WorldWideScience

Sample records for hong kong case

  1. Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    This discussion of Hong Kong focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; and the economy. In 1984 the population of Hong Kong totaled 5.4 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000; life expectancy is 76 years. Hong Kong adjoins Guangdong province on the southeastern coast of the Chinese mainland. It consists of Hong Kong and Lan Tao islands, the Kowloon Peninsula, and more than 200 smaller islands. Hong Kong's population consists of about 98% ethnic Chinese and 2% other ethnic groups, mostly European. Only 57.2% of the population were born in Hong Kong. Cantonese is the Chinese dialect spoken by most of the territory's population, but English is widely understood. Not until after 1949 did Hong Kong develop into a leading manufacturing, commercial, and tourist center. Hong Kong's foreign relations are the responsibility of the British government, but considerable autonomy has been permitted in the area of commercial relations. Following the June 30, 1997, expiration date of the lease on the New Territories, which comprise 92% of Hong Kong's total area, Hong Kong will become a Special Administrative Region of China in 1997. Hong Kong has little arable land and virtually no natural resources. The colony always has depended on foreign trade. Hong Kong has developed into a center of light manufacturing and international finance. In 1984, Hong Kong's foreign trade was valued at $57 billion. Hong Kongs economy has recovered strongly from the 1981-82 recession.

  2. Child slavery in Hong Kong: case report and historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A C W; So, K T

    2006-12-01

    An 11-year-old girl was admitted with multiple injuries sustained during a 1-year servitude of domestic labour. She was acquired from her parents in Mainland China by a relative in Hong Kong. The child's parents received a sum of money that the child had to repay with work. Her hardship was characterised by long hours of incessant labour and physical torture when she failed to meet the demands of her mistress or her mistress' children. This case resembles Mui Tsai, a form of child slavery and exploitative domestic labour that was rife in Hong Kong a century ago, and illustrates the new challenges to child rights and protection consequent to the increasing social and economic integration between the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Mainland China.

  3. Update Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Martin F.

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Hong Kong. Following an overview of the history and culture of Hong Kong, 12 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapter topics include: before leaving, on arrival, language, doing business in Hong Kong, customs and courtesies,…

  4. Implementing the Project Approach: A Case Study of Hybrid Pedagogy in a Hong Kong Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer J.; Li, Hui; Wang, Jing-ying

    2017-01-01

    The Project Approach has been promoted in Hong Kong kindergartens since the 1990s. However, the dynamic processes and underlying mechanisms involved in the teachers' implementation of this pedagogical method there have not yet been fully investigated. This case study of one typical kindergarten in Hong Kong documented how and why eight teachers…

  5. Hong Kong: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozzard, A

    1988-09-01

    In the 1840s, the small fishing community that is now Hong Kong became a British colony and an important naval base for the Opium Wars. Now it is a leading capitalist center operating on mainland communist China. Hong Kong is scheduled to go back to China in 1997. In the agreement signed between the British government and China, Hong Kong's present lifestyle is guaranteed for at least 50 years. Textbook colonialism rules here. Foreigners hold the key jobs and earn much more than do the indigenous people. They even receive subsidized housing in this very high rent colony. As for the Hong Kong Chinese, overcrowding into 2 room apartments is the norm even though the government tries to provide more housing units. The large skyscrapers in the New Territories breed their unique social and mental health problems, such as poverty, drug abuse and frustration. Essentially all food is imported from communist China, yet agriculture in Hong Kong does exist--pig farms, duck lakes, and fields of the popular vegetable choi sum. Major industry comprise textiles and sweat shops which pay their workers (mostly illegal immigrants and children with no legal protection) wages that are 1/4 of those paid in Great Britain. Financial services, trade, and tourism may soon dominate Hong Kong's economy. Almost 4 million tourists visit Hong Kong yearly, often looking for bargains. Despite Hong Kong's active Western-like business climate, Chinese culture still abounds. Traditional incense burns in Buddhist temples. Snake soup is served in restaurants. Plus traditional medicine practiced alongside Western medicine contributes to Hong Kong having 1 of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world (9/1000) and to its high life expectancy of 76 years.

  6. Enforcing the Right to Family Life in Hong Kong Courts: The Case of Dependant Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Chuen Ngai Tang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the Hong Kong courts’ seemingly robust protection of fundamental rights and civil liberties, enforcing family rights remains extremely difficult. While the right to family life is safeguarded by both domestic and international human right instruments, applicants in judicial review cases are usually not able to rely on it to challenge the decisions made by the immigration authority. This paper examines the challenges in enforcing the right to family life in Hong Kong’s Dependant Policy with a particular focus on the Hong Kong Court of Appeal’s recent decision in BI v Director of Immigration. The immigration reservation, entered into by the United Kingdom when ratifying the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, has become a justification for a restrictive immigration regime even after the transfer of sovereignty. The Hong Kong courts also repeatedly accord wide discretion to immigration authority. The courts’ reluctance to scrutinize socio-economic policies reveals one of the key weaknesses in enforcing fundamental rights in Hong Kong by the way of judicial review.

  7. A Case Study: Reading Strategies Training Scheme in a Hong Kong Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Cheung

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a case study on a reading programme, named Reading Strategies Training Scheme (RSTS), for second language learning in a Hong Kong primary (elementary) school. The scheme, serving learners of English as a second language from Primary One to Six (ages 6--12), was developed by the school's English teaching team. As it was being…

  8. Academic Staff's Perspectives upon Student Plagiarism: A Case Study at a University in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongyan

    2015-01-01

    Much of the previous research concerning student plagiarism has been conducted in Anglo-American settings. The present paper reports a case study of academic staff's perspectives upon student plagiarism at a university in Hong Kong. Based on interviews with 16 instructors, the study focused on the teachers' views and pedagogical practices,…

  9. The Sustainability of Enterprise Education: A Case Study in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Christina Wai Mui; Man, Thomas Wing Yan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce a case of an increasingly popular enterprise education programme in Hong Kong called the Teen Entrepreneurs Competition (TEC) and to examine its sustainability in different dimensions. Design/methodology/approach: Post-activity evaluation feedback was obtained from the participants and the…

  10. VISUALIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF LIGHT POLLUTION: A CASE STUDY IN HONG KONG

    OpenAIRE

    B. Wu; H. Wong

    2012-01-01

    The effects of light pollution problems in metropolitan areas are investigated in this study. Areas of Hong Kong are used as the source of three typical study cases. One case represents the regional scale, a second represents the district scale, and a third represents the street scale. Two light pollution parameters, Night Sky Brightness (NSB) and Street Light Level (SLL), are the focus of the analyses. Light pollution visualization approaches in relation to the different scales incl...

  11. Features of ciguatera fish poisoning cases in Hong Kong 2004-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Kellie L H; Mok, Tina; Chung, Thomas; Kam, Kai-Man

    2008-12-01

    To review the clinical features and laboratory investigations of ciguatera patients in Hong Kong between 2004 and 2007 in order to show the timely sampling of implicated fish from ciguatera victims and application of validated mouse bioassay for confirming suspected clinical cases of ciguatera. Diagnosis of the ciguatera victims was based on history of coral fish consumption and clinical presentations stated in official guidelines for clinical diagnosis of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. Food remnants of coral fish samples were collected swiftly from ciguatera victims between 2004 and 2007 for ciguatoxins (CTXs) analysis. Major clinical symptoms in ciguatera patients included gastrointestinal and neurological effects including limb numbness and diarrhoea, which developed at 0.5 to 15 hours after consumption of fish. In most cases, neurological symptoms were more common than gastrointestinal symptoms. A broad range of attack rate (10%-100%) was observed in each ciguatera outbreak. Validated mouse bioassay on ether extracts of the food remnant samples confirmed that all were CTXs-positive (ciguatera cases. Consistency between clinical and laboratory analysis for ciguatera poisoning illustrates the application of laboratory mouse bioassay in a timely fashion for confirming ciguatera poisoning cases and implementing effective public health measures. With further improvement in laboratory techniques, features of ciguatera fish poisoning cases can be better defined. Further studies are needed to determine the risk of each class of CTXs (Pacific-, Indian- and Caribbean-CTXs) in Hong Kong.

  12. Water resources for urban water and food security: the case of megacity Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, Davy; Gawlik, Bernd; Bidoglio, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The extent to which urban dwellers consume resources is key on the path to reaching global SDGs. One of these resources is water, which is consumed in a direct and indirect way by city inhabitants, to achieve water and food security within city borders. In this study, we quantify the water resources required to provide these two essential securities for megacity Hong Kong. During the last years, this city has made large investments to make its urban water supply system more water efficient and sustainable. As such, its municipal water abstraction - often defined as direct water use - has decreased from 355 litres per capita per day (l/cap/d) in 2005 to 326 l/cap/d in 2013. Due to its political history, Hong Kong is unique in the world in data availability on urban food consumption. It is therefore the ideal case study to show typical urban food consumption behaviour and its related indirect water use. The current average diet in Hong Kong is very different to the average Chinese diet. It is characterised by a high intake of water intensive products like animal products and sugar, leading to a food related indirect water use or water footprint (WFcons) of 4727 l/cap/d. According to recommendations from the Chinese Nutrition Society for a healthy diet, the intake of some product groups should be increased (vegetables and fruit) and of other product groups reduced (sugar, crop oils, meat and animal fats). This would result in a reduction of the WFcons of 40% to 2852 l/cap/d. Especially the reduced intake of meat (including offals) from currently 126 kg per capita per year (kg/cap/yr) to the recommended value 27 kg/cap/yr would result in a substantial WFcons reduction. Meat consumption in Hong Kong is extremely high. A pesco-vegetarian diet would result in a reduction of 49% (to 2398 l/cap/d) and a vegetarian diet in a 53% (to 2224 l/cap/d) reduction. Hong Kong citizens can thus save a lot of water by looking at their indirect water use, through a change in their diet

  13. Community Work across Ideological Boundaries: The Case of Hong Kong and Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Bong-ho

    1993-01-01

    Despite contrasts between capitalist Hong Kong and socialist Guangzhou, the two cities' community work is similar in terms of superficial emphasis on citizen participation, maintenance of status quo, and consensus orientation. The imminent changeover in Hong Kong's sovereignty will change social welfare services in both cities. (SK)

  14. Indicators and Implications of Zero Tolerance of Corruption: The Case of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Wang, Shiru

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding the voluminous studies of Hong Kong's anticorruption experience and the admiration the ICAC has earned from other governments as a model for "institutional engineering," little is known about how the public in Hong Kong has perceived and responded to corruption. Less clear is what factors beyond a powerful and independent…

  15. Voices of Donors: Case Reports of Body Donation in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hei Yeung; Ng, Kwok Sing; Ma, Sin Kwan; Chan, Chi Hung; Ng, Sheung Wah; Tipoe, George L.; Chan, Lap Ki

    2012-01-01

    Body donation is important for medical education and academic research. However, it is relatively rare in Hong Kong when compared with many Western countries. Comprehensive research has been performed on the motivation for body donation in Western countries; however, there is still insufficient research on body donation in Hong Kong to provide…

  16. Workplace Communication in a Time of Transition: The Case of Hong Kong's Construction Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Examines language in the workplace, specifically the construction industry in Hong Kong. Provides detailed information on language use in a professional context at the time of Hong Kong's return to China and shows that written communication is mainly in English, while spoken language is predominately Cantonese. (Author/VWL)

  17. Distance Education in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrea; Butcher, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Hong Kong's economic fortunes have always depended on trade with China. By the mid-1980s, the colonial higher education system was catering to only 6% of the 18-20 age cohort and there was a backlog of adult learners who had been denied access. The Open Learning Institute of Hong Kong was launched in 1989 to overwhelming public response. It…

  18. Assessing the Disaster Resilience of Megacities: The Case of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Sim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many megacities are facing potential threats from various disasters, especially in the face of climate change. However, evaluating the resilience of megacities is not well established in both the academia and practice field. Using Hong Kong, which is a megacity ranked as the city in Asia with the highest risk for natural disasters, as a case study, we demonstrated the effort of assessing the resilience of a megacity. The Sendai Framework Local Urban Indicators Tools that was developed by the United Nation Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR was adopted as the main tool in this study, and a mixed bottom-up participatory and top-down method was utilized in the evaluation process. This is an innovative and participatory approach that is not commonly adopted in assessing the resilience of cities. The study found that Hong Kong is disaster resilient in that it mainstreams disaster risk in its development and that it dedicates sufficient financial resources. However, Hong Kong may improve on its disaster governance and encourage cooperation between the government and society to identify disaster risk and share information, particularly in the face of climate change and calls for more sustainable development.

  19. Analysis of Storm Surge in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    A storm surge is a type of coastal flood that is caused by low-pressure systems such as tropical cyclones. Storm surges caused by tropical cyclones can be very powerful and damaging, as they can flood coastal areas, and even destroy infrastructure in serious cases. Some serious cases of storm surges leading to more than thousands of deaths include Hurricane Katrina (2005) in New Orleans and Typhoon Haiyan (2013) in Philippines. Hong Kong is a coastal city that is prone to tropical cyclones, having an average of 5-6 tropical cyclones entering 500km range of Hong Kong per year. Storm surges have seriously damaged Hong Kong in the past, causing more than 100 deaths by Typhoon Wanda (1962), and leading to serious damage to Tai O and Cheung Chau by Typhoon Hagupit (2008). To prevent economic damage and casualties from storm surges, accurately predicting the height of storm surges and giving timely warnings to citizens is very important. In this project, I will be analyzing how different factors affect the height of storm surge, mainly using data from Hong Kong. These factors include the windspeed in Hong Kong, the atmospheric pressure in Hong Kong, the moon phase, the wind direction, the intensity of the tropical cyclone, distance between the tropical cyclone and Hong Kong, the direction of the tropical cyclone relative to Hong Kong, the speed of movement of the tropical cyclone and more. My findings will also be compared with cases from other places, to see if my findings also apply for other places.

  20. Hong Kong English: phonological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Ana Drobot

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present phonological features of Hong Kong English, which is a variety of New English. I examine features of the sound system (vowel and consonantal systems, characteristics of stress, rhythm, intonation, and phonological processes of the English spoken by Hongkongers. The way in which the accent and characteristics of the Hong Kong variety of English differs from standard, RP English is pointed out. Influences of Chinese and Cantonese on the phonological features of Hong Kong English are noticeable

  1. Aging trends--Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, H P; Phillips, D R

    1995-12-01

    Aspects of demographic aging in Hong Kong are examined in this study. "By regional standards, many of Hong Kong's 1992 population of 5.9 million have a good standard of living and adequate housing. However, there are considerable discrepancies in wealth and well-being; elderly people are not always financially secure, and there are growing difficulties in maintaining the oft-cited mode of family care for elderly members. Hong Kong is a rapidly aging society and it is essential to see this process in the context of local and regional socioeconomic change and the future political linkages of the territory with China." excerpt

  2. VCR Use in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Bryce T.

    1995-01-01

    Investigates videocassette recorder (VCR) use in Hong Kong, finding that the VCR does not compete with cinema-going and television viewing, but complements these activities. Confirms research in Western nations regarding VCR use. (SR)

  3. Hong Kong English: phonological features

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Ana Drobot

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present phonological features of Hong Kong English, which is a variety of New English. I examine features of the sound system (vowel and consonantal systems), characteristics of stress, rhythm, intonation, and phonological processes of the English spoken by Hongkongers. The way in which the accent and characteristics of the Hong Kong variety of English differs from standard, RP English is pointed out. Influences of Chinese and Cantonese on the phonological features ...

  4. Perceptions of Disadvantaged Youth on Social and Economic Asymmetry: A Case Study in Hong Kong's New Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spires, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Many social issues exist for marginalized youth in the New Territories of Hong Kong, despite Hong Kong's high standard of living. Increasingly, attention is being paid to social mobility of Hong Kong's younger generations. Youth in the New Territories face academic, economic, social and cultural barriers, in part due to tracking into low-ranked…

  5. Effectiveness of Strengths-Based Case Management for People with Mental Health Problems in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Y. C. Hui

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of a 6-month strengths-based case management intervention with 45 Chinese participants with mental health problems in Hong Kong. Social workers provided service according to the strengths-based case management (SCM model developed at the University of Kansas. Changes in participants’ recovery components (Stage of Recovery Scale, mental health symptoms (GHQ, and satisfaction with life were assessed using a single group pretest and posttest design. Results suggest that participants had some improvement in their autonomy, hope, and overall well-being as well as satisfaction with life after receiving services. No significant improvements in the other recovery components and GHQ score were found. Significantly, a number of participants progressed from stages of being overwhelmed or struggling with disability to stages of living with or beyond disability. Strengths-based practice helped participants develop a transformed self which sees hope and possibility despite the vulnerabilities caused by their illness. Though further refinement and testing are vital, adoption of SCM in Hong Kong mental health services is promising.

  6. Managing the Accessibility on Mass Public Transit: the Case of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siman Tang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Public transit services (PTS improve mobility and accessibility, and reduce car dependence. It is ideal if PTS are financially sustainable, with affordable fares and expedient quality. The success of PTS on accessibility improvement can be reflected by their level of patronage: do travelers choose to use them in lieu of their private cars? PTS in Hong Kong are renowned for their quality and profitability, superbly addressing the accessibility need for the city; they carry over 90% of the 11 million daily trips. A comparison of the per capita train-car and bus-vehicle kilometer run of PTS in Hong Kong with those in London and Singapore, however, suggests that it is not purely the supply that affects the use or accessibility of PTS in Hong Kong. By tracing and analyzing the development of PTS in Hong Kong over the past two decades, we found evidence that the high level of accessibility on mass public transit in the territory can be attributed to the land use policy of developing compact, high-density township, accompanying transport policies of granting high priority to the development of mass transit facilities and providing ways to ensure the financial viability of privately operated PTS, especially the innovative approach of integrating the development of public transport facility and property so as to exploit their synergy. In this paper, we study and highlight elements that contribute to the development of high accessibility on mass public transit in Hong Kong.

  7. Cross-Border Choice as Identity Investment: Cases of Malaysian and Indonesian Ethnic Chinese Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Pik Lin

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a case study on two ethnic Chinese students, one from Malaysia and one from Indonesia, who chose to pursue higher education in Hong Kong. By placing the students at the center of investigation against the social, political, economic, and educational contexts of their home countries, as well as the host territory, the present…

  8. A mathematical model for municipal solid waste management - A case study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C K M; Yeung, C L; Xiong, Z R; Chung, S H

    2016-12-01

    With the booming economy and increasing population, the accumulation of waste has become an increasingly arduous issue and has aroused the attention from all sectors of society. Hong Kong which has a relative high daily per capita domestic waste generation rate in Asia has not yet established a comprehensive waste management system. This paper conducts a review of waste management approaches and models. Researchers highlight that mathematical models provide useful information for decision-makers to select appropriate choices and save cost. It is suggested to consider municipal solid waste management in a holistic view and improve the utilization of waste management infrastructures. A mathematical model which adopts integer linear programming and mixed integer programming has been developed for Hong Kong municipal solid waste management. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to simulate different scenarios which provide decision-makers important information for establishing Hong Kong waste management system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hong Kong's Cross-System University Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, Gerard A.; Yunyun, Qin; Te, Alice Y. C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the special case of Hong Kong higher education's institutional partnerships in the Chinese mainland. After noting the rise of cross-system university partnership in Asia, it provides a neoinstitutional perspective on the differences between the two China higher education systems. Finally, a case study of the experience of the…

  10. First case of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai Shing; Chan, Man Chun; Chik, Shiu Hong; Tsang, Tak Yin

    2016-04-01

    Yellow fever is an important and potentially fatal infection in tropical regions of Africa, South America, eastern Panama in Central America and Trinidad in the Caribbean. Yellow fever vaccination is not only crucial to reduce the disease risk and mortality in individuals travelling to these areas, but also an important public health measure to prevent the spread of the disease. Despite generally considered as a safe vaccine, yellow fever vaccine can rarely be associated with severe adverse reactions including yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD). Here, we report the first case of YEL-AVD in Hong Kong. Clinicians should alert to the possibility of YEL-AVD in vaccinees presenting with compatible symptoms after yellow fever vaccination, particularly in people at higher risk of adverse events. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Empowering Students through Service-Learning in a Community Psychology Course: A Case in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin; Ng, Eddie; Chan, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    This article chronicles a service-learning (SL) subject on community psychology in Hong Kong (n = 26) and elaborates on how students experience concepts, frameworks, and values in community psychology and put them into practice at servicelearning settings. Upon acquiring basic concepts in community psychology, including sense of community,…

  12. IELTS Preparation Course and Student IELTS Performance: A Case Study in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengdong, Gan

    2009-01-01

    Since the University Grants Committee (UGC) selected the academic module of the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) as the common English proficiency assessment for graduating undergraduate degree students in 2002, almost all the tertiary institutions in Hong Kong have offered IELTS preparation courses that aim at providing…

  13. Education Reform as Platform for Promoting Lifelong Learning: The Case of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong

    2008-01-01

    The fierce competition largely brought by the globalization of a knowledge-based economy provided an impetus for the Hong Kong government to endorse massive education reforms in 2000, as proposed by the Education Commission, as the central strategy to improve and sustain workforce quality and social justice through the provision of lifelong…

  14. Understanding Hong Kong Business Teachers in Action: The Case of Formulation of Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Christina Wai Mui

    2009-01-01

    This article examines four categories of teaching strategy used in business classes by a group of 26 secondary school business teachers in Hong Kong, using grounded theoretical coding techniques in the analysis. Each of the teaching categories is illustrated with typical extracts from interviews and is discussed in relation to its effectiveness…

  15. Examining the Perceptions of Curriculum Leaders on Primary School Reform: A Case Study of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Yuen, Timothy W. W.

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to enhance the quality of teachers and teaching, and to lead internal curriculum development in primary schools, the Hong Kong Education Bureau created a new curriculum leader post entitled primary school master/mistress (curriculum development) or PSMCD for short. The main purpose of the study was to examine the perceptions of these…

  16. Stakeholders' Perceptions of Language Variation, English Language Teaching and Language Use: The Case of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jim Yee Him

    2017-01-01

    This study examines Hong Kong major stakeholders' (secondary students, university students, teachers and professionals) perceptions of language variation, English language teaching (ELT) and language use in their everyday communication via a large-scale questionnaire survey (N = 1893). Based on principal components analysis of the questionnaire…

  17. Emotional Autonomy versus Susceptibility to Peer Pressure: A Case Study of Hong Kong Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok-Wai; Chan, Siu-Mui

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire consisting of two scales was administered to 550 Hong Kong secondary students to examine their emotional autonomy and susceptibility to peer pressure. Emotional autonomy was studied by the scale (EAS) developed by Steinberg and Silverberg (1986) and susceptibility to peer pressure was studied by the scale developed by Sim and Koh…

  18. Transaction Costs (TCs) in Building Regulations and Control for Green Buildings : Case Study of Hong Kong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Ke; Qian, K.; Chan, EHW; Kähkönen, Kalle; Keinänen, Marko

    2016-01-01

    About 40% of global energy consumption and nearly one-third of global CO2 emissions are on account of buildings. In Hong Kong, buildings consume up to 90% of electricity during construction and operation, where all the design and construction of private developments is subject to control under the

  19. Social Foundations of Public-Private Partnerships in Education: The Historical Cases of Post-War Singapore and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares public-private partnerships (PPPs) in education in post-war Singapore and Hong Kong. After the Second World War the Singapore government shied away from PPPs, while the state in Hong Kong collaborated extensively with the non-state sector in education. Singapore was a small city-state flanked by two Muslim nations, and its…

  20. Incorporating Topography into Landscape Continuity Analysis—Hong Kong Island as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Noam; Singer, Matan; Lai, Poh

    2013-01-01

    The increase in population and the expansion of built-up areas into natural and agricultural areas results in more than just loss of open spaces surrounding cities. Reduced accessibility to nature, visual intrusion of buildings into natural viewsheds, and changes in runoff requires us to assess these impacts on open spaces. Our aim in this paper was to examine and demonstrate how topography can be incorporated into modeling and analyzing environmental impacts of cities. Taking Hong Kong Islan...

  1. Climatic influence on electricity consumption: The case of Singapore and Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Wang, H.; Ma, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    Global warming and the associated risks for natural and human systems have been major global concerns. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has projected average global surface temperature to increase by between 0.3 °C and 4.8 °C by the end of this century, depending on the greenhouse gas emission scenarios assessed. In the tropical and sub-tropical regions increases in temperature will lead to greater use of electricity for space cooling, a development that is undesirable from energy and sustainability viewpoints. We investigate how temperature increases affect electricity consumption in Singapore and Hong Kong. This is done by consuming sector, i.e. residential, commercial and industrial. Singapore and Hong Kong are respectively two tropical and subtropical cities with comparable physical, population and economy sizes. Two different approaches are used to relate their sectoral electricity consumption to temperature using regression analysis. It is estimated that total annual electricity consumption would increase by between 3% and 4% in Singapore in 2015 if there were to be a 1 °C rise in temperature. The corresponding estimates for Hong Kong are between 4% and 5%. In both cities, increases would be the greatest in the residential sector, followed by the commercial sector and the industrial sector. - Highlights: • Growth and changes in electricity consumption in Singapore and Hong Kong over the past 25 years are compared. • Relationships between electricity consumption and temperature by consuming sector are modelled. • Two statistical approaches are used to study the relationships. • Impacts of a 1 °C rise in temperature on sectoral and total electricity consumption are estimated.

  2. Safety profile of snake antivenom (use) in Hong Kong - a review of 191 cases from 2008 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Rupeng; Ng, Vember C H; Tse, Man Li

    2017-12-01

    The mainstay of treatment for significant envenoming from snakebites is antivenom. However, there is insufficient data regarding the safety of antivenom used in Hong Kong. We describe the incidence of hypersensitivity reactions from antivenom use and review the frequency and reasons for intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The Hong Kong Poisons Information Centre database was reviewed. All patients given snake antivenom between 2008 and 2015 were included. Patient demographics, species of snake involved, details of antivenom used, treatment location, use of pre-treatment, reasons for ICU admission (where applicable) and details of early and late antivenom reactions were extracted. There were 191 patients who received snake antivenom. Most (93%) were treated with either the green pit viper antivenom from Thailand or the Agkistrodon halys antivenom from China. The incidences of early hypersensitivity reactions to green pit viper antivenom and Agkistrodon Halys antivenom were 4.7% and 1.4%, respectively. Most patients (69%) were managed in the ED observation ward or general ward. There were 59 patients managed in ICU, most (90%) of whom were admitted for close monitoring during antivenom administration. There were no cases of significant morbidity from antivenom administration. Eight patients (5.6%) had features suggestive of mild serum sickness. The incidence of immediate hypersensitivity reaction to antivenom commonly used in Hong Kong is low. Majority of patients were managed safely in the emergency department observation ward or general ward. Serum sickness appears to be uncommon and possible cases presented with mild features.

  3. Prediction of Air Pollutants Concentration Based on an Extreme Learning Machine: The Case of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangshe Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the economy and society all over the world, most metropolitan cities are experiencing elevated concentrations of ground-level air pollutants. It is urgent to predict and evaluate the concentration of air pollutants for some local environmental or health agencies. Feed-forward artificial neural networks have been widely used in the prediction of air pollutants concentration. However, there are some drawbacks, such as the low convergence rate and the local minimum. The extreme learning machine for single hidden layer feed-forward neural networks tends to provide good generalization performance at an extremely fast learning speed. The major sources of air pollutants in Hong Kong are mobile, stationary, and from trans-boundary sources. We propose predicting the concentration of air pollutants by the use of trained extreme learning machines based on the data obtained from eight air quality parameters in two monitoring stations, including Sham Shui Po and Tap Mun in Hong Kong for six years. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs better on the Hong Kong data both quantitatively and qualitatively. Particularly, our algorithm shows better predictive ability, with R 2 increased and root mean square error values decreased respectively.

  4. Prediction of Air Pollutants Concentration Based on an Extreme Learning Machine: The Case of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiangshe; Ding, Weifu

    2017-01-24

    With the development of the economy and society all over the world, most metropolitan cities are experiencing elevated concentrations of ground-level air pollutants. It is urgent to predict and evaluate the concentration of air pollutants for some local environmental or health agencies. Feed-forward artificial neural networks have been widely used in the prediction of air pollutants concentration. However, there are some drawbacks, such as the low convergence rate and the local minimum. The extreme learning machine for single hidden layer feed-forward neural networks tends to provide good generalization performance at an extremely fast learning speed. The major sources of air pollutants in Hong Kong are mobile, stationary, and from trans-boundary sources. We propose predicting the concentration of air pollutants by the use of trained extreme learning machines based on the data obtained from eight air quality parameters in two monitoring stations, including Sham Shui Po and Tap Mun in Hong Kong for six years. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs better on the Hong Kong data both quantitatively and qualitatively. Particularly, our algorithm shows better predictive ability, with R 2 increased and root mean square error values decreased respectively.

  5. Roadside air quality and implications for control measures: A case study of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Z. T.; Mak, C. M.; Lee, H. C.

    2016-07-01

    Traffic related air pollution is one of major environmental issues in densely populated urban areas including Hong Kong. A series of control measures has been implemented by Hong Kong government to cut traffic related air pollutants, including retrofitting the Euro II and Euro III buses with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) devices to lower nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions. In order to reveal the real-life roadside air quality and evaluate the effectiveness of the control measures, this study first analyzed the recent six-year data regarding concentrations of pollutants typically associated with traffic recorded in two governmental roadside monitoring stations and second conducted on-site measurements of concentration of pollutants at pedestrian level near five selected roads. Given that there is a possibility of ammonia leakage as a secondary pollutant from SCR devices, a special attention was paid to the measurements of ammonia level in bus stations and along roadsides. Important influencing factors, such as traffic intensity, street configuration and season, were analyzed. Control measures implemented by the government are effective to decrease the traffic emissions. In 2014, only NO2 cannot achieve the annual air quality objective of Hong Kong. However, it is important to find that particulate matters, rather than NO2, post potentially a short-term exposure risk to passengers and pedestrians. Based on the findings of this study, specific control measures are suggested, which are intended to further improve the roadside air quality.

  6. Case clustering in pityriasis rosea: a multicenter epidemiologic study in primary care settings in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuh, Antonio A T; Lee, Albert; Molinari, Nicolas

    2003-04-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of pityriasis rosea in primary care settings in Hong Kong and to analyze for temporal clustering. Retrospective epidemiologic study. Six primary care teaching practices affiliated with a university. Patients Forty-one patients with pityriasis rosea, 564 patients with atopic dermatitis (negative control condition), and 35 patients with scabies (positive control condition). We retrieved all records of patients with pityriasis rosea, atopic dermatitis, or scabies diagnosed in 3 years. We analyzed temporal clustering by a method based on a regression model. The monthly incidence of pityriasis rosea is negatively but insignificantly correlated with mean air temperature (gamma s = -0.41, P =.19) and mean total rainfall (gamma s = -0.34, P =.27). Three statistically significant clusters with 7, 6, and 7 cases were identified (P =.03), occurring in the second coldest month in the year (February), the second hottest month (July), and a temperate month (April), respectively. For atopic dermatitis (negative control condition), the nonclustering regression model was selected by Akaike information criteria. For scabies (positive control condition), 1 cluster of 20 cases was detected (P =.03). Significant temporal clustering independent of seasonal variation occurred in our series of patients with pityriasis rosea. This may be indicative of an infectious cause.

  7. VISUALIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF LIGHT POLLUTION: A CASE STUDY IN HONG KONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light pollution problems in metropolitan areas are investigated in this study. Areas of Hong Kong are used as the source of three typical study cases. One case represents the regional scale, a second represents the district scale, and a third represents the street scale. Two light pollution parameters, Night Sky Brightness (NSB and Street Light Level (SLL, are the focus of the analyses. Light pollution visualization approaches in relation to the different scales include various light pollution maps. They provide straightforward presentations of the light pollution situations in the study areas. The relationship between light pollution and several social-economic factors such as land use, household income, and types of outdoor lighting in the scale areas given, are examined. Results show that: (1 Land use may be one factor affecting light pollution in the regional scale; (2 A relatively strong correlation exists between light pollution and household income in the district scale; (3 The heaviest light pollution in the street scale is created by spotlights and also the different types of lighting from shops. The impact of the latter is in relation to the shop profile and size.

  8. Incorporating Topography into Landscape Continuity Analysis—Hong Kong Island as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matan E. Singer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase in population and the expansion of built-up areas into natural and agricultural areas results in more than just loss of open spaces surrounding cities. Reduced accessibility to nature, visual intrusion of buildings into natural viewsheds, and changes in runoff requires us to assess these impacts on open spaces. Our aim in this paper was to examine and demonstrate how topography can be incorporated into modeling and analyzing environmental impacts of cities. Taking Hong Kong Island as a case study, we used historical topographic maps to map changes in the built-up areas between 1930 and 2006. We analyzed changes in three variables representing different kinds of human impacts: landscape continuity, visibility of built-up areas, and runoff from built-up areas. We show that consideration of topography (both natural and artificial is critical to understand spatial patterns of land use and of human impacts on open spaces. The methods employed here can be applied to examine and visualize the potential effects of future and proposed development plans.

  9. Performance evaluation of nonhomogeneous hospitals: the case of Hong Kong hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjun; Lei, Xiyang; Morton, Alec

    2018-02-14

    Throughout the world, hospitals are under increasing pressure to become more efficient. Efficiency analysis tools can play a role in giving policymakers insight into which units are less efficient and why. Many researchers have studied efficiencies of hospitals using data envelopment analysis (DEA) as an efficiency analysis tool. However, in the existing literature on DEA-based performance evaluation, a standard assumption of the constant returns to scale (CRS) or the variable returns to scale (VRS) DEA models is that decision-making units (DMUs) use a similar mix of inputs to produce a similar set of outputs. In fact, hospitals with different primary goals supply different services and provide different outputs. That is, hospitals are nonhomogeneous and the standard assumption of the DEA model is not applicable to the performance evaluation of nonhomogeneous hospitals. This paper considers the nonhomogeneity among hospitals in the performance evaluation and takes hospitals in Hong Kong as a case study. An extension of Cook et al. (2013) [1] based on the VRS assumption is developed to evaluated nonhomogeneous hospitals' efficiencies since inputs of hospitals vary greatly. Following the philosophy of Cook et al. (2013) [1], hospitals are divided into homogeneous groups and the product process of each hospital is divided into subunits. The performance of hospitals is measured on the basis of subunits. The proposed approach can be applied to measure the performance of other nonhomogeneous entities that exhibit variable return to scale.

  10. Legislations combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C W; Chan, W K

    2013-08-01

    To understand legislation combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two parts. In part I, counterfeit drugs–related ordinances and court cases were reviewed. In part II, indepth interviews of the stakeholders were described. Hong Kong. All Hong Kong ordinances were screened manually to identify those combating counterfeit drugs. Court cases were searched for each of the identified cases. Then, the relevant judgement justifications were analysed to identify sentencing issues. Indepth interviews with the stakeholders were conducted to understand their perceptions about such legislation. Trade Marks Ordinance, Patents Ordinance, Trade Descriptions Ordinance, and Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance were current legislative items combating counterfeit drugs. Sentencing criteria depended on: intention to deceive, quantity of seized drugs, presence of expected therapeutic effect or toxic ingredients, previous criminal records, cooperativeness with Customs officers, honest confessions, pleas of guilty, types of drugs, and precautionary measures to prevent sale of counterfeit drugs. Stakeholders’ perceptions were explored with respect to legislation regarding the scale and significance of the counterfeit drug problem, penalties and deterrents, drug-specific legislation and authority, and inspections and enforcement. To plug the loopholes, a specific law with heavy penalties should be adopted. This could be supplemented by non-legal measures like education of judges, lawyers, and the public; publishing the names of offending pharmacies; and emphasising the role of pharmacists to the public.

  11. Historical Development of Hong Kong Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Felix; Lo, Connie; Lo, Lisa; Chu, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the origins of Hong Kong Sign Language (hereafter HKSL) and its subsequent development in relation to the establishment of Deaf education in Hong Kong after World War II. We begin with a detailed description of the history of Deaf education with a particular focus on the role of sign language in such development. We then…

  12. Language Use, and Language Policy and Planning in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Anita Y. K.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in Hong Kong from a historical perspective. Hong Kong has evolved in the past 167 years from a small fishing port to an international financial centre which forms part of a financial network hailed by "Time Magazine" as Ny.Lon.Kong (i.e. New York-London-Hong Kong). Hong Kong…

  13. Construction mediation and its hybridization: the case of the Hong Kong construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Pui-Lam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the sophisticated nature of construction disputes, specialized dispute resolution mechanisms are of pivotal importance to the satisfactory settlement between disputing parties. Among the various construction dispute resolution mechanisms, mediation has been increasingly gaining recognition and acceptance. Its hybrid, namely mediation-arbitration (med-arb, has also emerged and has started receiving attention and appreciation. With special reference to the construction industry practice in Hong Kong, a commentary on the respective merits and demerits of construction mediation and construction med-arb, as well as the ways forward, are presented in this article.

  14. Education Reform in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dowson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the pace of educational reform in Hong Kong has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost all areas of schooling. The reforms introduced during this period can be subsumed under what has generally been labelled the quality movement. In this paper, we review and comment on a number of policy reform initiatives in the four areas of "Quality Education," English Language Benchmarking, Initial Teacher Training and the Integration of Pupils with Special Needs into Ordinary Classrooms. Following a brief description of each policy initiative, the reforms are discussed in terms of their consistency, coherence and cultural fit.

  15. Temporal variability and social heterogeneity in disease transmission: the case of SARS in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Cori

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which self-adopted or intervention-related changes in behaviors affect the course of epidemics remains a key issue for outbreak control. This study attempted to quantify the effect of such changes on the risk of infection in different settings, i.e., the community and hospitals. The 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS outbreak in Hong Kong, where 27% of cases were healthcare workers, was used as an example. A stochastic compartmental SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed model was used: the population was split into healthcare workers, hospitalized people and general population. Super spreading events (SSEs were taken into account in the model. The temporal evolutions of the daily effective contact rates in the community and hospitals were modeled with smooth functions. Data augmentation techniques and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods were applied to estimate SARS epidemiological parameters. In particular, estimates of daily reproduction numbers were provided for each subpopulation. The average duration of the SARS infectious period was estimated to be 9.3 days (+/-0.3 days. The model was able to disentangle the impact of the two SSEs from background transmission rates. The effective contact rates, which were estimated on a daily basis, decreased with time, reaching zero inside hospitals. This observation suggests that public health measures and possible changes in individual behaviors effectively reduced transmission, especially in hospitals. The temporal patterns of reproduction numbers were similar for healthcare workers and the general population, indicating that on average, an infectious healthcare worker did not infect more people than any other infectious person. We provide a general method to estimate time dependence of parameters in structured epidemic models, which enables investigation of the impact of control measures and behavioral changes in different settings.

  16. Investigation of indoor air quality at residential homes in Hong Kong - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shun Cheng Lee; Waiming Li; Chiohang Ao

    2002-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been a matter of public concern in Hong Kong. Recently, the Hong Kong Government has recognized the potential risk and problems related to indoor air pollution, and it is striving to establish IAQ objectives for different types of indoor environments. This study attempts to provide more information about the present IAQ of local resident flats. Air pollutants measured in this study included carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), respirable suspended particulate matter (PM 10 ), formaldehyde (HCHO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and airborne bacteria. The results of this study indicate that the 8-h average concentrations of CO 2 and PM 10 in the domestic kitchens investigated were 14% and 67% higher than those measured in the living rooms. The indoor air pollution caused by PM 10 was more serious in domestic kitchens than in living rooms as almost all of the kitchens investigated had higher indoor levels of PM 10 . The majority of the domestic living rooms and kitchens studied had average concentrations of airborne bacteria higher than 500CFU/m 3 . The mean total bacteria count recorded in kitchens was greater than that obtained in living rooms by 23%. In homes where occupants smoke, the negative impact of benzene, toluene and m,p-xylene on the IAQ was greatly enhanced. The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stove has more significant impact on indoor VOCs than the use of cooking stoves with natural gas as cooking fuel. (Author)

  17. Does comprehensive redevelopment change the housing price gradient? A case study in Mongkok, Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Yau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban decay is an inevitable outcome of the growth of most cities, including Hong Kong. Many old buildings in Hong Kong are dilapidated, and it is urgent to tackle urban decay in the city. Redeveloping dilapidated buildings has long been regarded as an effective solution to this urban problem. Yet, as suggested in the literature, redevelopment may be responsible for gentrifying neighbourhoods because it pushes up property and rental prices near redeveloped sites. However, there are still few empirical studies on how comprehensive redevelopment affects housing values in a neighbourhood. In this light, this study investigates the impacts of the Urban Renewal Authority’s Argyle Street / Shanghai Street Redevelopment Project on the transaction prices of nearby housing. A set of panel data is employed and the change in the spatial price gradient before and after the redevelopment project is explored. The findings suggest that proximity to the project site had a significant positive impact on housing prices before the project. However, no change was seen in the spatial price gradient after completion of the project. These results confirm the findings of a previous study that housing prices do not respond to the change in the environmental quality resulting from comprehensive redevelopment.

  18. Context, built form and space: A case of public housing estates in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumana Afroz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The context of public housing development in Hong Kong can be traced back to a deep rooted history when it was a need rather than a choice. At present, the public housing estates have become a much desired residential destination by the general people of Hong Kong although several changes in design have been observed that are not completely adapted by the residents. This study aims to investigate on the changing phenomenon of the context and the built form; and its impact on space in terms of adaptability by the residents. It has been found that, forced or formal communal spaces influenced by self-conscious culture discourage social interaction where quantitative measures are only applied, and informal communal spaces encouraged by unselfconscious culture bring happy social life. Contemporary built forms in the housing estates have changed a lot both externally and internally, and attention has been given to quantitative measures and formal spatial arrangements. As a result a gap is emerging between context, built form and adapted use of space. Therefore, measures such as qualitative approach, sensitively designed spatial arrangements are recommended to minimize the gap.

  19. Evaluating acute medical admissions through emergency departments in Hong Kong: can one adjust for case-mix variation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, T H; Sollich, P; Piotrowski, T; Coolen, A C C; Cheng, B; Graham, C A

    2012-12-01

    Healthcare systems are under pressure to efficiently and safely reduce acute care admissions to hospital. There is a need to develop a standardised system for assessing emergency department performance which takes into account case-mix variation. The objective of this study was to derive and validate a standardised tool for assessing variations in medical admissions through emergency departments in Hong Kong. Retrospective study of patients attending emergency departments of 14 acute hospitals in Hong Kong. Data were retrieved from a centralised administrative database. Of 2,531,225 patients who attended emergency departments between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2003, 780,444 (30.8%) were admitted to medical wards. A model derived from 2001 data shows well-calibrated admission probabilities, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for probability of admission of 90.3 (95% CI ±0.11). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for 2002 and 2003 validation sets were 89.9 (95% CI ±0.11) and 89.0 (95% CI ±0.12), respectively. With an averaged benchmark, reductions in medical admissions of up to 19% could be achieved, while under the most optimistic assumption, reductions of up 36% could be achieved. A tool for benchmarking hospital medical admissions and minimising case-mix variation has been derived and validated in Hong Kong, but it requires further validation in other healthcare systems given the wide variations in admission thresholds internationally. This may be used as one potential method to evaluate the performance of emergency departments against a common standard.

  20. Prehospital care in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C B; Lai, K K; Mak, K P

    2000-09-01

    A quick and efficient prehospital emergency response depends on immediate ambulance dispatch, patient assessment, triage, and transport to hospital. During 1999, the Ambulance Command of the Hong Kong Fire Services Department responded to 484,923 calls, which corresponds to 1329 calls each day. Cooperation between the Fire Services Department and the Hospital Authority exists at the levels of professional training of emergency medical personnel, quality assurance, and a coordinated disaster response. In response to the incident at the Hong Kong International Airport in the summer of 1999, when an aircraft overturned during landing, the pre-set quota system was implemented to send patients to designated accident and emergency departments. Furthermore, the 'first crew at the scene' model has been adopted, whereby the command is established and triage process started by the first ambulance crew members to reach the scene. The development of emergency protocols should be accompanied by good field-to-hospital and interhospital communication, the upgrading of decision-making skills, a good monitoring and auditing structure, and commitment to training and skills maintenance.

  1. Safety Challenges and Improvement Strategies of Ethnic Minority Construction Workers: A Case Study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunlin; Luo, Xiaowei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yue; Sapkota, Bibek

    2018-04-18

    Due to cultural differences, ethnic minority construction workers are more difficult to manage and more vulnerable to accidents. This study aims to identify the major barriers faced by ethnic minority workers from their own perspectives and determine potential strategies to enhance safety climate of construction projects, thus ultimately improve their safety performance. A survey with modified Nordic safety climate questionnaire was conducted in a certain sub-contractor in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews, status quo description, major challenge investigation and safety knowledge tests were carried as well. The top three most important safety challenges identified are improper stereotypes from the whole industry, lack of opportunities for job assignment, and language barriers. To improve the safety performance, employers should allocate sufficient personal protective equipment and governments should organize unannounced site visits more frequently. Besides, the higher-level management should avoid giving contradictory instructions to foremen against to the standards of supervisors.

  2. Empowering school personnel for positive youth development: the case of Hong Kong school social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Siu-ming

    2009-01-01

    While empowerment has become a popular concept in working with adolescents, few attempts have been made to explore the possibilities for empowering school personnel to create an environment in which young people can make maximum use of the opportunity to learn and grow. Based on the field experiences of 15 Hong Kong school social workers, this article examines how practitioners use various strategies to interact with school personnel to generate empowering practices in the school setting: namely, (1) exerting influence on school personnel in daily conversations and interactions; (2) creating an environment conducive to the teacher-student relationship; (3) achieving consensus with school personnel through lobbying and negotiation; and (4) collaborating with school personnel to organize life education and positive youth development programs. The findings provide valuable reference materials to guide other practitioners in applying the empowerment approach in actual practice. It also helps fill the gap in existing literature on empowerment and school social work.

  3. Impacts of Global Manufacturing Trends on Port Development: The Case of Hong Kong1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Global manufacturing trends may have profound implications for regional port development. This paper studies Hong Kong port (HKP, which has been one of the world's busiest container ports since the 1990s. In recent years, global manufacturers have started to move away from its primary cargo base, the Chinese Pearl River Delta. This study investigates impacts of the emerging global manufacturing trends on HKP development. It is found that relocation of manufacturing to Western Guangdong benefits HKP, while other relocation destinations make HKP less attractive or even irrelevant. Based on the findings, government policies are discussed that may be formulated to support the growth of the port and wider port-related economy.

  4. Abuse and Violence Against Foreign Domestic Workers. A Case from Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullah Akm Ahsan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores various abuses Foreign Domestic Helpers (FDHs or migrant domestic workers (MDW in Hong Kong suffer and the strategies they take up to cope with this abuse. Data were collected from 215 domestic helpers (135 from the Philippines, 30 from Thailand, 41 from Indonesia, and 9 from Sri Lanka all of whom had been in residence for at least six months. Selected by snow-balling technique, respondents were interviewed with structured and non-structured questionnaires. Research shows that sexual abuse is the most common form of abuse against MDWs followed by psychological and physical abuses. Female employers are the main perpetuators of psychological abuse while the male employers are culpable for sexual abuses. Coping strategies varied widely among the MDWs. Many of them endure the violence to keep the job; some quit the job and others struggle with the decision to stay or quit.

  5. A case study on fuel oil contamination in a mangrove swamp in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, N.F.Y.; Wong, T.W.Y.; Wong, Y.S. [City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Department of Biology

    2005-07-01

    Mangroves commonly found along tropical and subtropical coastlines are susceptible to oil pollution. In December 2000, around 500 1 m tall Kandelia candel saplings at the age of 3-5 years old located at the foreshore region of Sheung Pak Nai swamp, Hong Kong SAR, were found to be damaged by oil pollution. More than 80% of the saplings were either dead or washed away and leaving less than 5% healthy saplings with dense green leaves. Elevated concentrations of light n-alkanes (ranging from n-C{sub 14} to n-C{sub 20}), pristane and phytane were recorded in surface sediments collected in December 2000. The ratio between light and total n-alkanes was 0.4. The total petroleum hydrocarbons (60-80 {mu}g g{sup -1} TPH) and unresolved complex mixtures (60-70 {mu}g g{sup -1} UCM) were higher than the background values of other mangrove sediments in Hong Kong, which were 40 and 20 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. In certain root zone sediments, TPH concentrations were above 1000 {mu}g g{sup -1}. These results suggest that surface sediments in Sheung Pak Nai were contaminated by petroleum oil, most likely by illegal discharge of fuel oil which occurred between 1998 and 2002. One year later, in December 2001, unhealthy saplings had recovered and re-grown. The concentrations of TPH and UCM in sediments declined to around 40 {mu}g g{sup -1}, pristane and phytane dropped by 80%, and the ratio of light to total n-alkanes was 0.15, suggesting that residual oil in sediments was weathered leading to a remarkable recovery of the unhealthy saplings. (author)

  6. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N.K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  7. Hong Kong: Ten Years After the Handover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F

    2007-01-01

    .... Belated changes by the British in the makeup of Hong Kong's Legislative Council were initially undone, but subsequent changes in the council's selection process have brought things back nearly...

  8. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  9. Ozone production and hydrocarbon reactivity in Hong Kong, Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained in Hong Kong during the Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD Pilot Air Monitoring Study in autumn 2002 are analyzed to unravel the relationship between ground-level ozone (O3, pollution precursors, and cross-border transport. Ten ozone episodes, during which the hourly O3 concentration exceeded 100 ppbv in 9 cases and 90 ppbv in one case, are subject to detailed analysis, including one case with hourly O3 of 203 ppbv, which is the highest concentration on record to date in Hong Kong. Combined with high-resolution back trajectories, dCO/dNOy (the ratio of enhancement of CO concentration above background to that of NOy is used to define whether O3 is locally or regionally produced. Five out of the ten Hong Kong O3-episodes studied show a "pollution signature" that is indicative of impact from Guangdong Province. Examination of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs shows that the reactivity of VOCs is dominated by anthropogenic VOCs, of which the reactive aromatics dominate, in particular xylenes and toluene. Calculations using a photochemical box model indicate that between 50–100% of the O3 increase observed in Hong Kong during the O3 episodes can be explained by photochemical generation within the Hong Kong area, provided that nitrous acid (HONO is present at the concentrations derived from this study. An Observation-Based Model (OBM is used to calculate the sensitivity of the O3 production to changes in the concentrations of the precursor compounds. Generally the production of O3 throughout much of the Hong Kong area is limited by VOCs, while high nitric oxide (NO concentrations suppress O3 concentration.

  10. Climate Responsive Buildings Concepts in Hong Kong

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, M.; Amato, A.; van der Aa, A.

    2006-01-01

    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... energy saving installations are increasingly applied as heat pumps in combination with energy storage, balanced ventilation with heat recovery, cooling towers etc. In Hong Kong in most cases there is no integrated design process for building projects. This means that projects are developed and designed...

  11. Hong Kong is the First Choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Support of the Industry The major shows held in Hong Kong, out of the 70 annual ones, are mainly trade fairs for consumer products--fashion, giftware, jewelery, consumer electronics, watches, optical and the like. Most of the manufacturing factories of these products are located in the PRD region, many of which are invested by Hong

  12. Determinants in the development of advanced nursing practice: a case study of primary-care settings in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinn, Sheila; Thompson, David R; Lopez, Violeta; Lee, Diana T F; Shiu, Ann T Y

    2005-01-01

    Different factors have been shown to influence the development of models of advanced nursing practice (ANP) in primary-care settings. Although ANP is being developed in hospitals in Hong Kong, China, it remains undeveloped in primary care and little is known about the factors determining the development of such a model. The aims of the present study were to investigate the contribution of different models of nursing practice to the care provided in primary-care settings in Hong Kong, and to examine the determinants influencing the development of a model of ANP in such settings. A multiple case study design was selected using both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. Sampling methods reflected the population groups and stage of the case study. Sampling included a total population of 41 nurses from whom a secondary volunteer sample was drawn for face-to-face interviews. In each case study, a convenience sample of 70 patients were recruited, from whom 10 were selected purposively for a semi-structured telephone interview. An opportunistic sample of healthcare professionals was also selected. The within-case and cross-case analysis demonstrated four major determinants influencing the development of ANP: (1) current models of nursing practice; (2) the use of skills mix; (3) the perceived contribution of ANP to patient care; and (4) patients' expectations of care. The level of autonomy of individual nurses was considered particularly important. These determinants were used to develop a model of ANP for a primary-care setting. In conclusion, although the findings highlight the complexity determining the development and implementation of ANP in primary care, the proposed model suggests that definitions of advanced practice are appropriate to a range of practice models and cultural settings. However, the findings highlight the importance of assessing the effectiveness of such models in terms of cost and long-term patient outcomes.

  13. College Psychotherapy at a Hong Kong Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Eugenie Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an online interview about college psychotherapy at a Hong Kong counseling center. The interview discusses how students generally feel about going for counseling or therapy and how common it is in Hong Kong.

  14. The Development and Future of Hong Kong Typography

    OpenAIRE

    Amic G. Ho

    2016-01-01

    Language usage and typography in Hong Kong are unique, as can be seen clearly on the streets of the city. In contrast to many other parts of the world, where there is only one language, in Hong Kong many signs and billboards display two languages: Chinese and English. The language usage on signage, fonts and types used, and the designs in magazines and advertisements all demonstrate the unique features of Hong Kong typographic design, which reflect the multicultural nature of Hong Kong societ...

  15. High resolution remote sensing of densely urbanised regions: a case study of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Janet E; Wong, Man Sing

    2009-01-01

    Data on the urban environment such as climate or air quality is usually collected at a few point monitoring stations distributed over a city. However, the synoptic viewpoint of satellites where a whole city is visible on a single image permits the collection of spatially comprehensive data at city-wide scale. In spite of rapid developments in remote sensing systems, deficiencies in image resolution and algorithm development still exist for applications such as air quality monitoring and urban heat island analysis. This paper describes state-of-the-art techniques for enhancing and maximising the spatial detail available from satellite images, and demonstrates their applications to the densely urbanised environment of Hong Kong. An Emissivity Modulation technique for spatial enhancement of thermal satellite images permits modelling of urban microclimate in combination with other urban structural parameters at local scale. For air quality monitoring, a Minimum Reflectance Technique (MRT) has been developed for MODIS 500 m images. The techniques described can promote the routine utilization of remotely sensed images for environmental monitoring in cities of the 21(st) century.

  16. Shifting the urban heat island clock in a megacity: a case study of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuan; Jeong, Su-Jong

    2018-01-01

    With increasing levels of urbanization in the near future, understanding the impact of urbanization on urban heat islands (UHIs) is critical to adapting to regional climate and environmental changes. However, our understanding of the UHI effect relies mainly on its intensity or magnitude. The present study evaluates the impact of urbanization on UHI duration changes by comparing three stations with different rates of urbanization, including highly developed and developing urban areas throughout Hong Kong, from 1990-2015. Results show that the 26 year average UHI intensity in highly urbanized regions is much higher than that in developing areas, and the 26 year average of UHI duration is similar. Over the past 25 years, however, UHI duration has increased only in developing urban areas, from 13.59-17.47 hours. Both earlier UHI starting and later UHI ending times concurrently contribute to the UHI effect being experienced for a longer duration. The differences in UHI duration change between the two areas are supported by population and by night light changes from space. Increasing night light, which suggests enhancements in the economic infrastructure, occurred only in the developing urban areas. Our results suggest that changes in UHI duration should be included in an assessment of regional climate change as well as in urban planning in a megacity.

  17. Residential outage cost estimation: Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Ho, T.; Shiu, A.; Cheng, Y.S.; Horowitz, I.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Hong Kong has almost perfect electricity reliability, the result of substantial investments ultimately financed by electricity consumers who may be willing to accept lower reliability in exchange for lower bills. But consumers with high outage costs are likely to reject the reliability reduction. Our ordered-logit regression analysis of the responses by 1876 households to a telephone survey conducted in June 2013 indicates that Hong Kong residents exhibit a statistically-significant preference for their existing service reliability and rate. Moreover, the average residential cost estimate for a 1-h outage is US$45 (HK$350), topping the estimates reported in 10 of the 11 studies published in the last 10 years. The policy implication is that absent additional compelling evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its service reliability. - Highlights: • Use a contingent valuation survey to obtain residential preferences for reliability. • Use an ordered logit analysis to estimate Hong Kong's residential outage costs. • Find high outage cost estimates that imply high reliability requirements. • Conclude that sans new evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its reliability

  18. Bringing Fun and Meaning into Grammar Learning: A Case Study of a Secondary-Level EFL Class in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Congchao; Li, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Popular culture materials are generally believed to have positive effects on L2 learning. This study examined the effectiveness of popular culture materials in enhancing Hong Kong EFL students' grammar learning. In a quasi-experimental design, 20 secondary school students were taught grammar in two ways: with the use of popular culture materials,…

  19. The Contribution of Advocacy NGOs in Governance through Cultivating of a Participatory Culture: Case Studies in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yui Kei; Leung, Yan Wing; Yuen, Timothy Wai Wa

    2016-01-01

    A vibrant civil society, composed of active non-governmental organizations (NGOs), has always been identified as an important factor for "good governance". This paper reports a pilot study using semi-structured interviews to find out the contribution of advocacy NGOs in the governance of Hong Kong. It points out that the NGO's conception…

  20. Crossing the Cultural Boundary from Home to Kindergarten in Hong Kong: A Case Study of a Child's Strategic Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Mei Seung

    2009-01-01

    Transition from home to kindergarten is the first and major ecological transition in children's educational lives in Hong Kong. In this transition, children cross a cultural boundary from home to kindergarten and start to learn about "school" as a place to learn and about themselves as "pupils" in kindergarten. The conceptual…

  1. Case Studies of Factors Affecting the Motivation of Musical High Achievers to Learn Music in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Bo Wah; McPherson, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the personal beliefs and attitudes of highly motivated Hong Kong school-age subjects who studied music. A total of 24 participants who demonstrated high achievement and interest in learning music were interviewed. Content analysis of the interview data was performed to elucidate four topics: background information about the…

  2. Study protocol for a controlled trial of Strengths Model Case Management in mental health services in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Wing-See Emily; Tse, Samson; Fukui, Sadaaki; Jones, Steven

    2015-10-06

    Although strengths-based models are popular within recovery-oriented approaches, there is still a lack of conclusive research to guide how they should be implemented. A recent meta-analysis confirmed the lack of clarity in how this perspective is operationalised and that fidelity monitoring during the implementation process is lacking. Hence, there is a clear need to evaluate the feasibility of delivering and evaluating a clearly operationalised strengths-based intervention that incorporates fidelity checks to inform more definitive research. This protocol therefore describes a controlled trial of Strengths Model Case Management (SMCM), a complex intervention, for people with severe mental illnesses in Hong Kong. This trial follows the guidelines of the Medical Research Council as a phase 2 trial. Hence, it is a pilot study that tests the feasibility and effectiveness of the model. This is a 9-month controlled trial that uses the Kansas Model. Participants and a matched control group are recruited on a voluntary basis, after screening for eligibility. Effectiveness of the SMCM will be measured through outcome measures taken at baseline, the mid-point and at the end of the trial. Outcomes for service users include personal recovery, hope, subjective well-being, psychiatric symptoms, perceived level of recovery features within the organisation, therapeutic alliance and achievement of recovery goals. Outcomes for care workers will include job burnout, organisational features of recovery and perceived supervisory support. With a 2×3 analysis of variance design and a moderate intervention effect (Cohen's d=0.50), a total of 86 participants will be needed for a statistical power of 0.80. Ethical approval has been obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committee for Non-Clinical Faculties at The University of Hong Kong (HRECNCF: EA140913). Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN)12613001120763. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission

  3. Insomnia in older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Hong Kong: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu-Tao; Wong, Tak-Shun; Tsoh, Joshua; Ungvari, Gabor S; Correll, Christoph U; Ko, Fanny W S; Hui, David S C; Chiu, Helen F K

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency and sociodemographic/clinical correlates of insomnia in Chinese patients aged ≥60 years suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this case-control study of 142 outpatients with COPD and 218 sex- and age-matched control subjects, COPD patients were recruited from a prospective study sample hospitalized in Hong Kong for acute COPD exacerbation (≥2 major COPD symptoms or >1 major+minor COPD symptoms for ≥2 consecutive days). Controls were recruited from social centres in Hong Kong. Activity of daily living was assessed with the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, life events were evaluated using the Life Event Scale, depressive symptoms were ascertained with the Geriatric Depression Scale, and quality of life was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12. Early, middle and late insomnia were measured using items 4, 5 and 6 of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The frequency of ≥1 type of insomnia was 47.2% in patients and 25.7% in controls; frequencies of early, middle and late insomnia in patients were 24.6%, 31.0%, and 26.1%, respectively, compared to 14.7%, 14.7% and 11.9% in controls. Group differences were non-significant after controlling for relevant covariates. However, in multiple logistic regression analysis, more physical illnesses (p = 0.02, OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.7) and more severe depressive symptoms (p = 0.009, OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.03-1.3) were independently associated with any type of insomnia in COPD patients, accounting for 21.3% of the variance. A significant proportion of older adult Chinese COPD patients suffer from insomnia that warrants more attention in clinical practice.

  4. Hong Kong's electricity market beyond 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Pun Lee

    2004-01-01

    In Hong Kong, electricity is supplied by two private utilities: Hongkong Electric and CLP Power (CLP). Both are regulated under the Scheme of Control (SOC). The SOC is a formal, long-term regulatory contract of 15 years, signed between a private firm and the Hong Kong Government. Under the SOC, the two electric utilities are subject to both rate-of-return control and price control. The current scheme will expire by 2008. In this paper, we propose a gradual and cautious approach to the introduction of market reform into the electricity industry in Hong Kong. For regulated markets, the government should consider replacing the SOC with performance-based regulation for wire businesses and the non-contestable market. For competitive markets, the government should consider introducing competitive tendering for new sources in the generation market and liberalising the supply market in phases. (author)

  5. Hong Kong's electricity market beyond 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.-L.

    2004-01-01

    In Hong Kong, electricity is supplied by two private utilities: Hongkong Electric and CLP Power (CLP). Both are regulated under the Scheme of Control (SOC). The SOC is a formal, long-term regulatory contract of 15 years, signed between a private firm and the Hong Kong Government. Under the SOC, the two electric utilities are subject to both rate-of-return control and price control. The current scheme will expire by 2008. In this paper, we propose a gradual and cautious approach to the introduction of market reform into the electricity industry in Hong Kong. For regulated markets, the government should consider replacing the SOC with performance-based regulation for wire businesses and the non-contestable market. For competitive markets, the government should consider introducing competitive tendering for new sources in the generation market and liberalising the supply market in phases

  6. SARS-related perceptions in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Yang, Xilin; Pang, Ellie; Tsui, H Y; Wong, Eric; Wing, Yun Kwok

    2005-03-01

    To understand different aspects of community responses related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), 2 population-based, random telephone surveys were conducted in June 2003 and January 2004 in Hong Kong. More than 70% of respondents would avoid visiting hospitals or mainland China to avoid contracting SARS. Most respondents believed that SARS could be transmitted through droplets, fomites, sewage, and animals. More than 90% believed that public health measures were efficacious means of prevention; 40.4% believed that SARS would resurge in Hong Kong; and approximately equals 70% would then wear masks in public places. High percentages of respondents felt helpless, horrified, and apprehensive because of SARS. Approximately 16% showed signs of posttraumatic symptoms, and approximately equals 40% perceived increased stress in family or work settings. The general public in Hong Kong has been very vigilant about SARS but needs to be more psychologically prepared to face a resurgence of the epidemic.

  7. Rising Strengths Hong Kong SAR in Bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; George Priya Doss, C; Zhu, Hailong; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2017-06-01

    Hong Kong's bioinformatics sector is attaining new heights in combination with its economic boom and the predominance of the working-age group in its population. Factors such as a knowledge-based and free-market economy have contributed towards a prominent position on the world map of bioinformatics. In this review, we have considered the educational measures, landmark research activities and the achievements of bioinformatics companies and the role of the Hong Kong government in the establishment of bioinformatics as strength. However, several hurdles remain. New government policies will assist computational biologists to overcome these hurdles and further raise the profile of the field. There is a high expectation that bioinformatics in Hong Kong will be a promising area for the next generation.

  8. Gamma emitters in Hong Kong water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shun-Yin, L.; Chung-Keung, M.; Wai-Kwok, N.; Shiu-Chun, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactivity in water originates from natural and artificial sources. The development of a nuclear powerplant near Hong Kong necessitates that attention be given to formulating techniques to assess the possible resultant environmental radioactive contamination. Water samples collected from various sites in Hong Kong in the spring and summer of 1987, representing seawater, river water, reservoir water, drinking water, and underground water were studied through gamma-ray spectral analysis. Only gamma emitters in the U238 and Th232 series and K40 were detected. No fission product was detected with specific activity above 0.1 Bq/kg. The data could be the baseline for future monitoring of the radioactivity released from a nuclear plant being built at a 50-km distance from Hong Kong. The variation of detected specific activities may be due to geological differences and the effect of plants. 1 ref., 3 tabs

  9. IPO Waves in China and Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Gucbilmez, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the anatomy of IPO waves in China and Hong Kong and draw comparisons with the US IPO cycles. The lead-lag relationship between IPO initial returns and IPO volume observed in the US is absent in these two Asian markets. Similar to the US, IPO volume in Hong Kong is sensitive to changes in market conditions and exhibits seasonal variations. In sharp contrast, however, Chinese IPO activity is much less responsive to past market returns and volatility. Surprisingly, hot markets still e...

  10. Consensus statement on iodine deficiency disorders in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    But, Betty; Chan, C W; Chan, Fredriech; Chan, K W; Cheng, Anna W F; Cheung, Patrick; Choi, K L; Chow, C B; Chow, Francis C C; Eastman, Creswell; Fok, T F; Fung, L M; Gomes, Cynthia; Huen, K F; Ip, T P; Kung, Annie W C; Lam, Karen S L; Lam, Y Y; Lao, Terence; Lee, C Y; Lee, K F; Leung, Jenny; Leung, N K; Li, Dominic; Li, June; Lo, K W; Lo, Louis; Ng, K L; Siu, S C; Tam, Sidney; Tan, Kathryn C B; Tiu, S C; Tse, H Y; Tse, Winnie; Wong, Gary; Wong, Shell; Wong, William; Yeung, Vincent T F; Young, Rosie; Yu, C M; Yu, Richard

    2003-12-01

    This article reviews the available data on the study of iodine deficiency disorders in Hong Kong and to discuss the approach towards preventing such disorders in Hong Kong. The importance of iodine and iodine deficiency disorders is described, and the available data on the dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine concentration in different populations of Hong Kong are summarised and discussed. Dietary iodine insufficiency among pregnant women in Hong Kong is associated with maternal goitrogenesis and hypothyroxinaemia as well as neonatal hypothyroidism. Borderline iodine deficiency exists in the expectant mothers in Hong Kong. Women of reproductive age, and pregnant and lactating women should be made aware and educated to have an adequate iodine intake, such as iodised salt, as an interim measure. A steering group involving all stakeholders should be formed to advise on the strategy of ensuring adequate iodine intake, including universal iodisation of salt in Hong Kong. Continuous surveillance of iodine status in the Hong Kong population is necessary.

  11. Attitudes and Attributes of Hong Kong Academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, Gerard A.

    1996-01-01

    Data from a 1993 survey of Hong Kong college and university faculty, part of a larger international study, provide information about teacher demographic characteristics; educational background; attitudes toward working conditions, mobility, and salaries; professional interests; and views on student quality and governance issues. Implications for…

  12. The Quality of Life in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Ming

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer of 1,000 respondents shows that Hong Kong people have a great desire for materialistic attainment, and such an emphasis on materialism bodes ill for their quality of life. Negative assessments of the public life sphere, which encompasses the natural environment, the social welfare system, and the democratic system, also detract…

  13. Links between Libraries and Museums: a Case Study of Library-Museum Collaboration at the Hong Kong Maritime Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Lo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Established in 2005, the Hong Kong Maritime Museum (HKMM is a relatively new private museum that aims to collect all forms of materials related to the development of boats, ships, maritime exploration and trade, and naval warfare on the South China coast, as well as its adjacent seas.  The Museum not only serves as a unique platform for teaching and learning of the local heritage in Hong Kong, it also contributes greatly to the promotion of community engagement and social connections.  The HKMM is also equipped with its own museum library, and it is called the CSSC (China State Shipbuilding Corporation Maritime Heritage Resource Centre.  In addition to supporting various research activities carried out by the Museum, this Resource Centre also serves as a central, and yet comprehensive repository for publications, and other archival documents on maritime heritage and history related to Southeastern China.  This paper aims to compare the distinctive operational practices, and user needs between museums and libraries.  It also examines the benefits and challenges of museum-library collaborations in the new knowledge-driven society.  This paper features an interview with Kitty But (Librarian, CSSC Maritime Heritage Resource Centre, The Hong Kong Maritime Museum and Robert Trio (Project Officer for Technology, The Hong Kong Maritime Museum, and in which they discussed their professional experiences in the fields of audience education; the implementation of different new technologies associated with the museum and library services; and various collaborative initiatives carried out between the Museum and the Resource Centre.  Upcoming challenges and opportunities faced by both the Museum and Resource Centre are also discussed in this paper.

  14. Grow-out mariculture techniques in tropical waters: A case study of problems and solutions in Hong Kong.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, R; Lee, J

    1989-01-01

    Raft culture is practised and trash fish is being used as feed in Hong Kong. Culture space is limited and most of the culture sites are over-crowded. Food conversion ratio is poor (about 10-15), grow-out mortality is high (30-50%) and fish kills caused by oxygen depletions, algal blooms and red tides occur frequently. Disease and water pollution are also problems.

  15. Ayuntamiento de Hong-Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitch, A.

    1963-11-01

    Full Text Available This town hall comprises five buildings, each with a particular function, but all expressing a mutual coherence and architectural unity. The main building features a large entrance hall, leading to the concert hall and the theatre. On the first floor there is a dancing hall with accommodation for 500 people. The banquet hall can seat 500, it is situated on the second floor, and is fitted to supply both Chinese and European food. It can operate as an ordinary restaurant. The concert hall has been designed for an audience of 1,500, with a stage suitable for an orchestra of 100 players and 120 dancers. Although its primary purpose is the holding of symphony concerts, it can be adapted to Chinese opera and other types of stage displays. The theatre has 467 seats, and its acoustical properties are such that chamber music can also be performed in it. Another building of this project is a 12 storey tower. On the lower floor weddings and civil ceremonies are held. There are libraries on the second and sixth floors. An exhibition hall occupies the seventh floor. On the eighth there are two lecture rooms, and on the ninth offices and a workshop. A museum and an art gallery take up the tenth and eleventh floors. The air conditioning installations, engine room and other ancillary services are situated on the top of the building. Part of the project includes a garden commemorating the Hong-Kong volunteers who died in the period 1941-45: it stands on an elevated site, and a polygonal shaped chapel completes this memorial. On the outside the tower is faced in marble, whilst the concert hall walls are in polished granite. A sole of blue enamelled brick extends along the whole perimeter of the central block, including the wall surrounding the memorial garden.Comprende un grupo de cinco edificios dedicados a fines diversos, pero a. los que se les ha imprimido una coherencia y unidad que aumenta su valor individual. La edificación principal presenta el gran hall

  16. High Degree of Autonomy: The Reversion of Hong Kong to Chinese Sovereignty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choyke, Michele

    1998-01-01

    ...) of the People's Republic of China. The Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong calls for maintaining Hong Kong's lifestyle and "high degree of autonomy" for fifty years after its transition to the Hong Kong SAR...

  17. A Framework for Monitoring Capital Flows in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Dong He; Frank Leung; Philip Ng

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to delineate conceptual issues relating to the definition of capital flows, and introduce a framework that organises survey data and accounting information at different time horizons to form a judgment on the nature and scale of fund flows in Hong Kong. Given the complexity of international financial transactions in Hong Kong, cross-border capital flows may not correspond closely to fund flows into and out of the Hong Kong dollar. A comprehensive view on the scale and...

  18. Forecasting Hong Kong economy using factor augmented vector autoregression

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Iris Ai Jao

    2010-01-01

    This work applies the FAVAR model to forecast GDP growth rate, unemployment rate and inflation rate of the Hong Kong economy. There is no factor model forecasting literature on the Hong Kong economy. The objective is to find out whether factor forecasting of using a large dataset can improve forecast performance of the Hong Kong economy. To avoid misspecification of the number of factors in the FAVAR, combination forecasts are constructed. It is found that forecasts from FAVAR model overall o...

  19. 'Carcinogens in a puff': smoking in Hong Kong movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sai-Yin; Wang, Man-Ping; Lai, Hak-Kan; Hedley, Anthony J; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2010-12-01

    Smoking scenes in movies, exploited by the tobacco industry to circumvent advertisement bans, are linked to adolescent smoking. Recently, a Hong Kong romantic comedy Love in a puff put smoking at centre stage, with numerous smoking scenes and words that glamourise smoking. Although WHO has issued guidelines on reducing the exposure of children to smoking in movies, none is adopted in Hong Kong. Comprehensive tobacco control strategies are urgently needed to protect young people in Hong Kong from cigarette promotion in movies.

  20. What Factors Predict Undergraduate Students' Use of Technology for Learning? A Case from Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Wang, Qiu; Lei, Jing

    2012-01-01

    A sound understanding of technology use from the learners' perspective is crucial. This study intends to contribute to our understanding on student technology use by focusing on identifying the factors that influence students' adoption of technology for learning and the relationships between these factors. Students studying at a Hong Kong…

  1. SARS-related Perceptions in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Joseph T.F.; Yang, Xilin; Pang, Ellie; Tsui, H.Y.; Wong, Eric; Wing, Yun Kwok

    2005-01-01

    To understand different aspects of community responses related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), 2 population-based, random telephone surveys were conducted in June 2003 and January 2004 in Hong Kong. More than 70% of respondents would avoid visiting hospitals or mainland China to avoid contracting SARS. Most respondents believed that SARS could be transmitted through droplets, fomites, sewage, and animals. More than 90% believed that public health measures were efficacious means o...

  2. Aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W.K. Lam

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In a 1993 survey, allergic rhinitis was identified as the most common allergic disease in Hong Kong, affecting 29.1% of schoolchildren. Recently (1995, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC also reported 44.5% current rhinitis among Hong Kong teenagers. Our objective was to study the aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong using serological tests of allergen sensitization. In 57 allergic rhinitis patients and in the same number of age- and sex-matched controls the following were measured: serum total IgE, mixed aeroallergen IgE (Phadiatop™ and specific IgE versus house dust mite (HDM, cockroach, cat and dog dander, mould mixture (Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Alternaria species and four local pollens (Bermuda grass, Timothy, ragweed and mugwort. Compared with controls, allergic rhinitis patients (26 males, 31 females; mean (± SD age 25 ±11 years had a significantly elevated serum total IgE concentration (mean ± SEM: 496 ± 88 vs 179 ± 38 kU/L and an increased proportion of positive Phadiatop (95 vs 33% and specific IgE tests versus HDM (90 vs 44% and cockroach (42 vs 9%; Mann-Whitney U-test and χ2 tests all P < 0.005. There was no significant difference in sensitization to other allergens tested. House dust mite and cockroach are ubiquitous in Hong Kong with a warm, humid climate and crowded living conditions. Their identification as aetiological agents of allergic rhinitis should help in the development of environmental strategies for reducing the inhalant allergen load to prevent and control this prevalent and costly health problem in our community.

  3. Adolescent developmental issues in Hong Kong: Relevance to positive youth development programs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2006-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental issues and problems in Hong Kong are examined in this paper. First, the changing adolescent substance abuse patterns are described. Second, although the overall youth crime trend was relatively stable in the past decade, shoplifting and stealing crimes deserve our concern. Third, adolescent mental health problem is a growing problem. Fourth, statistics show that unhealthy life styles, such as smoking, early sex and moral confusion are issues of concern. Fifth, the proportion of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage has increased. Sixth, youth unemployment and non-engaged youth are growing problems when the economy of Hong Kong is undergoing re-structuring. Seventh, family and parenting problems in families with adolescents deserve our attention. Finally, the Social Development Index showed that the development of young people has gradually deteriorated in the past decade. These adolescent issues and problems provide useful pointers for designing the positive youth development program financially sponsored by the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.

  4. Managing environmental noise in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Ming

    2004-05-01

    Hong Kong is well known for its economic vibrancy and its hyper densely population: more than 7 million people living in a total area of slightly over 1000 square kilometers of hilly areas. Most of these people live and work in about 20% of the total land area, resulting in probably the highest densities in the world. The high population density is also matched by a large number of vehicles running in the roads. At present, there are over 400000 vehicles operating on a highway network less than 1000 km in length. With all these factors plus many urban activities associated with the rapid growth and development, noise is an important environmental issue in the city. Although there are many dimensions for the quality of life, the acoustic environment is undoubtedly an essential part of it, especially when the people's aspirations increase as the society develops. This paper summarizes the development of strategies for controlling environmental noise in Hong Kong in the past two decades. The current situation will be addressed and a proposal for an improved traffic noise policy will be presented. [Work supported by the Research Grants Council, and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

  5. Families and family therapy in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Ng, Roger M K; Tonsing, Kareen N; Ran, Maosheng

    2012-04-01

    Family therapy views humans not as separate entities, but as embedded in a network of relationships, highlighting the reciprocal influences of one's behaviours on one another. This article gives an overview of family demographics and the implementation of family therapy in Hong Kong. We start with a review of the family demographics in Hong Kong and brief notes on families in mainland China. Demographics show that the landscape has changed markedly in the past decade, with more cross-border marriages, an increased divorce rate, and an ageing overall population - all of which could mean that there is increasing demand for professional family therapy interventions. However, only a limited number of professionals are practising the systems-based approach in Hong Kong. Some possible reasons as to why family therapy is not well disseminated and practised are discussed. These reasons include a lack of mental health policy to support family therapy, a lack of systematic family therapy training, and a shortage of skilled professionals. Furthermore, challenges in applying the western model in Chinese culture are also outlined. We conclude that more future research is warranted to investigate how family therapy can be adapted for Chinese families.

  6. System Dynamic Analysis of Impacts of Government Charges on Disposal of Construction and Demolition Waste: A Hong Kong Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Sheung Au

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of reducing the amount of construction and demolition (C&D waste disposed to landfills, many countries and municipalities have introduced increasingly stringent C&D waste disposal charges (CDWDC but the level of CDWDC is often determined without a clear understanding of its broad and complex impacts. Against this background, this paper aims to propose a system dynamics (SD model that can help predict CDWDC’s environmental implications as well as its financial implications. Specifically, the proposed model explains complex causal relationships between variables such as the level of CDWDC, the amount of C&D waste disposed to landfills, the government’s revenues from CDWDC as well as the costs of supplying and operating landfills over time. For a case study, the developed model is customized and calibrated with actual data from Hong Kong, where the remaining capacities of existing landfills are limited and the need for supplying more landfills is imminent. The simulation analysis with the model predicts that the current charging levels may not be high enough to effectively control the amount of C&D waste disposed to landfills or to compensate for the costs to the government of supplying additional landfills. The analysis also predicts how much illegal dumping may increase as the level of CDWDC increases. This case study illustrates that the proposed SD model can help policy makers to see the potential impacts of increased CDWDC on the amount of C&D waste disposed to landfills, government costs and the amount of illegal dumping of C&D waste; and can therefore help them to determine the most appropriate level of CDWDC.

  7. Landslide susceptibility mapping based on Support Vector Machine: A case study on natural slopes of Hong Kong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, X.; Tham, L. G.; Dai, F. C.

    2008-11-01

    The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is an increasingly popular learning procedure based on statistical learning theory, and involves a training phase in which the model is trained by a training dataset of associated input and target output values. The trained model is then used to evaluate a separate set of testing data. There are two main ideas underlying the SVM for discriminant-type problems. The first is an optimum linear separating hyperplane that separates the data patterns. The second is the use of kernel functions to convert the original non-linear data patterns into the format that is linearly separable in a high-dimensional feature space. In this paper, an overview of the SVM, both one-class and two-class SVM methods, is first presented followed by its use in landslide susceptibility mapping. A study area was selected from the natural terrain of Hong Kong, and slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, profile curvature of slope, lithology, vegetation cover and topographic wetness index (TWI) were used as environmental parameters which influence the occurrence of landslides. One-class and two-class SVM models were trained and then used to map landslide susceptibility respectively. The resulting susceptibility maps obtained by the methods were compared to that obtained by the logistic regression (LR) method. It is concluded that two-class SVM possesses better prediction efficiency than logistic regression and one-class SVM. However, one-class SVM, which only requires failed cases, has an advantage over the other two methods as only "failed" case information is usually available in landslide susceptibility mapping.

  8. E-cigarette Regulation and Harm Reduction: The Case of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churk, Shue Sing

    Harm reduction is an internationally recognized tobacco control strategy. E-cigarettes, being a less harmful alternative to smoking, have the potential to achieve harm reduction. Within this context, this article critiques Hong Kong’s legal regime governing e-cigarettes and the proposed prohibition of the product. It is argued that the current law is uncertain and inadequate. Although a reform of laws relating to e-cigarettes is needed, it is argued that banning the product altogether as a means to reducing the harm of tobacco use is unsupported by evidence.

  9. Stock Market Manipulation on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionigi Gerace

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to empirically examine stock market manipulation on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. The dataset contains 40 cases of market manipulation from 1996 to 2009 that were successfully prosecuted by the Hong Kong Securities & Futures Commission. Manipulation is found to negatively impact market efficiency measures such as the bid-ask spread and volatility. Markets appear incapable of efficiently responding to the presence of manipulators and are characterised by information asymmetry. Manipulators were successfully able to raise prices and exit the market. This finding contradicts views that trade-based manipulation is entirely unprofitable and self-deterring. The victimisation of information-seeking investors and the market as a whole provides a strong rationale for all jurisdictions, including Australia, to have effective laws that prohibit manipulation and for robust enforcement of those laws to further deter market manipulation.

  10. An ecological analysis of secondary school students' drug use in Hong Kong: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Zhu, Shimin; Yu, Chong Ho; Wong, Paul; Tsang, Sandra

    2016-02-01

    Youth drug use is a significant at-risk youth behaviour and remains as one of the top priorities for mental health services, researchers and policy planners. The ecological characteristics of secondary school students' behaviour in Hong Kong are understudied. To examine individual, familial, social and environmental correlates of drug use among secondary students in Hong Kong. Data were extracted from a school survey with 3078 students. Among the 3078 students, 86 students reported to have used drugs in the past 6 months. A total of 86 age- and gender-matched controls with no drug-use behaviour in the past 6 months were randomly selected from the remaining students. Multiple logistic analysis was used to examine differential correlates between those who used and did not use substance in the past 6 months. Positive school experience and perspective to school and parental support are protective factors of drug use. Lower self-esteem, lower self-efficacy against using drugs and higher level of permissive attitude towards drugs were associated with drug use. Students who were low in self-esteem and rather impulsive tend to use drugs. To prevent students from drug use, efforts in individual, family, school and community-levels should be addressed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Estimating daily surface NO2 concentrations from satellite data - a case study over Hong Kong using land use regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Jasdeep S.; Monks, Paul S.

    2017-07-01

    Land use regression (LUR) models have been used in epidemiology to determine the fine-scale spatial variation in air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in cities and larger regions. However, they are often limited in their temporal resolution, which may potentially be rectified by employing the synoptic coverage provided by satellite measurements. In this work a mixed-effects LUR model is developed to model daily surface NO2 concentrations over the Hong Kong SAR during the period 2005-2015. In situ measurements from the Hong Kong Air Quality Monitoring Network, along with tropospheric vertical column density (VCD) data from the OMI, GOME-2A, and SCIAMACHY satellite instruments were combined with fine-scale land use parameters to provide the spatiotemporal information necessary to predict daily surface concentrations. Cross-validation with the in situ data shows that the mixed-effects LUR model using OMI data has a high predictive power (adj. R2 = 0. 84), especially when compared with surface concentrations derived using the MACC-II reanalysis model dataset (adj. R2 = 0. 11). Time series analysis shows no statistically significant trend in NO2 concentrations during 2005-2015, despite a reported decline in NOx emissions. This study demonstrates the utility in combining satellite data with LUR models to derive daily maps of ambient surface NO2 for use in exposure studies.

  12. Hong kong chemical waste treatment facilities: a technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuwang, Chu [Enviropace Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1993-12-31

    The effective management of chemical and industrial wastes represents one of the most pressing environmental problems confronting the Hong Kong community. In 1990, the Hong Kong government contracted Enviropace Limited for the design, construction and operation of a Chemical Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment and disposal processes, their integration and management are the subject of discussion in this paper

  13. Press Ideology and Organizational Control in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Joseph Man; Lee, Chin-Chuan

    1988-01-01

    Surveys the entire Chinese journalist population of Hong Kong to determine how news organizations in the highly politicized environment of Hong Kong exercise institutional control on recruitment and newswork. Finds that press ideology is a major determinant of its organizational control. (MS)

  14. The Cultural Obstacles of Counseling Licensure in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Gigi; Yeung, Marine

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive package of counseling credentialism comprises certification, registration, and licensing. Counseling in Hong Kong adheres to certification for which diverse counseling master's programs exist. In addition, counselors can register as members of professional counseling organizations such as the Hong Kong Professional Counseling…

  15. Hong kong chemical waste treatment facilities: a technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuwang, Chu [Enviropace Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1994-12-31

    The effective management of chemical and industrial wastes represents one of the most pressing environmental problems confronting the Hong Kong community. In 1990, the Hong Kong government contracted Enviropace Limited for the design, construction and operation of a Chemical Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment and disposal processes, their integration and management are the subject of discussion in this paper

  16. Hong Kong in Transition: A Look at Economic Interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Selena

    Economic interdependence has played an important role in Hong Kong's history, from its earliest days as a British colony to its current status as a center of international trade and finance. Hong Kong occupies a unique place in history because of its unprecedented transfer of power in 1997 from Britain to the People's Republic of China. The future…

  17. Inclusive Education Policy in the Hong Kong Primary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk

    2016-01-01

    An education reform policy and inclusive education policy have been implemented in Hong Kong for over a decade. As more students with special educational needs have entered the mainstream education system under these policies, Hong Kong's primary music classrooms offer a site where three policies interact--the education reform policy entitled…

  18. Homework Involvement among Hong Kong Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vicky C. W.

    2009-01-01

    One component of the curriculum reform in Hong Kong focuses on the use of homework in consolidating learning, deepening understanding and constructing knowledge. This study examines the profile of Hong Kong primary school students' homework involvement, and investigates the relationships between time involvement and academic attributes, namely…

  19. Hong Kong Perspectives on Educational Technology Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; Yuen, H. K.; Wang, Minhong; Churchill, Daniel; Law, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This is the 25th anniversary of the Hong Kong Association for Educational Communications and Technology (HKAECT; see http://www.hkaect.org/). The silver anniversary annual meeting will be held at the University of Hong Kong December 8--10, with the theme of the conference being "Communication and Education: New Media, Knowledge Practices, and…

  20. School Experience of Chinese Sexual Minority Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Diana K.

    2016-01-01

    Heterosexism faced by sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer/questioning [LGBQ]) students has been extensively studied internationally in the past 2 decades but has only recently received attention from Hong Kong Chinese society. Chinese LGBQ students are not guaranteed to be included in Hong Kong schools, where antidiscrimination…

  1. [Occupational injuries among construction workers in Hong Kong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zihui; Chen, Weiqing

    2002-02-01

    To explore the nature and severity of occupational injuries among construction workers and its risk factors in Hong Kong. One hundred and twenty-two injured construction workers in a public hospital and an equal number of workmate controls were studied. Contents included socio -demographic characteristics, the availability and use of safety equipment, smoking and alcohol consumption, etc. Abbreviated injury scale (AIS) and injury severity score (ISS) were employed for describing the nature, pattern and severity of injuries. Single injuries were seen in 80% of cases. Of 149 injuries classified by body region, 49% were external, 26% involved either the upper or lower extremities, and 11% were spinal injuries. Working at height was associated with the injury severity score. Safety hazards were identified in the work environment in 68% of the cases. Significant odds ratios for accidents were obtained for 'no formal education', 'non safety training' and 'current smokers'. The results implicated that construction was a hazardous occupation in Hong Kong. Improving the work environment and promoting safety education among construction workers would be helpful for minimizing or eliminating occupational injuries in construction occupation in Hong Kong.

  2. The approaches Hong Kong Chinese mothers adopt to teach their preschool children to prevent influenza: a multiple case study at household level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Winsome; Fowler, Cathrine; Dawson, Angela

    2016-01-01

    In Hong Kong, the population is at risk of seasonal influenza infection twice a year. Seasonal influenza is significantly associated with the increased hospitalization of children. Maintaining personal hygiene and vaccination are the most effective measures to prevent influenza infection. Research demonstrates a positive relationship between the health practices applied by parents and the behaviour of their children highlighting the importance of parental heath education. However, there is minimal research that provides an understanding of how Hong Kong Chinese parents teach their children to prevent seasonal influenza. Mixed methods research was undertaken that employed a multiple-case study approach to gain an understanding of parental teaching practices regarding seasonal influenza prevention. Purposive intensity sampling was adopted to recruit twenty parents and their healthy children. A thematic analysis was employed to examine the qualitative interview data and the quantitative survey data were examined descriptively. These data were then integrated to provide a more rigorous understanding of parental teaching strategies. Comparisons were made across cases to reveal commonalities and differences. Five major themes were identified: processes parents used to teach personal hygiene; parent-child interaction during teaching; approaches to managing children's health behaviours; enhancing children's healthy practices; and parents' perspective of the role of the nurse in health promotion. This study provided valuable insight into the approach of Hong Kong Chinese parents in teaching their children to prevent seasonal influenza. The results indicate that parents can be better supported to develop effective strategies to teach their preschool children hygiene practices for seasonal influenza prevention. Partnerships with community nurses can play a role in building effective parent-child interactions to enhance children's learning and adoption of healthy practices.

  3. Hong Kong-Ideal Access For Mainland Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ With the deepen economic integration between mainland China and Hong Kong SAR,more and more mainland enterprises choose Hong Kong as their platform to enter the international market.At the end or 2008,more than 3,800 mainland enterprises have invested in Hong Kong with the total amount of US$20.7 billion;and mainland enterprises collected the investment in Hong Kong has reached the scale of 22.1 billion HKD.In March of 2009,The Management Method of Investment Abroad issued by Ministry of Commerce also provides the great convenience for mainland investors.China's Foreign Trade invited Ms.Wong Hoi Wan,Charmraine,Associate Director-General of Invest HK to introduce HK investment environment,the development of mainland enterprises in Hong Kong as well as the investment perspective.

  4. Hong Kong faces uncertain future as oil supply centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Paul [Pearl Oil Ltd. (Hong Kong)

    1997-09-01

    Hong Kong`s first day under Chinese rule, 1 July 1997, was not exactly auspicious. A celebratory parade organized by the Chinese was washed out by torrential rain, and the grand finale of a firework display, described as `a bold statement..... embodying confidence in the future of Hong Kong` fizzled out when one of the firework barges caught fire. The omens are not necessarily good for the territory`s oil industry either. (author)

  5. Banking sector governance: Lessons from Hong Kong listed bands. A three year perspective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Sh. D.

    2011-01-01

    Hong Kong's financial sector is popular within the banking industry for the range of service providers themselves. Using the case study approach, this paper explores the changes to the boards of directors and governance issues of the 12 listed banks on Hong Kong stock exchange over a three year period. It focuses on issues such as the number of directors on the boards, their qualifications, type of directors in terms of independence, outside directorships held, and the auditors of the financi...

  6. An overview of emergency radiation monitoring in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.C.; Mok, H.Y.; Chan, Y.K.

    2000-01-01

    In relation to the operation of a nuclear power station located some 50 km to the northeast of Hong Kong, a contingency plan has been formulated in Hong Kong to manage the local response in the event of a severe accident occurring at the nuclear power station. As an integral component of the contingency plan, the Hong Kong Observatory has specifically designed and implemented an emergency radiation monitoring programme. The primary objective of emergency monitoring in the early phase of a nuclear accident is to rapidly detect and document the presence of radioactive materials for determining the impact of the release. Even in the case when Hong Kong is outside the plume coverage, the verification that there is no radioactive plume or deposition over Hong Kong is essential for providing reassurance to the local population. Although Hong Kong is a small place, it has a dense network of fixed-station monitors for continuous measurement of the ambient gamma dose-rate over the territory. At Ping Chau, one of the fixed-station closest to the nuclear power station (about 13 km), an automatic gamma spectrometry system is also operated to monitor the activity concentrations of man-made nuclides in air. This system provides both qualitative and quantitative isotopic information on the cause of any rise in ambient gamma dose-rate detected at the station. A number of fire stations over the territory can also be activated during an emergency to conduct ambient gamma dose-rate measurements using portable survey meters. The fixed-station radiation data will be supplemented by measurements taken en-route emergency surveys. Three mobile survey teams can be deployed within an hour of notice. Two of the survey teams will conduct surveys at ground surface. The third survey team will conduct aerial surveys at various altitudes over Hong Kong and the adjacent seas. Environmental samples, including airborne particulate, radioiodine, deposition, soil and water samples are collected at the

  7. The Rise of Civic Nationalism: Shifting Identities in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin P. Kwan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The rise of civic nationalism in both Hong Kong and Taiwan indicates a prominence of democratic liberal values which are contributing to the further rejection of an ethnonational Chinese identity imposed by Beijing. Using the 2014 Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong and the Sunflower Movement in Taiwan as case studies, this paper examines how the rise of civic nationalism is furthering the nation-building project of Hong Kong and Taiwanese identities. Following a comparison between the Umbrella Movement and the Sunflower Movement in terms of the sequence of events, the paper identifies the impact of the movements on both societies through an examination of the successes and failures of each movement, the rise of new political forces and party politics, as well as political institutions. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of the widening identity gap of Hong Kong and Taiwan from China.

  8. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Teris Cheung; Paul S.F. Yip

    2016-01-01

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it?a gap filled by the present study. The study?s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to mea...

  9. Incidence of genital warts among the Hong Kong general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui Hi-Yi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to estimate the incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong and explore a way to establish a surveillance system for genital warts among the Hong Kong general population. Methods A total of 170 private doctors and all doctors working in the 5 local Social Hygiene Clinics (SHC participated in this study. During the 14-day data collection period (January 5 through18, 2009, the participating doctors filled out a log-form on a daily basis to record the number of patients with genital warts. The total number of new cases of genital warts presented to private and public doctors in Hong Kong was projected using the stratification sampling method. Results A total of 721 (0.94% adults presented with genital warts to the participating doctors during the two-week study period, amongst them 73 (10.1% were new cases. The projected number of new cases of genital warts among Hong Kong adults was 442 (297 male and 144 female during the study period. The incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong was estimated to be 203.7 per 100,000 person-years (respectively 292.2 and 124.9 per 100,000 person-years for males and females. Conclusions The incidence of genital warts is high among adults in Hong Kong. The study demonstrates the importance of collecting surveillance data from both private and public sectors.

  10. Association between emergency admission for peptic ulcer bleeding and air pollution: a case-crossover analysis in Hong Kong's elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Linwei; Qiu, Hong; Sun, Shengzhi; Tsang, Hilda; Chan, King-Pan; Leung, Wai K

    2017-05-01

    Air pollution increases intestinal permeability, alters the gut microbiome, and promotes inflammation, which might contribute towards gastrointestinal bleeding. In the present study, we aim to examine whether short-term elevations in air pollution are associated with increased numbers of emergency hospital admissions for peptic ulcer bleeding in Hong Kong. Daily air pollution (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2·5 μm [PM 2·5 ], nitric oxide [NO 2 ], sulpher dioxide [SO 2 ], and ozone [O 3 ]) data during 2005-10 were collected from the Environmental Protection Department and emergency admission data for peptic ulcer bleeding in elderly people (aged 65 years or older) from the Hospital Authority of Hong Kong. A time stratified case-crossover analysis with conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the excess risk of peptic ulcer bleeding associated with each air pollutant, in single-pollutant and multi-pollutant models. Cardiorespiratory diseases were used as positive controls. 8566 emergency admissions for peptic ulcer bleeding were recorded among Hong Kong's elderly population during 2005-10; the daily number of admissions ranged from 0 to 13. An IQR increment of 5-day moving average (lag 04 ) of NO 2 concentration (25·8 μg/m 3 ) was associated with a 7·6% (95% CI 2·2-13·2) increase in emergency admissions for peptic ulcer bleeding. Multi-pollutant models confirmed the robustness of the risk estimates for NO 2 . Other pollutants (PM 2·5 , SO 2 , and O 3 ) were not associated with peptic ulcer bleeding admissions. Short-term elevation in ambient NO 2 might trigger peptic ulcer bleeding events and increase the risk of emergency admissions for peptic ulcer bleeding in Hong Kong's elderly population. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that air pollution affects not just cardiopulmonary diseases, but also certain diseases of the digestive system. None. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an

  11. Enhanced physical health screening for people with severe mental illness in Hong Kong: results from a one-year prospective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressington, Daniel; Mui, Jolene; Hulbert, Sabina; Cheung, Eric; Bradford, Stephen; Gray, Richard

    2014-02-27

    People with severe mental illness have significantly poorer physical health compared to the general population; previous health screening studies conducted outside Asian countries have demonstrated the potential in addressing this issue. This case series aimed to explore the effects and utility of integrating an enhanced physical health screening programme for community dwelling patients with severe mental illness into routine clinical practice in Hong Kong. This study utilises a consecutive prospective case series design. The serious mental illness Health Improvement Profile (HIP) was used as a screening tool at baseline and repeated at 12 months follow-up. A total of 148 community-based patients with severe mental illness completed the study. At one year follow-up analysis showed a significant improvement in self-reported levels of exercise and a reduction in the numbers of patients prescribed medications for diabetes However, mean waist circumference increased at follow-up. In addition to the statistically significant results some general trends were observed, including: a lack of deterioration in most areas of cardiovascular risk; a reduction in medicines prescribed for physical health problems; and general improvements in health behaviours over the 12 month period. The findings demonstrate that using the HIP is feasible and acceptable in Hong Kong. The results of the enhanced physical health-screening programme are promising, but require further testing using a randomised controlled trial design in order to more confidently attribute the improvements in well-being and health behaviours to the HIP. ISRCTN12582470.

  12. History of Asbestos Ban in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kwan Wong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As millions of immigrants moved to Hong Kong (HK from China in the recent decades, large amount of residential housings were built in the early years and a substantial proportion of those buildings used asbestos-containing materials (ACMs. Since the number of new cases of ARDs diagnosed has increased year by year since 1990’s, the remarkable increase of incidences had drawn the attention of the public and most importantly the HK government. It became one of the trigger points leading to asbestos ban in HK history. Comparatively, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, labor unions and patients’ self-help organizations demonstrated a more aggressive and proactive attitude than the HK government and have played a key role in the development of asbestos banning policy in HK. After numerous petitions and meetings with the government representatives by those parties in the past decade, the HK government eventually changed its attitude and started to consider terminating the endless threat from asbestos by amending the policy, and the new clause of legislation for banning of all forms of asbestos was enacted on 4 April 2014. Other than the restriction of asbestos use, the compensation system about ARDs has also made some great moves by the effort of those parties as well. Based on the experience we learnt through the years, efforts from different stakeholders including patients’ self-help organizations, NGOs, legislative councilors, and media power are absolutely essential to the success of progression and development in today’s asbestos banning in HK.

  13. Human embryo cloning prohibited in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Athena

    2005-12-01

    Since the birth of Dolly (the cloned sheep) in 1997, debates have arisen on the ethical and legal questions of cloning-for-biomedical-research (more commonly termed "therapeutic cloning") and of reproductive cloning using human gametes. Hong Kong enacted the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance (Cap 561) in 2000. Section 15(1)(e) of this Ordinance prohibits the "replacing of the nucleus of a cell of an embryo with a nucleus taken from any other cell," i.e., nucleus substitution. Section 15(1)(f) prohibits the cloning of any embryo. The scope of the latter, therefore, is arguably the widest, prohibiting all cloning techniques such as cell nucleus replacement, embryo splitting, parthenogenesis, and cloning using stem cell lines. Although the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance is not yet fully operative, this article examines how these prohibitions may adversely impact on basic research and the vision of the Hong Kong scientific community. It concludes that in light of recent scientific developments, it is time to review if the law offers a coherent set of policies in this area.

  14. Religion and Media in China : Insights and Case Studies from the Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travagnin, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    This volume focuses on the intersection of religion and the media in China, bringing interdisciplinary approaches to bear on the role of religion in the lives of individuals and greater shifts within Chinese society in an increasingly media-saturated environment. With case studies focusing on

  15. Personal Biometric Information from Wearable Technology Tracked and Followed Using an ePortfolio: A Case Study of eHealth Literacy Development with Emerging Technology in Hong Kong Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notari, Michele; Sobko, Tanja; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will show our research approach and discuss potential outcomes. The research project started in January 2016. To understand eHealth literacy development in higher education in Hong Kong, the researchers will conduct a multiple case study including 20 students from an undergraduate course. Each of them will use a wearable device…

  16. Factors associated with multidisciplinary case conference outcomes in children admitted to a regional hospital in Hong Kong with suspected child abuse: a retrospective case series with internal comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, W C; Fung, G Pg; Cheung, P Ch

    2017-10-01

    In all cases of suspected child abuse, accurate risk assessment is vital to guide further management. This study examined the relationship between risk factors in a risk assessment matrix and child abuse case conference outcomes. Records of all children hospitalised at United Christian Hospital in Hong Kong for suspected child abuse from January 2012 to December 2014 were reviewed. Outcomes of the hospital abuse work-up as concluded in the Multi-Disciplinary Case Conference were categorised as 'established', 'high risk', or 'not established'. All cases of 'established' and 'high risk' were included in the positive case conference outcome group and all cases of 'not established' formed the comparison group. On the other hand, using the Risk Assessment Matrix developed by the California State University, Fresno in 1990, each case was allotted a matrix score of low, intermediate, or high risk in each of 15 matrix domains, and an aggregate matrix score was derived. The effect of individual matrix domain on case conference outcome was analysed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to examine the relationship between case conference outcome and aggregate matrix score. In this study, 265 children suspected of being abused were included, with 198 in the positive case conference outcome group and 67 in the comparison group. Three matrix domains (severity and frequency of abuse, location of injuries, and strength of family support systems) were significantly associated with case conference outcome. An aggregate cut-off score of 23 yielded a sensitivity of 91.4% and specificity of 38.2% in relation to outcome of abuse categorisation. Risk assessment should be performed when handling suspected child abuse cases. A high aggregate score should arouse suspicion in all disciplines managing child abuse cases.

  17. Acoustical conditions of typical classrooms in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Ming; Lam, Coriolanus C. L.

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents measurement results of the acoustical environments of local schools in Hong Kong. In the measurements, several acoustical aspects that affect verbal communication in classrooms have been studied. These conditions include outdoor and indoor ambient noise levels, signal-to-noise ratios, reverberation time and the speech transmission index. Typical classrooms in many different schools and other higher-education institutions have been selected in the present study. Experimental results are compared with such national standards as USA (ANSI S 12.60 V 2002), Australian/New Zealand (AS/NZS 2107:2000), China (GB/T 15508 V 1995) and other national and industrial standards. This study will form the basis of devising acceptable standards for use in Hong Kong. [Work supported by the Research Grants Council of the SAR Government, the Research Committee of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Architectural Services Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government.

  18. Contingency planning for nuclear emergencies in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M. C.

    2002-01-01

    Two nuclear power stations on the coast of southern China are situated some 50 kilometers to the northeast of Hong Kong. Although the stations are far away from Hong Kong, the construction and operation of the nuclear power stations have generated public anxiety locally, in particular, after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A comprehensive contingency plan which takes into account such concerns of the public has been implemented in Hong Kong. This plan not only aims to ensure a quick and timely response to mitigate the health impact of any accidental release but also targets to re-assure the public that the territory is not contaminated when appropriate. This paper describes the principal elements of the nuclear contingency plan in Hong Kong, namely, an extensive environmental radiation monitoring programme and a proactive public communication programme

  19. Doses arising from natural radiation sources in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Man-yin, W.

    1993-01-01

    The first reactor of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant, located 30 km from Hong Kong, should become operational at the end of 1993. People in Hong Kong are more concerned with their exposures to radiation, both man-made and natural. The local environmental background radiation baseline values should be established well before 1993 so that the radiological impact of the power plant on the environment can be assessed. However, there has not been much information on these aspects. In view of the situation, the Radioisotope Unit of the University of Hong Kong has launched a series of studies with the general goal of gaining a better understanding of Hong Kong's natural background radiation and a more accurate estimate of the natural radiation exposure of the local people. The scope of the measurement programmes is described and the doses from the various sources are derived. (1 tab.)

  20. Intention and constraints of Hong Kong secondary school Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... of Hong Kong secondary school Physical Education teachers to promote Unified Sports® ... school subjects like Civic Education, Social Studies, Religious Studies or Liberal Studies.

  1. Introduction of Eleutherodactylus planirostris (Amphibia, Anura, Eleutherodactylidae to Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Ho Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified small frog species was first encountered in Hong Kong Special Administration Region (SAR, China, in 2000, where the local amphibian diversity is well-studied. We herein identified this unknown frog as Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog using DNA barcoding. We found that its distribution in Hong Kong is widespread (>18 localities, and breeding has been observed in multiple occasions. The populations in at least four localities persisted for over seven years. We discuss its potential negative impacts to terrestrial ecosystems in Hong Kong, with particular concern of its potential competition with the endemic Liuixalus romeri. We call for studies to investigate the impacts of the introduced E. planirostris on the local ecosystem. Screening for E. planirostris in exported plants from Hong Kong should be carried out.

  2. Consumer support for a public utilities commission in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Cheng, Y.S.; Law, A.; Zarnikau, J.; Ho, S.T.; Leung, H.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hong Kong's electricity service is superbly reliable and price-reasonable when compared to those of the major cities in the OECD countries. Based on the rate of return regulation in the U.S., the current scheme of control agreement (SCA) regulating the two local integrated investor-owned utilities (IOUs) will expire in 2018 (or in 2023 after an optional 5-year extension), thus offering an opportune time to consider proposals with long lead time to modify or replace the SCA. The proposals made to date range from modifications of the SCA to electricity market restructure. These proposals, however, overlook two important aspects of regulatory governance: transparency and public involvement. This paper estimates consumer support for the proposal to establish a Hong Kong public utilities commission (HKPUC) to improve the current regulatory process. Based on the responses collected in mid-2014 via a face-to-face survey of 1100 Hong Kong residents, we find that at the 1.5% bill surcharge, about 70% the respondents are estimated to support an HKPUC. Thus, there is sufficient consumer support for a financially viable HKPUC, implying that Hong Kong should consider the possibility of establishing an HKPUC, notwithstanding the substantial challenges to be overcome prior to its implementation. - Highlights: • Hong Kong's regulatory process lacks transparency and public involvement. • A survey data analysis indicates a majority support for a Hong Kong PUC. • A Hong Kong PUC can be financially viable without public funding. • A Hong Kong PUC proposal deserves further consideration

  3. Taxation of Financial Intermediation Activities in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Jack M. Mintz; Stephen R. Richardson

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses issues related to the taxation of financial intermediation in Hong Kong in the context of Hong Kong's position as a major regional financial centre. It first provides some background analysis as to the definition of financial intermediation and identification of the providers of financial services. This is then followed by a discussion of the principles of taxation applicable to financial intermediation, including a comparison of income taxes to consumption taxes. Some sp...

  4. Hong Kong faces uncertain future as oil supply centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Hong Kong's first day under Chinese rule, 1 July 1997, was not exactly auspicious. A celebratory parade organized by the Chinese was washed out by torrential rain, and the grand finale of a firework display, described as 'a bold statement..... embodying confidence in the future of Hong Kong' fizzled out when one of the firework barges caught fire. The omens are not necessarily good for the territory's oil industry either. (author)

  5. Bank Lending and Property Prices in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, Stefan; Peng, Wensheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between residential property prices and lending in Hong Kong. This is an interesting topic for three reasons. First, swings in property prices have been extremely large and frequent in Hong Kong. Second, under the currency board regime, monetary policy can not be used to guard against asset price swings. Third, despite the collapse in property prices since 1998, the banking sector remains sound. While the contemporaneous correlation between lending and prop...

  6. E-Learning Experiences of Hong Kong Students

    OpenAIRE

    J. Lam; R. Chan

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of e-learning in Hong Kong has been increasing rapidly in the past decade. To understand the e-learning experiences of the students, the School of Professional and Continuing Education of The University of Hong Kong conducted a survey. The survey aimed to collect students- experiences in using learning management system, their perceived e-learning advantages, barriers in e-learning and preferences in new e-learning development. A questionnaire with 84 questio...

  7. Household energy transition in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Peter (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong). Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental Management)

    1994-05-01

    A household energy survey in Hong Kong confirmed that domestic energy consumption is dominated by modern fuels. Household spending on fuels typically amounts to less than 3% of monthly income. Delivered energy use per household per month averages 1.77 GJ and per capita use 0.37 GJ. Electricity accounts for more than half of fuel expenditure and energy use. Patterns of fuel choice and use are quite consistent across income levels, although electricity use rises with higher household incomes. Many households use a combination of kerosene, gas and electricity (rice cookers) for cooking, which appears to reflect culinary practices more than fuel prices, perceived safety or availability. Electrical appliance saturation is high already, and air conditioning use is growing rapidly. Household electricity consumption may increase substantially during the 1990s as higher comfort levels lead to increased heating and cooling demand and space standards in public housing units improve. (Author)

  8. The lessons of SARS in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Thomas Sik To; Yu, Wai Cho

    2010-02-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a novel coronavirus infection which broke out in Hong Kong in March 2003. Princess Margaret Hospital was designated to manage this new, mysterious and serious disease. Healthcare workers had to work under extremely stressful and often risky conditions to care for patients. Despite manpower and equipment reinforcements, staff infection occurred as a result of bodily exhaustion, working in an unfamiliar environment and lapses in infection control. Patients suffered even more, not only due to physical discomfort, but also because of the fear of isolation and death away from family and friends. Health authorities learnt their lessons in the outbreak and formulated emergency plans for future infectious disease epidemics. The healthcare infrastructure has been examined and upgraded with regard to intensive care capacity, infection control measures, professional training, manpower deployment, staff facilities, and stockpiling of drugs and personal protective equipment.

  9. Public education programme for nuclear contingency planning in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M. C.; Li, S. W.

    2002-01-01

    Two nuclear power stations on the coast of southern China are situated some 50 kilometers to the northeast of Hong Kong. Although the stations are far away from Hong Kong, the construction and operation of the nuclear power stations have generated public anxiety locally, in particular, after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A comprehensive contingency plan which takes into account such concerns of the public has been implemented in Hong Kong. Cooperation by the public is vital to the effective implementation of any contingency plan. Understanding of the basics of radiation protection as well as the contingency plan will help the public to appreciate the situation and react in a rational manner. A public education program to promote awareness of the contingency plan has been implemented in Hong Kong. In particular, a Virtual Exhibition Hall on radiation has been developed and launched in February 2002 for access by the public via Internet. A video and a set of web pages will be launched in the later part of 2002 to inform and educate the public on matters related to nuclear accident response in Hong Kong. This paper describes the public education programme in Hong Kong to promote public awareness and understanding of the nuclear contingency plan

  10. Developments in early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G H Y; Hui, C L M; Wong, D Y; Tang, J Y M; Chang, W C; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Xu, J Q; Lin, J J X; Lai, D C; Tam, W; Kok, J; Chung, D W S; Hung, S F; Chen, E Y H

    2012-09-01

    The year 2011 marked the 10-year milestone of early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong. Since 2001, the landscape of early psychosis services has changed markedly in Hong Kong. Substantial progress has been made in the areas of early intervention service implementation, knowledge generation, and public awareness promotion. Favourable outcomes attributable to the early intervention service are supported by solid evidence from local clinical research studies; early intervention service users showed improved functioning, ameliorated symptoms, and decreased hospitalisation and suicide rates. Continued development of early intervention in Hong Kong over the decade includes the introduction and maturation of several key platforms, such as the Hospital Authority Early Assessment Service for Young People with Psychosis programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention Unit by the University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society, the Jockey Club Early Psychosis Project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. In this paper, we reviewed some of the major milestones in local service development with reference to features of the Hong Kong mental health system. We describe chronologically the implementation and consolidation of public early intervention services as well as recent progresses in public awareness work that are tied in with knowledge generation and transfer, and outline the prospects for early intervention in the next decade and those that follow.

  11. Techno-economic evaluation of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil--a case study of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-02-18

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices.

  12. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil—A Case Study of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices. PMID:25809602

  13. Remote sensing of on-road vehicle emissions: Mechanism, applications and a case study from Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuhan; Organ, Bruce; Zhou, John L.; Surawski, Nic C.; Hong, Guang; Chan, Edward F. C.; Yam, Yat Shing

    2018-06-01

    Vehicle emissions are a major contributor to air pollution in cities and have serious health impacts to their inhabitants. On-road remote sensing is an effective and economic tool to monitor and control vehicle emissions. In this review, the mechanism, accuracy, advantages and limitations of remote sensing were introduced. Then the applications and major findings of remote sensing were critically reviewed. It was revealed that the emission distribution of on-road vehicles was highly skewed so that the dirtiest 10% vehicles accounted for over half of the total fleet emissions. Such findings highlighted the importance and effectiveness of using remote sensing for in situ identification of high-emitting vehicles for further inspection and maintenance programs. However, the accuracy and number of vehicles affected by screening programs were greatly dependent on the screening criteria. Remote sensing studies showed that the emissions of gasoline and diesel vehicles were significantly reduced in recent years, with the exception of NOx emissions of diesel vehicles in spite of greatly tightened automotive emission regulations. Thirdly, the experience and issues of using remote sensing for identifying high-emitting vehicles in Hong Kong (where remote sensing is a legislative instrument for enforcement purposes) were reported. That was followed by the first time ever identification and discussion of the issue of frequent false detection of diesel high-emitters using remote sensing. Finally, the challenges and future research directions of on-road remote sensing were elaborated.

  14. Effects of Heat Stress on Construction Labor Productivity in Hong Kong: A Case Study of Rebar Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert P C

    2017-09-12

    Global warming is bringing more frequent and severe heat waves, and the result will be serious for vulnerable populations such as construction workers. Excessive heat stress has profound effects on physiological responses, which cause occupational injuries, fatalities and low productivity. Construction workers are particularly affected by heat stress, because of the body heat production caused by physically demanding tasks, and hot and humid working conditions. Field studies were conducted between August and September 2016 at two construction training grounds in Hong Kong. Onsite wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), workers' heart rate (HR), and labor productivity were measured and monitored. Based on the 378 data sets of synchronized environmental, physiological, construction labor productivity (CLP), and personal variables, a CLP-heat stress model was established. It was found that WBGT, percentage of maximum HR, age, work duration, and alcohol drinking habits were determining factors for predicting the CLP (adjusted R ² = 0.68, p stress reduces CLP, with the percentage of direct work time decreasing by 0.33% when the WBGT increased by 1 °C. The findings in this study extend the existing practice notes by providing scientific data that may be of benefit to the industry in producing solid guidelines for working in hot weather.

  15. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil—A Case Study of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Kumar Karmee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices.

  16. Technology-Supported Educational Innovations in Finland and Hong Kong: A Tale of Two Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Law

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of case studies about innovative ICT-supported pedagogical practices in two educational systems, namely Finland and Hong Kong. The two systems were selected for this in-depth comparison for three main reasons. First, Finland and Hong Kong performed well in several international comparative studies of educational achievement. Second, the case studies collected via the SITES Module 2 indicated rather different profiles between Finnish and Hong Kong schools in terms of ICT infrastructure and pedagogical practices. Third, further analysis of the case studies data indicated differences in emergent pedagogical characteristics between the cases collected in Asia and in Western Europe. The paper aims at exploring in detail two research questions with regard to innovative pedagogical practices using technology. Firstly, are there systemic differences in the nature of the educational innovations across countries? Secondly, are there systemic differences in the change mechanisms and factors influencing change across countries?

  17. Occlusion therapy in amblyopia: an experience from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Emily W H; Li, Brian C Y; Yeung, Ian Y L; Li, Kenneth K W

    2014-02-01

    OBJECTIVES. To review the results of patching for amblyopia management in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Retrospective case series. SETTING. Regional hospital, Hong Kong. PATIENTS. Records of all patients attending Paediatric Ophthalmology Clinic at United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong from 1 January 2009 to 31 March 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Records of all children who underwent patching for amblyopia in the study period were evaluated. RESULTS. The mean age of 50 children (50 eyes) was 4 (standard deviation, 1; range, 2-7) years and mean pretreatment visual acuity was 0.35 (0.15; 0.02-0.63) [~20/60]. The values for mean, standard deviation, and range of treatment duration were 27, 16, 4-67 months respectively, and corresponding values for prescribed patching per day were 4, 1, 2-8 hours. The mean, standard deviation, and range of visual acuity at final post-treatment assessment were 0.66, 0.16, 0.1-1.0 (~20/30), respectively. The overall success rate (ie final visual acuity >0.7 or 20/30) was 62%. Children with moderate amblyopia (20/40-20/80) and severe amblyopia (20/100-20/400) had success rates of 74% and 55%, respectively. The mean visual acuity improvements for moderate and severely amblyopic children were 2.3 lines and 5.8 lines, respectively. The mean, standard deviation, and range of patching prescriptions for moderate and severely amblyopic children were 5, 1, 2-7 hours and 5, 1, 3-6 hours, respectively. Recurrence ensued in 7% of the children with moderate amblyopia and 46% of those with severe amblyopia. Reported compliance was good (>75% of the time) in 68% of the children. CONCLUSION. Occlusion therapy is the mainstay of treatment in Hong Kong. The overall success rate was comparable to that achieved in the Amblyopia Treatment Study. Recurrence was more common in patients with severe amblyopia, for whom maintenance therapy may reduce the risk of recurrence. The duration of treatment was much longer in our locality than in western countries. Reported

  18. Perception of wine labels by Hong Kong Chinese consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Chi Man Tang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite Hong Kong׳s growing wine consumption and the abundance of retail brands available there, the demanding choice task faced by its wine consumers, who are more subject to a mix of Chinese and Western cultural influences than consumers in other South Asian countries, has not been studied until now. This exploratory study aims to delve into the importance of wine label attributes for Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers, and to shed light on the ways in which their perceptions affect their choice of wine. Employing an online survey, the results suggest that Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers look for the top three most searched attributes: wine origin, grape variety, and food and wine pairing. A simple means differences test indicated that a traditional label design is favored over modern and contemporary wine labels, and that yellow is the most preferred color. However, a data-driven segmentation analysis reveals that about 95% of young Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers prefer “elegant contemporary” labels with red as the dominant color. These findings could be useful for wineries entering this market and for wine label designers who wish to better understand how Hong Kong wine consumers assess alternatives when choosing a bottle of wine.

  19. Occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong: current status and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, H K H; Szeto, G P Y; Cheng, A S K; Siu, H; Chan, C C H

    2011-03-01

    This paper reviews the development of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong, both in terms of the science as well as the service for injured workers. Besides, it also reviews the existing Employees' Compensation Ordinance for work injury to illustrate how the policy could influence the success and development of the discipline. Five experienced occupational rehabilitation providers, including 1 occupational medicine specialist, 3 occupational therapists, and 1 physiotherapist critically reviewed the past and current development of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong as well as the local contextual factors, which could influence its future development. Since the enactment of the Employees' Compensation Ordinance in the 1950s, there have been progressive improvements in the field of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong. Services in the early years were mostly based on the biomedical model, where doctors and patients tended to focus on clinical symptoms and physical pathology when making clinical decisions. Since then, remarkable academic achievements have been made in the field locally, from the validation of clinical instruments for assessment of work capacity, assessment of employment readiness to the evaluation of efficacy of interventional programs for injured workers focusing on work related outcomes. However, there has been a relatively lack of progress in the development of related policies and implementation of related programs for occupational rehabilitation. There is no built in linkage between rehabilitation, compensation and prevention in the current system in Hong Kong, and there is no rehabilitation policy specific to those workers with occupational diseases and injuries. There are still deficiencies in the development and provision of occupational rehabilitation services in Hong Kong. Incorporation of requirements for occupational rehabilitation at the legislation and policy levels should be seriously considered in the future. Besides, the

  20. Sport Culture of Hong Kong: Recent Development and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie T. C. Lam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong is well-known for its beautiful natural harbor, vibrant nightlife, as well as tremendous entertainment and shopping opportunities. It is a paradise for outdoor activities such as golfing, hiking, fishing, and water sports. Throughout the city, there are extensive hiking trails that are over 30 miles long and navigate through beautiful scenic areas and parks. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the sport culture of Hong Kong, including the development and administration of sports and sporting events. After a thorough review on the sports development of Hong Kong, it was found that the following three main themes would guide the direction of future sports development: (a promoting “Sports for All,” (b fostering high performance sports, and (c equipping Hong Kong to host international sports events. In this regard, the Hong Kong Government provides a wide range of sports facilities and funding to support the development of sports. In addition, sport development is also supported by the business sector in Hong Kong. Among those different departments, the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD takes an active role in promoting sports in the community and administers funding support for relevant organizations under the established sports policy. The LCSD not only develops and manages a wide range of sports and recreational facilities for use by the general public, but also supports and organizes sports and recreational programs for the community. For instance, the most exciting projects people cannot wait to see their completion are the HK$19.7 billion Kai Tak Sports Complex and the Tseung Kwan O Football Training Centre that is supported with a grant of HK$133 million from the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.

  1. Balancing energy and daylighting performances for envelope design: A new index and proposition of a case study in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Jing Chao; Xue, Peng; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Liu, Jia Ping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Daylighting and energy performances were studied simultaneously. •Energy demands of lighting and air-conditioning systems were both included. •Luminous comfort was quantified by Ave. DA 300 with the range from 29.6% to 57.8%. •Energy Daylight Rate was proposed as a simple multi-objective optimization approach. •Optimal scenarios for all directions were tested and chosen by EDR method. -- Abstract: Being healthy and energy saving have become two important principles of building development. Daylight is an influential factor with the characteristics of both photometry and radiometry. Irradiance brings solar heat gains that transfer to building cooling load, while illuminance provides a luminous environment and affects artificial lighting system at the same time. To balance the energy and daylighting performances, it is reasonable to minimize the environmental load under moderate comfort conditions. This study first quantified luminous comfort with a dynamic daylighting metric, average daylight autonomy (Ave. DA 300 ), from a questionnaire survey and simulation work. The benchmark of this metric should range from 29.6% to 57.8% for high-rise residential buildings. With this guideline, the Hong Kong public housing units is found that part of units lack of daylight due to the high building floor and density, while some units have potential to save energy by compromising daylighting performance. Therefore, a new index, energy daylight rate (EDR), is proposed to help decide the best scenario of envelope design for both daylighting and shading purposes. The results show that opening a secondary window is an efficient way to bring more light in and lengthening overhang is an efficient way to block excessive sunlight. This method and the new index are proved to have the ability to help defining proper building envelope design at the early stage.

  2. Energy and water uses and their performance explanatory indicators in hotels in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper firstly presents a case study on analyzing the electrical load profiles recorded in a Hong Kong hotel over a period of 12 months to examine the potential energy saving opportunities (ESOs) in its building services installations. The case study is followed by a report of the survey results of energy and water use in 36 quality hotels in Hong Kong. Finally, a regression analysis where the surveyed energy and water use data were correlated to a number of hotel background or operational parameters to search for suitable energy and water use performance explanatory indicators is presented. The survey results depict a diversified energy and water use situation in Hong Kong's hotels, but the regression analysis indicates that, while some of the correlations obtained are weak, there do exist a few strong energy and water explanatory indicators. (author)

  3. An Evaluation of the Intermediation Role of Hong Kong in Chinese Foreign Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Xinhua He

    2007-01-01

    Two different data sources can be used to study Hong Kong's role in intermediating China's foreign trade. One is the bilateral trade statistics between Hong Kong and the Chinese Mainland reported by National Bureau of Statistics of China, and the other is the bilateral trade statistics published by Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong. The corresponding statistics are not comparable to each other because of the different statistical criteria adopted by each source. Hong Kong's intermed...

  4. Cough mixtures: rational or irrational prescribing in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William C W; Dickinson, James; Chan, Cynthia

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the extent and how cough mixtures are prescribed, and what conditions or specific groups of people would contribute to its prescription in Hong Kong. Using diagnosis and drug data obtained from logbooks submitted by participants in the diploma in family medicine course between 1999 and 2003, we selected and analysed all patients with a diagnosis of cough or cough-related illnesses as well as cough mixtures that were used to treat them. This study confirmed that cough-related illnesses were common in the Hong Kong primary care setting and cough mixtures were used quite liberally irrespective of the patients' age and sex. Combination preparations accounted for over half of the prescriptions and cough mixture was used less in severe cases when antibiotics were given. Private doctors working in the public sector. Given the current health care system, inappropriate and over-prescribing of cough mixtures can be improved by promoting health education and awareness among patients seeking medical help for this common medical condition.

  5. Effectiveness of cognitive training for Chinese elderly in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok T

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Kwok,1,2 Anita Wong,3 Grace Chan,4 YY Shiu,3 Ko-Chuen Lam,2 Daniel Young,2 Daniel WH Ho,2 Florence Ho21Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Shatin, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 3The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 4The Hong Kong Council of Social Service, Hong Kong, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: In Hong Kong, the evidence for cognitive-training programs in fighting against memory complaints is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Active Mind cognitive-training program in improving the cognitive function and quality of life (QoL for local community-dwelling Chinese older adults. A total of 200 subjects were recruited from 20 different district elderly community centers (DECCs. Centers were randomly assigned into either the intervention group or control group. The intervention group underwent eight 1-hour sessions of cognitive training, while the control group were included in the usual group activities provided by the DECCs. Standardized neuropsychological tests (the Chinese version of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale [CDRS] and the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the QoL questionnaire SF12 were used to assess participants' cognitive function and QoL before and after the trial. A total of 176 subjects completed the study. The intervention group showed greater improvement in the cognitive function measured by total CDRS score (treatment: 12.24 ± 11.57 vs control: 4.37 ± 7.99; P < 0.001 and QoL measured by total SF12 score (treatment: 7.82 ± 13.19 vs control: 3.18 ± 11.61; P = 0.014. Subjects with lower education level were associated with better cognitive response to the cognitive-training program. The current findings indicated that the Active

  6. From Capitalism to Socialism? Hong Kong Education within a Transitional Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, Gerard A.

    1991-01-01

    Examines implications for educational policy formation of Hong Kong's 1997 return to China. Discusses the economic interdependence of Hong Kong and China; the potential for educational policy to reconcile or heighten the contradictions among capitalism, socialism, and patriotism; and the crisis of cultural identity among Hong Kong youth. (SV)

  7. BLAST: Building energy simulation in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Sai-Keung

    1999-11-01

    The characteristics of energy use in buildings under local weather conditions were studied and evaluated using the energy simulation program BLAST-3.0. The parameters used in the energy simulation for the study and evaluation include the architectural features, different internal building heat load settings and weather data. In this study, mathematical equations and the associated coefficients useful to the industry were established. A technology for estimating energy use in buildings under local weather conditions was developed by using the results of this study. A weather data file of Typical Meteorological Years (TMY) has been compiled for building energy studies by analyzing and evaluating the weather of Hong Kong from the year 1979 to 1988. The weather data file TMY and the example weather years 1980 and 1988 were used by BLAST-3.0 to evaluate and study the energy use in different buildings. BLAST-3.0 was compared with other building energy simulation and approximation methods: Bin method and Degree Days method. Energy use in rectangular compartments of different volumes varying from 4,000 m3 to 40,000 m3 with different aspect ratios were analyzed. The use of energy in buildings with concrete roofs was compared with those with glass roofs at indoor temperature 21°C, 23°C and 25°C. Correlation relationships among building energy, space volume, monthly mean temperature and solar radiation were derived and investigated. The effects of space volume, monthly mean temperature and solar radiation on building energy were evaluated. The coefficients of the mathematical relationships between space volume and energy use in a building were computed and found satisfactory. The calculated coefficients can be used for quick estimation of energy use in buildings under similar situations. To study energy use in buildings, the cooling load per floor area against room volume was investigated. The case of an air-conditioned single compartment with 5 m ceiling height was

  8. Dental caries status of preschool children in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C H; Fung, D S; Lo, E C

    1999-12-11

    To describe the dental caries status of preschool children in Hong Kong and factors which affect their caries status. 658 preschool children aged 4 to 6 years from six randomly selected kindergartens in Hong Kong were surveyed in December 1997. A questionnaire to investigate possible explanatory variables for caries status was completed by their parents. Dental caries was diagnosed according to the criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (1997). Caries experience as measured by the mean number of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) of the 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children were found to be 0.9, 1.8, and 3.3 respectively. Overall, 61% of the children had a zero dmft score. Children born in Mainland China had a higher mean dmft score (4.6) than those born in Hong Kong (1.4). Statistically significant correlations were found between the children's dental caries status and their oral health practices as well as their socio-economic background. Parents' education level, dental knowledge and attitudes were also associated with the children's dental caries experience. In general, the caries status of Hong Kong Chinese preschool children was similar to that of children in industrialised countries and was better than that of children in the nearby areas. However, special dental programmes should be made available to children from lower socio-economic classes and new immigrants from Mainland China because they are the high risk groups for caries in Hong Kong.

  9. Practice of laryngectomy rehabilitation interventions: a perspective from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jimmy Y W

    2013-06-01

    To review the current practice of rehabilitation for laryngectomees in Hong Kong. Factors affecting the quality of life of laryngectomees include their performance in speech restoration, the presence of complications of treatment, as well as the availability of psycho-social support. In Hong Kong, more than 90% of laryngectomees have speech restoration by various means, the commonest of which being tracheo-oesophageal puncture and electrolaryngeal speech. However, they face special problems in communication using the current alaryngeal speech modalities, as it is difficult to produce variation in tones, which is important to express different meanings in Cantonese. The responsibility of surgeons to follow-up patients after surgery and the practice of management of common complications after laryngectomy are also discussed. The New Voice Club of Hong Kong promotes self-help and mutual help between laryngectomees, with the aim of helping new members to regain normal speech and to re-integrate into society. Quality-of-life study in Hong Kong shows that although the mean global health score is satisfactory, the social functioning domain is most severely affected after surgery. Cantonese-speaking laryngectomees in Hong Kong are facing unique challenges in speech restoration and re-integration into society after surgery. Surgeons should take the leading role in the multidisciplinary management of these patients.

  10. Isoflavonoid content of Hong Kong soy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sieu G; Murphy, Patricia A; Ho, Suzanne C; Kreiger, Nancy; Darlington, Gerarda; So, Edwin K F; Chong, Portia Y Y

    2009-06-24

    Progress in understanding the effects of dietary soy isoflavones on chronic disease prevention in the Hong Kong Chinese population has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive soy isoflavone database. In this study, we determined the concentrations and distribution of isoflavones in 47 foods included in a soy food frequency questionnaire by reverse-phase HPLC. Results indicated that most soy products contained isoflavones ranging from 1 mg of aglucon equivalents/100 g of wet weight (bean strip noodle and egg bean curd) to 80 mg of aglucon equivalents/100 g of wet weight (oyster sauce soybean and sweet bean curd sheet). Among our food groups, mean isoflavone concentrations were lowest in the soy milk group (9.99 mg of aglucon equivalents/100 g of wet weight) and highest in the bean curd skin group (40 mg of aglucon equivalents/100 g of wet weight). The conjugation patterns of isoflavones varied within and between food groups as influenced by the types of soybeans and the processing or cooking techniques used. The isoflavone concentrations reported herein will be useful for ascertaining the relationship between exposure to dietary soy isoflavones and health effects in the Chinese population.

  11. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being.

  12. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-01-16

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it-a gap filled by the present study. The study's web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies) showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being.

  13. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies) showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being. PMID:26784216

  14. Hong Kong's health spending projections through 2033.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Gabriel M; Tin, Keith Y K; Chan, Wai-Sum

    2007-04-01

    To derive actuarial projection estimates of Hong Kong's total domestic health expenditure to the year 2033. Disaggregating health expenditure by age, sex, unit cost and utilisation level, we estimated future health spending by projecting utilisation (by public/private, inpatient/outpatient care) to reflect demographic changes and associated increase in demand (from higher expectations and greater intensity of care), and then multiplying such by the projected unit costs (incorporating the impact of key cost drivers such as public expectations, technological changes and potential productivity gains) to obtain total expenditure estimates. The model was most sensitive to the excess health care price inflation rate, i.e. the annual price/cost growth of medical goods and services over and above per capita GDP growth. Population ageing and growth per se, without taking into account related technologic innovation for chronic conditions that particularly afflict older adults, contribute relatively little to overall spending growth. Given the model assumptions, it is possible to limit total health spending to below 10% of GDP by 2033, where the public share would gradually decline from the current 57% to between 46% and 49%. Expenditure control through global budgeting, technology assessment and demand-side constraints should be considered although their effectiveness remains inconclusive.

  15. A Validity Study of the MWEP Scale in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsun-Lok Kwong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the validity of the Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile, MWEP, in the Hong Kong setting. Purposive quota sampling is adopted to solicit data from a total of 140 respondents with equal gender distribution across seven age groups in Hong Kong. Factor analysis reveals that similarity exists between factor loadings in original MWEP model of Miller, Woehr, and Hudspeth (2002 and the model in the current study with Hong Kong samples. However, the MWEP items in the current study does not map exactly into the seven dimensions proposed by Miller, Woehr, and Hudspeth. The leisure and the morality/ethics dimensions match with the original scale respectively with good and poor reliabilities, but the hard work and wasted time dimensions have intertwined and appeared to be inseparable.

  16. An energy system model for Hong Kong in 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tao; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Yang, Hongxing; Lu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and energy security are forcing Hong Kong to shift from a fossil fuel-based to a clean and low-carbon energy structure. In this article, a simulation model for Hong Kong's energy system is developed to examine the present energy structure and analyse alternative future sustainable energy strategies. First, a reference model is established and validated based on year 2009 data. Secondly, three scenarios are modelled. The BAU (business-as-usual) scenario for Hong Kong's energy system in 2020 is presented and simulated. To address the energy security and environmental sustainability challenges posed by the BAU outcomes, two alternative scenarios are then studied. The first alternative is a fuel mix for 2020 proposed by the government which is characterized by importing more nuclear power from the mainland. As a result of the Fukushima nuclear incident, however, this proposal has been held in abeyance. Therefore, a second alternative for Hong Kong in 2020 is proposed in this study, using more RE (renewable energy) to replace nuclear power. The results show that both the governmentally proposed scenario and the RE scenario can achieve the carbon reduction target. However, the RE scenario would be much better than the government scenario in terms of environmental, social benefits and long-term sustainability. - Highlights: • A reference model is established and validated based on year 2009 data. • The business-as-usual scenario for Hong Kong's energy system in 2020 is examined. • The governmentally proposed fuel mix for 2020 is analysed. • The renewable energy scenario to replace nuclear power in 2020 is studied. • Carbon reduction target of Hong Kong is examined in the three scenarios

  17. A Brief Overview of Adolescent Developmental Problems in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2011-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661

  18. An investigation of the ingestion exposure pathways in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, Mankit Ray; Lui, Wai Sing

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of the food supply and the dietetic pattern of Hong Kong was conducted and some of the important factors affecting the ingestion exposure pathways following a severe nuclear accident were examined. It was found that the nuclide concentrations in the vegetables are very sensitive to time and substantial saving in effective dose resulted from ingesting contaminated vegetables can be achieved by appropriate imposition of restriction on the consumption of local produce. The consumption of locally grown vegetables in large quantity and the proximity of the Hong Kong vegetable farms to the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station suggests that the vegetable-human pathway is important and warrants special attention

  19. An IMP interaction approach to modelling business-to-business professional service quality: the case of Hong Kong consulting engineering service

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Ka-shing

    2001-01-01

    In the domain of services marketing, the most researched area is in service quality. Since the pioneering stage of service quality research in the early 1980s, most of the studies have been conducted in the context of consumer services and consumer professional services. The purpose of this study is to bridge the gap in the existing literature to measure service quality of a particular business-to-business professional service industry (i.e., Hong Kong consulting engineering industry). I...

  20. Motivation Change of Pre-Service English Teachers: A Hong Kong Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Icy; Yuan, Rui

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study that investigated the motivations towards teaching of six pre-service English teachers enrolled on a teacher education course in Hong Kong. A qualitative case study approach was adopted, using data gathered from pre- and post-course interviews with individual participants, their dialogue journals with the teacher…

  1. Crossing the Binary Line: The Founding of the Polytechnic in Colonial Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Using the case of the Hong Kong Polytechnic (HKP), this paper examines academic drift in colonial settings. The HKP, like polytechnics in the UK, was supposedly a service sector institution. Under the binary system in the UK, schools in the service division were governed by the state educational bureaucracy, while the universities--the autonomous…

  2. English Language Schooling, Linguistic Realities, and the Native Speaker of English in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen Edwards, Jette G.

    2018-01-01

    The study employs a case study approach to examine the impact of educational backgrounds on nine Hong Kong tertiary students' English and Cantonese language practices and identifications as native speakers of English and Cantonese. The study employed both survey and interview data to probe the participants' English and Cantonese language use at…

  3. Outpatient Medication Use in Chinese Geriatric Patients Admitted for Falls: A Case-Control Study at an Acute Hospital in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vivian W Y; Leung, Teresa P Y; Lee, Vincent W H

    The study objective was to investigate the association of polypharmacy and medications with patient falls resulting in hip fractures among community-living geriatric patients. A case-control study was conducted at an acute public hospital in Hong Kong. The study population was community-living Chinese patients aged 65 years and above who were admitted for falls resulting in hip fractures during an 18-month study period. Each of these patients was matched to a control patient with the same age and sex, but without falls and fractures. Data were collected from electronic patient record. Data of 170 cases and 170 controls were eventually collected. The following variables associated with increased risk of falls resulting in hip fractures remained statistically significant after multivariate logistic regression, including benign prostatic hyperplasia [odds ratio (OR) = 2.654; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.105-6.378; P = 0.029], first-generation antihistamines (OR = 3.176; 95% CI, 1.044-9.664; P = 0.042), antiparkinson medications (OR = 3.754; 95% CI, 1.158-12.169; P = 0.027), osteoporosis (OR = 3.159; 95% CI, 1.167-8.552; P = 0.024), and use of walking aids (OR = 2.543; 95% CI, 1.544-4.188; P risk of falls resulting in hip fractures for local geriatric patients. The findings provided insights into the potential medication-related fall prevention strategies, including clinical medication review, adverse drug event monitoring, and drug optimization.

  4. Language and identity: Hong Kong students' language attitudes since the Umbrella Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, King Yuen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous empirical studies conducted on Hong Kong’s linguistic situations suggest that the roles and statuses of Cantonese and English continue to be stable in Hong Kong. Putonghua (also known as Mandarin) starts to have an ever-increasing influence in the city and has begun to take root since the political handover in 1997. Lai (2011) expects that Hong Kong people will develop their identities at local, national and international levels and Hong Kong will see a more balanced equi...

  5. Semantic Primitives of Time and Space in Hong Kong Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Malindy; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Semantic primitives for time and space, as proposed in Natural Semantic Metalanguage theory, are examined for lexical equivalents in Hong Kong Cantonese. Temporal primitives are all found to have clear Cantonese exponents that can be combined as predicted with other metalanguage elements, with two exceptions. Spatial primitives all appear to have…

  6. Active Ageing, Active Learning: Policy and Provision in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between ageing and learning, previous literature having confirmed that participation in continued learning in old age contributes to good health, satisfaction with life, independence and self-esteem. Realizing that learning is vital to active ageing, the Hong Kong government has implemented policies and…

  7. Politics, Culture, and School Curriculum: The Struggles in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Hong Kong (HK) school curriculum, especially the general curriculum for civic education and other social subjects, in relation to the political events of the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration, the 1989 Tiananmen Square Incident, and the return of HK's sovereignty from the United Kingdom (UK) to the…

  8. Teacher Stress in Working with Challenging Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, I-Wah

    2012-01-01

    This article first illustrates how recent social, economic and educational development in Hong Kong contributes to teacher stress. It then presents data from an international study on teacher stress with respect to working with challenging students, i.e. students with behavioural problems. Teachers were asked to report on the perceived behavioural…

  9. Managing Workplace Conflict in the United States and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Catherine H.; Brett, Jeanne M.

    2001-07-01

    We propose that managers have norms (standards of appropriate behavior) for resolving conflict, that these norms are culturally based, and that they explain cultural differences in conflict management outcomes. We confirm that the traditionally American norms of discussing parties' interests and synthesizing multiple issues were exhibited more strongly by American managers than by their Hong Kong Chinese counterparts. In addition, we confirm that the traditionally Chinese norms of concern for collective interests and concern for authority appeared more strongly among Hong Kong Chinese managers than among their American counterparts. American managers were more likely than Hong Kong Chinese managers, to resolve a greater number of issues and reach more integrative outcomes, while Hong Kong Chinese managers were more likely to involve higher management in conflict resolution. Culture had a significant effect on whether parties selected an integrative outcome rather than an outcome that involved distribution, compromise, higher management, or no resolution at all. Conflict norms explained the cultural differences that existed between reaching an integrative outcome and reaching an outcome involving distribution, compromise, or higher management; however, conflict norms did not fully explain the cultural differences that existed between reaching an integrative outcome and reaching no resolution. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. Western impressions of the Hong Kong health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C L; Pei, G K; Ultmann, J E

    1996-01-01

    Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, and Malaysia are initiating health care reform to meet the changing demands of populations with improved socioeconomic status and access to modern technologies and who are living longer than in previous generations. Hong Kong, in particular, is facing a unique set of circumstances as its people prepare for the transition in 1997 from a British colony to a Special Administrative Region of China. While spending only 4% of its gross domestic product on health care, it has a large and regulated public hospital system for most inpatient medical care and a separate, loosely regulated private health care system for most outpatient medical care. In 1993 the Secretary for Health and Welfare of Hong Kong initiated a year-long process to debate the pros and cons of 5 fundamental programs for health care reform. After a year of open consultation, options were chosen. We describe the Hong Kong health care system, the fundamental changes that have been adopted, and lessons for reformers in the United States.

  11. Social Class and Language Attitudes in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mee Ling

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relation between social class and language attitudes through a triangulated study that analyses the attitudes of 836 secondary school students from different socioeconomic backgrounds toward the 3 official spoken languages used in postcolonial Hong Kong (HK; i.e., Cantonese, English, and Putonghua). The respondents were…

  12. The Background to Language Change in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Godfrey; So, Lydia K. H.

    1996-01-01

    Seeks to link the rapid pace of societal change in Hong Kong over the past 50 years with changing patterns of language use there. Shows how the country has changed demographically, economically, politically, socially, and technologically. (16 references) (Author/CK)

  13. Physical Activity in the Lives of Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy S.; Macdonald, Doune; Pang, Bonnie O. H.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the physical activity culture in the lives of Hong Kong Chinese children and their parents, 48 young people between the ages 9 and 16 and their parents, with different socio-economic backgrounds and geographical locations, were interviewed for this study. By applying Confucianism and postcolonialism, this study aimed to investigate…

  14. Cinematography in Motherhood: a Hong Kong film adaptation of Ghosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-kan Tam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of a Hong Kong Chinese film adaptation of Ghosts made in 1960. It deals with processes of cross-cultural and cross-media adaptation, and probes issues of how stage techniques are turned into cinematographic devices. Ibsen’s plays, except Ghosts, have been adapted numerous times for the Chinese stage and screen in Hong Kong and China. Unlike in China, the reception of Ibsen in Hong Kong is not meant for political purposes. In most Hong Kong adaptations, Ibsen is valued for the purpose of theatrical experimentation. Among the stage adaptations, A Doll’s House and The Master Builder are the most popular. However, there was a film adaptation of Ghosts in 1960, which has never been discussed in Ibsen scholarship. In this adaptation, Director Tso Kea borrowed the plot from Ghosts and made a perfect Chinese melodrama film highlighting the Chinese emotions and relations in a wealthy family that undergoes a crisis. In traditional Chinese drama, there is the lack of psychological rendering in characterization and characters act according to moral considerations. In Tso Kea’s film, the portrayal of the mother provides a new sense of characterization by combining Mrs Alving with the traditional Chinese mother figure. The borrowing from Ibsen makes it possible for the Chinese film to create a character with emotional and psychological complexities. Images from the film are selected as illustration in the article.

  15. Ageing, Loss, and Learning: Hong Kong and Australian Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Pike, Lucinda; Tam, Maureen; Buys, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the discussion of loss and its relationship to learning is based on the analysis of interview data from 39 older adults in Hong Kong and 40 in Australia. The focus of the research was on ageing and learning. The phenomenon of life changes, specifically losses, and their relationship to learning was frequently mentioned, and this…

  16. Shanghai and Hong Kong Join Efforts for Oil Futures Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Futures Exchange (SHFE) and Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited (HKEx) announced in midApril they will jointly introduce crude oil futures. The two exchanges will jointly develop an energy derivatives market that serves both Chinese and international investors,according to a memorandum of understanding (MOU) signed between the two exchanges.

  17. Gender Differences in Financial Literacy among Hong Kong Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kar-Ming; Wu, Alfred M.; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chou, Kee-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Using a phone survey conducted in 2012, we examined whether there is a gender difference in financial literacy among Hong Kong workers; and if such a difference exists, whether it can be explained by gender differences in sociodemographic variables, social or psychological factors, and/or the outcomes of retirement planning. Results show a gender…

  18. Hong Kong Students' Approaches to Learning: Cross-Cultural Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Bhoomiah

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds in Hong Kong to the effect that students entering tertiary education are predisposed to a "rote" learning approach. With the internalisation of higher education in many countries, there is still insufficient understanding of how Chinese students approach their learning. Except few studies were conducted…

  19. Faculty Research Productivity in Hong Kong across Academic Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jisun

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the research productivity of Hong Kong academics. Specifically, it explores the individual and institutional factors that contribute to their productivity while also comparing determinants across academic disciplines. We have conducted OLS regression analysis using the international survey data from "The Changing Academics…

  20. The Evolution from Integration to Inclusion: The Hong Kong Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong

    2014-01-01

    As a worldwide movement, some forms or stages of inclusive education have been experimented and/or mandated in various countries since the mid-1970s. Integration was piloted in Hong Kong in 1997 and remains the official rhetoric and policy. Three developmental phases of inclusive education, namely, integration, integration in transition to…

  1. Life Satisfaction and Family Structure among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Ying-Keung

    2008-01-01

    Relationships between family structure and perceived life satisfaction in overall life and five domains of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, family life, friendships, school experience, myself, and where I live were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong. Bivariate analyses showed…

  2. Parental Involvement in Primary Children's Homework in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vicky C.; Chan, Raymond M.

    2009-01-01

    This study draws upon an ecological perspective to examine parental involvement in homework and its relationship with primary school children's educational outcomes within the Chinese sociocultural context of Hong Kong. Data were collected using homework diaries and questionnaires administered to 1,309 pairs of students and parents spanning all…

  3. Involving Students in Residence Halls in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S. Raymond; Chan, Rebecca; Lee, Esther

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a study based on A. W. Astin's (1984) involvement theory applied in residence halls at a public university in Hong Kong, China. The resident students who were involved as participants or student leaders in this study were found to be better developed in terms of leadership, career development, multicultural experience,…

  4. Characteristic research on Hong Kong "I learned" series computer textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinyan; Liu, Zhongxia; Li, Yuanyuan; Lu, Jianheng; Zhang, Lili

    2011-06-01

    Currently, the construction of information technology textbooks in the primary and middle schools is an important content of the information technology curriculum reform. The article expect to have any inspire and reference on inland China school information technology teaching material construction and development through the analyzing and refining the characteristics of the Hong Kong quality textbook series - "I learn . elementary school computer cognitive curriculum".

  5. Adolescent Health in Hong Kong: Disturbing Socio-Demographic Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between self-assessed health status and socio-demographic variables were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong, a modern society with traditional Chinese ethno-cultural origin. Health status was self-rated in four aspects: overall health, physical health, mental health, and health effects on…

  6. Conceptions of Creativity among Hong Kong University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2013-01-01

    This research had two objectives. The first was to determine the reliability and validity of the multifaceted assessment of creativity (MAC) for evaluating Hong Kong university students' conceptions of creativity. The second was to establish if the theory-practice and gender gaps discovered among mainland Chinese university students would be…

  7. Revisiting the Antecedents of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Ching Yin; Wu, Shih-Chia; Liu, Huei-Ching; Liang, Chaoyun

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how empathy, moral obligation, social entrepreneurial self-efficacy, perceived social support, and prior experience with social problems are associated with social entrepreneurial intentions. Through a survey, a sample of 252 Hong Kong students was used for analyses. Factor analyses supported that the antecedents of social…

  8. Sleep and Academic Performance in Hong Kong Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lo, Wing-Sze; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems may have different influences on students' academic performance. We investigated the prevalence of sleep patterns, naps, and sleep disorders, and their associations with academic performance in Hong Kong adolescents. Methods: In 2007-2008, 22,678 students aged 12-18 (41.6% boys) completed a questionnaire on…

  9. Causes of childhood blindness in a school for the visually impaired in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, D S P; Lai, T Y Y; Cheung, E Y Y; Lam, D S C

    2005-04-01

    To identify the causes of blindness in children attending a school for the blind in Hong Kong. Cross-sectional observational study. School for blind children in Hong Kong. Eighty-two blind students at the Ebenezer School and Home for the Visually Impaired were examined between December 1998 and August 1999. Demographic data were obtained from students and a questionnaire assessment made of their medical and ocular history. Visual acuity was assessed and visual loss classified according to the World Health Organization classification of visual impairment. Complete ophthalmic assessments were performed in all students including slit-lamp examination and dilated binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy. The mean age of the students was 12.2 years. Ten (12.2%) had a family history of eye disease. Major past medical illnesses were reported in 50% with prematurity and diseases of the central nervous system found in 26.8% and 11.0% of students, respectively. The most common anatomical site for visual impairment was the retina (47.6%), followed by diseases of the optic nerve (14.6%), and diseases of the anterior segment and the lens (14.6%). The pattern of childhood blindness in Hong Kong is similar to that seen in other developed countries. Preventable causes of childhood blindness, such as prematurity and birth asphyxia, were responsible for a large proportion of cases. Early diagnosis and treatment of such conditions may reduce the incidence of childhood blindness in Hong Kong.

  10. Quantifying the waste reduction potential of using prefabrication in building construction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaillon, L; Poon, C S; Chiang, Y H

    2009-01-01

    As Hong Kong is a compact city with limited available land and high land prices, the construction of high-rise buildings is prevalent. The construction industry produces a significant amount of building waste. In 2005, about 21.5 million tonnes of construction waste were generated, of which 11% was disposed of in landfills and 89% in public filling areas. At the present rate, Hong Kong will run out of both public filling areas and landfill space within the next decade. The government is taking action to tackle the problem, such as by introducing a construction waste landfill charge, and promoting prefabrication to reduce on-site waste generation. This paper reports an ongoing study on the use of prefabrication in buildings and its impact on waste reduction in Hong Kong. A questionnaire survey was administered to experienced professionals, and case studies of recently completed building projects were conducted. The results revealed that construction waste reduction is one of the major benefits when using prefabrication compared with conventional construction. The average wastage reduction level was about 52%. This implies that a wider use of prefabrication could considerably reduce construction waste generation in Hong Kong and alleviate the burdens associated with its management.

  11. Hopes against Hobbes: On Authoritarianism, Regime Legitimation and Soft Power with a Review of Richard C. Bush’s Hong Kong in the Shadow of China: Living with the Leviathan (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Richard C. Bush’s Hong Kong in the shadow of China: Living with the Leviathan (2016 represents an important study on post-“Handover” Hong Kong focusing on the making of the 2014 Occupy Campaign and Umbrella Movement and the impact on the coming development in politics, governance and economy of Hong Kong, taking into consideration China’s Hong Kong policy and the response of the Hong Kong people as well as the perspectives of Taiwan and the United States. This article, while reviewing the book, also provides a detailed analysis of the wider implications of the issues the author of the book has raised as regards Hong Kong – as China’s policy approach towards Hong Kong and by extension Taiwan and the struggle of the Hong Kong people, as well as the Taiwan people, to protect the political freedom and democratic rights they aspire to maintain (in the case of Hong Kong and that they have fought hard to secure (in Taiwan have impacts that reach far beyond Hong Kong and Taiwan in the light of the PRC’s current relentless global projection, riding on the wave of her economic miracle, of her hard and so-called “soft” power in a through an intricate nexus of her domestic and foreign policies that not only serves to strengthen domestic governance and enhance international influence but also involves extraterritorial actions to maintain CCP’s one-party authoritarianism.

  12. Cross-boundary Substance Uses Among Hong Kong Chinese Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Joseph T.F.; Tsui, Hi Yi; Lam, Lawrence T.; Lau, Mason

    2007-01-01

    The study documents the characteristics of Hong Kong residents who used substances in mainland China. Characteristics of such users were compared with those using substances elsewhere. A cross-sectional survey was used. Data analyses were stratified by gender, and multivariate analyses were performed. Respondents, Hong Kong adults aged 18–30 (n = 6,528), were interviewed using a mixed interviewer and computerized mobile phone method, at the Hong Kong-mainland China boundary. Cross-border subs...

  13. The Effect of Language Ability on Chinese Immigrants’ Earning in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Chi Man Ng

    2015-01-01

    After the handover of Hong Kong sovereignty to China in 1997, the language importance gap between English and Putonghua in Hong Kong has been narrowing, even English language is remain an international language and being adopted in legal documents, but foreign investors cannot avoid speaking Putonghua when doing business with Chinese enterprises, these language importance changes provide a new discourse to human capital theorists.  In Hong Kong, natives are desire to be proficient in Putonghu...

  14. Overview of the health care system in Hong Kong and its referential significance to mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangyi; Yang, Yi; Gao, Jun; Guan, Jian; Liu, Yang; Wang, Renzhi; Xing, Bing; Li, Yongning; Ma, Wenbin

    2015-10-01

    Hong Kong's health system was established within the framework of a perfect market-oriented economic matrix, where there are wide-ranging social security and medical service systems. There are many differences in the economic foundations, social systems, and ideologies between Hong Kong and mainland China, therefore, it would probably be entirely impossible to copy Hong Kong's health care system mode. However, under the framework of one country, two systems, the referential significance of relevant concepts of Hong Kong's medical service system to mainland China cannot be ignored, and merits further study. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  15. Fluoride Content of Bottled Waters in Hong Kong and Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulla, Hessa I; Anthonappa, Robert P; King, Nigel M

    2016-01-01

    To determine the F concentration of bottled waters that was available in Hong Kong and Qatar. The F concentrations of bottled waters collected from Hong Kong (n=81) and Qatar (n=32) were analysed. The F ion selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in the samples. Three measurements were obtained for every sample to ensure reproducibility and appropriate statistical analyses were employed. Qatar group: F concentrations ranged from 0.06 ppm to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm. The F concentrations displayed on the labels of the samples (60%) were significantly lower than the measured F concentration (p Qatar. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were not consistent with the measured F concentrations.

  16. Self-reported Stress Problems among Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alan H. S.; Chen, K.; Chong, Elaine Y. L.

    2010-10-01

    The present study was developed to comprehensively investigate the occupational health problems among teachers of primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. A random sample of 1,710 respondents was generated from the database of Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union (HKPTU) members. A self-administrated questionnaire was designed and sent by mail to the teachers of primary and secondary schools in HK. The results indicated that comparing with one year and five years ago, 91.6% and 97.3% of the responding teachers reported an increase of perceived stress level, respectively. Heavy workload and time pressure, education reforms, external school review, pursuing further education, and managing students' behaviour and learning were the most frequently reported sources of work stress. The four most frequently reported stress management activities were sleeping, talking to neighbors and friends, self-relaxing, and watching television, while the least frequently reported activity was doing more exercises or sports.

  17. Report on the international conference and bridge inspection in Singapore and Hong Kong. `97 Singapore and Hong Kong inspector group; Singapore Hong Kong no kokusai kaigi to kyoryo shisatsu hokoku. `97 Singapore Hong Kong shisatsudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, N.; Arai, H.; Shiota, R.; Takagaki, T.; Mori, T.

    1997-07-31

    The 4th International Symposium on Noteworthy Development in Prestressing and Precasting was held in Singapore in July 1997. The `97 Singapore and Hong Kong inspector group was organized by the Japan Prestressed Concrete Engineering Association to participate the symposium and inspect some bridges. The symposium consisted of reading of 17 presented papers (including questions and answers) related to introduction of PC and PCa structures of every country, PCa void lower slab for building floors, bridge, PCa joint, PCa residence, earthquake resistance, and structure analysis. Suzuki`s keynote address `Development and present state of PC road bridges in Japan` classified PC road bridges ranging from an early PC beam bridge to a recent PC cable stayed bridge and PC extra-dosed bridge for every kind and period, and systematically presented the growth of the Japanese highway network and PC bridge. The inspector group visited 3 bridges in Singapore, and 3 bridges in Hong Kong. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Suicide news reporting accuracy and stereotyping in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qijin; Yip, Paul S F

    2012-12-10

    The mass media are often criticized for oversimplifying the causes of suicide and overlooking some of the risk factors. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence to support this assertion. The study aims to examine the accuracy of news reports in Hong Kong (HK) and in particular whether or not such reports stereotype victims according to gender and suicide method. Data from a case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study of 150 HK suicides were utilized. The reports of the PA cases from five major HK newspapers were collected and reviewed to identify whether or not there was a match in terms of the cases' profile and risk factors. The age, gender, and method of the suicides were largely reported correctly (>70%) but accounts of risk factors were seldom accurate (Media stereotyping of gender-specific suicide and charcoal-burning suicide was identified. The study was based on a HK sample so the findings are not necessarily applicable elsewhere. The HK mass media generally demonstrated poor accuracy in reporting suicide risk factors. Their reporting was also problematic in terms of stereotyping gender- and method-specific suicides. Clinical practitioners should be alerted to these findings when working with the media. They can also adopt this novel usage of PA data to extract further information from other PA studies and thereby broaden the investigation of reporting accuracy and stereotyping of suicide to more diverse social contexts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Smoking among Hong Kong Chinese women: behavior, attitudes and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia Sc; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-02-25

    The numbers of women smoking have risen 72.5% since 1990 with the increasing population - from 56,100 to 96,800 in 2012, reflecting an alarming situation in Hong Kong. The study aimed to describe the smoking behaviour, attitudes and associated factors among women in Hong Kong. A qualitative cross-sectional study involving semi-structured interview was conducted with Chinese women from five community centres in different districts in Hong Kong in 2010. A purposive sample of 73 female participants (24 current smokers, 20 ex-smokers and 29 never-smokers) were recruited. The 73 women were classified by their smoking status and age to form 15 focus groups. Most informants knew about the general health hazards of smoking, such as cancer and heart or respiratory diseases, but not about the female-specific health consequences of smoking. A few smokers considered smoking to be a weight control strategy, fearing a gain in weight if they gave up. Moreover, a few relied on smoking as a coping strategy to relieve negative emotions and stress. Additionally, a few smokers had misconceptions about giving up: that a loss of concentration would result, that continued smoking would not further affect their health as they had become desensitised to the chemicals in tobacco smoke or that quitting would harm their health. This study generates new knowledge about the behavior, attitudes, and experiences related to smoking of current female smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers in Hong Kong, which is unique as a Chinese but highly westernized community but with a very low female smoking prevalence.

  20. Sharing Economy in Travel and Tourism: Finland vs. Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Shoaib Ullah, Syed

    2017-01-01

    The key aim of this thesis is to determine how the sharing economy companies, especially sharing accommodation services like Airbnb, are affecting travel and tourism industry in Fin-land and in Hong Kong. The thesis also looks into the future of sharing economy in travel and tourism industry and any possibilities of cooperation between traditional service providers and sharing economy companies. The thesis is commissioned by the Association of Finnish Travel Agents (AFTA/SMAL). In the the...

  1. Indoor air quality at nine shopping malls in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W M; Lee, S C; Chan, L Y

    2001-06-12

    Hong Kong is one of the most attractive shopping paradises in the world. Many local people and international tourists favor to spend their time in shopping malls in Hong Kong. Good indoor air quality is, therefore, very essential to shoppers. In order to characterize the indoor air quality in shopping malls, nine shopping malls in Hong Kong were selected for this study. The indoor air pollutants included carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), formaldehyde (HCHO), respirable particulate matter (PM10) and total bacteria count (TBC). More than 40% of the shopping malls had 1-h average CO2 levels above the 1000 ppm of the ASHRAE standard on both weekdays and weekends. Also, they had average weekday PM10 concentrations that exceeded the Hong Kong Indoor Air Quality Objective (HKIAQO). The highest indoor PM10 level at a mall was 380 microg/m3. Of the malls surveyed, 30% had indoor airborne bacteria levels above 1000 cfu/m3 set by the HKIAQO. The elevated indoor CO2 and bacteria levels could result from high occupancy combined with insufficient ventilation. The increased PM10 levels could be probably attributed to illegal smoking inside these establishments. In comparison, the shopping malls that contained internal public transport drop-off areas, where vehicles were parked with idling engines and had major entry doors close to heavy traffic roads had higher CO and PM10 indoor levels. In addition, the extensive use of cooking stoves without adequate ventilation inside food courts could increase indoor CO2, CO and PM10 levels.

  2. Occupational stress and burnout among Hong Kong dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, H B; Wong, M Cm

    2017-10-01

    Professional burnout has been described as a gradual erosion of a person and may be one of the possible consequences of chronic occupational stress. Although occupational stress has been surveyed among dentists in Hong Kong, no study has been published about burnout in the profession. This study aimed to evaluate burnout among Hong Kong dentists and its association with occupational stress. We surveyed a random sample of 1086 registered dentists in Hong Kong, which formed 50% of the local profession. They were mailed an anonymous questionnaire about burnout and occupational stress in 2015. The questionnaire assessed occupational stress, coping strategies, effects of stress, level of burnout, and socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. Occupational stress assessment concerned 33 stressors in five groups: patient-related, time-related, income-related, job-related, and staff-/technically related. Level of burnout was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (22 items) with three scores: emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and personal accomplishment. Completed questionnaires were received from 301 dentists (response rate, 28.3%), of whom 25.4% had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 17.2% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 39.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Only 7.0% of respondents, however, had a high level of overall burnout (high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalisation, and low personal accomplishment). A high level of overall burnout was significantly associated with a higher mean score for job-related stressors and lack of postgraduate qualifications (Poccupational stressors experienced by dentists in Hong Kong. In spite of this, a low proportion of dentists have a high level of overall burnout. There was a positive association between occupational stress and level of burnout.

  3. An exploratory study of illegal gamblers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tessler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigates the nature and behaviour of illegal gamblers in Hong Kong. A face-to-face street survey of 512 gamblers was conducted in Hong Kong between September and December 2015 with supplementary convenience sampling allowing for analysis of a total sample of 103 illegal gamblers. 56% of illegal gamblers recorded results consistent with this study’s definition of ‘excessive gambling’ [i.e. moderate risk and problem gamblers under the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI]. 81% of surveyed illegal gamblers were male, 77% were aged between 30 and 49 and 67% were in blue collar occupations. Illegal gamblers bet more frequently on both legal and illegal games than their legal counterparts and spent more when they did bet. While this research did not indicate the direction of causality between illegal and excessive gambling, international work (de Bruin et al. in verslingerd aan meer dan een spel: Een onderzoek naar de aard en omvang van kansspelproblematiek in Nederland, WODC/CVO, Utrecht, http://www.lexandgaming.eu/nl/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Verslingerd-aan-meer-dan-een-spel.pdf , 2005; Binde in What are the most harmful forms of gambling? Analysing problem gambling prevalence surveys, http://www.utbildning.gu.se/digitalAssets/1327/1327132_cefos-wp12.pdf , 2011 suggests that excessive gamblers are drawn to illegal gambling. Reform could allow excessive gambling by illegal gamblers to be better addressed and initial work suggests some financial benefits to Hong Kong.

  4. Marital Satisfaction Trends in Hong Kong Between 2002 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul

    2016-07-03

    Macrosocial changes may generate influences on marital quality. This study used data from the 2002-2012 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice surveys conducted by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong to track the trends of marital satisfaction of both husbands and wives over a 10-year period in Hong Kong, with associated factors. Results indicated that 85% of the husbands and around 80% of the wives reported that they were satisfied with their marital relationships, and no significant changes in general were observed for them between 2002 and 2012 except for some subgroups. Husbands aged 45-49 years, in employment and whose monthly household income between 25,000 HKD and 39,999 HKD, reported marital satisfaction decreased over the past 10 years and wives with primary education or below also reported a decreasing trend during this period. Education and family income had positive influences on the husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction, and husbands were more likely to be sensitive to the unemployment. Less than one-third of couples needed professional counseling on family-related issues, and couple conflicts and work-family conflicts were the urgent needs that should be given priority in delivering services. The implications of this study are discussed in the Chinese context of Hong Kong.

  5. The Mouse That Roared: The Democratic Movement in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Dirlik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The popular uprising in recent years in Hong Kong – “Occupy Central” a.k.a. Umbrella Movement – has again brought to the fore the question of the Special Administrative Region’s relationship with Mainland China post-1997 “handover” of the territory by the British colonial government to the People’s Republic of China. This article argues that the protests have their origins in a consciousness born of the anxieties provoked by the prospect of unification in the 1980s and 1990s, further evolved against the background of the unstable “one country, two systems” arrangement openly favoring the corporate and financial ruling class in Hong Kong which is in turn prepared to align its interests with those of the Communist regime in a mutually beneficial relationship. It also posits while the upheaval in Hong Kong bears similarities to other “Occupy” movements elsewhere in the economic issues that inform it, it may be viewed as the latest chapter in a narrative that goes back to the 1980s – the emergence of a neoliberal global capitalism of which the PRC has been an integral component, and the Tiananmen movement which was one of the earliest expressions of the social and political strains created by shifts in the global economy.

  6. Hair as an indicator of environmental exposure in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, L.S.

    1978-01-01

    Eleven human hair samples were taken from the Chinese residents of Hong Kong for the study of hair trace elemental level and environmental exposure. Absolute neutron-activation analysis and Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometry were applied for the determination of the trace elemental level. After washing, each hair sample was air-dried at room temperature in acetone and water. The hair was weighed and encapsulated into the irradiation container. Typical sample weight was about 150 mg. The samples were irradiated at a neutron flux of 4.4x10 13 nxcm -2 xs -1 . Conditions of the irradiations and counting are tabulated. The trace element content of hair from a drug addict was found to be considerably different from other sampled peopie. Comparison of the normal concentrations of the trace elements of the Chinese residents of Hong Kong was made with those from people of various other national, socio-cultural and environmental backgrounds. It was found that together with a few other trace elements, Ni, Sr, Zr, and Hg content of the Chinese residents of Hong Kong show a higher level than those of the other sampled people. Tabulated data are given. (T.G.)

  7. Suicidality among Hong Kong nurses: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Lee, Paul H; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-04-01

    The study estimates the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of suicidality among professional nurses in Hong Kong. Suicide rates among middle-aged employed groups have been increasing over the past few decades. There is a concern that medical occupational groups worldwide are at elevated risk of suicide. Nonetheless there are few population-based studies of suicide dealing with working-age Asian nurses. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected in Hong Kong over 4 weeks from October-November 2013. Statistical methods including descriptive analysis and univariate and multivariate cumulative logit modelling were used to examine the weighted prevalence rates of past-year suicidality and its associated factors in nurses. A total of 850 nurses participated in the study; 14·9% of participants had contemplated suicide while 2·9% had attempted suicide once or more in the past year. Women report suicidal thoughts or attempts more often than men. Religion, poor health, deliberate self-harm, depressive symptoms and poor self-perceived physical and mental health were significantly associated with nurses' suicidality. Nurse professionals are not immune from mental health issues. Hong Kong's local health authority should put in place a raft of suicide prevention initiatives to promote mental wellness in the profession. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: the Hong Kong experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kelvin K; Lo, Chung Mau; Chan, See Ching; Chok, Kenneth S; Cheung, Tan-To; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2010-09-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the best treatment option for selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with the background of cirrhosis since this treatment modality can cure both diseases at once. Over the years, the applicability of OLT for HCC has evolved. In Asia, including Hong Kong, a shortage of deceased donor liver grafts is a universal problem having to be faced in all transplant centers. Living-donor liver transplant (LDLT) has therefore been developed to counteract organ shortage and the high prevalence of HCC. The application of LDLT for HCC is a complex process involving donor voluntarism, selection criteria for the recipient and justification with respect to long-term survival in comparison to the result of deceased donor liver transplant. This article reviews the authors' experience with OLT for HCC patients in Hong Kong, with emphasis on the applicability and outcome of LDLT for HCC. Donor voluntarism has a significant impact on the application of LDLT. "Fast-track" LDLT in the setting of recurrence following curative treatment carries a high risk of recurrence even though the tumor stage fulfills the standard criteria. Although the survival outcome may be worse following LDLT than DDLT for HCC, LDLT is still the main treatment option for patients with transplantable HCC in Hong Kong, and a reasonable survival outcome can be achieved in selected patients with extended indications. It is particularly true that LDLT provides the only hope for patients with advanced HCC under the constricting problem of organ shortage.

  9. Workplace violence towards nurses in Hong Kong: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S F

    2017-02-14

    Nurses are especially vulnerable to violent and other forms of aggression in the workplace. Nonetheless, few population-based studies of workplace violence have been undertaken among working-age nurse professionals in Hong Kong in the last decade. The study estimates the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of workplace violence (WPV) among professional nurses in Hong Kong. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Multivariate logistic regression examines the weighted prevalence rates of WPV and its associated factors for a population of nurses. A total of 850 nurses participated in the study. 44.6% had experienced WPV in the preceding year. Male nurses reported more WPV than their female counterparts. The most common forms of WPV were verbal abuse/bullying (39.2%), then physical assault (22.7%) and sexual harassment (1.1%). The most common perpetrators of WPV were patients (36.6%) and their relatives (17.5%), followed by colleagues (7.7%) and supervisors (6.3%). Clinical position, shift work, job satisfaction, recent disturbances with colleagues, deliberate self-harm (DSH) and symptoms of anxiety were significantly correlated with WPV for nurses. WPV remains a significant concern for healthcare worldwide. Hong Kong's local health authority should put in place a raft of zero-tolerance measures to prevent WPV in healthcare settings.

  10. Understanding the Underwater Behaviour of Scuba Divers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shan-shan; Au, Alfred; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2013-04-01

    Diving-related activities may constitute a major threat to coral reefs. This study aimed to quantify the impact of diving in Hong Kong on hard corals and understand how socio-economic characteristics and experience level of divers influence diver-inflicted damage. We recorded and analysed the underwater behaviour of 81 recreational divers. On average, a diver was in contact with marine biota 14.7 times with about 40 % of contacts involved corals and 38 % were damaging contacts with corals or other biota in a single dive. The most harm-inflicting groups included inexperienced and camera-carrying divers. Although Hong Kong divers did not make many damaging contacts with corals, there is still an imminent need to determine the scale of damage from diving activities on the marine ecosystem given the rapid development of marine-based tourism and the limited coral-inhabited areas in Hong Kong where the marine environment is already under stress from anthropogenic activities.

  11. Working with extreme urban density: Hong Kong. A prototype of mixed-use building in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Wing-Chung; Varela, Joana

    2008-01-01

    Urban sprawl, a solution to house fast-growing metropolitan populations, dilutes the substance of cities and generates extensive uniformly built fabrics lacking structural poles of attraction. Hong Kong is one of the seldom exceptions of this general tendency. Constrained by its geographic conditions and its historical background, the city has remained compact and reached elevated levels of density. This extreme concentration of population and its impact upon urban form constitute an excellen...

  12. Prosocial attributes, positive identity, and cognitive-behavioral competence as buffer against the detrimental impact of childhood maltreatment on mental health : The case of Hong Kong and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, Cyrus L.K.; Bender, M.; Kwok, Sylvia Y.C.L.

    2018-01-01

    Background This study tests the buffering effects of positive youth development (PYD) factors against depression and suicidal ideation across Hong Kong and Dutch students. Methods We collected data on depression, suicidal ideation, history of childhood maltreatment, and PYD from 565 Dutch and Hong

  13. Modeling of Monthly Residential and Commercial Electricity Consumption Using Nonlinear Seasonal Models—The Case of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Ming To

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modeling and forecasting monthly electricity consumption are the keys to optimizing energy management and planning. This paper examines the seasonal characteristics of electricity consumption in Hong Kong—a subtropical city with 7 million people. Using the data from January 1970 to December 2014, two novel nonlinear seasonal models for electricity consumption in the residential and commercial sectors were obtained. The models show that the city’s monthly residential and commercial electricity consumption patterns have different seasonal variations. Specifically, monthly residential electricity consumption (mainly for appliances and cooling in summer has a quadratic relationship with monthly mean air temperature, while monthly commercial electricity consumption has a linear relationship with monthly mean air temperature. The nonlinear seasonal models were used to predict residential and commercial electricity consumption for the period January 2015–December 2016. The correlations between the predicted and actual values were 0.976 for residential electricity consumption and 0.962 for commercial electricity consumption, respectively. The root mean square percentage errors for the predicted monthly residential and commercial electricity consumption were 7.0% and 6.5%, respectively. The new nonlinear seasonal models can be applied to other subtropical urban areas, and recommendations on the reduction of commercial electricity consumption are given.

  14. Not so great expectations: sex and housewives in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ho, Petula Sik

    2008-01-01

    The study explores the life of married women who are being described as having "good," "normal," "blessed" sexuality. The case of si-nais (housewives) in Hong Kong shows that we can never assume that married women (or any social category) are privileged by virtue of their status on the sexual hierarchy. The blessings of social respectability apparently enjoyed by these women may work to enable or hinder women's expression of their erotic desires and sexual fulfillment, depending on their special social circumstances. These women's imagination and experience of good sex is composed of a multitude of components. Women may feel good because they can achieve other psychological and social aims that are important in their lives (which could be related to the maintenance of marriage or the peace of the family). Women may feel good because of the erotic satisfaction that they derive from different pursuits including interests, leisure or other intimate relationships, rather than sexual fulfillment in terms of orgasm or physical pleasure. Women may reformulate their pleasure variously at different stages of their lives. Social respectability, orgasm, emotional intimacy, or any other specific element, may all enter or leave the formula for good sex.

  15. The Long-Term Impact of Service-Learning on Graduates' Civic Engagement and Career Exploration in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hok-ka, Carol Ma; Wing-fung, Chad Chan; Cheung-ming, Alfred Chan

    2016-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is a relatively new pedagogy in Hong Kong and so far, no study of SL's long-term impact in Hong Kong exists. To explore SL's impacts on Hong Kong students, researchers conducted a quantitative study to compare graduates with SL experience to graduates without SL experience in terms of three domains: (1) adaptability, brain…

  16. All for the Winner: An Analysis of the Characterization of Male Gamblers in Hong Kong Movies with Gambling Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi Chuen; Ohtsuka, Keis

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the characterization of male gamblers in popular Hong Kong movies in the past 50 years. A total of nine Hong Kong films with gambling themes were selected for analysis. The criteria for selection of the films were as follows: the movies in which the protagonists are portrayed by well known Hong Kong actors that…

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from cities and regions: International implications revealed by Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Paul G.; Chow, Alice S.Y.; Symons, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting methodologies currently utilized by cities around the world make meaningful comparisons of their emissions almost impossible. Consequently, the 2010 United Nations International Standard for Determining Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Cities promotes a “harmonized protocol for quantifying the GHG emissions attributable to cities and local regions.” The UN's common standard has important implications for comparison, benchmarking and policy assessment related to energy policies. This paper uses Hong Kong as a case study to illustrate these implications. Hong Kong's per capita contribution to GHG emissions are among the highest in the world, yet the local government's official statistics indicate emissions that are far below those reported by most affluent economies. This discrepancy arises from a reporting methodology that does not require inclusion of GHG emissions linked to consumption of imported goods or emissions from aviation and shipping. The Hong Kong case reveals that current inventories do not provide sufficient information to guide policymaking related to energy and climate change. They also do not provide adequate information for comparing policies of cities internationally. Alternative emissions-reporting standards that focus more on pollution from consumption will create avenues for more effective climate-related policies. - Highlights: ► Flawed GHG inventory methodologies can lead cities to adopt misguided policies. ► Diverse GHG inventory methodologies make meaningful comparisons among cities difficult. ► A Hong Kong case study highlights that GHG inventories can misrepresent cities' climate impacts. ► City inventories often exclude GHG emissions linked to imports, aviation and shipping. ► The International Standard for Determining GHG Emissions for Cities can assist climate policy.

  18. Evaluating health-promoting schools in Hong Kong: development of a framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Albert; Cheng, Frances F K; St Leger, Lawry

    2005-06-01

    Health-promoting schools (HPS)/healthy schools have existed internationally for about 15 years. Yet there are few comprehensive evaluation frameworks available which enable the outcomes of HPS initiatives to be assessed. This paper identifies an evaluation framework developed in Hong Kong. The framework uses a range of approaches to explore what schools actually do in their health promotion and health education initiatives. The framework, which is based on the WHO (Western Pacific Regional Office) Guidelines for HPS, is described in detail. The appropriate instruments for data collection are described and their origins identified. The evaluation plan and protocol, which underpinned the very comprehensive evaluation in Hong Kong, are explained. Finally, a case is argued for evaluation of HPS to be more in line with the educational dynamics of schools and the research literature on effective schooling, rather than focusing primarily on health-related measures.

  19. Identity and Sense of Belonging in Post-Colonial Education in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuah-Pearce, Khun Eng; Fong, Yiu-Chak

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the construction of local and national identities among secondary school students in post-colonial Hong Kong. As a Chinese society that has undergone a prolonged period of British colonial rule, the reunification of capitalist Hong Kong with the motherland under socialism in 1997 has set the context for a negotiation of…

  20. A Model of Active Ageing through Elder Learning: The Elder Academy Network in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the Elder Academy (EA) Network as the policy and practice in promoting active ageing through elder learning in Hong Kong. First, the article examines how the change in demographics and the prevalent trend of an ageing population have propelled the government in Hong Kong to tackle issues and challenges brought about by an…

  1. Letter from Hong Kong: A Report on Chinese Food, Fake Apples, and IBM's Asian Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, A. Richard

    1984-01-01

    Notes that microcomputer use in Hong Kong's small business community does not reflect the growth of its high-tech electronics industry and discusses IBM's influence in Hong Kong and Asia, the counterfeiting of Apple microcomputers and software, and why Apple currently has no recourse. (MBR)

  2. Hong Kong and China: 'One Country, Two Systems'? Headline Series No. 310.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Frank

    This booklet chronicles the emergence of Hong Kong through its stormy history and examines the current status as changes are underway with the return of Hong Kong to China. Maps and charts illustrate the text. Chapters include: (1) Prelude; (2) "The Tiananmen Massacre and Its Aftermath"; (3) "Transition Years: 1991-96"; (4)…

  3. Dancing with Global Trends: Higher Education Policy and University Governance in Hong Kong, 1997-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Tang, Hei-Hang Hayes

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the significance of global trends in higher education (HE) development in Hong Kong between 1997 and 2012. Two trends, massification and internationalisation, are considered key driving forces that shaped Hong Kong's HE policy during the period. The former refers to government measures to widen participation in HE. The latter…

  4. School Adjustment, Social Support, and Mental Health of Mainland Chinese College Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Raymond Chi-Fai; Chan, Chi-Keung

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of school adjustment and social support with the mental health of mainland Chinese college students studying in Hong Kong. During the spring semester in 2011, 384 mainland Chinese college students across the postsecondary institutions in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire. Results showed that better school…

  5. The Challenges for Educational Achievements of Young Mainland Chinese Migrants in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu-Cheung

    2011-01-01

    Hong Kong's population has increased by around one million per decade from the end of World War II till the 1990s. A large proportion of this growth came from the mass influx of migrants from Mainland China, and the children born to them. During the 1960s and 1970s when Hong Kong's economy was booming rapidly, career advancement opportunities were…

  6. Emotional Autonomy and Perceived Parenting Styles: Relational Analysis in the Hong Kong Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok Wai; Chan, Siu Mui

    2009-01-01

    Three hundred and seven teacher education students of a Hong Kong university were administered two questionnaires, one measuring emotional autonomy (EAS) and the other measuring perceived parenting styles (PAQ) of their parents. It was found that the Hong Kong teacher education students tended to be autonomous and they characterized their parents…

  7. Social Development in Hong Kong: Development Issues Identified by Social Development Index (SDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Hoi-wai; Wong, Anthony K. W.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Surviving the aftermaths of the Asian Financial Crisis and SARS in 2003, Hong Kong's economy has re-gained its momentum and its economic growth has been quite remarkable too in recent few years. Nevertheless, as reflected by the Social Development Index (SDI), economic growth in Hong Kong does not seem to have benefited the people of the city at…

  8. Acculturation Attitudes and Sociocultural Adaptation of Chinese Mainland Sojourners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanyi; Wang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Within these years, there has been a significant increase in the number of Chinese Mainland sojourners studying in Hong Kong. Due to the huge differences in various aspects like language, culture, cultural value, it would be considerably difficult for the Chinese Mainland students to adapt to the Hong Kong environment. This article investigates…

  9. Liberal Studies Reform in Hong Kong Secondary Education: Contrasting Desirability with Feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Ping Kwan

    2016-01-01

    In major curriculum reforms, there are inevitably gaps between design and implementation issues, taking the introduction of liberal studies (LS) into the senior secondary curriculum in Hong Kong as a classic example. The current paper illustrates how the implementation of LS as a compulsory core subject has impacted noticeably on Hong Kong senior…

  10. Science and Biology Assessment in Hong Kong--Progress and Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, May Hung; Cheung, Wing Ming Francis

    2005-01-01

    A paper was published in JBE in 2001 which examined the background of the education reform launched in 2000 in Hong Kong, and reviewed existing practices as well as beliefs in science and biology assessment among secondary teachers in Hong Kong. The direction of the reform was to take the emphasis away from public examinations as the sole…

  11. Cantonese-English Code-Switching Research in Hong Kong: A Y2K Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David C. S.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the major works on code switching in Hong Kong to date. Four context-specific motivations commonly found in the Hong Kong Chinese Press--euphemism, specificity, bilingual punning, and principle of economy--are adduced to show that English is one of the important linguistic resources used by Chinese Hongkongers to fulfill a variety of…

  12. Talking about AIDS in Hong Kong: Cultural Models in Public Health Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rodney H.

    A study explored the issues of cultural identity and interaction in public health discourse concerning Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in Hong Kong's multilingual, multicultural social context. Twenty public service announcements (PSAs) concerning AIDS awareness televised in both English and Cantonese in Hong Kong from 1987 to 1994 were…

  13. Dealing with Change in Hong Kong Schools Using Strategic Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung; Pisapia, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation into the strategic thinking skills of school leaders in Hong Kong. By adapting the Strategic Thinking Questionnaire in the school context and based on data self-reported from 543 Hong Kong school leaders, three cognitive capabilities with strategic thinking were identified: reflection, systems thinking and…

  14. Flânerie and Acrophilia in the Postmetropolis: Rooftops in Hong Kong Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Y.F.; de Kloet, J.

    2014-01-01

    Living in the spectacle of Hong Kong's skyscape, how often do its dwellers actually see, not to mention reach, its rooftops? Intriguingly, despite their apparent ephemerality and inaccessibility, the vertical fringes of the city feature frequently in Hong Kong cinema: the rooftop. In this article,

  15. Quality assurance programme for environmental radioactivity measurements at the Hong Kong observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.C.; Mok, H.Y.

    1999-01-01

    The Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) runs an Environmental Radiation Monitoring Programme (ERMP) to monitor the environmental radiation levels in Hong Kong. In the ERMP, about 400 environmental samples are delivered to the HKO Radiation Laboratory each year for alpha, beta and gamma measurements. The quality of the radiation measurements is assured through an internal quality assurance programme and inter-laboratory comparison exercises

  16. Trends and Developments of Higher Education Research in Hong Kong: In Pursuit of a Cosmopolitan Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Ng, Felix Sai Kit

    2015-01-01

    With the processes of inter- and intranationalization, higher education in Hong Kong has been rapidly expanding in an effort to develop the city into a regional education hub. This article explores the trends and developments of higher education research (HER) in Hong Kong in the context of inter- and intranationalization. By drawing on the data…

  17. A Pilot Study of Using Jazz Warm Up Exercises in Primary School Choir in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jason Chi Wai; Lee, Han Wai

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study is to examine whether it is valuable to implement jazz choral practice in Hong Kong primary school setting. The findings can serve as a reference to explore the possibilities of promoting jazz education in Asian countries or in China. The participants were 70 public primary school students from grade 2 to 5 in Hong Kong. All…

  18. The Development of Local Private Primary and Secondary Schooling in Hong Kong, 1841-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Randall, E. Vance; Tam, Man Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is a historical review of the development of private primary and secondary education in Hong Kong from 1841-2012. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolving relationship between the state and private schools in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes sources from published official documents,…

  19. Homework Involvement and Functions: Perceptions of Hong Kong Chinese Primary School Students and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vicky C. W.; Chan, Raymond M. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of Chinese students and parents in Hong Kong on homework involvement, assignment type and homework functions. The relationships of homework perceptions to student and parent attributes are also assessed. The sample includes 1393 pairs of students and their parents from 36 primary schools in Hong Kong. Findings…

  20. Prevalence of Insomnia and Its Psychosocial Correlates among College Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, C. Y.; Wong, W. S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the prevalence of insomnia and its psychosocial correlates among college students in Hong Kong. Participants: A total of 529 Hong Kong college students participated in the study. Methods: Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Revised Life…

  1. Earth Sciences as a Vehicle for Gifted Education--The Hong Kong Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Phillip J.; Chan, Lung Sang; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The development and delivery of an Earth-science-focused short course designed to prepare Hong Kong students for university level study is described. Earth sciences provide an inspirational and challenging context for learning and teaching in Hong Kong's increasingly skills-based curriculum. (Contains 3 figures and 4 online resources.)

  2. Predictors of Suicide Ideation and Depression in Hong Kong Adolescents: Perceptions of Academic and Family Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Margaret T. Y.; Wong, Betty P.; Chow, Bonnie W.-Y.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The unique dimensions of perceptions of school and family contributing to depression and suicide ideation in Hong Kong adolescents were examined in two studies. In Study 1, among 327 Hong Kong Chinese female students ages 13-18, 47% reported some suicide ideation. Suicide ideation was significantly associated with depression, test anxiety,…

  3. Portrayals of Pro-Beijing Workers' Night Schools in Hong Kong from 1946 to Post-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chui Shan

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the transformation of pro-Beijing labour education in the socio-political context of Hong Kong. It explores the reasons that Hong Kong pro-Beijing educators initiated Workers' Night Schools for adults; the organisation of schools in many locales and the transformation of labour education that workers received in these…

  4. Ideology, Linguistic Capital and the Medium of Instruction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Keith; Lui, Icy

    2000-01-01

    Examines the links between linguistic capital, cultural capital, linguistic imperialism, and the use of English as the medium of instruction (MOI) in Hong Kong. Suggests that the notion of linguistic imperialism in Hong Kong is superceded by the notion of linguistic capital, although neither presents a complete analysis of the MOI issue in Hong…

  5. Opening up a Road to Somewhere: Development of Associate Degree Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wincy W. S.

    2014-01-01

    Associate (community college) degrees have expanded rapidly in the past decade in Hong Kong, but their value has been questioned due to the limited number of government-funded articulation opportunities available. This paper argues that associate degrees in Hong Kong are not valued solely for articulation purposes, but also for nurturing students'…

  6. Mental health literacy: A cross-cultural study from Britain, Hong Kong and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Phik-Wern; Wong, Sharon; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    A cross-cultural study was conducted on the identification of psychiatric problems comparing British, Hong Kong and Malaysian participants. To investigate the ability to correctly identify different psychiatric problems and recommend strategies for treatment. A total of 440 participants were shown vignettes of schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social phobia, depression, bipolar disorder, stress, child attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), child depression and child "daily troubles". In each they were asked to say what they thought the person's problem was and how they could be helped as well as give their confidence ratings on both judgments. The British were the most adept at correctly identifying the cases of mental disorders in the vignettes followed by the Hong Kong Chinese and Malaysians. Overall, the depression cases were the best identified and social phobia was the least identified. In terms of help recommendation, a higher percentage of British participants endorsed professional help as useful for the person in the vignette compared to Hong Kong and Malaysian participants. The findings were discussed along with suggestions on how to improve mental health literacy. The ethnocentric nature of applying Western concepts in the East was acknowledged. Copyright © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Post-Umbrella Movement: Localism and Radicalness of the Hong Kong Student Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-po Chan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong student movements before the Umbrella Movement showed a political outlook of voicing within norm of the establishment, using “peaceful, rational and non-violent” approaches, acknowledging the authorities of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR and mainland Chinese governments and recognizing attachment to the motherland China. Today’s new emerging political outlook of the Hong Kong student movement has a profile of anti-establishment, using more assertive means and not excluding radical behaviour, distrust of the HKSAR and mainland authorities and assertion of radical localism. In the last two years, Hong Kong students have undergone a rapid change in their orientation, resulting in today’s outlook. This paper argues that the Umbrella Movement is the key for the turnaround and it testifies to the birth of a new social and political consciousness amongst Hong Kong students.

  8. Economic and socio-cultural impacts of Mainland Chinese tourists on Hong Kong residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisa Piuchan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the economic and socio-cultural impacts from the burgeoning mainland Chinese tourists on Hong Kong residents. Ten individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect Hong Kong residents' views. Content analysis was employed to analyze the data. The results showed that the socio-cultural aspects were reported negatively with regard to culture, shopping and dining, and transportation but conversely, it had a positive impact on education and infrastructure. The economic aspect showed that residents accepted and appreciated the economic benefits brought by the inflow of mainland Chinese tourists. The Hong Kong government should consider these impacts, and then provide better solutions for residents' lives and plans to cope with the upcoming scenario which might arise regarding Hong Kong's economic boom and more tourists traveling to Hong Kong. Recommendations are also suggested in this study for further development. Keywords: Chinese tourists, economic impacts, socio-cultural impacts, tourism impacts

  9. The stroller in the virtual city: Spatial practice of Hong Kong players in Sleeping Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping Dogs is an open-world role-playing game developed by United Front Games, a Canadian Studio based in Vancouver, in conjunction with Square Enix London Studios and released by Square Enix in 2012. The game features the city of Hong Kong and the society of Chinese Triads. While the game itself is mainly a representation of post-colonial Hong Kong targeting a transnational audience entrenched in similar gameplay mechanics of the genre, the native Hong Kong players react to these reconstructions of Hong Kong through their own gameplay and unique interpretations. The virtual city is not a static representation but a congruence of vigorous interactions between the originally designed space and gamic actions of the players. This paper seeks to explore the spatial and bodily practices of Sleeping Dogs players in the virtual terrain of Hong Kong through the lens of Lefebvre’s spatial theory.

  10. Workplace violence towards nurses in Hong Kong: prevalence and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses are especially vulnerable to violent and other forms of aggression in the workplace. Nonetheless, few population-based studies of workplace violence have been undertaken among working-age nurse professionals in Hong Kong in the last decade. Methods The study estimates the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of workplace violence (WPV among professional nurses in Hong Kong. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Multivariate logistic regression examines the weighted prevalence rates of WPV and its associated factors for a population of nurses. Results A total of 850 nurses participated in the study. 44.6% had experienced WPV in the preceding year. Male nurses reported more WPV than their female counterparts. The most common forms of WPV were verbal abuse/bullying (39.2%, then physical assault (22.7% and sexual harassment (1.1%. The most common perpetrators of WPV were patients (36.6% and their relatives (17.5%, followed by colleagues (7.7% and supervisors (6.3%. Clinical position, shift work, job satisfaction, recent disturbances with colleagues, deliberate self-harm (DSH and symptoms of anxiety were significantly correlated with WPV for nurses. Conclusions WPV remains a significant concern for healthcare worldwide. Hong Kong’s local health authority should put in place a raft of zero-tolerance measures to prevent WPV in healthcare settings.

  11. Nurturing Gifted and Talented Students to Become Future Leaders: The Innovative Curriculum for the Gifted and/or Talented at GT College in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Raymond Kwok-Wai

    2017-01-01

    In the previous literature on gifted education in Hong Kong, there has been little mention of special schools for gifted and/or talented students in Hong Kong except for GT College, Hong Kong's first college for the gifted. Some notable researchers in gifted education in Hong Kong have described the college briefly with regard to its admission…

  12. Long-term care cost drivers and expenditure projection to 2036 in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Wai

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hong Kong's rapidly ageing population, characterised by one of the longest life expectancies and the lowest fertility rate in the world, is likely to drive long-term care (LTC expenditure higher. This study aims to identify key cost drivers and derive quantitative estimates of Hong Kong's LTC expenditure to 2036. Methods We parameterised a macro actuarial simulation with data from official demographic projections, Thematic Household Survey 2004, Hong Kong's Domestic Health Accounts and other routine data from relevant government departments, Hospital Authority and other LTC service providers. Base case results were tested against a wide range of sensitivity assumptions. Results Total projected LTC expenditure as a proportion of GDP reflected secular trends in the elderly dependency ratio, showing a shallow dip between 2004 and 2011, but thereafter yielding a monotonic rise to reach 3.0% by 2036. Demographic changes would have a larger impact than changes in unit costs on overall spending. Different sensitivity scenarios resulted in a wide range of spending estimates from 2.2% to 4.9% of GDP. The availability of informal care and the setting of formal care as well as associated unit costs were important drivers of expenditure. Conclusion The "demographic window" between the present and 2011 is critical in developing policies to cope with the anticipated burgeoning LTC burden, in concert with the related issues of health care financing and retirement planning.

  13. Drug overdosage and other poisoning in Hong Kong--the Prince of Wales Hospital (Shatin) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T Y; Critchley, J A; Chan, M T; Yu, C M

    1994-07-01

    From 1988 to 1991, 732 patients (91.1% Chinese) were admitted to four general medical wards at the Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong with acute poisoning. The patients were predominantly female (68.9%) and relatively young (86.3% below the age of 40). Further analysis of 655 patients indicates that the vast majority of patients (96%) were admitted after self-poisoning with drugs or chemicals while 4% of cases were due to accidental poisoning. The main agents used by the former group included hypnotics/sedatives (33.1%), household products (15.7%), and analgesics (13.7%). There were nine deaths (1.4%). When compared to other Western countries, two important variations in the pattern of acute poisoning were seen. A substantial proportion of drugs ingested by our patients were not precisely identified. 'Dettol', a household product, was commonly used for self-poisoning in Hong Kong. Territory-wide studies of longer duration are needed to provide the physicians in Hong Kong with much needed information on the incidence and the pattern of acute poisoning.

  14. Exploring Organisational Stratification and Technological Pedagogical Change: Cases of Technology Integration Specialists in Hong Kong International Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, David James

    2015-01-01

    An international school may make organisational choices that divide the school by curriculum, grade-level, language and location. This article explores how a school's organisational stratification impacts how the school supports changing teaching and learning practices through technology. The article draws from case data of technology integration…

  15. Postgraduate education for Chinese medicine practitioners: a Hong Kong perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Stewart W

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite Hong Kong government's official commitment to the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM over the last ten years, there appears to have been limited progress in public sector initiated career development and postgraduate training (PGT for public university trained TCM practitioners. Instead, the private TCM sector is expected to play a major role in nurturing the next generation of TCM practitioners. In the present study we evaluated TCM graduates' perspectives on their career prospects and their views regarding PGT. Method Three focus group discussions with 19 local TCM graduates who had worked full time in a clinical setting for fewer than 5 years. Results Graduates were generally uncertain about how to develop their career pathways in Hong Kong with few postgraduate development opportunities; because of this some were planning to leave the profession altogether. Despite their expressed needs, they were dissatisfied with the current quality of local PGT and suggested various ways for improvement including supervised practice-based learning, competency-based training, and accreditation of training with trainee involvement in design and evaluation. In addition they identified educational needs beyond TCM, in particular a better understanding of western medicine and team working so that primary care provision might be more integrated in the future. Conclusion TCM graduates in Hong Kong feel let down by the lack of public PGT opportunities which is hindering career development. To develop a new generation of TCM practitioners with the capacity to provide quality and comprehensive care, a stronger role for the government, including sufficient public funding, in promoting TCM graduates' careers and training development is suggested. Recent British and Australian experiences in prevocational western medicine training reform may serve as a source of references when relevant program for TCM graduates is planned in

  16. Health Profile of Construction Workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert

    2016-12-13

    Construction is a manual, heavy, and complex sector concerning the most fatal accidents and high incidence of occupational illnesses and injuries resulting in days away from work. In Hong Kong, "Pilot Medical Examination Scheme for Construction Workers" was launched in 2014 to detect the health problems of their construction workforce. All registered workers under the Construction Workers Registration Board are eligible to join the scheme. The purpose of this paper is to assess the physical condition, physiological status, and musculoskeletal disorders of 942 construction workers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a two-phase design, which includes a basic medical examination to measure the workers' physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, resting heart rate, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, liver function test, and renal function test; as well as a face-to-face interview following the medical examination to collect their demographic information and pain experience. Individual characteristics, including gender, age, obesity, alcohol drinking habit, and sleeping habit influenced the health condition of construction workers. Among the participants, 36.1% and 6.5% of them were overweight and obese, respectively. In addition, 43.0%, 38.4%, 16.2%, and 13.9% of the participants exceeded the thresholds of cholesterol, blood pressure, urea nitrogen, and uric urea, correspondingly. Moreover, 41.0% of the participants suffered musculoskeletal pain, where the most frequent painful parts occur in the lower back, shoulder, knees, leg, and neck. Through these findings, a series of important issues that need to be addressed is pointed out in terms of maintaining the physical well-being and reducing musculoskeletal disorders of construction workers. The finding may have implications for formulating proper intervention strategies for the sustainable development of Hong Kong's construction industry.

  17. Electronic cigarette awareness and use among adults in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Chen, Jing; Wang, Man-Ping; McGhee, Sarah M; Kwong, Antonio C S; Lai, Vienna W Y; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have gained popularity rapidly in the Western world but data in the East are scarce. We examined the awareness and ever use of e-cigarettes, and reasons for e-cigarette use in a probability sample of adults in Hong Kong. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2014 from Chinese adults aged 15-65 in Hong Kong (819 never smokers, 800 former smokers, 800 current smokers) via computer-assisted telephone interviews (response rate: 73.8%). Analysis was limited to a subset of 809 respondents (i.e., 357 never smokers, 269 former smokers, 183 current smokers) who were randomly selected to answer questions on e-cigarettes. Chi-square analyses compared e-cigarette awareness and ever use by gender, age, education, and cigarette smoking status. Multivariable logistic regression examined if e-cigarette awareness was associated with demographic variables and cigarette smoking status. 75.4% of adults had heard of e-cigarettes, and 2.3% reported having used e-cigarettes. Greater awareness was associated with male gender and higher education. Ever use of e-cigarettes was higher among males (3.6%, p=.03), younger adults (aged 15-29, 5.2%, p=.002), and current cigarette smokers (11.8%, preasons for using e-cigarettes were curiosity (47.4%), the stylish product design (25.8%), and quitting smoking (13.6%). Awareness of e-cigarettes was widespread in Hong Kong. Although the use of e-cigarettes was low, its relation with younger age and current smoking is of concern. Health surveillance of e-cigarette use is needed. Interventions should target young adults and cigarette smokers, and address the marketing messages, especially the effect of e-cigarettes on smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between Vision and Visual Perception in Hong Kong Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wing-Cheung; Tang, Minny Mei-Miu; Fu, Ching-Wah; Leung, Ka-Yan; Pang, Peter Chi-Kong; Cheong, Allen Ming-Yan

    2015-05-01

    Although superior performance in visual motor and visual perceptual skills of preschool children has been documented in the Chinese population, a normative database is only available for the US population. This study aimed to determine the normative values for these visuomotor and visual perceptual tests for preschool children in the Hong Kong Chinese population and to investigate the effect of fundamental visual functions on visuomotor and visual perceptual skills. One hundred seventy-four children from six different kindergartens in Hong Kong were recruited. Distance visual acuity, near visual acuity, and stereopsis were tested, along with two measures of visual perception (VP): Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) and Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (TVPS). Raw VMI and TVPS scores were converted into standard/scaled scores. The impact of basic visual functions on VP (VMI and TVPS) was examined using multiple regression. Visual functions were generally good: only 9.2 and 4.6% of subjects had unilateral and bilateral reduced habitual vision, respectively (distance visual acuity in the better eye >0.3 logMAR [logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution]). Performance in the VMI and in the visual memory and spatial relationships subtests of the TVPS exceeded that reported for age-matched children from the United States. Multiple regression analysis provided evidence that age had the strongest predictive value for the VMI and VP skills. In addition, near visual acuity was weakly associated with performance in the VMI and the visual discrimination and spatial relationships subtests of the TVPS, accounting for a limited proportion of the intersubject variability (R memory/spatial relationships of TVPS subtests, perhaps attributed to greater exposure to such material during their preschool home education. This study provided normality data for VMI and four subtests of the TVPS for Hong Kong Chinese preschool children as a reference for future studies.

  19. Population dose due to natural radiation in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso, M.Y.W.; Leung, J.K.C.

    2000-01-01

    In densely populated cities such as Hong Kong where people live and work in high-rise buildings that are all built with concrete, the indoor gamma dose rate and indoor radon concentration are not wide ranging. Indoor gamma dose rates (including cosmic rays) follow a normal distribution with an arithmetic mean of 0.22 ± 0.04 (micro)Gy h -1 , whereas indoor radon concentrations follow a log-normal distribution with geometric means of 48 ± 1 Bq m -3 and 90 ± 2 Bq m -3 for the two main categories of buildings: residential and non-residential. Since different occupations result in different occupancy in different categories of buildings, the annual total dose [indoor and outdoor radon effective dose + indoor and outdoor gamma absorbed dose (including cosmic ray)] to the population in Hong Kong was estimated based on the number of people for each occupation; the occupancy of each occupation; indoor radon concentration distribution and indoor gamma dose rate distribution for each category of buildings; outdoor radon concentration and gamma dose rate; and indoor and outdoor cosmic ray dose rates. The result shows that the annual doses for every occupation follow a log-normal distribution. This is expected since the total dose is dominated by radon effective dose, which has a log-normal distribution. The annual dose to the population of Hong Kong is characterized by a log-normal distribution with a geometric mean of 2.4 mSv and a geometric standard deviation of 1.3 mSv

  20. Nearwork-induced transient myopia in preadolescent Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffsohn, James Stuart; Gilmartin, Bernard; Li, Roger Wing-hong; Edwards, Marion Hastings; Chat, Sandy Wing-shan; Lew, John Kwok-fai; Yu, Bibianna Sin-ying

    2003-05-01

    To compare the magnitude and time course of nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) in preadolescent Hong Kong Chinese myopes and emmetropes. Forty-five Hong Kong Chinese children, 35 myopes and 10 emmetropes aged 6 to 12 years (median, 7.5), monocularly viewed a letter target through a Badal lens for 5 minutes at either 5.00- or 2.50-D accommodative demand, followed by 3 minutes of viewing the equivalent target at optical infinity. Accommodative responses were measured continuously with a modified, infrared, objective open-field autorefractor. Accommodative responses were also measured for a countercondition: viewing of a letter target for 5 minutes at optical infinity, followed by 3 minutes of viewing the target at a 5.00-D accommodative demand. The results were compared with tonic accommodation and both subject and family history of refractive error. Retinal-blur-driven NITM was significantly greater in Hong Kong Chinese children with myopic vision than in the emmetropes after both near tasks, but showed no significant dose effect. The NITM was still evident 3 minutes after viewing the 5.00-D near task for 5 minutes. The magnitude of NITM correlated with the accommodative drift after viewing a distant target for more than 4 minutes, but was unrelated to the subjects' or family history of refractive error. In a preadolescent ethnic population with known predisposition to myopia, there is a significant posttask blur-driven accommodative NITM, which is sustained for longer than has previously been found in white adults.

  1. Gaming behavior and addiction among Hong Kong adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Lai Kuen Wong; Millicent Pui Sze Lam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated with the activity. Methods A convenient sample of 13 male high school students aged 12–15 years (mean age = 13.6 years) were interviewed at two Internet cafes. Young’s (Caught in the net, Wiley, New York, 1998) criteria of Internet addiction were modified to assess gamin...

  2. A radiological accident consequence assessment system for Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.C.; Lam, H.K.

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of the Hong Kong Radiological Accident Consequence Assessment System which would be used to assess the potential consequences of an emergency situation involving atmospheric release of radioactive material. The system has the capability to acquire real-time meteorological information from the Observatory's network of automatic stations, synoptic stations in the nearby region as well as forecast data from numerical prediction models. The system makes use of these data to simulate the transport and dispersion of the released radioactive material. The effectiveness of protective action on the local population is also modeled. The system serves as a powerful aid in the protective action recommendation processes

  3. Hong kong working class and union organization: A historical glimpse

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Sek Hong; Ip, Olivia

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to sketch a longitudinal profile on the evolution of a working class in Hong Kong context in light of the thesis of embourgeoisement. The increasing economic affluence in the 1980s and early 1990s appeared to have bred an optimism in society that the members of the working class were converging in life-style and consumption behaviour with the middle class in a process of embourgeoisement. However, the thesis of embourgeoisement comes under question again around the turn of...

  4. Dose construction for vegetable ingestion exposure in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, W.S.; Walton, A.; Yeung, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The author presents the mathematical model TERRA used for the construction of ingestion doses resulting from the consumption of contaminated vegetables during a nuclear accident in Hong Kong. Using the ground surface deposited radionuclide densities as input, TERRA calculates the concentrations of 54 radionuclides on the surfaces and within the tissue of vegetables as a function of time and the radiation doses delivered to the various vital organs following their consumption by humans. The present model provides a convenient tool to determine the time histories of 54 radionuclides in vegetables and to back track or project the ingestion dose after a major accident such that more appropriate and timely countermeasures can be implemented

  5. A review of selected derived intervention levels for Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, S.L.; Tso, M.Y.W.; Leung, J.K.C.

    1993-01-01

    A review on the computation of derived intervention levels (DILs) for the internal pathways of exposure namely inhalation of plume and of resuspended radionuclides and ingestion of contaminated food and water is provided. The main parameters which depend on individual metabolism and habit (i.e., inhalation rate and food consumption pattern) of local population are revised. The DILs so calculated are very different from those based on parameters adopted by the Radiological Protection Advisory Group (RPAG) of the Hong Kong Government. Thus it is worthwhile to have an intensive review on the DILs based on more realistic local parameters. (6 tabs.)

  6. Teaching Students with Special Educational Needs in Inclusive Music Classrooms: Experiences of Music Teachers in Hong Kong Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk

    2016-01-01

    It has been a decade since the implementation of Hong Kong's policy of inclusion, that mainstream schools should admit students with special educational needs (SEN). This study reports on music teachers' experiences of teaching SEN students in inclusive music classrooms. Data were derived from a qualitative multiple case study comprising 10…

  7. Pedagogical Design Capacity and Underlying Knowledge Base of Curriculum Materials Use of a Hong Kong English Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Using "pedagogical design capacity" ("PDC") as the conceptual framework, this single-case study examines how an English teacher in Hong Kong perceives and mobilizes curriculum materials to teach reading comprehension to secondary one students in two stages of implementation. Relying on data collected from semi-structured…

  8. The Unintended Hegemonic Effects of a Limited Concession: Institutional Incorporation of Chinese Schools in Post-War Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Using the case of Chinese schools in post-Second World War Hong Kong, this paper explores the unintended consequences of an incomplete hegemonic project. After World War II, anti-imperialist pressures and rising educational demands in the local setting propelled the colonial authorities to be more active in providing and funding Chinese schools.…

  9. "I Got to Where I Am by My Own Strength": Women in Hong Kong Higher Education Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Presents case studies of 11 academic women in senior positions at four universities in Hong Kong. Investigates women's perceptions and experiences of "glass ceiling" factors. Argues that concepts like "glass ceiling" politics cannot be used as universal explanations of women's career trajectories, but must include examinations…

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation in Hong Kong: A Review of Practice and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhong; Tam, Helena M K; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-01-01

    The rising public health concern regarding traumatic brain injury (TBI) implies a growing need for rehabilitation services for patients surviving TBI. To this end, this paper reviews the practices and research on TBI rehabilitation in Hong Kong so as to inform future developments in this area. This paper begins by introducing the general situation of TBI patients in Hong Kong and the need for rehabilitation. Next, the trauma system in Hong Kong is introduced. Following that is a detailed description of the rehabilitation services for TBI patients in Hong Kong, as exemplified by a rehabilitation hospital in Hong Kong. This paper will also review intervention studies on rehabilitating brain-injured populations in Hong Kong with respect to various rehabilitation goals. Lastly, the implications of culture-related issues will be discussed in relation to TBI. The intervention studies conducted in Hong Kong are generally successful in achieving various rehabilitative outcomes. Additionally, certain cultural-related issues, such as the stigma associated with TBI, may impede the rehabilitative process and lead to various psychosocial problems.

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation in Hong Kong: A Review of Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The rising public health concern regarding traumatic brain injury (TBI implies a growing need for rehabilitation services for patients surviving TBI. Methods. To this end, this paper reviews the practices and research on TBI rehabilitation in Hong Kong so as to inform future developments in this area. This paper begins by introducing the general situation of TBI patients in Hong Kong and the need for rehabilitation. Next, the trauma system in Hong Kong is introduced. Following that is a detailed description of the rehabilitation services for TBI patients in Hong Kong, as exemplified by a rehabilitation hospital in Hong Kong. This paper will also review intervention studies on rehabilitating brain-injured populations in Hong Kong with respect to various rehabilitation goals. Lastly, the implications of culture-related issues will be discussed in relation to TBI. Results/Conclusions. The intervention studies conducted in Hong Kong are generally successful in achieving various rehabilitative outcomes. Additionally, certain cultural-related issues, such as the stigma associated with TBI, may impede the rehabilitative process and lead to various psychosocial problems.

  12. Impact Evaluation of Low Flow Showerheads for Hong Kong Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-tim Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The voluntary Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme (WELS on showers for bathing in Hong Kong is a water conservation initiative of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR Government. As shower water consumption has been identified as a potential area for carbon emissions reductions, this study examines, from a five-month measurement survey of the showering practices of 37 local residents, a range of showerheads with resistance factors k = 0.54–4.05 kPa·min2·L−2 with showering attributes including hot shower temperature, temperature difference between hot and cold water supply, flow rate and water consumption and shower duration. A Monte Carlo model is proposed for evaluating the water consumption and carbon-reducing impacts of WELS on showers for bathing at confidence intervals with input parameters determined from the measurement survey. The simulation results indicate that full implementation of WELS rated showerheads with k ≥ 4.02 can reduce water consumption by 37%, energy use by 25% and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions by 26%. This study is also a useful source of reference for policymakers and practitioners to evaluate the impacts of water efficient showerheads on water consumption, energy use, and CO2 emissions.

  13. The 2014 summer coral bleaching event in subtropical Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, James Y; Lau, Dickey C C; Kei, Keith; Yu, Vriko P F; Chow, Wing-Kuen; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2017-11-30

    We reported a coral bleaching event that occurred in August-September 2014 in Hong Kong waters based on video transect surveys conducted at eight sites. The bleaching affected eight species of corals with different growth forms. Bleaching at seven of the eight study sites was minor, affecting only 0.4-5.2% colonies and 0.8-10.0% coral-covered area. Sharp Island East, however, suffered from a moderate level of bleaching, with 13.1% colonies and 30.1% coral-covered area affected. Examination of the government's environmental monitoring data indicated abnormal water quality conditions preceding and during the bleaching event. Follow-up field surveys of tagged colonies showed that 76% of them had fully recovered, 12% partially recovered, and 12% suffered from mortality. These results indicate that the subtropical corals of Hong Kong are not immune to bleaching, and there is a need to study their responses under climate change scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Patch testing of 490 patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T Y; Lam, T H

    1996-07-01

    Patch testing, using European standard allergens and suspected causative substances brought in by patients, was carried out in 490 patients with eczema in Hong Kong and 437 completed the test. Before patch testing, 244, 141 and 105 patients were diagnosed as having contact dermatitis, endogenous eczema and unclassified eczema, respectively. After patch testing, the diagnosis of the causal agent was changed in 54 contact dermatitis patients, and 18% of endogenous eczema patients and 34% of unclassified eczema patients were re-diagnosed as contact dermatitis. In the patients with a final diagnosis of contact dermatitis, 19.5% were positive to fragrance mix, followed by nickel sulfate (16.4%) and cobalt chloride (11.3%). The commonest causative agents for contact dermatitis were soap or detergent (22.0%) and traditional Chinese medicine (17.3%); the latter was a more common cause of contact dermatitis than Western medicine (9.0%) or metals (13.4%). The prevalence of allergic reaction to fragrance in Hong Kong was higher than among Chinese in Beijing, Shanghai, Taipei or Singapore (78% ethnic Chinese). Dermatologists should have a high index of suspicion about traditional medications and should patch test with the suspected substance when patients give a history of use.

  15. Prevalence of workplace violence against nurses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R P W; Law, Y K; Li, K E; Ng, Y C; Cheung, M H; Fung, V K P; Kwok, K T T; Tong, J M K; Yen, P F; Leung, W C

    2006-02-01

    To determine the prevalence and nature of workplace violence against nurses, and how nurses deal with such aggression; and to identify the risk factors related to violence in the hospital environment. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. University teaching hospital, Hong Kong. All nursing staff in the hospital, except nurses who were unable to read Chinese or who did not have patient contact (eg those worked in administrative positions), were invited to complete a questionnaire. Demographic data of the respondents, incidence of and risk factors contributing to workplace violence. A total of 420 nurses returned the completed questionnaire (response rate, 25%). Three hundred and twenty (76%; 95% confidence interval, 72-80%) nurses reported abuse of any kind--verbal abuse, 73%; bullying, 45%; physical abuse, 18%; and sexual harassment, 12%. Most (82%) nurses who experienced verbal abuse tended to confide in friends, family members, or colleagues. Some (42%) ignored the incident. Risk factors for workplace violence included: working in male wards and in certain specialties such as the Accident and Emergency Department, Community Nursing Service, and the Orthopaedics and Traumatology Department. Workplace violence against nurses is a significant problem in Hong Kong. Further large-scale studies should be conducted to more closely examine the problem.

  16. Distributions and Concentrations of PAHs in Hong Kong Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.B.; Luo, Y.M.; Wong, M.H.; Zhao, Q.G.; Zhang, G.L.

    2006-01-01

    Surface soil (0-10 cm) samples from 53 sampling sites including rural and urban areas of Hong Kong were collected and analyzed for 16 EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total PAH concentrations were in the range of 7.0-410 μg kg -1 (dry wt), with higher concentrations in urban soils than that in rural soils. The three predominant PAHs were Fluoranthene, Naphthalene and Pyrene in rural soils, while Fluoranthene, Naphthalene and Benzo(b + k)fluoranthene dominated the PAHs of urban soils. The values of PAHs isomer indicated that biomass burning might be the major origin of PAHs in rural soils, but vehicular emission around the heavy traffic roads might contribute to the soil PAHs in urban areas. A cluster analysis was performed and grouped the detectable PAHs under 4 clusters, which could be indicative of the PAHs with different origins and PAHs affected by soil organic carbon contents respectively. - Baseline information is provided on levels, distributions and possible sources of PAHs in Hong Kong soils

  17. Use of antibiotics by primary care doctors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tai

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine the use of antibiotics by primary care doctors. Methods General practitioners in Hong Kong were invited to fill in a short questionnaire on every patient with infection that they had seen on the first full working day once every three months for four consecutive quarters starting from December 2005. Results Forty six primary care doctors took part and a total of 3096 completed questionnaires were returned. The top three diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (46.7%, gastrointestinal infection (8.2% and pharyngitis (7.1%. Thirty percent of patient encounters with infections were prescribed antibiotics but only 5.2% of patient encounters with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI were prescribed antibiotics. Amino-penicillins were the most commonly used antibiotics while beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (BLBLIs were the second most commonly used antibiotics and they accounted for 16.5% and 14.0% of all antibiotics used respectively. Of all patients or their carers, those who demanded or wished for antibiotics were far more likely to be prescribed antibiotics (Pearson chi-square test, p Conclusion The antibiotic prescribing patterns of primary care doctors in Hong Kong are broadly similar to primary care doctors in other developed countries but a relatively low rate of antibiotics is used for URTI.

  18. Interaction patterns of major air pollutants in Hong Kong territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.Z.; Wang, X.K.

    2004-01-01

    Air pollution in a metropolitan city like Hong Kong is a major obstacle to improve air quality and living environment due to the high population density and the vehicle emission increases. The high air pollutant levels impose harm to the human health and impair the city image. The characteristic analysis of air pollutants is very important and necessary to pollutant monitoring, forecasting and controlling. In this study, the interaction patterns of principle air pollutants, e.g. nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxides (NO x ) and ozone (O 3 ), a secondary pollutant, are investigated based on the measured database in four selected areas, which covers two urban types (i.e. residential area, mixed residential/commercial/industrial area) in Hong Kong, during the period of 1999-2001. The study involves analyzing the chemical and physical properties, the characteristics of air pollutants and the factors affecting such interactions using statistical method. The results reveal several routines in urban air pollutants' variations, interaction and trends from macro aspect

  19. Internet Addiction Phenomenon in Early Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and demographic correlates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents as well as the change in related behavior at two time points over a one-year interval. Two waves of data were collected from a large sample of students (Wave 1: 3,328 students, age = 12.59 ± 0.74 years; Wave 2: 3,580 students, age = 13.50 ± 0.75 years) at 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Comparable to findings at Wave 1 (26.4%), 26.7% of the participants met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 2 as measured by Young's 10-item Internet Addiction Test. The behavioral pattern of Internet addiction was basically stable over time. While the predictive effects of demographic variables including age, gender, family economic status, and immigration status were not significant, Internet addictive behaviors at Wave 1 significantly predicted similar behaviors at Wave 2. Students who met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 1 were 7.55 times more likely than other students to be classified as Internet addicts at Wave 2. These results suggest that early detection and intervention for Internet addiction should be carried out. PMID:22778694

  20. Consumption of pornographic materials in early adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cecilia M S; Shek, Daniel T L

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal changes in pornography consumption and related psychosocial correlates (ie, positive youth development qualities and family function) among Hong Kong early adolescents. In this study, adolescent consumption of pornographic materials was examined in 3 waves of longitudinal data. A total of 3,325 Secondary 1 students (Grade 7) from 28 schools participated in the study at Wave 1. The mean age of the participants was 12.6 years old (SD = .74). Results showed that the internet was the most common medium for consuming pornography materials. Boys consumed more pornographic materials than did girls. Findings showed that family functioning and positive youth development were negatively associated with consumption of pornographic materials over time. This study highlights the importance of developing adolescents' competencies and establishing an atmosphere that reduces the use of pornographic materials among adolescents. It sheds light on designing early prevention programs on pornography consumption for young people in Hong Kong. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Contextual barriers to lifestyle physical activity interventions in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves, Frank F; Masters, Rich S W; McManus, Alison; Leung, Moon; Wong, Peggy; White, Mike J

    2008-05-01

    Increased lifestyle physical activity, for instance, use of active transport, is a current public health target. Active transport interventions that target stair climbing are consistently successful in English-speaking populations yet unsuccessful in Hong Kong. We report two further studies on active transport in the Hong Kong Chinese. Pedestrians on a mass transit escalator system (study 1) and in an air-conditioned shopping mall (study 2) were encouraged to take the stairs for their cardiovascular health by point-of-choice prompts. Observers coded sex, age, and walking on the mass transit system, with the additional variables of presence of children and bags coded in the shopping mall. In the first study, a 1-wk baseline was followed by 4 wk of intervention (N = 76,710) whereas in the second study (shopping mall) a 2-wk baseline was followed by a 2-wk intervention period (N = 18,257). A small but significant increase in stair climbing (+0.29%) on the mass transit system contrasted with no significant changes in the shopping mall (+0.09%). The active transport of walking on the mass transit system was reduced at higher rates of humidity and temperature, with steeper slopes for the effects of climate variables in men than in women. These studies confirm that lifestyle physical activity interventions do not have universal application. The context in which the behavior occurs (e.g., climate) may act as a barrier to active transport.

  2. Vicissitudes in the Hong Kong oil market, 1980-97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.-H.

    2000-01-01

    Hong Kong, devoid of natural resources, has to import all the energy it consumes. Up to 1981, oil accounted for almost 100 per cent of the total primary energy requirement, of which about 59 per cent was used to generate electricity. Starting in 1982, the electricity sector switched to coal generation, leading to plummeting oil consumption. The conversion process was essentially completed by 1988. Local sales of oil products declined from 5.790 million kilolitres in 1981 to 3.470m kl in 1987, but climbed back to 5.157m kl in 1997; oil consumption stagnated between 1981 and 1997. This paper analyses the fluctuations in oil consumption during the period, covering use by the utility and non-utility sectors. Next, it deals with consumption of, and the factors involved in, the six major oil products, i.e. fuel oil, diesel, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, kerosene and jet fuel. Interestingly, bunker sales, including air and sea transport, rose noticeably during these years, partly offsetting the effect of slumping oil sales to the power plants and helping boost total oil demand in the 1990s. Lastly, a glimpse into the future of the Hong Kong oil market is taken. (author)

  3. Adolescent Internet Addiction in Hong Kong: Prevalence, Change, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2016-02-01

    Prevalence, change, and correlates of adolescent Internet addiction were examined in this study on the basis of six waves of longitudinal data collected over 6 years. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Over 6 years, students responded to a questionnaire containing measures of sociodemographic characteristics, positive youth development, family processes, and Internet addiction behavior. The prevalence rates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents ranged from 17% to 26.8% during the high school years. Male students consistently showed a higher prevalence rate of Internet addiction and more Internet addictive behaviors than did female students. Longitudinal data suggested that although family economic disadvantage served as a risk factor for youth Internet addiction, the effects of family intactness and family functioning were not significant. Students' overall positive youth development and general positive youth development qualities were negatively related to Internet addictive behaviors and prosocial attributes had a positive relationship with youth Internet addiction. The results suggest that promotion of positive youth development is a promising direction for preventing Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. Gender and family economic disadvantage must be considered in design of the related prevention programs. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hong Kong architecture 1945-2015 from colonial to global

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Charlie Q L

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the transformation from colonial to global – the formation, mechanism, events, works and people related to urban architecture. The book reveals hardships the city encountered in the 1950s and the glamour enjoyed in the 1980s. It depicts the public and private developments, and especially the public housing which has sheltered millions of residents. The author identifies the architects practising in the formative years and the representatives of a rising generation after the 1980s. Suffering from land shortage and a dense environment, the urban development of Hong Kong has in the past 70 years met the changing demands of fluctuating economic activities and a rising population. Architecture on the island has been shaped by social demands, the economy and technology. The buildings have been forged by the government, clients, planners, architects, many contractors and end-users. The built environment nurtures our life and is visual evidence of the way the city has developed. Hong Kong is a ...

  5. Recent clinical innovations in thoracic surgery in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ze-Rui; Li, Zheng; Situ, Dong-Rong; Ng, Calvin S H

    2016-08-01

    The concept of personalized medicine, which aims to provide patients with targeted therapies while greatly reducing surgical trauma, is gaining popularity among Asian clinicians. Single port video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has rapidly gained popularity in Hong Kong for major lung resections, despite bringing new challenges such as interference between surgical instruments and insertion of the optical source through a single incision. Novel types of endocutters and thoracoscopes can help reduce the difficulties commonly encountered during single-port VATS. Our region has been the testing ground and has led the development of many of these innovations. Performing VATS, in particular single-port VATS in hybrid operating theatre helps to localise small pulmonary lesions with real-time images, thus increasing surgical accuracy and pushes the boundaries in treating subcentimeter diseases. Such approach may be assisted by use of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy in the same setting. In addition, sublobar resection can also be more individualised according to pathologic tumour subtype that require rapid intraoperative diagnostic test to guide appropriate surgical therapy. A focus on technology and innovation for large tumours that require chest wall resection and reconstructions have also been on going, with new materials and prostheses that may be tailored to each individual needs. The current paper reviews the literature pertaining to the above topics and discusses recent related innovations in Hong Kong, highlighting the study results and future perspectives.

  6. Psychological correlates of physical abuse in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Chan, Kam Kuen; Lam, Peggo K W; Choi, Philemon Y W; Lai, Kelly Y C

    2003-01-01

    To understand the associations between adolescent family physical maltreatment and psychiatric morbidity or psychological problems. questionnaire survey on 489 secondary school students in Form 2 from 10 schools in Hong Kong. Questions regarding three forms of family physical maltreatment were measured: corporal punishment within the past 6 months, beaten without any reason within the past 6 months, or ever been beaten to injury. Corporal punishment was not associated with the psychological variables after Bonferroni adjustment was made. Those who experienced the two other forms of physical maltreatment had significant and strong associations with positive Achenbach CBCL outcome (OR from 3.26 to 3.27), drug abuse problems (OR from 2.60 to 20.38), self-injurious behaviors (OR from 3.34 to 8.47) and poor perceived parental support. In addition, those who had ever been beaten to injury scored significantly lower in the "physical appearance" and "behavioral conduct" subscales of the Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. In Hong Kong, some forms of family physical maltreatment (beaten for no reason and beaten to injury) were associated with a number of psychiatric/psychological problems. Further studies should be carried out to clarify whether the relationships are causal in nature. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. Generation of a typical meteorological year for Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Apple L.S.; Chow, T.T.; Fong, Square K.F.; Lin, John Z.

    2006-01-01

    Weather data can vary significantly from year to year. There is a need to derive typical meteorological year (TMY) data to represent the long-term typical weather condition over a year, which is one of the crucial factors for successful building energy simulation. In this paper, various types of typical weather data sets including the TMY, TMY2, WYEC, WYEC2, WYEC2W, WYEC2T and IWEC were reviewed. The Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method was applied to analyze the hourly measured weather data of a 25-year period (1979-2003) in Hong Kong and select representative typical meteorological months (TMMs). The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year was compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period for four major weather indices including dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years were selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 TMMs selected from the different years were used for formulation of a TMY for Hong Kong

  8. The alcohol industry lobby and Hong Kong's zero wine and beer tax policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungwon; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-08-30

    Whereas taxation on alcohol is becoming an increasingly common practice in many countries as part of overall public health measures, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government is bucking the trend and lowered its duties on wine and beer by 50 percent in 2007. In 2008, Hong Kong removed all duties on alcohol except for spirits. The aim of this paper is to examine the case of Hong Kong with its history of changes in alcohol taxation to explore the factors that have driven such an unprecedented policy evolution. The research is based on an analysis of primary documents. Searches of official government documents, alcohol-related industry materials and other media reports on alcohol taxation for the period from 2000 to 2008 were systematically carried out using key terms such as "alcohol tax" and "alcohol industry". Relevant documents (97) were indexed by date and topic to undertake a chronological and thematic analysis using Nvivo8 software. Our analysis demonstrates that whereas the city's changing financial circumstances and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government's strong propensity towards economic liberalism had, in part, contributed to such dramatic transformation, the alcohol industry's lobbying tactics and influence were clearly the main drivers of the policy decision. The alcohol industry's lobbying tactics were two-fold. The first was to forge a coalition encompassing a range of catering and trade industries related to alcohol as well as industry-friendly lawmakers so that these like-minded actors could find common ground in pursuing changes to the taxation policy. The second was to deliberately promote a blend of ideas to garner support from the general public and to influence the perception of key policy makers. Our findings suggest that the success of aggressive industry lobbying coupled with the absence of robust public health advocacy was the main driving force behind the unparalleled abolition of wine and beer duties in Hong

  9. Perceptions of professional attributes in medicine: a qualitative study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Danny C; Hsu, Enoch K; Hui, Edwin C

    2012-08-01

    OBJECTIVE. Medical professionalism has been widely discussed in western scholarly literature. However, since Hong Kong has a mixed Chinese-western culture, it remains uncertain whether Hong Kong health care professionals, medical students, and patients see medical professionalism in exactly the same way as westerners. The objective of the present study was to explore perceptions of medical professionalism in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Individual semi-structured interviews. SETTING. Medical faculty preceptors, residents, interns, nurses, and students from the Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine of the University of Hong Kong. Subjects were recruited at an out-patient clinic of Queen Mary Hospital. PARTICIPANTS. We interviewed 39 subjects, including six medical faculty preceptors, six hospital residents, four medical interns, eight nurses, eight out-patients, and seven medical students. The interviews were transcribed and coded. Grounded theory was employed for framing and analysing the interviews. RESULTS. A total of 30 primary themes were identified and grouped under three secondary themes, ie 'Expectations of a professional doctor', 'Work values', and 'Patient care'. In general, the primary themes were consistent with recognised professional attributes in western bioethics, such as knowledge and skills, holistic care, and communication skills. A closer analysis suggested that traditional Chinese thought also played an important role in shaping the medical professionalism of Hong Kong. Challenges to be faced by Hong Kong doctors due to recent social changes were also identified. CONCLUSIONS. Medical professionalism in Hong Kong is shaped by both western medical ethics and traditional Chinese thought. The values treasured by Hong Kong health care professionals as well as technological advance, and the city's proximity to Mainland China makes Hong Kong health care unique. It is important to maintain the present work attitudes and at the same time adapt to new social changes.

  10. [Comparison of cardiopulmonary endurance and muscular fitness in teenagers between Hong Kong and inland cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Chan, K; Wang, Y

    1997-01-01

    A study on the data of the physique investigated in teenagers was carried out between Hong Kong and inland cities to compare their cardiopulmonary endurance and muscular fitness. Results revealed that cardiopulmonary endurance in school teenagers of both sex at different ages in inland cities was better than that in Hong Kong. Muscular strength and endurance of sports performance of teenagers, except for standing long jump, in Hong Kong were weaker than that in inland cities. It suggests that attention should be paid to the involvement of teenagers in physical education with the increase of people's living standard.

  11. Factors Affecting the Understanding and Use of Psychoanalysis in Hong Kong, Mainland China, and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busiol, Diego

    2015-06-01

    The majority of Western psychotherapies are known and practiced in Hong Kong, while psychoanalysis still has little resonance. A recent study finds that psychoanalysis is perceived neither as ineffective nor as necessarily in conflict with Hong Kong Chinese values. Nevertheless, Hong Kong Chinese culture influences how psychoanalysis is received and understood, when compared to Mainland China and Taiwan. It is argued that a better reception in the latter two was possible because of different social and historical backgrounds, different clinical backgrounds of those who receive training, and the more active role of Western psychoanalysts. © 2015 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  12. ASSISTED LEARNING THROUGH FACEBOOK: A Case Study of Universitas Terbuka’s Students Group Communities In Jakarta, Taiwan And Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir RIADY

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and give insight about the use of Facebook to assist learning in Jakarta and several countries outside Indonesia. There are so many problems that will arise based on the factual sight such users tend to find difficulties in searching, analyzing and accessing information that they need, particularly materials in their academic life. This paper explores how social network site (Facebook has the potential to creating new resource in information and technology to assist learning in groups for finding information needs and also in distance learning system of Universitas Terbuka’s students who live in Jakarta, Taiwan and Hong Kong. Generally, most of students are working from Monday to Friday and even on Saturday and Sunday, they really have problems in having face to face tutorial or even try to get information about their academic life. This paper was conducted with several communities of Facebook groups, the result showed that they specifically used Facebook group to assist them to finish their academic life such as tasks, examination, group discussion or even information. As the most popular social network in Indonesia, Facebook which accessible, effective and efficient is one of many communities to assist students in making new friends and tutors as well as keeping in touch with information on upcoming events, competitions, seminars, library announcements, new books materials, registration, online tutorial, webinar, examination and other general information.

  13. Assessing a cross-border logistics policy using a performance measurement system framework: the case of Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David W. C.; Choy, K. L.; Chow, Harry K. H.; Lin, Canhong

    2014-06-01

    For the most rapidly growing economic entity in the world, China, a new logistics operation called the indirect cross-border supply chain model has recently emerged. The primary idea of this model is to reduce logistics costs by storing goods at a bonded warehouse with low storage cost in certain Chinese regions, such as the Pearl River Delta (PRD). This research proposes a performance measurement system (PMS) framework to assess the direct and indirect cross-border supply chain models. The PMS covers four categories including cost, time, quality and flexibility in the assessment of the performance of direct and indirect models. Furthermore, a survey was conducted to investigate the logistics performance of third party logistics (3PLs) at the PRD regions, including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. The significance of the proposed PMS framework allows 3PLs accurately pinpoint the weakness and strengths of it current operations policy at four major performance measurement categories. Hence, this helps 3PLs further enhance the competitiveness and operations efficiency through better resources allocation at the area of warehousing and transportation.

  14. One Country, Two Cultures: Are Hong Kong Mock Jurors "Mainlandized" by the Predominant Chinese Criminal Justice Concept of Confession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on confession has had a long history in the Chinese criminal justice system. Recent high-profile wrongful conviction cases have raised public awareness of the coercive and torturous methods used to extract confessions. Despite the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty, Hong Kong remains a common law jurisdiction and the most serious criminal offences are tried by a jury. The present study empirically examines the relative impact of DNA evidence, confession, eyewitness testimony, and victim testimony in a Hong Kong-Chinese mock juror sample. The results show that the participants placed greater value on DNA evidence than on confession, and placed the lowest value on testimonial evidence. It is argued that the situation of "one country, two cultures" remains strong: Whereas participants are still influenced by the Chinese criminal justice concept of confession, their judgment is still predominately influenced by the scientific evidence as commonly practiced in the West. Thus, no solid evidence has been found to confirm the emergence of mainlandization in Hong Kong's criminal justice system. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant universal routine pneumococcal vaccination in Malaysia and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, David Bin-Chia; Roberts, Craig; Lee, Vivian Wing Yan; Hong, Li-Wen; Tan, Kah Kee; Mak, Vivienne; Lee, Kenneth Kwing Chin

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal disease causes large morbidity, mortality and health care utilization and medical and non-medical costs, which can all be reduced by effective infant universal routine immunization programs with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). We evaluated the clinical and economic benefits of such programs with either 10- or 13-valent PCVs in Malaysia and Hong Kong by using an age-stratified Markov cohort model with many country-specific inputs. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was calculated to compare PCV10 or PCV13 against no vaccination and PCV13 against PCV10 over a 10-year birth cohort's vaccination. Both payer and societal perspectives were used. PCV13 had better public health and economic outcomes than a PCV10 program across all scenarios considered. For example, in the base case scenario in Malaysia, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD (+2,296), pneumonia (+705,281), and acute otitis media (+376,967) and save more lives (+6,122) than PCV10. Similarly, in Hong Kong, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD cases (+529), pneumonia (+172,185), and acute otitis media (+37,727) and save more lives (+2,688) than PCV10. During the same time horizon, PCV13 would gain over 74,000 and 21,600 additional QALYs than PCV10 in Malaysia and Hong Kong, respectively. PCV13 would be cost saving when compared against similar program with PCV10, under both payer and societal perspective in both countries. PCV13 remained a better choice over PCV10 in multiple sensitivity, scenario, and probabilistic analyses. PCV13s broader serotype coverage in its formulation and herd effect compared against PCV10 were important drivers of differences in outcomes. PMID:26451658

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant universal routine pneumococcal vaccination in Malaysia and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, David Bin-Chia; Roberts, Craig; Lee, Vivian Wing Yan; Hong, Li-Wen; Tan, Kah Kee; Mak, Vivienne; Lee, Kenneth Kwing Chin

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal disease causes large morbidity, mortality and health care utilization and medical and non-medical costs, which can all be reduced by effective infant universal routine immunization programs with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). We evaluated the clinical and economic benefits of such programs with either 10- or 13-valent PCVs in Malaysia and Hong Kong by using an age-stratified Markov cohort model with many country-specific inputs. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was calculated to compare PCV10 or PCV13 against no vaccination and PCV13 against PCV10 over a 10-year birth cohort's vaccination. Both payer and societal perspectives were used. PCV13 had better public health and economic outcomes than a PCV10 program across all scenarios considered. For example, in the base case scenario in Malaysia, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD (+2,296), pneumonia (+705,281), and acute otitis media (+376,967) and save more lives (+6,122) than PCV10. Similarly, in Hong Kong, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD cases (+529), pneumonia (+172,185), and acute otitis media (+37,727) and save more lives (+2,688) than PCV10. During the same time horizon, PCV13 would gain over 74,000 and 21,600 additional QALYs than PCV10 in Malaysia and Hong Kong, respectively. PCV13 would be cost saving when compared against similar program with PCV10, under both payer and societal perspective in both countries. PCV13 remained a better choice over PCV10 in multiple sensitivity, scenario, and probabilistic analyses. PCV13s broader serotype coverage in its formulation and herd effect compared against PCV10 were important drivers of differences in outcomes.

  17. Retinopathy of prematurity: applicability and compliance of guidelines in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Abbie S W; Yip, Wilson W K; Lok, Julie Y C; Lau, Henry H W; Young, Alvin L

    2017-04-01

    To analyse the incidence, application and compliance to Royal College of Ophthalmologists retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening recommendations and subsequent treatment of ROP in a neonatal intensive care unit of a large tertiary referral centre in Hong Kong. A retrospective review was performed for all eligible premature neonates screened for ROP over a 7-year period from June 2008 to December 2015 in our local tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, using the Royal College of Ophthalmologists ROP screening guideline (2008). Comparison between established UK and American screening guidelines were analysed for their applicability in our locality. A total of 602 infants were screened, with the incidence of ROP in 28.2% and type 1 ROP in 3.8%, and indirect diode laser performed in all type 1 ROP cases. Overall, adherence for screening criteria was 99.7%, with the average time to commence first screening at 4 weeks postnatal age. Of the 602 cases, 94 (15.6%) were early and 35 (5.8%) were later than the guidelines, of which only 5 (0.8%) of late-screened cases developed ROP requiring treatment. Subsequent treatment of ROP for all the late-screened cases was not delayed. Current ROP screening using the UK guidelines (2008) is applicable, effective and safe to our predominantly Asian population in Hong Kong, with a low rate of delayed screening. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Comparision of Istanbul with Hong Kong and Singapore for Regional Treasury Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Selçuk DİZKIRICI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is examining Istanbul to find out whether or not it has the ability to become an appropriate location to host regional treasury centers. Hence; Simkova’s 11 location criteria are compared across Istanbul additionally Hong Kong and Singapore, being already attractive locations in South East Asia for multinational corporations to set up their regional finance offices, to specify Istanbul’s weaker facilities even if it is not regarded as a rival for Hong Kong and Singapore. The study contributes to the understanding of Simkova’s location criteria assessment before establishing a regional treasury center in any location, as it is applied to some European countries and three Asian countries: Brunei, Hong Kong and Singapore, previously. Lastly, it is concluded that Istanbul is not as superior as Hong Kong and Singapore but it has reasonable conditions to become an attractive location for regional treasury centers.

  19. Newcastle disease virus surveillance in Hong Kong on local and imported poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, K F; Alexander, D J

    1978-09-01

    Surveillance of apparently healthy ducks, geese and fowl originating in Hong Kong and the People's Republic of China at a poultry dressing plant in Hong Kong yielded 67 isolates of Newcastle disease virus. More than twice as many viruses were isolated from the cloaca than from the trachea. Twelve representative isolates were examined in virulence tests--all six of the fowl isolates and two of five duck isolates behaved as velogenic strains, the other four were lentogenic.

  20. Chinese Middle Classes: Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2018-01-01

    Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846......Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846...

  1. Emotion socialization practices in Italian and Hong Kong-Chinese mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorilli, Caterina; De Stasio, Simona; Di Chicchio, Carlo; Chan, Siu Mui

    2015-01-01

    Background Parents? emotion socialization practices are their ways of handling their children?s emotional experiences in light of cultural expectations surrounding emotions. Such practices are thought to significantly affect children?s social adjustment. We compared the parenting practices of Italian and Hong Kong Chinese samples in an ethnological validation study of the maternal responses to children?s emotion scale (MRCES). Participants were 71 Italian mothers (M?=?39.45) and 71 Hong Kong-...

  2. The effectiveness of family-friendly policies and practices in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Lai-Kuen; Yuen, Wai-Kee; Chu, Wan-ling

    2010-01-01

    Hong Kong is one of the most efficient cities in the world. Its have a reputation for being workaholics and high stress burden upon employees. Knowing that a caring employer can adopt appropriate family-friendly policies and practices (FFPP) to help employees achieve work-family balance. There are several successful examples in implementing these policies in western countries. However, does Hong Kong laissezfaire economic suitable for adopting such FFPP? "Economics and Wellbeing Research" of ...

  3. Parental Attitudes and Factors Associated With Varicella Vaccination in Preschool and Schoolchildren in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Wilson W.S.; Chan, Johnny; Lo, Kenneth K.H.; Lee, Albert; Chan, Paul K.S.; Chan, Denise; Nelson, E. Anthony S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates parental attitudes and factors associated with varicella vaccination among preschool and schoolchildren prior to introduction of the vaccine into Hong Kong's universal Childhood Immunization Program. Fourteen kindergartens and 5 primary schools in Hong Kong were randomly selected in 2013. Parents of the students were invited to answer the self-administered questionnaires. Acquired information included demographic characteristics and socioeconomic statuses of f...

  4. Simultaneous Volatility Transmissions and Spillover Effects: US and Hong Kong Stock and Futures Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Gannon

    2004-01-01

    Contemporaneous transmission effects across volatilities of the Hong Kong Stock and Index futures markets and futures volume of trade are tested by employing a structural systems approach. Competing measures of volatility spillover, constructed from the overnight U.S. S&P500 index futures, are tested and found to impact on the Hong Kong asset return volatility and volume of trade patterns. The examples utilize intra-day 15 minute sampled data from this medium sized Asia Pacific equity and der...

  5. Why Hong Kong students favour more face-to-face classroom time in blended learning

    OpenAIRE

    Henri,James; Lee,Sandra

    2007-01-01

    A three year study in student characteristics, needs and learning styles guided instructors at the University of Hong Kong Faculty of Education to improve teaching and learning in a core module: Information Literacy. A mixed-method approach analyzed data collected from undergraduate, in-service teachers in a BEd program, and helped instructors in the program to gain insight into the Hong Kong teacher working, post-service towards a BEd in Library and Information Science. Part-time students in...

  6. Identifying Core Competencies of Infection Control Nurse Specialists in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Fong; Bond, Trevor G; Adamson, Bob; Chow, Meyrick

    2016-01-01

    To confirm a core competency scale for Hong Kong infection control nurses at the advanced nursing practice level from the core competency items proposed in a previous phase of this study. This would serve as the foundation of competency assurance in Hong Kong hospitals. A cross-sectional survey design was used. All public and private hospitals in Hong Kong. All infection control nurses in hospitals of Hong Kong. The 83-item proposed core competency list established in an earlier study was transformed into a questionnaire and sent to 112 infection control nurses in 48 hospitals in Hong Kong. They were asked to rate the importance of each infection prevention and control item using Likert-style response categories. Data were analyzed using the Rasch model. The response rate of 81.25% was achieved. Seven items were removed from the proposed core competency list, leaving a scale of 76 items that fit the measurement requirements of the unidimensional Rasch model. Essential core competency items of advanced practice for infection control nurses in Hong Kong were identified based on the measurement criteria of the Rasch model. Several items of the scale that reflect local Hong Kong contextual characteristics are distinguished from the overseas standards. This local-specific competency list could serve as the foundation for education and for certification of infection control nurse specialists in Hong Kong. Rasch measurement is an appropriate analytical tool for identifying core competencies of advanced practice nurses in other specialties and in other locations in a manner that incorporates practitioner judgment and expertise.

  7. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine sign...

  8. The air pollution index system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.Y.P.; Gervat, G.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

  9. Capital Budgeting Evaluation Practices of Building Contractors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C Lam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an investigation into capital budgeting evaluation practicesin the construction industry of Hong Kong. The aim of this study was to identify thepopularity and extent of usage of various techniques for capital budget evaluation, investmentappraisal, risk analysis, and management science. The current study was comparedwith a similar survey conducted in 1994 to establish the changes in the capital budgetingevaluation practices of contracting firms over time. The results indicate that there was ageneral increase in the popularity and extent of usage in certain capital budget evaluationtechniques such as “best/worst estimate” and “formal financial evaluation”. In addition,the evaluation techniques examined were fitted into a discriminant function analysis (DFA,and a model has been developed which allows contracting firms to be classified accordingto their predominant characteristics in capital budget evaluation.

  10. Hong Kong Junk: Plague and the Economy of Chinese Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Histories of the Third Plague Pandemic, which diffused globally from China in the 1890s, have tended to focus on colonial efforts to regulate the movement of infected populations, on the state's draconian public health measures, and on the development of novel bacteriological theories of disease causation. In contrast, this article focuses on the plague epidemic in Hong Kong and examines colonial preoccupations with Chinese "things" as sources of likely contagion. In the 1890s, laboratory science invested plague with a new identity as an object to be collected, cultivated, and depicted in journals. At the same time, in the increasingly vociferous anti-opium discourse, opium was conceived as a contagious Chinese commodity: a plague. The article argues that rethinking responses to the plague through the history of material culture can further our understanding of the political consequences of disease's entanglement with economic and racial categories, while demonstrating the extent to which colonial agents "thought through things."

  11. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an elearning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and skills for vocabulary expansion. This paper introduces the contents of VLearn, and the theoretical underpinnings of its design. It also reports on the vocabulary learning experience of its users during an eight week evaluation study. Suggestions are made on how independent vocabulary building at higher education, as well as comprehensive vocabulary instruction at early years could be supported by means of technology.

  12. Indoor radon and environmental gamma radiation in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Young, E.C.M.; Stokes, M.J.; Luo, D.L.; Zhang, C.X.

    1992-01-01

    Activated charcoal canisters have been used to measured the indoor radon concentrations of 160 sites in different buildings in Hong Kong during the period from July to October 1990. The average value is 40.0 Bq.m -3 . Furthermore, CR-39 nuclear track detectors and two kinds of LiF TLDs have been used to measure the average indoor radon concentrations and the absorbed gamma dose rates in air of 71 sites over the period from January to April 1991. The results all show log-normal distribution. The indoor radon concentrations are respectively 72.2 Bq.m -3 and 155.4 Bq.m -3 for dwellings and offices, while the absorbed gamma dose rates in air are respectively 213.0 nGy.h -1 and 198.3 nGy.h -1 . (author)

  13. Learning and Socializing Preferences in Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eva E; Corriveau, Kathleen H; Lai, Veronica K W; Poon, Sze Long; Gaither, Sarah E

    2018-04-30

    The impact of social group information on the learning and socializing preferences of Hong Kong Chinese children were examined. Specifically, the degree to which variability in racial out-group exposure affects children's use of race to make decisions about unfamiliar individuals (Chinese, White, Southeast Asian) was investigated. Participants (N = 212; M age  = 60.51 months) chose functions for novel objects after informants demonstrated their use; indicated with which peer group member to socialize; and were measured on racial group recognition, preference, and identification. Overall, children preferred in-group members, though out-group exposure and the relative social status of out-groups mattered as well. At a young age, children's specific experiences with different races influence how they learn and befriend others across racial group lines. © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development.

  14. The air pollution index system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F Y.P.; Gervat, G P [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1996-12-31

    The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

  15. TYÖHYVINVOINTIKYSELY HONG KONG KOKKOLAN HENKILÖSTÖLLE

    OpenAIRE

    Siekkinen, Roosa-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Työhyvinvointi on kokonaisuus, jonka muodostavat työ ja sen mielekkyys, turvallisuus, terveys ja hyvinvointi. Työhyvinvointia lisäävät työyhteisön ilmapiiri, motivoiva ja hyvä johtaminen, sekä työntekijöiden ammattitaito. Työhyvinvointia voidaan kehittää esimerkiksi kehittämällä ammatillista osaamista ja työoloja työterveyshuollon avulla ja työkykyä ylläpitävällä toiminnalla. Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan Hong Kong Kokkolan henkilöstön henkistä ja fyysistä työhyvinvointia ja millainen s...

  16. City ventilation of Hong Kong at no-wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Li, Yuguo

    We hypothesize that city ventilation due to both thermally-driven mountain slope flows and building surface flows is important in removing ambient airborne pollutants in the high-rise dense city Hong Kong at no-wind conditions. Both spatial and temporal urban surface temperature profiles are an important boundary condition for studying city ventilation by thermal buoyancy. Field measurements were carried out to investigate the diurnal thermal behavior of urban surfaces (mountain slopes, and building exterior walls and roofs) in Hong Kong by using the infrared thermography. The maximum urban surface temperature was measured in the early noon hours (14:00-15:00 h) and the minimum temperature was observed just before sunrise (5:00 h). The vertical surface temperature of the building exterior wall was found to increase with height at daytime and the opposite occurred at nighttime. The solar radiation and the physical properties of the various urban surfaces were found to be important factors affecting the surface thermal behaviors. The temperature difference between the measured maximum and minimum surface temperatures of the four selected exterior walls can be at the highest of 16.7 °C in the early afternoon hours (15:00 h). Based on the measured surface temperatures, the ventilation rate due to thermal buoyancy-induced wall surface flows of buildings and mountain slope winds were estimated through an integral analysis of the natural convection flow over a flat surface. At no-wind conditions, the total air change rate by the building wall flows (2-4 ACH) was found to be 2-4 times greater than that by the slope flows due to mountain surface (1 ACH) due to larger building exterior surface areas and temperature differences with surrounding air. The results provide useful insights into the ventilation of a high-rise dense city at no-wind conditions.

  17. Epistemic assessment of radon level of offices in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L. T.; Mui, K. W.; Law, K. Y.; Hui, P. S.

    People spend most of their life working indoors. Human exposure to various air pollutants changed its importance in nature from outdoor to indoor. As some of the pollutant sources basically originate from the building envelope that could not be removed or is costly to mitigate, the remaining questions are: how the indoor air quality (IAQ) is monitored and how the information could be used for the environmental control system to achieve the best air quality delivery. Indoor radon level could be measured with a number of sampling approaches and used to determine the acceptance of an IAQ with respect to certain exposure limits. In determining the acceptable IAQ of a space, this study proposes that the measured indoor radon level must be accompanied with the confidence levels of the assessment. Radon levels in Hong Kong offices were studied by a cross-sectional measurement in 216 typical offices and a year-round longitudinal measurement in one office. The results showed that 96.5% (94.0-99.0% at 95% confidence interval) and 98.6% (97.0% to >99.9% at 95% confidence interval) of the sampled offices would satisfy action radon levels of 150 and 200 Bq m -3, respectively. The same results were then used to quantify the prior knowledge on radon level distributions of an office and the probable errors of the adopted sampling schemes. This study proposes an epistemic approach, with the prior knowledge and a sample test result, to assess the acceptance against an action radon level of an office in Hong Kong. With the certainty of the test results determined for judgmental purposes, it is possible to apply the method to an office for follow-up tests of acceptance.

  18. Effectiveness of cognitive training for Chinese elderly in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Timothy; Wong, Anita; Chan, Grace; Shiu, YY; Lam, Ko-Chuen; Young, Daniel; Ho, Daniel WH; Ho, Florence

    2013-01-01

    In Hong Kong, the evidence for cognitive-training programs in fighting against memory complaints is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Active Mind cognitive-training program in improving the cognitive function and quality of life (QoL) for local community-dwelling Chinese older adults. A total of 200 subjects were recruited from 20 different district elderly community centers (DECCs). Centers were randomly assigned into either the intervention group or control group. The intervention group underwent eight 1-hour sessions of cognitive training, while the control group were included in the usual group activities provided by the DECCs. Standardized neuropsychological tests (the Chinese version of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale [CDRS] and the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) and the QoL questionnaire SF12 were used to assess participants’ cognitive function and QoL before and after the trial. A total of 176 subjects completed the study. The intervention group showed greater improvement in the cognitive function measured by total CDRS score (treatment: 12.24 ± 11.57 vs control: 4.37 ± 7.99; P < 0.001) and QoL measured by total SF12 score (treatment: 7.82 ± 13.19 vs control: 3.18 ± 11.61; P = 0.014). Subjects with lower education level were associated with better cognitive response to the cognitive-training program. The current findings indicated that the Active Mind cognitive-training program was effective in improving the cognitive function and QoL for community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Hong Kong. PMID:23440076

  19. The impact of immigration on the breastfeeding practices of Mainland Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Kris Yuet Wan; Bai, Dorothy Li; Chan, Noel P T; Wong, Janet Y H; Tarrant, Marie

    2018-03-01

    Researchers have found breastfeeding disparities between immigrant and native-born women in many countries. However, most studies on immigration and breastfeeding practices have been in Western countries. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of length of time since immigration on the breastfeeding practices of Mainland Chinese immigrants living in Hong Kong. We recruited 2704 mother-infant pairs from the postnatal wards of four public hospitals in Hong Kong. We examined the effect of migration status on the duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding duration was progressively shorter as the time since immigration increased. When compared with mothers who had lived in Hong Kong for Hong Kong-born participants had a 30% higher risk of stopping any breastfeeding (hazard ratio [HR] 1.34 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.10-1.63]) and exclusive breastfeeding (HR 1.33 [95% CI 1.11-1.58]). In both Hong Kong-born and immigrant participants, breastfeeding cessation was associated with return to work postpartum and the husband's preference for infant formula or mixed feeding. Intention to exclusively breastfeed and to breastfeed for >6 months, and previous breastfeeding experience substantially reduced the risk of breastfeeding cessation for both Hong Kong-born and immigrant participants. Health care professionals should consider immigration history in their assessment of pregnant women and provide culturally adapted breastfeeding support and encouragement to this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of Hong Kong adults: results of the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Waiky W K; Yip, Yiu-chung; Choi, Koon-kay; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) covered by the Stockholm Convention on POPs. To assess the associated health risk of the Hong Kong population, the dietary exposure of the Hong Kong population and various age-gender subgroups to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs was estimated in the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study (TDS), where food samples were collected and prepared "as consumed". A total of 142 composite food samples, mainly foods of animal origin and their products and oily food, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like PCBs by the high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) system. Dietary exposures were estimated by combining the analytical results with the food consumption data of Hong Kong adults. The mean and 95th percentile exposures to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of the Hong Kong population were 21.9 and 59.7 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) month⁻¹ respectively, which amounted to 31.3% and 85.2% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The main dietary source of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs was "Fish and seafood and their products" (61.9% of the total exposure), followed by "Meat, poultry and game and their products" (20.0%) and "Mixed dishes" (6.95%). The study findings suggest that the Hong Kong population is unlikely to experience the major undesirable health effects of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

  1. Can the concept of Health Promoting Schools help to improve students' health knowledge and practices to combat the challenge of communicable diseases: Case study in Hong Kong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Hilda SK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing epidemics of emerging infectious diseases has raised the importance of a setting approach and include the Health Promoting School (HPS framework to promote better health and hygiene. Built on the concept of 'the' HPS framework, the Hong Kong Healthy Schools Award scheme includes "Personal Health Skills" as one of its key aspects to improve student hygiene knowledge and practices. This study examines the differences in student perceptions, knowledge and health behaviours between those schools that have adopted the HPS framework and those that have not adopted. Methods A cross-sectional study using multi-stage random sampling was conducted among schools with awards (HSA and those schools not involved in the award scheme nor adopting the concept of HPS (non-HPS. For HSA group, 5 primary schools and 7 secondary schools entered the study with 510 students and 789 students sampled respectively. For the 'Non-HPS' group, 8 primary schools and 7 secondary schools entered the study with 676 students and 725 students sampled respectively. A self-administered questionnaire was used as the measuring instrument. Results Students in the HSA category were found to be better with statistical significance in personal hygiene practice, knowledge on health and hygiene, as well as access to health information. HSA schools were reported to have better school health policy, higher degrees of community participation, and better hygienic environment. Conclusion Students in schools that had adopted the HPS framework had a more positive health behaviour profile than those in non-HPS schools. Although a causal relationship is yet to be established, the HPS appears to be a viable approach for addressing communicable diseases.

  2. An integrated environmental risk assessment and management framework for enhancing the sustainability of marine protected areas: the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve case study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Elvis G B; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Morton, Brian; Lee, Joseph H W

    2015-02-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs), such as marine parks and reserves, contain natural resources of immense value to the environment and mankind. Since MPAs may be situated in close proximity to urbanized areas and influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g. continuous discharges of contaminated waters), the marine organisms contained in such waters are probably at risk. This study aimed at developing an integrated environmental risk assessment and management (IERAM) framework for enhancing the sustainability of such MPAs. The IERAM framework integrates conventional environmental risk assessment methods with a multi-layer-DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) conceptual approach, which can simplify the complex issues embraced by environmental management strategies and provide logical and concise management information. The IERAM process can generate a useful database, offer timely update on the status of MPAs, and assist in the prioritization of management options. We use the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve in Hong Kong as an example to illustrate the IERAM framework. A comprehensive set of indicators were selected, aggregated and analyzed using this framework. Effects of management practices and programs were also assessed by comparing the temporal distributions of these indicators over a certain timeframe. Based on the obtained results, we have identified the most significant components for safeguarding the integrity of the marine reserve, and indicated the existing information gaps concerned with the management of the reserve. Apart from assessing the MPA's present condition, a successful implementation of the IERAM framework as evocated here would also facilitate better-informed decision-making and, hence, indirectly enhance the protection and conservation of the MPA's marine biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Review of evolution of clinical, training and educational services and research program for autism spectrum disorders in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Virginia Chun-Nei; Fung, Cheuk-Wing; Lee, So-Lun; Wong, Polly Tsz Yan

    2015-10-01

    The evolution of a local fragmented model of services for children with autism in Hong Kong emerged gradually over the past three decades with lack of government funding or support. This had been due to increasing number of children with autism being detected and referred for earlier assessment. With increasing pressure from parents due to long waiting time for assessment and training services and the increasing polarization by mass media there had been a gradual increasing public awareness over the past five years. Though still highly fragmented in the availability of services, there is a growing "business model" available in the community due to increasing need and lack of public funding for support. There is a lack of strategic planning for medical diagnostic and management issues in Hong Kong. Our University of Hong Kong based Autism Research Program was pioneered in 1985 based on the increasing load of autism cases referred for assessment for other developmental problems and diagnosed as Autism in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital. As the first author has been the staff of the University of Hong Kong, this program flourished as a research based program. The benefits of early identification and intervention of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) had been increasingly recognized, and with the increased public awareness and increasing trend of earlier diagnosis, there has been a continuously high demand from parents for earlier assessment and training for children suspected to have ASD. This model had not received extra funding for this integrated program for research, teaching and training in autism. We had to apply for various donations and grants to support the development of this pioneer program. The research output and organization of forums for public education and awareness are reviewed. The latter part of the paper reports the summary of clinical profile of autism cases (N=1441) assessed from 1985 to 2010 June under the University of Hong Kong. As the

  4. Self-Esteem: A Comparison between Hong Kong Children and Newly Arrived Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung

    2004-01-01

    The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…

  5. Attitudes towards and perceptions of visual loss and its causes among Hong Kong Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph Tak Fai; Lee, Vincent; Fan, Dorothy; Lau, Mason; Michon, John

    2004-06-01

    As part of a study of visual function among Hong Kong Chinese adults, their attitudes and perceptions related to visual loss were examined. These included fear of visual loss, negative functional impacts of visual loss, the relationship between ageing and visual loss and help-seeking behaviours related to visual loss. Demographic factors associated with these variables were also studied. The study population were people aged 40 and above randomly selected from the Shatin district of Hong Kong. The participants underwent eye examinations that included visual acuity, intraocular pressure measurement, visual field, slit-lamp biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy. The primary cause of visual disability was recorded. The participants were also asked about their attitudes and perceptions regarding visual loss using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of bilateral visual disability was 2.2% among adults aged 40 or above and 6.4% among adults aged 60 or above. Nearly 36% of the participants selected blindness as the most feared disabling medical condition, which was substantially higher than conditions such as dementia, loss of limbs, deafness or aphasia. Inability to take care of oneself (21.0%), inconvenience related to mobility (20.2%) and inability to work (14.8%) were the three most commonly mentioned 'worst impact' effects of visual loss. Fully 68% of the participants believed that loss of vision is related to ageing. A majority of participants would seek help and advice from family members in case of visual loss. Visual function is perceived to be very important by Hong Kong Chinese adults. The fear of visual loss is widespread and particularly affects self-care and functional abilities. Visual loss is commonly seen as related to ageing. Attitudes and perceptions in this population may be modified by educational and outreach efforts in order to take advantage of preventive measures.

  6. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ann T W; Poon, C S; Wong, Agnes; Yip, Robin; Jaillon, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C&D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006-2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C&D waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ann T.W.; Poon, C.S.; Wong, Agnes; Yip, Robin; Jaillon, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years of CWDCS implementation. ► However, the reduction cannot be sustained. ► Implementation of the CWDCS has generated positive effects in waste reduction by all main trades. - Abstract: Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C and D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C and D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006–2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C and D waste.

  8. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ann T.W., E-mail: bsannyu@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Building and Real Estate, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Poon, C.S.; Wong, Agnes; Yip, Robin; Jaillon, Lara [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years of CWDCS implementation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer However, the reduction cannot be sustained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implementation of the CWDCS has generated positive effects in waste reduction by all main trades. - Abstract: Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C and D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C and D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006-2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C and D waste.

  9. Internet Vigilantism: Attitudes and Experiences of University Students Toward Cyber Crowdsourcing in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lennon Y C; Poon, Ryan

    2017-12-01

    With the development of the Internet, Internet vigilantism (netilantism) has emerged as a new phenomenon in recent years. Although there are several qualitative studies explaining netilantism, there is little empirical research on public perceptions of netilantism. This article aims to outline Hong Kong university students' general perception of netilantism and investigate the differences between different roles in netilantism. By using empowerment theory as the theoretical framework, we will investigate whether Internet vigilantes (netilantes) (a) perceive the criminal justice system as effective, (b) possess high levels of self-efficacy in the cyber world, and (c) tend to believe netilantism can achieve social justice. Findings support the proposition that human flesh search engine is an empowerment tool for the netilante enabling him or her to achieve his goal of social justice. Different roles in netilantism (i.e., bystander, netilante, victim, and none of the above roles) have different perceptions of netilantism and the criminal justice system. The results will be explained by studying two representative cases of netilantism-the "Government Official Molestation" case and the "Cat Abuse in Shun Tin Village" case from China and Hong Kong, respectively.

  10. Economic Evaluation of Individual School Closure Strategies: The Hong Kong 2009 H1N1 Pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoie Shui-Yee Wong

    Full Text Available School closures as a means of containing the spread of disease have received considerable attention from the public health community. Although they have been implemented during previous pandemics, the epidemiological and economic effects of the closure of individual schools remain unclear.This study used data from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong to develop a simulation model of an influenza pandemic with a localised population structure to provide scientific justifications for and economic evaluations of individual-level school closure strategies.The estimated cost of the study's baseline scenario was USD330 million. We found that the individual school closure strategies that involved all types of schools and those that used a lower threshold to trigger school closures had the best performance. The best scenario resulted in an 80% decrease in the number of cases (i.e., prevention of about 830,000 cases, and the cost per case prevented by this intervention was USD1,145; thus, the total cost was USD1.28 billion.This study predicts the effects of individual school closure strategies on the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong. Further research could determine optimal strategies that combine various system-wide and district-wide school closures with individual school triggers across types of schools. The effects of different closure triggers at different phases of a pandemic should also be examined.

  11. The Behaviour of Small Investors in the Hong Kong Derivatives Markets: A Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Yuen Hon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behaviour of small investors in Hong Kong’s derivatives markets. The study period covers the global economic crisis of 2011- 2012, and we focus on small investors’ behaviour during and after the crisis. We attempt to identify and analyse the key factors that capture their behaviour in derivatives markets in Hong Kong. The data were collected from 524 respondents via a questionnaire survey. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to analyse the data, and some interesting findings were obtained. Our study enhances our understanding of behavioural finance in the setting of an Asian financial centre, namely Hong Kong.

  12. The progression of hallux valgus in the oriental Chinese population in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kenneth Kin-Hoo; Tse, Lung Fung; Cheng, Hi Shan; Ho, Kevin Ki Wai

    2017-08-01

    Hallux valgus is the lateral deviation of the great toe at the MTPJ that has many attributing aetiologies. This study will aim to identify whether hallux valgus progresses over time in the oriental Chinese population in Hong Kong. Patients with acquired symptomatic hallux valgus who presented to clinic between 2008 and 2013 were included. The deformities were analysed radiologically at presentation and pre-operative and angles were measured. These angles were analysed in relation to the waiting time from presentation to surgery. A sample of 43 cases from 38 patients (Mean age 63 years, range 48-80 years) were included. Forty-one cases had a hallux valgus angle (HVA) >24° at presentation (Mean 40.4°) and all had an intermetatarsal angle (IMA) >9°. A significant difference is seen with HVA (p=0.040, t=-2.128) at presentation and pre-op but not IMA (p=0.281, t=-1.095). The average wait for surgery was 705.7days which had shown significant correlation with progression in HVA (p=0.031). No significant difference was seen between IMA and waiting time to surgery (p=0.195). The findings suggests severe hallux valgus deformity does progress over time in Hong Kong. Shorter waiting times for surgery could be beneficial to this population. Level III, retrospective comparative series. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Variations of aerosol size distribution, chemical composition and optical properties from roadside to ambient environment: A case study in Hong Kong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Ning, Zhi; Shen, Zhenxing; Li, Guoliang; Zhang, Junke; Lei, Yali; Xu, Hongmei; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Leiming; Westerdahl, Dane; Gali, Nirmal Kumar; Gong, Xuesong

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the ;roadside-to-ambient; evolution of particle physicochemical and optical properties in typical urban atmospheres of Hong Kong through collection of chemically-resolved PM2.5 data and PM2.5 size distribution at a roadside and an ambient site. Roadside particle size distribution showed typical peaks in the nuclei mode (30-40 nm) while ambient measurements peaked in the Aitken mode (50-70 nm), revealing possible condensation and coagulation growth of freshly emitted particles during aging processes. Much higher levels of anthropogenic chemical components, i.e. nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), but lower levels of OC/EC and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA)/EC ratios appeared in roadside than ambient particles. The high OC/EC and SIA/EC ratios in ambient particles implied high contributions from secondary aerosols. Black carbon (BC), a strong light absorbing material, showed large variations in optical properties when mixed with other inorganic and organic components. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PAHs), an indicator of brown carbon (BrC), showed significant UV-absorbing ability. The average BC and p-PAHs concentrations were 3.8 and 87.6 ng m-3, respectively, at the roadside, but were only 1.5 and 18.1 ng m-3 at the ambient site, suggesting BC and p-PAHs concentrations heavily driven by traffic emissions. In contrast, PM2.5 UV light absorption coefficients (babs-BrC,370nm) at the ambient site (4.2 Mm-1) and at the roadside site (4.1 Mm-1) were similar, emphasizing that particle aging processes enhanced UV light-absorbing properties, a conclusion that was also supported by the finding that the Absorption Ångström coefficient (AAC) value at UV wavelengths (AAC_UV band) at the ambient site were ∼1.7 times higher than that at the roadside. Both aqueous reaction and photochemically produced secondary organic aerosol (SOA) for ambient aerosols contributed to the peak values of babs

  14. Prevalence, psychosocial correlates and service utilization of depressive and anxiety disorders in Hong Kong: the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity Survey (HKMMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Linda Chiu-Wa; Wong, Corine Sau-Man; Wang, Min-Jung; Chan, Wai-Chi; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Ng, Roger Man-Kin; Hung, Se-Fong; Cheung, Eric Fuk-Chi; Sham, Pak-Chung; Chiu, Helen Fung-Kum; Lam, Ming; Chang, Wing-Chung; Lee, Edwin Ho-Ming; Chiang, Tin-Po; Lau, Joseph Tak-Fai; van Os, Jim; Lewis, Glyn; Bebbington, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Data on mental disorder prevalence and health service utilization required to inform healthcare management and planning are lacking in Hong Kong. The current study determined the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD), and examined the patterns of mental health service utilization and associated factors. We analyzed data from the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity Survey (HKMMS) of 5,719 Chinese adults aged 16-75 years in the general Hong Kong population, using the Chinese Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R). The weighted prevalence estimate for any past-week CMD was 13.3 %, with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder being the most frequent diagnoses. CMD was positively associated with female gender, being divorced or separated, alcohol misuse, substance dependence, lack of regular physical exercise, and a family history of mental disorder. Among individuals with CMD, only 26 % had consulted mental health services in the past year; less than 10 % consulted general practitioners or family physicians. Lack of mental health service usage was significantly more likely in men and those with lower educational attainment. Apart from attention to psychosocial risks, health and lifestyle factors are important considerations for mental health promotion. Service utilization for individuals with CMD in Hong Kong remains suboptimal, and would be enhanced by strengthening community primary care.

  15. ‘Persons of versatility’: private security officers and private policing in residential estates in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Kwong, Wilkie

    2013-01-01

    This study is the result of exploratory research on the daily lives and experiences of private security officers working in Hong Kong housing estates. As the first qualitative investigation of its kind, it examined two case studies of separate estates through the lens of Nodal Governance, which involved interviews with security practitioners and end-users, work practice observations, and documentary analysis. Security officers were found to ‘wear many hats’. Apart from crime prevention, the ...

  16. The compulsory psychiatric regime in Hong Kong: Constitutional and ethical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Daisy

    This article examines the compulsory psychiatric regime in Hong Kong. Under section 36 of the Mental Health Ordinance, which authorises long-term detention of psychiatric patients, a District Judge is required to countersign the form filled out by the registered medical practitioners in order for the detention to be valid. Case law, however, has shown that the role of the District Judge is merely administrative. This article suggests that, as it currently stands, the compulsory psychiatric regime in Hong Kong is unconstitutional because it fails the proportionality test. In light of this conclusion, the author proposes two solutions to deal with the issue, by common law or by legislative reform. The former would see an exercise of discretion by the courts read into section 36, while the latter would involve piecemeal reform of the relevant provisions to give the courts an explicit discretion to consider substantive issues when reviewing compulsory detention applications. The author argues that these solutions would introduce effective judicial supervision into the compulsory psychiatric regime and safeguard against abuse of process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A global vernacular? Musings on European art music in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Biancorosso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Classical European Music in higher education curricula in Tokyo or Beijing, Hong Kong or Singapore is a fact that barely registers to the eye (and ear of a visiting teacher, especially a Western one. Daily engagement with university instruction over an extended period of time, however, soon reveals the complexity and significance of the adoption of European notation-based repertories, and the practices associated with them. As an “outsider-insider”, in this paper I sketch a picture of the opportunities and challenges of teaching the repertories of the so-called European “Common Practice” in contemporary East Asia. Drawing on a few case studies based on my experience in Hong Kong, Beijing, South Korea and Japan, I then consider the implications of the adoption of a recently imported musical language as the norm in music theory education as well as the pinnacle of artistic accomplishment in the fields of both composition and performance. Observing patterns of absorption of foreign cultural artifacts and sensibilities need not lead to sobering conclusions about cultural imperialism or thoughtless Westernisation.

  18. Local and regional anthropogenic influence on PM 2.5 elements in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, G. S. W.; Bergin, M. H.; Salmon, L. G.; Yu, J. Z.; Wan, E. C. H.; Zheng, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Kiang, C. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Schauer, J. J.

    Hong Kong's persistent unhealthy level of fine particulate matter is a current public health challenge, complicated by the city being located in the rapidly industrializing Pearl River Delta Region of China. While the sources of the region's fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) are still not well understood, this study provides new source information through ground measurements and statistical analysis of 24 elements associated with particulate matter collected on filters. Field measurements took place over 4 months (October 2002, December 2002, March 2003, and June 2003) at seven sites throughout the Pearl River Delta, with three sites located in Hong Kong and four sites in the neighboring province, Guangdong. The 4-month average element concentrations show significant variation throughout the region, with higher levels of nearly every species seen among the northern Guangdong sites in comparison to Hong Kong. The high correlation (Pearson r>0.8) and similar magnitudes of 11 species (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br, Rb, and Pb) at three contrasting sites in Hong Kong indicate that sources external to Hong Kong dominate the regional levels of these elements. Further correlative analysis compared Hong Kong against potential source areas in Guangdong Province (Shenzhen, Zhongshan, and Guangzhou). Moderate correlation of sulfur for all pairings of Hong Kong sites with three Guangdong sites in developed areas (average Pearson r of 0.52-0.94) supports the importance of long-distance transport impacting the region as a whole, although local sources also clearly impact observed concentrations. Varying correlative characteristics for zinc when Hong Kong sites are paired with Shenzhen (average r=0.86), Guangzhou (average r=-0.65) and Zhongshan (average r=0.45) points to a source area located south of Guangzhou and locally impacting Zhongshan. The concentration distribution and correlative characteristics of bromide point to sources located within the Pearl River Delta, but the

  19. Plus Ca Change, Plus C'Est La Meme Chose: Attitudes towards English Language Learning in Hong Kong--Frederick Stewart's Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickley, Gillian

    1990-01-01

    Suggests that the attitudes of the people of Hong Kong toward learning English, during both an earlier period and at present, are similar and deeply entrenched. The increasing emigration of Hong Kong people, mainly to Anglophone countries, makes an international understanding of the attitude of Hong Kong people toward learning English very…

  20. Compare the difference of architecture design in Hong Kong and Penang – Exterior wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen Tao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the exterior wall of architecture design of Hong Kong and Penang, it also analyzes how light pollution affects human life. As we know, Hong Kong prefers to use steel to build skyscrapers and middle or high rise buildings. However, Penang prefers to use concrete to do the construction. So, there are some advantages and disadvantages between the glass curtain wall and concrete wall in Hong Kong and Penang. The researcher used 400 samples to determine effect of the glass curtain wall and concrete wall on human life in Hong Kong and Penang separately. The result is light pollution created by glass curtain wall in Hong Kong is a serious problem to residents’ life. The glass curtain wall seriously glaze people’s eyes who drive or walk on the street. Thus, many car accidents were caused by this problem. The concrete wall is more often contaminated by fungus and difficult to clean. But, concrete wall is more natural and green for humans. Therefore, from the sustainable aspect that concrete is more healthy for humans, the previous researchers suggest that if the exterior wall is a mixture of both glass curtain and concrete it will not cause light pollution and will be easily involved in the natural environment.

  1. An Integrative Study of Photochemical Air Pollution in Hong Kong: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.

    2014-12-01

    Hong Kong is situated in the Pearl River delta of Southern China. This region has experienced phenomenal economic growth in the past 30 years. Emissions of large amount of pollutants from urban areas and various industries coupled with subtropical climate have led to frequent occurrences of severe photochemical air pollution. Despite the long-term control efforts of the Hong Kong government, the atmospheric levels of ozone have been increasing in the past decade. To obtain an updated and more complete understanding of photochemical smog, an integrative study has been conducted during 2010-2014. Several intensive measurement campaigns were carried out at urban, suburban and rural sites in addition to the routine observations at fourteen air quality monitoring stations in Hong Kong. Meteorological, photochemical, and chemical-transport modeling studies were conducted to investigate the causes/processes of elevated photochemical pollution . The main activities of this study were to (1) examine the situation and trends of photochemical air pollution in Hong Kong, (2) understand some underlying chemical processes in particular the poorly-understood heterogeneous processes of reactive nitrogen oxides, (3) quantify the local, regional, and super-regional contributions to the ozone pollution in Hong Kong, and (4) review the control policy and make further recommendations based on the science. This paper will give an overview of this study and present some key results on the trends and chemistry of the photochemical pollution in this polluted subtropical region.

  2. Comparison of stress in anaesthetic trainees between Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, A C L; Irwin, M G; Lee, P W H; Lee, T H W; Man, S E

    2008-11-01

    A postal survey was sent to anaesthetic trainees in Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia to compare work-related stress levels. Demographic data were collected. Anaesthetist-specific stressors, Maslach Burnout Inventory and Global Job Satisfaction scores were used for psychological testing. The response rates from Hong Kong and Melbourne were 64 of 133 (48.1%) and 108 of 196 (55.1%), respectively. Victorian respondents were older with greater family commitments, but more advanced in fulfilling training requirements. Hong Kong respondents, being faced with both the challenge of dual College requirements, exhibited consistently higher indices of stress (P stress scores observed in Hong Kong trainees related to service provision and a perceived lack of resources. Despite the complex nature of stress, its antecedents and manifestations, an inverse relationship between emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction was evident in correlation analysis (P stress was present in some trainees in both areas. Hong Kong trainees may benefit from local development to address mental wellbeing as being important to fulfil this highly competitive training program.

  3. Work injury management model and implication in Hong Kong: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Cecilia Suk-Mei; Cheng, Andy Shu-Kei

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review is to explore the work injury management models in literatures and the essential components in different models. The resulting information could be used to develop an integrated holistic model that could be applied in the work injury management system in Hong Kong. A keyword search of MEDLINE and CINAHL databases was conducted. A total of 68 studies related to the management of an injury were found within the above mentioned electronic database. Together with the citation tracking, there were 13 studies left for selection after the exclusion screening. Only 7 out of those 13 studies met the inclusion criteria for review. It is noticeable that the most important component in the injury management model in the reviewed literatures is early intervention. Because of limitations in Employees' Compensation Ordinance in Hong Kong, there is an impetus to have a model and practice guideline for work injury management in Hong Kong to ensure the quality of injury management services. At the end of this paper, the authors propose a work injury management model based on the employees' compensation system in Hong Kong. This model can be used as a reference for those countries adopting similar legislation as in Hong Kong.

  4. Doubling over ten years of central obesity in Hong Kong Chinese working men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Tin-choi Gary; Chan, Juliana; Chan, Amy; Wong, Patrick; Hui, Stanley; Chow, Ferrie; Tong, Spencer; Chan, Cecilia

    2007-07-05

    Obesity is now an epidemic in most parts of the world. In this cross sectional study, we report the most recent data on obesity in Hong Kong Chinese working population and compare the changes over 10 years. Between July 2000 and March 2002, 5882 adult subjects from the working class in Hong Kong were recruited (2716 men (46.2%) and 3166 women (53.8%)). They were randomly selected using computer generated codes according to the distribution of occupational groups. Results of this study were compared with the data collected from a prevalence survey for cardiovascular risk factors in a Hong Kong Chinese working population conducted in 1990 (1513 subjects, 910 men (60.1%) and 603 women (39.9%)). Standardized percentages of overweight, obesity, and central obesity, in Hong Kong Chinese working population were 59.7%, 35.0%, 26.7% in men and 32.0%, 21.7%, 26.7% in women. Compared to the data collected in 1990, the percentage of obesity increased by 5% in men and reduced by 6% in women. The percentage of central obesity doubled in men (from 12.2% to 26.7%) but remained stable in women. There is a doubling of the percentage of central obesity in Hong Kong Chinese working men over previous decade. Education and proper lifestyle modification program to tackle this social health issue are urgently indicated.

  5. The Currency of Historicity in Hong Kong: Deconstructing Nostalgia through Soy Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s, as the end of the millennium approached, the production of nostalgia exploded all around the world. For Hong Kong, nostalgia became a reminder of the golden age that had transformed the city into one of the “Four Asian Tigers” in the decades following the end of the Second World War. While yearning for the better days of the past, Hong Kong coincidentally experienced destabilisation. As the rest of the world, especially the “baby boomers,” mourned the end of a productive era, Hong Kong locals were disturbed by the affirmation of the handover to China in 1997. In the context of these events, a creative rush to nostalgia in cultural manufacturing swept across the city. In the hope of highlighting the uniqueness of nostalgic production in Hong Kong, this study analyses two sets of TV commercials produced by local beverage company Vitasoy. Through the deconstruction of selected historical events, Vitasoy successfully reinvented its brand and, in contrast to general criticism of the concept, generated a positive connotation for nostalgia on the path towards Hong Kong’s search for an identity.

  6. Child maltreatment hospitalisations in Hong Kong: incidence rate and seasonal pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Patrick; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Chan, Ko Ling; Yip, Paul Siu-Fai; Lau, Joseph Tak-Fai; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chow, Chun-Bong; Jiang, Fan

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the incidence and seasonal patterns of child maltreatment hospitalisations in Hong Kong. A retrospective study of subjects aged under 19 years with a primary diagnosis of child maltreatment admitted to hospitals in Hong Kong from 2001 to 2010. Data were retrieved from the centralised database of all 42 public hospitals in the Hospital Authority. Child maltreatment incidence rate. A consistent seasonal pattern was found for non-sexual maltreatment in children aged 6-18 years (pmaltreatment or among children under 6 years. The seasonal pattern of child maltreatment coincided with the two school examination periods. The annual child maltreatment hospitalisation rate in Hong Kong in 2010 was 73.4 per 100 000 children under 19 years, more than double that in 2001. A peculiar seasonal pattern and an alarming increasing trend in child maltreatment hospitalisation were observed in Hong Kong, which we speculated to be related to school examination stress and increasing socioeconomic disparity. Our findings highlighted differences in the trends of child maltreatment between Hong Kong and the West. Professionals and policymakers should be made aware of these trends and develop effective strategies to tackle child maltreatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Why is Design-Build Commonly Used in the Public Sector? An Illustration from Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond Lam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Design and Build (D&B procurement method is one of the systems advocated to overcome inadequacies with the traditional procurement method. In recent years, this innovative procurement method has been put to practice in Hong Kong where a vast amount of infrastructure works is taking place. This paper aims to illustrate the applicability of design-build in the Hong Kong setting.As most D&B projects are undertaken by the public sector of Hong Kong, the main features of a public sector project and reasons for its wider use on D&B are fully examined in the paper. To further explore the benefits of D&B in actual practice, structured interviews have been conducted with clients, contractors and consultants running D&B projects in Hong Kong. Summary of major problems of running D&B projects from the previous study by the authors is also outlined. With the increasing use of D&B in the public sector of Hong Kong and worldwide, more research can be undertaken on the quantitative comparison of the traditional mode of procurement and how to carry out a D&B project successfully so as to develop a knowledge base for the D&B procurement method.

  8. Profiling the careers of Thoroughbred horses racing in Hong Kong between 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velie, B D; Stewart, B D; Lam, K; Wade, C M; Hamilton, N A

    2013-11-01

    Research in Thoroughbred racehorses is often specific to horses from a given racing population or region. In order to investigate trends in racehorse careers across populations accurately, population-specific benchmarks for performance outcomes must be established. To provide summary statistics for performance outcomes for Thoroughbreds racing in Hong Kong between 2000 and 2010 and to document and provide evidence on the current differences in racing careers across sexes and regions of origin for horses racing in Hong Kong. Performance data on the population of Thoroughbreds racing in Hong Kong between 3 September 2000 and 12 March 2011 (n = 4950) were acquired and used to describe and compare the careers of Thoroughbred racehorses in Hong Kong. Career length, number of career starts and number of spells from racing per year were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier survival curves, stratified by sex, age group, country of origin and region of origin were produced for career length. A Cox's proportional hazards model was fitted to assess factors influencing the risk of retirement from racing in Hong Kong. Log-rank tests for equality of career length survivor functions showed significant differences (Phorse originates, with specific effects on each performance outcome also varying between regions. Future research should take into account these potential differences when comparing results across populations. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Allergy in Hong Kong: an unmet need in service provision and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y T; Ho, H K; Lai, Christopher K W; Lau, C S; Lau, Y L; Lee, T H; Leung, T F; Wong, Gary W K; Wu, Y Y

    2015-02-01

    Many children in Hong Kong have allergic diseases and epidemiological data support a rising trend. Only a minority of children will grow out of their allergic diseases, so the heavy clinical burden will persist into adulthood. In an otherwise high-quality health care landscape in Hong Kong, allergy services and training are a seriously unmet need. There is one allergy specialist for 1.5 million people, which is low not only compared with international figures, but also compared with most other specialties in Hong Kong. The ratio of paediatric and adult allergists per person is around 1:460 000 and 1:2.8 million, respectively, so there is a severe lack of adult allergists, while the paediatric allergists only spend a fraction of their time working with allergy. There are no allergists and no dedicated allergy services in adult medicine in public hospitals. Laboratory support for allergy and immunology is not comprehensive and there is only one laboratory in the public sector supervised by accredited immunologists. These findings clearly have profound implications for the profession and the community of Hong Kong and should be remedied without delay. Key recommendations are proposed that could help bridge the gaps, including the creation of two new pilot allergy centres in a hub-and-spoke model in the public sector. This could require recruitment of specialists from overseas to develop the process if there are no accredited allergy specialists in Hong Kong who could fulfil this role.

  10. Sentencing Male Sex Offenders Under the Age of 14: A Law Reform Advocacy Journey in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai-Ching Irene; Cheung, Monit; Ma, Anny Kit-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The common law presumption that a boy under the age of 14 is incapable of sexual intercourse has provoked controversial debates in Hong Kong. This article describes a 6-step advocacy journey to examine how community efforts have helped modify this law so that juvenile male sexual offenders under the age of 14 who have committed the crime of having sexual intercourse with underage females can be sentenced to receive appropriate treatment. Seven court cases provided by the magistrates' courts in Hong Kong were used in this advocacy effort for the removal of the presumption in July 2012. Although this effort has yet to reveal signs of effectiveness, it represents greater public awareness about providing rehabilitation appropriate for juvenile sex offenders through a formal sentence. Restorative justice, as opposed to retributive or punitive justice, places an emphasis on rehabilitation of the offender and restoration of victims to a place of wholeness.

  11. Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of British-Chinese, White British and Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the self-esteem scores of 1303 children, including Chinese children from Britain and Hong Kong and white British children, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Finds that British Chinese have significantly higher self-esteem than the Hong Kong children, but there is little difference among white British children. (CMK)

  12. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...

  13. The Impact of Curiosity and External Regulation on Intrinsic Motivation: An Empirical Study in Hong Kong Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon-keung, Yau; Man-shan, Kan; Lai-fong, Cheng Alison

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to identify: (1) the factors affecting the intrinsic motivation of university students in Hong Kong; and (2) gender differences in the perception of intrinsic motivation in Hong Kong higher education environment. The factors of curiosity and external regulation with intrinsic motivation are taken into investigation…

  14. Cross-Cultural Adjustment of Native-Speaking English Teachers (NETs) in Hong Kong: A Factor in Attrition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chau Kan; Morrison, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that, despite government support in financial and contractual matters, ongoing problems of retention of Native-speaking English Teachers (NETs) in Hong Kong stem, in part, from problems of cross-cultural adjustment. The paper reports a small-scale qualitative investigation into the experiences of NETS in Hong Kong and finds…

  15. Students' Choice of Sub-Degree Programmes in Self-Financing Higher Education Institutions in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Phoebe; Ng, Peggy M. L.; Mak, Connie K. Y.; Chan, Jason K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The higher education sector in Hong Kong has restructured substantially from elite to mass higher education since the introduction of education reform by the Hong Kong government in 2000. To stay ahead in this competitive environment in the education sector, management teams of self-financing institutions have to compete for students and identify…

  16. Challenges to Globalisation, Localisation and Sinophilia in Music Education: A Comparative Study of Hong Kong, Shanghai and Taipei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung; Law, Wing-Wah

    2006-01-01

    In the past, the music curricula of Hong Kong (HK), Mainland China and Taiwan have focused on Western music, but with the advent of music technology and the new tripartite paradigm of globalisation, localisation and Sinophilia this has begun to change. Hong Kong, Shanghai and Taipei share a common historical culture and their populations are…

  17. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Attitude: A Comparison between Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Wu, Joseph; Tao, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares risk perception and risk-taking attitude between Hong Kong and mainland China undergraduate students using a Chinese version of the 30-item domain-specific risk-taking (DOSPERT) scale (Blais and Weber 2006b). Compared with their counterparts from mainland China, Hong Kong university students reported higher levels of risk…

  18. Aspects of the Two Language System and Three Language Problem in the Changing Society of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Benjamin K.

    1996-01-01

    Presents details of the language shifts among the various sections of the Chinese-speaking population in Hong Kong and analyzes patterns of allegiance. Notes that complex social, economic, and political pressures will affect future language in Hong Kong and that, within the domains of family, work, and others, the use of Modern Standard Chinese is…

  19. Developing Students' Critical Thinking Skills through Visual Literacy in the New Secondary School Curriculum in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chi-Kim; Jhaveri, Aditi Dubey

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that the planned introduction of visual literacy into the New Secondary School Curriculum can play a crucial role in enabling students to think critically and creatively in Hong Kong's highly visual landscape. As Hong Kong's educational system remains entrenched in long-established and conventional pedagogies, the primacy given…

  20. Influenza Vaccination Uptake and Associated Factors among Elderly Population in Hong Kong: The Application of the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, P. K. H.; Lau, J. T. F.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of influenza on elderly can be severe and fatal. Influenza vaccination (IV) has been shown to be effective in reducing influenza-related complications, but the IV uptake among elderly in Hong Kong remains low. This study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with IV among Chinese elderly in Hong Kong using the Health Belief…

  1. Building a Connected Classroom: Teachers' Narratives about Managing the Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2013-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…

  2. Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

  3. Application of Sociology of Education on Early Childhood Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices in Hong Kong: Insight from David Riesman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Grace; Ho, Kwok Keung

    2016-01-01

    This paper will present multiple themes that are intermingled with one another, aiming to bring an overview of sociology of education and its application in the Hong Kong situation. One of the themes concerns how sociology of education has intertwined with the socio-political aspect of Hong Kong before and after year 1997 resulting in different…

  4. It Takes Two to Tango: Inclusive Schooling in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy H. Greenberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of students with autism and other special needs into the general education curriculum continues to be a challenging process for school communities in the United States of America (US and increasingly abroad. Although inclusion is a challenging process for those involved, the global demand is growing. Traditionally this initiative has originated from advocates such as parents and communities who represent the students. With enough pressure from constituents of the system, those efforts may be converted into policy through the local education department. The US has led the inclusion movement and many other developed nations have followed suit in recent decades. Consequently more and more schools are focused on building inclusive school communities. These programs see the value of a balanced approach that emphasizes curriculum coupled with pedagogy. This paper provides an overview of the history of the inclusion movement in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China. Three main types of school systems in the region are explained, and one successful inclusive school model will be described with outcome data included. Multiple factors that affect the development of the inclusion movement will also be discussed.

  5. Determinants of spirometric abnormalities among silicotic patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi C; Chang, Kwok C; Law, Wing S; Yew, Wing W; Tam, Cheuk M; Chan, Chi K; Wong, Man Y

    2005-09-01

    Silicosis is the second commonest notified occupational disease in Hong Kong. To characterize the determinants of spirometric abnormalities in silicosis. The spirometric patterns of consecutive silicotic patients on confirmation by the Pneumoconiosis Medical Board from 1991 to 2002 were correlated with demographic characteristics, occupational history, smoking history, tuberculosis (TB) history and radiographic features by univariate and multiple regression analyses. Of 1576 silicotic patients included, 55.6% showed normal spirometry, 28.5% normal forced vital capacity (FVC>or=80% predicted) but reduced forced expiratory ratio (FERjob type, history of TB, size of lung nodules and progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) were all significantly associated with airflow limitation on univariate analysis (all P<0.05), while sex and profusion of nodules were not. Only age, cigarette pack-years, history of TB, size of lung nodules and PMF remained as significant independent predictors of airflow obstruction in multiple logistic regression analysis. After controlling for airflow obstruction, only shorter exposure duration, history of TB and profusion of nodules were significant independent predictors of reduced FVC. As well as age, history of TB, cigarette pack-years, PMF and nodule size contributed comparable effects to airflow obstruction in multiple linear regression analyses, while profusion of nodules was the strongest factor for reduced vital capacity. In an occupational compensation setting, disease indices and history of tuberculosis are independent predictors of both airflow obstruction and reduced vital capacity for silicotic patients.

  6. Predicting user concerns about online privacy in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mike Z; Zhang, Jinguang

    2008-12-01

    Empirical studies on people's online privacy concerns have largely been conducted in the West. The global threat of privacy violations on the Internet calls for similar studies to be done in non-Western regions. To fill this void, the current study develops a path model to investigate the influence of people's Internet use-related factors, their beliefs in the right to privacy, and psychological need for privacy on Hong Kong people's concerns about online privacy. Survey responses from 332 university students were analyzed. Results from this study show that people's belief in the right to privacy was the most important predictor of their online privacy concerns. It also significantly mediated the relationship between people's psychological need for privacy and their concerns with privacy violations online. Moreover, while frequent use of the Internet may increase concerns about online privacy issues, Internet use diversity may actually reduce such worries. The final model, well supported by the observed data, successfully explained 25% of the variability in user concerns about online privacy.

  7. Metallic corrosion in the polluted urban atmosphere of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Da-Wei; Guo, Hai; Ling, Zhen-Hao; Cheung, Kalam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between air pollutants, particularly acidic particles, and metallic material corrosion. An atmospheric corrosion test was carried out in spring-summer 2012 at a polluted urban site, i.e., Tung Chung in western Hong Kong. Nine types of metallic materials, namely iron, Q235 steel, 20# steel, 16Mn steel, copper, bronze, brass, aluminum, and aluminum alloy, were selected as specimens for corrosion tests. Ten sets of the nine materials were all exposed to ambient air, and then each set was collected individually after exposure to ambient air for consecutive 6, 13, 20, 27, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days, respectively. After the removal of the corrosion products on the surface of the exposed specimens, the corrosion rate of each material was determined. The surface structure of materials was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the corrosion tests. Environmental factors including temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of gaseous pollutants, i.e., sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O₃), and particulate-phase pollutants, i.e., PM₂.₅ (FSP) and PM₁₀ (RSP), were monitored. Correlation analysis between environmental factors and corrosion rate of materials indicated that iron and carbon steel were damaged by both gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and NO₂) and particles. Copper and copper alloys were mainly corroded by gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and O₃), while corrosion of aluminum and aluminum alloy was mainly attributed to NO₂ and particles.

  8. Catholic Church-State Relations in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region: A Review of 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice K.F. Leung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Catholic Church and the Hong Kong British Government formed warm relations when the Church became the contractor of the government to provide education and social and medical service. The British did not provide democracy to Hong Kong but allowed ample freedom including religious freedom which the Hong Kong Catholics would like to protect in the post-colonial period under the Communist Party rule. For religious freedom, right after Hong Kong became the Special Administrative Region (HKSAR, the Hong Kong Catholic Church under the prophetic and vocal leadership of Bishop Joseph Zen, became very active in political participation. Zen’s leadership was short-lived (1996-2009 and the soft-spoken Bishop John Tong replaced him with a different approach of consolidating the church without antagonising the government with social issues.

  9. Acculturation Attitudes and Sociocultural Adaptation of Chinese Mainland Sojourners in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyi Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within these years, there has been a significant increase in the number of Chinese Mainland sojourners studying in Hong Kong. Due to the huge differences in various aspects like language, culture, cultural value, it would be considerably difficult for the Chinese Mainland students to adapt to the Hong Kong environment. This article investigates the ways for a group of doctoral students from Chinese Mainland to acculturate in Hong Kong. With the help of questionnaires, the difficulties that the sojourners have encountered in social situations are measured. It is found out that age and gender may have influenced the participants’ acculturation strategies, and interpersonal relationship is that which the subjects have the most difficulties with, while academic domain is the area with the least difficulties. Meanwhile, the results have shown that competence of local language is not a determinant factor of the sociocultural adaptation, and female subjects seem to adapt better than male subjects. Keywords: sojourner, acculturation, sociocultural adaptation, acculturation strategy

  10. Predicting the 137Cs Contamination of Freshwater Fish in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, C.B.; Au, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    A predictive method for estimating the 137 Cs contamination of freshwater fish in Hong Kong after an acute deposition is presented. This method applies a published aquatic model to the freshwater fish culture ponds in Hong Kong. The predicted transfer coefficient, in terms of peak concentration in fish (wet weight) per unit deposition, is found to be generally lower than those observed in some European and UK lakes after the Chernobyl accident. While the water-fish concentration factor is undoubtedly an important factor, some unique features of the local freshwater fish culture systems, such as the absence of further radioactivity input from catchment to the fish ponds after deposition, and high removal of radioactivity by sedimentation, also play significant roles. Sensitivity of model parameters and uncertainties of prediction are also studied. This predictive model can serve as a useful tool in emergency planning and in countermeasure implementation during a nuclear emergency in Hong Kong. (author)

  11. Social and psychological barriers to private retirement savings in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Yu, Kar-Ming; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chan, Alfred C M; Lum, Terry Y S; Zhu, Alex Y F

    2014-01-01

    Using a phone survey conducted among Hong Kong workers, we examined the association of institutional, social, and psychological factors with engagement in both private retirement savings and the total amount of savings. Alarmingly, this study demonstrates that approximately 42% of Hong Kong workers do not save privately for their retirement. We found that age, education, number of children, support from spouse and friends, social regulation, perceived financial knowledge, and financial management capacity are associated with engagement in private retirement savings. Among those who saved, age, education, perceived financial knowledge, and financial management capacity are related to the amount of savings. Measures that could increase the social support for retirement savings as well as enhance their financial knowledge and management ability should be developed and implemented so that more workers engage in private retirement savings. A promising policy option for the Hong Kong government is to offer a tax incentive to promote additional savings for old-age income protection.

  12. The Occupation Campaign in Hong Kong: A Participant’s View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Yu-shek Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Occupation Campaign in Hong Kong ended on December 15, 2014 after 79 days reflected the protesters and pro-democracy groups’ wish to tell the world that they are not going to give up the cause of democracy and that they will continue to fight despite the understanding that it will be extremely difficult to change the decision of the Chinese leadership in the short term. In the eyes of the supporters of the pro-democracy movement, the challenge facing Hong Kong people is not just fighting for a democratic electoral system, but also struggle to maintain their core values, their lifestyles, and their individual dignity – an uphill battle given that the local business community firmly toes the Beijing line. While the political struggles of the young people of Hong Kong are perceived to have brought hope to the pro-democracy movement, the prospects for democracy remain far from promising.

  13. Trigeneration: A new way for landfill gas utilization and its feasibility in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xiaoli; Yang Hongxing; Zhang Guoqiang

    2008-01-01

    Application of landfill gas (LFG) means a synergy between environmental protection and energy production. This paper presents a review of the status of LFG application. To more efficiently utilize the LFG in Hong Kong, a trigeneration scheme is proposed as a new way of LFG utilization. The feasibility of LFG trigeneration in Hong Kong is evaluated from the views of primary energy-saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction as well as economic benefit. The proposed scenario is compared with the conventional scenarios of LFG treatment and utilization. It is shown that LFG for trigeneration has a higher energy saving and GHG emission reduction potentials. The new scheme is also more economical than the conventional way of LFG utilization. Some policy recommendations are also given to promote the biomass energy utilization from waste landfills in Hong Kong

  14. A survey of radon properties in underground shopping centers in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Young, E.C.M.; Stokes, M.J.; Lo, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    A number of radon-related properties have been surveyed in underground shopping centers in Hong Kong. These parameters include the radon concentration, the total potential alpha energy concentration of radon progeny, the equilibrium factor and the unattached fraction of radon progeny. The mean values recorded for these were 29.2 ± 7.8 Bq/m 3 , 3.60 ± 1.53 mWL, 0.46 ± 0.16 and 0.05 ± 0.03, respectively. Based on these figures, we have calculated the average radon dose received by employees in an underground shopping center in Hong Kong to be 0.22 mSv/yr, which represents an approximate increase of 8% over the total dose of about 2.7 mSv/yr received by the average person in Hong Kong. (author)

  15. Gerontechnology acceptance by elderly Hong Kong Chinese: a senior technology acceptance model (STAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Chan, Alan Hoi Shou

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a senior technology acceptance model (STAM) aimed at understanding the acceptance of gerontechnology by older Hong Kong Chinese people. The proposed STAM extended previous technology acceptance models and theories by adding age-related health and ability characteristics of older people. The proposed STAM was empirically tested using a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with a sample of 1012 seniors aged 55 and over in Hong Kong. The result showed that STAM was strongly supported and could explain 68% of the variance in the use of gerontechnology. For older Hong Kong Chinese, individual attributes, which include age, gender, education, gerontechnology self-efficacy and anxiety, and health and ability characteristics, as well as facilitating conditions explicitly and directly affected technology acceptance. These were better predictors of gerontechnology usage behaviour (UB) than the conventionally used attitudinal factors (usefulness and ease of use).

  16. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Methods: Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. Results: There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p < 0.05, especially for Mainland China, with a 59.50-fold increase experienced. From 2011, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81, followed by Hong Kong (720.39 and Mainland China (583.94. The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46 was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42 and Mainland China (1.33. Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392, followed by Hong Kong (3,785 and Mainland China (1,493. The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65 was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57 and Mainland China (3.41. The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Discussion: Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count.

  17. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Wang, Xiaming; Yuan, Xueru; Yang, Li; Xue, Yu; Xie, Qian

    2016-01-01

    China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p < 0.05), especially for Mainland China, with a 59.50-fold increase experienced. From 2011, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81), followed by Hong Kong (720.39) and Mainland China (583.94). The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46) was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42) and Mainland China (1.33). Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392), followed by Hong Kong (3,785) and Mainland China (1,493). The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65) was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57) and Mainland China (3.41). The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count.

  18. Hong Kong - The Hong Kong Alliance of Patients' Organizations: Working constructively to increase hospital openness and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hong Kong Alliance of Patients' Organizations (HI(APO) comprises 44 affiliated patient groups who advocate across the region, improving patient experiences and increasing advocacy and awareness. Initially established to increase accountability to patients and representation in a changing health system, the Alliance has worked to expand patient input on local and territorial decision-making by partnering with individual hospitals and increasing links with the Hospital Authority Board. Patients are now represented on most committees affecting patient care and the delivery of health services, and more widely in health care policy decision-making. The Alliance advocates for patients as active and constructive consumers rather than passive recipients of services and lobbies for better representation and involvement in treatment decisions. It has also increased media exposure which has helped to grow representation so that patients are now present on all 11 Authority Committees and are asked for their views. The patient ambassadors programme offers training for patients to be representatives at ward level and within the local hospital committee; and by building constructive relationships over time with hospital partners, HKAPO affiliate organizations have been able to start making improvements in the training of professionals in hospitals and informing staff about patient engagement, advocating for new clinical interventions and a more patient-centred approach.

  19. The impact of improving suicide death classification in South Korea: a comparison with Japan and Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Hon Chan

    Full Text Available The suicide rate of South Korea has increased dramatically during the past decades, as opposed to steadily decreasing trends in Japan and Hong Kong. Although the recent increase of suicide in South Korea may be related to changing socioeconomic conditions and other contextual factors, it may also reflect, in part, a reduction of misidentified suicide cases due to improving classification of manner of death.We compared the annual proportional change of suicide, undetermined death, and accidental death from South Korea with those of Japan and Hong Kong from 1992 to 2011; a greater proportional change of the manner-of-death categories during the period is indicative of a relatively less stable registration and hence a greater potential for misclassification bias on reported suicide trends. Subgroup analyses stratifying the deaths by methods were also conducted. To estimate the impact, the age-standardized rates of these three death categories in each site were calculated.We found that, during the 20-year observation period, the proportional change of suicide, undetermined death, and accidental death in South Korea was significantly greater than Japan and Hong Kong. Similar observations were made in subgroup analyses. While death rates of the three manners in Japan and Hong Kong generally moved in a parallel fashion, the increase of suicide in South Korea occurred concomitantly with a significant reduction of its accidental death rate. 43% of the increase in suicides could be attributed to the decrease in accidental deaths, while 57% of the increase could be due to fundamental causes.Our data suggest that, during the mid-1990s and after, the increasing burden of suicide in South Korea initially was masked, in part, by misclassification. Thus, the later apparently rapid increase of suicides reflected steadily improving classification of manner of death, as well as a more fundamental increase in the suicide rate.

  20. The impact of improving suicide death classification in South Korea: a comparison with Japan and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chee Hon; Caine, Eric D; Chang, Shu Sen; Lee, Won Jin; Cha, Eun Shil; Yip, Paul Siu Fai

    2015-01-01

    The suicide rate of South Korea has increased dramatically during the past decades, as opposed to steadily decreasing trends in Japan and Hong Kong. Although the recent increase of suicide in South Korea may be related to changing socioeconomic conditions and other contextual factors, it may also reflect, in part, a reduction of misidentified suicide cases due to improving classification of manner of death. We compared the annual proportional change of suicide, undetermined death, and accidental death from South Korea with those of Japan and Hong Kong from 1992 to 2011; a greater proportional change of the manner-of-death categories during the period is indicative of a relatively less stable registration and hence a greater potential for misclassification bias on reported suicide trends. Subgroup analyses stratifying the deaths by methods were also conducted. To estimate the impact, the age-standardized rates of these three death categories in each site were calculated. We found that, during the 20-year observation period, the proportional change of suicide, undetermined death, and accidental death in South Korea was significantly greater than Japan and Hong Kong. Similar observations were made in subgroup analyses. While death rates of the three manners in Japan and Hong Kong generally moved in a parallel fashion, the increase of suicide in South Korea occurred concomitantly with a significant reduction of its accidental death rate. 43% of the increase in suicides could be attributed to the decrease in accidental deaths, while 57% of the increase could be due to fundamental causes. Our data suggest that, during the mid-1990s and after, the increasing burden of suicide in South Korea initially was masked, in part, by misclassification. Thus, the later apparently rapid increase of suicides reflected steadily improving classification of manner of death, as well as a more fundamental increase in the suicide rate.

  1. Introduction of virtual patients onto a final year anesthesia course: Hong Kong experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph YC Leung

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Joseph YC Leung1, Lester AH Critchley1, Alex LK Yung2, Shekhar M Kumta21Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 2Department of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong KongAbstract: e-Learning has revolutionized the way in which undergraduate medical education is delivered. One e-learning tool of note is the virtual patient (VP, a type of computer software that simulates real-life clinical scenarios, in which the learner emulates the role of health care provider to obtain the history, conduct examination, and make diagnoses and management decisions. VPs have been in use since 1993. Early designs were based on serial screen-cards of patient history, examination, investigations, diagnoses, treatment, and outcome, which the learner explored. With the development of web technology, VPs can now be accessed via the Internet and are more versatile, supporting different structural designs to suit a variety of learning objectives, and they can branch via different routes through a case. Using VPs has a number of advantages: 1 VPs improve access to learning material, 2 VPs help learners to acquire higher order cognitive skills like strategic thinking and decision making, 3 VPs provide a safe environment to practice, 4 VPs help to teach interdisciplinary care, and 5 VPs can be used instead of patients for examination. A number of well-known VP player systems are in use today: CASUS, CAMPUS, web-based Simulation of Patients, OpenLabyrinth, and vpSim. At the Chinese University of Hong Kong, we have also developed a web-based VP authoring and player system called Formative Assessment Case Studies (FACS, which is run by our Teaching and Learning Resources Centre. FACS has been integrated into Year-5 Anesthesia teaching since 2006. Three VP products have been developed: Anaesthesia FACS (six cases that teaches preoperative assessment, Acute Pain Management FACS, and an

  2. The "magic" of tutorial centres in Hong Kong: An analysis of media marketing and pedagogy in a tutorial centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Aaron

    2014-12-01

    Why do more than three-quarters of Hong Kong's senior secondary students flock to tutorial centres like moths to light? What is the "magic" that is driving the popularity of the tutorial centre enterprise? Indeed, looking at the ongoing boom of tutorial centres in Hong Kong (there are almost 1,000 of them), it is difficult not to ask these questions. This paper examines the phenomenon of tutorial centres in Hong Kong and seeks to understand what draws students to these centres. Combining theories of marketing semiotics and emotion studies, the author investigates the pivotal role of media marketing in generating the "magic" of tutorial centres, whose advertising strategy includes, for example, a display of billboard posters featuring stylishly-dressed "celebrity teachers". The author reviews some of the literature available on the subject of tutorial centres. In a case study approach, he then maps out the pedagogy he observed in an English tutorial class, seeking heuristic insights into the kind of teaching students in the study were looking for. He argues that part of the "magical" attraction of what are essentially "cram schools" is their formulaic pedagogy of teaching and reinforcing exam skills. Finally, the paper considers the social implications of the tutorial centre industry in terms of media marketing of education and unequal access to tutorial services.

  3. A Study of Incentive Policies for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Technology in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aotian Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Installing sustainable and renewable energy systems is a promising way of relieving Hong Kong’s dependence on imported fossil fuels. Solar photovoltaic (PV technology is a perfect solution for Hong Kong as it fits the economic and geographic situation. Through a review of the PV development history of five leading PV countries, Germany, Japan, Italy, Mainland China, and the USA, this paper serves as a useful policy toolbox to aid PV development. Based on the forerunners’ successful PV industry experiences and Hong Kong’s unique local situations, a series of incentive strategies were proposed for Hong Kong to help promote the utilization of solar PV systems by reducing the initial investment and providing reasonable subsidies at the initial stages and during the operation period of the PV systems. These results could be a practical reference for promoting renewable energy applications for local policy-makers.

  4. Statutory Instrument No. 126, The Nuclear Installations (Hong Kong) Order 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This Order extends to Hong Kong, with the exceptions, adaptations and modifications specified in the Schedule to the Order, certain provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, as amended. It is the 1965 Act which implements the provisions of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention in the United Kingdom. The provisions so extended impose a duty on the nuclear operator to secure that no nuclear occurrence taking place within the territorial limits of Hong Kong causes nuclear injury or damage, and relate to the right to compensation for breach of that duty, the bringing and satisfaction of claims and other matters. (NEA) [fr

  5. "Killed Out of Love": A Frame Analysis of Domestic Violence Coverage in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Miriam

    2017-11-01

    A frame analysis was conducted on a Hong Kong newspaper to determine whether news coverage of female fatalities at the hands of their intimate partners was reported in conventional domestic violence ways or if there were culture-specific explanations. Overall, most coverage supported known views of domestic violence, justifying the perpetrator and categorizing the issue as isolated crime. However, a few stories highlighted the historical subordination of women under patriarchy in Confucianism as an important cultural factor. Findings have implications for the lack of generalization of the social problem, and the understanding of cultural and political power in Hong Kong society.

  6. E-cigarette perceptions, use frequency and susceptibility among young adults in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Jiang; Charles Cleland; Man Ping Wang; Antonio Kwong; Vienna Lai; Tai Hing Lam

    2018-01-01

    Background E-cigarettes have become increasingly popular. We examined perceptions of e-cigarettes, and their associations with e-cigarette use, frequency of use, and use susceptibility among young adults in Hong Kong. Methods An online survey was administered to 1,186 Hong Kong residents aged 18-35 in 2016-17. On a 0-10 visual scale, participants rated the perceived harm of e-cigarettes, perceived harm of secondhand exposure to e-cigarette aerosols, and perceived addi...

  7. Testing Weak-Form Efficiency of The Chinese Stock Market and Hong Kong Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Zhuolin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the random walk hypothesis to determine the validity of weak-form efficiency for Shanghai, Shenzhen and Hong Kong Stock Exchanges. Daily returns from 2001-2010 for Shanghai A and B shares, Shenzhen A and B shares and Hong Kong Hang Seng Index are used in this study. The random walk hypothesis is examined by using four statistical methods, namely a serial correlation test, an Augmented Dickey-Fuller Unit Root test, a runs test and a variance ratio test. The empirical re...

  8. New criteria for assessing low wind environment at pedestrian level in Hong Kong

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yaxing; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Kwok, Kenny

    2017-01-01

    The choice of proper wind comfort criterion is considered to be crucial to reliable assessment of pedestrian level wind comfort. This paper aims to propose a wind comfort criterion that can be applied to Hong Kong, in which the wind comfort is seriously deteriorated by the moderated airflow, part...... represent the weak wind condition and provide suitable assessments of the wind comfort in Hong Kong. Moreover, the findings in this study provide scientific basis for future policy-making and the proposed criteria can also help city planners to improve the pedestrian level wind comfort....

  9. A feasible reform for the electricity supply industry in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngan, H.W.; Wang, J.H.; Engriwan, W.; Lo, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    With the current scheme of control regulation for the Hong Kong electricity supply industry expiring in 2008, the Government has sent out a consultation paper seeking views from the general public on its reform and possible future development. This paper investigates the characteristics of the current agreement and the rationale for feasible reform of the Hong Kong ESI. It leads to a discussion on a proposed feasible reform using performance-based regulation approach modeling and the associated implementation issues related to price capping, risk analysis, performance indices, quality monitoring and governance

  10. How Does Millennials’ Perception on Their Employers Affect Their Work Ethic? A Study in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsun-Lok Kwong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Work ethic of millennial employees has raised considerable attention in Hong Kong. Current article examined how the millennials’ perception on their employers would have an effect on their own work ethic. A survey study of 212 millennial respondents showed that the millennials in general perceived their employers positively and embraced good work ethic. Two variables – perception and work ethic – are significantly related. The study also revealed that millennials in Hong Kong hold peculiar interpretations of work and leisure, and of work and success. It was suggested that parenting, educational system, and modern working environments might have caused these interpretations.

  11. Consumption of Pornographic Materials among Hong Kong Early Adolescents: A Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of pornographic materials was examined in 3,638 secondary 2 students in Hong Kong. Results showed that over 80% of the respondents had never consumed pornographic materials in the past year. Internet pornography was the most common medium that adolescents used when viewing pornographic materials. Males reported a higher level of pornography consumption than did females. Participants who were born in mainland China were more likely to consume pornographic materials than their Hong ...

  12. Supermodernity, distraction, schizophrenia: walking in Tokyo & Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Ho-Yin Fong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The architecture in a supermodern city has no sense of the place where it is located. This paper discusses how schizophrenia and distraction, through walking, respond to supermodernity by referring to how three dislocated subjects, Fumiya Takemura, Aiichiro Fukuhara and Fai in Tokyo and Hong Kong, are respectively depicted in the novel, Adrift in Tokyo written by Fujita Yoshinaga in 1999, with a film adaptation by Satoshi Miki (2007, and the film To Live and Die in Mongkok directed by Wong Jing in 2009. It suggests that Hong Kong is more supermodern than Tokyo. After his release from prison, Fai in To Live and Die in Mongkok finds that Mongkok is a completely different place from the one in which he used to live. The living conditions are no better than those in the prison. He hallucinates about the past. Adrift in Tokyo can be read as a story about walking. Fukuhara, a debt collector, killed his wife; before surrendering to the police, he orders his debtor, Takemura, to walk with him in Tokyo in order to re-experience the walks he enjoyed with his wife. If Takemura agrees, the debt can be paid off. This paper discusses how the repressed heterogeneous time and place can be approached by walking in a way that the rhythm of life can be (re-experienced; in other words, when the body moves forward physically, the past appears as specter haunting the walker. This paper discusses how Adrift in Tokyo and To Live and Die in Mongkok read cities in distractive and schizophrenic ways. In the film version of Adrift in Tokyo, Takemura’s failed relationship with his father may unconsciously drive him to walk with Fukuhara. The novel may imply that the lost relationship with his mother drives him to walk. The film and the novel both address a kind of locality which should be inseparable from the birth parents. To Live and Die in Mongkok suggests that supermodernity kills mother and father. The Father-son relationship disappears at the very beginning of the

  13. Gaming behavior and addiction among Hong Kong adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Irene Lai Kuen; Lam, Millicent Pui Sze

    Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated with the activity. A convenient sample of 13 male high school students aged 12-15 years (mean age = 13.6 years) were interviewed at two Internet cafes. Young's (Caught in the net, Wiley, New York, 1998) criteria of Internet addiction were modified to assess gaming addiction. Internet cafes were described as a safe and ideal rendezvous for gamers. The benefits of gaming included fun and satisfaction, fostering social support and teamwork, meeting new friends and becoming sociable, boosting cognitive techniques and intellectual agility, improved responsiveness and quick thinking. Perceived harms of gaming addiction were reduced time and interest in other important activities, poor academic performance, physical harms and emotional distress, disrupted friendship with non-gaming peers, risked family relationship and financial problems. Five interviewees (38.5 %) could be categorized as pathological gamers and two were problem gamers (15.4 %). The psychological factors associated with gaming addiction include low self-esteem, a strong desire for aggressive and exciting experiences, reliance on gaming to kill time and to obtain satisfaction, coping with problems and negative emotions, and obsession with achieving higher rankings in games. The social and environmental risk factors are accessibility to the Internet cafés, aggressive promotional activities at the Internet cafes, peer pressure, family influence and early gaming experiences, perceived parental approval, lack of parental supervision, and poor family relationship. The study results throw light on prevention programs.

  14. Gaming behavior and addiction among Hong Kong adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lai Kuen Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated with the activity. Methods A convenient sample of 13 male high school students aged 12–15 years (mean age = 13.6 years were interviewed at two Internet cafes. Young’s (Caught in the net, Wiley, New York, 1998 criteria of Internet addiction were modified to assess gaming addiction. Results Internet cafes were described as a safe and ideal rendezvous for gamers. The benefits of gaming included fun and satisfaction, fostering social support and teamwork, meeting new friends and becoming sociable, boosting cognitive techniques and intellectual agility, improved responsiveness and quick thinking. Perceived harms of gaming addiction were reduced time and interest in other important activities, poor academic performance, physical harms and emotional distress, disrupted friendship with non-gaming peers, risked family relationship and financial problems. Five interviewees (38.5 % could be categorized as pathological gamers and two were problem gamers (15.4 %. The psychological factors associated with gaming addiction include low self-esteem, a strong desire for aggressive and exciting experiences, reliance on gaming to kill time and to obtain satisfaction, coping with problems and negative emotions, and obsession with achieving higher rankings in games. The social and environmental risk factors are accessibility to the Internet cafés, aggressive promotional activities at the Internet cafes, peer pressure, family influence and early gaming experiences, perceived parental approval, lack of parental supervision, and poor family relationship. Conclusions The study results throw light on prevention programs.

  15. Immunocontraception for managing feral cattle in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Massei

    Full Text Available Conflicts between human interests and feral cattle in Hong Kong derive from growing numbers of free-roaming cattle. Public antipathy towards lethal population control led the local authorities to consider fertility control to reduce cattle numbers. This study assessed the potential side effects of the immunocontraceptive GonaCon on individual female cattle and established the effectiveness of GonaCon to induce infertility. We evaluated GonaCon in 34 captive cattle assigned to four groups: Control administered a sham solution; Webbed (surgically sterilized through removal of the oviducts, administered one dose of GonaCon; Webbed, administered one dose of GonaCon and a booster dose three months later, and Treated, administered one dose of GonaCon. The side effects of GonaCon were assessed by monitoring injection site, body weight, body condition, size of lymph nodes, body temperature, and feeding behaviour 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after vaccination and by haematological and biochemical variables at vaccination and three months post-vaccination. The effectiveness of GonaCon to cause infertility was monitored by quantifying anti-GnRH antibody titres and by using kits to detect cycling and pregnancy. GonaCon-treated cattle showed no injection site reaction, limping, or abnormal behaviour. No differences were observed in all physiological and welfare indicators between control and vaccinated cattle. All control cattle and 4 of the 12 cattle in the Treated group became pregnant. Cattle administered a booster dose had higher anti-GnRH antibody titres than cattle that received one dose. We concluded that GonaCon does not compromise the animals' welfare and is effective in reducing fertility in cattle. A booster dose is likely to increase the duration of infertility. Further studies are required to assess the feasibility and costs of immunocontraception for controlling free-roaming cattle populations.

  16. Prevalence of Mental Illness among Homeless People in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larina Chi-Lap Yim

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists.The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18% of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study.The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals.

  17. Trans Fatty Acids in the Hong Kong Food Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. C. Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine trans fatty acids (TFA content of 142 individual food items, including bakery, fast food, and other fatty food that may contain high level of TFA. TFA was detected in all samples, except for four samples including one plain bread, one sponge cake, and two batter-made foods (egg roll and eggette samples. For those found to contain detectable TFA, the content ranged up to 4.7 g/100 g of food or 17.3% of total lipids. On a per 100 grams of food basis, the highest mean TFA content among the 18 food subgroups was the doughnuts/French toast subgroup (0.95 g, followed by the other pastries subgroup (0.49 g and the bread with filling/topping subgroup (0.44 g. Among the samples, the highest TFA content is from a doughnut (4.7 g/100 g, followed by two cream-filled bread with shredded coconut (1.8 and 1.4 g/100 g and a sweetheart cake (1.7 g/100 g. Only consuming one whole piece of doughnut would have reached 100% of the maximum daily TFA intake as recommended by WHO based on a 2000 kcal diet. About 78% of samples had TFA ≤0.3 g/100 g food. For the majority of the food samples available in Hong Kong, if TFA was present, C18:1 trans would possibly be the predominant one.

  18. Prevalence of Mental Illness among Homeless People in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Chi; Lam, Marco Ho-Bun; Lim, Vivian Wai-Man

    2015-01-01

    Metholodogy This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I) and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists. Findings The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18%) of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study. Conclusion The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals. PMID:26484889

  19. Indoor air quality in ice skating rinks in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, H.; Lee, S.C.; Chan, L.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Indoor air quality in ice skating rinks has become a public concern due to the use of propane- or gasoline-powered ice resurfacers and edgers. In this study, the indoor air quality in three ice rinks with different volumes and resurfacer power sources (propane and gasoline) was monitored during usual operating hours. The measurements included continuous recording of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), particulate matter with diameter less than 10 μm (PM 10 ), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitrogen oxide (NO x ), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ). The average CO, CO 2 , and TVOC concentrations ranged from 3190 to 6749 μg/m 3 , 851 to 1329 ppm, and 550 to 765 μg/m 3 , respectively. The average NO and NO 2 concentrations ranged from 69 to 1006 μg/m 3 and 58 to 242 μg/m 3 , respectively. The highest CO and TVOC levels were observed in the ice rink which a gasoline-fueled resurfacer was used. The highest NO and NO 2 levels were recorded in the ice rink with propane-fueled ice resurfacers. The air quality parameters of PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and SO 2 were fully acceptable in these ice rinks according to HKIAQO standards. Overall, ice resurfacers with combustion engines cause indoor air pollution in ice rinks in Hong Kong. This conclusion is similar to those of previous studies in Europe and North America

  20. The Hong Kong Policy of Quality Education for All: A Multi-Level Analysis of Its Impacts on Newly Arrived Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Stella

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to argue that using market forces to raise education standards casts doubts to quality education, although this is seemingly an international trend, for such practice presents challenges to many issues such as equity. Using Hong Kong as a case, the paper analyses the practices of quality school education by focusing in…

  1. Factors influencing the quality of implementation of a positive youth development program in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Law, Moon Y M

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how social workers collaborate with school teachers in implementing a school-based positive youth development program in Hong Kong. Individual and focus group interviews are conducted with social workers cooperating with school teachers in implementing the Project P.A.T.H.S. in a school context. Through the interviews, strategies for establishing inter-disciplinary collaboration and factors that hinder or facilitate program implementation are identified. This case study highlights factors that facilitate the collaboration between social workers and school teachers, including the following: 1) sufficient training for instructors, 2) sharing of the practice wisdom and teaching experiences, 3) building up mutual support among different parties, 4) use of proactive communication, and 5) demonstration of self-disclosure.

  2. Receptor modelling with PMF2 and ME2 using aerosol data from Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.; Cohen, D.; Dyer, L.; Zahorowski, W.

    2005-01-01

    A number of techniques, such as principal component analysis and factor analysis, have been used in receptor modelling where measured aerosol composition at the sampling site are analysed in order to determine the likely source contributions. In this study factor analysis with non-negative factor elements has been carried out using two techniques as implemented in the PMF2 and ME2 computer codes. The various analysis techniques provided by the two programs are illustrated using measured data at Hong Kong as a case study, which covers a period of three years (2001 to 2003). Both analysis techniques resulted in similar results which are presented in this report. Data bootstrapping was also carried out as an additional check on the quality of the results

  3. The Familial Risk and HLA Susceptibility among Narcolepsy Patients in Hong Kong Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Fong, S.Y.Y.; Lam, Ching W.; Tang, Nelson L.S.; Ng, Margaret H. L.; Li, Albert M.; Ho, C.K.W.; Cheng, Suk-Hang; Lau, Kin-Mang; Wing, Yun Kwok

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To explore the familial aggregation and HLA susceptibility of narcolepsy in Hong Kong Chinese by objective sleep measurements and HLA typing. Design: Case control design Participants: Twelve narcoleptic probands, 34 first-degree relatives, and 30 healthy controls. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Each subject underwent a standardized nocturnal polysomnogram (PSG), followed by a daytime multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). HLA typing was performed for all subjects. One relative (2.9%) was diagnosed as suffering from narcolepsy with cataplexy. Nearly 30% of the relatives fulfilled the criteria of narcolepsy spectrum disorder (shortened mean sleep latency [MSL] and/or the presence of sleep onset REM periods [SOREMPs]). When using the population data for comparison, the relative risk of narcolepsy in first-degree relatives was 85.3. The odds ratio of narcolepsy spectrum disorder in first-degree relatives was 5.8 (95% CI: 1.2 – 29.3) when compared to healthy controls. There existed 6 multiplex families, in which all 10 relatives with narcolepsy spectrum disorders, including all 3 relatives with multiple SOREMPs, were positive for HLA DQB1*0602. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated a definitive familial aggregation of narcolepsy, narcolepsy spectrum disorders, and possibly cataplexy in Hong Kong Chinese. This familial aggregation supported an inherited basis for narcolepsy spectrum. The tight co-segregation of HLA DQB1*0602 and narcolepsy spectrum disorders might suggest that HLA typing, especially DQB1*0602, at least partly confer the familial risk of narcolepsy. In addition, our study suggested that the subjective questionnaire measurements including Ullanlinna Narcolepsy Scale and Epworth Sleepiness Scale were unable to detect the presence of narcolepsy spectrum disorders among the relatives. A stringent objective measurement-based design for family studies is suggested for future study. Further studies are indicated for the determination

  4. On the local and regional influence on ground-level ozone concentrations in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, K.L.; Wang, T.

    2003-01-01

    It is imperative to consider regional scale emissions and dynamic transport in managing ozone pollution in Hong Kong. - Hong Kong is a densely populated city situated in the fast developing Pearl River Delta of southern China. In this study, the recent data on ozone (O 3 ) and related air pollutants obtained at three sites in Hong Kong are analyzed to show the variations of O 3 in urban, sub-urban and rural areas and the possible regional influences. Highest monthly averaged O 3 was found at a northeastern rural site and lowest O 3 level was observed at an urban site. The levels of NO x , CO, SO 2 and PM 10 showed a different spatial pattern with the highest level in the urban site and lowest at the rural site. Analysis of chemical species ratios such as SO 2 /NO x and CO/NO x indicated that the sites were under the influences of local and regional emissions to varying extents reflecting the characteristics of emission sources surround the respective sites. Seasonal pattern of O 3 is examined. Low O 3 level was found in summer and elevated levels occurred in autumn and spring. The latter appears different from the previous result obtained in 1996 indicating a single maximum occurring in autumn. Principal component analysis was used to further elucidate the relationships of air pollutants at each site. As expected, the O 3 variation in the northeastern rural area was largely determined by regional chemical and transport processes, while the O 3 variability at the southwestern suburban and urban sites were more influenced by local emissions. Despite the large difference in O 3 levels across the sites, total potential ozone (O 3 +NO 2 ) showed little variability. Cases of high O 3 episodes were presented and elevated O 3 levels were formed under the influence of tropical cyclone bringing in conditions of intense sunlight, high temperature and light winds. Elevated O 3 levels were also found to correlate with enhanced ratio of SO 2 to NO x , suggesting influence of

  5. Characteristics of family violence victims presenting to emergency departments in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Choi, Wai Man Anna; Fong, Daniel Y T; Chow, Chun Bong; Leung, Ming; Ip, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) has been shown to be a valuable location to screen for family violence. To investigate the characteristics of family violence victims presenting to EDs in a Chinese population in Hong Kong. This study examined a retrospective cohort of patients presenting to the Accident and Emergency Departments of three regional hospitals in the Kwai Tsing district of Hong Kong for evaluation and management of physical injuries related to family violence during the period of January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2008. A total of 15,797 patients were assessed. The sample comprised cases of intimate partner violence (IPV; n=10,839), child abuse and neglect (CAN; n=3491), and elder abuse (EA; n=1467). Gender differences were found in patterns of ED utilization among the patients. The rates of readmission were 12.9% for IPV, 12.8% for CAN, and 8.9% for EA. Logistic regression showed that being male, being discharged against medical advice, and arriving at the hospital via ambulance were the common factors associated with readmission to the EDs for patients victimized by IPV and CAN. This study investigates the victim profile of a large cohort of a Chinese population, providing a unique data set not previously released in this cultural or medical system. The findings give insights to early identification of victims of family violence in the EDs and suggest that screening techniques focused on multiple forms of family violence would improve identification of violence cases. Multidisciplinary collaboration between health, legal, and social service professionals is also warranted to meet the various needs of victims and to reduce hospital readmissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccinations and decision makings on vaccination programmes in Hong Kong: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carlos K H; Liao, Qiuyan; Guo, Vivian Y W; Xin, Yiqiao; Lam, Cindy L K

    2017-05-31

    To describe and systematically review the modelling and reporting of cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination in Hong Kong, and to identify areas for quality enhancement in future cost-effectiveness analyses. We conducted a comprehensive and systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies related to vaccination and government immunisation programmes in Hong Kong published from 1990 to 2015, through database search of Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and OVID Medline. Methodological quality of selected studies was assessed using Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist (CHEERS). Decision making of vaccination was obtained from Scientific Committee on Vaccine Preventable Diseases (SCVPD) and Department of Health in Hong Kong. Nine eligible studies reporting twelve comparative cost-effectiveness comparisons of vaccination programme for influenza (n=2), pneumococcal disease (n=3), influenza plus pneumococcal disease (n=1), chickenpox (n=2), Haemophilus influenzae b (n=1), hepatitis A (n=1), cervical cancer (n=1) and rotavirus (n=1) were identified. Ten comparisons (83.3%) calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of a vaccination strategy versus status quo as outcomes in terms of cost in USD per life-years, cost per quality-adjusted life-years, or cost per disability-adjusted life-years. Among those 10 comparisons in base-case scenario, 4 evaluated interventions were cost-saving relative to status quo while the ICER estimates in 3 of the 6 remaining comparisons were far below commonly accepted threshold and WHO willingness-to-pay threshold, suggestive of very cost-effective. Seven studies were of good quality based on the CHEERS checklist; one was of moderate quality; and one was of excellent quality. The common methodological problems were characterisation of heterogeneity and reporting of study parameters. There was a paucity of cost-effectiveness models evaluating vaccination targeted to the Hong Kong population. All

  7. The Pattern of Electronic Game Use and Related Bodily Discomfort in Hong Kong Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Donald P. Y.; Szeto, Grace P. Y.; Jones, Alice Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the usage pattern of electronic game devices among primary school children in Hong Kong. Commonly used types of games devices were grouped into three main categories: large-screen/TV-based games, small handheld game devices and active game devices. A survey was conducted among 476 students in a local primary school, with…

  8. Information Technology Integration in Teacher Education: Supporting the Paradigm Shift in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kar Tin

    2001-01-01

    Examines the integration of information technology (IT) at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, presenting the rationale for this move, characteristics of IT integration, and program development issues for making IT application a critical component of contemporary teacher education. The paper presents a framework for program development and…

  9. Reimagining Communities and Implementing Social Learning: Contemporary Community Theatre Development in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan have encountered political, social, economic and cultural challenges. During this period, their community theatres have played distinctive roles in activating their public space to reimagine their communities, form dialogues with their governments and construct learning experiences amongst various…

  10. The Professionalization of Hong Kong Teachers: Dilemma between Technical Rationality and Individual Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Grace C. L.

    2003-01-01

    This article studies the dilemma between professionalization and professionalism in the development of teaching into a bureaucratic organization in Hong Kong. Professionalization and bureaucratization are simultaneous processes. Teaching as an occupation has grown from a state of idiosyncrasy to a profession with defined boundaries. However,…

  11. A System-Wide Professional Learning Approach about Inclusion for Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlin, Chris; Loreman, Tim; Sharma, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    This study examines changes in attitudes, teaching efficacy, and concerns about inclusive education in a sample of 2361 teachers in Hong Kong who took a professional learning course about inclusive education. Participants completed a questionnaire seeking demographic information and their perceptions about these three aspects of inclusive…

  12. Internationalising Teacher Education for a "Glocal" Curriculum: South Koreans Learning to Teach Hong Kong Liberal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Liz; Han, Ana Yoon Jin

    2016-01-01

    Internationalisation in education facilitates student and teacher mobility. Though Hong Kong has embraced internationalisation in education, international university students can face challenges related to cultural difference. In teacher education, these challenges can be amplified, as student-teachers face expectations to teach schoolchildren…

  13. Differences in Perceived Approaches to Learning and Teaching English in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Barley; Chik, Pakey

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates differences in approaches to learning and teaching English as a second language (ESL) as reported by 324 mixed-ability Grade 7 Hong Kong ESL students and 37 ESL secondary school teachers with different backgrounds. Information about participants' perceived approaches to learning/teaching English were collected through a…

  14. An International Study of Career Drivers of Accounting Students in Singapore, Australia and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Yew Ming; Koh, Hian Chye; Pragasam, John

    2008-01-01

    This is a comparative study of the career drivers of accounting students in Singapore, Australia and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The study examines the motivational factors that steer accounting students into choosing accounting as a programme of study in their respective countries. Comparative analyses are performed to…

  15. Colonialism and Secondary Technical Education in Hong Kong: 1945-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wai Wah; Kan, Flora

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the colonial experience (1945-1997) on the planning of secondary technical education in Hong Kong. Specifically, the origins of secondary technical institutions and their positioning in secondary education are examined. Primary source materials are used as the basis of investigation and analysis, supplemented…

  16. Environmental Attitudes and Behaviour of Secondary School Students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara K. W.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the environmental attitudes of students in Hong Kong and their readiness to engage in pro-environmental behavior that could involve change in personal lifestyle. Students' over-optimism towards technological development and the perceived importance of the benefits of modern consumer goods were major factors that…

  17. Revisiting the Big Six and the Big Five among Hong Kong University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2008-01-01

    The present study replicated investigation of the link between Holland's six career interest types and Costa and McCrae's big five personality traits in a Chinese context. A sample of 79 university students from Hong Kong evaluated their own abilities and responded to the Short-Version Self-Directed Search (SVSDS) and the NEO Five-Factor…

  18. The Effectiveness of Private Tutoring: Students' Perceptions in Comparison with Mainstream Schooling in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shengli; Bray, Mark; Wang, Dan; Lykins, Chad; Kwo, Ora

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Hong Kong students' perceptions on the effectiveness of private supplementary tutoring relative to mainstream schooling. Drawing on survey and interview data, it shows that large proportions of secondary school students receive private tutoring. Students generally perceive private tutoring and private tutors to be more…

  19. The Recalibration of Neoliberalisation: Repoliticising Higher Education Policy in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Yat Wai

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses a recent policy change in higher education in Hong Kong to determine the significance of politics in the conceptual understanding of higher education governance. To achieve this objective, the article examines the tension between the global agenda, which is characterised by neoliberal ideology and practices, and local needs,…

  20. Bilingualised or Monolingual Dictionaries? Preferences and Practices of Advanced ESL Learners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a questionnaire and interview survey on Cantonese ESL learners' preference for bilingualised dictionaries or monolingual dictionaries. The questionnaire survey was implemented with about 160 university English majors in Hong Kong and three focus group interviews were conducted with 14 of these participants.…

  1. Tactics Employed and Problems Encountered by University English Majors in Hong Kong in Using a Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Yin Wa

    2005-01-01

    Building on the results of a small-scale survey which investigated the general use of dictionaries by university English majors in Hong Kong using a questionnaire survey and their specific use of dictionaries using an error correction task, this article discusses the tactics these students employed and the problems they encountered when using a…

  2. Exploring School Ethos: An Investigation of Children's Human Rights in Two Secondary Institutions in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yan Lam; Leung, Yan Wing; Yuen, Wai Wa

    2015-01-01

    From 2009 to 2011, the authors launched the Basic Law Education Project: Education for Human Rights and the Rule of Law in Hong Kong. This article focuses on a subset of the overarching data-set and discusses the findings that resulted from a comparative analysis of two participating schools. A survey was deployed to assess the extent to which a…

  3. No More Peking Ducks in Hong Kong: Provoking Critical Thinking through "Subversive Teaching."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Gwendolyn

    Education in Hong Kong has been developed along a British model that uses examination results to determine students' academic futures: to be allowed to go on to a university to study or to go into the workplace with a tenth-grade education. The system has been described by likening students to Peking ducks who are forced to eat, fattened up for…

  4. The Relationship between Teacher Stress and Burnout in Hong Kong: Positive Humour and Gender as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sammy K.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report on the relationship between positive humour and burnout among 379 secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and explore whether the relationship varies according to gender. The moderating effects of both affiliative and self-enhancing humour on each burnout component were then examined. High affiliative and self-enhancing…

  5. Outdoor Adventure Education in East Asia: Interpreting Data from Outward Bound Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Funnell, Aaron; Riley, Mike; Chan, Bacon; Meerts-Brandsma, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor adventure education (OAE) is philosophically rooted in Western values, yet it has been implemented in non-Western cultures, such as East Asia. This paper examines how OAE functions in East Asia, through data from Hong Kong. Although some cultural differences are clear, there is no compelling evidence that OAE cannot provide benefits in…

  6. Difference in compliance with Standard Precautions by nursing staff in Brazil versus Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Lam, Simon Ching; Chan, Jackie Hoi Man; Malaguti-Toffano, Silmara Elaine; Gir, Elucir

    2015-07-01

    The Standard Precautions (SP) are measures to reduce the risk of transmission of bloodborne and other pathogens, and should be used by health professionals in the care of all patients regardless of their condition of infection. However, suboptimal compliance with SP has been consistently reported in the nursing literature. This study evaluated the differences of compliance with SP among nurses from Brazil and Hong Kong. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 countries-Hong Kong and Brazil-with nurses working in hospitals who responded to a self-administered questionnaire with demographic data and responses to a 20-item Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale. The compliance rate of 560 nurses was 69.4% for the Brazilian sample and 57.4% for the Hong Kong sample. The additional clinical experience of the Brazilian nurses versus those in Hong Kong may be related to differences in compliance with SP between nurses. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Negotiating Global Citizenship, Protecting Privilege: Western Expatriates Choosing Local Schools in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Julian M.; O'Connor, Paul

    2018-01-01

    We examine school choices made by western expatriate parents in post-colonial Hong Kong in order to understand the essence of imagined global citizenship and its implications for existing ethnic and class inequalities in the education system. Responding to changes in the global job market, a small but increasingly visible group of parents are…

  8. Research Productivity of Returnees from Study Abroad in Korea, Hong Kong, and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Jung, Jisun; Postiglione, Gerard A.; Azman, Norzaini

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes whether academics with advanced degrees from foreign universities are more research productive than their domestic counterparts in the three selected East Asian higher education systems--Korea, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. The three systems have relatively large proportions of foreign degree holders among their professoriates. The…

  9. Rethinking Hegemony and Resistance to Political Education in Mainland China and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Gregory P.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this article is on Hong Kong and mainland Chinese university student reactions, in two time periods, to national themes in education as part of state attempts to establish and maintain legitimacy. The author argues that among these reactions is one of resistance to the process of state hegemony. To make this point, the article builds…

  10. An Assessment of the Role of Hong Kong Schools in Promoting Civic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wai Chun Cherry; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2017-01-01

    Hong Kong underwent tremendous changes after the transfer of its sovereignty to China in 1997. This study attempts to explore the changing role of schools in preparing students for future democratic citizenship in the post-colonial era. Different researchers have postulated that schools play a crucial role in the political socialization process in…

  11. Changes in energy intensiveness of Hong Kong economy, 1995-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Larry C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The growth of Primary Energy Requirements (PER) slackened appreciably since the late 1990s in Hong Kong while Final Energy Requirements (FER) actually declined. Yet GDP continued to grow at a respectable average annual growth rate during the period, leading to a drastic drop in the energy intensiveness of the economy. The article analyzed the factors that contributed to the emergence of the above phenomena and discussed its consequences. The factors that led to the drop in energy intensiveness with respect to FER includes the rising electrification of the fuel mix, improvements in energy end-use efficiency (partly induced by government policy), and changes in the structure of the Hong Kong economy. With respect to the decline in PER energy intensiveness, the following aspects are pertinent: the share of electricity consumption accounted for by nuclear imports, the efficiency of electricity generation in Hong Kong (partly determined by the type of fuels used) and losses due to transmission and distribution as well as station consumption (system losses). The decline in energy intensiveness is good to Hong Kong, both in terms of the economy and the environment. Its ramifications will be briefly discussed.

  12. Understanding Hong Kong Chinese Families' Experiences of an Autism/ASD Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Kathleen; Fung, Francis; Hu, Aihua; Sweller, Naomi; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the experience of Chinese parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) living in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Seventy-five parents of children (aged 6 months-18 years) with ASD diagnoses completed the Family Quality of Life Scale. Forty-five parents from the original surveyed cohort, also…

  13. The Gap between Online Journalism Education and Practice: A Hong Kong Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ying Roselyn; Lo, S. C. Eric

    2014-01-01

    This twin survey of online journalism professionals and students examines their perceptions of journalism skills, duties, and concepts. Using samples of online journalists and journalism students in Hong Kong, Asia's media hub, it attempts to offer updated insights into the changes taking place in journalism classrooms and newsrooms and uncovers…

  14. Total Teacher Effectiveness: Implication for Curriculum Change (TOC) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Kwok Tung; Cheng, Yin Cheong

    This paper introduces the concept of total teacher effectiveness for facilitating educational reform and improvement, using target oriented curriculum (TOC) change in Hong Kong as an example. TOC change is a complex process that involves preparing, changing, and reinforcing teachers in multiple domains at multiple levels. Teacher effectiveness…

  15. Perspectives on the Cultural Appropriacy of Hong Kong's Target-Oriented Curriculum (TOC) Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, David Robert

    1999-01-01

    Explores the impact of Chinese culture on the school curriculum in Hong Kong. Argues that the Target-Oriented Curriculum (TOC) transplanted from western-based concepts is not commensurate with the local Chinese cultural context, and therefore leads to many problems when being implemented in schools. (Author/VWL)

  16. Assessing the Demand for Annuities in an Undeveloped Market: Evidence from Hong Kong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K-L. Chou (Kee-Lee); J. Inkmann (Joachim); J.L.W. van Kippersluis (Hans); W.S. Chan (Wai)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHow to design an attractive annuity for an undeveloped market and how to assess the potential demand for such a product? We first conduct a discrete choice experiment among participants of a large-scale occupational defined contribution pension scheme in Hong Kong to identify desired

  17. Teacher Stress and Guidance Work in Hong Kong Secondary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Eadaoin, K. P.; Chan, David W.

    1996-01-01

    Sources of stress in Hong Kong teachers were investigated, with specific reference to guidance work as a potential source of stress. A survey of 415 secondary school teachers revealed guidance-related aspects of work constituted a major dimension of stress, with guidance teachers, female teachers, younger teachers and junior teachers perceiving…

  18. Television viewing time in Hong Kong adult population: associations with body mass index and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao Jie; Stewart, Sunita M; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is increasing dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region particularly China. The population of Hong Kong was exposed to modernization far earlier than the rest of China, reflecting conditions that are likely to be replicated as other Chinese cities undergo rapid change. This study examined the relationship between television viewing and obesity in a Hong Kong sample. Information about the relationship between a key sedentary behavior, TV viewing, and obesity, and its moderation by demographic characteristics may identify sectors of the population at highest risk for excess weight. Data were from Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey (2009-2010), a population-based survey on the public's use of media for health information and family communication by telephone interviews with 3,016 Hong Kong adults (age ≥ 18 years). TV viewing time, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and other lifestyle variables were analyzed. Viewing time was longer in women, increased with age but decreased with education level and vigorous physical activity (all Ptelevision viewing time was observed. TV viewing time positively associated with BMI and obesity. The TV viewing--BMI associations were strongest in women and young adults, suggesting vulnerable groups to target for obesity prevention by decreasing TV viewing.

  19. Emotion Regulation Strategies in European American and Hong Kong Chinese Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kayan Phoebe; Savina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study explored emotion regulation strategies in middle school European American (N = 54) and Hong Kong Chinese (N = 89) children. Children were presented with scenarios describing a fictitious girl/boy who encountered situations eliciting sadness, anger, and fear. Based on Gross' theory (1998), the survey of emotion regulation strategies was…

  20. Scalar politics, language ideologies, and the sociolinguistics of globalization among transnational Korean professionals in Hong Kong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, A.J.; Canagarajah, S.; Lan, S.; Powers, D.G.

    This paper argues that the sociolinguistics of globalization is accompanied by a constitutive scalar politics. Based on ten interviews with Korean professionals in Hong Kong, we report that Korean migrants’ use and experience of English is characterized by competing language ideologies we identify

  1. A Study of Organizational Identification of Faculty Members in Hong Kong Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Po Yung; Ngo, Hang-Yue

    2015-01-01

    The authors examine how four organizational antecedents affect the organizational identification (OI) and in-role and extra-role performance of Hong Kong business school faculty. OI was tested to be a mediator. The survey results indicated a high level of OI, consistent with the collectivist cultural value of Chinese employees. However, OI was…

  2. Effective Spelling Strategies for Students with Dyslexia in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Nicole; Chan, Ying; Zhang, Kaili Chen

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of five spelling strategies used to teach junior secondary school students with dyslexia. Participants were 30 secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. The teachers commented on five spelling strategies: the phonological strategy, an integration of phonological and orthographical strategies, the rule-based…

  3. Antecedents of Career Exploration among Hong Kong Chinese University Students: Testing Contextual and Developmental Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Raysen; Arnold, John

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the antecedents of career exploration. We apply the perspectives of Flum and Blustein [Flum, H., & Blustein, D. L. (2000). Reinvigorating the study of vocational exploration: A framework for research. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56", 380-404] for the first time in Hong Kong, and we also test…

  4. Source characteristics of volatile organic compounds during high ozone episodes in Hong Kong, Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC are analyzed to characterize the sources impacting the Hong Kong area. The ratios of different VOC species, m,p-xylenes-to-ethylbenzene, C6H14-to-toluene and p-xylene-to-total xylenes are used for diagnostic analyses. Photochemical age analysis shows that the sources of reactive aromatics, the most important contributor to the photochemical reactivity, do not appear to be preferentially located in downtown Hong Kong. In addition, they do not appear to be dominated by mobile emissions based on the analyses of speciated VOC data from an earlier study, but related to industrial, waterfront, and fuel-storage activities. The ratios, p-xylene-to-total xylenes and dSO2/dNOy, suggest that the anomalously high pollutant concentrations in western Hong Kong in the early morning hours of two episode days appear to have come from transport of urban-type emissions. Comparison of observed ambient ratios of selected VOC and their ratios in the speciated VOC emission inventories for Hong Kong and adjacent Pearl River Delta (PRD Region gives mixed results. The observed ratio C6H14-to-toluene is consistent with the speciated version of the VOC emission inventory. The ratios of selected alkanes are not. This may be caused by the inaccuracies in the inventory and/or the speciation method.

  5. Perception of the Most Creative Chinese by Undergraduates in Beijing, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ziao Dong; Rudowicz, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 489 undergraduates in Beijing, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Taipei, found politicians were nominated by all four samples as being the most creative individuals in the past and at present. Scientists and inventors ranked second in position. Artists, musicians, and businessmen were rarely nominated. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  6. Ethnicity, Language-in-Education Policy and Linguistic Discrimination: Perspectives of Nepali Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Chura Bahadur; Adamson, Bob

    2018-01-01

    Educational issues in relation to ethnicity and language education policies have been underexplored in Asian contexts. In particular, issues related to ethnic and linguistic minority students have not received much attention in the post-colonial context of Hong Kong. This paper highlights challenges and tensions faced by Nepali ethnic minority…

  7. Language Choice and Identity Construction in Peer Interactions: Insights from a Multilingual University in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue

    2011-01-01

    Informed by linguistic ecological theory and the notion of identity, this study investigates language uses and identity construction in interactions among students with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds in a multilingual university. Individual and focus-group interviews were conducted with two groups of students: Hong Kong (HK) and…

  8. Heritage and Identity: Ethnic Minority Students from South Asia in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue; Patkin, John

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the language attitudes, language practices and identity construction of a group of ethnic minority students in a secondary school in Hong Kong. Drawing on data from focus group and individual interviews, this research shows that the ethnic minority students negotiate and contest their heritage identity by utilizing their…

  9. Cultural Identity in Teaching across Borders: Mainland Chinese Pre-Service Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study explores transformations in the cultural identities of a group of pre-service teachers from mainland China during their educational experiences in Hong Kong, and how these transformations subsequently impact their professional identity. Individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 16 cross-border pre-service teachers from a…

  10. Ethnic Minority Students from South Asia in Hong Kong: Language Ideologies and Discursive Identity Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue Michelle; Mak, Barley; Qu, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how ethnic minority students in Hong Kong secondary schools discursively construct their identities in relation to culture, heritage, and social discourse. It finds that the ethnic minority students negotiate their identities within multiple positioning from parents, school, and the broader social discourse on minority…

  11. Early intervention for psychotic disorders: Real-life implementation in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gloria H Y; Hui, Christy L M; Tang, Jennifer Y M; Chang, Wing-Chung; Chan, Sherry K W; Xu, Jia-Qi; Lin, Jessie J X; Lai, Dik-Chee; Tam, Wendy; Kok, Joy; Chung, Dicky; Hung, S F; Chen, Eric Y H

    2012-03-01

    Hong Kong is among the first few cities in Asia to have implemented early intervention for psychosis in 2001. Substantial changes in psychosis service have since taken place. We reviewed available outcome data in Hong Kong, with reference to the philosophy of early intervention in psychosis, discussing experience and lessons learned from the implementation process, and future opportunities and challenges. Data accumulated in the past decade provided evidence for the benefits and significance of early intervention programmes: patients under the care of early intervention service showed improved functioning, milder symptoms, and fewer hospitalizations and suicides. Early intervention is more cost-effective compared with standard care. Stigma and misconception remains an issue, and public awareness campaigns are underway. In recent years, a critical mass is being formed, and Hong Kong has witnessed the unfolding of public service extension, new projects and organizations, and increasing interest from the community. Several major platforms are in place for coherent efforts, including the public Early Assessment Service for Young people with psychosis (EASY) programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention (PSI) research unit, the independent Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society (EPISO), the Jockey Club Early Psychosis (JCEP) project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. The first decade of early intervention work has been promising; consolidation and further development is needed on many fronts of research, service and education. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance of the Visual-Motor Integration of Preschool Children in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Ng

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The local reference developed in this study yielded additional insights for occupational therapists and psychologists with regard to the application of the VMI (fifth edition for Hong Kong children aged between 3 years and 6 months and 5 years and 11 months.

  13. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  14. Communicative Needs in the Workplace and Curriculum Development of Business English Courses in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mable

    2014-01-01

    The pressing need to bridge the gap between workplace communicative needs and curriculum development of business English courses has been documented in the literature. Through a questionnaire survey of 215 working adults, this study examines (a) the spoken and written needs of professionals in the local Hong Kong workplace, (b) the challenges they…

  15. Principal Leadership in an Era of Accountability: A Perspective from the Hong Kong Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Allan; Ko, James

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study into the leadership practices of Hong Kong principals working within an environment of increasing accountability. The study set out to investigate the relationships between sets of principal leadership practices and the levels of "alignment," "coherence and structure" and…

  16. Comparative Study of Cognitive Styles in Egypt, Greece, Hong Kong and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvas, Michael; El-Kot, Ghada; Sadler-Smith, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    Cognitive Style Inventory scores for business undergraduates in Greece (n=48), Egypt (n=45), and the United Kingdom (n=42) and postgraduates/managers in Egypt (n=20), Hong Kong (n=38) and the United Kingdom (n=21) indicated that, among undergraduates of different cultures, there were no significant style differences. Some differences in the…

  17. Learned Helplessness in Inclusive Music Classrooms: Voices of Hong Kong Primary Schools Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk

    2015-01-01

    In Hong Kong, inclusive education is concerned with educating all students, including those who are categorised as having special educational needs (SEN). This qualitative study reports three challenges faced by primary schools music teachers required to implement inclusive education. The first two challenges echo those reported…

  18. Emotions and Pair Trust in Asynchronous Hospitality Cultural Exchange for Students in Taiwan and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-jung; Chen, Hsueh Chu

    2012-01-01

    Social and emotional dynamics have an impact on students' learning processes in online-learning situations. This study explores university students' emotions and trust levels resulting from collaborative communication behaviors when they interacted as part of a Food and Tourism course in Taiwan and Hong Kong. More specifically, students' emotions…

  19. Attitudes toward Euthanasia in Hong Kong--A Comparison between Physicians and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-lin; Fok, Shiu-yeu

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that compared the attitudes of 618 respondents of a general household survey and a random sample of 1,197 physicians toward different types of euthanasia in Hong Kong. The general public was found to agree with active euthanasia and non-voluntary euthanasia and was neutral about passive…

  20. Regional Education Profile: Asia. China, Hong Kong, Macau, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Developments in international education in Asia during 1985 are considered in three essays presented in the Biennial International Education Seminars conducted by the Institute of International Education. Countries covered by the essays and the authors are: China, Hong Kong, and Thailand (Jay Henderson); Macau (Josef Silny and Jay Henderson); and…

  1. Validation of the Beliefs against Volunteering Scale among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ben M. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2011-01-01

    Participation in volunteer service is an indicator of quality of life. This study attempts to validate the Beliefs Against Volunteering Scale (BAV), an assessment of the negative beliefs about volunteerism among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. The BAV was administered to 5,946 Chinese adolescents. The BAV and its subscales were found to be…

  2. Hong Kong and U.S. Teachers' Perceptions of Mathematical Disagreements and Their Resolution Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Angela T.; Huang, Rongjin; Law, Huk-Yuen; Chan, Yip Cheung; Zhang, Qiaoping; Baxter, Wesley A.; Gaddy, Angeline K.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical disagreements occur when students challenge each other's ideas related to a mathematical concept. In this research, we examined Hong Kong and U.S. elementary teachers' perceptions of mathematical disagreements and their resolutions using a video-stimulated survey. Participants were directed to give particular attention to the…

  3. The Utility of the Child and Adolescent Psychopathy Construct in Hong Kong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Annis Lai-Chu; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the nature of child and adolescent psychopathy using the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in 3,675 schoolchildren (ages 11-16) in Hong Kong, China. A confirmatory factor analysis observed a good fit for the three-factor model (callous-unemotional, impulsivity, narcissism) of APSD, with boys scoring…

  4. Mapping the Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Hong Kong Secondary Schools with High Ethnic Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Yuet Mui Celeste; Lee, Moosung

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to map the life satisfaction of adolescents from ethnic minority/immigrant backgrounds in schools with high concentrations of co-ethnic peers by comparing them with their mainstream counterparts in Hong Kong. The life satisfaction of 1,522 students was measured by the validated Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction…

  5. Play and Theory of Mind in Early Childhood: A Hong Kong Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin; Wong, Richard Kwok Shing; Wong, Paul Yau Ho; Ho, Fuk Chuen; Cheng, Doris Pui Wah

    2017-01-01

    The study seeks to understand the relation between preschool children's mode of participation and negotiation strategies during play and their theory of mind (ToM) development in the Hong Kong context. Forty-two 5-year-old children were recruited. Their emotional and cognitive ToMs were assessed along with expressive language ability. Children's…

  6. Perceived Parenting Styles and Goal Orientations: A Study of Teacher Education Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok-wai; Chan, Siu-mui

    2005-01-01

    Two achievement goals and three perceived parenting styles were identified in a sample of Hong Kong teacher education students. Significant correlations exist within the perceived parenting styles and the achievement goals. Parental authoritativeness was significantly and positively related to learning goal, and parental authoritarianism was…

  7. Teachers' Views on Ways of Improving English Language Teaching in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fung-kuen Eva

    A study investigated the attitudes of Hong Kong English-as-a-Second-Language teachers concerning English language teaching problems in that context. The study was prompted by perceptions of declining interest in use of English, less frequent requirement of English skills for employment, increased use of colloquial Cantonese in social contexts, and…

  8. Quality Assurance of Non-Local Accounting Programs Conducted in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mei-Ai; Leung, Noel W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the current government policy and institutional practice on quality assurance of non-local accounting programs conducted in Hong Kong. Both international guidelines, national regulations and institutional frameworks in higher education and transnational higher education, and professional practice in accounting education are…

  9. Emergence of Confucianism from Teachers' Definitions of Guidance and Discipline in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-Tak

    2007-01-01

    Teachers in Hong Kong, as elsewhere, are concerned with students' misbehaviour. In secondary schools two teams of teachers, a guidance team and a discipline team, deal with it. This article examines how teachers make sense of their caring work and strategies for behaviour management. Taking an interactionist perspective, the framework suggested by…

  10. School Psychology in China (PRC), Hong Kong and Taiwan: A Cross-Regional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Van Dyke, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    Although China (People's Republic of China [PRC]), Hong Kong and Taiwan have many similarities in language, culture, values, Confucian traditions, family systems and other social-environmental variables, school psychological services in the three regions are distinctly different in both history and practice. Few studies in the psychology…

  11. Stigma in the workplace: employer attitudes about people with HIV in Beijing, Hong Kong, and Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Deepa; Angell, Beth; Lam, Chow; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    Studies of HIV stigma in China are becoming more prevalent, but these studies have seldom involved direct cross-cultural comparisons. Moreover, although researchers consider employers to be a key power group whose practices can significantly impact the adjustment and recovery of people with HIV, the attitudes of employers in China towards people with HIV have rarely been studied. The present study sought to investigate employers' attitudes and hiring practices towards people with HIV across three culturally and linguistically distinct cities: Chicago, Beijing, and Hong Kong. One hundred employers from a broad spectrum of firm types were interviewed across the three cities, and their qualitative data were analyzed for information about the processes behind employer practices in hiring people with HIV. Employers from all three cities showed reluctance to hire people with HIV, but this trend was most pronounced with employers from Beijing and Hong Kong. Concerns about biological contagion were apparent in all three cities. Social contagion, or the belief that people with HIV could morally corrupt those around them, was a particular concern of employers from Beijing and Hong Kong. The concerns about hiring people with HIV in Hong Kong and Beijing may be related to specific cultural dynamics related to loss of 'face', level of contact and knowledge about people with HIV, and the psychological interconnectedness between people in society. In sum, employers in all three cities showed concerns about hiring people with HIV, but at the same time, their attitudes about discriminating against people with HIV differed widely across the cities.

  12. Situation Report--Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, and Sarawak. Information is provided where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning…

  13. Development of Adolescent Moral and Civic Identity through Community Service: A Qualitative Study in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huixuan; Yang, Min

    2018-01-01

    This article draws on Marcia's model that defines four statuses of adolescents' identity formation to examine adolescent moral and civic identity formation. Interviews were conducted with 23 students at three Hong Kong senior secondary schools to address the following research question: How does community service help adolescents develop their…

  14. Children's After-School Physical Activity Participation in Hong Kong: Does Family Socioeconomic Status Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Peggy PY

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and children's physical activity (PA) behaviour during after-school hours. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Participants included 663 schoolchildren (aged between 10 and 13 years) and their parents from nine primary schools in Hong Kong.…

  15. Chinese Parenting in Hong Kong: Links among Goals, Beliefs and Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S. M.; Bowes, J.; Wyver, S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among parental goals, parental beliefs and parenting styles. Questionnaires were completed during interviews with 189 Hong Kong-Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years. Results indicated that these mothers embraced Chinese parental beliefs (guan) and Chinese parental goals of…

  16. A Study of Early Childhood Teachers' Conceptions of Creativity in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Rebecca Hun Ping; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to uncover the conceptions of creativity among early childhood teachers in Hong Kong. The sample comprised 563 early childhood teachers. Factor analysis supported the multidimensional hypothesis of teachers' conceptions of creativity. Five dimensions were found: novelty, product, problem solving, cognitive processes and personal…

  17. Screening for Chinese Children with Dyslexia in Hong Kong: The Use of the Teachers' Behaviour Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han; Chung, Kevin K. H.

    2004-01-01

    Primary school teachers rated the frequency of occurrence of 65 reading-related behavioural characteristics in a sample of 251 Grade 1 to Grade 6 Chinese school children in Hong Kong. These behavioural characteristics were in the areas of general performance, reading, dictation, writing, mathematics, language, memory, concentration, sequential…

  18. Diversified Professionalism of Physical Education Teachers in the Asian Context of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Raymond Kim Wai; Dimmock, Clive

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the socialization and professional experiences of primary school physical education teachers (PSPETs) in the Asian context of Hong Kong. A qualitative research design is adopted. The researcher used semi-structured interviews, supplemented by documentary sources (diaries) for conducting data collection. Eleven PSPETs…

  19. School Leaders' Dilemmas and Measures to Instigate Changes for Inclusive Education in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong

    2017-01-01

    The roles of principal leadership in change management have long been documented. The key concern to examine in this study was the dilemmas and measures confronting principals' when they led changes to instigate inclusive education in Hong Kong. Thus, this paper aims to report sources of dilemmas and how principals tackled them in the change…

  20. Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men among Hong Kong Chinese Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Diana K.; Wu, Joseph; Shardlow, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on social work students' attitudes toward lesbians and gays in East Asian countries where intolerance toward nonheterosexuality has been documented. This article presents findings from the first study in Hong Kong using a Chinese version of Herek's Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG) to measure…