horizontally viscous terms to the hydrodynamic model

  11. The Interplay of Different Types of Governance in Horizontal Cooperations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raue, Jan Simon; Wieland, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Over the last decades, horizontal cooperations between logistics service providers (LSPs) have become a well-established organizational form and their use is expected to grow even further in the future. In spite of this increasing importance of horizontal LSP cooperations, little research...

  12. Horizontal biases in rats’ use of three-dimensional space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovalekic, Aleksandar; Hayman, Robin; Becares, Natalia; Reid, Harry; Thomas, George; Wilson, Jonathan; Jeffery, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Rodent spatial cognition studies allow links to be made between neural and behavioural phenomena, and much is now known about the encoding and use of horizontal space. However, the real world is three dimensional, providing cognitive challenges that have yet to be explored. Motivated by neural findings suggesting weaker encoding of vertical than horizontal space, we examined whether rats show a similar behavioural anisotropy when distributing their time freely between vertical and horizontal movements. We found that in two- or three-dimensional environments with a vertical dimension, rats showed a prioritization of horizontal over vertical movements in both foraging and detour tasks. In the foraging tasks, the animals executed more horizontal than vertical movements and adopted a “layer strategy” in which food was collected from one horizontal level before moving to the next. In the detour tasks, rats preferred the routes that allowed them to execute the horizontal leg first. We suggest three possible reasons for this behavioural bias. First, as suggested by Grobety and Schenk [5], it allows minimisation of energy expenditure, inasmuch as costly vertical movements are minimised. Second, it may be a manifestation of the temporal discounting of effort, in which animals value delayed effort as less costly than immediate effort. Finally, it may be that at the neural level rats encode the vertical dimension less precisely, and thus prefer to bias their movements in the more accurately encoded horizontal dimension. We suggest that all three factors are related, and all play a part. PMID:21419172

  13. Vertical vs. Horizontal Integration: Pre-emptive Merging.

    OpenAIRE

    Colangelo, Giuseppe

    1995-01-01

    Preemption plays a crucial role in arms merger decisions. The author studies whether and under which circumstances preemptive merging occurs in vertically related industries. He finds that vertical mergers often preempt horizontal mergers and are dominant outcomes. Preempting the threat of a detrimental horizontal integration may be the main reason for vertically integrating. Copyright 1995 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Horizontal and vertical seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonomou, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a study for the horizontal and vertical seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant with a base isolation system, developed by the author, called the Alexisismon. This system -- which comprises different schemes for horizontal or vertical or both horizontal and vertical isolation -- is a linear system based on the principle of separation of functions. That is, horizontal and vertical isolation are realized through different components and act independently from each other. As far as horizontal isolation is concerned, the role of transmitting vertical loads is uncoupled from the role of inducing horizontal restoring forces so that both functions can be performed without instability. It is possible either to provide both horizontal and vertical isolation to the whole nuclear plant or to isolate the whole plant horizontally and to provide vertical isolation to sensitive and costly equipment only. When the fundamental period of the plant or equipment is 2 seconds and when the vertical displacements are of the order of + or - 20 inches, the structure or equipment are protected against earthquakes up to 1.10 and 1.30 g for actual and 0.60 and 1.50 g for artificial accelerograms. In both cases all the isolation elements behave elastically up to these acceleration limits as well as the superstructure and equipment

  15. Breakthrough of two pesticides into tile drain and shallow groundwater: comparison of tile drain reaction and soil profiles within a field scale irrigation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Julian; Zehe, Erwin; Elsner, Martin; Palm, Juliane; Schneider, Dorothee; Schröder, Boris; Steinbeiss, Sibylle; West, Stephanie

    2010-05-01

    Preferential flow in macropores is a key process which strongly affects infiltration and may cause rapid transport of pesticides into depths of 80 to 150 cm. At these depths they experience a much slower degradation, may leach into shallow groundwater or enter a tile-drain and are transported into surface water bodies. Therefore, preferential transport might be an environmental problem, if the topsoil is bypassed, which has been originally thought to act as a filter to protect the subsoil and shallow groundwater. To investigate the behaviour of two pesticides with different chemical characteristics and to compare their transport behaviour in soil and into the tile drain an irrigation experiment was performed on a 400 m² field site. The experimental plot is located in the Weiherbach valley, south-west Germany, which basic geology consists of Loess and Keuper layers, the soil at the test site is a gleyic Colluvisol. The distance of the irrigation site to the Weiherbach brook is approximately 12 m, the field is drained with a tile-drain in about 1.2 m depth and shows discharge over the entire year. Three hours before the irrigation started, the farmer applied a pesticide solution consisting of Isoproturon (80 g) and Flufenacet (20 g) (IPU and FLU) according to conventional agricultural practice on the field plot. The irrigation took place in three time blocks (80 min, 60 min, 80 min) with in total 33.6 mm of precipitation. During the first block 1600 g of Bromide were mixed in the irrigation water. The drainage outlet was instrumented with a pressure probe. About 50 water samples ware taken during the experimental day, and several samples more the days after the experiment. They were analysed for the pesticides, bromide and water isotopes. In the two days after the experiment three soil profiles were excavated and soil samples were taken on a 10x10 cm² scheme. One week after the experiment two additional profiles were excavated. The soil was analysed for IPU, FLU

  16. Full GHG balance of drained fen peatland cropped to spring barley and reed canary grass using comparative assessment of CO2 fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Kandel, Tanka Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Empirical greenhouse gas (GHG) flux estimates from diverse peatlands are required in order to derive emission factors for managed peatlands. This study on a drained fen peatland quantified the annual GHG balance (Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and C exported in crop yield......) from spring barley (SB) and reed canary grass (RCG) using static opaque chambers for GHG flux measurements and biomass yield for indirectly estimating gross primary production (GPP). Estimates of ecosystem respiration (ER) and GPP were compared with more advanced but costly and labor-intensive dynamic...... by static chamber and dynamic chamber methods was similar, particularly when using nonlinear regression techniques for flux calculations. A comparison of GPP derived from aboveground biomass and from measuring net ecosystem exchange (NEE) showed that GPP estimation from biomass might be useful, or serve...

  17. Benefits of a horizontal well in sandstone waterflood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    This is a case study which describes the planning and results of a horizontal well in a shallow Wilcox sandstone waterflood unit in central Louisiana. The Tremont H-13-1 was OXY USA Inc.'s first horizontal well. Analysis will include examination of the selection criteria, planning, execution, completion, and production. A variety of well and field data is presented and reviewed to access the value of this information as it applies towards other applications. The Cruse Waterflood Unit is a 2100 ft. Wilcox formation in central Louisiana. Production improvements have been 500% or greater for the horizontal well versus adjacent vertical wells. The horizontal well paid out in less than 4 months Results from this well indicate that not only was this project an economic success, but that other fields will similar conditions can be produced in a more profitable manner with horizontal wells

  18. A horizontal well analysis from a view of its productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Sciranková

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1990s may become known in the oil field as the decade of the horizontal well. Horizontal wells can increase the production rate and the ultimate recovery, and can reduce the number of platforms on wells required to develop a reservoir.An empirical equation to calculate the inflow performance of two-phase flow for a vertical and a horizontal well in regime of dissolved gas presented by Vogel in 1968. His equation was based on the results of reservoir simulation. The created model whore result (output is the ratio of the productivity of a horizontal well to the productivity of a vertical well for a given area expressed by anumber of vertical wells the replaced by one horizontal well. The model is applied for a concrete ideological model.

  19. Characteristics of Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhigang

    through horizontal openings. Two cases of full-scale measurements of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through horizontal openings are performed: one horizontal opening and one horizontal opening combined with one vertical opening. For the case of one horizontal opening, the measurements are made....... Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to study these two air flow cases. The air flow rate and air flow pattern are predicted and compared with the full-scale measurements. The measurement data are used to compare two CFD models: standard k- ε model and large eddy simulation (LES) model. The cases...... transient, unstable and complex, and the air flow rates oscillate with time. Correlations between the Froude number Fr and the opening ratio L/D are obtained, which is reasonable agreement with Epstein's formula derived from brine-water measurements, but the obtained Fr values show considerable deviations...

  20. Wetted-region structure in horizontal unsaturated fractures: Water entry through the surrounding porous matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.J.; Norton, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Small-scale processes that influence wetted structure within the plane of a horizontal fracture as the fracture wets or drains through the matrix are investigated. Our approach integrates both aperture-scale modeling and physical experimentation. Several types of aperture-scale models have been defined and implemented. A series of physical experimental systems that allow us to measure wetted-region structure as a function of system parameters and water pressure head in analogue fractures also have been designed. In our preliminary proof-of-concept experiment, hysteresis is clearly evident in the measured saturation/pressure relation, as is the process of air entrapment, which causes a reduction in the connected areas between blocks and the wetted region available for flow in the plane of the fracture. A percolation threshold where the system is quickly spanned, allowing fluid conduction in the fracture plane, is observed which is analogous to that found in the aperture-scale models. A fractal wetted and entrapped-region structure is suggested by both experiment and modeling. This structure implies that flow tortuosity for both flow in the fracture and for inter-block fluid transfer is a scale-dependent function of pressure head

  1. The stimulus integration area for horizontal vergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Robert S; Howard, Ian P; Fang, Xueping

    2004-06-01

    Over what region of space are horizontal disparities integrated to form the stimulus for vergence? The vergence system might be expected to respond to disparities within a small area of interest to bring them into the range of precise stereoscopic processing. However, the literature suggests that disparities are integrated over a fairly large parafoveal area. We report the results of six experiments designed to explore the spatial characteristics of the stimulus for vergence. Binocular eye movements were recorded using magnetic search coils. Each dichoptic display consisted of a central target stimulus that the subject attempted to fuse, and a competing stimulus with conflicting disparity. In some conditions the target was stationary, providing a fixation stimulus. In other conditions, the disparity of the target changed to provide a vergence-tracking stimulus. The target and competing stimulus were combined in a variety of conditions including those in which (1) a transparent textured-disc target was superimposed on a competing textured background, (2) a textured-disc target filled the centre of a competing annular background, and (3) a small target was presented within the centre of a competing annular background of various inner diameters. In some conditions the target and competing stimulus were separated in stereoscopic depth. The results are consistent with a disparity integration area with a diameter of about 5 degrees. Stimuli beyond this integration area can drive vergence in their own right, but they do not appear to be summed or averaged with a central stimulus to form a combined disparity signal. A competing stimulus had less effect on vergence when separated from the target by a disparity pedestal. As a result, we propose that it may be more useful to think in terms of an integration volume for vergence rather than a two-dimensional retinal integration area.

  2. Experimental Study on Natural Convection Heat Transfer From two Parallel Horizontal Cylinders in Horizontal Cylindrical Enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed T. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available  An experimental study on natural convection heat transfer from two parallel horizontal cylinders in horizontal cylindrical enclosure was carried out under condition of constant surfaces temperature for two cylinders and cylindrical enclosure. The study included the effect of Rayleigh number, rotation angle that represent the confined angle between the passing horizontal plane in cylindrical enclosure center and passing line in two cylinders centers, and the spaces between two cylinders on their heat loss ability.39An experimental set-up was used for this purpose which consist watercontainer, test section which is formed of plastic cylinder that represent the cylindrical enclosure, and two heating elements which are formed of two copper cylinders with (19 mm in diameters heated internally by electrical sources that represents transfer and heat loss elements through this set-up.      The experiments were done at the range of Rayleigh number between ( , cylinders rotation angle at ( , and spacing ratio at ( .     The study showed that the ability of heat loss from two cylinders is a function of Rayleigh number, cylinders rotation angle, and the spaces between them. This ability is increased by increasing of Rayleigh number and it was showed that this ability reaches maximum value at the first cylinder ( and minimum value at the second cylinder ( at spacing ratio (S/D=3 and rotation angle ( for the first and ( for the second cylinder respectively.      The effective variables on natural convection heat transfer from the above two cylinders are related by two correlating equations, each one explains dimensionless relation of heat transfer from each cylinder that represented by Nusselt number against Rayleigh number, rotation angle, and the spacing ratio between two cylinders. 

  3. Annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The GKSS scientific annual report summarizes the problems and results of the research and development projects of 1973. In contrast to earlier annual reports, a comprehensive description of the research facilities is not included. The annual report was extended by the paragraph 'Financial Report 1973' in the chapter 'Development of Geesthacht Research Centre'. The financial report gives a survey of the financial transactions and the major operations of the year under review. (orig./AK) [de

  4. NUKEM annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of this important undertaking in the German nuclear industry informs about its structure, holdings and activities in 1981. The report of the management is followed by remarks on the annual statement of accounts (annual balance, profit-loss accounting) and the report of the Supervisory Board. In the annex the annual balance of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH as per December 31, 1981, and the profit-loss accounting of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH for the business year 1981 are presented. (UA) [de

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Establishment and application of the estimation model for pollutant concentrfation in agriculture drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiangkun; Hu, Yawei; Jia, Qian; Song, Changji

    2018-02-01

    It is the key point of quantitative research on agricultural non-point source pollution load, the estimation of pollutant concentration in agricultural drain. In the guidance of uncertainty theory, the synthesis of fertilization and irrigation is used as an impulse input to the farmland, meanwhile, the pollutant concentration in agricultural drain is looked as the response process corresponding to the impulse input. The migration and transformation of pollutant in soil is expressed by Inverse Gaussian Probability Density Function. The law of pollutants migration and transformation in soil at crop different growth periods is reflected by adjusting parameters of Inverse Gaussian Distribution. Based on above, the estimation model for pollutant concentration in agricultural drain at field scale was constructed. Taking the of Qing Tong Xia Irrigation District in Ningxia as an example, the concentration of nitrate nitrogen and total phosphorus in agricultural drain was simulated by this model. The results show that the simulated results accorded with measured data approximately and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients were 0.972 and 0.964, respectively.

  2. Land Use Impacts on Water Quality of Rivers draining from Mulanje ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land Use Impacts on Water Quality of Rivers draining from Mulanje Mountain: A Case of Ruo River in the Southern Malawi. ... The research recommends an integrated water resources management approach where all users and relevant stakeholders should take an active role in the conservation of Ruo River catchment in ...

  3. Interpretation of Cone Penetration Testing in Silty Soils Conducted under Partially Drained Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsgaard, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The standard penetration rate used in cone penetration tests (CPTs) is 20 mm=s, regardless of soil type, which yields fully drained penetration in sand and fully undrained penetration in clay. However, for silty soils that represent an intermediate grain size composition and unique characteristic...

  4. Umbilical vein draining into the inferior vena cava via the internal iliac vein, bypassing the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, G.; Stannard, M.W.; Texas Univ., Dallas, TX; Kolni, H.

    1991-01-01

    This is the third report of an anomalous umbilical vein draining ectopically in a left pelvic vein, probably the left internal iliac, and through the inferior vena cava into the right atrium. The anomaly was encountered in a newborn infant with nonimmune hydrops fetalis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, multiorgan failure and possibly Noonan Syndrome. (orig.)

  5. Development and testing of watershed-scale models for poorly drained soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn P. Fernandez; George M. Chescheir; R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya

    2005-01-01

    Watershed-scale hydrology and water quality models were used to evaluate the crrmulative impacts of land use and management practices on dowrzstream hydrology and nitrogen loading of poorly drained watersheds. Field-scale hydrology and nutrient dyyrutmics are predicted by DRAINMOD in both models. In the first model (DRAINMOD-DUFLOW), field-scale predictions are coupled...

  6. Configuration of particle drain for the high energy charged particles in the magnetic dipole field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirkhanov, I.V.; Zhidkov, E.P.; Ignatov, V.V.; Il'ina, A.N.; Il'in, V.D.; Kuznetsov, S.N.; Yushkov, B.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    The boundary of particle leakage from the magnetic dipole trap depending on the value of adiabatic parameter is investigated. By trajectory computation a generalized analytical expression is determined for the shape of particle drain by x ≤ 1. It is shown that generally accepted adiabatic loss cone is a particular case of x → 0

  7. Oral tolerance is determined at the level of draining lymph nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilsem, van E.G.; BrevÃ, J.; Savelkoul, H.; Claessen, A.; Scheper, R.J.; Kraal, G.

    1995-01-01

    In the skin and in the epithelium of the oral mucosa a comparable network of Langerhans cells can be found. Antigen application on either epithelium leads to rapid emigration of Langerhans cells to the draining lymph nodes. Application on the oral mucosa leads to tolerance induction while

  8. Evaluation of the necessity for chest drain placement following thoracoscopic wedge resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ting-Yu; Chen, Jian-Xun; Chen, Pin-Ru; Lin, Yu-Sen; Chen, Chien-Kuang; Kao, Pei-Yu; Huang, Tzu-Ming; Fang, Hsin-Yuan

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent thoracoscopic wedge resection without chest drain placement. The subjects of this retrospective study were 89 patients, who underwent thoracoscopic wedge resection at our hospital between January, 2013 and July, 2015. A total of 45 patients whose underlying condition did not meet the following criteria were assigned to the "chest drain placement group" (group A): peripheral lesions, healthy lung parenchyma, no intraoperative air leaks, hemorrhage or effusion accumulation, and no pleural adhesion. The other 44 patients whose underlying condition met the criteria were assigned to the "no chest drain placement group" (group B). Patient characteristics, specimen data, and postoperative conditions were analyzed and compared between the groups. Group A patients had poorer forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) values, less normal spirometric results, significantly higher resected lung volume, a greater maximum tumor-pleura distance, and a larger maximum tumor size. They also had a longer postoperative hospital stay. There was no difference between the two groups in postoperative complications. Avoiding chest drain placement after a thoracoscopic wedge resection appears to be safe and beneficial for patients who have small peripheral lesions and healthy lung parenchyma.

  9. Method of bilateral pleural drainage by single Blake drain after esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Yukiko; Koike, Masahiko; Oya, Hisaharu; Iwata, Naoki; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kanda, Mitsuro; Tanaka, Chie; Yamada, Suguru; Fujii, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Goro; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Nomoto, Shuji; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2015-03-01

    Clinicians often encounter left pleural effusion after esophagectomy, which sometimes necessitates thoracentesis. We have introduced a new drainage method, bilateral pleural drainage by single Blake drain (BDSD), which we have been using since April 2013. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the BDSD. The BDSD method employs a 15-F Blake drain inserted from the right thoracic cavity to the left thoracic cavity across the posterior mediastinum. The conventional drain (CD) group consisted of 50 patients with a 19-F Blake drain placed in the right thoracic cavity during the period from April 2012 to March 2013. The BDSD group consisted of 54 patients treated from April 2013 to June 2014. The amount of total drainage in the BDSD group was significantly higher than that in the CD group (P pleural effusion and left lower lobe atelectasis in the BDSD group were significantly lower than those in the CD group (P pleural effusion necessitating thoracentesis drainage in the BDSD group. Compared with the conventional method, BDSD was able to evacuate bilateral pleural effusion more effectively, and the incidences of left pleural effusion and left atelectasis were lower. This method is therefore clinically useful after esophagectomy.

  10. An elusive persistent left superior vena cava draining into left atrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Soward; F.J. ten Cate (Folkert); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractA case report of a persistent left superior vena cava draining into left atrium with a fibromuscular left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and a small atrial septal defect. The anomalous vessel escaped detection during two right and left heart catheterizations from the right arm and

  11. Restructuring brain drain: strengthening governance and financing for health worker migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-15

    Health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries, also known as ''brain drain'', represents a serious global health crisis and a significant barrier to achieving global health equity. Resource-poor countries are unable to recruit and retain health workers for domestic health systems, resulting in inadequate health infrastructure and millions of dollars in healthcare investment losses. Using acceptable methods of policy analysis, we first assess current strategies aimed at alleviating brain drain and then propose our own global health policy based solution to address current policy limitations. Although governments and private organizations have tried to address this policy challenge, brain drain continues to destabilise public health systems and their populations globally. Most importantly, lack of adequate financing and binding governance solutions continue to fail to prevent health worker brain drain. In response to these challenges, the establishment of a Global Health Resource Fund in conjunction with an international framework for health worker migration could create global governance for stable funding mechanisms encourage equitable migration pathways, and provide data collection that is desperately needed.

  12. The routine use of post-operative drains in thyroid surgery: an outdated concept.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prichard, R S

    2010-01-01

    The use of surgical drains in patients undergoing thyroid surgery is standard surgical teaching. Life-threatening complications, arising from post-operative haematomas, mandates their utilization. There is increasing evidence to suggest that this is an outdated practice. This paper determines whether thyroid surgery can be safely performed without the routine use of drains. A retrospective review of patients undergoing thyroid surgery, over a three year period was performed and post-operative complications documented. One hundred and four thyroidectomies were performed. 63 (60.6%) patients had a partial thyroidectomy, 27 (25.9%) had a total thyroidectomy and 14 (13.5%) had a sub-total thyroidectomy. Suction drains were not inserted in any patient. A cervical haematoma did not develop in any patient in this series and no patient required re-operation. There is no evidence to suggest the routine use of surgical drains following uncomplicated thyroid surgery reduces the rate of haematoma formation or re-operation rates and indeed is now unwarranted.

  13. Diminishing peat oxidation of agricultural peat soils by infiltration via submerged drains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van den J.J.H.; Hendriks, R.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidation of peat soils used in dairy farming in the western peat area of The Netherlands causes subsidence rates up to 13 mm.y and emissions of CO2 to about 27 t.ha.y. In 2003 experiments started with subsurface irrigation by submerged drains to raise groundwater levels to reduce oxidation and so

  14. The Brain Drain in Mexico--A Subject for Research...or Agenda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupetit, Sylvie Didou

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the present state of the discussion and data regarding the brain drain in Mexico. From current data, recent trends show certain peculiarities in the national picture, pointing to an increase in the number of free movers, and a decrease in the number of young people who obtain Mexican government…

  15. The effect of random dopant fluctuation on threshold voltage and drain current variation in junctionless nanotransistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezapour, Arash; Rezapour, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of dopant random fluctuation on threshold voltage and drain current variation in a two-gate nanoscale transistor. We used a quantum-corrected technology computer aided design simulation to run the simulation (10000 randomizations). With this simulation, we could study the effects of varying the dimensions (length and width), and thicknesses of oxide and dopant factors of a transistor on the threshold voltage and drain current in subthreshold region (off) and overthreshold (on). It was found that in the subthreshold region the variability of the drain current and threshold voltage is relatively fixed while in the overthreshold region the variability of the threshold voltage and drain current decreases remarkably, despite the slight reduction of gate voltage diffusion (compared with that of the subthreshold). These results have been interpreted by using previously reported models for threshold current variability, load displacement, and simple analytical calculations. Scaling analysis shows that the variability of the characteristics of this semiconductor increases as the effects of the short channel increases. Therefore, with a slight increase of length and a reduction of width, oxide thickness, and dopant factor, we could correct the effect of the short channel. (paper)

  16. Short-channel drain current model for asymmetric heavily/lightly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper presents a drain current model for double gate metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (DG MOSFETs) based on a new velocity saturation model that accounts for short-channel velocity saturation effect independently in the front and the back gate controlled channels under asymmetric front and back ...

  17. Thermal-fluid analysis of the fill and drain operations of a cryrogenic fuel tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Craig A.; Hanna, Gregory J.; Gong, Leslie

    1993-01-01

    The Generic Research Cryogenic Tank was designed to establish techniques for testing and analyzing the behavior of reusable fuel tank structures subjected to cryogenic fuels and aerodynamic heating. The Generic Research Cryogenic Tank tests will consist of filling a pressure vessel to a prescribed fill level, waiting for steady-state conditions, then draining the liquid while heating the external surface to simulate the thermal environment associated with hypersonic flight. Initial tests of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank will use liquid nitrogen with future tests requiring liquid hydrogen. Two-dimensional finite-difference thermal-fluid models were developed for analyzing the behavior of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank during fill and drain operations. The development and results of the two-dimensional fill and drain models, using liquid nitrogen, are provided, along with results and discussion on extrapolating the model results to the operation of the full-size Generic Research Cryogenic Tank. These numerical models provided a means to predict the behavior of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank during testing and to define the requirements for the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank support systems such as vent, drain, pressurization, and instrumentation systems. In addition, the fill model provided insight into the unexpected role of circumferential conduction in cooling the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank pressure vessel during fill operations.

  18. 7 CFR 58.416 - Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... uniform heating. The inner liner shall be minimum 16 gauge stainless steel or other equally corrosion... jacket. The outer jacket shall be constructed of stainless steel or other metal which can be kept clean... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. 58.416 Section 58...

  19. Modeling the impact of nitrogen fertilizer application and tile drain configuration on nitrate leaching using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was revised to improve the partitioning of runoff and tile drainage in poorly drained soils by modifying the algorithm for computing the soil moisture retention parameter. In this study, the revised SWAT model was used to evaluate the sensitivity a...

  20. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Project goal - The overall goal of the project is to build a legitimate transnational network to transfer ideas and experiences and implement measures to reduce brain drain and foster brain gain while reinforcing the economical and spatial development of peripheral regions in NWE. This means a

  1. Quality Education Improvement: Yemen and the Problem of the "Brain Drain"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the problems that hinder improvement of the quality of education in Yemen, with a particular focus on higher education institutions. It discusses in particular the problem of the brain drain and why this phenomenon is occurring in Yemen. Semi-structured interviews with three professors at higher education…

  2. [To what extent is Mexican emigration to the United States a brain drain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, T N; Newton, J R

    1979-01-01

    The authors examine the problem of legal Mexican emigration to the United States, analyzing its effects on both countries. Characteristics of the Mexican emigrants are examined with respect to level of employment, salary, and employment opportunities. The total number of emigrants in professional and technical capacities is investigated in order to determine the likelihood of a brain drain from Mexico to the United States

  3. Powerful Software to Simulate Soil Consolidation Problems with Prefabricated Vertical Drains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo García-Ros

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the program Simulation of Consolidation with Vertical Drains (SICOMED_2018, a tool for the solution of consolidation processes in heterogeneous soils, with totally or partially penetrating prefabricated vertical drains (PVD and considering both the effects of the smear zone, generated when introducing the drain into the ground, and the limitation in the discharge capacity of the drain. In order to provide a completely free program, the code Next-Generation Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (Ngspice has been used as a numerical tool while the Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB code was used to program and create an interface with the user through interactive screens. In this way, SICOMED_2018 is presented as an easy-to-use and intuitive program, with a simple graphical interface that allows the user to enter all the soil properties and geometry of the problem without having to resort to a complex software package that requires programming. Illustrative applications describe both the versatility of the program and the reliability of its numerical solutions.

  4. Academic Brain Drain: Impact and Implications for Public Higher Education Quality in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2013-01-01

    The flight of human capital is a phenomenon that has been of concern to academics and development practitioners for decades. Unfortunately, there is no systematic record of the number of skilled professionals that many African countries have continued to lose to the developed world. Termed the "brain drain", it represents the loss of…

  5. Umbilical vein draining into the inferior vena cava via the internal iliac vein, bypassing the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currarino, G.; Stannard, M.W. (Children' s Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiology Texas Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Southwestern Medical Center); Kolni, H. (Methodist Hospital, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics)

    1991-05-01

    This is the third report of an anomalous umbilical vein draining ectopically in a left pelvic vein, probably the left internal iliac, and through the inferior vena cava into the right atrium. The anomaly was encountered in a newborn infant with nonimmune hydrops fetalis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, multiorgan failure and possibly Noonan Syndrome. (orig.).

  6. Photoactive TiO2 Films Formation by Drain Coating for Endosulfan Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Tapia-Orozco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous photocatalysis is an advanced oxidation process in which a photoactive catalyst, such as TiO2, is attached to a support to produce free radical species known as reactive oxygen species (ROS that can be used to break down toxic organic compounds. In this study, the draining time, annealing temperature, and draining/annealing cycles for TiO2 films grown by the drain coating method were evaluated using a 23 factorial experimental design to determine the photoactivity of the films via endosulfan degradation. The TiO2 films prepared with a large number of draining/annealing cycles at high temperatures enhanced (P>0.05 endosulfan degradation and superoxide radical generation after 30 minutes of illumination with UV light. We demonstrated a negative correlation (R2=0.69; P>0.01 between endosulfan degradation and superoxide radical generation. The endosulfan degradation rates were the highest at 30 minutes with the F6 film. In addition, films prepared using conditions F1, F4, and F8 underwent an adsorption/desorption process. The kinetic reaction constants, Kapp (min−1, were 0.0101, 0.0080, 0.0055, 0.0048, and 0.0035 for F6, F2, F5, F3, and F1, respectively. The endosulfan metabolites alcohol, ether, and lactone were detected and quantified at varying levels in all photocatalytic assays.

  7. Structure of a steady drain-hole vortex in a viscous fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøhling, Lasse; Andersen, Anders Peter; Fabre, D.

    2010-01-01

    We use direct numerical simulations to study a steady bathtub vortex in a cylindrical tank with a central drain-hole, a fiat stress-free surface and velocity prescribed at the inlet. We find that the qualitative structure of the meridional flow does not depend on the radial Reynolds number, where...

  8. State of science of phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  9. Long-term hydrology and water quality of a drained pine plantation in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Amatya; R.W. Skaggs

    2011-01-01

    Long-term data provide a basis for understanding natural variability, reducing uncertainty in model inputs and parameter estimation, and developing new hypotheses. This article evaluates 21 years (1988-2008) of hydrologic data and 17 years (1988-2005) of water quality data from a drained pine plantation in eastern North Carolina. The plantation age was 14 years at the...

  10. Hydrobiogeochemical interactions in 'anoxic' limestone drains for neutralization of acidic mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, E.I.; Cravotta, C.A.; Savela, C.E.; Nord, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    Processes affecting neutralization of acidic coal mine drainage were evaluated within 'anoxic' limestone drains (ALDs). Influents had pH???3.5 and dissolved oxygen treatment step is indicated to promote Al removal before diverting acidic mine water into alkalinity-producing materials. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  11. An analysis of molten-corium-induced failure of drain pipes in BWR Mark 2 containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Podowski, M.Z.

    1991-01-01

    This study has focused on mechanistic simulation and analysis of potential failure modes for inpedestal drywell drain pipes in the Limerick boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark 2 containment. Physical phenomena related to surface tension breakdown, heatup, melting, ablation, crust formation and failure, and core material relocation into drain pipes with simultaneous melting of pipe walls were modeled and analyzed. The results of analysis have been used to assess the possibility of drain pipe failure and the resultant loss of pressure-suppression capability. Estimates have been made for the timing and amount of molten corium released to the wetwell. The study has revealed that significantly different melt progression sequences can result depending upon the failure characteristics of the frozen metallic crust which forms over the drain cover during the initial stages of debris pour. Another important result is that it can take several days for the molten fuel to ablate the frozen metallic debris layer -- if the frozen layer has cooled below 1100 K before fuel attack. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Characterization of Drain Surface Water: Environmental Profile, Degradation Level and Geo-statistic Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, M.W.; Raza, M.A.; Ahmed, Z.; Abbas, M.N.; Hussain, M.

    2015-01-01

    The physico-chemical characterization of the surface water. Samples was carried out collected from nine sampling points of drain passing by the territory of Hafizabad city, Punjab, Pakistan. The water of drain is used by farmers for irrigation purposes in nearby agricultural fields. Twenty water quality parameters were evaluated in three turns and the results obtained were compared with the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) municipal and industrial effluents prescribed limits. The highly significant difference (p<0.01) was recorded for the content of phenols, carbonyl compounds, cyanides, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, total soluble salts, total dissolved salts, nitrates and sulphates, whereas, the concentration of magnesium, potassium and oil and grease differed significantly (p<0.05) with respect to the sampling points on average basis. Non-significant difference (p>0.05) was noted for temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, hardness, calcium, sodium, chemical oxygen demand and chloride among water samples from different sampling points. Furthermore, the experimental results of different water quality parameters studied at nine sampling points of the drain were used and interpolated in ArcGIS 9.3 environment system using kriging techniques to obtain calculated values for the remaining locations of the Drain. (author)

  13. Shear horizontal wave excitation and reception with shear horizontal piezoelectric wafer active sensor (SH-PWAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, A; Giurgiutiu, V

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses shear horizontal (SH) guided-waves that can be excited with shear type piezoelectric wafer active sensor (SH-PWAS). The paper starts with a review of state of the art SH waves modelling and their importance in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). The basic piezoelectric sensing and actuation equations for the case of shear horizontal piezoelectric wafer active sensor (SH-PWAS) with electro-mechanical coupling coefficient d 35 are reviewed. Multiphysics finite element modelling (MP-FEM) was performed on a free SH-PWAS to show its resonance modeshapes. The actuation mechanism of the SH-PWAS is predicted by MP-FEM, and modeshapes of excited structure are presented. The structural resonances are compared with experimental measurements and showed good agreement. Analytical prediction of SH waves was performed. SH wave propagation experimental study was conducted between different combinations of SH-PWAS and regular in-plane PWAS transducers. Experimental results were compared with analytical predictions for aluminium plates and showed good agreement. 2D wave propagation effects were studied by MP-FEM. An analytical model was developed for SH wave power and energy. The normal mode expansion (NME) method was used to account for superpositioning multimodal SH waves. Modal participation factors were presented to show the contribution of every mode. Power and energy transfer between SH-PWAS and the structure was analyzed. Finally, we present simulations of our developed wave power and energy analytical models. (paper)

  14. Wake of inertial waves of a horizontal cylinder in horizontal translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicoane, Nathanaël; Labarre, Vincent; Voisin, Bruno; Moisy, Frédéric; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe

    2018-03-01

    We analyze theoretically and experimentally the wake behind a horizontal cylinder of diameter d horizontally translated at constant velocity U in a fluid rotating about the vertical axis at a rate Ω . Using particle image velocimetry measurements in the rotating frame, we show that the wake is stabilized by rotation for Reynolds number Re =U d /ν much larger than in a nonrotating fluid. Over the explored range of parameters, the limit of stability is Re ≃(275 ±25 )/Ro , with Ro =U /2 Ω d the Rossby number, indicating that the stabilizing process is governed by the Ekman pumping in the boundary layer. At low Rossby number, the wake takes the form of a stationary pattern of inertial waves, similar to the wake of surface gravity waves behind a ship. We compare this steady wake pattern to a model, originally developed by Johnson [E. R. Johnson, J. Fluid Mech. 120, 359 (1982), 10.1017/S0022112082002808], assuming a free-slip boundary condition and a weak streamwise perturbation. Our measurements show quantitative agreement with this model for Ro ≲0.3 . At larger Rossby number, the phase pattern of the wake is close to the prediction for an infinitely small line object. However, the wake amplitude and phase origin are not correctly described by the weak-streamwise-perturbation model, calling for an alternative model for the boundary condition at moderate rotation rate.

  15. Horizontal versus familial transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Schwarz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Helicobacter pylori is thought to occur mainly during childhood, and predominantly within families. However, due to the difficulty of obtaining H. pylori isolates from large population samples and to the extensive genetic diversity between isolates, the transmission and spread of H. pylori remain poorly understood. We studied the genetic relationships of H. pylori isolated from 52 individuals of two large families living in a rural community in South Africa and from 43 individuals of 11 families living in urban settings in the United Kingdom, the United States, Korea, and Colombia. A 3,406 bp multilocus sequence haplotype was determined for a total of 142 H. pylori isolates. Isolates were assigned to biogeographic populations, and recent transmission was measured as the occurrence of non-unique isolates, i.e., isolates whose sequences were identical to those of other isolates. Members of urban families were almost always infected with isolates from the biogeographic population that is common in their location. Non-unique isolates were frequent in urban families, consistent with familial transmission between parents and children or between siblings. In contrast, the diversity of H. pylori in the South African families was much more extensive, and four distinct biogeographic populations circulated in this area. Non-unique isolates were less frequent in South African families, and there was no significant correlation between kinship and similarity of H. pylori sequences. However, individuals who lived in the same household did have an increased probability of carrying the same non-unique isolates of H. pylori, independent of kinship. We conclude that patterns of spread of H. pylori under conditions of high prevalence, such as the rural South African families, differ from those in developed countries. Horizontal transmission occurs frequently between persons who do not belong to a core family, blurring the pattern of familial

  16. A questionnaire about radiation safety management of the draining-water system at nuclear medicine facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizukuishi, Kazuya; Narita, Hiroto

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey about radiation-safety management condition in Japanese nuclear medicine facilities to make materials of proposition for more reasonable management of medical radioactive waste. We distributed a questionnaire to institutions equipped with Nuclear Medicine facilities. Of 1,125 institutions, 642 institutes (52.8%) returned effective answers. The questionnaire covered the following areas: scale of an institution, presence of enforcement of radiotherapy, system of a tank, size and number of each tank, a form of draining-water system, a displacement in a radioactive rays management area, a measurement method of the concentration of medical radioactive waste in draining water system, planned and used quantity of radioisotopes for medical examination and treatment, an average displacement of hospital for one month. In most institutions, a ratio of dose limitation of radioisotope in draining-water system was less than 1.0, defined as an upper limitation in ordinance. In 499 hospitals without facilities of hospitalization for unsealed radioisotope therapy, 473 hospitals reported that sum of ratios of dose limits in a draining-water system was less than 1.0. It was calculated by used dose of radioisotope and monthly displacement from hospital, on the premise that all used radioisotope entered in the general draining-water system. When a drainage including radioactivity from a controlled area join with that from other area before it flows out of a institution, it may be diluted and its radioactive concentration should be less than its upper limitation defined in the rule. Especially, in all institutions with a monthly displacement of more than 25,000 m 3 , the sum of ratio of the concentration of each radionuclide to the concentration limit dose calculated by used dose of radioisotope, indicated less than 1.0. (author)

  17. Effect of One versus Two Drain Insertion on Postoperative Seroma Formation after Modified Radical Mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farzaneh ebrahimifard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modified radical mastectomy (MRM is still one of globally accepted surgical techniques for breast cancer and in some selected patient is the gold standard type of surgery. The most frequent complication of this procedure is seroma under skin flaps or in the axilla as reported as much as 30% in some studies. The use of closed suction drainage system to reduce the incidence of this complication has been routinely accepted by surgeons; however, length of catheter stay and the number of catheters inserted in the wound are still controversial. The present study compares the results of single versus double drain insertion in patients undergoing MRM for breast cancer.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 women with breast cancer who were candidate for MRM surgery during 2007-2010 referred to Modarres hospital, Tehran, Iran as a randomized group matched controlled trial.Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, BMI, and tumor weight (P=0.406 (Table 1. Similarly, the difference between the two groups was insignificant in tumor size (T and number of lymph nodes involved (P=0.145. There was no significant difference between the two groups in timing of axillary drain removal (P=0.064. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in mean aspirated fluid (P=0.071 and mean aspirated sera (P=0.484 after removal of drains.Conclusion: This study revealed one drain insertion in MRM surgery is as effective as two drain and probably less morbidity and cost.

  18. Horizontal drilling in Miocene thin sand of Lake Maracaibo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partidas, C. [PDVSA Exploration and Production (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    Horizontal drilling in the mature Lake Maracaibo field in Venezuela as a means of stimulating production are discussed. The Miocene sand where the horizontal well technology was applied, presented a number of intervals of unconsolidated sand of varied continuity, pay intervals at ten to twenty feet thickness, and reservoir pressures mostly at hydrostatic or below hydrostatic values. This paper evaluates a horizontal drilling program in the Lagunallis Lago Production Unit of Maracaibo, involving 91 wells to date (since 1995). When assessed in economic terms, results indicate that horizontal wells are a better economic alternative than vertical wells. The same results also showed that drainage from thin sand reservoirs resulted in better production with horizontal well technology than production from vertical wells. Payout was less than two years for 50 per cent of the horizontal wells while 40 per cent had payouts of between two and four years. Profit to investment ratio was greater than two in the case of about 70 per cent of the horizontal wells drilled in 1996. 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  19. Outcomes of Transhiatal and Intercostal Pleural Drain After Ivor Lewis Esophagectomy: Comparative Analysis of Two Consecutive Patient Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asti, Emanuele; Bernardi, Daniele; Bonitta, Gianluca; Bonavina, Luigi

    2018-05-01

    In a previous proof of concept study, transhiatal pleural drain has been shown to be safe and effective after hybrid Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. Aim of this study was to compare the short-term outcomes of transhiatal and intercostal pleural drainage. This is an observational retrospective cohort study. Two methods of pleural drainage were compared in patients undergoing hybrid Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. Patients treated with a transhiatal drain connected to a vacuum bag were compared to a historical cohort of patients treated with the conventional intercostal drain connected to underwater seal and suction. Postoperative morbidity, total and daily drainage output, serum albumin levels, and total dose of paracetamol and ketorolac administered on demand were recorded. Between January 2014 and December 2016, 50 patients with transhiatal drain and 50 with intercostal drains met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Demographic and clinicopathological variables were similar in the two groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of postoperative complications. The total volume of drain output and the serum albumin levels were similar in the two groups. The total dose of ketorolac was significantly reduced in patients with transhiatal drain (P pleural drainage connected to a portable vacuum system could safely replace the intercostal drain after hybrid Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. It has the potential to reduce postoperative pain and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and to enhance recovery from surgery.

  20. Disinfection of drain water of tomato by means of UV radiation and slow sand filtration in real greenhouse circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rocker, E; Goen, K; Van Poucke, K

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of the disinfection of drain water was tested at 11 greenhouses with tomato cultivation on rockwool substrate in Flanders (Belgium) by means of mycological analysis. In addition the presence of phytopathogenic fungi in the drain water was analysed at 2 supplementary greenhouses with recirculation without disinfection.

  1. Viscosity-dependent drain current noise of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor in polar liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J. Y.; Hsu, C. P.; Kang, Y. W.; Fang, K. C.; Kao, W. L.; Yao, D. J.; Chen, C. C.; Li, S. S.; Yeh, J. A.; Wang, Y. L.; Lee, G. Y.; Chyi, J. I.; Hsu, C. H.; Huang, Y. F.; Ren, F.

    2013-01-01

    The drain current fluctuation of ungated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) measured in different fluids at a drain-source voltage of 0.5 V was investigated. The HEMTs with metal on the gate region showed good current stability in deionized water, while a large fluctuation in drain current was observed for HEMTs without gate metal. The fluctuation in drain current for the HEMTs without gate metal was observed and calculated as standard deviation from a real-time measurement in air, deionized water, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, 1,2-butanediol, and glycerol. At room temperature, the fluctuation in drain current for the HEMTs without gate metal was found to be relevant to the dipole moment and the viscosity of the liquids. A liquid with a larger viscosity showed a smaller fluctuation in drain current. The viscosity-dependent fluctuation of the drain current was ascribed to the Brownian motions of the liquid molecules, which induced a variation in the surface dipole of the gate region. This study uncovers the causes of the fluctuation in drain current of HEMTs in fluids. The results show that the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs may be used as sensors to measure the viscosity of liquids within a certain range of viscosity

  2. Comparison consequences of Jackson-Pratt drain versus chest tube after coronary artery bypass grafting: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmohammad-Sadeghi, Mohsen; Pourazari, Pejman; Akbari, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Chest tubes are used in every case of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) to evacuate shed blood from around the heart and lungs. This study was designed to assess the effective of Jackson-Pratt drain in compare with conventional chest drains after CABG. This was a randomized controlled trial that conducted on 218 patients in Chamran hospital from February to December 2016. Eligible patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio. Jackson-Pratt drain group had 109 patients who received a chest tube insertion in the pleural space of the left lung and a Jackson-Pratt drain in mediastinum, and Chest tube drainage group had 109 patients who received double chest tube insertion in the pleural space of the left lung and the mediastinum. The incidence of pleural effusions in Jackson-Pratt drain group and chest tube group were not statistically different. The pain score at 2-h in Drain group was significantly higher than chest tube group ( P = 0.001), but the trend of pain score between groups was not significantly different ( P = 0.097). The frequency of tamponade and atrial fibrillation (AF) were significantly lower in Jackson-Pratt drain group ( P drain is equally effective for preventing cardiac tamponade, pleural effusions, and pain intensity in patients after CABG when compared with conventional chest tubes, but was significantly superior regarding efficacy to hospital and Intensive Care Unit length of stay and the incidence of AF.

  3. CSIR Annual report 1965

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 48 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. CSIR Annual report 1992

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 39 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  5. CSIR Annual report 1979

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 86 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. CSIR Annual report 1976

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 75 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. CSIR Annual report 1978

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 78 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  8. CSIR Annual report 1991

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 40 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  9. Annual Partnership Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. This partnership report fulfills statutory reporting requirement W.S. 21-18-202(e)(iv) which mandates the development of annual reports to the legislature on the outcomes of partnerships between colleges…

  10. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  11. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  12. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  13. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 2001. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  14. Annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the ninth Annual Report to Congress of the United States Department of Energy. It covers the activities of all elements of the Department except the independent Federal Regulatory Commission, which issues its own annual report. 88 refs., 43 tabs

  15. Annual Report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K.

    1998-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  16. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N; Mika, J R; Wieteska, K [eds.

    1999-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  17. Selectively placing many fractures in openhole horizontal wells improves production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, T. G.; McCarty, R. A. [Chevron USA Inc (United States); Suraatmadja, J. B.; Chambers, R. W.; Grundmann, S. R.

    1998-12-31

    Result of a simulation of an openhole horizontal well that was treated with hydrajet fracturing, a new fracturing process wherein fractures are placed at different locations in a horizontal well without using sectional isolation techniques, are discussed. The process uses high-pressure jetting to concentrate fracturing energy at a precise fracture location, and data is obtained by means of surface and downhole pressure recorders, flow recorders, and tracers. This technique was used in a substantially depleted horizontal well in New Mexico with good results. The new process is reported to be expensive to implement which prevents widespread application at the present time. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Vertical-horizontal wells for depletion and sweep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraikhi, A. J.; Pham, T. R.; Liu, J. S.; Khatib, M. R.; Muhaish, A. S. [Saudi Aramco (Saudi Arabia)

    1998-12-31

    A well completion scheme currently in use in a thick, large, elongated carbonate anticline Middle-East oil reservoir is described. This method of well completion calls for a combination of an open hole horizontal section penetrating the top 10 feet of the reservoir and a cased or undisturbed vertical segment through the thick formation. The horizontal section is used for producing and the vertical segment is used for monitoring purposes. Field experience and supported reservoir simulation exercises have shown that the horizontal application is superior to conventional vertical completion both from the economic and from the sweep point of view. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Remediation of a contaminated thin aquifer by horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breh, W.; Suttheimer, J.; Hoetzl, H. [Univ. of Karlsruhe (Germany); Frank, K. [GEO-Service GmbH, Rheinmuenster (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    At an industrial site in Bruchsal (Germany) a huge trichloroethene contamination was found. After common remedial actions proved to be widely ineffective, new investigations led to a highly contaminated thin aquifer above the main aquifer. The investigation and the beginning of the remediation of the thin aquifer by two horizontal wells is described in this paper. Special attention was given to the dependence between precipitation and the flow direction in the thin aquifer and to hydraulic connections between the thin and the main aquifer. Also a short introduction into a new remedial technique by horizontal wells and first results of the test phase of the horizontal wells are given.

  20. The fabrication of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors with semiconductors as the source and drain contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Z; Camino, F E

    2009-04-01

    Sb(2)Te(3) and Bi(2)Te(2)Se semiconductor materials were used as the source and drain contact materials in the fabrication of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). Ultra-purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were ultrasonically dispersed in N-methyl pyrrolidone solvent. Dielectrophoresis was used to deposit and align SWCNTs for fabrication of CNTFETs. The Sb(2)Te(3)- and Bi(2)Te(2)Se-based CNTFETs demonstrate p-type metal-oxide-silicon-like I-V curves with high on/off drain-source current ratio at large drain-source voltages and good saturation of drain-source current with increasing drain-source voltage. The fabrication process developed is novel and has general meaning, and could be used for the fabrication of SWCNT-based integrated devices and systems with semiconductor contact materials.