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Sample records for homicidio consecuencia fatal

  1. Muertes por homicidio, consecuencia fatal de la violencia: el caso de Mexico, 1979-1992

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    López María Victoria

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las muertes registradas como homicidio en México de 1979-1992. El estudio se basó en fuente secundaria, siendo las variables analizadas: año, edad, sexo y causa externa de traumatismos y envenenamientos según CIE IX Rev.(E960-E969. Se utilizó un modelo de regresión Poisson para las causas más frecuentes, obteniendo riesgos relativos según edad y sexo. El grupo de referencia fue el de 10-14 años y el sexo femenino. Se registraron 198,485 muertes por Homicidio, con un promedio anual de 14,177 y diario de 39. La principal causa fue ataque con arma de fuego y explosivos(56%. El riesgo relativo más alto fue para el grupo de 35-39 años, con RR 15,4 IC(95% 14,9-16,0, en comparación al de referencia. El sexo masculino presentó un riesgo relativo 10,1 veces mayor que el femenino, ajustado por edad IC10.0-10.3. Los resultados llaman la atención sobre la necesidad de profundizar y analizar el problema de los homicidios bajo una perspectiva multidisciplinaria.

  2. Muertes por homicidio, consecuencia fatal de la violencia: el caso de Mexico, 1979-1992

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    María Victoria López

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las muertes registradas como homicidio en México de 1979-1992. El estudio se basó en fuente secundaria, siendo las variables analizadas: año, edad, sexo y causa externa de traumatismos y envenenamientos según CIE IX Rev.(E960-E969. Se utilizó un modelo de regresión Poisson para las causas más frecuentes, obteniendo riesgos relativos según edad y sexo. El grupo de referencia fue el de 10-14 años y el sexo femenino. Se registraron 198,485 muertes por Homicidio, con un promedio anual de 14,177 y diario de 39. La principal causa fue ataque con arma de fuego y explosivos(56%. El riesgo relativo más alto fue para el grupo de 35-39 años, con RR 15,4 IC(95% 14,9-16,0, en comparación al de referencia. El sexo masculino presentó un riesgo relativo 10,1 veces mayor que el femenino, ajustado por edad IC10.0-10.3. Los resultados llaman la atención sobre la necesidad de profundizar y analizar el problema de los homicidios bajo una perspectiva multidisciplinaria.

  3. Muertes por homicidio, consecuencia fatal de la violencia: el caso de Mexico, 1979-1992 Mortality by homicide, the fatal consequences of violence: the case of Mexico, 1979-1992

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    María Victoria López

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las muertes registradas como homicidio en México de 1979-1992. El estudio se basó en fuente secundaria, siendo las variables analizadas: año, edad, sexo y causa externa de traumatismos y envenenamientos según CIE IX Rev.(E960-E969. Se utilizó un modelo de regresión Poisson para las causas más frecuentes, obteniendo riesgos relativos según edad y sexo. El grupo de referencia fue el de 10-14 años y el sexo femenino. Se registraron 198,485 muertes por Homicidio, con un promedio anual de 14,177 y diario de 39. La principal causa fue ataque con arma de fuego y explosivos(56%. El riesgo relativo más alto fue para el grupo de 35-39 años, con RR 15,4 IC(95% 14,9-16,0, en comparación al de referencia. El sexo masculino presentó un riesgo relativo 10,1 veces mayor que el femenino, ajustado por edad IC10.0-10.3. Los resultados llaman la atención sobre la necesidad de profundizar y analizar el problema de los homicidios bajo una perspectiva multidisciplinaria.A study of homicide in the population of Mexico, was undertaken for the purpose of discovering the mortality panorama by this cause during 1979-1992. Homicide mortality trends were analized, as well as the main causes by age and sex. Rate by cause and sex were also analized using a Poisson Regression model. The variables were: age, sex, year, external cause of intentional injuries ICD 9th. E960-E969. Results: The total number of deaths due to homicide was 198,485. Each day 35 persons die in Mexico as a result of homicide. Men were more affected than women with a RR of 10.1 and CI (95%14.9-16.0, adjusted for age. The main cause 56% was homicide by firearms and explosives.The high relative risk was for those aged from 35 to 39 with an RR of 15.4 CI 14.9-16.0. To the cause assault by other and unspecified means, the elderly population has a RR of 21.2 IC 19.7-22.9. Further research in the area and prevention should make use of a multidisciplinary approach in considering the

  4. HOMICIDIO SEGUIDO DE SUICIDIO

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    Dubugras Sá, Samantha; Pontificia Universidad Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul

    2007-01-01

    El homicidio seguido de suicidio (H/S) es un fenómeno complejo y poco estudiado. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar casos de H/S ocurridos en Porto Alegre entre 1996 y 2004. Las informaciones sobre los H/S fueron localizados en noticias de periódicos, interrogatorios policiales y entrevistas con informantes. En los 14 casos identificados los hombres fueron los asesinos/suicidas y las mujeres y niños, sus víctimas. El instrumento más utilizado fue un arma de fuego. El agresor ge...

  5. El homicidio en México, 2000-2008

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    Héctor HERNÁNDEZ-BRINGAS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la ocurrencia de homicidios en México para el periodo 2000-2008, llevada a cabo con base en datos de estadísticas vitales del Instituto Nacional de Geografía Estadística e Informática y del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública. Las dos fuentes presentan diferencias significativas entre sí: el monto difiere, en promedio, en dos mil muertes anuales, lo que representa entre 15 y 20 por ciento de la cifra anual de homicidios; sin embargo, coinciden en señalar al año 2008 como un momento de repunte de este tipo de delitos en la república mexicana, particularmente en cinco entidades federativas: Baja California, Chihuahua, Durango, Guerrero y Sinaloa. Se destaca el hecho de que el incremento de homicidios se da luego de la aplicación de una estrategia gubernamental de lucha frontal contra el crimen organizado iniciada en el año 2007.

  6. La violencia en la escena del crimen en homicidios en la pareja

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    Alba Company; Miguel Ángel Soria

    2016-01-01

    El homicidio en la pareja, considerado un problema social, no ha sido analizado en España en relación a la escena del crimen (EC). La presente investigación aborda el tipo de violencia ejecutada, instrumental vs. expresiva, en la EC de asesinatos, homicidios o tentativas y sus diferencias en función del sexo del homicida. A partir de una muestra formada por 322 casos extraídos de sentencias judiciales firmes mediante el Protocolo de Análisis del Crimen Violento en Homicidios Familiares, se an...

  7. Variaciones regionales de la mortalidad por homicidios en Jalisco, México

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    Vega-López María Guadalupe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio busca describir las variaciones regionales de la mortalidad por homicidios en el estado de Jalisco, México, en 1989-1991, 1994-1996 y 1999-2000, analizando a su vez el comportamiento de la tasa de homicidios según género y estratos de bienestar socioeconómico. A partir de la información sobre mortalidad generada por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía y Informática, se calcularon tasas ajustadas por edad y género e índices de sobremortalidad masculina. Además, se calcularon razones de tasa y su intervalo de confianza (95%. Los resultados reflejan que la tasa de homicidios presenta una tendencia decreciente en los años 90; que existe un patrón regional de la mortalidad por homicidios, observándose las tasas más altas en regiones periféricas del estado consideradas entre las más pobres; que los municipios ubicados en el estrato de bienestar más bajo presentan un exceso de mortalidad por homicidios estadísticamente significativo, y que hay una evidente sobremortalidad masculina por esta causa. Aspectos como los antes descritos implican tareas y desafíos para la salud pública y para los organismos encargados de preservar la ley y el orden, entre ellos la necesidad de implementar políticas intersectoriales diferenciadas, que tomen en consideración las particularidades que rodean al homicidio y al crimen violento en Jalisco.

  8. La violencia en la escena del crimen en homicidios en la pareja

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    Alba Company

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El homicidio en la pareja, considerado un problema social, no ha sido analizado en España en relación a la escena del crimen (EC. La presente investigación aborda el tipo de violencia ejecutada, instrumental vs. expresiva, en la EC de asesinatos, homicidios o tentativas y sus diferencias en función del sexo del homicida. A partir de una muestra formada por 322 casos extraídos de sentencias judiciales firmes mediante el Protocolo de Análisis del Crimen Violento en Homicidios Familiares, se analizó la conciencia forense, la estructuración y la conducta criminal. Los resultados apoyan estudios precedentes desarrollados en otros países mostrando el predominio de comportamientos expresivos en homicidios entre los miembros de la pareja sin existir diferencias significativas en función del sexo de los agresores, si bien aparece un mayor uso de las conductas de apuñalamiento y envenenamiento en mujeres homicidas.

  9. Aspectos sociodemográficos y carreras criminales en condenados por homicidio en Colombia

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    José Ignacio Ruiz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se hace un análisis de las carreras criminales de hombres condenados por homicidio en relación con delitos cometidos con anterioridad y el obrar bajo efectos de una droga o haber cometido delitos para conseguir drogas. Los participantes en este estudio fueron una muestra aleatoria de reclusos de 11 establecimientos de Colombia. La mayoría de los 439 participantes de la muestra provienen de estratos sociales bajos, con nivel educativo bajo y empleos poco cualificados. Treinta y cinco participantes afirmaron haber cometido dos o más homicidios anteriores, aunque las modalidades delictivas más frecuentemente realizadas en el pasado fueron el hurto, las lesiones personales y la venta de objetos robados. Se hallaron tres patrones de carreras criminales: delitos contra la propiedad, de conducción y delitos violentos.

  10. Homicidio masculino en Ciudad Juárez. Costos de las masculinidades subordinadas

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    Salvador Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El homicidio masculino agudizado en Ciudad Juárez en los años 2008 y 2009, con casi cuatro mil asesinatos, constituye la expresión más evidente de la violencia urbana. Dicha violencia ha tomado rostro en hombres, en su mayoría jóvenes y marginados. Los datos muestran un comportamiento del homicidio doloso asimilado a significados relacionados con la masculinidad más tradicional, cuyo costo recae en la vida misma. Se observa a través de los escenarios, los horarios en que ocurren los eventos y las formas de ejecución, que esta práctica delictiva puede ser comprendida como una actividad masculina que explota una subjetividad proclive a la violencia y que reproduce las asimetrías de género y significados asociados a la dicotomía masculino-femenino.

  11. Revisión Pormenorizada de Homicidios de Mujeres en las Relaciones de Pareja en España

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    José L. González

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available La manifestación más extrema de violencia es el homicidio, que inquieta más cuando se produce en las relaciones de pareja, donde la mujer tiene seis veces más riesgo de morir. Aunque España presenta una tasa de homicidios de mujeres inferior a las medias europea y mundial y cuenta con políticas para reducir esta violencia, se siguen registrando homicidios. Para evitar más muertes es necesario estudiar el fenómeno a fondo. Desde 1990 se han creado en distintos países equipos de revisión de homicidios en el entorno familiar, que los analizan de manera multidisciplinar, especialmente los de mujeres, para determinar factores comunes y qué cambios sería necesario implementar para evitar futuras muertes violentas. Se revisan las características de los equipos internacionales y se describe el origen, composición y operativa del Equipo Nacional de Revisión Pormenorizada de Homicidios en el contexto de la Violencia de Género (EHVdG de España.

  12. Homicidios diarios. Análisis del discurso periodístico sobre homicidios por armas de fuego. Buenos Aires (Argentina 2001-2002

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    Leonardo Federico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante los años 2001 y 2002, la Argentina atravesó una grave crisis política y social, alcanzando niveles de pobreza y exclusión inauditos. En esos años, los diferentes tipos de violencia urbana mostraron un marcado incremento, en especial los homicidios cometidos mediante el uso de armas de fuego, constituyéndose en una problemática social con importantes repercusiones para la salud pública. El presente artículo es producto de una investigación cualitativa que indagó, mediante un análisis crítico del discurso, las diferentes modalidades con que los diarios La Nación y Clarín dieron cuenta de los hechos acaecidos -durante dicho período- en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Los datos se obtuvieron de la recopilación de material de hemeroteca, y fueron analizados a partir de una técnica propia referenciada en la Escuela Francesa de Análisis del Discurso. En cuanto a los resultados del estudio, se subraya: el posicionamiento más popular adoptado por el diario Clarín (lógica enunciativa de la verosimilitud, en contraposicióncon la búsqueda de objetividad de La Nación (lógica de la verificación, asumiendo ambos un carácter complementario en la producción y reproducción social de sentido, al dar cuenta de las muertes por homicidios ocasionadas mediante el uso de armas de fuego.

  13. Factores de Riesgo de Homicidio a la Mujer en la Relación de Pareja

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    Contreras Taibo, Lorena; Universidad Diego Portales. Fundación Instituto Chileno para el Estudio de la Violencia.

    2013-01-01

    Con base en una revisión sistemática de estudios empíricos publicados entre los años 2000 y 2011, se identificaron los factores de riesgo de homicidio en contra de la mujer en el contexto de las relaciones de pareja, a partir de 17 investigaciones realizadas en países como EEUU, Australia, España y el Reino Unido. Particularmente, se analizan y discuten los hallazgos respecto a los factores de riesgo desde la perspectiva del perpetrador, la víctima, su relación de pareja y su contexto. Finalm...

  14. ¿Quiénes son los sentenciados por homicidio intencional en México?

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    Vilalta, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Se presenta un perfil preliminar del homicida intencional en México. De esta forma se dan los primeros pasos empíricos en la construcción de un conocimiento sistemático y comparativo del delincuente violento. Se comparó al total de condenados por homicidio intencional frente al total de condenados por otros delitos federales intencionales entre 1997 y 2010. Se encontró que el total de sentenciados por este delito en el fuero federal es muy reducido, su número varía mucho entre años y cada vez...

  15. Homicidios en Medellín, Colombia, entre 1990 y 2002: actores, móviles y circunstancias

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    Cardona Marleny

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En Medellín, Colombia, el homicidio es la primera causa de morbimortalidad desde hace 20 años y sus tasas de mortalidad superan las de grandes capitales de América Latina. Se describen los actores, las circunstancias y los móviles de los homicidios en Medellín entre 1990 y 2002. De los 55.365 homicidios del período se estudiaron aleatoriamente 1.394, el 93,6% (IC95%: 92,2%-94,8% eran hombres, el 77,0% (IC95%: 75,0%-79,5% menores de 35 años, una cuarta parte estaban ebrios y en 9 de cada 10 fueron muertos con armas de fuego. Los principales móviles del homicidio fueron los ajustes de cuentas y los atracos. El 37,0% (IC95%: 34,0%-41,0% de los muertos provenían de los estratos más bajos de la ciudad y el riesgo de homicidio fue mayor a medida que el estrato socioeconómico era menor. Las características de los asesinatos en Medellín han permanecido invariables desde la década de los ochenta, cuando se inició el período de violencia más alto en la historia de la ciudad. Los grupos más afectados son los hombres jóvenes que viven y mueren en los barrios de estratos socioeconómicos más bajos, en hechos individuales que no dejan heridos.

  16. Variaciones regionales de la mortalidad por homicidios en Jalisco, México Regional variations in homicide mortality in Jalisco, Mexico

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    María Guadalupe Vega-López

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio busca describir las variaciones regionales de la mortalidad por homicidios en el estado de Jalisco, México, en 1989-1991, 1994-1996 y 1999-2000, analizando a su vez el comportamiento de la tasa de homicidios según género y estratos de bienestar socioeconómico. A partir de la información sobre mortalidad generada por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía y Informática, se calcularon tasas ajustadas por edad y género e índices de sobremortalidad masculina. Además, se calcularon razones de tasa y su intervalo de confianza (95%. Los resultados reflejan que la tasa de homicidios presenta una tendencia decreciente en los años 90; que existe un patrón regional de la mortalidad por homicidios, observándose las tasas más altas en regiones periféricas del estado consideradas entre las más pobres; que los municipios ubicados en el estrato de bienestar más bajo presentan un exceso de mortalidad por homicidios estadísticamente significativo, y que hay una evidente sobremortalidad masculina por esta causa. Aspectos como los antes descritos implican tareas y desafíos para la salud pública y para los organismos encargados de preservar la ley y el orden, entre ellos la necesidad de implementar políticas intersectoriales diferenciadas, que tomen en consideración las particularidades que rodean al homicidio y al crimen violento en Jalisco.The present study describes regional variations in homicide rates in Jalisco State, Mexico, in 1989-1991, 1994-1996, and 1999-2000, analyzing the trends by gender and socioeconomic stratum. Using mortality data generated by the National Institute for Statistics, Geography, and Information Technology, homicide rates adjusted by age and gender were calculated, along with rate/female rate ratios; rate ratios by socioeconomic stratum and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. According to the results, the homicide rate showed: a downward trend in the 1990s; a regional

  17. Femme fatale

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    Francisco Javier Tardío Gastón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Our history is full of myths and topics. Therefore the image of femme fatale is frequent in the works of all periods and places. The author of this article first analyzes how the history and literature consistently showed and defined these women, and then presents examples that come from ancient Greece. The art is powered by their power of seduction and the article explains how this femme fatale appeared in literature and film. The article concludes with a brief overview of various arguments concerning women and feminism, present in the literary criticism.

  18. Islamic fatalism

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    Helmer Ringgren

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available The author sketches the historical background, then the teaching of the Koran, and finally, the development of the typical Islamic fatalism. The fatalism of Islam has to be viewed against the background of the ideas of pre-Islamic Arabia. Unfortunately, there is no other evidence from this epoch that a few poems on a very restricted range of topics which have been able to survive Islamic censure. The conventional and stereotyped character of these poems makes it difficult to decide to what extent they reflect commonly accepted views or the ideas of a certain group. In any case, they present a picture of the pagan Arab which is extremely idealized and formed after a rigid pattern. Historically speaking, Islamic 'fatalism' is the result of a combination of pre-Islamic fatalism and Muhammad's belief in God's omnipotence. From another point of view it is an interpretation of destiny that expresses man's feeling of total dependence, not on an impersonal power or universal order, but on an omnipotent God.

  19. Homicidios en la población menor de cinco años en México, 1992-2001

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    Alfonso S. González Cervera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo central de este estudio fue analizar la información disponible sobre los homicidios de niños menores de cinco años de edad en México. Se utilizaron las bases de datos de mortalidad de los diez años más recientes al momento de iniciar el estudio (1992 -2001. Los resultados indican que la tasa por homicidios en la niñez disminuyó en 38 por ciento durante el periodo analizado; aun así, la tasa de infanticidio en 2001 (3.81 por 100 mil y la de homicidio en niños de 1 a 4 años (1.37 por 100 mil están entre las más altas si se comparan con las de otros países occidentales, excepto Estados Unidos; invariablemente los homicidios de niños fueron más frecuentes que los de niñas (la relación niños/niñas fue 1.13 en 2001. Sobresale el hecho de que, durante todo el periodo, al menos 45 por ciento de todos los homicidios de niños de cero a cuatro años se registraron en el estado de México.

  20. Características y situación del homicidio en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de México 1993-1997

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    Mario Arroyo Juárez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de la investigación se realizaron dos estudios sobre las muertes violentas en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico. El primero consistió en analizar la información sobre homicidios registrados de 1993 a 1997 en los certificados de defunción de la Secretaria de Salud. El segundo estudio se realizó especificamente sobre los homicidios registrados por el Servicio Médico Forense del Distrito Federal (Semefo durante 1996. Analizando la información de cada uno de ellos por separado y estableciendo comparaciones entre ambos, se lograron identificar con precisión las principales características de las víctimas de homicidio, así como las situaciones que rodearon los hechos, facilitando con ello la elaboración de políticas y acciones de intervención.

  1. Pasión y honor. elementos culturales del homicidio en la provincia de Soto (Santander) de 1903 a 1930

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    Jairo Antonio Melo Flórez

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo relaciona algunos elementos culturales de los conflictos interpersonales como son aquellos enmarcados en los conceptos de honor y pasión, entendiéndolos como sentimientos que adquieren sentido en las relaciones sociales, y que se pueden evidenciar en los casos de homicidio en la Provincia de Soto entre 1903 y 1930. El honor por lo general ha sido tratado desde la perspectiva de los hombres honorables, pero también existe una forma de honor en las personas del común, en un sentid...

  2. Homicidios, ¿es ineluctable la violencia en América Latina?

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    Pierre Salama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En la mayoría de los países de América Latina la tasa de homicidios es mucho mayor que en los países desarrollados. En algunos países aumenta mientras en otros disminuye o bien se estabiliza. Se incrementa considerablemente en algunas grandes ciudades pero decrece significativamente en otras, desde inicios del año 2000. Los narcotraficantes y la evolución de las organizaciones criminales inciden de manera especial en todo ello. Las causas del aumento y la reducción de la violencia son múltiples y se entrecruzan. Reducir la violencia una vez que ha alcanzado el nivel que presenta en varios países de América Latina es un poco como tratar de “encontrar la cuadratura del círculo”. Eso da una idea del grado de dificultad. Algunas condiciones previas son necesarias para mejorar la cohesión social y para reducir la violencia: disminuir de manera sustancial las desigualdades socioeconómicas, favorecer una redistribución más equitativa de los ingresos, desarrollar una educación primaria, secundaria y profesional de calidad, inventar políticas de la ciudad, mejorar la calidad de las instituciones –sobre todo de la justicia y de la policía–, desarrollar una política de la ciudad; tal como se hizo en Bogotá y como empieza a hacerse en las “favellas pacificadas” en Brasil, y contrariamente a lo que se observa en México, donde se privilegia la represión y donde es tan alta la corrupción, incluso en las esferas más altas de la política y de la policía.

  3. Análisis palinológico de un homicidio en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Leticia Karina Povilauskas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de esta contribución son dar a conocer las actividades desarrolladas en base a la Palinología Forense en un caso de homicidio calificado ocurrido en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina; y poner al alcance de los científicos naturalistas algunas metodologías periciales adecuadas para fomentar su participación con el fin de sumar aportes a la hora de esclarecer un crimen desde la Palinología. En el presente trabajo se exponen los resultados obtenidos a partir del estudio y análisis palinológico sobre un homicidio realizado en los márgenes del río Reconquista, en la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizó un estudio exhaustivo de la flora del lugar y, el análisis de las muestras que han sido colectadas a lo largo de las márgenes del río Reconquista ha arrojado como resultado una asociación palinológica conformada por polen y quistes de algas. Los espectros polínicos están dominados principalmente por granos de polen de cañaverales (Arundo donax, Salicaceae, Cyperaceae y Poaceae, con Asteraceae y Myrtaceae subordinados. Las algas dinofíceas están representadas por quistes de dinoflagelados estuáricos del orden Gonyaulacales (Operculodinium centrocarpum (Deflandre y Cookson Wall.  Las algas clorofíceas consisten en cenobios de Pediastrum boryanum (Turpin Meneghini y colonias de Botryococcus braunii Kützing, y entre las Cyanophyta se encontraron vainas de Rivulariaceae (Gloeotrichia sp..  Un protocolo de investigación forense implica algunas consideraciones para tener en cuenta, como la escena del crimen, la recolección apropiada de muestras y, el análisis palinológico del laboratorio, quedando a disposición de los jueces y fiscales como pruebas muy útiles para la investigación de un homicidio.

  4. LA INVESTIGACIÓN DE POLICÍA JUDICIAL EN COLOMBIA Y LA TÉCNICA DE PERFIL CRIMINAL, PARA EL ESCLARECIMIENTO DEL HOMICIDIO COMETIDO POR SICARIO

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    Mabel Morales López

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo contiene una revisión de la literatura sobre el tema perfil criminal y la investigación de Policía judicial para el esclarecimiento del homicidio cometido por sicarios en Colombia.El propósito es comprobar si cumple con la rigurosidad como técnica y si es efectiva en la identificación y captura del agresor que utiliza un modus operandi propio de la cultura criminal en Colombia. A partir de la investigación forense sobre informes periciales de necropsia y la escena del crimen de éste tipo de homicidio, se pretende proponer mejoras en los procesos investigativos y en el entrenamiento de investigadores.

  5. ESTUDIO CUALITATIVO DEL DUELO TRAUMÁTICO DE FAMILIARES DE VÍCTIMAS DE HOMICIDIO SEGÚN LA PRESENCIA O AUSENCIA DE CASTIGO LEGAL

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    Ana María Corredor

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Para estudiar el duelo traumático en familiares de víctimas de homicidio considerando el efecto de la ausencia o presencia de castigo penal para el homicida, se elaboró un estudio exploratorio de seis casos. En tres de ellos, la investigación penal iniciada por homicidio culminó en sentencia condenatoria, en otros tres no se conoció la identidad de los homicidas. Se analizaron las narraciones acerca del homicidio y sus implicaciones desde una perspectiva cognitivo emocional, y se evaluaron los síntomas del duelo traumático a través de la versión en español del Grief Experience Inventory. Se esperaba que las personas que no obtuvieron castigo para los homicidas tuvieran mayores síntomas de duelo o síntomas más agudos. Esta hipótesis fue rechazada. Las dinámicas cognitivo emocionales relacionadas con el fallo penal difirieron de los prototipos propuestos por Spungen (1998, National Organization for Victims Assistance (1985, Thompson Norris y Ruback (1996.

  6. EL USO DE LA TEORÍA DE LA DESORGANIZACIÓN SOCIAL PARA COMPRENDER LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE HOMICIDIOS EN BOGOTÁ, COLOMBIA

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    Gipsy Escobar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de la desorganización social se ha identificado a la desventaja social como uno de los más fuertes y coherentes predictores de homicidios a nivel macro en áreas urbanas de los Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, investigaciones llevadas a cabo en áreas urbanas de América Latina sugieren que los efectos de la desventaja social y desorganización podrían diferir en esta última región. Este trabajo, mediante el estudio de datos espaciales, analiza los efectos de la desventaja social y la habilidad que poseen las comunidades para obtener recursos externos (control público respecto a las tasas de homicidios a nivel de barrio en Bogotá, Colombia. Para este efecto se utilizan datos obtenidos de diversas fuentes, incluyendo cifras o¿ ciales de homicidios, información sobre el censo 2005 y entrevistas. Estos resultados sostienen en forma parcial la teoría de la desorganización social: mientras la concentración de desventajas sociales, y el aislamiento y desorden social parecieran predecir altos índices de homicidios, la disponibilidad de servicios públicos básicos (indicador de control público muestra un efecto negativo sobre la variable dependiente. También se observan resultados inesperados: mientras la presencia de agencias de control social (policía y unidades de resolución de con¿ ictos predicen altos niveles de homicidios, la proporción de jóvenes de sexo masculino y la densidad de la población suponen bajos índices de delincuencia. La existencia de estructuras criminales (pandillas, milicias, organizaciones de trá¿ co de drogas y armas y el número de desplazados por el con¿ icto no inciden mayormente en la muestra. Asimismo, este estudio discute las implicaciones de este tema en el desarrollo de teorías y políticas.

  7. Pasión y honor. elementos culturales del homicidio en la provincia de Soto (Santander de 1903 a 1930

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    Jairo Antonio Melo Flórez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo relaciona algunos elementos culturales de los conflictos interpersonales como son aquellos enmarcados en los conceptos de honor y pasión, entendiéndolos como sentimientos que adquieren sentido en las relaciones sociales, y que se pueden evidenciar en los casos de homicidio en la Provincia de Soto entre 1903 y 1930. El honor por lo general ha sido tratado desde la perspectiva de los hombres honorables, pero también existe una forma de honor en las personas del común, en un sentido más conflictivo y complejo, que residía por lo general en el respeto generado por sus iguales y en la sexualidad de las mujeres. Así mismo, la pasión era un sentimiento que conllevaba a reacciones violentas, relacionado en buena medida con el honor, y cuya reacción podía ser más o menos ritualizada en un pleito o bastante impulsiva en una riña.

  8. Procesos macroeconómicos y homicidios. Un estudio ecológico en los partidos del gran Buenos Aires (Argentina entre los años 1989 y 2006

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    Hugo Spinelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la evolución de la tasa de homicidios en los partidos del Gran Buenos Aires, en el período comprendido entre los años 1989 y 2006, y la estimación de la relación existente entre estos eventos y los procesos macroeconómicos que se desarrollaron en Argentina durante el período descrito. Se realizó un estudio ecológico, con análisis de correlación entre series "sin tendencia" de las variables para evaluar la existencia de asociación entre la mortalidad por homicidios e indicadores macroeconómicos seleccionados (previo proceso de suavizado de la tendencia de las curvas según técnica de Hodrick-Prescott. Los principales resultados son: la tasa de homicidios disminuye durante los dos primeros años para mantenerse en una meseta hasta el año 1997, cuando comienza a aumentar. Llega a su valor máximo en el año 2002 (11,1 por 100.000 habitantes para comenzar un descenso que se ubica, en el año 2006, en valores similares a los de 1992. Fue hallada una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre la tasa de homicidios y el coeficiente de Gini (según ingresos familiares, el porcentaje de población bajo la línea de pobreza e indigencia y el PIB. No fue hallada correlación entre homicidios y desempleo. Los hallazgos sugieren que la variación de la tasa de homicidios está ligada directamente al empobrecimiento y la desigualdad, e inversamente al desarrollo económico

  9. LA INVESTIGACIÓN DE POLICÍA JUDICIAL EN COLOMBIA Y LA TÉCNICA DE PERFIL CRIMINAL, PARA EL ESCLARECIMIENTO DEL HOMICIDIO COMETIDO POR SICARIO

    OpenAIRE

    Mabel Morales López; Erika Polo Mercado

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo contiene una revisión de la literatura sobre el tema perfil criminal y la investigación de Policía judicial para el esclarecimiento del homicidio cometido por sicarios en Colombia.El propósito es comprobar si cumple con la rigurosidad como técnica y si es efectiva en la identificación y captura del agresor que utiliza un modus operandi propio de la cultura criminal en Colombia. A partir de la investigación forense sobre informes periciales de necropsia y la escena del crimen de ...

  10. La Comprensión de los Homicidios en América Latina: ¿Pobreza o Institucionalidad? Understanding homicides in Latin America: poverty or institutionalization?

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    Roberto Briceño-León

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los homicidios ocurren en todo el mundo, pero no están homogéneamente distribuidos, cambian por zonas geográficas: continentes, países, regiones; en periodos de tiempo largos o cortos o por lo grupos sociales: edad, sexo, clase social o etnia. ¿Por qué en unos países hay más homicidios que en otros? ¿Por qué en unos países disminuyen los asesinatos y en otros se incrementan? Las explicaciones sociales de la violencia han tenido dos vertientes fundamentales: las teorías que la atribuyen a la pobreza y la desigualdad y las teorías de la institucionalidad o las normas sociales. Para discutir esas teorías el artículo analiza y compara los cambios ocurridos en Colombia, Venezuela y Brasil en la primera década del siglo XXI donde respectivamente disminuye, aumenta y se mantiene igual la tasa de homicidios. Utilizando la medición de seis variables (pobreza, desigualdad, desempleo, riqueza nacional, desarrollo humano y gobierno de la ley y la técnica del análisis de trayectorias se encontró que la institucionalidad tiene una mayor fuerza explicativa en los cambios observados que la pobreza y la desigualdad. El texto concluye que la pobreza o la desigualdad influyen en la criminalidad y en los homicidios, aunque no de manera directa, sino mediadas por las instituciones.Homicides occur the world over, but they are not homogeneously distributed by geographical areas (continents, countries, regions, either over long or short periods of time, or in social groups, namely age, gender, social class or ethnicity. Why are there more homicides in some countries than in others? Why do killings increase in some countries, while they decrease in others? There are two fundamental schools of thought for social explanations of crime and violence: those attributing its origins to poverty and inequality and those blaming institutionalization or social norms. To discuss these theories, this paper analyzes and compares the changes in Colombia, Venezuela

  11. Más allá del feminicidio de pareja: victimización de mujeres por homicidio y criminalidad organizada transnacional en el Perú

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    Lucía Nuñovero Cisneros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La victimización de mujeres ha sido pocas veces objeto de investigación criminológica en el Perú, dado el escaso desarrollo de la criminología en el país. No obstante, la política criminal que aborda la problemática de la violencia contra la mujer, mediante la tipificación del delito de feminicidio, amerita fundamentarse en este tipo de investigaciones. Como una primera aproximación, este artículo utilizó las mejoras en las estadísticas oficiales de homicidios, a fin de identificar y comparar variaciones temporales y espaciales en la victimización de hombres y mujeres, ocurridas entre los años 2011 y 2015. Mediante la aplicación de una escala, se encontraron los niveles más altos de victimización de mujeres por homicidio (de 5 a 15 muertes por 100 mil habitantes, en regiones con niveles altos o muy altos de victimización de hombres, tratándose además de regiones específicas de frontera o de desarrollo de criminalidad organizada transnacional, como minería ilegal, tráfico de drogas y trata de personas.

  12. Homicidio y marginación en los municipios urbanos de los estados más violentos de México, 2000-2005

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    Elmyra Ybáñez Zepeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2000, cinco millones de personas perdieron la vida por algún tipo de muerte violenta en el mundo. Las muertes por accidentes de tránsito llegaron a 1.2 millones; 815 mil personas cometieron suicidio y hubo 512 mil asesinatos. En México las muertes violentas han disminuido en general, pero se han incrementado las muertes por homici - dio: los datos del Sistema Nacional de Información en Salud muestran que en el año 2000 éste ocupaba el noveno lugar entre las veinte principales causas de mortalidad y en 2010 llegó al quinto puesto. El objetivo central de este artículo es analizar si la condición de marginación de un municipio urbano de los estados más violentos de México tiene relación con una alta tasa de homicidios. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que los datos no revelan una relación entre la tasa de homicidio y el grado de marginación. Otro de los hallazgos es que se observan tasas más altas e inestables en ciudades con fuerte crecimiento de la población o ubicadas en puertos y zonas de tránsito poblacional intenso.

  13. RETARDO DE CRECIMIENTO INTRAUTERINO: CONSECUENCIAS A LARGO PLAZO

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    Int. Med. Tomás Rybertt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El retardo del crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU se asocia a factores de riesgo maternos y a causas placentarias y dependientes del feto. La aparición de esta patología es de relevancia dado que se asocia en el corto plazo a morbilidad-mortalidad neonatal, así como en la incidencia en patologías crónicas de la vida adulta. Este artículo revisa principalmente las consecuencias a largo plazo de RCIU en cuanto al crecimiento post-natal, neurodesarrollo y describe cómo a través de la hipótesis de Barker se relaciona esta condición con enfermedad coronaria, diabetes mellitus e hipertensión arterial.

  14. Consecuencias de la noción de existencia

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    Láscaris Comneno, Constantino. 1923 - 1979

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el ensayo “Consecuencias de la noción de existencia” que el filósofo español-costarricense Constantino Láscaris Comeno presentó en el Sexto Seminario Nacional de Demografía llevado a cabo en Heredia, Costa Rica en diciembre de 1976, la Revista electrónica “Población y Salud en Mesoamérica” inaugura su sección de Archivo que pretende rescatar para los lectores actuales documentos de valor histórico sobre la demografía y la salud de la región.El autor de este ensayo fue un destacado filósofo y profesor de la Universidad de Costa Rica, declarado Benemérito de la Patria por la Asamblea Legislativa de Costa Rica. Nació en Zaragoza, España, en 1923 y falleció prematuramente en San José, Costa Rica, en 1979. El Doctor Láscaris fue un prolífico ensayista y escritor de varios libros sobre filosofía y pensamiento en Costa Rica y Centroamérica. El ensayo Consecuencias de la noción de existencia es una refrescante reflexión de un tema que es tan vigente hoy como hace 30 años sobre las bases filosóficas, desde la óptica del existencialismo, de cuestiones controversiales sobre el momento en que el ser humano puede considerarse titular de todos los derechos de una persona o sobre los fundamentos éticos del control de la natalidad. Uno de los méritos del ensayo es que trasciende el dogma religioso que tan difícil hace las discusiones de estos temas.

  15. Maltrato infantil y sus consecuencias a largo plazo

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    Laura Carolina Alarcón Forero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La violencia intrafamiliar constituye una de las formas más frecuentes de violencia encontradas tanto a nivel nacional como internacional y dentro de estas el maltrato infantil presenta cifras alarmantes, y es el objeto de nuestra revisión. Los efectos de este problema repercuten notablemente en aquellos que sobreviven, ya que las consecuencias a largo plazo del maltrato infantil son más perjudiciales para lasvíctimas y sus familias, y más costoso para la sociedad, que las lesiones agudas inmediatas que puedan producir. Las consecuencias a largo plazo para estos niños varían desde efectos nocivos en su desarrollo hasta trastornos psicológicos, psiquiátricos y orgánicos. Es importante resaltar que aún con muy buenas intervenciones no todas tienen el éxito esperado si no se hacen de manera correcta. Esindispensable contar con estrategias de prevención que incluyan personal bien entrenado, una supervisión adecuada, los recursos necesarios, y un tiempo mínimo óptimo para enfrentar el problema y obtener los mejores resultados. ______________________________________________________________________Domestic violence is one of the most common forms of violence found both domestically and internationally. Within these, child abuse has alarming figures. This is the subject of this review. The effects of this problem significantly impact on those who survive; their long-term consequences are most severe and expensive for victimized child and his/her family than associated primary physical injuries. Thelong-term consequences for these children range from adverse effects on its psycholigical development to psychological, psychiatric organic disoders. It is important to note that good speeches are not enough to achieve success if any intervention are not done correctly. All prevention strategies include well-trained staff, appropriate supervision, resources, and a optimal time for addressing this problem to get the best results.

  16. No to fatalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel

    1980-01-01

    By saying 'No to fatalism', M. Pecqueur is forming the wish that the recent awarness of the energy situation, far from bringing about resignation, speeds up the implementation of the indispensable measures on which the economic and political stability of the world depends in the decade ahead [fr

  17. “La ciudad más insegura del mundo”: homicidio y crimen en Bogotá, 1988-1994

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    Sayra Catherín Rodríguez González

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene como objetivo mostrar el panorama del crimen y del homicidio en un período histórico definitivo para la capital de la república (1988-1994. Se intenta dar sentido al rótulo de “la ciudad más insegura del mundo”, que apela a un título que circuló en medios de comunicación y que se expande debido a los hechos de violencia y crimen que flagelaban a Bogotá. Método: un análisis cualitativo resulta fundamental ante la fragmentación de los datos estadísticos que son propios del contexto histórico abordado. Se revisaron fuentes de información de diversa índole; la Revista Criminalidad constituye una fuente valiosa de información, tanto estadística como de análisis criminológico. Resultados: por un lado, existen por lo menos tres escenarios de la violencia que pueden explicar el incremento de las tasas del homicidio en Bogotá; por otro, entre los agentes del crimen, que también aumentan, la delincuencia común surge como protagonista. Conclusiones: este acercamiento plantea la discusión sobre el fenómeno de la delincuencia común, neurálgica en las urbes, que poco ha sido tratada por los estudiosos. El ambiente de inseguridad en la ciudad combinó tanto los efectos del conflicto político nacional como los del conflicto local.

  18. Las consecuencias de la fobia en el lazo social

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    Isabelle Morin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Para el psicoanálisis, el lazo socialno agrega a los humanos, sino queliga a los parlêtres entre sí, convistas a renovar lo viviente y hacerobra civilizatoria. Lo virtual en lasrelaciones humanas da fe de queel mundo contemporáneo se hallamarcado por el evitamiento fóbico.Facebook es un testimonio de ello:instaura un “agregado de agregado”de individuos que creen reconocerseporque comparten los mismosgustos y valores, protegiéndosedel Otro encarnado. Un psicoanálisiscompromete al sujeto en laseparación del Otro y le permitemodificar su lazo con los otros. Lafobia, núcleo de la neurosis, nosenseña que la separación y el lazoson consecuencia del efecto de laactividad lenguajera. Desactivadala fobia, el analizante podrá saltarmás allá del límite fijado por el objetofobígeno, y aquella se convertiráen oportunidad para el lazo social,cuando el sujeto salga de ella paraavanzar en la vida con los otros.

  19. Obesidad y enfermedad renal: consecuencias ocultas de la epidemia

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    Csaba P. Kovesdy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad se ha convertido en una epidemia mundial, y se ha proyectado que su prevalencia se incrementrá en un 40% en la próxima década. Esta creciente prevalencia supone implicaciones tanto para el riesgo de desarrollo de diabetes y enfermedades cardiovasculares como para el desarrollo de enfermedad renal crónica. Un elevado índice de masa corporal es uno de los factores de riesgo más importantes para el desarrollo de enfermedad renal crónica. En individuos afectados por la obesidad, tiene lugar una hiperfiltración compensatoria necesaria para alcanzar la alta demanda metabólica secundaria al aumento del peso corporal. El incremeno de la presión intraglomerular puede generar daño renal y elevar el riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad renal crónica a largo plazo. La incidencia de glomerulopatía asociada a obesidad se ha incrementado 10 veces en los últimos años. Así mismo se ha demostrado que la obesidad es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de nefrolitiasis y un número de neoplasias, incluyendo cáncer renal. Este año, el Día Mundial del Riñón promueve la educación acerca de las consecuencias nocivas de la obesidad y su asociación con la enfermedad renal, abogando por un estilo de vida saludable y la implementación de políticas publicas de salud que promuevan medidas preventivas alcanzables.

  20. Mortalidad por homicidios en México: tendencias, variaciones socio-geográficas y factores asociados Deaths by homicide in Mexico: trends, socio-geographical variations and associated factors

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    Guillermo Julián González-Pérez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza la tendencia de las tasas de homicidio (total y por arma de fuego en México entre 1990 y 2009 e identifica las variables que mejor explican las variaciones geográficas de las tasas en el bienio 2008-2009. Se calcularon tasas de homicidios, ajustadas por edad, para ambos sexos entre 1990 y 2009, y para cada estado en 2008-2009. El análisis de regresión lineal múltiple fue usado para identificar factores asociados a las variaciones interestatales de las tasas de homicidio. Los resultados muestran que la tasa de homicidio disminuyó entre 1992 y 2007, pero se ha duplicado en los últimos dos años (de 7.6 a 16.6 por 100,000. En 2009, la tasa de homicidio masculina fue cerca de 9 veces mayor que la tasa femenina y casi dos tercios de los homicidios fueron por arma de fuego. El análisis multivariado revela que la impunidad, el narcotráfico, el consumo de alcohol y drogas y la deserción escolar -por ese orden- son factores claves para entender las variaciones geográficas de las tasas de homicidio en México en 2008-2009. Así, para reducir los homicidios y las variaciones espaciales de la tasa, se necesita no solo combatir a los cárteles de la droga sino sobre todo implementar reformas estructurales en el sistema de procuración de justicia y disminuir las disparidades socioeconómicas entre los estados.This study seeks to analyze the trend of homicide rates (total and by firearm in Mexico between 1990 and 2009 and identify the variables that best explain the geographical variations of these rates in the 2008-2009 two-year period. Homicide rates, adjusted for age, were calculated for both sexes between 1990 and 2009 and for each state in 2008-2009. Factors associated with the interstate variations in the homicide rates were identified using multiple linear regression analysis. Results show that the homicide rate in Mexico decreased between 1990 and 2007, but doubled over the last two years (from 7.6 to 16.6 per 100

  1. Discusión jurisprudencial sobre el dolo eventual y la culpa con representación en delitos de homicidio ocasionados en accidentes de tránsito

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    Nydia Díaz Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un reporte de caso que se realizó con base en el estudio de la sentencia del Tribunal Superior del Distrito Judicial de Bogotá –Sala Penal– proferida el 28 de julio de 2009, en la que se modifica la calificación de la conducta, de homicidio culposo a título de dolo eventual en un accidente de tránsito.

  2. La variación del homicidio durante los diálogos de paz entre el Gobierno Nacional y las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia, FARC: octubre 18 del 2012 a agosto 28 del 2016

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    María Jimena Peñalosa-Otero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue analizar la variación del homicidio durante la fase de negociación entre el Gobierno Nacional y las FARC, en relación con los arts. 103, 104, 104a, 105, 108 y 135 del Código Penal colombiano. Se planteó un estudio exploratorio descriptivo con enfoque mixto, desde una perspectiva histórica. Como resultado se evidenció una relación positiva entre el homicidio y el entorno del conflicto armado como ambiente específico, denotando que cuando la confrontación armada escaló o disminuyó, en igual sentido se comportó el punible. De manera concomitante, la negociación marcó una dinámica de desescalamiento del conflicto armado, que selló la disminución del ilícito a nivel nacional, con una reducción del 8,57 %, al comparar la tasa de homicidios del año 2012 con la del 2015, pero en el medio regional aumentó en los departamentos del Atlántico, Cauca y Quindío, manteniendo una tendencia sostenida superior al promedio anual de la tasa de homicidios en Antioquia, Chocó, Guaviare, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Risaralda y Valle del Cauca, en simetría con la presencia de estructuras criminales.

  3. Frecuencia, evitabilidad y consecuencias de los eventos adversos

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    Luz Marina Bautista-Rodriguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio pretende determinar la frecuencia, evitabilidad y consecuencias de los Eventos Adversos (EA ocurridos en los servicios de hospitalización basándose en las fichas epidemiológicas e historias clínicas de pacientes que hayan tenido un evento durante este periodo. Como resultados se encontró con mayor frecuencia los Eventos Adversos (EA son debidos a algún procedimiento (63%: suspensión quirúrgica (38%, seguido de otras complicaciones R/C intervención quirúrgica o procedimiento (13.3%, viéndose mayormente afectada la población masculina (61%, en edades de 10 a 29 años (37%. El servicio donde se presentan más frecuentemente estos eventos es cirugía (52%. Esta problemática produce deterioro físico en un 100% en el paciente, además de aumentar la estancia hospitalaria de 1-2 días (91.7%, siendo el mayor factor causal el tipo de asistencia sanitaria que recibe el paciente. Estos eventos pudieron haber sido evitados en un 74% de los casos. En conclusión el presente estudio mostró que los eventos adversos ocurridos con mayor frecuencia fueron los relacionados con algún procedimiento y/o cuidados, siendo de estos, los más comunes la cancelación de turnos quirúrgicos y quemaduras, erosiones y contusiones (incluyendo fracturas consecuentes respectivamente. Lo que produjo una prolongación de los días de estancia, lo cual no ocasionó directamente situaciones de gravedad o repercusiones importantes en el estado de salud del paciente; pero la aparición de estos Eventos Adversos (E.A son completamente prevenibles, puesto que tiene que ver directamente con las prácticas de cuidado impartidas por el personal de salud, que requieren mayor concentración al momento de realizar cualquier procedimiento, si se toman en cuenta las medidas necesarias para garantizar la seguridad del paciente.

  4. [Fatal occupational accidents in Lombardy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, G

    1995-01-01

    All fatal occupational accidents compensated in Lombardy from 1984 to 1989 were analyzed (1259 cases): significant differences between geographical distribution of fatal occupational accidents and workers were observed. Males accounted for about 95% of fatalities; an excess of cases was shown in both young and elderly workers. Death was the consequence of injuries involving most frequently the head, thorax and spinal cord. An excess of fatalities was observed in agriculture and, at a lower level, in manufacturing industries; small enterprises were involved in approximately 25% of fatalities occurring in the manufacturing industries and services. Employers were the victims of fatal accidents in 50% of cases in agriculture and in 70% of cases in craft industries. Construction, agriculture and transport accounted for about 50% of all fatalities. About 50% of fatal occupational accidents were related to vehicle use: the victim was the driver in the majority of cases, sometimes the victim was run over by a vehicle or fell from a vehicle. The results agree with some previous observations (e.g.: sex and age distribution; construction, agriculture and transport as working activities at high accident risk); but some original observations have emerged, in particular about the frequency of employers as victims and the role of vehicles in the genesis of fatal occupational accidents. If further studies confirm these latter observations, important developments could follow in preventive action design and implementation.

  5. Paraquat: A fatal poison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shashibhushan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (1, 1′-dimethyl-4, 4′-dipyridylium is a bipyridilium herbicide used widely in our country and is a highly toxic compound. This compound is very notorious to cause rapid development of renal, liver, and respiratory failure with very high mortality due to lack of specific antidote and dearth of high-quality evidence-based treatment. Respiratory system involvement is the most common cause of death in these people. We hereby report a fatal case of a 30-year-old male with a history of paraquat consumption. The patient developed oliguric renal failure, deterioration of liver function, and acute respiratory distress syndrome over next few days. Different treatment modalities were tried to manage patient′s condition. In this case, none of the strategies worked well, and death ensued due to multi-organ dysfunction syndrome.

  6. Clinical Features of Fatal Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Zuei Chen

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the clinical features of fatal asthma, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients who died of an acute asthma attack in our hospital during a 15-year period from 1989 to 2003. Twelve patients had fatal asthma during this period, including eight who were dead on arrival in the emergency room (ER and three who died within 1 hour of admission to the ER. Patients were categorized into three groups according to the clinical presentations during the fatal attack: (1 rapid (< 3 hours decompensation in four patients; (2 gradual development of respiratory failure over several days in two patients; and (3 acute deterioration after unstable asthma lasting several days in six patients. All patients in groups 1 and 2 had reported previous near-fatal attacks. The proportion of young patients was highest in group 3, with half of them (3/6 younger than 35 years of age. Only one patient in group 3 had had a previous near-fatal attack. Five of the seven patients, with previous near-fatal attacks, had a pattern of decompensation during their fatal attack that was similar to their previous attacks. In conclusion, nearly all patients with fatal asthma in this study died outside of the hospital or within 1 hour after admission to the ER. Patients had patterns of decompensation during the fatal attack that were similar to those of their previous attacks. Early detection of warning signs, early admission to the ER, adequate treatment, and extremely close observation of patients, especially within 1 hour after ER arrival, may prevent or decrease the incidence of fatal asthmatic attack.

  7. Fatal Drownings in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathryn; Carter, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Drowning is a newly comprehended public health concern in Fiji. Defined as "the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersions or immersion in liquid," drowning has been identified as one of Fiji's 5 leading causes of death for those aged 1 to 29 years. The aim of this article was to develop the most parsimonious model that can be used to explain the number of monthly fatal drowning cases in Fiji. Based on a cross-section of 187 drowning incidents from January 2012 to April 2015, this observational study found the number of monthly drownings in Fiji was significantly affected by monthly rainfall ( P = .008, 95% confidence interval = 0.10-0.62) and the number of days comprising public holidays/weekends ( P = .018, 95% confidence interval = 0.06-0.60). Furthermore, the multiple coefficient of determination ( r 2 = .4976) indicated that almost half the variation in drownings was explained by rainfall and public holidays/weekend periods. Inadequate supervision, an inability to identify or carry out safe rescue techniques, and limited water-safety knowledge were identified as common risk factors. To overcome this preventable cause of death, technically guided interventions need to be actively embedded into a range of government policies and community health promotions, disaster management, and education programs.

  8. Global earthquake fatalities and population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Savage, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Modern global earthquake fatalities can be separated into two components: (1) fatalities from an approximately constant annual background rate that is independent of world population growth and (2) fatalities caused by earthquakes with large human death tolls, the frequency of which is dependent on world population. Earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (and 50,000) have increased with world population and obey a nonstationary Poisson distribution with rate proportional to population. We predict that the number of earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (50,000) will increase in the 21st century to 8.7±3.3 (20.5±4.3) from 4 (7) observed in the 20th century if world population reaches 10.1 billion in 2100. Combining fatalities caused by the background rate with fatalities caused by catastrophic earthquakes (>100,000 fatalities) indicates global fatalities in the 21st century will be 2.57±0.64 million if the average post-1900 death toll for catastrophic earthquakes (193,000) is assumed.

  9. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  10. News reports of bullying-related fatal and nonfatal injuries in the Americas Reportajes informativos sobre lesiones mortales y no mortales relacionadas con la intimidación en la Región de las Américas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Carlos Srabstein

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a multifaceted and injurious form of maltreatment, prevalent across social settings and around the globe. Victims and perpetrators of bullying are at significant risk of suffering from an array of morbidity and dying young due to accidental injuries, suicide, and homicide. This study reviews news reports of nonfatal and fatal injuries linked to bullying throughout the Western Hemisphere during 12 months. News reports, obtained through a Google search, of episodes of fatal and nonfatal injuries related to school bullying and violence from July 2011 through June 2012 that affected children and adolescents (ages 5 to 19 years throughout the Americas were analyzed. News reports were found of 82 cases of bullying-related fatal and nonfatal injuries, occurring in one year, across 24 countries and dependent territories in the Western Hemisphere, which have a combined total youth population of 225.5 million children and adolescents ages 5 to 19 years. Ninety-seven percent of the victims were between 10 and 19 years old; 60% of them were below age 15, with a male/female ratio of 2:1. News reports of fatal and nonfatal injurious events related to bullying and affecting children and adolescents in the Americas in one year represent the tip of the public health iceberg composing the unknown magnitude of injuries associated with this type of maltreatment. Data on the magnitude of mortality linked to bullying, which would be of the essence in developing public health policies for its prevention, have not been documented.La intimidación es una forma multifacética y lesiva de maltrato, prevalente en diferentes entornos sociales y en todo el mundo. Las víctimas y los autores de la intimidación están sometidos a un importante riesgo de padecer varias enfermedades y de morir durante la juventud como consecuencia de lesiones accidentales, suicidios y homicidios. Este estudio analiza los reportajes informativos sobre lesiones mortales y no mortales

  11. Geographic distribution of risk of death due to homicide in Puerto Rico, 2001-2010 Distribución geográfica del riesgo de muerte por homicidio en Puerto Rico, 2001-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego E. Zavala-Zegarra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To raise awareness of the impact of homicides in Puerto Rico based on the findings of the spatial and temporal distribution of homicides and the use of firearms, by age and gender, using reports of interpersonal violent deaths from the Institute of Forensic Science (IFS headquartered in San Juan, Puerto Rico. METHODS: This was a descriptive study of all homicide incidents in Puerto Rico reported by the IFS for the period 2001-2010. For each of the 8 542 cases, data analyzed included age, sex, municipality of incident, date of death, and mechanism. Crude sex- and age-specific mortality rates for Puerto Rico and for each municipality per year and for the 10-year period were calculated. Cumulative rate and cumulative risks were estimated and defined as lifetime risk. The relative distribution of cumulative rates for each municipality was categorized into quartiles of highest to lowest risk and displayed as a map. RESULTS: The risk of homicide death among males is 13 times greater than among females. The highest rates were observed among males 20-24 years of age (198.4 homicides per 100 000. In any given year, firearms were used in at least 80% of homicides. The average lifetime risk of homicide death for males is 1 in 34. CONCLUSIONS: Young adult males with access to firearms are at greatest risk of homicide in Puerto Rico. Also, highly urbanized municipalities are at highest risk; however, certain non-urban municipalities along the coast also have a very high homicide risk. Top priorities should be applying the WHO "ecological model" for violent injury prevention and establishing a surveillance system that will assist in identifying the role that socioeconomics, illegal firearms trade, and drug trafficking are playing.OBJETIVO: Concientizar sobre la repercusión de los homicidios en Puerto Rico con base en los resultados de la distribución espacial y temporal de los homicidios y el uso de las armas de fuego, según la edad y el sexo, a

  12. Las consecuencias de Chernóbil quince años después

    OpenAIRE

    Lutgen, Pierre; Minotas Ruíz, Julio César (Traductor)

    2001-01-01

    Se hace un recuento de lo que se ha dicho sobre el accidente nuclear de Chernóbil y se analizan sus reales consecuencias a la luz de accidentes similares y de observaciones, estudios y reflexiones realizados por el autor.

  13. Age trajectories of stroke case fatality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2011-01-01

    Mortality rates level off at older ages. Age trajectories of stroke case-fatality rates were studied with the aim of investigating prevalence of this phenomenon, specifically in case-fatality rates at older ages....

  14. Extended investigation on road fatality in Brunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, N B; Hoque, M A; Steele, M C; Yong, S Y

    2018-06-08

    Road fatality is one of the leading causes of death in Brunei with 79 deaths in 1993, the highest ever recorded. The Brunei government has been trying to reduce this by implementing new traffic measures and successfully reduced fatalities to 24 fatalities in 2014. Yearly road fatality has been fluctuating, but there has been a declining tendency overall. The aim of this study is to investigate road fatality in Brunei by extending the research. We developed a multiple regression model and carried out an analysis on road fatality in Brunei. Our analysis indicates that the road fatality appears to rise depending on the increase in the number of young drivers between 15 to 24 years and the number of unemployed people. Comparisons of Brunei road fatality rate per 10,000 vehicles are made with some other countries and we conclude that Brunei has approximately the same rate as Australia in 2014.

  15. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  16. Fatal consequences of synergistic anticoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen P

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs are increasingly being preferred by clinicians (and patients because they have a wide therapeutic window and therefore do not require monitoring of anticoagulant effect. Herein, we describe the unfortunate case of a patient who had fatal consequences as a result of switching from warfarin to rivaroxaban. Case Summary: A 90-year-old Caucasian woman, with atrial fibrillation on chronic anticoagulation with warfarin, was admitted to the hospital for pneumonia. She was treated with levofloxacin. In the same admission, her warfarin was switched to rivaroxaban. On Day 3 after the switch, her INR was found to be 6, and she developed a cervical epidural hematoma from C2 to C7. She ultimately developed respiratory arrest, was put on comfort care and died. Discussion: Rivaroxaban and warfarin are known to have a synergistic anticoagulant effect, usually seen shortly after switching. Antibiotics also increase the effects of warfarin by the inhibition of metabolizing isoenzymes. It is hypothesized that these two effects led to the fatal cervical spinal hematoma. Conclusion: The convenience of a wide therapeutic window and no requirement of laboratory monitoring makes the NOACs a desirable option for anticoagulation. However, there is lack of data and recommendations on how to transition patients from Warfarin to NOACs or even how to transition from one NOAC to another. Care should be taken to ensure continuous monitoring of anticoagulation when stopping, interrupting or switching between NOACS to avoid the possibility of fatal bleeding and strokes.

  17. La poesía como forma de resistencia femenina a las consecuencias de los desplazamientos de beduinos en Jordania

    OpenAIRE

    Seeley, Maira

    2013-01-01

    A pesar de los importantes desplazamientos emprendidos por las familias beduinas de Jordania en las últimas generaciones, las mujeres son capaces de mitigar algunas de sus consecuencias gracias a las oportunidades y la influencia que obtienen como poetisas Nabati.

  18. ¿Cómo y dónde evalúa el cerebro las consecuencias de nuestras decisiones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Pardo-Vázquez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Para aprender de la experiencia y ajustar nuestro comportamiento necesitamos evaluar las consecuencias de nuestra conducta. ¿Cómo y dónde tiene lugar esta evaluación en el cerebro? Recientemente hemos descrito que la información necesaria para alcanzar una decisión y evaluar sus consecuencias está representada en la corteza premotora ventral.

  19. La epidemiología de los homicidios en Cali, 1993-1998: seis años de un modelo poblacional Epidemiology of homicides in Cali, Colombia, 1993-1998: six years of a population-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Concha-Eastman

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Mostrar la utilidad de un modelo eficaz y oportuno de información y llamar la atención acerca de la gravedad del problema de los homicidios, así como demostrar la necesidad de mantener este tipo de modelo y de sostener proyectos preventivos integrales, como el Programa Desarrollo, Seguridad y Paz (DESEPAZ. En el período de 1993 a 1998, en Cali, Colombia hubo 11 457 homicidios que fueron registrados mediante un modelo de vigilancia epidemiológica inscrito en DESEPAZ, de la Alcaldía de Cali. Métodos. A partir de enero de 1993, un grupo de trabajo organizado por el DESEPAZ revisó y homogeneizó las variables que diversas instituciones recopilaron sobre las víctimas, los victimarios y las características de los hechos, y produjo un boletín semanal de resumen para el alcalde y las demás autoridades municipales. Resultados. Las tasas de homicidios aumentaron de 23 a 124 por 100 000 habitantes en el período de 1983-1994. Posteriormente disminuyeron en 1995, 1996 y 1997 a 112, 102 y 86,1 por 100 000, respectivamente, y en 1998 ascendieron ligeramente hasta 88 por 100 000 habitantes. Aunque han sido víctimas de homicidios personas de todas las edades, hasta las menores de 5 años, los hombres entre los 20 y 34 años fueron los más afectados. La razón de hombre a mujer ha oscilado entre 14,3:1 y 19,2:1. Los estratos económicos bajos son los más afectados en número, proporción y tasa, aunque los del estrato alto han presentado tasas que llegan hasta 160 por 100 000 habitantes. En más del 80% de los homicidios se utilizó un arma de fuego y el siniestro ocurrió con mayor frecuencia en horas de la noche y durante los fines de semana. En pocos casos (entre 8 y 21% hubo un sindicado por el hecho. El análisis con dos variables mostró una asociación positiva con el consumo de alcohol por la víctima, y también con el uso de armas de fuego por el victimario (OR: 3,1; IC95%: 2,6 a 3,6. En los casos que ocurrieron durante una ri

  20. Estudio sobre las consecuencias del maltrato infantil en el desarrollo del lenguaje

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Manso, Juan Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Con el estudio sobre las consecuencias del maltrato infantil en el desarrollo del lenguaje, intentamos determinar si los malos tratos a la infancia ocasionan repercusiones en dicha área y si existen repercusiones lingüísticas diferenciales según el tipo de maltrato infantil que sufre el niño. Para ello, analizamos muestras de maltrato infantil tales como el abandono físico, abandono emocional, maltrato físico y maltrato emocional. Reflejamos los resultados de la aplicación de las Escalas McCa...

  1. Usando la inteligencia emocional para prevenir las consecuencias negativas del conflicto relacional

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez, Miriam; Mendoza, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Las relaciones conflictivas en el trabajo y su gestión ineficaz constituyen uno de los estresores de carácter psicosocial más importantes de las organizaciones de hoy en día. Si bien es cierto que no hay un acuerdo unánime sobre las consecuencias negativas del conflicto de tareas sobre el bienestar laboral, sí se ha demostrado que el conflicto de relaciones provoca cogniciones, emociones y reacciones negativas en los empleados, incrementando los niveles de tensión y ansiedad, e induciendo en ...

  2. Víctimas de violencia familiar : consecuencias psicológicas en hijos de mujeres maltratadas

    OpenAIRE

    Patró Hernández, Rosa; Limiñana Gras, Rosa María

    2005-01-01

    Las mujeres y los niños son las principales víctimas que sufren la violencia doméstica o familiar. Mientras que en el caso de las mujeres maltratadas existe una creciente proliferación tanto de investigaciones como de recursos de ayuda, la atención e intervención sobre las consecuencias que se derivan para sus hijos es todavía bastante escasa. El objetivo del presente artículo es el de señalar la gravedad de las repercusiones que supone para los hijos de hogares violentos el haber sido ví...

  3. Consecuencias de la violencia sexual en niños, niñas y adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Castillo Sequeira

    1999-01-01

    Como parte de un estudio más amplio, se exploraron las consecuencias que a corto y largo plazo produce el abuso sexual infantil (ASI) en niños y adultos de ambos sexos. La información obtenida de tres fuentes (psicólogas expertas, directa e indirectamente, y víctimas adultas), permitió establecer que miedo, ansiedad, vergüenza, problemas del sueño y culpa, son los síntomas más frecuentes a corto plazo, en tanto que baja autoestima, incapacidad para defender sus derechos, desconfianza, desagr...

  4. Consecuencias psicosociales de la privación de la libertad en imputados inocentes

    OpenAIRE

    Elías Escaff Silva; María de la Paz Feliú Vergara; María Ignacia Estévez Merello; Camila A. Torrealba Henríquez

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las consecuencias psicosociales en sujetos privados de la libertad que resultaron inocentes. El marco teórico incluyó los conceptos de psicología jurídica, presunción de inocencia, verdad jurídica, privación de la libertad, efectos de la prisionización y estigmatización social. El instrumento empleado para la recolección de información fue una entrevista semiestructurada, que logró dar cuenta de los efectos psicológicos y sociales de la privación de l...

  5. Factores de riesgo y consecuencias de la violencia de género en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Giraldo, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    Trabajo de grado (Comunicación Social y Periodismo). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas, 2016 Artículo de revisión centrado en los factores de riesgo y las consecuencias de la violencia de género. Se revisaron y estudiaron 55 artículos producto de investigación bajo la técnica de análisis de contenido. Los resultados arrojaron factores de riesgo sociales, culturales y vinculares como consumo de alcohol, sustancias alucinógenas, desempleo, dificultades laboral...

  6. Fatal neglect of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, C; Fechner, G; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B

    2001-01-01

    Maltreatment of the elderly is a common problem that affects more than 3% of the elderly. We report on two cases of fatal neglect. Risk factors of victims and caregivers were analysed in the context of the social history. In both cases, the victims had a dominant personality and the abusers (the sons) had been strictly controlled and formed by the parent. The victims showed typical risk factors such as living together with the abuser, isolation, dependence on care, income and money administration. Initially, the victims declined help from outside and self-neglect occurred. The unemployed perpetrators lived in social isolation and depended financially and mentally on the victims. In both cases no mental illness was present but there was a decrease of social competence. Legal medicine is predominantly involved in fatal cases in connection with external post-mortem examinations and autopsies. Also in the living, the medico-legal expert can assist in the identification of findings in elderly persons in cases of suspected abuse.

  7. Consecuencias psicosociales de la privación de la libertad en imputados inocentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Escaff Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las consecuencias psicosociales en sujetos privados de la libertad que resultaron inocentes. El marco teórico incluyó los conceptos de psicología jurídica, presunción de inocencia, verdad jurídica, privación de la libertad, efectos de la prisionización y estigmatización social. El instrumento empleado para la recolección de información fue una entrevista semiestructurada, que logró dar cuenta de los efectos psicológicos y sociales de la privación de la libertad en personas que fueron imputadas y que resultaron finalmente inocentes, según la verdad jurídica. Se concluye con la ratificación de las consecuencias psicosociales del hecho de estar privados de la libertad, y con una reflexión acerca de la actuación de los operadores del sistema judicial y la dificultad para detectar los errores.

  8. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  9. Drug involvement in fatal overdoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Death certificate data from the Multiple Cause of Death (MCOD files were analyzed to better understand the drug categories most responsible for the increase in fatal overdoses occurring between 1999 and 2014. Statistical adjustment methods were used to account for the understatement in reported drug involvement occurring because death certificates frequently do not specify which drugs were involved in the deaths. The frequency of combination drug use introduced additional uncertainty and so a distinction was made between any versus exclusive drug involvement. Many results were sensitive to the starting and ending years chosen for examination. Opioid analgesics played a major role in the increased drug deaths for analysis windows starting in 1999 but other drugs, particularly heroin, became more significant for recent time periods. Combination drug use was important for all time periods and needs to be accounted for when designing policies to slow or reverse the increase in overdose deaths.

  10. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  11. Dataset on psychosocial risk factors in cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Clyde Pierce

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the psychosocial risk factors identified in the cases of 20 children less than four years of age who were victims of fatal or near-fatal physical abuse during a 12 month period in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. These data are related to the article “History, injury, and psychosocial risk factor commonalities among cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse” (Pierce et al., 2017 [1].

  12. La obesidad y sus consecuencias clinicometabólicas Obesity and its clinical and metabolic consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Esther Rodríguez Scull

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad constituye un serio problema de salud mundial. En las últimas 3 décadas se ha producido un incremento importante de la cifra de personas obesas al punto de alcanzar magnitud de epidemia y de lo que es más importante: sus consecuencias clinicometabólicas. La obesidad está vinculada estrechamente con las principales causas de morbimortalidad y discapacidad. La resistencia insulínica (RI es quizás su consecuencia más temible, ya que de ella se derivan una serie de alteraciones metabólicas y endoteliales relacionadas con el desarrollo de la enfermedad vacular coronaria: la diabetes mellitus, la hipertensión arterial, las dislipidemias y la enfermedad cerebrovascular. En la medida en que aumenta el peso corporal, aumenta la producción de citoquinas y ácidos grasos libres con efectos sobre la insulina, disminuye la sensibilidad a su acción y de ahí derivan alteraciones de la pared y el tono vascular, así como del metabolismo de glúcidos y lípidos, que dan origen a estas consecuencias. Con la presente revisión nos proponemos profundizar en el papel del adipocito como órgano o tejido endocrino, y los mecanismos hasta ahora conocidos que dan origen a las complicaciones clinicometabólicas de la obesidad.Obesity is a serious problem in world health. During the last three decades, there has been a significant increase of the figure of obese persons about to reach the magnitude of epidemics and of what is more important: its clinical and metabolic consequences. Obesity is closely linked to the main cause of morbimortality and disability: Insulin resitance is maybe its most feared consequence, since a series of metabolic and endothelial alterations related to the development of coronary vascular disease derived from it: diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemias and cerebrovascular disease. As body weight increases, the production of cytokines and free fatty acids with effects on insulin is higher, and the

  13. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2008, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  14. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2007, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2007 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  15. Las consecuencias económicas de un nombre atípico. El caso colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gaviria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina las consecuencias en los ingresos laborales de tener un nombre atípico para el caso colombiano. La primera parte del artículo muestra que los jóvenes, hijos de padres no escolarizados, habitantes de zonas rurales y pertenecientes a minorías étnicas tienen una mayor probabilidad de tener un nombre atípico. La segunda parte muestra que el efecto de un nombre atípico en los salarios es grande (superior a 10% y que el mismo es mucho mayor para las personas escolarizadas que para los no escolarizadas. Los resultados sugieren la existencia de mecanismos de trasmisión intergeneracional distinto de los tradicionales (restricciones de crédito, mecanismos hereditarios, transferencias de ingresos, etc..

  16. Las consecuencias del cambio climático en el Magreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Miranzo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La comunidad internacional cada vez está más preocupada ante el fenómeno del cambio climático. El paso del tiempo ha cambiado la percepción sobre este problema, hasta que en la actualidad es considerado como uno de los principales riesgos para la seguridad internacional. La región del Mediterráneo en general, y el Magreb en particular, es una de las zonas geográficas más vulnerables a nivel global frente al cambio climático, sus efectos y consecuencias. Sus características tanto físicas como humanas, y la presencia de conflictos regionales de difícil solución, agravan los impactos, incrementan las incertidumbres y potencian otros riesgos y amenazas.

  17. Consecuencias del abuso sexual infantil: una revisión de las variables intervinientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cantón-Cortés

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas el abuso sexual infantil (ASI ha suscitado un gran interés, tanto entre la comunidad científica, como en la sociedad en general, debido a su prevalencia y consecuencias a corto y a largo plazo. Aunque la mayoría de los estudios que han examinado las secuelas del ASI enumeran numerosas dificultades psicológicas, sociales, conductuales y físicas, ciertamente no todas las víctimas de abuso infantil muestran un daño significativo posterior, existiendo una amplia variabilidad en el ajuste de las víctimas. Ante esta diversidad el presente trabajo, tras realizar una revisión de las consecuencias a corto y largo plazo del ASI, pretende discernir cuales son las principales variables que determinan los efectos del abuso sobre la víctimas. Las características del abuso, víctima y agresor, los factores situacionales y, especialmente, las variables cognitivas de la víctima se han demostrado como eficaces para explicar la gravedad de la sintomatología. Concretamente, las investigaciones realizadas en los últimos años han encontrado que la sustitución de estrategias de afrontamiento de evitación por estrategias de aproximación, la eliminación de las atribuciones de autoinculpación e inculpación a la familia y de los sentimientos relacionados con las cuatro dinámicas traumatogénicas y la promoción de un estilo de apego seguro resultarían beneficiosos a la hora de prevenir futuros problemas causados por la experiencia de abuso.

  18. Fatal Necrotizing Fasciitis following Episiotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Almarzouqi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon condition in general practice but one that provokes serious morbidity. It is characterized by widespread fascial necrosis with relative sparing of skin and underlying muscle. Herein, we report a fatal case of necrotizing fasciitis in a young healthy woman after episiotomy. Case Report. A 17-year-old primigravida underwent a vaginal delivery with mediolateral episiotomy. Necrotizing fasciitis was diagnosed on the 5th postpartum day, when the patient was referred to our tertiary care medical center. Surgical debridement was initiated together with antibiotics and followed by hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The patient died due to septic shock after 16 hours from the referral. Conclusion. Delay of diagnosis and consequently the surgical debridement were most likely the reasons for maternal death. In puerperal period, a physician must consider necrotizing fasciitis as a possible diagnosis in any local sings of infection especially when accompanied by fever and/or tenderness. Early diagnosis is the key for low mortality and morbidity.

  19. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Christoffersen, Dorte J; Banner, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. METHODS: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone...... with 2007, indicating that a considerable number of drug addicts also have psychiatric illness. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  20. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. ConclusionS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone...... with 2007, indicating that a considerable number of drug addicts also have psychiatric illness....

  1. Reporting Fatal Neglect in Child Death Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Debbie

    2018-01-01

    Child death reviews are conducted with the aim of preventing child deaths however, definitions, inclusion criteria for the review of child deaths and reporting practices vary across Child Death Review Teams (CDRTs). This article aims to identify a common context and understanding of fatal neglect reporting by reviewing definitional issues of fatal neglect and comparing reporting practice across a number of CDRTs. Providing a consistent context for identifying and reporting neglect-related deaths may improve the understanding of the impact of fatal neglect and the risk factors associated with it and therefore, improve the potential of CDRT review to inform prevention programs, policies, and procedures.

  2. States with low non-fatal injury rates have high fatality rates and vice-versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeloff, John; Burns, Rachel

    2013-05-01

    State-level injury rates or fatality rates are sometimes used in studies of the impact of various safety programs or other state policies. How much does the metric used affect the view of relative occupational risks among U.S. states? This paper uses a measure of severe injuries (fatalities) and of less severe injuries (non-fatal injuries with days away from work, restricted work, or job transfer-DART) to examine that issue. We looked at the correlation between the average DART injury rate (from the BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses) and an adjusted average fatality rate (from the BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries) in the construction sector for states for 2003-2005 and for 2006-2008. The RAND Human Subjects Protection Committee determined that this study was exempt from review. The correlations between the fatal and non-fatal injury rates were between -0.30 and -0.70 for all construction and for the subsector of special trade contractors. The negative correlation was much smaller between the rate of fatal falls from heights and the rate of non-fatal falls from heights. Adjusting for differences in the industry composition of the construction sector across states had minor effects on these results. Although some have suggested that fatal and non-fatal injury rates should not necessarily be positively correlated, no one has suggested that the correlation is negative, which is what we find. We know that reported non-fatal rates are influenced by workers' compensation benefits and other factors. Fatality rates appear to be a more valid measure of risk. Efforts to explain the variations that we find should be undertaken. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Drug involvement of fatally injured drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    While data focusing on the danger of driving under the influence : of alcohol is readily available and often cited, less is : known or discussed about drivers under the influence of : other drugs. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), : a ce...

  4. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2008. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  5. Buses involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on buses involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Institut...

  6. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  7. NWS Weather Fatality, Injury and Damage Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weather Awareness Floods, Wind Chill, Tornadoes, Heat... Education Weather Terms, Teachers, Statistics government web resources and services. Natural Hazard Statistics Statistics U.S. Summaries 78-Year List of Severe Weather Fatalities Preliminary Hazardous Weather Statistics for 2017 Now

  8. Coffee consumption and risk of fatal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, D A; Phillips, R L

    1984-01-01

    In 1960, the coffee consumption habits and other lifestyle characteristics of 23,912 white Seventh-day Adventists were assessed by questionnaire. Between 1960 and 1980, deaths due to cancer were identified. There were positive associations between coffee consumption and fatal colon and bladder cancer. The group consuming two or more cups of coffee per day had an estimated relative risk (RR) of 1.7 for fatal colon cancer and 2.0 for fatal bladder cancer, compared to the group that consumed less than one cup per day (RR = 1.0). These positive associations were apparently not confounded by age, sex, cigarette smoking, or meat consumption habits. In this study, there were no significant or suggestive associations between coffee consumption and fatal pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancer, or a combined group of all other cancer sites. PMID:6742274

  9. 49 CFR 219.207 - Fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.207 Fatality. (a) In the..., United States Code (but not the agent of the Secretary for purposes of the Federal Tort Claims Act...

  10. Alcohol Advertising and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effect of alcohol advertising on motor vehicle fatalities. The concept of an industry level advertising response function is developed and other empirical issues in estimating the effects of advertising are reviewed. The data set consists of quarterly observations, from 1986 to 1989, for 75 advertising markets in the United States and includes 1200 observations. Since motor vehicle fatalities and alcohol advertising are jointly determin...

  11. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi; Chen, Rongchang

    2014-01-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, th...

  12. El sistema familiar mesoamericano y sus consecuencias demográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Robichaux

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudiosos de la familia residencial de las distintas disciplinas sociales en México no han tomado en cuenta las diferentes tradiciones culturales del país y han partido de un modelo de familia, como si México fuera un país homogéneo. El presente trabajo plantea el concepto de “sistema familiar mesoamericano”, que permite aprehender un tipo específico de ciclo de desarrollo de los grupos domésticos, característico de amplios sectores de la población rural de México. Uno de sus rasgos es la residencia virilocal, que favorece la formación de nuevas parejas sin necesidad de contar con vivienda propia. La consecuencia es una baja edad en el momento del matrimonio y el rápido crecimiento de la población, por lo que se puede hablar de un régimen demográfico asociado con este sistema familiar.

  13. LA ADICCIÓN A LA PORNOGRAFÍA: CAUSAS Y CONSECUENCIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Velasco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La pornografía puede definirse como el material audiovisual que presenta de forma explícita actividades sexuales y genitales de manera inocultable, con el objetivo de excitar al espectador. El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar las principales causas y consecuencias de la adicción a la pornografía en hombres y mujeres. Se empleó la metodología de la revisión sistemática de literatura (RSL, tomando como referencia investigaciones previas publicadas en bases de datos científicas y publicaciones web especializadas. Este trabajo concluye que la adicción a la pornografía puede generar problemas físicos, mentales, psicológicos y sociales, que son equiparables con los que genera la adicción al consumo de sustancias psicoactivas. Establecer estrategias de autocontrol, incrementar la actividad física y la participación en actividades sociales son algunas de las alternativas que pueden ayudar a combatir y prevenir la adicción.

  14. Efecto de la anemia en el desarrollo infantil: consecuencias a largo plazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Zavaleta

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La anemia en niños menores de tres años es un problema de salud pública en el Perú y el mundo. Se estima que la causa principal de la anemia, aunque no la única, es la deficiencia de hierro. Existen muchos estudios y revisiones sobre cómo esta carencia en los infantes impacta negativamente en el desarrollo psicomotor y, a pesar de corregirse la anemia, los niños con este antecedente presentan, a largo plazo, un menor desempeño en las áreas cognitiva, social y emocional. Estos hallazgos se describen en estudios observacionales, de seguimiento, así como en experimentales con grupo control. La anemia puede disminuir el desempeño escolar, y la productividad en la vida adulta, afectando la calidad de vida, y en general la economía de las personas afectadas. Se describen algunos posibles mecanismos de cómo la deficiencia de hierro, con o sin anemia, podría afectar el desarrollo en la infancia; por ello, causa preocupación la alta prevalencia de anemia que se observa en este grupo de edad. La prevención de la anemia en el primer año de vida debe ser la meta para evitar consecuencias en el desarrollo de la persona a largo plazo.

  15. El modelo europeo de matrimonio, evolución, determinantes y consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENITO CACHINERO SÁNCHEZ

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio demográfico sobre la evolución histórica del matrimonio en España, con especial atención en dos factores: la edad a la que se produce el matrimonio y la proporción de personas casadas dentro de una generación. El punto de partida teórico del que parte este estudio es el artículo de John Hajnals "European Marriage Patterns in Perspective". Se analizan dos consecuencias del modelo europeo de matrimonio tardío: la prolongación del período productivo durante el cual el individuo no tiene responsabilidades familiares, y la disminución de la fecundidad debido a la disminución del período de fertilidad durante el matrimonio. Sólo los países con un modelo demográfico basado en matrimonios tardíos han desarrollado un crecimiento económico moderno. El estancamiento socioeconómico de España se relaciona con la ausencia del modelo europeo como regulador del comportamiento demográfico.

  16. Celulitis facial iatrogénica como consecuencia de una sepsis odontógena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Betancourt Pérez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 56 años de edad, quien perdiera la obturación del canino superior derecho y acudió al servicio estomatológico de la Clínica Estomatológica Provincial Docente "Mártires del Moncada" de Santiago de Cuba con intenso dolor y sepsis apical incipiente, ante lo cual pedía una nueva obturación para aliviar sus síntomas. La especialista detectó la infección en ciernes y le alertó sobre las posibles complicaciones, pero debido a la insistencia del afectado obturó nuevamente el diente; en consecuencia, a las pocas horas se desarrolló una aguda celulitis facial con afectación periorbitaria, que solo cedió al administrar antibióticos de amplio espectro por vía endovenosa.

  17. Consecuencias de la violencia sexual en niños, niñas y adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Castillo Sequeira

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de un estudio más amplio, se exploraron las consecuencias que a corto y largo plazo produce el abuso sexual infantil (ASI en niños y adultos de ambos sexos. La información obtenida de tres fuentes (psicólogas expertas, directa e indirectamente, y víctimas adultas, permitió establecer que miedo, ansiedad, vergüenza, problemas del sueño y culpa, son los síntomas más frecuentes a corto plazo, en tanto que baja autoestima, incapacidad para defender sus derechos, desconfianza, desagrado por las fiestas e insatisfacción y problemas sexuales, se presentan a largo plazo. Los síntomas identificados tanto a corto como a largo plazo por las expertas fueron baja autoestima, vergüenza, depresión y culpa. Los resultados se discuten en relación con la literatura consultada y con la atención psicosocial que se brinda y se podría ofrecer a las víctimas infantiles de ASI.

  18. Burnout como consecuencia de una crisis de eficacia: un estudio longitudinal en profesores de secundaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANA LLORENS

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es poner a prueba un modelo causal de las relaciones que se establecen entre obstáculos, falta de eficacia percibida y burnout en un estudio longitudinal con dos momentos de recogida de datos. Según la Teoría Social Cognitiva, el burnout puede producirse como consecuencia de una crisis de eficacia percibida (Bandura, 2001; Cherniss, 1993. Se espera que la percepción de obstáculos en el trabajo (Tiempo 1 genere una falta de eficacia percibida (Tiempo 2, que a su vez producirá burnout (i.e., agotamiento, cinismo y despersonalización (Tiempo 2. Los resultados de los análisis SEM (Structural Equation Modeling realizados en una muestra de 274 profesores pertenecientes a 23 centros de educación secundaria confirman que la presencia de obstáculos genera una falta de eficacia percibida, que a su vez genera burnout. De este modo, el burnout se asocia con una crisis de eficacia. Además, relaciones recíprocas muestran que el burnout incrementa la percepción de obstáculos, generándose una espiral negativa. Se discuten las limitaciones y las implicaciones prácticas del estudio.

  19. Violencia y maltrato en la familia romana y sus consecuencias : la adolescencia perdida de Tiberio Claudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Moro Ipola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El maltrato psicológico es todo aquel que se ejerce contra el normal desarrollo de la personalidad de un niño. Aunque actual, es una situación que niños y adolescentes han venido sufriendo a lo largo de los siglos y cuyas consecuencias se han dejado ver, ya no sólo durante su adolescencia, sino también en la edad adulta. Uno de los casos más significativos de maltrato hacia un menor es el que sufrió el emperador Tiberio ClaudioThe psychological maltreatment is whatever is exercised against the normal development of the personality of a child. Even though it is a current situation, children and teenagers have been suffering it over the centuries and its consequences can be seen not only during the adolescence but in their manhood. One of the most significant cases of maltreatment against a kid is that one Emperor Tiberius Claudius suffered.

  20. Value of CT in the Discrimination of Fatal from Non-Fatal Stercoral Colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng Hsien; Huang, Chen Chin; Wang, Li Jen; Wong, Yon Cheng; Wang, Chao Jan; Lo, Wang Chak; Lin, Being Chuan; Wan, Yung Liang; Haueh, Chuen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan (China)

    2012-06-15

    Clinical presentation and physical signs may be unreliable in the diagnosis of stercoral colitis (SC). This study evaluates the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing fatal from non-fatal SC. Ten patients diagnosed as SC were obtained from inter-specialist conferences. Additional 13 patients with suspected SC were identified via the Radiology Information System (RIS). These patients were divided into two groups; fatal and non-fatal SCs. Their CT images are reviewed by two board-certified radiologists blinded to the clinical data and radiographic reports. SC occurred in older patients and displayed no gender predisposition. There was significant correlation between fatal SC and CT findings of dense mucosa (p 0.017), perfusion defects (p = 0.026), ascites (p = 0.023), or abnormal gas (p = 0.033). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of dense mucosa were 71%, 86%, and 81%, respectively. These figures were 75%, 79%, and 77% for perfusion defects; 75%, 80%, and 78% for ascites; and 50%, 93%, and 78% for abnormal gas, respectively. Each CT sign of mucosal sloughing and pericolonic abscess displayed high specificity of 100% and 93% for diagnosing fatal SC, respectively. However, this did not reach statistical significance in diagnosing fatal SC. CT appears to be valuable in discriminating fatal from non-fatal SC.

  1. Value of CT in the Discrimination of Fatal from Non-Fatal Stercoral Colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng Hsien; Huang, Chen Chin; Wang, Li Jen; Wong, Yon Cheng; Wang, Chao Jan; Lo, Wang Chak; Lin, Being Chuan; Wan, Yung Liang; Haueh, Chuen

    2012-01-01

    Clinical presentation and physical signs may be unreliable in the diagnosis of stercoral colitis (SC). This study evaluates the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing fatal from non-fatal SC. Ten patients diagnosed as SC were obtained from inter-specialist conferences. Additional 13 patients with suspected SC were identified via the Radiology Information System (RIS). These patients were divided into two groups; fatal and non-fatal SCs. Their CT images are reviewed by two board-certified radiologists blinded to the clinical data and radiographic reports. SC occurred in older patients and displayed no gender predisposition. There was significant correlation between fatal SC and CT findings of dense mucosa (p 0.017), perfusion defects (p = 0.026), ascites (p = 0.023), or abnormal gas (p = 0.033). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of dense mucosa were 71%, 86%, and 81%, respectively. These figures were 75%, 79%, and 77% for perfusion defects; 75%, 80%, and 78% for ascites; and 50%, 93%, and 78% for abnormal gas, respectively. Each CT sign of mucosal sloughing and pericolonic abscess displayed high specificity of 100% and 93% for diagnosing fatal SC, respectively. However, this did not reach statistical significance in diagnosing fatal SC. CT appears to be valuable in discriminating fatal from non-fatal SC.

  2. Estimation of fatality and injury risk by means of in-depth fatal accident investigation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike

    2010-10-01

    In this article the factors affecting fatality and injury risk of road users involved in fatal accidents are analyzed by means of in-depth accident investigation data, with emphasis on parameters not extensively explored in previous research. A fatal accident investigation (FAI) database is used, which includes intermediate-level in-depth data for a harmonized representative sample of 1300 fatal accidents in 7 European countries. The FAI database offers improved potential for analysis, because it includes information on a number of variables that are seldom available, complete, or accurately recorded in road accident databases. However, the fact that only fatal accidents are examined requires for methodological adjustments, namely, the correction for two types of effects on a road user's baseline risk: "accident size" effects, and "relative vulnerability" effects. Fatality and injury risk can be then modeled through multilevel logistic regression models, which account for the hierarchical dependences of the road accident process. The results show that the baseline fatality risk of road users involved in fatal accidents decreases with accident size and increases with the vulnerability of the road user. On the contrary, accident size increases nonfatal injury risk of road users involved in fatal accidents. Other significant effects on fatality and injury risk in fatal accidents include road user age, vehicle type, speed limit, the chain of accident events, vehicle maneuver, and safety equipment. In particular, the presence and use of safety equipment such as seat belt, antilock braking system (ABS), and electronic stability program (ESP) are protection factors for car occupants, especially for those seated at the front seats. Although ABS and ESP systems are typically associated with positive effects on accident occurrence, the results of this research revealed significant related effects on accident severity as well. Moreover, accident consequences are more severe

  3. Highway Safety: Trends in Highway Fatalities 1975-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    pattern of fatalities as the overall trend. This pattern applies to many of the general fatality statis- tics we present, and, in all cases, it serves as a...Fatalities 1975-87 Appemfx IV Vehicle-Related Statistics Figure IV.17: Vehicle Fatalities by Direction of Principal Impacto NNNumber of PddUlsils lwam 0 1975

  4. Alcohol intake in relation to non-fatal and fatal coronary heart disease and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricci, Cristian; Wood, Angela; Muller, David

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between alcohol consumption (at baseline and over lifetime) and non-fatal and fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. DESIGN: Multicentre case-cohort study. SETTING: A study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) determinants within the European Prospecti...

  5. Drugs taken in fatal and non-fatal self-poisoning : A study in South London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wessely, S

    This study compared the number and type of substances taken in deliberate self-poisoning with fatal (n=127) and non-fatal (n=521) outcome. The aims were (i) to describe substances typically involved in self-poisoning in England and Wales, (ii) to examine the role of drug 'cocktails' and (iii) to

  6. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    We compared the rate of fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis (MS) with that of the general population. The study was based on linkage of the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry to the Cause of Death Registry and covered all 10174 persons in whom MS was diagnosed during the period 19...... for deaths from burns (SMR = 8.90) and suffocation (SMR = 5.57). We conclude that persons with MS are more prone to fatal accidents than the general population. The excess risk is due not to traffic accidents but to burns and suffocation.......-1996. The end of follow-up was 1 January 1999. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for various types of fatal accidents. A total of 76 persons (48 men and 28 women) died from accidents, whereas the expected number of fatalities from such causes was 55.7 (31.4 men and 24.3 women). Thus, the risk...... for death from accidents among persons with MS was 37% higher than that of the general population (SMR = 1.37). We found no significant excess risk for fatal road accidents (SMR = 0.80). The risk for falls was elevated (SMR = 1.29) but not statistically significantly so. The risks were particularly high...

  7. Interacciones entre plantas y microorganismos del suelo: Consecuencias para la dinámica de comunidades vegetales

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Bernal, Yudi M.

    2014-01-01

    En esta tesis doctoral pretendemos aclarar aspectos fundamentales relacionados con la interacción entre plantas y microorganismos del suelo y sus consecuencias para la dinámica de las comunidades vegetales. Pretendemos comprobar si las comunidades microbianas están determinando interacciones negativas y/o positivas entre plantas; si tras el abandono de tierras dedicadas al cultivo, las plantas y los microorganismos del suelo siguen patrones sucesionales, y si los microorganismo...

  8. Consecuencias adversas inesperadas durante el uso de antimicrobianos: Cuándo el tratamiento puede ser peligroso para la salud

    OpenAIRE

    WOLFF R., MARCELO

    2002-01-01

    Los efectos adversos de medicamentos en general y antimicrobianos en particular, son comunes y esperados de enfrentar durante la atención de los pacientes. La mayoría de ellos consiste en intolerancia, efectos colaterales y secundarios, alergia, idiosincrasia, sobredosis o interacciones farmacológicas indeseables. Durante el empleo de antimicrobianos con fines terapéuticos o preventivos en infecciones documentadas o sospechadas, pueden presentarse efectos adversos inesperados o consecuencias ...

  9. Consecuencias psicológicas del éxito en una muestra de futbolistas juveniles de la ciudad de Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Daniel Cáceres Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Este estudio tiene como objetivo general identificar, describir y analizar las consecuencias percibidas del éxito en una muestra de 12 futbolistas juveniles de un club depo rtivo de Lima, Perú. Como objetivo secundario, se propuso conocer las concepciones de éxito en dicha muestra. Método. Para ello, se empleó un estudio cualitativo de tipo no experimental y exploratorio, en el cual se u tilizó una entrevista semiestructurada. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 12 futbolistas juveniles de género masculino , cuyas edades oscilaron entre los 17 y los 18 años. Resultados. Se halló que las principales consecuencias percibidas del éxito son mayor motivación, mayor confianza, bienestar, reconocimiento, críticas constructivas, ben eficios personales, mayor presión, menor humildad, mayor soberbia y culpa. Conclusión. Se infiere que las consecuencias del éxito pueden ser percibidas tanto de manera positiva como negativa. Si bien algunos d e los presentes hallazgos son consistentes con los reportados en estudios exploratorios anterio res, hay otros que son novedosos, lo que sugiere la construcción de nuevos instrumentos o la adaptación de los ya exi stentes en futuras mediciones dentro del contexto latinoamericano.

  10. Anticipating Early Fatality: Friends', Schoolmates' and Individual Perceptions of Fatality on Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Brian; Williams, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    Past research indicates that anticipating adverse outcomes, such as early death (fatalism), is associated positively with adolescents' likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors. Health researchers and criminologists have argued that fatalism influences present risk taking in part by informing individuals' motivation for delaying gratification for the promise of future benefits. While past findings highlight the association between the anticipation of early death and a number of developmental outcomes, no known research has assessed the impact of location in a context characterized by high perceptions of fatality. Using data from Add Health and a sample of 9,584 adolescents (51 % female and 71 % white) nested in 113 schools, our study builds upon prior research by examining the association between friends', school mates', and individual perceptions of early fatality and adolescent risk behaviors. We test whether friends' anticipation of being killed prior to age 21 or location in a school where a high proportion of the student body subscribes to attitudes of high fatality, is associated with risky behaviors. Results indicate that friends' fatalism is positively associated with engaging in violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and drug use after controlling for individual covariates and prior individual risk-taking. Although friends' delinquency accounts for much of the effect of friends' fatalism on violence, none of the potential intervening variables fully explain the effect of friends' fatalism on youth involvement in nonviolent delinquency and drug use. Our results underscore the importance of friendship contextual effects in shaping adolescent risk-taking behavior and the very serious consequences perceptions of fatality have for adolescents' involvement in delinquency and drug use. PMID:23828725

  11. La flexibilidad laboral: significados y consecuencias Labour Flexibility: Meanings and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Martínez Pastor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Los objetivos del articulo son 1 analizar las consecuencias de la flexibilidad laboral en el curso vital de los individuos, 2 asi como saber si la flexibilidad ha socavado o reforzado la importancia de las clases sociales, de la educacion y del genero en distintos aspectos concernientes al curso vital, sobre todo relacionados con el empleo en Espana. La peculiaridad espanola con respecto a la flexibilidad radica en la alta proporcion de contratos temporales. La mayor diferencia entre estos contratos y los indefinidos es su menor coste de despido. La manera en la que el Estado del Bienestar ha introducido la flexibilidad ha logrado un equilibrio de riesgos entre generaciones, por lo que no puede decirse que haya unos claros ganadores o perdedores. Los datos indican que los efectos de la flexibilizacion sobre el curso vital de los individuos son mucho mas modestos de lo que las hipotesis preven. Asimismo, la flexibilización no ha mermado la importancia de las clases sociales ni de los niveles de estudio para explicar la posición de los individuos en el mercado laboral, aunque tampoco hay una clara evidencia de que las brechas entre los individuos de distintas clases ocupaciones o con distintos niveles de estudio hayan aumentado en Espana.

    The objectives of the paper are 1 to analyse the effects of labour flexibility on individuals from a lifecourse perspective and 2 to know whether flexibility has undermined or reinforced the effects of social classes, education and gender on several aspects concerning the life-course, above all those related to employment in Spain. The peculiarity of the Spanish case lies in the proportion of fixed-term contracts. The greatest difference between these contracts and permanent contracts is not the job to be done, or even its temporary or permanent nature, but rather the lower layoff cost. The way that the Welfare State has introduced flexibilisation has achieved a balance of risks between the generations

  12. Testigos del Terror. Entendiendo el Sentido y las Consecuencias del Terrorismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Para muchos, el 11 de Septiembre se instala como una fecha que ha calado hondo en el epicentro del desastre. Cabe recordar como tres vuelos comerciales, según el discurso oficial, fueron dirigidos contra las torres del World Trade Center y el Pentágono. Más que los daños materiales y las víctimas, el efecto fue profundamente simbólico, debido a que tres de los signos más representativos de los Estados Unidos de América habían sido destruidos. Mientras el 11/9 fue rápidamente etiquetado y vendido al mundo como una precondición para los tiempos turbulentos por venir, Atocha en Madrid significó el final de la administración Aznar. Aun cuando para Estados Unidos, el atentado permitió mantener al gobierno en el poder, en España las consecuencias fueron en una dirección de 180 grados. Acusado de haber manipulado evidencia para culpar a ETA (la guerrilla etarra, Aznar fue desprestigiado y posteriormente derrotado en las elecciones frente a la izquierda. Ello sugiere dos preguntas por demás interesantes, ¿cuáles son los objetivos que definen al terrorismo?, ¿es el terrorismo un fenómeno enraizado en la violencia política?. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  13. Consecuencias personales en la ruptura de la vida laboral. El caso de Telefónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Inmaculada Velasco Juez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde mediados de los años setenta, el mundo del trabajo de los países occidentales comienza a cambiar progresivamente en su estructura y fisonomía. En los últimos años, como consecuencia de la búsqueda de competitividad y la política de fusiones y adquisiciones llevada a cabo en España por algunas grandes empresas, han aumentado de forma significativa las reducciones de plantilla. Considerando que estamos ante un proceso cultural de las sociedades contemporáneas y siendo parte integrante de ese colectivo, cada día más numeroso, de personas desvinculadas del trabajo remunerado a una edad temprana, estudié qué supone este hecho para un grupo de trabajadores de Telefónica. Esta empresa está llevando a cabo la mayor regulación de empleo de nuestro país; terminará 2007, por un plan iniciado en 1993, con una plantilla reducida en un 66 %. Para analizar cómo afecta este hecho a los trabajadores y en qué ámbitos, aspectos y dimensiones de su vida, tuve en cuenta las diferencias de interpretación de sus experiencias en cuanto al tiempo, al espacio y a la sociabilidad. También consideré las diferencias individuales: género, situación familiar, formación, trayectoria laboral, puesto que se ocupaba en la empresa, estrategias de ocupación del tiempo de ocio, etc. A partir de la etnografía se concluye que, siendo la actividad laboral remunerada un factor de identidad personal y social, un factor de integración y estructuración del ser humano, desde una perspectiva antropológico-social, la ruptura de dicha trayectoria, a una edad temprana y de forma brusca y no deseada, conlleva la necesidad de ajuste en todas las actividades del ser humano.

  14. Prejubilaciones y segunda oportunidad: Algunas consecuencias del nuevo mercado de trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamorano, Joaquín

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available From year to year, an ever increasing number of young professionals with good postgraduate training enter the labor market in Spain. The author discusses the consequences that this economic and sociological trend has for young and oíd workers in the two-fold context of high flexibility of labor markets and frequent, computer-related, technological innovations. While new employees must deal with highly unstable and competitive labor markets, older workers may simply lose their jobs to young replacements. Governments cope with this situation either by reducing the age for retirement (e.g., in Spain and Europe or by helping oíd people accept a second professional opportunity (e. g., in the USA.En los últimos años, son tantos los jóvenes universitarios españoles con buena formación de posgrado y el deseo de un puesto de trabajo satisfactorio que desbordan la capacidad del sistema económico de absorberlos. Las consecuencias de este desfase son diversas, pero en este trabajo se llama la atención sobre la competencia que se da entre los jóvenes empleados, que ha dado lugar a unas condiciones de trabajo leoninas en lo que respecta a horario y a estabilidad en el empleo. Estas condiciones han generado una gran presión sobre los trabajadores de mayor edad, hasta el punto de poner en peligro el mercado laboral para este sector de la población. Sin embargo, en los Estados Unidos la participación de los trabajadores entre 55 y 65 años en la población activa apenas ha descendido en los últimos quince años, lo que supone la existencia de lo que genéricamente se podría llamar «la segunda oportunidad», una opción contrapuesta a la de las prejubilaciones, que parece la opción de España y Europa.

  15. Estimating cost ratio distribution between fatal and non-fatal road accidents in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nurhidayah; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are a global major problem, and should be treated as a shared responsibility. In Malaysia, road accident tragedies kill 6,917 people and injure or disable 17,522 people in year 2012, and government spent about RM9.3 billion in 2009 which cost the nation approximately 1 to 2 percent loss of gross domestic product (GDP) reported annually. The current cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident used by Ministry of Works Malaysia simply based on arbitrary value of 6:4 or equivalent 1.5:1 depends on the fact that there are six factors involved in the calculation accident cost for fatal accident while four factors for non-fatal accident. The simple indication used by the authority to calculate the cost ratio is doubted since there is lack of mathematical and conceptual evidence to explain how this ratio is determined. The main aim of this study is to determine the new accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident in Malaysia based on quantitative statistical approach. The cost ratio distributions will be estimated based on Weibull distribution. Due to the unavailability of official accident cost data, insurance claim data both for fatal and non-fatal accident have been used as proxy information for the actual accident cost. There are two types of parameter estimates used in this study, which are maximum likelihood (MLE) and robust estimation. The findings of this study reveal that accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal claim when using MLE is 1.33, while, for robust estimates, the cost ratio is slightly higher which is 1.51. This study will help the authority to determine a more accurate cost ratio between fatal and non-fatal accident as compared to the official ratio set by the government, since cost ratio is an important element to be used as a weightage in modeling road accident related data. Therefore, this study provides some guidance tips to revise the insurance claim set by the Malaysia road authority, hence the appropriate method

  16. Fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever in adults: emphasizing the evolutionary pre-fatal clinical and laboratory manifestations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Kit Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A better description of the clinical and laboratory manifestations of fatal patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF is important in alerting clinicians of severe dengue and improving management. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of 309 adults with DHF, 10 fatal patients and 299 survivors (controls were retrospectively analyzed. Regarding causes of fatality, massive gastrointestinal (GI bleeding was found in 4 patients, dengue shock syndrome (DSS alone in 2; DSS/subarachnoid hemorrhage, Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis/bacteremia, ventilator associated pneumonia, and massive GI bleeding/Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia each in one. Fatal patients were found to have significantly higher frequencies of early altered consciousness (≤24 h after hospitalization, hypothermia, GI bleeding/massive GI bleeding, DSS, concurrent bacteremia with/without shock, pulmonary edema, renal/hepatic failure, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Among those experienced early altered consciousness, massive GI bleeding alone/with uremia/with E. faecalis bacteremia, and K. pneumoniae meningitis/bacteremia were each found in one patient. Significantly higher proportion of bandemia from initial (arrival laboratory data in fatal patients as compared to controls, and higher proportion of pre-fatal leukocytosis and lower pre-fatal platelet count as compared to initial laboratory data of fatal patients were found. Massive GI bleeding (33.3% and bacteremia (25% were the major causes of pre-fatal leukocytosis in the deceased patients; 33.3% of the patients with pre-fatal profound thrombocytopenia (<20,000/µL, and 50% of the patients with pre-fatal prothrombin time (PT prolongation experienced massive GI bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Our report highlights causes of fatality other than DSS in patients with severe dengue, and suggested hypothermia, leukocytosis and bandemia may be warning signs of severe dengue. Clinicians should be alert to the potential development of massive GI bleeding

  17. Fatal outbreak of botulism in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Tóra Hedinsdottir; Jespersen, Sanne; Kanstrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    respiratory muscle paralysis. We present five cases of foodborne botulism occurring in Greenland, two with fatal outcome, caused by ingestion of tradionally preserved eider fowl. In the cases of the survivors, antitoxin and supportive care, including mechanical ventilation, were administered. In these cases...

  18. Can we reduce workplace fatalities by half?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, David Soo Quee

    2012-06-01

    Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH) capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore's Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have "one of the best workplace safety records in the world".

  19. Fatal accidents analysis in Peruvian mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candia, R. C.; Hennies, W. T.; Azevedo, R. c.; Almeida, I.G.; Soto, J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Although reductions in the tax of injuries and accidents have been observed in recent years, Mining is still one of the highest risks industries. The basic causes for occurrence of fatalities can be attributed to unsafe conditions and unsafe acts. In this scene is necessary to identify safety problems and to aim the effective solutions. On the other hand, the developing countries dependence on primary industries as mining is evident. In the Peruvian economy, approximately 16% of the GNP and more than 50% of the exportations are due to the mining sector, detaching its competitive position in the worldwide mining. This paper presents fatal accidents analysis in the Peruvian mining industry, having as basis the register of occurred fatal accidents since year 2000 until 2007, identifying the main types of accidents occurred. The source of primary information is the General Mining Direction (DGM) of the Peruvian Mining and Energy Ministry (MEM). The majority of victims belongs to tertiary contractor companies that render services for mine companies. The results of the analysis show also that the majority of accidents happened in the underground mines, and that it is necessary to propose effective solutions to manage risks, aiming at reducing the fatal accidents taxes. (Author)

  20. Fatal anaphylactoid reaction following ioversol administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, Frank G. A.; Kieft, Hans; Harting, Johannes W.

    2007-01-01

    We report a fatal intravenous ioversol administration in a 60-year old male patient. Although the introduction of new low-osmolar non-ionogenic contrast media with a more favourable efficacy-toxicity balance has diminished the side-effects significantly, everyone involved in radiodiagnostic

  1. Trucks involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents : (TIFA), 2008, including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 : TIFA file is a census of all medium and heavy trucks invo...

  2. Can We Reduce Workplace Fatalities by Half?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Soo Quee Koh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore’s Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have “one of the best workplace safety records in the world”.

  3. A fatal pulmonary infection by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, V; Rai, S; Kharbanda, P; Kabra, S; Gur, R; Sharma, V K

    2006-01-01

    The reported case is of primary pulmonary nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia brasiliensis, in a immunocompromised patient, which ended fatally despite appropriate treatment. The partially acid fast filamentous bacterium was predominant on direct examination of the sputum. It was cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and by paraffin baiting technique. The bacterium was resistant to cotrimoxazole, the drug of choice for nocardiosis.

  4. Impacto do Programa Fica Vivo na redução dos homicídios em comunidade de Belo Horizonte Impacto del Programa Permanezca Vivo en la reducción de los homicidios en comunidad de Belo Horizonte, Sureste de Brasil Impact of the Staying Alive Program on the reduction of homicides in a community in Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Silveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto de programa de prevenção de homicídios. MÉTODOS: Com base nos dados do Programa Fica Vivo, de prevenção de homicídios, foi realizado um estudo quase experimental com análise de séries temporais da ocorrência de homicídios no aglomerado Morro das Pedras, em Belo Horizonte, MG, de 2002 a 2006. Comparou-se o número de homicídios ocorridos nessa localidade com os de outras favelas violentas e não violentas e outros bairros da cidade, em cada uma das fases do Programa. Para testar a hipótese de que a redução dos homicídios resultou das ações implementadas pelo Programa, foi elaborado um modelo estatístico baseado em modelos lineares generalizados. RESULTADOS: Nos primeiros seis meses obteve-se 69% de redução no número médio de homicídios. Nos períodos de refluxo e retomada parcial do Programa, o efeito de redução dos homicídios diminuiu, mas a diferença entre coeficientes com aquele do período inicial não foi estatisticamente significante. Mesmo com a retomada integral do Programa, o efeito continuou similar aos dos períodos anteriores, provavelmente porque o Programa foi implantado em outras favelas violentas da cidade. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados apontam que o modelo do Programa Fica Vivo pode constituir uma importante alternativa para prevenção de homicídios contra jovens em comunidades que apresentem características semelhantes às da experiência piloto no Morro das Pedras.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el impacto del programa de prevención de homicidios. MÉTODOS: Con base en los datos del Programa "Fica Vivo" (Permanezca Vivo, de prevención de homicidios, fue realizado un estudio quasi experimental con análisis de series temporales de la ocurrencia de homicidios en el región urbanizada Morro das Pedras en Belo Horizonte, Sureste de Brasil, de 2002 a 2006. Se comparó el número de homicidios ocurridos en esa localidad con los de otros barrios violentos y no violentos y otras

  5. Homicide and impunity: an ecological analysis at state level in Brazil Homicidio e impunidad: análisis ecológico a nivel de estado en Brasil Homicídio e impunidade: análise ecológica em nível de estado no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nadanovsky

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess a new impunity index and variables that have been found to predict variation in homicide rates in other geographical levels as predictive of state-level homicide rates in Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional ecological study. Data from the mortality information system relating to the 27 Brazilian states for the years 1996 to 2005 were analyzed. The outcome variables were taken to be homicide victim rates in 2005, for the entire population and for men aged 20-29 years. Measurements of economic and social development, economic inequality, demographic structure and life expectancy were analyzed as predictors. An "impunity index", calculated as the total number of homicides between 1996 and 2005 divided by the number of individuals in prison in 2007, was constructed. The data were analyzed by means of simple linear regression and negative binomial regression. RESULTS: In 2005, state-level crude total homicide rates ranged from 11 to 51 per 100,000; for young men, they ranged from 39 to 241. The impunity index ranged from 0.4 to 3.5 and was the most important predictor of this variability. From negative binomial regression, it was estimated that the homicide victim rate among young males increased by 50% for every increase of one point in this ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Classic predictive factors were not associated with homicides in this analysis of state-level variation in Brazil. However, the impunity index indicated that the greater the impunity, the higher the homicide rate.OBJETIVO: Evaluar un nuevo índice de impunidad y variables que predicen variación en tasas de homicidio en otros niveles geográficos como predictivos de las tasas de homicidio a nivel de estados en Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudio ecológico transversal. Fueron analizados datos del Sistema de Informaciones sobre Mortalidad referentes a los 27 estados brasileros en el período de 1996 a 2005. Fueron consideradas variables de resultado de tasas de victimizaci

  6. Dehydration Comes on Fast and Can Be Fatal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be fatal Dehydration comes on fast and can be fatal During the hot summer months,the ... and keeping hydrated. “Dehydration is very dangerous. It can lead to an emergency visit, and it can ...

  7. Consecuencias del estrés de rol Consequences of role stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mansilla Izquierdo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El estrés de rol es específicamente el que se origina por el desempeño de roles en la organización, y comprende tanto la ambigüedad de rol como el conflicto de rol. Objetivo: Evaluar la ambigüedad y el conflicto de rol de un grupo de profesionales que realizan diferentes puestos de trabajo, y su influencia sobre sus niveles de bienestar físico y psicológico. Material y método: Para evaluar los estresores de rol (Ambigüedad de Rol y Conflicto de Rol se ha utilizado el Cuestionario de Rizzo, House y Lirtzman. Y para establecer las consecuencias el Cuestionario de Síntomas SLC-90-R. Resultados: El 20% de la muestra percibía ambigüedad y conflicto de rol en su trabajo. Y formaron el grupo que puntuó alto en ambigüedad y conflicto de rol puntuó asimismo alto en todas las subescalas: Somatización, de Obsesión-Compulsión, de Sensibilidad Interpersonal, Depresión, Ansiedad, Hostilidad, Ansiedad Fóbica, Ideación Paranoide y de Psicoticismo. Además el Índice Global de Gravedad y el Total de Síntomas Positivos fueron significativamente superiores en el grupo que puntuó alto en ambigüedad de rol y conflicto de rol. Por otro lado, no se encuentran diferencias significativas entre los niveles de estudios ni en las subescalas ni en Índice General de Gravedad ni en el Total de Síntomas Positivos.The role stress is specifically the one that originates from the performance of roles in the company, and includes both role ambiguity and role conflict. Objetive: To evaluate the ambiguity and the role conflict of a group of professionals who carry out different jobs, and its influence on their physical and psychological well-being. Material and method: To evaluate the role stressors (Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict the Questionnaire of Rizzo, House and Lirtzman has been used and to establish the consequences the Questionnaire of Symptoms SLC-90-R. Results: 20 % of the sample percieved ambiguity and conflict of role in their job and had

  8. Violencia contra las mujeres en el ámbito doméstico : consecuencias sobre la salud psicosocial

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Fuentes, Juan Manuel; García Leiva, Patricia; Cuberos Casado, Inmaculada

    2008-01-01

    Actualmente la violencia contra las mujeres ejercida por sus compañeros sentimentales constituye uno de los problemas sociales más importantes, tanto en nuestro país como en el resto del mundo, debido al gran número de mujeres que la sufren y a sus consecuencias a nivel personal y social. El objetivo de la presente investigación es evaluar cuáles son los daños psicosociales que conlleva dicha violencia para poder mejorar la intervención clínica y social. Para ello se les ha pasado a 100 mujer...

  9. Estrés Laboral como consecuencia de los incidentes en la planta concentradora Huari - La Oroya - 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista Puente, Luis Alberto

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación, Estrés Laboral como consecuencia de los incidentes en la planta concentradora Huari – La Oroya – 2014, planteó la interrogante principal: ¿Cómo influye el Estrés Laboral en los Incidentes en la Planta Concentradora Huari – La Oroya – 2014?; el objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la influencia del Estrés Laboral en los Incidentes en la Planta Concentradora Huari – La Oroya – 2014. La base teórica que sustenta la investigación es el fundamento teóri...

  10. Impacto y consecuencias del viaje a los Estados Unidos de 1945 en el ministerio de san Alberto Hurtado

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Clavero

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo presenta el impacto y las consecuencias del viaje de san Alberto Hurtado a los Estados Unidos en el año 1945. El acceso a nuevos documentos ha permitido iluminar de mejor manera los motivos del viaje: luego de su renuncia a la Acción Católica, es becado por Mons. Edwin O'Hara para ir a estudiar por un año a la Escuela de Trabajo Social de la Universidad Católica de Washington. El viaje le permite, además, tomar contacto con diversas obras sociales de la Iglesia de EE. UU y de Ca...

  11. Obesidad en edad escolar: una propuesta de intervención para prevenir y reducir sus consecuencias

    OpenAIRE

    López Gómez, Alba

    2014-01-01

    Las consecuencias de la obesidad hacen de esta enfermedad uno de los mayores retos de la salud pública para el siglo XXI. Existen unos cambios alimentarios que se combinan con cambios de conductas que suponen una reducción de la actividad física en el trabajo y durante el tiempo de ocio. El ocio en la infancia es cada vez más sedentario, por ello trataremos en el siguiente trabajo de prevenir la obesidad y el sobrepeso desde la Educación y de forma más concreta desde la Educación física. ...

  12. Antecedentes y consecuencias del burnout en deportistas: estrés percibido y depresión

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina de Francisco; Constantino Arce; María del Pilar Vílchez; Ángel Vales

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes/Objetivo : El objetivo fue investigar la relación entre estrés percibido, burnout y depresión en deportistas. Se presenta el estrés como antecedente del burnout y la depresión como consecuencia de ambos. Método : Participaron en el estudio 453 deportistas. Estrés y depresión fueron medidos con Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) y burnout en deportistas con Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ). Los datos fueron analizados...

  13. A Unique Fatal Moose Attack Mimicking Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmannsson, Petur; Berge, Johan; Druid, Henrik; Ericsson, Göran; Eriksson, Anders

    2018-03-01

    Fatalities caused by animal attacks are rare, but have the potential to mimic homicide. We present a case in which a moose attacked and killed a woman who was walking her dog in a forest. Autopsy showed widespread blunt trauma with a large laceration on one leg in which blades of grass were embedded. Flail chest was the cause of death. The case was initially conceived as homicide by means of a riding lawn mower. A review of the case by moose experts and analyses of biological trace material that proved to originate from moose, established the true source of injury. The dog probably provoked a moose, which, in response, stomped and gored the victim to death. The injuries resembled those previously reported from attacks by cattle and water buffalo. Fatal moose attacks constitute an extremely rare threat in boreal areas, but can be considered in traumatic deaths of unknown cause. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Cannabis, alcohol and fatal road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean-Louis; Gadegbeku, Blandine; Wu, Dan; Viallon, Vivian; Laumon, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to estimate the relative risks of responsibility for a fatal accident linked to driving under the influence of cannabis or alcohol, the prevalence of these influences among drivers and the corresponding attributable risk ratios. A secondary goal is to estimate the same items for three other groups of illicit drugs (amphetamines, cocaine and opiates), and to compare the results to a similar study carried out in France between 2001 and 2003. Police procedures for fatal accidents in Metropolitan France during 2011 were analyzed and 300 characteristics encoded to provide a database of 4,059 drivers. Information on alcohol and four groups of illicit drugs derived from tests for positivity and potential confirmation through blood analysis. The study compares drivers responsible for causing the accident, that is to say having directly contributed to its occurrence, to drivers involved in an accident for which they were not responsible, and who can be assimilated to drivers in general. The proportion of persons driving under the influence of alcohol is estimated at 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4-2.8) and under the influence of cannabis at 3.4% (2.9%-3.9%). Drivers under the influence of alcohol are 17.8 times (12.1-26.1) more likely to be responsible for a fatal accident, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever exceeded the legal limit for alcohol is estimated at 27.7% (26.0%-29.4%). Drivers under the influence of cannabis multiply their risk of being responsible for causing a fatal accident by 1.65 (1.16-2.34), and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever drove under the influence of cannabis is estimated at 4.2% (3.7%-4.8%). An increased risk linked to opiate use has also been found to be significant, but with low prevalence, requiring caution in interpreting this finding. Other groups of narcotics have even lower prevalence, and the associated extra risks cannot be assessed. Almost a

  15. Cannabis, alcohol and fatal road accidents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Martin

    Full Text Available This research aims to estimate the relative risks of responsibility for a fatal accident linked to driving under the influence of cannabis or alcohol, the prevalence of these influences among drivers and the corresponding attributable risk ratios. A secondary goal is to estimate the same items for three other groups of illicit drugs (amphetamines, cocaine and opiates, and to compare the results to a similar study carried out in France between 2001 and 2003.Police procedures for fatal accidents in Metropolitan France during 2011 were analyzed and 300 characteristics encoded to provide a database of 4,059 drivers. Information on alcohol and four groups of illicit drugs derived from tests for positivity and potential confirmation through blood analysis. The study compares drivers responsible for causing the accident, that is to say having directly contributed to its occurrence, to drivers involved in an accident for which they were not responsible, and who can be assimilated to drivers in general.The proportion of persons driving under the influence of alcohol is estimated at 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4-2.8 and under the influence of cannabis at 3.4% (2.9%-3.9%. Drivers under the influence of alcohol are 17.8 times (12.1-26.1 more likely to be responsible for a fatal accident, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever exceeded the legal limit for alcohol is estimated at 27.7% (26.0%-29.4%. Drivers under the influence of cannabis multiply their risk of being responsible for causing a fatal accident by 1.65 (1.16-2.34, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever drove under the influence of cannabis is estimated at 4.2% (3.7%-4.8%. An increased risk linked to opiate use has also been found to be significant, but with low prevalence, requiring caution in interpreting this finding. Other groups of narcotics have even lower prevalence, and the associated extra risks cannot be assessed

  16. A Rare Fatal Complication of Llizarov Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikary, Asit Kumar; Kumar, Mahesh; Dhaka, Shivani; Subramanian, Arulselvi

    2018-03-01

    Ilizarov process is used for the management of multiple fractures, polytrauma conditions, cosmetic limb lengthening, and fracture malunion. Complications associated with the process are nerve palsy, joint contracture, premature or delayed osseous consolidation, a nonunion and permanent stiffness of the joint, pin tract infection, edema, and transient paresthesia, etc. In our case, there was a fatal complication. A 25-year-old African lady underwent the Ilizarov procedure for femur lengthening in a hospital in New Delhi, India. During her first distraction process, she suddenly collapsed at the hospital and could not be revived. At postmortem, a small hematoma was seen around the surgically fractured area. On histopathology of internal organs, fat globules were present in the vasculature of brain and lungs. Cause of death was opined as due to fat embolism. This is the first case reported of a fatal fat embolism following Ilizarov procedure for limb lengthening in a healthy adult. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Non-Fatal Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jena, S.; Sidhartha, T.

    2004-01-01

    In the USA, suicide ranked as the third leading cause of death for adolescents in 1999. Non-fatal suicidal behaviours are suicidal thought, specific suicidal plan and suicide attempt. Prospective studies have emphasized the high subsequent suicide rates in clinically presenting suicide attempters. This study was planned to critically review the existing international literature on this area, and compare, if possible, with the Indian data. Both electronic and manual search for published and un...

  18. Cathelicidin Insufficiency in Patients with Fatal Leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Janet C; Wunder, Elsio A; Popper, Stephen J; Min, Jin-Na; Mannam, Praveen; Srivastava, Anup; Yao, Yi; Hacker, Kathryn P; Raddassi, Khadir; Lee, Patty J; Montgomery, Ruth R; Shaw, Albert C; Hagan, Jose E; Araújo, Guilherme C; Nery, Nivison; Relman, David A; Kim, Charles C; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2016-11-01

    Leptospirosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, the role of the host immune response in disease progression and high case fatality (>10-50%) is poorly understood. We conducted a multi-parameter investigation of patients with acute leptospirosis to identify mechanisms associated with case fatality. Whole blood transcriptional profiling of 16 hospitalized Brazilian patients with acute leptospirosis (13 survivors, 3 deceased) revealed fatal cases had lower expression of the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, and chemokines, but more abundant pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors. In contrast, survivors generated strong adaptive immune signatures, including transcripts relevant to antigen presentation and immunoglobulin production. In an independent cohort (23 survivors, 22 deceased), fatal cases had higher bacterial loads (P = 0.0004) and lower anti-Leptospira antibody titers (P = 0.02) at the time of hospitalization, independent of the duration of illness. Low serum cathelicidin and RANTES levels during acute illness were independent risk factors for higher bacterial loads (P = 0.005) and death (P = 0.04), respectively. To investigate the mechanism of cathelicidin in patients surviving acute disease, we administered LL-37, the active peptide of cathelicidin, in a hamster model of lethal leptospirosis and found it significantly decreased bacterial loads and increased survival. Our findings indicate that the host immune response plays a central role in severe leptospirosis disease progression. While drawn from a limited study size, significant conclusions include that poor clinical outcomes are associated with high systemic bacterial loads, and a decreased antibody response. Furthermore, our data identified a key role for the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, in mounting an effective bactericidal response against the pathogen, which represents a valuable new therapeutic approach for leptospirosis.

  19. Clash of Desires: Detective vs. Femme Fatale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Pituková

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the theme of desire presented in American hard-boiled detective fiction and its subsequent transformation on the screen in form of films noir of the 1940’s. The works in focus are novels The Maltese Falcon by Dashiell Hammett, Farewell, My Lovely by Raymond Chandler and Build My Gallows High by Daniel Mainwaring and their film noir adaptations – The Maltese Falcon (1941, Murder, My Sweet (1944 and Out of the Past (1947. The proposed paper seeks to offer a contrastive analysis of the novels and the films and situate them in their respective social and cultural contexts. The central conflict of this article is presented by the clash between the femme fatale’s and detective’s desires. Hard-boiled novels present femme fatale as a dame with a past, a spider woman, and the detective as a hero with no future, caught in her web of intrigues. The only way out for the detective is to suppress the sexual desire for the woman and hold strong to his professional code. The femme fatale’s desire for more and for better is deadly and dangerous for those who succumb to her lure, but the detective’s desire for truth can be fatal for the dark lady too.  This clash presented in the novels is confronted with the 1940’s Hollywood production. When the detective frees himself from the sexual lure of the fatal woman he has a chance to live and even bring her to justice, but she can still escape or decide herself what to do with her destiny. Both, the dame and the hero are victims of their desires. The 1940’s films noir’s femme fatales have to pay for their crimes, no matter how crafty, seductive or manipulative they are.  Thus these films present the masculine dominance as strong and undefeated.

  20. A fatal pulmonary infection by Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhwa V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reported case is of primary pulmonary nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia brasiliensis , in a immunocompromised patient, which ended fatally despite appropriate treatment. The partially acid fast filamentous bacterium was predominant on direct examination of the sputum. It was cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and by paraffin baiting technique. The bacterium was resistant to cotrimoxazole, the drug of choice for nocardiosis.

  1. Cathelicidin Insufficiency in Patients with Fatal Leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet C Lindow

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, the role of the host immune response in disease progression and high case fatality (>10-50% is poorly understood. We conducted a multi-parameter investigation of patients with acute leptospirosis to identify mechanisms associated with case fatality. Whole blood transcriptional profiling of 16 hospitalized Brazilian patients with acute leptospirosis (13 survivors, 3 deceased revealed fatal cases had lower expression of the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, and chemokines, but more abundant pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors. In contrast, survivors generated strong adaptive immune signatures, including transcripts relevant to antigen presentation and immunoglobulin production. In an independent cohort (23 survivors, 22 deceased, fatal cases had higher bacterial loads (P = 0.0004 and lower anti-Leptospira antibody titers (P = 0.02 at the time of hospitalization, independent of the duration of illness. Low serum cathelicidin and RANTES levels during acute illness were independent risk factors for higher bacterial loads (P = 0.005 and death (P = 0.04, respectively. To investigate the mechanism of cathelicidin in patients surviving acute disease, we administered LL-37, the active peptide of cathelicidin, in a hamster model of lethal leptospirosis and found it significantly decreased bacterial loads and increased survival. Our findings indicate that the host immune response plays a central role in severe leptospirosis disease progression. While drawn from a limited study size, significant conclusions include that poor clinical outcomes are associated with high systemic bacterial loads, and a decreased antibody response. Furthermore, our data identified a key role for the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, in mounting an effective bactericidal response against the pathogen, which represents a valuable new therapeutic approach for leptospirosis.

  2. [Anaerobiospirillum thomasii bacteremia with fatal outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitenberger, Edgardo R; Chavez, Claudio M; Rizzo, Mabel S; Suarez, Ariel I

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobiospirillum thomasii has been reported as a causative agent of diarrhea in humans; however no bacteremia associated with this pathogen has been described so far. We present here the first case of fatal A. thomasii bacteremia in an alcoholic patient. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi; Chen, Rongchang

    2014-12-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, three times daily) on March 1, 2013. One month after treatment initiation, the patient complained of continuous dry cough and rapid progressive dyspnea. Forty one days after icotinib treatment, icotinib associated ILD was suspected when the patient became increasingly dyspnoeic despite of treatment of pericardial effusion, left pleural effusion and lower respiratory tract infection, and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of chest revealed multiple effusion shadows and ground-glass opacities in bilateral lungs. Then, icotinib was discontinued and intravenous corticosteroid was started (methylprednisolone 40 mg once daily, about 1 mg per kilogram) respectively. Forty three days after icotinib treatment, the patient died of hypoxic respiratory failure. ILD should be considered as a rare, but often fatal side effect associated with icotinib treatment.

  4. Investigation of hot air balloon fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, T S; Smialek, J E; Capron, R G

    1985-04-01

    The rising popularity of the sport of hot air ballooning has been accompanied by several recent incidents, both in this country and other parts of the world, where mechanical defects and the improper operation of balloons have resulted in several fatalities. A study was conducted to identify the location and frequency of hot air ballooning accidents. Furthermore, the study attempted to identify those accidents that were the result of improper handling on the part of the balloon operators and those that were related to specific defects in the construction of the balloon. This paper presents a background of the sport of hot air ballooning, together with an analysis of the construction of a typical hot air balloon, pointing out the specific areas where defects may occur that could result in a potential fatal balloon crash. Specific attention is given to the two recent balloon crashes that occurred in Albuquerque, N.M., hot air balloon capital of the world, and that resulted in multiple fatalities.

  5. Memorias emergentes: las consecuencias inesperadas de la Ley de Justicia y Paz en Colombia (2005-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Vera Lugo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora las consecuencias inesperadas de la Ley de Justicia y Paz promulgada en el año 2005 para desmovilizar los grupos paramilitares y reincorporarlos a la sociedad. Argumenta que si bien esta hizo énfasis en los procesos de desarme, desmovilización y reinserción de los combatientes a la sociedad, la incorporación de los principios de verdad, justicia y reparación a la norma transformó el marco interpretativo sobre el conflicto en Colombia y las formas de construcción histórica tradicional. Con ello, dio herramientas importantes de reorganización a grupos sociales y de víctimas. Teniendo en cuenta que las instituciones y organizaciones estudiadas en el artículo nacieron como reacción o resultado de la implementación de esta ley, se argumenta que la externalidad del derecho produjo consecuencias políticas y culturales positivas, no previstas por el legislador. Para estudiar este proceso de incorporación y apropiación de mecanismos de justicia transicional en ámbitos institucionales y organizativos, este texto se enfoca en los diferentes actores, grupos sociales, expertos, funcionarios, líderes sociales, etc., que negocian los términos en los cuales el pasado, el presente y el futuro pueden ser pensados, representados y reinterpretados bajo este nuevo marco.

  6. Becas, estímulos y sus consecuencias sobre el trabajo y la salud de docentes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Martínez Alcántara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la asociación entre algunas actividades que tienen que cubrirse para participar en un programa de becas y estímulos y las consecuencias derivadas de dicha participación sobre el trabajo académico y sobre la salud física y mental de académicos universitarios. Se realizó un estudio transversal y analítico. Se calculó una muestra representativa aleatoria. Se aplicó una encuesta para recabar información demográfica, del trabajo y de salud. Las exigencias más importantes fueron la sobrecarga de trabajo, la prolongación de la jornada y las posiciones incómodas, cinco de siete consecuencias de la participación en el programa se perfilaron como negativas y se asociaron estadísticamente con trastornos tales como el estrés, los músculo-esqueléticos, la fatiga, la disfonía, la ansiedad y los trastornos del sueño.

  7. Fatal versus non-fatal heroin "overdose": blood morphine concentrations with fatal outcome in comparison to those of intoxicated drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Christoph; Recker, Sabine; Reiter, Arthur; Friedrich, Hans Juergen; Oehmichen, Manfred

    2002-11-05

    The study was performed to distinguish fatal from non-fatal blood concentrations of morphine. For this purpose, blood levels of free morphine and total morphine (free morphine plus morphine conjugates) in 207 cases of heroin-related deaths were compared to those in 27 drivers surviving opiate intoxication. The majority of both survivors and non-survivors were found to show a concomitant use of depressants including alcohol or stimulants. Blood morphine levels in both groups varied widely, with a large area of overlap between survivors (free morphine: 0-128 ng/ml, total morphine: 10-2,110 ng/ml) and non-survivors (free morphine: 0-2,800 ng/ml, total morphine: 33-5,000 ng/ml). Five (18.5%) survivors and 87 (42.0%) non-survivors exhibit intoxication only by morphine. In these cases, too, both groups overlapped (survivors-free morphine: 28-93 ng/ml, total morphine: 230-1,451 ng/ml; non-survivors-free morphine: 0-2,800 ng/ml, total morphine: 119-4,660 ng/ml). Although the blood levels of free or total morphine do not allow a reliable prediction of survival versus non-survival, the ratio of free/total morphine may be a criterion to distinguish lethal versus survived intoxication. The mean of the ratio of free to total morphine for all lethal cases (N=207) was 0.293, for those that survived (N=27) 0.135, in cases of intoxication only by morphine 0.250 (N=87) and 0.080 (N=5), respectively. Applying a cut-off of 0.12 for free/total morphine and performing ROC analyses, fatal outcome can be predicted in 80% of the cases correctly, whereas 16% of the survivors were classified as dead. Nevertheless, in this study, all cases with a blood concentration of 200 ng/ml and more of free morphine displayed a fatal outcome.

  8. Analyzing temozolomide medication errors: potentially fatal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letarte, Nathalie; Gabay, Michael P; Bressler, Linda R; Long, Katie E; Stachnik, Joan M; Villano, J Lee

    2014-10-01

    The EORTC-NCIC regimen for glioblastoma requires different dosing of temozolomide (TMZ) during radiation and maintenance therapy. This complexity is exacerbated by the availability of multiple TMZ capsule strengths. TMZ is an alkylating agent and the major toxicity of this class is dose-related myelosuppression. Inadvertent overdose can be fatal. The websites of the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) MedWatch database were reviewed. We searched the MedWatch database for adverse events associated with TMZ and obtained all reports including hematologic toxicity submitted from 1st November 1997 to 30th May 2012. The ISMP describes errors with TMZ resulting from the positioning of information on the label of the commercial product. The strength and quantity of capsules on the label were in close proximity to each other, and this has been changed by the manufacturer. MedWatch identified 45 medication errors. Patient errors were the most common, accounting for 21 or 47% of errors, followed by dispensing errors, which accounted for 13 or 29%. Seven reports or 16% were errors in the prescribing of TMZ. Reported outcomes ranged from reversible hematological adverse events (13%), to hospitalization for other adverse events (13%) or death (18%). Four error reports lacked detail and could not be categorized. Although the FDA issued a warning in 2003 regarding fatal medication errors and the product label warns of overdosing, errors in TMZ dosing occur for various reasons and involve both healthcare professionals and patients. Overdosing errors can be fatal.

  9. Fatal acute pulmonary injury associated with everolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depuydt, Pieter; Nollet, Joke; Benoit, Dominique; Praet, Marleen; Caes, Frank

    2012-03-01

    To report a case of fatal alveolar hemorrhage associated with the use of everolimus in a patient who underwent a solid organ transplant. In a 71-year-old cardiac transplant patient, cyclosporine was replaced with everolimus because of worsening renal function. Over the following weeks, the patient developed nonproductive cough and increasing dyspnea. His condition deteriorated to acute respiratory failure with hemoptysis, requiring hospital admission. Bilateral patchy alveolar infiltrates were apparent on chest X-ray and computed tomography. Cardiac failure was ruled out and empiric antimicrobial therapy was initiated. Additional extensive workup could not document opportunistic infection. Everolimus was discontinued and high-dose corticosteroid therapy was initiated. Despite this, the patient required invasive mechanical ventilation and died because of refractory massive hemoptysis. Autopsy revealed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Everolimus is a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor approved for use as an immunosuppressant and antineoplastic agent. Its main advantage over calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus and cyclosporine) is a distinct safety profile. Although it has become clear that everolimus induces pulmonary toxicity more frequently than initially thought, most published cases thus far represented mild and reversible disease, and none was fatal. Here, we report a case of pulmonary toxicity developing over weeks following the introduction of everolimus, in which a fatal outcome could not be prevented by drug withdrawal and corticosteroid treatment. The association of everolimus and this syndrome was probable according to the Naranjo probability scale. This case indicates that with the increasing use of everolimus, clinicians should be aware of the rare, but life-threatening manifestation of pulmonary toxicity.

  10. Fatality as a Feature of Medical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Sada Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of an interesting clinical scenario, we want to introduce a discussion about fatality in our daily practice and the need to accept that. An 80 year-old man with non-traumatic spontaneous bleeding tendency came to the clinics. Although being on warfarin as a consequence of primary thrombotic prophylaxis due to an atrial fibrillation, full assessment was performed. Not only the rare entity found on him, but also the severe complication that happened afterwards challenged clinicians and led them to risky treatment options.

  11. A fatal case of Perthes syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Jobé

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perthes syndrome, or traumatic asphyxia, is a clinical syndrome associating cervicofacial cyanosis with cutaneous petechial haemorrhages and subconjonctival bleeding resulting from severe sudden compressive chest trauma. Deep inspiration and a Valsalva maneuver just prior to rapid and severe chest compression, are responsible for the development of this syndrome. Current treatment is symptomatic: urgent relief of chest compression and cardiopulmonary resuscitation if needed. Outcome may be satisfactory depending on the duration and severity of compression. Prolonged thoracic compression may sometimes lead to cerebral anoxia, irreversible neurologic damage and death. We report a fatal case of Perthes syndrome resulting from an industrial accident.

  12. Fatal radiation pneumonia following subclinical busulfan injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soble, A.R.; Perry, H.

    1977-01-01

    A patient with polycythemia vera received a moderate dose (480 mg) of busulfan intermittently over a 6 year period and later developed Hodgkin's disease. Following split-course upper mantle, chest irradiation, he developed rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia and bone marrow hypoplasia. It is postulated that the hyperacute organ failures (lung and bone marrow) resulted from augmentation of subclinical busulfan-induced damage of these organs by additive radiation effect. It is recommended that in patients who have had antineoplastic chemotherapy, major radiotherapy to the cervicothoracic region be accompanied by careful monitoring of respiratory and hematopoietic function, both before and during radiotherapy

  13. Sporadic Fatal Insomnia in an Adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blase, Jennifer L.; Cracco, Laura; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Maddox, Ryan A.; Cohen, Yvonne; Cali, Ignazio

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of sporadic prion disease among adolescents is extremely rare. A prion disease was confirmed in an adolescent with disease onset at 13 years of age. Genetic, neuropathologic, and biochemical analyses of the patient’s autopsy brain tissue were consistent with sporadic fatal insomnia, a type of sporadic prion disease. There was no evidence of an environmental source of infection, and this patient represents the youngest documented case of sporadic prion disease. Although rare, a prion disease diagnosis should not be discounted in adolescents exhibiting neurologic signs. Brain tissue testing is necessary for disease confirmation and is particularly beneficial in cases with an unusual clinical presentation. PMID:24488737

  14. [Fatal air embolism during open eye surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermigny, F; Daelman, F; Guinot, P-G; Hubert, V; Jezraoui, P; Thomas, F; Milazzo, S; Dupont, H

    2008-10-01

    Gas embolism is well known for a specific subset of surgical interventions. Prevention and early detection are the main objectives of the anesthetic and surgical team. However, it may exceptionally occur during eye surgery with dramatic outcomes. We report the case of a 51-year-old man, ASA physical status 1, who presented a cardiac arrest during an open eye surgery for the extraction of a foreign body with intraocular air injection. Multiple organ failure has not been improved by hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the outcome was fatal.

  15. Fatal crashes involving large numbers of vehicles and weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liang, Liming; Evans, Leonard

    2017-12-01

    Adverse weather has been recognized as a significant threat to traffic safety. However, relationships between fatal crashes involving large numbers of vehicles and weather are rarely studied according to the low occurrence of crashes involving large numbers of vehicles. By using all 1,513,792 fatal crashes in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data, 1975-2014, we successfully described these relationships. We found: (a) fatal crashes involving more than 35 vehicles are most likely to occur in snow or fog; (b) fatal crashes in rain are three times as likely to involve 10 or more vehicles as fatal crashes in good weather; (c) fatal crashes in snow [or fog] are 24 times [35 times] as likely to involve 10 or more vehicles as fatal crashes in good weather. If the example had used 20 vehicles, the risk ratios would be 6 for rain, 158 for snow, and 171 for fog. To reduce the risk of involvement in fatal crashes with large numbers of vehicles, drivers should slow down more than they currently do under adverse weather conditions. Driver deaths per fatal crash increase slowly with increasing numbers of involved vehicles when it is snowing or raining, but more steeply when clear or foggy. We conclude that in order to reduce risk of involvement in crashes involving large numbers of vehicles, drivers must reduce speed in fog, and in snow or rain, reduce speed by even more than they already do. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. El objeto de la sociología. Hecho social y consecuencias no intencionadas de la acción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIO LAMO DE ESPINOSA

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available La definición del objeto de la sociología ha oscilado entre versiones objetivistas (el hecho social de Durkheim o versiones nominalistas (la teoría de la acción de Weber. A partir del dato de que el extrañamiento de la sociedad forma parte de la experiencia cotidiana de los actores, se trata de fundamentar este extrañamiento en las consecuencias no queridas de la acción, distinguiendo así entre acción y acto resultante. La función de la sociología es restablecer la transparencia colectiva en un mundo cuya diversificación hace que los actores no sepan lo que producen.

  17. Piropos hacia las mujeres y auto-cosificación: Las consecuencias perversas de conductas aparentemente halagadoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Moya-Garófano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available La auto-cosificación, esto es, adoptar la perspectiva de observarse externamente y considerarse como una cosa, un cuerpo al que las demás personas miran y evalúan, tiene numerosas consecuencias negativas para la salud física y psíquica de las mujeres. En un estudio reciente de nuestro laboratorio hemos analizado la relación entre la auto-cosificación de las mujeres, por un lado, y sus evaluaciones y reacciones ante un piropo (una situación de cosificación, por otro. Los resultados muestran un nuevo efecto pernicioso de la auto-cosificación, hasta ahora inexplorado: la mayor tolerancia ante situaciones cosificadoras como los piropos.

  18. Trabajo en turnos, privación de sueño y sus consecuencias clínicas y médicolegales

    OpenAIRE

    Serra M. Leonardo, Dr.

    2013-01-01

    El trabajo en turnos es una realidad frecuente y produce consecuencias negativas para una proporción significativa de quienes lo ejercen. Estas efectos son en base a dos mecanismos fundamentales: el desfase de los ritmos biológicos (tanto con el medio externo, como una desincronía interna) y por privación de sueño. Las consecuencias en salud asociadas se dan con mayor intensidad en turnos rotativos y nocturnos, e incluyen enfermedad coronaria, cerebrovascular, depresión, síndrome metabólico, ...

  19. Burnout en terapia ocupacional: un análisis focalizado sobre el nivel de consecuencias individuales y organizacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. GONZÁLEZ GUTIÉRREZ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo con los modelos teóricos que llaman la atención sobre la consideración del burnout como un proceso transaccional entre la persona y el medio laboral (Cherniss, 1980; Moreno-Jiménez, González-Gutiérrez y Garrosa, 2001, el presente trabajo examina las dimensiones de desgaste profesional que, junto con los factores antecedentes organizacionales y profesionales del síndrome específicas de la profesión de Terapia Ocupacional, se encuentran asociadas a los diferentes niveles de consecuencias planteadas en la literatura sobre el síndrome. Para ello se empleó una muestra de 110 terapeutas ocupacionales que desempeñan su actividad clínica en la Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. A través del desarrollo de un análisis de regresión jerárquica se ha observado la existencia de asociaciones altamente significativas entre el síndrome y la presencia de consecuencias adversas para la salud del individuo, así como para su área interpersonal y para la propia organización en la que desarrolla su actividad laboral, siendo el agotamiento emocional la dimensión más asociada a las mismas. Junto a ello, se ha identificado la relevancia explicativa de los problemas extralaborales que afectan al área laboral, así como de otros factores que podrían actuar a través de la generación de desgaste, como son la sobrecarga de trabajo, las características de la tarea, la falta de apoyo y reconocimiento por parte del equipo, y el miedo a la malpráctica.

  20. Mulheres vítimas de homicídio em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, 2009/2010: um estudo descritivo Mujeres víctimas de homicidios en Recife, estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, 2009/2010: un estudio descriptivo Female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2009-2010: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilliatt Hanois Falbo Neto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o perfil epidemiológico de mulheres vítimas de homicídio em Recife, Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Realizou-se um estudo observacional, descritivo e prospectivo, incluindo todas as mulheres em idade de 10-49 anos, vítimas de homicídio e residentes em Recife, no período de março de 2009 a fevereiro de 2010. O instrumento utilizado foi um questionário que pesquisou as características socioeconômicas, demográficas, biológicas e de risco. Entrevistaram-se os familiares das vítimas e coletaram-se dados da Declaração de Óbito. Identificaram-se 60 homicídios no período do estudo. A maioria das vítimas era adulta, parda, com baixa escolaridade e baixa renda; 39,7% eram tabagistas; o uso de álcool e de drogas ilícitas correspondeu a 48,3% e 24,1%, respectivamente; e 29,3% sofreram violência física e/ou sexual nos 12 meses anteriores ao homicídio. As armas de fogo foram utilizadas em 69% dos casos.Este estudio investigó el perfil epidemiológico de mujeres víctimas de homicidio en Recife, Pernambuco, nordeste de Brasil. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y prospectivo que incluyó a todas las mujeres de 10-49 años, víctimas de homicidios y residentes en Recife, desde marzo de 2009 hasta febrero de 2010. El instrumento utilizado fue un cuestionario de investigación de los factores socioeconómicos, demográficos, biológicos y de riesgo. Se entrevistó a los familiares de las víctimas y se recopiló datos sobre los certificados de defunción. Sesenta homicidios fueron identificados durante el período de estudio. La mayoría de las víctimas eran adultas, mulatas, un con bajo nivel de educación y con bajos ingresos, 39,7% eran fumadores, el consumo de alcohol y drogas ilícitas eran de un 48,3% y un 24,1%, respectivamente, además un 29,3% había experimentado violencia física y/o sexual en los 12 meses anteriores al homicidio. Las armas de fuego se utilizaron en 69,0% de los casos

  1. Fatal lawn mower related projectile injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Lynnerup, Niels; Banner, Jytte

    2014-06-01

    Fatal lawn mower related injuries are a relatively rare occurrence. In a forensic setting, the primary aim is to reconstruct the injury mechanism and establish the cause of death. A relatively rare, but characteristic type of injury is a so-called projectile or missile injury. This occurs when the operator or a bystander is impacted by an object mobilized from the grass by the rotating mower blades. This type of injury often leaves only modest external trauma, which increases the risk of overlooking an entry wound. In this paper we present a case of a fatal lawn mower related projectile injury which was initially overlooked, later interpreted as a possible gunshot homicide, and finally identified as a lawn mower related projectile injury when autopsy revealed a piece of metal thread in the main bronchus to the right middle lobe, hemopericardium, and right-sided hemothorax. To our knowledge, this injury mechanism has not previously been reported as a cause of death. This case illustrates the importance of postmortem radiological imaging and interdisciplinary cooperation when establishing manner and cause of death in unusual cases.

  2. Fatal falls in the US construction industry, 1990 to 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, J; Forst, L; Chen, H Y; Conroy, L

    2001-10-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) database allows for the detailed analysis of risk factors surrounding fatal occupational events. This study used IMIS data to (1) perform a risk factor analysis of fatal construction falls, and (2) assess the impact of the February 1995 29 CFR Part 1926 Subpart M OSHA fall protection regulations for construction by calculating trends in fatal fall rates. In addition, IMIS data on fatal construction falls were compared with data from other occupational fatality surveillance systems. For falls in construction, the study identified several demographic factors that may indicate increased risk. A statistically significant downward trend in fatal falls was evident in all construction and within several construction categories during the decade. Although the study failed to show a statistically significant intervention effect from the new OSHA regulations, it may have lacked the power to do so.

  3. Neglecting safety precautions may lead to trenching fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatherage, J Harold; Furches, Lisa K; Radcliffe, Mike; Schriver, William R; Wagner, John P

    2004-06-01

    Trench collapses ranked as the seventh leading cause of the possible twenty-nine causes of OSHA-inspected fatal construction events during the period 1991-2001. This study aims to examine why these fatalities occurred. Forty-four case files from OSHA inspections of fatal trench collapses were reviewed. Improper protection of the excavation site where work was taking place was the leading fatality cause. Several organizational or physical conditions were present at many fatal sites; the most frequent was that no training had been provided for trenching. Presence of a competent, diligent person at the site would have prohibited most fatalities. The top cited violation was lack of protection, that is, benching, shoring, sloping, trench boxes, etc. (29 CFR 1926.652 (a) (1)). Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Work-related agricultural fatalities in Australia, 1982-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, S M; Driscoll, T R; Harrison, J E; Frommer, M S; Leigh, J

    1993-06-01

    Work-related agricultural fatalities were examined as part of a larger population-based study of all work-related fatalities in Australia in the period 1982-1984. A total of 257 farm-related fatalities were identified, of which 223 were deaths of persons in the employed civilian labor force (19.4 deaths per 100,000 persons per year) and 34 were deaths of children less than 15 years of age. The fatality incidence was higher among men, older age groups, and nonmanagers in general and in certain occupations in particular. Mobile mechanical equipment (particularly tractors) was the main fatal agent, roll-overs accounting for many of the fatalities. Better provision of information to agricultural workers, improvements in compliance to and enforcement of legislation, and changes in farming work practices are recommended to improve the safety of farms and farm work.

  5. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date.

  6. A fatal poisoning involving 2-fluorofentanyl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Rosendal, Ingrid

    Background/introduction: A fatal intoxication involving 2-fluorofentanyl, a potent synthetic opioid analgesic, is reported. This is the first serious case associated with 2-fluorofentanyl that to our knowledge have been reported. 2-fluorofentanyl is the common name for N-(2-fluorophenyl)-N-[1...... and gastric content samples were submitted for toxicological examination; all samples were screened by ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR-TOFMS) and quantified by specific UPLC-MS/MS methods. Powder recovered from the scene of death was identified......-mortem femoral blood concentrations found were: 2-fluorofentanyl 0.012 mg/kg (UPLC-MS/MS); alcohol production as the body was moderate decomposed; buprenorphine 0.0004 mg/kg (UPLC-MS/MS) prescribed; quetiapine 0.088 mg/kg (UPLC-MS/MS) prescribed; venlafaxine 0.089 mg...

  7. Shopping cart injuries, entrapment, and childhood fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lisbeth; Charlwood, Cheryl; Byard, Roger W

    2008-09-01

    Shopping carts may be associated with a variety of injuries, particularly in toddlers and young children. These usually relate to falls from carts or to tip-overs. Injuries that are sustained include hematomas/contusions, abrasions, lacerations, fractures, and fingertip amputations. Fatal episodes are uncommon and are usually due to blunt craniocerebral trauma from falls. A case involving a 19-month-old girl is reported who became entrapped when she inserted her head through the side frame of a cart that had been removed from a supermarket and left at her home address. Death was caused by neck compression. Although rare, the potential for lethal entrapment during unsupervised play means that the presence of stray shopping carts at private residences and in public places, including playgrounds and parks, is of concern. Strategies, such as coin deposits, should be encouraged to assist in the return of such carts to supermarkets.

  8. Fatal Primary Meningoencephalitis Caused By Naegleria Fowleri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariq, A.; Afridi, F. I.; Farooqi, B. J.; Husaain, A.; Ahmed, S.

    2014-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free living parasite which habitats in fresh water reservoirs. It causes a fatal nervous system infection known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis by invading through cribriform plate of nose and gaining entry into brain. We report a case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri in Karachi, Pakistan, in a 42 years old male poultry farm worker having no history of swimming. Clinical course was fulminant and death occurred within one week of hospital admission. Naegleria fowleri was detected by wet mount technique in the sample of cerebrospinal fluid collected by lumbar puncture of patient. This is a serious problem and requires immediate steps to prevent general population to get affected by this lethal neurological infection. (author)

  9. Fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, F; Martz, W; Birngruber, C G; Dettmeyer, R B

    2018-04-23

    Brake cleaner liquid is commonly used for cleaning of engines and motor parts. The commercially available products usually contain mainly volatile organic compounds. As a consequence brake cleaner evaporates fast and almost completely from the cleaned surface. This case report presents a fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner liquid aerosols due to the attempted cleaning of a boat engine. A 16year old boy was found lifeless in the engine compartment of a boat engine. In close proximity to the body, the police found cleanings wipes soaked with brake cleaner as well as a pump spray bottle filled with brake cleaner. Essentially the autopsy revealed a cerebral oedema with encephalomalacia, no coagulated blood as well as increased blood and tissue fluid content of the lung. Toxicological analysis revealed brake cleaner fluid in the lung, gastric content and heart blood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  11. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  12. Fatal work injuries involving natural disasters, 1992-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayard, Gregory M

    2009-12-01

    Although a goal of disaster preparedness is to protect vulnerable populations from hazards, little research has explored the types of risks that workers face in their encounters with natural disasters. This study examines how workers are fatally injured in severe natural events. A classification structure was created that identified the physical component of the disaster that led to the death and the pursuit of the worker as it relates to the disaster. Data on natural disasters from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries for the years 1992 through 2006 were analyzed. A total of 307 natural disaster deaths to workers were identified in 1992-2006. Most fatal occupational injuries were related to wildfires (80 fatalities), hurricanes (72 fatalities), and floods (62 fatalities). Compared with fatal occupational injuries in general, natural disaster fatalities involved more workers who were white and more workers who were working for the government. Most wildfire fatalities stemmed directly from exposure to fire and gases and occurred to those engaged in firefighting, whereas hurricane fatalities tended to occur more independently of disaster-produced hazards and to workers engaged in cleanup and reconstruction. Those deaths related to the 2005 hurricanes occurred a median of 36.5 days after landfall of the associated storm. Nearly half of the flood deaths occurred to passengers in motor vehicles. Other disasters included tornadoes (33 fatalities), landslides (17), avalanches (16), ice storms (14), and blizzards (9). Despite an increasing social emphasis on disaster preparation and response, there has been little increase in expert knowledge about how people actually perish in these large-scale events. Using a 2-way classification structure, this study identifies areas of emphasis in preventing occupational deaths from various natural disasters.

  13. Transformaciones en el paisaje del Pirineo como consecuencia del abandono de las actividades económicas tradicionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente-Serrano, S. M.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available An important transformation of Pyrenean landscape has occurred over the last decades on the land use. The most significant change has been on the increase of scrub and wood areas. During this process, the cultural landscape supported by the traditional system derived to an increase in diversity because of the partition of existing landscape units. In the last two decades the tendency has been reversed. The continuity and homogeneity of the landscape has increased due to the predominance of wood areas. The landscape effects of change are discussed.

    [fr]
    Dans les Pyrénées, lors des dernières décades, s'est produite une importante transformation du paysage, conséquence des changements de gestion. La dynamique de ces changements a été essentiellement marquée par un plus fort caractère de naturalité, fondée sur l'augmentation des zones de buissons et forêts. Le paysage culturel, maintenu par l'homme durant le système traditionnel, a donné lieu à une augmentation de la diversité, conséquence du cloisonnement des unités de paysage existantes. Lors des vingt dernières années, la tendence a été inversée, avec une augmentation de l'homogénéité et de la continuité du paysage dues a la prédominance des peuplements forestiers. Les effets produits par la transformation du paysage sont discutés dans cet article.
    [es]
    En el Pirineo se ha producido en las últimas décadas una importante transformación paisajística como consecuencia de los cambios de gestión. La dinámica de los cambios ha estado presidida por un aumento de la naturalidad, basada en el incremento de las áreas de matorral y bosque. El paisaje cultural, mantenido por el hombre durante el sistema tradicional, derivó hacia un aumento de la diversidad como consecuencia de la compartimentación de las unidades de paisaje existentes. En las últimas dos décadas la tendencia ha sido la contraria, con un incremento de la homogeneidad y continuidad

  14. Deporte de ocio en España: epidemiología de las lesiones y sus consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García González

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivos. Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico de casos, descriptivo y analítico. El objetivo fue la valoración de las lesiones deportivas producidas durante la práctica de deporte de ocio en el ámbito geográfico de todas las comunidades autónomas de España. Método. Se realizaron encuestas a un total de 1616 sujetos que hubieran sufrido una lesión en los últimos 12 meses practicando deporte a modo de ocio. La compilación de la información se realizó mediante una base de datos digital hospedada en un servidor web vinculado a una encuesta digital a través de la cual se registraron las respuestas de los sujetos. Resultados. Dentro de la muestra, un 72,5 % fueron hombres y un 27,5 % mujeres; así como el 74,4 % fueron sujetos de hasta 35 años de edad y el 25,6 % restante, mayores de 35 años. El deporte que generó mayor número de lesiones fue el fútbol (27,6 % del total de accidentes; seguido por la carrera (8,6 %, el fútbol sala (7,9 % y el baloncesto (7,7 %. Atendiendo a las consecuencias de las lesiones, los deportes que manifestaron un mayor porcentaje de secuelas tras el accidente fueron: baloncesto (el 70,2 % de los lesionados, fútbol (69,5 % y ciclismo (66,7 %. Asimismo, los que más porcentaje de rehabilitación tras lesión requirieron fueron: atletismo (78,9 %, pádel (72,2 % y tenis (71,7 %. Por último, los que más bajas laborales supusieron fueron: tenis (26,1 %, fútbol sala (26 % y artes marciales (22,8 %. Conclusiones. Los resultados muestran una descriptiva general de la influencia que las consecuencias de las lesiones deportivas tienen en la sociedad española. Más estudios comparativos de casos de lesionados y no lesionados en deporte amateur serían recomendables para establecer campañas de prevención.

  15. Consecuencias pedagógicas de la mirada y el tacto en expresión corporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Canales Lacruz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación ahonda en la comunicación no verbal suscitada en actividades del ámbito de la expresión corporal, centrándose su objeto de estudio en el análisis de las vivencias del alumnado procedentes de dichas actividades. El tipo de comunicación no verbal que es de interés para el desarrollo de este estudio es el que hace referencia a la interacción táctil y la interacción visual que es desencadenado en el desarrollo de las actividades expresivas. Para llevar a cabo esta investigación se consideró oportuno aplicar una metodología fenomenológica, y más concretamente, se utilizaron cómo métodos el Diario de prácticas y el Análisis de contenido. De esta manera, se ha podido registrar, clasificar y analizar las consecuencias de comportamiento que atañen los dos tipos de interacción registradas para este estudio. Se ha constatado cómo el individuo no permanece indiferente cuando experimenta alguno de estos dos tipos de interacción social, ya sea la acción de mirar o de tocar. Estas modificaciones de conducta poseen unas consecuencias pedagógicas que deben ser tenidas en cuenta, para así, incorporar recursos didácticos que mejoren la intervención educativa. En este sentido, y como uno de los resultados obtenidos de la aplicación de los dichos métodos de investigación, este estudio propone un programa de intervención didáctica que organice las tareas de expresión corporal con el fin de mejorar la intervención docente, para así, favorecer la praxis del alumnado en las sesiones de expresión corporal.

  16. Bordetella bronchiseptica and fatal pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica frequently causes nonfatal tracheobronchitis, but its role in fatal pneumonia is less well-studied. The objectives of this study were to identify the frequency of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in fatal cases of bronchopneumonia in dogs and cats and to compare the diag...

  17. Has the great recession and its aftermath reduced traffic fatalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Robert B; Zhou, Yuhan

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of state-level data from 1984 to 2014 provides evidence on the relationship between economic recessions and US traffic fatalities. While there are large reductions associated with decreases in household median income, other policy variables tend to have additional and in some cases, larger effects. An increase in the inequality of the income distribution, measured by the Gini index, has reduced traffic fatalities. Graduated licensing policies, cell phone laws, and motorcycle helmet requirements are all associated with reductions in fatalities. Other factors include a proxy for medical technology, and access to emergency medical services (based on the percent of vehicle miles traveled in rural areas); reductions in the latter accounted for a substantial reduction in fatalities and is likely another indicator of reduced economic activity. Changes in the road network, mainly increases in the percent of collector roads has increased fatalities. Population growth is associated with increased traffic fatalities and changes in age cohorts has a small negative effect. Overall, results suggest that there has been a beneficial impact on traffic fatalities from reduced economic activity, but various policies adopted by the states have also reduced traffic fatalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fatal Child Maltreatment in England, 2005-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, Peter; Bailey, Sue; Belderson, Pippa; Brandon, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents comprehensive and up-to-date data covering 4 years of Serious Case Reviews into fatal child maltreatment in England. Methods: Information on all notified cases of fatal maltreatment between April 2005 and March 2009 was examined to obtain case characteristics related to a systemic classification of 5 broad groups of…

  19. Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornaas, Mari A; Teige, Brita; Hovda, Knut E; Ekeberg, Oivind; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Jacobsen, Dag

    2010-06-06

    Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged > or =16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants) were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic), and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged > or =16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years). In 92 cases (89%), death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases), followed by ethanol (9%), tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs) (4%), benzodiazepines (4%), and zopiclone (4%). Seventy-one (69%) were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31%) as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04). Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91), 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33), and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27), respectively. Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental deaths. Although case fatality rates were

  20. Two Fatal Intoxications Involving Butyryl Fentanyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklis, Justin; Poklis, Alphonse; Wolf, Carl; Hathaway, Cindie; Arbefeville, Elise; Chrostowski, Leszek; Devers, Kelly; Hair, Laura; Mainland, Mary; Merves, Michele; Pearson, Julia

    2016-01-01

    We present the case histories, autopsy findings and toxicology findings of two fatal intoxications involving the designer drug, butyryl fentanyl. The quantitative analysis of butyryl fentanyl in postmortem fluids and tissues was performed by an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. In the first case, butyryl fentanyl was the only drug detected with concentrations of 99 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 220 ng/mL in heart blood, 32 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 590 ng/mL in gastric contents, 93 ng/g in brain, 41 ng/g in liver, 260 ng/mL in bile and 64 ng/mL in urine. The cause of death was ruled fatal intoxication by butyryl fentanyl. In the second case, butyryl fentanyl was detected along with acetyl fentanyl, alprazolam and ethanol. The butyryl fentanyl concentrations were 3.7 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 9.2 ng/mL in heart blood, 9.8 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 4,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 63 ng/g in brain, 39 ng/g in liver, 49 ng/mL in bile and 2 ng/mL in urine. The acetyl fentanyl concentrations were 21 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 95 ng/mL in heart blood, 68 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 28,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 200 ng/g in brain, 160 ng/g in liver, 330 ng/mL in bile and 8 ng/mL in urine. In addition, the alprazolam concentration was 40 ng/mL and the ethanol concentration was 0.11 g/dL, both measured in peripheral blood. The cause of death in the second case was ruled a mixed drug intoxication. In both cases, the manner of death was accident. PMID:27339481

  1. Fatal toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with minoxidil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoui, Lamis R; Chahine-Chakhtoura, Corinne

    2009-04-01

    Minoxidil is a direct-acting peripheral vasodilator for the treatment of symptomatic hypertension, or refractory hypertension associated with target organ damage, that is not manageable with a diuretic and two other antihypertensive drugs. The most frequent adverse events associated with minoxidil include hypertrichosis and cardiovascular events related to its powerful antihypertensive effect, and less frequently, rashes, bullous eruptions, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Evidence suggests that SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are variants of a single disease with common causes and mechanisms, but differing severities. Epidermal detachment is mild in SJS, moderate in overlap SJS-TEN, and severe (> 30% of body surface area) in TEN. We describe a case of minoxidil-associated SJS that evolved into fatal TEN. A 69-year-old African-American woman with a history of chronic kidney disease was admitted to the hospital for a cerebrovascular accident and uncontrolled hypertension. On hospital day 12, oral minoxidil was added to her drug regimen. On day 23, she developed a maculopapular rash on her face that gradually diffused to her chest and back. Vesicles and papular lesions extended to her extremities and mucosal membranes; results of a skin biopsy revealed SJS. A positive Nikolsky's sign (blisters spread on application of pressure) was detected. On days 27-31, diffuse bullae developed with rash exacerbation. Skin detachment exceeded 30% and was consistent with TEN. The patient died on day 39. An evaluation of the causality and time course suggested that minoxidil was the most likely culpable drug, with a Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score indicating that the likelihood of the association was possible (score of 3). The mechanism of this reaction has not been well elucidated. It may be related to an impaired clearance of the minoxidil metabolite, or an immune stimulation resulting in apoptosis and epidermis destruction. To our knowledge, this

  2. Consumo de sustancias durante la adolescencia:trayectorias evolutivas y consecuencias para el ajuste psicológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Oliva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio ha perseguido dos objetivos fundamentales: encontrar diferentes trayectorias en el consumo de sustancias a lo largo de la adolescencia y analizar las consecuencias que este consumo en la adolescencia temprana y media tiene para el ajuste emocional y comportamental al final de la adolescencia. El estudio, con un diseño descriptivo longitudinal mediante cuestionarios, se llevó a cabo sobre una muestra de 101 adolescentes (63 varones y 38 mujeres que fueron estudiados en 3 ocasiones: a los 13, 15 y 18 años de edad. Los resultados mostraron tres grupos de adolescentes en función de las trayectorias seguidas por su consumo de sustancias: consumo bajo, consumo ascendente y experimentación precoz. La comparación entre estos tres grupos indicó un mejor ajuste psicológico en la adolescencia tardía entre los varones y mujeres del grupo de experimentadores, mientras que los problemas de conducta fueron más frecuentes entre los incluidos en el grupo de consumo ascendente. Por otra parte, los análisis de regresión señalaron que el consumo moderado de sustancias en la adolescencia temprana estaba relacionado con una autoestima más alta y con menos problemas emocionales al final de la adolescencia, pero no con más problemas externos.

  3. La insuficiencia cardíaca en el siglo XXI. Epidemiología y consecuencias económicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cosin Aguilar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiencia cardíaca crónica (ICC es una enfermedad frecuente, invalidante y costosa. El tratamiento de los síndromes coronarios agudos, la prevención secundaria y el incremento en la longevidad están aumentando su prevalencia. La principal consecuencia social es el incremento de los ingresos hospitalarios, que representa el 65% del coste de la enfermedad con pérdida de calidad de vida y bloqueo de recursos sanitarios. El tratamiento de la ICC exige actuar sobre la morbimortalidad de la enfermedad. Modificar la morbilidad conlleva reducir los ingresos hospitalarios, responsable principal del coste económico de la enfermedad. La ICC es la tercera causa de muerte en los países desarrollados, detrás de la cardiopatía isquémica y las enfermedades cerebrovasculares, produciendo en España el 4 y 8% de todas las muertes (hombres y mujeres, respectivamente. El beneficio del tratamiento farmacológico está en la prolongación de la vida y se expresa en calidad de vida-años. El coste de este tratamiento y cuidados que se utilizan en el manejo de pacientes con ICC representa entre el 1 y el 2% de todos los recursos sanitarios en los países desarrollados, y este porcentaje está aumentando.

  4. Consecuencias del desempleo en la salud mental de una muestra de jóvenes angoleños

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    José Manuel Tomás

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre los efectos del desempleo en la salud mental, destacan problemas de confianza, depresión y pérdida de recursos psicosociales. El objetivo es investigar las variables atenuantes del estrés sobre la salud mental en desempleados jóvenes angoleños mediante un modelo estructural con variables latentes. Se probaron los efectos del apoyo social, la resiliencia y las estrategias de afrontamiento sobre la salud mental, controlando por los efectos de ser económicamente suficiente. Para poner a prueba este modelo se ha contado con una muestra de 283 angoleños con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 30 años. El modelo se estimó en EQS 5.7. Los resultados indican un ajuste adecuado del modelo. Estos resultados apuntan a que apoyo social, resiliencia y estrategias de afrontamiento tienen un efecto atenuante sobre las consecuencias negativas del desempleo en la salud mental. Entre las implicaciones derivadas de este estudio destaca la necesidad de potenciar el apoyo de los padres, así como la necesidad de las instituciones sociales de encontrar modos de promover la búsqueda activa de empleo. Se discuten también los resultados obtenidos a la luz de la evidencia anterior y se sugieren las limitaciones derivadas del carácter transversal y de la muestra incidental del estudio.

  5. Consecuencias de la legislación en el consumo alimentario de lagartos. El caso del fardacho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantarero, Luis

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The fardacho is a variety of lizard that people in the area of Peñalba (province of Huesca, Spain used to hunt and eat. The author describes the food culture to which the eating of fardacho belonged and the reasons that caused a decrease in the number of these animals in the area. In addition, the author discusses the effects of wildlife-protecting legislation on the eating of this lizard in Peñalba.

    En este artículo se analiza el caso del fardacho, una variedad de lagarto que se cazaba y consumía en la zona de Peñalba (Huesca. En primer lugar, se describe la cultura alimentaria del fardacho y las razones que motivaron un descenso en el número de ejemplares de este animal. En segundo lugar, se analizan las consecuencias de la legislación sobre especies protegidas en el consumo de fardachos en Peñalba.

  6. Work-related fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: Matching of 2010 data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byler, Christen; Kesy, Laura; Richardson, Scott; Pratt, Stephanie G; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) remain the leading cause of work-related fatal injuries in the United States, with crashes on public roadways accounting for 25% of all work-related deaths in 2012. In the United States, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) provides accurate counts of fatal work injuries based on confirmation of work relationship from multiple sources, while the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) provides detailed data on fatal MVTCs based on police reports. Characterization of fatal work-related MVTCs is currently limited by data sources that lack either data on potential risk factors (CFOI) or work-relatedness confirmation and employment characteristics (FARS). BLS and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collaborated to analyze a merged data file created by BLS using CFOI and FARS data. A matching algorithm was created to link 2010 data from CFOI and FARS using date of incident and other case characteristics, allowing for flexibility in variables to address coding discrepancies. Using the matching algorithm, 953 of the 1044 CFOI "Highway" cases (91%) for 2010 were successfully linked to FARS. Further analysis revealed systematic differences between cases identified as work-related by both systems and by CFOI alone. Among cases identified as work-related by CFOI alone, the fatally-injured worker was considerably more likely to have been employed outside the transportation and warehousing industry or transportation-related occupations, and to have been the occupant of a vehicle other than a heavy truck. This study is the first step of a collaboration between BLS, NHTSA, and NIOSH to improve the completeness and quality of data on fatal work-related MVTCs. It has demonstrated the feasibility and value of matching data on fatal work-related traffic crashes from CFOI and FARS. The results will lead to

  7. Consideraciones en tomo a "La fatal arrogancia"

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    Javier Fernández Aguado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author makes here an analysis of Friedrick A. Hayek's The Fatal Conceit. This thinker considers that the best political-economical system for human civilization is capitalism, which has arised in an spontaneous, evolutive and adaptative way without any intention or plan thanks to a deus ex machina. Hayek shows himself as an advocate of capitalism and as an enemy of socialism; he despises solidarity and supports egoism as the motor of economy, for, according to him, without it society would not be where it is now. Hayek imports Darwin's evolutionary theory in order to justify economy's blind and fortuitous development, which in turn explains that capitalism is reached through a series of unforeseen and spontaneous events which are overcomed thanks to adaptation. Hayek draws historicist arguments at some poins, in an invalid way, rejecting everything that looks like socialism, and he makes mistakes where philosophical concepts are dealed with. Hayek's continuous reject towards Aristotle and his political-economical thesis obeys to the fact that the author rejects the Catholic Church, which, according to him, gathered the Aristotelian thesis through saint Thomas Aquinas. Hayek proposes a selfish and capitalist moral which one ought to accept if one does not wish for hunger and poverty.

  8. Acute fatal metabolic complications in alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, A S; Milan, A M; Gallagher, J A; Ranganath, L R

    2016-03-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder of tyrosine metabolism that results from a defect in an enzyme called homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. The result of this is that homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates in the body. HGA is central to the pathophysiology of this disease and the consequences observed; these include spondyloarthropathy, rupture of ligaments/muscle/tendons, valvular heart disease including aortic stenosis and renal stones. While AKU is considered to be a chronic progressive disorder, it is clear from published case reports that fatal acute metabolic complications can also occur. These include oxidative haemolysis and methaemoglobinaemia. The exact mechanisms underlying the latter are not clear, but it is proposed that disordered metabolism within the red blood cell is responsible for favouring a pro-oxidant environment that leads to the life threatening complications observed. Herein the role of red blood cell in maintaining the redox state of the body is reviewed in the context of AKU. In addition previously reported therapeutic strategies are discussed, specifically with respect to why reported treatments had little therapeutic effect. The potential use of nitisinone for the management of patients suffering from the acute metabolic decompensation in AKU is proposed as an alternative strategy.

  9. Fatal cocaine intoxication in a body packer

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    Brajković Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ‘Body packer’ syndrome with severe intoxication or sudden death may happen in persons who smuggle drugs in their body cavities. In case of lethal outcome when carrying cocaine, it is important, but sometimes difficult to determine whether death was due to intoxication or due to other causes. Therefore, it is necessary not only to quantify cocaine and its metabolites in biological material, but also based on their distribution in body fluids and tissues to conclude whether it is acute intoxication. We described a well-documented case of fatal poisoning in a body packer and post mortem distribution of the drug in biological samples. Case report. A 26-year-old man was brought to hospital with no vital signs. Resuscitation measures started at once, but with no success. Autopsy revealed 66 packets of cocaine in his digestive tract, one of which was ruptured. Hyperemia of the most of all internal organs and pulmonary and brain edema were found. High concentrations of cocaine, its metabolites benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester, as well as cocaine adulteration levamisole were proven in the post mortem blood and tissues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MC method with selective-ion monitoring. Conclusion. The ratio of cocaine and its metabolites concentrations in the brain and blood obtained by LC-MS method can be used for forensic confirmation of acute intoxication with cocaine.

  10. Community Poverty and Child Abuse Fatalities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Caitlin A; Fleegler, Eric W; Monuteaux, Michael C; Wilson, Celeste R; Christian, Cindy W; Lee, Lois K

    2017-05-01

    Child maltreatment remains a problem in the United States, and individual poverty is a recognized risk factor for abuse. Children in impoverished communities are at risk for negative health outcomes, but the relationship of community poverty to child abuse fatalities is not known. Our objective was to evaluate the association between county poverty concentration and rates of fatal child abuse. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of child abuse fatalities in US children 0 to 4 years of age from 1999 to 2014 by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Compressed Mortality Files. Population and poverty statistics were obtained from US Census data. National child abuse fatality rates were calculated for each category of community poverty concentration. Multivariate negative binomial regression modeling assessed the relationship between county poverty concentration and child abuse fatalities. From 1999 to 2014, 11 149 children 0 to 4 years old died of child abuse; 45% (5053) were poverty concentration had >3 times the rate of child abuse fatalities compared with counties with the lowest poverty concentration (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-3.79). Higher county poverty concentration is associated with increased rates of child abuse fatalities. This finding should inform public health officials in targeting high-risk areas for interventions and resources. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Firearm Legislation and Fatal Police Shootings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Ray, Bradley; Phalen, Peter L

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings. We used a cross-sectional, state-level design to evaluate the effect of state-level firearm legislation on rates of fatal police shootings from January 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016. We measured state-level variation in firearm laws with legislative scorecards from the Brady Center, and for fatal police shootings we used The Counted, an online database maintained by The Guardian. State-level firearm legislation was significantly associated with lower rates of fatal police shootings (incidence rate ratio = 0.961; 95% confidence interval = 0.939, 0.984). When we controlled for sociodemographic factors, states in the top quartile of legislative strength had a 51% lower incidence rate than did states in the lowest quartile. Laws aimed at strengthening background checks, promoting safe storage, and reducing gun trafficking were associated with fewer fatal police shootings. Legislative restrictions on firearms are associated with reductions in fatal police shootings. Public Health Implications. Although further research is necessary to determine causality and potential mechanisms, firearm legislation is a potential policy solution for reducing fatal police shootings in the United States.

  12. Fatal occupational injuries in Taiwan, 1994-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shu-Chen; Wang, Li-Yu; Ho, Chi-Kung; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the trends in rates of fatal occupational injuries in Taiwan by demographic group and occupation for 1994-2005. Data on deaths due to injuries at work from 1994 through 2005 were obtained from the Department of Health which is responsible for the death registration system in Taiwan. Employment data, which were used as the denominators of fatality rates in this study, were retrieved from the Directorate-General of Budget and Accounting Statistics 'Employment and Earnings' database. A Poisson regression model was used to examine the trends in rates of fatal occupational injuries in various occupations while controlling for demographic characteristics. Overall fatal occupational injury rates declined during the study period among all demographic groups and occupations. Adjusted annual changes in rates of fatal injuries ranged from a decrease of 13.6% a year in machine operators/related workers to a decrease of 35.9% in clerks. The annual decrement was faster for males than for females and for older workers compared to young workers. Despite declining rates, the number of fatal occupational injuries in Taiwan remains significant because of the growing work force. Future research should focus on the disparities in fatal injury trends.

  13. Nordic ski jumping fatalities in the United States: a 50-year summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J R

    1988-06-01

    Nordic ski-jumping fatalities are rare events. Six jumping fatalities have occurred in the United States during the past 50 years. The fatality rate for nordic ski jumping, estimated to be roughly 12 fatalities/100,000 participants annually, appears to be within the range of fatality rates for other "risky" outdoor sports. Cervical fractures appear to be the most frequent fatal ski-jumping injury.

  14. Lung function and risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T; Prescott, E; Lange, P

    2001-01-01

    results on the relation between forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and risk of incident and fatal first-ever stroke. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The analyses are based on prospective cohort data from 12 878 eligible men and women aged 45-84 years, who participated in the first health examination...... adjustment for potential confounders: sex, age, smoking, inhalation, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, physical activity in leisure time, education, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment. RESULTS: We found an inverse association between FEV1 and risk of first-time stroke...

  15. CONSECUENCIAS POSITIVAS DE LA IMPLANTACIÓN DE LA CERTIFICACIÓN ISO 14001 EN LAS EMPRESAS GALLEGAS (ESPAÑA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª ANTONIA SEIJO-GARCÍA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende analizar las consecuencias positivas derivadas de la implantación de la norma ISO 14001 en la comunidad autónoma de Galicia. Nos servimos para ello de una muestra representativa de empresas de la Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia a las que se les ha enviado la encuesta (ver anexo B. La realización de este estudio supone una mejora respecto a otros trabajos similares realizados en la comunidad ya que permiten entender de manera más pormenorizada la situación de la ISO 14001 en Galicia. Entre las consecuencias positivas detectadas destaca la mejora en la gestión medioambiental, lo que repercute en un ahorro económico y contribuye a mejorar la imagen de la empresa.

  16. Fatal Fentanyl: One Pill Can Kill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Mark E; Gerona, Roy R; Davis, M Thais; Roche, Bailey M; Colby, Daniel K; Chenoweth, James A; Adams, Axel J; Owen, Kelly P; Ford, Jonathan B; Black, Hugh B; Albertson, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

    The current national opioid epidemic is a public health emergency. We have identified an outbreak of exaggerated opioid toxicity caused by fentanyl adulterated tablets purchased on the street as hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Over an 8-day period in late March 2016, a total of 18 patients presented to our institution with exaggerated opioid toxicity. The patients provided a similar history: ingesting their "normal dose" of hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets but with more pronounced symptoms. Toxicology testing and analysis was performed on serum, urine, and surrendered pills. One of the 18 patients died in hospital. Five patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation, one required extracorporeal life support, three required intubation, and two received bag-valve-mask ventilation. One patient had recurrence of toxicity after 8 hours after naloxone discontinuation. Seventeen of 18 patients required boluses of naloxone, and four required prolonged naloxone infusions (26-39 hours). All 18 patients tested positive for fentanyl in the serum. Quantitative assays conducted in 13 of the sera revealed fentanyl concentrations of 7.9 to 162 ng/mL (mean = 52.9 ng/mL). Pill analysis revealed fentanyl amounts of 600-6,900 μg/pill. The pills are virtually indistinguishable from authentic hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets and are similar in weight. To date, our county has reported 56 cases of fentanyl opioid toxicity, with 15 fatalities. In our institution, the outbreak has stressed the capabilities and resources of the emergency department and intensive care units. A serious outbreak of exaggerated opioid toxicity caused by fentanyl-adulterated tablets purchased on the street as hydrocodone/acetaminophen is under way in California. These patients required higher dosing and prolonged infusions of naloxone. Additionally, observation periods off naloxone were extended due to delayed, recurrent toxicity. The outbreak has serious ramifications for public health and safety, law

  17. Firearm fatalities in Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Madni, Osama; Kharosha, Magdy Abdel Azim; Shotar, Ali M

    2008-07-01

    This paper provides a database representing injury mortality in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, with the aim of establishing a system which will record information about the incidence of such deaths, identify new trends and give priority to violence prevention. The retrospective study was carried out on 64 fatalities from gunfire injuries at the Forensic Medicine Centre in Dammam, Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2002 - December 2006. The deaths included 55 cases of homicide, seven cases of suicide and two accidental shootings. Twenty-six victims were aged between 16-30 years and 24 victims were between 31-45 years. Fifty-nine of the cases were male. A handgun was the weapon used in 49 cases. The most common sites for the firearm entrance wounds were the head (45 cases) and the chest (35 cases). In the majority of cases (56.3%) a single shot was fired while in 15.6% of cases there were two shots. In 51.5% of cases no bullet was recovered from the body while a single bullet was recovered in 31.5% and two bullets in 6.2% of the cases. Distant range fire was observed in 65.6% of cases. Exit wounds were found on the head in 36.7% and on the chest in 28.7% of cases. The majority of victims were young males living in urban areas. This result should help in forming a strategy to improve the livelihoods of this group. The low incidence of alcohol abuse (one case, 1.56%) and only three cases (4.68%) of amphetamine abuse is significant.

  18. La guerra como desastre. Sus consecuencias psicológicas War as a disaster. Its psychological consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuba Yamila Peña Galbán

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En más de 100 conflictos bélicos que se han producido en los últimos diez años, más del 80 por ciento de las víctimas son civiles. Se ha producido un desarrollo acelerado en las investigaciones concernientes a las consecuencias psico-sociales de la guerra en la población civil, la cual es el blanco principal de las víctimas en la guerra contemporánea. Este trabajo constituye una revisión bibliográfica sobre la guerra como desastre, acerca de los conceptos “modernos” de “guerra total”, desastre y las consecuencias psicológicas de la guerra en la población civil, la utilización de los niños como soldados lo cual acarrea desórdenes mentales marcados y se aborda el problema de la violencia sexual como arma de guerra. Las mujeres, las jóvenes, e incluso niñas, son a menudo sometidas, violadas, secuestradas y forzadas a la esclavitud sexual o cualquier tipo de abuso sexual; son vejadas, humilladas y dañadas en lo más profundo de sus sentimientos psicológicos, y valores morales, lo que también trasciende al grupo social, comunidad, clase social o etnia a la que pertenecen. El deterioro o la destrucción de la infraestructura económica, social y política de las naciones en conflicto impide la atención de las necesidades básicas de la población. El trastorno por estrés postraumático es la entidad nosológica más frecuente en las víctimas de la guerra, pero existen otros trastornos mentales que hay que tener en cuentaIn over 100 war conflicts that have occurred in the last 10 years, m ore than 80 percent of the victims were civilians. The scope of recent studies has been increasingly focused on psychological and social effects among civilians who are the target and main victims of contemporary wars. This article is an explanation of why war is considered a disaster, a revision of modern terms for war, disaster and the psychological effects of war on civilians, the training of children as soldiers, and the resulting

  19. Antecedentes y consecuencias del acoso psicológico en el trabajo: una revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STALE EINARSEN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo revisa y resume la investigación y la literatura sobre el concepto de acoso psicológico en el trabajo, su naturaleza, consecuencias, y antecedentes. El acoso psicológico en el trabajo hace referencia a conductas negativas continuadas que son dirigidas contra uno o varios empleados por sus superiores y/o colegas. Alrededor del 1-10% de los trabajadores están expuestos a comportamientos de acoso. El acoso puede conducir a problemas emocionales y psicosomáticos, a un menor bienestar en las víctimas, y a un incremento en el absentismo y la rotación en las organizaciones. Se han propuesto como posibles antecedentes del acoso psicológico en el trabajo desde las características de personalidad hasta los factores organizacionales. Se ha encontrado que los individuos introvertidos, neuróticos y sumisos tienen mayor probabilidad de ser acosados. Se han investigado una amplia variedad de posibles estresores del entorno laboral en relación con el acoso psicológico, siendo las deficiencias en el liderazgo y el diseño del trabajo los factores que propician el acoso. Del mismo modo, existe una atención creciente hacia los cambios en la naturaleza del trabajo, donde los cambios organizacionales y el incremento de la incertidumbre han sido estudiados en relación con el acoso. Aunque se necesita mayor investigación en esta área, existe suficiente evidencia para afirmar que la mayoría de las organizaciones deberían esforzarse en la prevención y el manejo de este problema.

  20. Áreas de alta consecuencia en la gestión de integridad de oleoductos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Javier Daza Leguizamón , Rigaud Sanabria Marín y Enrique Vera López

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia,  los  sistemas  de  gestión  de  integridad de  las  tuberías  que  transportan  líquidos  peligrosos están  en proceso de  estandarización  por  el  Instituto Colombiano  de Normas Técnicas  y Certificación.Dentro del proyecto de esta nueva norma  técnica se definen  las  áreas  de  alta  consecuencia,   su identificación  e  importancia  dentro  del  proceso  de gestión  de  tuberías;  pero  en  nuestro  entorno  la información  espacial y  no  espacial para  la  correctaidentificación de estas áreas es de difícil adquisición o no está disponible; por ello, con este artículo se busca dar una primera mirada a este  tipo de zonas  a nivel nacional  y  presentar  sus  posibles  fuentes  de información, bajo estándares y normas  internacionales.También  se  presentan metodologías  basadas  en sistemas  de  información geográfica,  implementadas a escala internacional, para su identificación.

  1. Antecedentes y consecuencias del burnout en deportistas: estrés percibido y depresión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes/Objetivo : El objetivo fue investigar la relación entre estrés percibido, burnout y depresión en deportistas. Se presenta el estrés como antecedente del burnout y la depresión como consecuencia de ambos. Método : Participaron en el estudio 453 deportistas. Estrés y depresión fueron medidos con Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS y burnout en deportistas con Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ. Los datos fueron analizados desde la perspectiva de modelos de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM. Resultados : El efecto directo del estrés sobre el burnout y la depresión fue de 0,66 y 0,24, respectivamente y el del burnout sobre la depresión de 0,53; todos ellos significa - tivos ( p <0,001. El estrés explica el 43% de la varianza del burnout y el estrés conjunta - mente con el burnout, el 50% de la varianza de la depresión. Los índices de ajuste del modelo fueron: χ 2 (224= 520,881 ( p <0,001, χ 2 /df = 2,32, el índice de bondad de ajuste (GFI = 0,91, el índice de bondad de ajuste comparativo (CFI= 0,89, la raíz del residuo cuadrático promedio de aproximación (RMSEA = 0,054 (90% intervalo de confianza, 0,048-0,060 y raíz cuadrada de la media cuadrática del residual estandarizado (SRMR = 0,063. Conclusiones : Este estudio permite conocer la relación existente entre estrés, burnout y depresión en un único modelo.

  2. Estrés en la actividad administrativa de enfermería: consecuencias para la salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Lima da Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Las actividades realizadas por los enfermeros incluyen las funciones de asistencia y administración que pueden generar sobrecarga de trabajo. Objetivo: describir los factores que causan estrés en las tareas administrativas de los enfermeros y reflexionar sobre sus implicaciones para la salud de este profesional. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo que utilizó como fuente de información la revisión de la literatura, con trabajos publicados entre 2001 a 2011, para la construcción de la discusión del texto reflexivo. Discusión: se fundamentó en la descripción de los factores causales de estrés en las tareas administrativas del personal de enfermería y sus consecuencias para los profesionales de la salud. Conclusión: las actividades de administrativas relacionadas a la planificación y gestión del personal de enfermería aumentan la carga de estrés que se suman a las tareas de cuidado. Esta situación perjudica a la salud y el bienestar en que se manifiesta a través del agotamiento físico, mental y trastornos psicosomáticos. Por lo expuesto, deben ser propuestas acciones que busquen mejores condiciones de trabajo y mitigar el estrés de los enfermeros en el ambiente del trabajo. Se perciben deficiencias que pueden ser perjudiciales para la calidad de vida de los trabajadores, hecho alarmante, en una realidad social en que la salud del trabajador ha sido considerada y valorada como derecho inalienable.

  3. Sarcoma de Kaposi clássico fatal Fatal outcome in classic Kaposi's sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia Maria Damásio N. Ohe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Descrito em 1872, o sarcoma de Kaposi é neoplasia multicêntrica rara originária de células endoteliais com manifestação cutânea e extracutânea. A forma clássica é muito mais frequente em homens idosos, com evolução prolongada e boa resposta a quimioterapia e radioterapia. Apresentaremos um caso de sarcoma de Kaposi clássico com comprometimento cutâneo e visceral em paciente do sexo feminino com rápida evolução fatal.First described in 1872, Kaposi's sarcoma is defined as a rare multifocal tumor that originates in the endothelial cells and presents with cutaneous and extracutaneous manifestations. The classic form is most common in elderly men and progression is slow. This tumor responds well to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This report describes a classic case of Kaposi's sarcoma in a woman with skin and visceral manifestations in whom the disease rapidly progressed to a fatal outcome.

  4. Fatal and non-fatal injury outcomes: results from a purposively sampled census of seven rural subdistricts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonge, Olakunle; Agrawal, Priyanka; Talab, Abu; Rahman, Qazi S; Rahman, Akm Fazlur; Arifeen, Shams El; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-08-01

    90% of the global burden of injuries is borne by low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, details of the injury burden in LMICs are less clear because of the scarcity of data and population-based studies. The Saving of Lives from Drowning project, implemented in rural Bangladesh, did a census on 1·2 million people to fill this gap. This Article describes the epidemiology of fatal and non-fatal injuries from the study. In this study, we used data from the baseline census conducted as part of the Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLiD) project. The census was implemented in 51 unions from seven purposively sampled rural subdistricts of Bangladesh between June and November, 2013. Sociodemographic, injury mortality, and morbidity information were collected for the whole population in the study area. We analysed the data for descriptive measures of fatal and non-fatal injury outcomes. Age and gender distribution, socioeconomic characteristics, and injury characteristics such as external cause, intent, location, and body part affected were reported for all injury outcomes. The census covered a population of 1 169 593 from 270 387 households and 451 villages. The overall injury mortality rate was 38 deaths per 100 000 population per year, and 104 703 people sustained major non-fatal injuries over a 6-month recall period. Drowning was the leading external cause of injury death for all ages, and falls caused the most number of non-fatal injuries. Fatal injury rates were highest in children aged 1-4 years. Non-fatal injury rates were also highest in children aged 1-4 years and those aged 65 years and older. Males had more fatal and non-fatal injuries than females across all external causes except for burns. Suicide was the leading cause of injury deaths in individuals aged 15-24 years, and more than 50% of the suicides occurred in females. The home environment was the most common location for most injuries. The burden of fatal and non-fatal injuries

  5. Vitimização por homicídios segundo características de raça no Brasil Victimización por homicidios según características de raza en Brasil Homicide victimization according to racial characteristics in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Martins Soares Filho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a tendência temporal da mortalidade por homicídio no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo de série temporal dos homicídios no Brasil de 2000 a 2009. As variáveis explicativas foram raça/cor, sexo e escolaridade. Os óbitos foram provenientes do Sistema de Informações de Mortalidade. A análise de tendência foi realizada por meio de regressão polinomial para séries históricas (p OBJETIVO: Describir la tendencia temporal de la mortalidad por homicidio en Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudio de serie temporal de los homicidios en Brasil de 2000 a 2009. Las variables explicativas fueron raza/color, sexo y escolaridad. Los óbitos fueron provenientes del Sistema de Informaciones de Mortalidad. El análisis de tendencia fue realizada por medio de regresión polinomial para series históricas (pOBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal patterns of mortality by homicide in Brazil. METHODS: A series of homicides in Brazil from 2000 to 2009 were studied. The explanatory variables were race/skin color, gender and education. The death statistics were obtained from the Mortality Information System. A trend analysis was performed by means of a polynomial regression for a historic time series (p < 0.05, 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The black population represented 69% of the homicide victims in 2009. The homicide rate increased in the black population, while it decreased in the white population in the period studied. The homicide rate increased in groups with both higher and lower education among blacks; among whites, the rate decreased for those with the lowest level of schooling and remained stable in the group with higher educational levels. In 2009, blacks had a higher risk of death than whites from homicide, regardless of education level. Between 2004 and 2009, the homicide rate decreased in the white population, while it increased in the black population. CONCLUSIONS: The relative risk of falling victim to homicide increased in the black

  6. Keeping our heads above water: A systematic review of fatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keeping our heads above water: A systematic review of fatal drowning in South Africa. ... identify gaps in the current knowledge base and priority intervention areas. ... A total of 13 published research articles and 27 reports obtained through a ...

  7. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Health Tips Share this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning the public about the overwhelming dangers associated with leaving anyone, ...

  8. New Jersey motorcycle fatality rates : final report, December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Motorcycle crashes have been increasing in recent years, more than doubling since 1991. In 2007 there were 84 fatal motorcycle crashes in New Jersey. This report describes the methods and findings of an investigation of motorcycle crashes in New Jers...

  9. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... with leaving anyone, especially children in hot, unventilated vehicles during the summer. Children throughout the country die ...

  10. Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects. ... This adverse effect of salt stress appears on whole plant level at almost all growth stages including germination, seedling, vegetative ... from 32 Countries:.

  11. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  12. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  13. Geo-demographic analysis of fatal motorcycle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the combined motor vehicle crash data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with the Claritas geo-demographic database from the lifestyle perspective to determine the appropriate media to use in ...

  14. Fast Times During Spring Breaks: Are Traffic Fatalities Another Consequence?

    OpenAIRE

    French, Michael; Gumus, Gulcin

    2014-01-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of college students travel for spring break, spending billions of dollars. We examine a potential adverse consequence of spring break that has received little attention in the literature - traffic safety. In particular, we estimate the impact of spring break season on fatal passenger vehicle crashes. Using daily county-level longitudinal data on traffic fatalities in popular spring break destinations from 1982-2011, we conduct separate analyses by age...

  15. Postpartum Clostridium sordellii infection associated with fatal toxic shock syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, C; Petersen, Ina Sleimann; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2000-01-01

    , respectively) are responsible for this potential. Reviewing the obstetric literature, only six cases of postpartum endometritis caused by C. sordellii, are described - all being fatal. In addition, one lethal case of spontaneous endometritis resulting from C. sordellii is reported. The clinical aspects...... of these cases include: - sudden onset with influenza-like symptoms in previously healthy women - progressive refractory hypotension - local and spreading tissue edema - absence of fever Laboratory findings include: - marked leukocytosis - elevated hematocrit. This paper reports the seventh fatal postpartum C...

  16. Fatal Candidemia in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-16

    Profoosionaf 7 ,0 Fatal Candidemia in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Brittany Lenz, MD, Arturo Dominguez, MD, Adnan Mir, MD, PhD Objectives...with pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia was admitted for presumed septic shock secondary to an unknown infectious etiology. The patient was...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Fatal Candidcn1ia in a Patient \\\\ith Acute Lympboblastic Leukemia Brittany Lenz. MD. Arturo Dominguez.. MD. Adnan J’vlir. MD, PhD

  17. Macroeconomic fluctuations and motorcycle fatalities in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Gumus, Gulcin

    2014-03-01

    The effects of business cycles on health outcomes in general, and on traffic fatalities in particular, have received much attention recently. In this paper, we focus on motorcycle safety and examine the impact of changing levels of economic activity on fatal crashes by motorcyclists in the United States. We analyze state-level longitudinal data with 1,104 state/year observations from the 1988-2010 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Using the extensive motorcycle crash characteristics available in FARS, we examine not only total fatality rates but also rates decomposed by crash type, day, time, and the level of the motorcycle operator's blood alcohol content. Our results are consistent with much of the existing literature showing that traffic fatality rates are pro-cyclical. The estimates suggest that a 10% increase in real income per capita is associated with a 10.4% rise in the total motorcycle fatality rate. Along with potential mechanisms, policymakers and public health officials should consider the effects of business cycles on motorcycle safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Occupational fatalities due to electrocutions in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicak, Christopher A

    2008-01-01

    Occupational fatalities due to contact with electricity account for approximately 9% of all deaths in the construction industry and is the fourth leading cause of death in this industry. Differences in the proportions of electrocutions in the construction industry are significantly different from other industries based upon the age of the worker and the source of the electricity. This study found that, in the construction industry, the proportion of occupational fatalities due to contact with electric current is significantly higher for workers in the 16 to 19 years old age group. Contact with overhead power lines occurred more frequently with younger workers, while contact with electric wiring, transformers, and related equipment was found to occur more frequently with older workers. The proportion of fatalities due to this event was also found to account for a significantly greater proportion of fatalities in the construction industry overall. The proportions of electrocution fatalities in the construction industry were found to be significantly higher for younger workers when compared to all other industries. Focusing prevention measures toward younger workers who work near overhead power lines could have a significant impact upon death rates. For older workers, the focus should be on those who work on or near transformers, electrical wiring, and components. Across the construction industry, implementation of effective lockout-tagout programs, and verification of energy isolation, can prevent approximately 125 fatalities per year in the construction industry.

  19. A fatal pseudo-tumour: disseminated basidiobolomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemelman Willem A

    2006-09-01

    with amphotericin B (Itraconazol contra-indicated because of renal insufficiency. A few days later the patient died of a septic shock. After autopsy Basidiobolus ranarum was cultured from liver, gallbladder and colon. Conclusion Our patient died of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis with an obstructing colon tumour and a large hepatic mass. This was a rare presentation of basidiobolomycosis and the second fatal case described worldwide.

  20. Using speeding detections and numbers of fatalities to estimate relative risk of a fatality for motorcyclists and car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Richard

    2013-10-01

    Precise estimation of the relative risk of motorcyclists being involved in a fatal accident compared to car drivers is difficult. Simple estimates based on the proportions of licenced drivers or riders that are killed in a fatal accident are biased as they do not take into account the exposure to risk. However, exposure is difficult to quantify. Here we adapt the ideas behind the well known induced exposure methods and use available summary data on speeding detections and fatalities for motorcycle riders and car drivers to estimate the relative risk of a fatality for motorcyclists compared to car drivers under mild assumptions. The method is applied to data on motorcycle riders and car drivers in Victoria, Australia in 2010 and a small simulation study is conducted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fatal injuries to teenage construction workers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suruda, Anthony; Philips, Peter; Lillquist, Dean; Sesek, Richard

    2003-11-01

    The construction industry is second only to agriculture in the annual number of fatal injuries in workers less than 18 years of age. We examined fatal injury reports for youth and adult workers to determine risk factors for injury and applicability of existing child labor regulations. The US Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) investigation data for fatal work injuries from 1984 through 1998 were reviewed with respect to type of event, employer characteristics, and apparent violations of existing child labor laws under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). We also examined whether the employer met exemption criteria for federal enforcement of child labor or OSHA regulations. The fatality rate for teenage construction workers age 19 and younger was 12.1 per 100,000 per year, slightly less than for adult workers. Teenage workers who were fatally injured were more likely than adults to have been employed at non-union construction firms (odds ratio (OR) = 4.96, P worker. Fatalities in teenagers were more likely to occur in special construction trades such as roofing. Among fatalities in workers less than 18 years of age, approximately one-half (49%) of the 76 fatal injuries were in apparent violation of existing child labor regulations. We estimated that in 41 of the 76 cases (54%) the employer's gross annual income exceeded the $500,000 threshold for federal enforcement of child labor laws. Only 28 of 76 cases (37%) were at construction firms with 11 or more employees, which are subject to routine OSHA inspections. Fatal injuries in teenage construction workers differed from those in adults in that they were more likely to be at small, non-union firms of which a substantial proportion were exempt from federal enforcement of child labor laws and from routine OSHA inspections. Safety programs for young construction workers should include small, non-union construction firms and those in special construction trades such as roofing. We did not identify

  2. Impacto y consecuencias del viaje a los Estados Unidos de 1945 en el ministerio de san Alberto Hurtado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Clavero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el impacto y las consecuencias del viaje de san Alberto Hurtado a los Estados Unidos en el año 1945. El acceso a nuevos documentos ha permitido iluminar de mejor manera los motivos del viaje: luego de su renuncia a la Acción Católica, es becado por Mons. Edwin O'Hara para ir a estudiar por un año a la Escuela de Trabajo Social de la Universidad Católica de Washington. El viaje le permite, además, tomar contacto con diversas obras sociales de la Iglesia de EE. UU y de Canadá, profundizar su estudio en la doctrina social de la Iglesia y sus aplicaciones prácticas, y proyectar dos de sus obras sociales más conocidas: el Hogar de Cristo y la ASICH. Finalmente, el contacto con uno de los países más desarrollados del mundo, le inspira en su ministerio sacerdotal a predicar que «la materia no basta» y la centralidad de «la visión de fe».This article shows the impact and the consequences of St. Alberto Hurta-do's trip to the United States in 1945. Access to new documents has shed further light on the reasons for the trip: after he renounced the Catholic Action, Mons. Edwin OHara gives him a scholarship to study at the Catholic University School of Social Work in Washington. The trip also allows him to get involved in several social works of the U.S. and Canadian Church, deepen his study of the Church's social doctrine and its practical applications, and plan two of his best-known social works: Hogar de Cristo and ASICH. Finally, contact with one of the world's most developed countries inspires him in his priestly ministry to preach that «what is material is not enough» and the centrality of the «vision of faith».

  3. Desarrollo y cultura tras los objetivos del milenio : consecuencias en la cooperación educativa internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada González Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversas reflexiones han tenido lugar en torno a los conceptos de cultura y desarrollo a lo largo del presente siglo, influyendo en la cooperación educativa internacional. Se puede afirmar que ésta actualmente se rige por los Objetivos del Milenio y los establecidos en el «Programa de Educación para Todos», incorporando poco a poco el concepto del Desarrollo Humano Sostenible, dando cabida a la diversidad cultural como un aspecto sustancial de la sostenibilidad. Estos planteamientos teóricos tienen consecuencias directas en los programas y proyectos de cooperación educativa. A grandes rasgos, destacan iniciativas de educación intercultural y propuestas que priorizan la revalorización de las culturas, gozando de características comunes pero también de relevantes rasgos diferenciadores. Establecer estos encuentros y desencuentros será el objeto de este trabajo, con el propósito de aportar diversas perspectivas para la cooperación educativa internacional ante el reto actual de la sostenibilidad cultural y ambiental.Diverse reflections have been taken place around the concepts of culture and development during the present century, which have revealed deep influence on the International Cooperation in Education. Nowadays there is no doubt that this issue is governed by the so called Millenium Aids, and by those objectives such as the ones established in the «Programof Education for All». These two frames have gradually incorporated the concept of Sustainable Human Development, allowing the cultural diversity become a substantial aspect of sustainability.These theoretical reflections have direct consequences on the programs and projects involved in the Cooperation in Education. Broadly speaking, it can be stated that intercultural educational initiatives and proposals, while they have the revaluation of cultures as main priority, they both share common characteristics and reveal relevant differences. The objective of this analysis aims

  4. Reproducción tardía y tratamientos de fertilización: consecuencias bio-sanitarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuster Siebert, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de los años 60 se observó, coincidiendo con el desarrollo de técnicas de contracepción eficaces y con la incorporación femenina al mundo laboral, que en algunos países europeos con mayor nivel de bienestar, la edad a la que ocurría la primera maternidad se iba retrasando progresivamente. Es sabido que conforme la edad de la mujer aumenta, además de posibles efectos negativos sobre el recién nacido (bajo peso y prematuridad, su fecundidad disminuye debido, tanto a cambios en la frecuencia de relaciones sexuales, como a una menor fecundabilidad y a una mayor probabilidad de aborto. En ocasiones, se intenta resolver la dificultad de concebir mediante el recurso de técnicas de reproducción asistida. Cabe preguntarse si estas técnicas implican algún riesgo en cuanto a la mortalidad o morbilidad del niño. Diversos estudios han puesto en evidencia que aquellos concebidos por reproducción asistida, acumulan más del doble de defectos congénitos que los fecundados de forma natural. Otra consecuencia negativa es la aparición de gestaciones múltiples, las cuales se asocian con un menor peso al nacimiento y mayor incidencia de prematuros. Además, ya sea por una mayor probabilidad de anomalías congénitas o por otras causas (tales como el síndrome transfusional, las gestaciones múltiples resultan en una mayor frecuencia de pérdidas fetales tardías. Por lo que se refiere a la mortalidad perinatal, la mayoría de los estudios indican un riesgo superior relacionado con los tratamientos de reproducción asistida, debido principalmente, pero no exclusivamente, a la mayor incidencia de múltiples. De todo lo anterior, se concluye la necesidad de planificar el coste sanitario que puede suponer la atención de recién nacidos prematuros y de bajo peso, resultado de una edad de maternidad elevada asociada a tratamientos de reproducción asistida.

  5. Case-Based Teaching of Fatal Incidents in Outdoor Education Teacher Preparation Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Chris; Brookes, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the use of case-based approaches to fatal incidents in outdoor education (OE) with a view to fatality prevention. Fatalities are rare in OE and therefore it is nearly impossible for teachers to learn how to avoid fatalities from their own past experiences. It is, however, possible to learn from the mistakes of others through…

  6. Clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings in polytrauma fatalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakler Johannes K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to determine if differences in clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings concerning the cause of death in polytrauma fatalities would be detected in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma from a Level 1 trauma centre. Methods Clinical diagnoses determining the cause of death in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma (2007 - 2008 from a Level 1 trauma centre were correlated with autopsy findings. Results In 13 cases (68%, the clinical cause of death and the cause of death as determined by autopsy were congruent. Marginal differences occurred in three (16% patients while obvious differences in interpreting the cause of death were found in another three (16% cases. Five fatalities (three with obvious differences and two with marginal differences were remarked as early death (1-4 h after trauma and one fatality with marginal differences as late death (>1 week after trauma. Obvious and marginal discrepancies mostly occurred in the early phase of treatment, especially when severely injured patients were admitted to the emergency room undergoing continued cardiopulmonary resuscitation, i. e. limiting diagnostic procedures, and thus the clinical cause of death was essentially determined by basic emergency diagnostics. Conclusions Autopsy as golden standard to define the cause of death in fatal polytrauma varies from the clinical point of view, depending on the patient's pre-existing condition, mechanism of polytrauma, necessity of traumatic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, survival time, and thus the possibility to perform emergency diagnostics. An autopsy should be performed at least in cases of early fatal polytrauma to help establishing the definite cause of death. Moreover, autopsy data should be included in trauma registries as a quality assessment tool.

  7. The profile of wounding in civilian public mass shooting fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward Reed; Shapiro, Geoff; Sarani, Babak

    2016-07-01

    The incidence and severity of civilian public mass shootings (CPMS) continue to rise. Initiatives predicated on lessons learned from military woundings have placed strong emphasis on hemorrhage control, especially via use of tourniquets, as means to improve survival. We hypothesize that both the overall wounding pattern and the specific fatal wounds in CPMS events are different from those in military combat fatalities and thus may require a new management strategy. A retrospective study of autopsy reports for all victims involved in 12 CPMS events was performed. Civilian public mass shootings was defined using the FBI and the Congressional Research Service definition. The site of injury, probable site of fatal injury, and presence of potentially survivable injury (defined as survival if prehospital care is provided within 10 minutes and trauma center care within 60 minutes of injury) was determined independently by each author. A total 139 fatalities consisting of 371 wounds from 12 CPMS events were reviewed. All wounds were due to gunshots. Victims had an average of 2.7 gunshots. Relative to military reports, the case fatality rate was significantly higher, and incidence of potentially survivable injuries was significantly lower. Overall, 58% of victims had gunshots to the head and chest, and only 20% had extremity wounds. The probable site of fatal wounding was the head or chest in 77% of cases. Only 7% of victims had potentially survivable wounds. The most common site of potentially survivable injury was the chest (89%). No head injury was potentially survivable. There were no deaths due to exsanguination from an extremity. The overall and fatal wounding patterns following CPMS are different from those resulting from combat operations. Given that no deaths were due to extremity hemorrhage, a treatment strategy that goes beyond use of tourniquets is needed to rescue the few victims with potentially survivable injuries. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level IV

  8. Left ventricular hypertrophy and risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke EUROSTROKE: a collaborative study among research centres in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Bots (Michiel); J. Tuomilehto; D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); Y. Nikitin; J.T. Salonen; P.C. Elwood; S. Malyutina; A. Freire de Concalves; J. Sivenius; A. di Carlo; P. Lagiou

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between electrocardiographically assessed left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and fatal, non-fatal, haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke in four European cohorts participating in EUROSTROKE. METHODS: EUROSTROKE is a

  9. Fatal occupational injuries among non-governmental employees in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Adinegara Bin Lutfi; Mohd Said, Datuk Abd Razzak B; Aziz Mohammed, Mohammed Azman B; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, surveillance of fatal occupational injuries is fragmented. We therefore analyzed an alternative data source from Malaysia's Social Security organization, the Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO). We conducted a secondary data analysis of the PERKESO database comprised of 7 million employees from 2002 to 2006. Overall, the average annual incidence was 9.2 fatal occupational injuries per 100,000 workers. During the 5-year period, there was a decrease in the absolute number of fatal injuries by 16% and the incidence by 34%. The transportation sector reported the highest incidence of fatal injuries (35.1/100,000), followed by agriculture (30.5/100,000) and construction (19.3/100,000) sectors. Persons of Indian ethnicity were more likely to sustain fatal injuries compared to other ethnic groups. Government and industry should develop rigorous strategies to detect hazards in the workplace, especially in sectors that continuously record high injury rates. Targeted interventions emphasizing worker empowerment coupled with systematic monitoring and evaluation is critical to ensure success in prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Uber and Metropolitan Traffic Fatalities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Noli; Kirk, David S

    2016-08-01

    Uber and similar rideshare services are rapidly dispersing in cities across the United States and beyond. Given the convenience and low cost, Uber has been characterized as a potential countermeasure for reducing the estimated 121 million episodes of drunk driving and the 10,000 resulting traffic fatalities that occur annually in the United States. We exploited differences in the timing of the deployment of Uber in US metropolitan counties from 2005 to 2014 to test the association between the availability of Uber's rideshare services and total, drunk driving-related, and weekend- and holiday-specific traffic fatalities in the 100 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States using negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found that the deployment of Uber services in a given metropolitan county had no association with the number of subsequent traffic fatalities, whether measured in aggregate or specific to drunk-driving fatalities or fatalities during weekends and holidays. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Characteristics of schools in which fatal shootings occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Apodaca, Roberto Flores; Brighton, Lauren M; Perkins, Ashley N; Jackson, Kiana N; Steege, Jessica R

    2012-04-01

    School-based violence, and fatal school shootings in particular, have gained increased attention in the media and psychological literature. Most reports have focused on the characteristics of perpetrators, but there is a growing awareness that school-related factors may also influence the occurrence of fatal school shootings. The current study examined several key characteristics of all schools where random (38) and targeted (96) fatal shootings occurred in the United States between 1966 and 2009. These were compared with a group (138) of schools randomly selected to represent the population of all schools in the United States. The size of a school's enrollment, urban or suburban locale, public funding, and predominantly non-white enrollment were positively associated with fatal shootings. Universities and colleges were disproportionately associated with random shootings and high schools with targeted ones. It was proposed that characteristics of schools that allow feelings of anonymity or alienation among students may help create environmental conditions associated with fatal school shootings. Implications for future research and interventions are considered.

  12. Fatal Occupational Injuries among Non-governmental Employees in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Adinegara bin Lutfi; Mohd Said, Datuk Abd. Razzak B.; Aziz Mohammed, Mohammed Azman B.; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Background In Malaysia, surveillance of fatal occupational injuries is fragmented. We therefore analyzed an alternative data source from Malaysia’s Social Security organization, the PERKESO. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the PERKESO database comprised of 7 million employees from 2002 to 2006. Results Overall, the average annual incidence was 9.2 fatal occupational injuries per 100,000 workers. During the five-year period, there was a decrease in the absolute number of fatal injuries by 16% and the incidence by 34%. The transportation sector reported the highest incidence of fatal injuries (35.1/100,000), followed by agriculture (30.5/100,000) and construction (19.3/100,000) sectors. Persons of Indian ethnicity were more likely to sustain fatal injuries compared to other ethnic groups. Conclusions Government and industry should develop rigorous strategies to detect hazards in the workplace, especially in sectors that continuously record high injury rates. Targeted interventions emphasizing worker empowerment coupled with systematic monitoring and evaluation is critical to ensure success in prevention and control measures. PMID:22544443

  13. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-12-01

    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  14. Fatal occupational accidents in Danish fishing vessels 1989-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Hansen, Henrik L; Jensen, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    training for all fishermen and improved safety measures are needed, especially in the underscored areas of sea disasters concerning small vessels and occupational accidents on big vessels. Better registration of time at risk for fishermen is needed to validate the effect of the safety measures......./capsizing due to stability changes in rough weather and collisions; 39 fatal occupational accidents mainly occurred on the larger inspection obligated trawlers during fishing. In the remaining 14 other fatal accidents, the main causal factors were difficult embarking/disembarking conditions by darkness...... in foreign ports and alcohol intoxication. In the period 1995-2005, the overall incidence rate was 10 per 10,000 fishermen per year with no down-going trend during that period. The fatal accident rates are still too high, despite the efforts to reduce the risk. Increased focus on regular and repeated safety...

  15. Riesgos y consecuencias de las prácticas sexuales en adolescentes bajo los efectos de alcohol y otras drogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Castaño Pérez

    2013-03-01

    = 561 bajo el efecto de las drogas, el 12,47 % no han usado métodos de protección, y las consecuencias más significativas han sido las infecciones de trasmisión sexual (2,0 % y el embarazo no deseado (2,8 %. No se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa (p= 0,711 entre tener relaciones sexuales bajo el efecto de alcohol o estar sobrios, y el uso de métodos de protección. Conclusiones: se constata lo evidenciado en otras investigaciones, sobre la frecuente asociación entre el consumo de drogas y las prácticas sexuales en adolescentes. Lo que aporta de nuevo este estudio, es dar cuenta del tipo de prácticas bajo el efecto de sustancias psicoactivas, muchas de ellas no exentas de riesgo, y reforzar la necesidad de incluir en los programas de prevención para sexo seguro, acciones para minimizar los daños de tener prácticas sexuales bajo el efecto de sustancias psicoactivas.

  16. Understanding fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-28

    This study used medicolegal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to four key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners Court of Victoria's Surveillance Database was searched to identify coronial records with at least one deceased ORU in the state of Victoria, Australia, for 2013-2014. Information relating to the ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. The average rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0-10.2), which was more than double the average rate of fatal middle-aged road user crashes (3.6, 95% CI 2.5-4.6). There was a significant relationship between age group and deceased road user type (χ 2 (15, N = 226) = 3.56, p road" (87.0%), on roads that were paved (94.2%), dry (74.2%), and had light traffic volume (38.3%). Road user error was identified by the police and/or coroner for the majority of fatal ORU crashes (57.9%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORU deemed to have "misjudged" (40.9%) or "failed to yield" (37.9%). Road user error was the most significant risk factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the Victorian road system to fully accommodate road user errors. Initiatives related to safer roads and roadsides, vehicles, and speed zones, as well as behavioral approaches, are key areas of priority for targeted activity to prevent fatal older road user crashes in the future.

  17. Rising gasoline prices increase new motorcycle sales and fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Hilsenrath, Peter E

    2015-12-01

    We examined whether sales of new motorcycles was a mechanism to explain the relationship between motorcycle fatalities and gasoline prices. The data came from the Motorcycle Industry Council, Energy Information Administration and Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 1984-2009. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regressions estimated the effect of inflation-adjusted gasoline price on motorcycle sales and logistic regressions estimated odds ratios (ORs) between new and old motorcycle fatalities when gasoline prices increase. New motorcycle sales were positively correlated with gasoline prices (r = 0.78) and new motorcycle fatalities (r = 0.92). ARIMA analysis estimated that a US$1 increase in gasoline prices would result in 295,000 new motorcycle sales and, consequently, 233 new motorcycle fatalities. Compared to crashes on older motorcycle models, those on new motorcycles were more likely to be young riders, occur in the afternoon, in clear weather, with a large engine displacement, and without alcohol involvement. Riders on new motorcycles were more likely to be in fatal crashes relative to older motorcycles (OR 1.14, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.28) when gasoline prices increase. Our findings suggest that, in response to increasing gasoline prices, people tend to purchase new motorcycles, and this is accompanied with significantly increased crash risk. There are several policy mechanisms that can be used to lower the risk of motorcycle crash injuries through the mechanism of gas prices and motorcycle sales such as raising awareness of motorcycling risks, enhancing licensing and testing requirements, limiting motorcycle power-to-weight ratios for inexperienced riders, and developing mandatory training programs for new riders.

  18. Drug and Alcohol Involvement in Four Types of Fatal Crashes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of drunk and drugged driving to the occurrence of fatal crashes associated with speeding, failure to obey/yield, inattention, and seat belt nonuse. Method: We examined data for fatally injured drivers involved in single-vehicle crashes killed in states in which more than 79% of the drivers were tested for drugs other than alcohol and had a known result. Results: About 25% of the drivers tested positive for drugs, a figure almost double that estimated by the 2007 National Roadside Survey. Cannabinoids and stimulants each contributed to about 23% of the drug-positive results (6% among all fatally injured single-vehicle drivers). Stimulants more than cannabinoids were found to be associated with the four types of crashes under study. Some drugs showed a protective effect over the four crash types under study. Significant interactions between drugs and alcohol were observed. Stimulants contributed to the different types of fatal crashes irrespective of the levels of alcohol consumed by the drivers. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence of a link between drug consumption and fatal crashes. It also opens the door to some interesting and sometimes unexpected questions regarding the way drugs contribute to crashes, which we found varies depending on the type of crash considered, the class of drug, and the presence of alcohol. Research is also needed on drugs that could have a protective effect on the occurrence of fatal crashes. These findings could be highly relevant to the design of drug-related traffic laws and programs targeted at curbing drugged driving. PMID:21683038

  19. Análisis crítico de los aspectos teóricos del currículum flexible y abierto. Consecuencias educativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Penalva Buitrago

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es un trabajo de investigación que somete a un análisis crítico la teoría del currículum escolar definido desde la flexibilidad y la apertura, prestando especial interés a nuestro sistema educativo. El artículo revisa, en un primer momento, las principales teorías en las que se inspira este modelo curricular, y, a continuación, analiza sus aspectos semánticos, epistemológicos, ontológicos y antropológicos, mostrando sus consecuencias educativas

  20. Consecuencias del bullying homofóbico retrospectivo y los factores psicosociales en el bienestar psicológico de sujetos LGB

    OpenAIRE

    Marchueta Perez, Aitor

    2014-01-01

    El estudio actual tuvo como principal objetivo analizar si aquellas personas lesbianas, gais y bisexuales (LGB) que sufrieron un evento estresante en la infancia y/o adolescencia, tal como haber sido víctima de acoso escolar por motivo de orientación afectivo-sexual, tiene consecuencias negativas en su bienestar psicológico. Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio, realizado con 119 gais, lesbianas y bisexuales, sugieren que el bullying sufrido en el pasado influye en el bienestar psicológic...

  1. Satisfacción, conflictos y consecuencias psicológicas en las relaciones de pareja. Una revisión bibliográfica

    OpenAIRE

    Cidoncha Romá, Aitana

    2017-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Psicologia. Codi: PS1048. Curs acadèmic: 2016/2017 En este trabajo se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre las principales causas y los distintos conflictos que se ocasionan en las relaciones de pareja, además de identificar los factores de satisfacción de la pareja. Se revisó toda la bibliografía relacionada con las relaciones de pareja, conflictos, satisfacción y consecuencias psicológicas en las distintas bases de datos. Tras la búsqueda se seleccionaron 53 ...

  2. Tendinitis retrofaríngea, plexopatía braquial y síndrome de Horner como consecuencia de una postura cervical anómala

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Orejas, José Ignacio; Torres Morientes, Luis M.; Fernández Buey, Nieves; Rodríguez Velasco, Margarita; Morais Pérez, Darío

    2014-01-01

    [ES] Introducción y objetivo: Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente que, a consecuencia de una mala postura cervical, manifiesta una sintomatología y exploración compatibles con tendinitis retrofaríngea, síndrome de Horner y plexopatía braquial del mismo lado. No habiendo encontrado en la literatura una descripción similar, analizamos las características y posible fisiopatología de esta rara asociación. Caso clínico: Tras consumir en exceso alcohol y drogas, un hombre joven se queda dorm...

  3. Las consecuencias de la violencia de género para la salud y formación de los adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Águila Gutiérrez, Yaíma; Hernández Reyes, Vicente Enrique; Hernández Castro, Vicente Higinio

    2016-01-01

    La violencia de género es un problema para la humanidad que afecta a millones de personas, sobre todo a mujeres y adolescentes. Sus repercusiones nocivas van desde el ámbito personal y familiar hasta el social, con consecuencias de deterioro de la salud y de las relaciones sociales. La formación de los adolescentes está afectada por la violencia de género y es necesario prevenirla desde edades tempranas para lograr que los jóvenes desarrollen su personalidad adecuadamente. En este trabajo se ...

  4. Consecuencias del cuidado de personas con Trastorno del Espectro Autista sobre la salud de los cuidadores: estado actual de la cuestión

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Robledillo, Nicolás; Antón-Torres, P.; González Bono, Esperanza; Moya Albiol, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Los Trastornos del Espectro Autista (TEA) conforman un grupo de trastornos caracterizados por la aparición de problemas en la socialización, dificultades en la comunicación y el desarrollo de patrones e intereses restringidos. Esta sintomatología suele asociarse con diversos problemas de conducta, factores que han mostrado una gran relevancia a la hora de explicar las consecuencias del cuidado sobre el estado de salud de los cuidadores. Sin embargo, esta relación se ve modulada por diversas v...

  5. EMBARAZO Y MATERNIDAD ADOLESCENTE EN BOGOTÁ Y MUNICIPIOS ALEDAÑOS: CONSECUENCIAS EN EL ESTUDIO, ESTADO CIVIL, ESTRUCTURA FAMILIAR, OCUPACION Y PROYECTO DE VIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Andrés; Rodríguez, Luisa Fernanda; Daza, Rodrigo Antonio

    2007-01-01

    El embarazo adolescente constituye un evento vital de importantes repercusiones en distintas dimensiones de la mujer: estudio, estructura familiar, ocupación, proyecto de vida y estado civil. De ahí que se busque indagar sobre sus consecuencias sociales y económicas y verificar si tiene comportamiento hereditario. Con este fin se realizó, como criterio de inclusión para la muestra, un estudio de tipo retrospectivo transversal para el cual se entrevistó a 20 madres adolescentes, según las defi...

  6. Problemas éticos y consecuencias reconocidas por psicólogos nóveles en reclutamiento y selección de personal

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Araneda, María José; Navarrete Moraga, Robinson; Bargsted Aravena, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Resumen: Con base en la ética profesional en el ejercicio de la psicología del trabajo y las organizaciones, se realizó una investigación cualitativa desde el enfoque de la teoría fundamentada constructivista con el objetivo de describir problemas éticos reconocidos en procesos de reclutamiento y selección de personal, así como sus consecuencias, con la participación de 40 psicólogos nóveles chilenos. Los problemas reconocidos fueron discriminación, en especial de género, favorecer candidatos...

  7. Motivos y consecuencias de la evasión tributaria en las MYPES en el emporio comercial Gamarra, La Victoria Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Gonzales, Eva Dajaida

    2017-01-01

    “La presente investigación fue realizada bajo el enfoque cualitativo de un nivel etnográfico, en donde el trabajo fue hecho con una muestra de 15 empresarios o administradores de las MYPES del emporio comercial Gamarra, que experimentan Evasión Tributaria. “El objetivo de la investigación fue identificar los motivos y consecuencias de la Evasión Tributaria en las MYPES en el emporio comercial Gamarra dedicadas a la comercialización de productos textiles ”. En conclusión, ...

  8. Patrones de incubación y eclosión del Carbonero Común Parus major en un ambiente mediterráneo: causas y consecuencias

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Mielgo, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos generales: Los principales objetivos de esta tesis son describir los patrones de incubación y eclosión de una población de carbonero común Parus major en un ambiente mediterráneo, profundizar en algunas de las causas que afectan a dichos patrones, centrándonos sobre todo en las características del nido, y describir sus posibles consecuencias en el desempeño reproductor. Hipótesis general: Las características parentales, las del nido, y las condiciones ambientales pueden afectar ...

  9. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.

    2001-03-23

    As part of this research effort, we developed a new methodology for projecting elderly traffic crash fatalities. This methodology separates exposure to crashes from crash risk per se, and further divides exposure into two components, the number of miles driven and the likelihood of being a driver. This component structure permits conceptually different determinants of traffic fatalities to be projected separately and has thorough motivation in behavioral theory. It also permits finer targeting of particular aspects of projections that need improvement and closer linking of projections to possible policy instruments for influencing them.

  10. On the road again: traffic fatalities and auto insurance minimums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Yakovlev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on policy-induced moral hazard effects in the auto insurance market has focused on the impact of compulsory insurance, no-fault liability, and tort liability laws on traffic fatalities. In contrast, this paper examines the moral hazard effect of a previously overlooked policy variable: minimum auto insurance coverage. We hypothesize that state-mandated auto insurance minimums may “over-insure” some drivers, lowering their incentives to drive carefully. Using a longitudinal panel of American states from 1982 to 2006, we find that policy-induced increases in auto insurance minimums are associated with higher traffic fatality rates, ceteris paribus.

  11. Fatal Cervical Spine Injury Following a Bicycle Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhrenholt Lars

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal injury following direct loading of the head and neck is a rare sequel of bicycle crashes. Fatal head injuries following bicycle crashes have been described in great detail and safety measures such as bicycle helmets have been developed accordingly. Less frequently, however, potentially severe cervical spine injuries have been described. We present the case of a middle-aged female who sustained an ultimately fatal cervical spine injury following a collision with a car whilst biking wearing a helmet. We discuss the literature regarding the protective effects of bicycle helmets, the relevance to cervical spine injury and legislation on mandatory use of helmets for injury prevention.

  12. Pharyngitis – fatal infectious disease or medical error?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rorat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reporting on adverse events is essential to create a culture of safety, which focuses on protecting doctors and patients from medical errors. We present a fatal case of Streptococcus C pharyngitis in a 56-year-old man. The clinical course and the results of additional diagnostics and autopsy showed that sepsis followed by multiple organ failure was the ultimate cause of death. The clinical course appeared fatal due to a chain of adverse events, including errors made by the physicians caring for the patient for 10 days.

  13. Influence of civil defense on strategic countervalue fatalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    Two modeling studies were conducted to simulate the effect of fallout shelters on the outcome of a massive countervalue nuclear exchange between the Soviet Union and the United States. One was to determine the number of nuclear weapons required to mount an effective fallout attack against a country with dispersed population; the other was to determine the number of expected US fatalities resulting from a countervalue attack against US urban population centers. The results of these studies indicate that the number of weapons required to mount such an attack depends on the adequacy of the shelter system and that the evacuation of urban populations can substantially reduce expected fatality levels

  14. Fatal Eurasian Brown Bear Attacks-Two Swedish Fatalities in Modern Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Torfinn; Eriksson, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Fatal bear attacks on humans are uncommon with only one reported case in Sweden since 1902. The bear population is, however, growing and the frequency of confrontations is likely to increase. Case I-A 40-year-old hunter and his dog were found dead near a bear's den. Autopsy showed that a large portion of the face, facial skeleton, and anterior portion of the brain was missing. Autopsy of the bear showed two nonfatal gunshot wounds. Case II-A 61-year-old man and his dog were found dead outside a hunting lodge. Autopsy revealed numerous wounds, including partial evisceration of the intestines. The victim's blood ethanol concentration was 0.27%. These cases confirm the presence of risk factors identified by the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project, that is, provocation by a dog, encountering an injured bear, and appearing close to its den. An additional possible factor in case II was ethanol intoxication. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Incidence of paediatric fatal and non-fatal low speed vehicle run over events in Queensland, Australia: eleven year analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of fatal and non-fatal Low Speed Vehicle Run Over (LSVRO) events among children aged 0–15 years in Queensland, Australia, at a population level. Methods Fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events that occurred in children resident in Queensland over eleven calendar years (1999-2009) were identified using ICD codes, text description, word searches and medical notes clarification, obtained from five health related data bases across the continuum of care (pre-hospital to fatality). Data were manually linked. Population data provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics were used to calculate crude incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events. Results There were 1611 LSVROs between 1999–2009 (IR = 16.87/100,000/annum). Incidence of non-fatal events (IR = 16.60/100,000/annum) was 61.5 times higher than fatal events (IR = 0.27/100,000/annum). LSVRO events were more common in boys (IR = 20.97/100,000/annum) than girls (IR = 12.55/100,000/annum), and among younger children aged 0–4 years (IR = 21.45/100000/annum; 39% or all events) than older children (5–9 years: IR = 16.47/100,000/annum; 10–15 years IR = 13.59/100,000/annum). A total of 896 (56.8%) children were admitted to hospital for 24 hours of more following an LSVRO event (IR = 9.38/100,000/annum). Total LSVROs increased from 1999 (IR = 14.79/100,000) to 2009 (IR = 18.56/100,000), but not significantly. Over the 11 year period, there was a slight (non –significant) increase in fatalities (IR = 0.37-0.42/100,000/annum); a significant decrease in admissions (IR = 12.39–5.36/100,000/annum), and significant increase in non-admissions (IR = 2.02-12.77/100,000/annum). Trends over time differed by age, gender and severity. Conclusion This is the most comprehensive, population-based epidemiological study on fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events to date. Results from this study indicate

  16. Las políticas sociales de dependencia en España: contribuciones y consecuencias para los ancianos y sus cuidadores informales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Escuredo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la evolución de la protección social de la dependencia en España desde la década de los noventa hasta el momento actual y se plantean las consecuencias de la falta de acuerdo político respecto a las medidas a implementar. Se analizan los elementos en los que se basan las políticas de dependencia, resaltando sus aspectos positivos y negativos, así como las consecuencias para los ancianos y sus cuidadores informales. También se pone de manifiesto cómo, ante la posibilidad de quiebra del papel de la familia en el cuidado de los dependientes, se están implementando políticas que tienen como objetivo reforzar el rol cuidador de la familia y que se enmarcan dentro de la denominada "Conciliación de la Vida Familiar y Laboral". Estas políticas, más allá de sus contribuciones positivas, implican también importantes costes personales y de oportunidad para los cuidadores informales.

  17. Trabajo en turnos, privación de sueño y sus consecuencias clínicas y médicolegales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra M. Leonardo, Dr.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo en turnos es una realidad frecuente y produce consecuencias negativas para una proporción significativa de quienes lo ejercen. Estas efectos son en base a dos mecanismos fundamentales: el desfase de los ritmos biológicos (tanto con el medio externo, como una desincronía interna y por privación de sueño. Las consecuencias en salud asociadas se dan con mayor intensidad en turnos rotativos y nocturnos, e incluyen enfermedad coronaria, cerebrovascular, depresión, síndrome metabólico, riesgo de cáncer, obesidad, problemas reproductivos y en el embarazo, accidentabilidad y trastornos inmunológicos. Su manejo incluye la selección adecuada de quienes trabajan en turnos, el sentido racional de las rotaciones, el manejo apropiado de los cicladores externos (Zeitgebers, siestas programadas y farmacoterapia individualizada. En la medida que la evidencia científica sea cada vez más sólida y clara respecto a este tópico, deberán llenarse los vacíos legales pendientes respecto al tema.

  18. Las consecuencias del cuidado familiar sobre el cuidador: Una valoración compleja y necesaria Consequences of family care over caregiver: A complex and necessary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rogero-García

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El cuidado provisto por familiares o amigos a los adultos dependientes es un proceso social decisivo para el bienestar de la sociedad española. Este tipo de apoyo tiene intensas consecuencias sobre quienes cuidan. En este artículo se plantea que la valoración precisa del impacto de la dependencia en el entorno social requiere de análisis comprensivos y multidisciplinares, y se elabora una propuesta de clasificación de las consecuencias del cuidado familiar sobre el cuidador. En dicha propuesta estos efectos pueden ser positivos o negativos, y afectar a diferentes dimensiones vitales de los cuidadores: salud, economía o relaciones sociales.Care provided by relatives or friends to dependent people is a key process to promote wellbeing in Spanish society. This type of support has intense consequences over caregivers' lives. Comprehensive and multidisciplinary analyses are required to assess dependency effects over social network. In this paper we elaborate a classification of types of family care consequences over caregivers. We differentiate between positive or negative consequences, and between consequences affecting caregivers' health, economy and/or social relations.

  19. Non-fatal suicidal behaviour at the Johannesburg General Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-fatal suicidal behaviour at the Johannesburg General Hospital. ... African Journal of Psychiatry ... Patients who threaten deliberate self-harm and who have a history of previous NFSB, past psychiatric illness and physical or sexual abuse, are at a higher risk of this behaviour as compared to the general population.

  20. Substance use among Iranian drivers involved in fatal road accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to a special part of the world, most published epidemiological reports on this topic is from industrial world.Aim: To determine drug use among Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. This sample came from a national survey of prisoners. Data was collected at entry to prisons during the last 4 months of 2008 in 7 prisons in different parts of the country. Self reported drug use was registered. Commercial substance use screening tests were also done. Results: Drug test was positive for opioids, cannabis and both in 37.3%, 2.0% and 13.7%, respectively. 29.4% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Using test introduced 23.5% of our sample as drug users, who had declined to report any drug use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most used illicit drug in the case of vehicle accidents with fatality, however, 20% of users do not declare their use. This high rate of drug use in vehicle accidents with fatality reflects the importance of drug use control as a part of injury prevention in Iran. There might be a need for drug screening after severe car accidents.

  1. Accidental fatal lung injury by compressed air: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayamane, Anand Parashuram; Pradeepkumar, M V

    2015-03-01

    Compressed air is being used extensively as a source of energy at industries and in daily life. A variety of fatal injuries are caused by improper and ignorant use of compressed air equipments. Many types of injuries due to compressed air are reported in the literature such as colorectal injury, orbital injury, surgical emphysema, and so on. Most of these injuries are accidental in nature. It is documented that 40 pounds per square inch pressure causes fatal injuries to the ear, eyes, lungs, stomach, and intestine. Openings of body are vulnerable to injuries by compressed air. Death due to compressed air injuries is rarely reported. Many cases are treated successfully by conservative or surgical management. Extensive survey of literature revealed no reports of fatal injury to the upper respiratory tract and lungs caused by compressed air. Here, we are reporting a fatal event of accidental death after insertion of compressed air pipe into the mouth. The postmortem findings are corroborated with the history and discussed in detail.

  2. Fatal Indifference: The G8, Africa, and Global Health | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Fatal Indifference: The G8, Africa, and Global Health ... It is also the most powerful political force behind the multilateral institutions that are shaping global economic practice ... IDRC joins more than 800 international delegates at the Resilient Cities ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  3. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis: A potentially fatal disease with varied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Necrotizing fasciitis was recognized centuries ago by physicians. It is a rapidly progressive and potentially fatal soft‑tissue infection that is typified by soft‑tissue necrosis, especially affecting the subcutaneous tissues and fascia. Cervico‑facial necrotizing fasciitis is said to be uncommon, but when it occurs, it is often of ...

  4. Near-fatal asthma phenotype in the ENFUMOSA Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romagnoli, M.; Caramori, G.; Braccioni, F.; Ravenna, F.; Barreiro, E.; Siafakas, N. M.; Vignola, A. M.; Chanez, P.; Fabbri, L. M.; Papi, A.; Bel, E. H.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Near-fatal asthma (NFA) is characterized by severe asthma attacks usually requiring intensive care unit admission. This phenotype of asthma has been studied mainly in acute conditions. METHODS: The aim of our study was to compare the clinical, functional and inflammatory characteristics

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as a fatal case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-06-25

    Jun 25, 2015 ... original work is properly cited. Human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as a fatal ... of neurological symptoms by an infection (upper respiratory tract infection or diarrhea), in a smaller proportion of .... cerebrospinal fluid findings of albumino-cytology dissociation.[6]. However, albumino-cytology.

  6. Fatal Gastrointestinal Perforations in sudden death cases in Last 10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathology unit of University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur in the year 2006 by reviewing the autopsy reports. There were 61 cases of GIT perforation out of 5579 autopsies conducted during a period of ten years (1996-2005). The incidence rate of fatal gastrointestinal perforation was 1.09% during this period. Out of these 61 cases, ...

  7. Fatal angioedema induced by angiotensin conversion enzyme (ACE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACE inhibitors are often prescribed in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure and kidney disease. These drugs are on the Essential Drugs List, and are therefore used at primary to tertiary health care levels in South Africa. Angioedema is considered a rare, but potentially fatal side-effect of this agent, with a reported ...

  8. Identification of new molecular alterations in Fatal Familial Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is an autosomal dominant prion disease caused by a D178N mutation in PRNP in combination with methionine (Met) at codon 129 in the mutated allele of the same gene (D178N-129M haplotype). The present study analyzes pathological and molecular features in seven FFI cases c...

  9. Case Report Meleney's Ulcer; A Rare but Fatal Abdominal Wall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KIGZ

    Meleney's Ulcer; A Rare but Fatal Abdominal Wall Disease Complicating ... Meleney's ulcer or post operative synergistic bacterial gangrene is a rare form of ... Central venous catheterization and parenteral ... is no record of full recovery from the intra-abdominal pathology before the ... chronic undermining ulcer of Meleney.

  10. Fatal pericardial tamponade after superior vena cava stenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegmakers, M.J.M.; Rutten, M.J.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a fatal complication of percutaneous superior vena cava (SVC) self-expandable stent placement in a patient with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). The SVCS was caused by a malignant mediastinal mass with total occlusion of the SVC. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, the patient died

  11. Parental Rheumatoid Arthritis, Child Mortality, and Case Fatality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane L; Wu, Chun S; Olsen, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We have reported increased long term morbidity in children of parents with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we assess child mortality and case fatality in the same cohort. METHODS: All singletons born in Denmark from 1977 to 2008 were identified through linkage of Danish National...

  12. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identified problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four-year peri...

  13. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a growing public health problem in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehler, Douglas R; Ear, Chariya; Parker, Erin M; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists.

  14. Circumstances of fatal lockout/tagout-related injuries in manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vernick, Jon S; Sorock, Gary S; Webster, Daniel W; Lees, Peter S J

    2008-10-01

    Over the past few decades, hundreds of manufacturing workers have suffered fatal injuries while performing maintenance and servicing on machinery and equipment. Using lockout/tagout procedures could have prevented many of these deaths. A narrative text analysis of OSHA accident investigation report summaries was conducted to describe the circumstances of lockout/tagout-related fatalities occurring in the US manufacturing industry from 1984 to 1997. The most common mechanisms of injury were being caught in or between parts of equipment, electrocution, and being struck by or against objects. Typical scenarios included cleaning a mixer or blender, cleaning a conveyor, and installing or disassembling electrical equipment. Lockout procedures were not even attempted in the majority (at least 58.8%) of fatal incidents reviewed. Lockout/tagout-related fatalities occur under a wide range of circumstances. Enhanced training and equipment designs that facilitate lockout and minimize worker contact with machine parts may prevent many lockout/tagout-related injuries. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Second Fatal Case of Infective Endocarditis caused by Gemella bergeriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijan Ukudeeva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our case illustrates a fatal course of infection with Gemella bergeriae endocarditis that was complicated by cardiogenic shock due to perforation of the mitral valve with severe mitral regurgitation, extension of infection into the myocardium adjacent to the mitral valve, and coronary sinus thrombosis.

  16. Fatal Complications after Pediatric Surgical Interventions: Lessons Learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, W.M.; Putten, M.E. van der; Kusters, B.; Verhoeven, B.H.

    2017-01-01

    Placement of catheters, drains, shunts, and tubes in children can lead to serious or even fatal complications at the moment of placement, such as hemorrhage at insertion, or in the longterm, such as infections and migration into adjacent organs. The clinician should always be aware of these

  17. Factors Related to Sibling Removal after a Child Maltreatment Fatality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damashek, Amy; Bonner, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Many children who die from abuse or neglect are survived by siblings. However, little data are available about what happens to these siblings after the victim's death, such as whether they are removed from their home. Even less is known about how decisions are made regarding sibling removal following a child fatality. This study…

  18. Childhood and adolescent fatalities at the Pretoria Medico-Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in children <12 years, found the leading external cause of death to be road traffic fatalities (22% of cases). In Nigeria, Nwafor et al.[9] reviewed deaths in children ≤14 years; in a 20-year period, road traffic accidents ..... We thank Ms B English,.

  19. Urban sprawl as a risk factor in motor vehicle occupant and pedestrian fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Reid; Schieber, Richard A; Zegeer, Charles V

    2003-09-01

    We sought to determine the association between urban sprawl and traffic fatalities. We created a sprawl index by applying principal components analysis to data for 448 US counties in the largest 101 metropolitan areas. Regression analysis was used to determine associations between the index and traffic fatalities. For every 1% increase in the index (i.e., more compact, less sprawl), all-mode traffic fatality rates fell by 1.49% (P Urban sprawl was directly related to traffic fatalities and pedestrian fatalities. Subsequent studies should investigate relationships at a finer geographic scale and should strive to improve on the measure of exposure used to adjust pedestrian fatality rates.

  20. Violent and Fatal Youth Trauma: Is There a Missed Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Madlinger, DO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accidents and assaults (homicides are the leading causes of death among the youth of the United States, accounting for 53.3% of deaths among children aged 1 to19 years. Victim recidivism,defined as repeated visits to the emergency department (ED as a victim of violent trauma, is a significantly growing public health problem. As 5-year mortality rates for recidivism are as high as 20%,it is important to determine whether victims with a history of violent trauma are at increased risk for fatal outcome with their next trauma. We hypothesized that victims of violent trauma who have had 1 prior ED visit for violent trauma will have increased odds of fatal outcome.Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients presenting with penetrating trauma to the ED from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2009. All patients between the ages of 15 to 25 years who presented to the ED for any penetrating trauma were included. Patients with prior presentations for penetrating trauma were compared to those patients who were first-time presenters to determine the odds ratio of fatal outcome.Results: Overall, 15,395 patients were treated for traumatic presentations. Of these, 1,044 met inclusion criteria. Demographically, 79.4% were Hispanic, 19.4% were African American, and 0.96% were Caucasian. The average age was 21 years, and 98% of the population was male. One hundred and forty-seven (14% had prior presentations, and 897 (86% did not. Forty of the 147 patients (27%with prior presentations had a fatal outcome as compared to 29 patients of the 868 (3% without prior presentations, with odds ratio of 10.8 (95% confidence interval, 6.4–18.1; Pearson v2, P , 0.001. The 5-year mortality rate for those patients with fatal outcomes was calculated at 16.5%.Conclusion: Patients who had prior ED visits for penetrating trauma were at greater risk for fatal outcomes compared to those with no prior visits. Therefore, trauma-related ED visits might

  1. Fuel economy and traffic fatalities: multivariate analysis of international data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noland, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    In the US motor vehicle fuel economy standards were imposed in the late 1970s, in response to the oil crises of that decade. Since then, efforts to increase the standards have not occurred, one reason being the argument that smaller vehicles (which are generally more efficient) are considered less safe. Recent analyses (Energy J.( 2004)) suggests that variance in vehicle weights may be more important than the absolute weights of vehicles in making the highway network less safe. In Europe and other countries, which generally have smaller more efficient vehicle fleets, due to relatively high gasoline taxes, this debate has not occurred. In particular, countries such as Great Britain and Sweden have far safer road transport systems than the US but also have much more efficient vehicle fleets. This suggests that either vehicle weight and size are unimportant or if they have an effect it is small compared to other factors. This paper uses international data to build econometric models that examine whether average vehicle fuel economy has any association with road traffic fatalities, while controlling for other factors that are associated with fatalities. The effect on pedestrian fatalities is also analyzed. Cross-sectional time-series data on traffic fatalities from OECD countries is used and negative binomial regression models are developed using panel data to determine whether any associations are present. Results find that changes in vehicle efficiency are not associated with changes in traffic fatalities, suggesting either that size and weight changes over time have not had a strong effect or are not associated with fuel economy improvements

  2. Disaster-related fatalities among US citizens traveling abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Robert; Bouslough, David; Proano, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    To describe the locations and risk of death associated with natural disaster fatalities for US citizens traveling abroad. A retrospective database review of US citizen disaster deaths occurring worldwide. None. Information on fatalities due to disasters was abstracted from the US Department of State Web site reporting deaths of US citizens abroad by non-natural causes from October 2002 through June 2012. The main outcome measures were the frequency of disaster deaths and countries where disasters occurred. Descriptive statistics and rates were used to evaluate the study data. There were 7,963 total non-natural deaths of US citizens traveling abroad during the study period. Of these, 163 (2.0 percent) were disaster-related deaths, involving 19 disaster events in 15 countries. Only two disaster-related events resulted in more than two deaths of US travelers-the 2010 earthquake in Haiti causing 121 fatalities (74.2 percent of disaster deaths), and the 2004 tsunami in Thailand causing 22 fatalities (13.5 percent of disaster deaths). The approximate annual mean death rate for US citizen travelers as a result of disaster events is 0.27 deaths/1 million travelers, compared with 1.4 deaths/1 million residents due to disaster annually within the United States. The risk of disaster-related fatality is low for US citizens traveling abroad. Although disaster-related death among travelers is unpredictable, during a period of almost 10 years, there was only one reported death due to disaster in the five countries most frequently visited by US travelers. Further investigation may identify population-, seasonal-, country-, or location-specific risks from which prevention strategies can be developed.

  3. Fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events in a general population prescribed sibutramine in New Zealand: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Ashton, Janelle; Herbison, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The cardiovascular safety of sibutramine is currently under review by medicines regulatory authorities worldwide after the SCOUT (Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome Trial) showed an increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients taking sibutramine. Further data regarding the cardiovascular safety of sibutramine in a general population are now required. To quantify the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular adverse events in a general population prescribed sibutramine in postmarketing use. Observational prospective cohort study of patients dispensed sibutramine during a 3-year period (2001-4) and followed up for at least 1 year after their last prescription. The study included record-linkage to national mortality datasets to identify fatal events. Postmarketing 'real-life' use of sibutramine in a general population in New Zealand. All New Zealand patients dispensed a prescription for sibutramine in a 3-year period (for whom a National Health Identification number could be validated). 15 686 patients were included in the record linkage study for fatal events. A subgroup of 9471 patients was followed up by intensive methods for non-fatal events. (i) Rate of death from all causes and from cardiovascular events; and (ii) rates of non-fatal cardiovascular adverse events. Total exposure to sibutramine for 15 686 patients in the validated cohort was 5431 treatment-years. The rate of death from all causes in this cohort was 0.13 (95% CI 0.05, 0.27) per 100 treatment-years exposure. The rate of death from a cardiovascular event was 0.07 (95% CI 0.02, 0.19) per 100 treatment-years exposure. The most frequent non-fatal cardiovascular events in the intensively followed up cohort were hypertension, palpitations, hypotensive events and tachycardia. Risk of death from a cardiovascular event in this general population of patients prescribed sibutramine was lower than has been reported in other overweight/obese populations. The results of this study suggest that further

  4. Different features of Vδ2 T and NK cells in fatal and non-fatal human Ebola infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Romanelli, Antonella; Tumino, Nicola; Sacchi, Alessandra; Bordoni, Veronica; Casetti, Rita; Turchi, Federica; Martini, Federico; Bore, Joseph A; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Michel, Janine; Holm, Tobias; Zekeng, Elsa Gayle; Cowley, Lauren; Garcia Dorival, Isabel; Doerrbecker, Juliane; Hetzelt, Nicole; Baum, Jonathan H J; Portmann, Jasmine; Wölfel, Roman; Gabriel, Martin; Miranda, Osvaldo; Díaz, Graciliano; Díaz, José E; Fleites, Yoel A; Piñeiro, Carlos A; Castro, Carlos M; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Diallo, Boubacar; Ruibal, Paula; Oestereich, Lisa; Wozniak, David M; Lüdtke, Anja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Capobianchi, Maria R; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Carroll, Miles W; Günther, Stephan; Di Caro, Antonino; Muñoz-Fontela, César; Agrati, Chiara

    2017-05-01

    Human Ebola infection is characterized by a paralysis of the immune system. A signature of αβ T cells in fatal Ebola infection has been recently proposed, while the involvement of innate immune cells in the protection/pathogenesis of Ebola infection is unknown. Aim of this study was to analyze γδ T and NK cells in patients from the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 occurred in West Africa, and to assess their association with the clinical outcome. Nineteen Ebola-infected patients were enrolled at the time of admission to the Ebola Treatment Centre in Guinea. Patients were divided in two groups on the basis of the clinical outcome. The analysis was performed by using multiparametric flow cytometry established by the European Mobile Laboratory in the field. A low frequency of Vδ2 T-cells was observed during Ebola infection, independently from the clinical outcome. Moreover, Vδ2 T-cells from Ebola patients massively expressed CD95 apoptotic marker, suggesting the involvement of apoptotic mechanisms in Vδ2 T-cell loss. Interestingly, Vδ2 T-cells from survivors expressed an effector phenotype and presented a lower expression of the CTLA-4 exhaustion marker than fatalities, suggesting a role of effector Vδ2 T-cells in the protection. Furthermore, patients with fatal Ebola infection were characterized by a lower NK cell frequency than patients with non fatal infection. In particular, both CD56bright and CD56dim NK frequency were very low both in fatal and non fatal infections, while a higher frequency of CD56neg NK cells was associated to non-fatal infections. Finally, NK activation and expression of NKp46 and CD158a were independent from clinical outcome. Altogether, the data suggest that both effector Vδ2 T-cells and NK cells may play a role in the complex network of protective response to EBOV infection. Further studies are required to characterize the protective effector functions of Vδ2 and NK cells.

  5. Different features of Vδ2 T and NK cells in fatal and non-fatal human Ebola infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Cimini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human Ebola infection is characterized by a paralysis of the immune system. A signature of αβ T cells in fatal Ebola infection has been recently proposed, while the involvement of innate immune cells in the protection/pathogenesis of Ebola infection is unknown. Aim of this study was to analyze γδ T and NK cells in patients from the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 occurred in West Africa, and to assess their association with the clinical outcome.Nineteen Ebola-infected patients were enrolled at the time of admission to the Ebola Treatment Centre in Guinea. Patients were divided in two groups on the basis of the clinical outcome. The analysis was performed by using multiparametric flow cytometry established by the European Mobile Laboratory in the field. A low frequency of Vδ2 T-cells was observed during Ebola infection, independently from the clinical outcome. Moreover, Vδ2 T-cells from Ebola patients massively expressed CD95 apoptotic marker, suggesting the involvement of apoptotic mechanisms in Vδ2 T-cell loss. Interestingly, Vδ2 T-cells from survivors expressed an effector phenotype and presented a lower expression of the CTLA-4 exhaustion marker than fatalities, suggesting a role of effector Vδ2 T-cells in the protection. Furthermore, patients with fatal Ebola infection were characterized by a lower NK cell frequency than patients with non fatal infection. In particular, both CD56bright and CD56dim NK frequency were very low both in fatal and non fatal infections, while a higher frequency of CD56neg NK cells was associated to non-fatal infections. Finally, NK activation and expression of NKp46 and CD158a were independent from clinical outcome.Altogether, the data suggest that both effector Vδ2 T-cells and NK cells may play a role in the complex network of protective response to EBOV infection. Further studies are required to characterize the protective effector functions of Vδ2 and NK cells.

  6. New evidence concerning fatal crashes of passenger vehicles before and after adding antilock braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C M

    2001-05-01

    Fatal crash rates for passenger cars and vans were compared for the last model year before four-wheel antilock brakes were introduced and the first model year for which antilock brakes were standard equipment. A prior study, based on fatal crash experience through 1995, reported that vehicle models with antilock brakes were more likely than identical but 1-year-earlier models to be involved in crashes fatal to their own occupants, but were less likely to be involved in crashes fatal to occupants of other vehicles. Overall, there was no significant effect of antilocks on the likelihood of fatal crashes. Similar analyses, based on fatal crash experience during 1996-98, yielded very different results. During 1996-98, vehicles with antilock brakes were again less likely than earlier models to be involved in crashes fatal to occupants of other vehicles, but they were no longer overinvolved in crashes fatal to their own occupants.

  7. Quasi-likelihood generalized linear regression analysis of fatality risk data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Transportation-related fatality risks is a function of many interacting human, vehicle, and environmental factors. Statistically valid analysis of such data is challenged both by the complexity of plausible structural models relating fatality rates t...

  8. Guidelines for Mass Fatality Management During Terrorist Incidents Involving Chemical Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    .... Outside the United States, an earthquake in India produced over 30,000 fatalities in 2001, while an earthquake in El Salvador the same year produced close to 1,000 fatalities. In Bhopal, India (1984...

  9. The Relationship between Safety Climate with Fatalism and Perceived Helplessness among Workers: Implication for Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kiani

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: The perception of fatalism and helplessness in work environments can be obstacles to prevent occupational accidents. Promoting safety climate can be associated with fatalism culture change and also perceived helplessness reduction among workers.

  10. On the occurrence of fatal landslides in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, D.

    2009-04-01

    This paper represents the latest in an annual review of fatal landslide events worldwide, based upon the Durham Fatal Landslide Database. Landslide events were inevitably dominated by the occurrence of the 12th May Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan Province of China, which triggered very extensive landsliding. Whilst it will be very difficult to estimate the true impact of this event in terms of landslides, the Chinese authorities estimate that about 29,000 people were killed by landslides, with several thousand more losing their lives whilst trapped in rubble due to the inability of rescuers to pass through landslide affected areas. Considerable work is needed to understand the reasons for the intensity of the landslide processes. Elsewhere the number of fatal landslides recorded totalled 405 worldwide. These caused 3526 fatalities, giving a total for the year of about 32,526 people. To put this into context, according to the CRED EM-DAT database the recorded number of fatalities from volcanic eruptions in the period 2000 to 2008 inclusive is 221! The distribution of fatal landslides followed the familiar patterns observed in previous years, with distinct clusters in Central China, along the southern edge of the Himalayas, in the Caribbean, in Central America, western S. America, along the western edge of the Philippine Sea plate and in Indonesia, plus a scattering elsewhere. The temporal distribution shows strong seasonality, with the peak occurring during the northern hemisphere summer. Unusually however, the peak month was September (usually it is in July), and there were large numbers of landslide events right through to November. The November landslide clusters occurred in SE. Asia and in Central / S. America, reflecting very heavy rains in these regions at that time. The reasons for this are not clear at present, although may be linked to weakening La Nina conditions that have prevailed through much of the year. An analysis is made of the relationship between

  11. Fatal disease and demographic Allee effect: population persistence and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Avner; Yakubu, Abdul-Aziz

    2012-01-01

    If a healthy stable host population at the disease-free equilibrium is subject to the Allee effect, can a small number of infected individuals with a fatal disease cause the host population to go extinct? That is, does the Allee effect matter at high densities? To answer this question, we use a susceptible-infected epidemic model to obtain model parameters that lead to host population persistence (with or without infected individuals) and to host extinction. We prove that the presence of an Allee effect in host demographics matters even at large population densities. We show that a small perturbation to the disease-free equilibrium can eventually lead to host population extinction. In addition, we prove that additional deaths due to a fatal infectious disease effectively increase the Allee threshold of the host population demographics.

  12. The effect of airline deregulation on automobile fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylow, L F; Savage, I

    1991-10-01

    This paper attempts to quantify the effects of airline deregulation in the United States on intercity automobile travel and consequently on the number of highway fatalities. A demand model is constructed for auto travel, which includes variables representing the price and availability of air service. A reduced form model of the airline market is then estimated. Finding that deregulation has decreased airfares and increased flights, it is estimated that auto travel has been reduced by 2.2% per year on average. Given assumptions on the characteristics of drivers switching modes and the types of roads they drove on, the number of automobile fatalities averted since 1978 is estimated to be in the range 200-300 per year.

  13. Quantifying ground impact fatality rate for small unmanned aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2018-01-01

    is based on a standard stochastic model, and employs a parameterized high fidelity ground impact distribution model that accounts for both aircraft specifications, parameter uncertainties, and wind. The method also samples the flight path to create an almost continuous quantification of the risk......One of the major challenges of conducting operation of unmanned aircraft, especially operations beyond visual line-of-sight (BVLOS), is to make a realistic and sufficiently detailed risk assessment. An important part of such an assessment is to identify the risk of fatalities, preferably...... in a quantitative way since this allows for comparison with manned aviation to determine whether an equivalent level of safety is achievable. This work presents a method for quantifying the probability of fatalities resulting from an uncontrolled descent of an unmanned aircraft conducting a BVLOS flight. The method...

  14. Fatal accidents in nighttime vs. daytime highway construction work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditi, David; Lee, Dong-Eun; Polat, Gul

    2007-01-01

    Awareness about worker safety in nighttime construction has been a major concern because it is believed that nighttime construction creates hazardous work conditions. However, only a few studies provide valuable comparative information about accident characteristics of nighttime and daytime highway construction activities. This study investigates fatal accidents that occurred in Illinois highway work zones in the period 1996-2001 in order to determine the safety differences between nighttime and daytime highway construction. The lighting and weather conditions were included into the study as control parameters to see their effects on the frequency of fatal accidents occurring in work zones. According to this study, there is evidence that nighttime construction is more hazardous than daytime construction. The inclusion of a weather parameter into the analysis has limited effect on this finding. The study justifies establishing an efficient work zone accident reporting system and taking all necessary measures to enhance safety in nighttime work zones.

  15. Caso fatal de balantidíase intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Pinheiro

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Caso fatal de balantidíase em mulher desnutrida de 63 anos, criadora de porcos, da zona rural de Uberaba. A doença evoluiu em oito dias com disenteria, náusea e vômitos, culminando em óbito por enterorragia. A necropsia constatou-se colite ulcerada causada por B. coli, facilmente identificado ao exame histológico do intestino grosso.A fatal case of a 63-year old pig-raising country woman with an eight-day course of nausea, vomiting. dysentery with intestinal bleeding the latter being the direct cause of death. The autopsy showed ulcerative colitis due to B. coli, which was easily observed on histological examination of the large bowel.

  16. Factores de riesgo y consecuencias de las caídas en los residentes de un Centro Geriátrico Asistido.

    OpenAIRE

    García Gollarte, J. F.; Antón, C.; Espejo Tort, Begoña

    1994-01-01

    Estudio Realizado sobre el fenómeno de las caídas con una muestro de 79 ancianos de un Centro Geriátrico Asistido para valorar la incidencia de determinados factores de riesgo intrínsecos y extrínsecos, así como sus consecuencias físicas y psíquicas (síndrome post-caída), evolución y tratamiento. El 80% de los ancianos sufrieron alguna caída. Las pruebas estadísticas realizadas mostraron que los ancianos que consumen benzodiacepinas e hipnóticos presentan mayor número de caídas que los que no...

  17. ANTECEDENTES Y CONSECUENCIAS DE LA DIGESTIÓN ANAEROBIA EN EL SECTOR AGROPECUARIO: ANÁLISIS DE CONTENIDO Y CLASIFICACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tola Cisneros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo revisa la literatura en torno a la influencia de la implementación del sistema de digestión anaerobia en el sector agropecuario (DA-SA. Se apoya en los principales aportes publicados en la última década al respecto de la digestión anaerobia en el sector agropecuario y se reconocen, explican y clasifican el conjunto de antecedentes y consecuencias de la identificación DA-SA. Esta revisión servirá a otros investigadores que necesiten conocer el estado y evolución de la investigación en torno a la digestión anaerobia en el sector agropecuario. Además las clasificaciones propuestas pueden servir de guía a los gestores que deseen desarrollar campañas de Marketing Socioambiental con el objetivo de generar un cambio de comportamiento ambiental.

  18. Análisis de las consecuencias de asociar un elemento elástico a una ortesis activa de rodilla

    OpenAIRE

    Capsi Morales, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta las consecuencias de incorporar un elemento elástico al actuador de una ortesis activa de rodilla. Para ello, se realiza el análisis dinámico de un modelo biomecánico con distintos diseños para el sistema de actuación de la ortesis de rodilla integrada. Con la finalidad de estudiar las ventajas y desventajas debidas a su incorporación, se determina la dinámica de cada diseño y se realiza una comparación sobre los parámetros relevantes en el ámbito. El estudio se enmar...

  19. Identificación de las sustancias inorgánicas usadas en la Industria de Cosméticos y las consecuencias que produce en la salud

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroa Muñoz, Yolanda Herminia

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo de investigación enfocaremos aspectos tan importantes de la vida diaria como es la industria cosmética; el objetivo del trabajo se basa en determinar qué consecuencias producen en la salud las sustancias inorgánicas utilizadas en la elaboración de los cosméticos conociendo sus propiedades fisico químico. La ejecución del estudio se realiza a través de la aplicación de la siguiente metodología para contrastación de la hipótesis; análisis del cosmético, identificación de ...

  20. Fatal pneumoni med Panton-Valentine-leukocidinproducerende Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Peter Hedelund; Dessau, Ram Benny; Warnecke, Mads

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of fatal pneumonia in a previously healthy 14-year-old boy. The patient was severely affected at the time of admission with high fever, tachypnea, tachycardia and peripheral cyanosis. The condition worsened despite treatment with antibiotics as well as respiratory and pressure...... support. Acidosis and critical leucopenia supervened and the patient died just short of 24 hours after admission. Subsequent bacterial cultivation showed Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus....

  1. Fatal cerebral mycoses caused by the ascomycete Chaetomium strumarium.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, S P; Sigler, L; McAleer, R; McGough, D A; Rinaldi, M G; Mizell, G

    1995-01-01

    Three cases of fatal cerebral mycosis in males with prior histories of intravenous drug use from the United States and Australia are reported. Infection in each case was limited to brain abscess; no other sites of infection were observed. The fungus seen by histopathology and isolated from the brain tissue in each case was identified as Chaetomium strumarium. This is the first report of human infection by this species, and C. strumarium is the second species of Chaetomium known to cause prima...

  2. Renal involvement in fatal cases of chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Marcela; Acosta-Reyes, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Guzmán, Luis; Beltrán, Mauricio; Gasque, Philippe; Mejía-García, Carlos; Viasus, Diego

    2018-06-01

    Information regarding physiopathology and complications in fatal cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and severity of renal complications in fatal cases associated with CHIKV infection based on the clinical and histopathological features from post-mortem tissue biopsies. This retrospective study included fatal cases associated with CHIKV infection occurring from September 2014 through October 2015, reported to National System for Public Health Surveillance (SIVIGILA) and laboratory-confirmed by the National Institute of Health of Colombia. Medical records from 13 patients were available. Information was collected on history, physical examination, and haematological, biochemical, radiological, and virologic investigation reports. Diagnosis of CHIKV infection was performed by positive CHIKV-PCR on post-mortem tissue in 10 cases, positive CHIKV-PCR in serum in 6 cases and anti-CHIKV virus IgM in 2 cases. Only 3 cases were children (≤5 years old). Four cases had underlying diseases, mainly systemic arterial hypertension. The median value of creatinine at admission was 2.8 mg/dL (interquartile range 1.52-4.51). During hospitalization, 9 cases required ICU admission, 8 vasopressor support and 6 mechanical ventilation. Kidney histopathological findings were mainly acute interstitial nephritis (11 cases), congestion/oedema glomerular (10 cases) and acute tubular necrosis (5 cases). Renal impairment in fatal cases of CHIKV infection is frequent and related mainly to acute interstitial nephritis. These data demonstrate evidence of acquired kidney injuries during CHIKV infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Avoiding tragedy: lessons to be learned from a flyrock fatality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, C.W.; Clark, D. [US Department of the Interior, Knoxville, TN (United States). Office of the Field Solicitor

    1998-02-01

    The reasons for a fatality from fly rock at a Tennessee surface coal mine are discussed. Blast design was inadequate, and safety regulations were broken. The results of a US Office of Surface Mining report on this incident are discussed. Blast design had been changed without the possible consequences being considered. The blaster was imprisoned and the company had to pay exemplary damages. Blasting should not be done unless its precise effects can be calculated. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Car crash fatalities associated with fire in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viklund, Åsa; Björnstig, Johanna; Larsson, Magnus; Björnstig, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    To study the epidemiology and causes of death in fatal car crashes on Swedish roads in which the victim's vehicle caught fire. The data set is from the Swedish Transport Administrations in-depth studies of fatal crashes 1998-2008. Autopsies from all cases provided data on injuries, toxicological analyses, and cause of death. In total, 181 people died in 133 burning cars, accounting for 5 percent of all deaths in passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, vans, and minibuses during 1998 to 2008. The cause of death for a third of the victims was fire related, as burns and/or smoke inhalation injuries, with no fatal trauma injuries. Twenty-five of these 55 deaths were persons 19 years or younger and included 15 of 18 rear seat deaths. Over half of the 181 deaths were in vehicles that had collided with another vehicle and, of these cases, half were killed in collisions with heavy vehicles. The percentage of drivers with illegal blood alcohol concentrations (27%) and suicides (5.5%) were not higher than in other fatal crashes on Swedish roads. The ignition point of the fire was indicated in only half of the cases and, of those, half started in the engine compartment and one fourth started around the fuel tank or lines. Car fires are a deadly postcrash problem. Reducing this risk would be primarily a responsibility for the automotive industry. A multifactor approach could be considered as follows: risk-reducing design, insulation, reduced flammability in motor compartment fluids and plastics, and automatic fire extinguishing equipment. Inspiration could be found in how, for example, the auto racing and aviation industries handle this problem.

  5. Medical marijuana laws, traffic fatalities, and alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D. Mark; Rees, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    To date, 16 states have passed medical marijuana laws, yet very little is known about their effects. Using state-level data, we examine the relationship between medical marijuana laws and a variety of outcomes. Legalization of medical marijuana is associated with increased use of marijuana among adults, but not among minors. In addition, legalization is associated with a nearly 9 percent decrease in traffic fatalities, most likely to due to its impact on alcohol consumption. Our estimates pro...

  6. Efecto de la duración de la extinción en la reinstauración selectiva de respuestas instrumentales en función de diferentes consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Nieto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se diseñaron dos experimentos para evaluar la reinstauración selectiva de respuestas instrumentales asociadas a consecuencias diferentes (Experimento 1, y el efecto del número de sesiones de extinción en dicha reinstauración (Experimento 2. En el Experimento 1 se entrenó a dos grupos de ratas en tres fases. En la primera fase se condujeron dos sesiones diarias, en una la respuesta (R 1 se asoció con la consecuencia (C 1 y en la otra la R2 se asoció con la C2 para el Grupo Diferente, y para el Grupo Común se empleó la misma consecuencia para entrenar ambas respuestas. Posteriormente, en extinción, se descontinuó la entrega de las consecuencias. Finalmente, en la prueba se re-expuso a los sujetos a una de las consecuencias empleadas en la primera fase. En el Experimento 2 se empleó un procedimiento similar al del experimento previo, se entrenaron tres grupos (i.e. Común, Diferente C1 y Diferente C2 en cuatro fases secuenciales: Adquisición de R1, Adquisición de R2, Extinción y Prueba. En la fase de prueba se expuso a los grupos a alguna de las consecuencias empleadas durante el entrenamiento, después de 5 ó 10 sesiones de extinción. Los resultados mostraron reinstauración selectiva de respuestas en función de la consecuencia en ambos experimentos, aunque el Experimento 2 mostró reinstauración selectiva sólo cuando la prueba se realizó después de 5 sesiones de extinción, pero no cuando se emplearon 10 sesiones. Se discuten los resultados en términos de las propiedades que adquieren las consecuencias como estímulo discriminativo.

  7. La Ética condenada: una reflexión de las causas y consecuencias de su ostracismo en la enseñanza obligatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ferrari Nieto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La inclusión en el curso escolar 2008-2009 de la asignatura "Educación para la ciudadanía" en el currículo de la ESO (con una carga lectiva de una hora semanal vino acompañada de una polémica desmedida, alentada desde el ámbito político, por el temor a su posible carga dogmática, aunque el contenido ya estaba ahí antes, de modo transversal. Tres años después el debate parece cerrado (por el momento. Con lo que la cuestión ahora, con el tema reposado, podría ser atender a la - de verdad - gran damnificada por esa reforma educativa: la asignatura de Ética, en 4º ESO, que en muchas comunidades autónomas pasó de dos sesiones a una sola sesión a la semana, con la mitad de su contenido, además, enfocado al civismo. Mi propuesta es un análisis de las causas y las consecuencias del desprecio a la Ética como materia filosófica en el currículo escolar. Las causas arrancan de la incapacidad general para distinguir la ética de la moral: para entender los distintos niveles (uno filosófico, el otro no en que se mueve cada una. La consecuencia primera es, con la deslegitimación de la asignatura, la imposibilidad de motivar en el alumno una auténtica reflexión ética.

  8. The presence of harmonics in electric installations and some of its consequences; La presencia de corrientes armonicas en instalaciones electricas y algunas de sus consecuencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratu Serban, Neagu; Campero Littlewood, Eduardo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a short introduction to how the sinusoidal voltage waves are generated. A revision is made on the way of representing a distorted wave and the way of quantifying its harmonics content (harmonics distortion). An overview is made of the non-lineal consuming elements that produce distortion of the current waves. A revision is made on the concept of a power factor in conditions of waves with harmonic distortion. The consequences of feeding with distorted waves the different devices such as motors (particularly for the distortion originated by the rectifiers and the velocity electronic controls), transformers and capacitors. Mention is made of some of the methods for not to produce or for reducing the harmonic effect in the electric networks. The purpose of this article is to review the consequences on energy consumption by the presence of harmonics. [Espanol] En este articulo se hace una breve introduccion de la forma en que se generan las ondas senoidales de voltaje. Se revisa la manera de representar una onda distorsionada y la manera de cuantificar su contenido de armonicas (distorsion armonica). Se repasan los elementos consumidores no lineales que producen la deformacion de las ondas de corriente. Se revisa el concepto de factor de potencia en condiciones de ondas con distorsion armonica. Se analizan las consecuencias de alimentar con ondas distorsionadas a diferentes equipos como motores (particularmente por la distorsion originada por los rectificadores y los controladores de velocidad electronicos), transformadores y capacitores. Se mencionan algunos metodos para no producir, o reducir el efecto armonico en las redes electricas. El proposito de este articulo es revisar las consecuencias sobre el consumo de energia por la presencia de armonicas.

  9. The presence of harmonics in electric installations and some of its consequences; La presencia de corrientes armonicas en instalaciones electricas y algunas de sus consecuencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratu Serban, Neagu; Campero Littlewood, Eduardo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a short introduction to how the sinusoidal voltage waves are generated. A revision is made on the way of representing a distorted wave and the way of quantifying its harmonics content (harmonics distortion). An overview is made of the non-lineal consuming elements that produce distortion of the current waves. A revision is made on the concept of a power factor in conditions of waves with harmonic distortion. The consequences of feeding with distorted waves the different devices such as motors (particularly for the distortion originated by the rectifiers and the velocity electronic controls), transformers and capacitors. Mention is made of some of the methods for not to produce or for reducing the harmonic effect in the electric networks. The purpose of this article is to review the consequences on energy consumption by the presence of harmonics. [Espanol] En este articulo se hace una breve introduccion de la forma en que se generan las ondas senoidales de voltaje. Se revisa la manera de representar una onda distorsionada y la manera de cuantificar su contenido de armonicas (distorsion armonica). Se repasan los elementos consumidores no lineales que producen la deformacion de las ondas de corriente. Se revisa el concepto de factor de potencia en condiciones de ondas con distorsion armonica. Se analizan las consecuencias de alimentar con ondas distorsionadas a diferentes equipos como motores (particularmente por la distorsion originada por los rectificadores y los controladores de velocidad electronicos), transformadores y capacitores. Se mencionan algunos metodos para no producir, o reducir el efecto armonico en las redes electricas. El proposito de este articulo es revisar las consecuencias sobre el consumo de energia por la presencia de armonicas.

  10. Algunas consecuencias del régimen de transición contemplado en el derogado artículo 40 del Decreto 1220 de 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Gómez Rey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo de reflexión desea exponer cómo los regímenes de transición del licenciamiento ambiental colombiano han traído como consecuencia dificultades sobre la evaluación, el seguimiento y el control de las ac- tividades que impactan los recursos naturales y por ende sobre el ejercicio de derechos colectivos. Para mostrarlo se utilizará el contenido del artículo 40 del derogado De- creto 1220 de 2005 para así ver: a cómo algunas acciones adoptadas en pro y defensa del ambiente, por las entida- des que componen el Sistema Nacional Ambiental, posi- blemente comprendan conflictos de competencia, que al ser resueltos hagan nugatorias las decisiones de al menos una de las enfrentadas, y b la utilización de las compe- tencias diferenciadas (sin conflicto, las cuales tendrán como consecuencia la nugación del derecho real de uso precario (Devis, 1944 que sobre los recursos naturales se otorga a los particulares a través de las diversas autoriza- ciones administrativas ambientales. AbstractTo show how transition regimes of Colombian envi- ronmental licensing carry difficulties out on assessment, following and activities control and their impact on nat- ural resources over exercise of these collective rights are addressed in this reflection paper. The content of repealed Article 40, Decree No. 1220 dated 2005 is used to show a the actions taken within Environmental National System defending and caring of environment, making possible to figure out conflict of competences and once resolved, renders nugatory the decisions by at least one of the par- ties involved and b different competences use, which will have as a consequence the ineffectiveness real use of nat- ural resources right (Devis, 1944, throughout different environmental administrative authorizations granted to individuals. 

  11. Pedestrian fatality risk as a function of car impact speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Erik; Sander, Ulrich

    2009-05-01

    Knowledge of the amount of violence tolerated by the human body is essential when developing and implementing pedestrian safety strategies. When estimating the potential benefits of new countermeasures, the pedestrian fatality risk as a function of impact speed is of particular importance. Although this function has been analysed previously, we state that a proper understanding does not exist. Based on the largest in-depth, pedestrian accident study undertaken to date, we derive an improved risk function for adult pedestrians hit by the front of passenger cars. Our results show far lower fatality risks than generally reported in the traffic safety literature. This discrepancy is primarily explained by sample bias towards severe injury accidents in earlier studies. Nevertheless, a strong dependence on impact speed is found, with the fatality risk at 50 km/h being more than twice as high as the risk at 40 km/h and more than five times higher than the risk at 30 km/h. Our findings should have important implications for the development of pedestrian accident countermeasures worldwide. In particular, the scope of future pedestrian safety policies and research should be broadened to include accidents with impact speeds exceeding 50 km/h.

  12. Underlying causal factors associated with construction worker fatalities involving stepladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneurin Thomas James Grant

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Stepladders are frequently utilized on construction projects as a means of access to elevation. Stepladder heights commonly range from 4 feet (1.2 m to 14 feet (4.3 m. Since these heights are not extreme, there is a common misperception that stepladder use presents a low risk. On the contrary, extreme care must be exercised to ensure that work on stepladders is performed safely, as described in the conspicuously located recommendations and brightly-colored warnings that adorn virtually all newly-purchased equipment. Despite this, accidents involving stepladders occur on a regular basis.  This study was conducted to better understand the underlying causes of these accidents. The narrative descriptions of 180 stepladder-related fatalities were obtained from the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration and were analyzed to identify the at-risk behaviors that preceded the fatality incidents. The results showed that most of the incidents should have been anticipated and could have been avoided. Unsafe practices such as improper lockout-tagout of electrical equipment, loss of balance, working on a folded stepladder, over-reaching, straddling the ladder, “walking” the ladder, poor footing, and unstable/shifting ladders, among others were identified. Virtually all of these fatalities could have been avoided by adhering to the guidelines posted on the stepladders and by complying with basic safe construction practices. 

  13. The distribution of fatal risk in Ontario industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.K.; Forbes, W.F.; Hayward, L.M.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate non-radiological risks of occupational fatalities in Ontario industries. The distribution of high-risk occupations was found to vary widely between the different industries for a number of reasons including the fact that insufficient data in some instances resulted in less than desirable reliability. However, in spite of various data limitations, a number of occupations had above average fatal risk rates in several industries, including Material Handlers and Related, N.E.C. (SOC-9319), Welders and Flame Cutters (SOC-8335), Truck Drivers (SOC-9175) and Mechanics and Repairmen, except Electrical (SOC-8589). The majority of occupations had rates below or close to the industry average; however, between 15% and 30% of the occupations in any given industry had fatal risk rates above the industry average. When the number of workers involved in different occupations was considered, between 18% and 40% of workers were in occupations with above average risk. Recommendations for future work are also provided

  14. A review of drug therapy for sporadic fatal insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaee Damavandi, Pardis; Dove, Martin T; Pickersgill, Richard W

    2017-09-03

    Sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI) is a rapid progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by gradual to perpetual insomnia, followed by dysautonomia, coma and death. 1 The cause of sFI was recently mapped to a mutation in a protein, the prion, found in the human brain. It is the unfolding of the prion that leads to the generation of toxic oligomers that destroy brain tissue and function. Recent studies have confirmed that a methionine mutation at codon 129 of the human Prion is characteristic of sFI. Current treatment slows down the progression of the disease, but no cure has been found, yet. We used Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics simulation methods, to study the toxic Fatal-Insomnia-prion conformations at local unfolding. The idea was to determine these sites and to stabilise these regions against unfolding and miss-folding, using a small ligand, based on a phenothiazine "moiety". As a result we here discuss current fatal insomnia therapy and present seven novel possible compounds for in vitro and in vivo screening.

  15. Mortuary operations following mass fatality natural disasters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Madelyn; Leditschke, Jodie; Bassed, Richard; Cordner, Stephen M; Drummer, Olaf H

    2017-03-01

    This is a critical review to discuss the best practice approaches to mortuary operations in preparation for and the response to natural, mass fatality, disaster events, as identified by a review of published articles. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) Statement guided the identification of potential articles to use in this critical review. Subsequent searches were also conducted to identify articles relating to heat wave, and flood mortality. All identified peer-reviewed studies published in English which discussed the preparation and response of mortuaries to mass fatality natural disasters occurring in developed countries were included. Using the PRISMA-P method of identifying articles, 18 articles were selected for inclusion in this review. Although there are numerous articles which describe the mortuary response to mass fatality incidents, few articles analyzed the response, or discussed the roles which supported and enabled the organization to undertake the task of identifying disaster victims. It is thus difficult to determine objectively if the actions and activities outlined in the articles represent best-practice.

  16. FATAL FOETAL ABNORMALITY, IRISH CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, AND MELLET v IRELAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Londras, Fiona

    2016-12-27

    Under the Irish Constitution abortion is allowed only where the life of the pregnant woman is at risk. The provision in question, Article 40.3.3 (or the 8th Amendment) has long been criticised for failing to respect women's autonomy, and in Mellet v Ireland, the UN Human Rights Committee found that Amanda Jane Mellet, who travelled to Liverpool to access abortion following a finding that her foetus suffered a fatal abnormality, had suffered a violation of her rights under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). In this commentary I demonstrate the value of Mellet when compared to the possible legal findings in such circumstances under both the Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights, and argue that the findings are not restricted to cases of fatal foetal abnormality. Rather, the Committee's decision illustrates the suffering that all women in Ireland who travel to access abortion experience, arguably constituting a violation of their right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. On that reading, Mellet signifies the need to implement a comprehensive rethink of Irish abortion law including, but going beyond, access to abortion in cases of fatal foetal abnormality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Underlying causal factors associated with construction worker fatalities involving stepladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneurin Thomas James Grant

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Stepladders are frequently utilized on construction projects as a means of access to elevation. Stepladder heights commonly range from 4 feet (1.2 m to 14 feet (4.3 m. Since these heights are not extreme, there is a common misperception that stepladder use presents a low risk. On the contrary, extreme care must be exercised to ensure that work on stepladders is performed safely, as described in the conspicuously located recommendations and brightly-colored warnings that adorn virtually all newly-purchased equipment. Despite this, accidents involving stepladders occur on a regular basis.  This study was conducted to better understand the underlying causes of these accidents. The narrative descriptions of 180 stepladder-related fatalities were obtained from the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration and were analyzed to identify the at-risk behaviors that preceded the fatality incidents. The results showed that most of the incidents should have been anticipated and could have been avoided. Unsafe practices such as improper lockout-tagout of electrical equipment, loss of balance, working on a folded stepladder, over-reaching, straddling the ladder, “walking” the ladder, poor footing, and unstable/shifting ladders, among others were identified. Virtually all of these fatalities could have been avoided by adhering to the guidelines posted on the stepladders and by complying with basic safe construction practices.

  18. The legacy of fear: is fear impacting fatal and non-fatal drowning of African American children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Carol C; Irwin, Richard L; Ryan, Timothy D; Drayer, Joris

    2011-01-01

    African American children’s rates for fatal and non-fatal drowning events are alarmingly elevated, with some age groups having three times the rate as compared to White peers. Adequate swimming skills are considered a protective agent toward the prevention of drowning, but marginalized youth report limited swimming ability. This research examined minority children’s and parents/caregivers’ fear of drowning as a possible variable associated with limited swimming ability. Results confirmed that there were significant racial differences concerning the fear of drowning, and adolescent African American females were notably more likely to fear drowning while swimming than any other group. The “fear of drowning” responses by parents/ caregivers of minority children were also significantly different from their White counterparts.

  19. Role of motorcycle type in fatal motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Campbell, Marvin

    2010-12-01

    Motorcycles vary in design and performance capability, and motorcyclists may select certain motorcycle types based on driving preferences. Conversely, motorcycle performance capability may influence the likelihood of risky driving behaviors such as speeding. Both mechanisms may affect fatal crash risk when examined by motorcycle type. Although it was not possible to estimate the effect of each mechanism, the current study analyzed fatal crash data for evidence of motorcycle type differences in risky driving behaviors and risk of driver death. Street legal motorcycles were classified into 10 types based on design characteristics and then further grouped as cruiser/standard, touring, sport touring, sport/unclad sport, supersport, and all others. For each motorcycle type, driver death rates per 10,000 registered vehicle years and the prevalence of fatal crash characteristics such as speeding were analyzed. Differences among motorcycle types concerning the effect of engine displacement were examined using Poisson regression. Overall, driver death rates for supersport motorcycles were four times as high as those for cruiser/standard motorcycles. Fatally injured supersport drivers were most likely to have been speeding and most likely to have worn helmets, but least likely to have been impaired by alcohol compared with drivers of other motorcycle types. The patterns in driver factors held after accounting for the effects of age and gender. Increased engine displacement was associated with higher driver death rates for each motorcycle type. Strong effects of motorcycle type were observed on driver death rates and on the likelihood of risky driving behaviors such as speeding and alcohol impairment. Although the current study could not completely disentangle the effects of motorcycle type and rider characteristics such as age on driver death rates, the effects of both motorcycle type and rider age on the likelihood of risky driving behaviors were observed among fatally

  20. [Fatal occupational accidents: estimates based on more data sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasseroni, A; Chellini, E; Zoppi, O; Giovannetti, L

    2001-01-01

    The data reported by INAIL (Istituto Nazionale Assicurazione Infortuni sul Lavoro) on fatal occupational injuries have always been considered complete and reliable. The authors of this article verified the completeness of this information source crossing it with data bases existing in different registration systems (Regional Mortality Registry of Tuscany--RMR; registers and data of the Operative Units of Prevention, Hygiene and Safety in the Workplace--UOPISLL) for the period between 1992 and 1996. In the five years concerned, a total of 458 cases were reported. These cases could be considered fatal injuries at work without taking into account traffic accidents, which were not included in the present study. The results show that the most complete information source was RMR, reporting 80% of the total data, while INAIL reports only 62.2% of the total cases. On the contrary, the UOPISLL source is the least reliable. Using the capture/recapture method, the estimate of events in the period concerned (1992-1996) amounts to nearly 500 (499.8 LC 475.9-523.7), while the three sources systematically explored for the whole period (INAIL, RMR, UOSPILL) report 458 cases. An additional information source, the daily press, which could be systematically tested only two months for each of the five years, reports 10 additional cases, which were ignored by the 3 other sources, indirectly confirming in this way how reliable the performed estimate was. The main cases among the 157 fatal accidents reported by RMR, but not by INAIL, occurred among farmers (70), most of them already retired, but there were several fatal accidents reported in the construction sector (30). Other categories were included only in the RMR data because, in the period concerned, they were not covered by INAIL insurance (18 cases in the Army and Police, 7 on the railways). The survey that was carried out confirms the essential importance of INAIL data for the surveillance system applied to this phenomenon. This

  1. Different features of V?2 T and NK cells in fatal and non-fatal human Ebola infections

    OpenAIRE

    Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Romanelli, Antonella; Tumino, Nicola; Sacchi, Alessandra; Bordoni, Veronica; Casetti, Rita; Turchi, Federica; Martini, Federico; Bore, Joseph A.; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Michel, Janine; Holm, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Background Human Ebola infection is characterized by a paralysis of the immune system. A signature of ?? T cells in fatal Ebola infection has been recently proposed, while the involvement of innate immune cells in the protection/pathogenesis of Ebola infection is unknown. Aim of this study was to analyze ?? T and NK cells in patients from the Ebola outbreak of 2014?2015 occurred in West Africa, and to assess their association with the clinical outcome. Methodology/Principal findings Nineteen ...

  2. Characteristics, Classification, and Prevention of Child Maltreatment Fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarroll, James E; Fisher, Joscelyn E; Cozza, Stephen J; Robichaux, Renè J; Fullerton, Carol S

    2017-01-01

    Preventing child maltreatment fatalities is a critical goal of the U.S. society and the military services. Fatality review boards further this goal through the analysis of circumstances of child deaths, making recommendations for improvements in practices and policies, and promoting increased cooperation among the many systems that serve families. The purpose of this article is to review types of child maltreatment death, proposed classification models, risk and protective factors, and prevention strategies. This review is based on scientific and medical literature, national reports and surveys, and reports of fatality review boards. Children can be killed soon after birth or when older through a variety of circumstances, such as with the suicide of the perpetrator, or when the perpetrator kills the entire family. Death through child neglect may be the most difficult type of maltreatment death to identify as neglect can be a matter of opinion or societal convention. These deaths can occur as a result of infant abandonment, starvation, medical neglect, drowning, home fires, being left alone in cars, and firearms. Models of classification for child maltreatment deaths can permit definition and understanding of child fatalities by providing reference points that facilitate research and enhance clinical prediction. Two separate approaches have been proposed: the motives of the perpetrator and the circumstances of death of the child victim. The latter approach is broader and is founded on an ecological model focused on the nature and circumstances of death, child victim characteristics, perpetrator characteristics, family and environmental circumstances, and service provision and need. Many risk factors for maternal and paternal filicide have been found, but most often included are young maternal age, no prenatal care, low education level, mental health problems, family violence, and substance abuse. Many protective factors can be specified at the individual, family

  3. The ability of an electrocardiogram to predict fatal and non-fatal cardiac events in asymptomatic middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terho, Henri K; Tikkanen, Jani T; Kenttä, Tuomas V; Junttila, M Juhani; Aro, Aapo L; Anttonen, Olli; Kerola, Tuomas; Rissanen, Harri A; Knekt, Paul; Reunanen, Antti; Huikuri, Heikki V

    2016-11-01

    The long-term prognostic value of a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) for predicting cardiac events in apparently healthy middle-aged subjects is not well defined. A total of 9511 middle-aged subjects (mean age 43 ± 8.2 years, 52% males) without a known cardiac disease and with a follow-up 40 years were included in the study. Fatal and non-fatal cardiac events were collected from the national registries. The predictive value of ECG was separately analyzed for 10 and 30 years. Major ECG abnormalities were classified according to the Minnesota code. Subjects with major ECG abnormalities (N = 1131) had an increased risk of cardiac death after 10-years (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.7; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.1-2.5, p = 0.009) and 30-years of follow-up (HR 1.3, 95% CI, 1.1-1.5, p electrocardiogram are shown to have prognostic significance for cardiac events in elderly subjects without known cardiac disease. Our results suggest that ECG abnormalities increase the risk of fatal cardiac events also in middle-aged healthy subjects.

  4. Obesity is associated with fatal coronary heart disease independently of traditional risk factors and deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Jennifer; Murray, Heather M; Welsh, Paul; Shepherd, James; Packard, Chris; Macfarlane, Peter; Cobbe, Stuart; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed

    2011-04-01

    The effect of body mass index (BMI) on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk is attenuated when mediators of this risk (such as diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia) are accounted for. However, there is now evidence of a differential effect of risk factors on fatal and non-fatal CHD events, with markers of inflammation more strongly associated with fatal than non-fatal events. To describe the association with BMI separately for both fatal and non-fatal CHD risk after accounting for classical risk factors and to assess any independent effects of obesity on CHD risk. In the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study BMI in 6082 men (mean age 55 years) with hypercholesterolaemia, but no history of diabetes or CVD, was related to the risk of fatal and non-fatal CHD events. After excluding participants with any event in the first 2 years, 1027 non-fatal and 214 fatal CHD events occurred during 14.7 years of follow-up. A minimally adjusted model (age, sex, statin treatment) and a maximally adjusted model (including known CVD risk factors and deprivation) were compared, with BMI 25-27.4 kg/m² as referent. The risk of non-fatal events was similar across all BMI categories in both models. The risk of fatal CHD events was increased in men with BMI 30.0-39.9 kg/m² in both the minimally adjusted model (HR = 1.75 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.74)) and the maximally adjusted model (HR = 1.60 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.53)). These hypothesis generating data suggest that obesity is associated with fatal, but not non-fatal, CHD after accounting for known cardiovascular risk factors and deprivation. Clinical trial registration WOSCOPS was carried out and completed before the requirement for clinical trial registration.

  5. Análisis de las causas, características y consecuencias de la reexposición al fármaco o compuesto responsable de un episodio de hepatotoxicidad An Analysis of the causes, characteristics, and consequences of reexposure to a drug or compound responsible for a hepatotoxicity event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández-Castañer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la reexposición al agente causal constituye un incidente potencialmente grave en hepatotoxicidad. Objetivos: evaluar las características y la evolución de los casos con reexposición positiva. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo de una serie de casos con evidencia de reexposición positiva incluidos en el Registro Español de Hepatopatías Asociadas a Medicamentos, analizando su relación con variables demográficas y clínicas, causalidad, evolución y consecuencias. Resultados: de un total de 520 casos, 31 (6% cumplían los criterios de reexposición. La evolución fatal, la necesidad de hospitalización y el tiempo medio de recuperación fueron mayores en la lesión tóxica de tipo hepatocelular. El grupo farmacológico identificado con mayor frecuencia fue el de los antibióticos. En la mayoría de los casos la reexposición con el compuesto responsable fue inadvertida (73% debido a: la ausencia de diagnóstico del caso índice, la carencia de información al paciente o a su médico y también (12% por el desarrollo de una reacción cruzada entre fármacos estructuralmente similares. Conclusiones: la reexposición accidental a un mismo fármaco o a otro estructuralmente relacionado tras un primer episodio de hepatotoxicidad no es infrecuente y sus consecuencias pueden ser graves, especialmente en el tipo de lesión hepatocelular. Una minuciosa historia clínica y la sospecha diagnóstica reflejada en el informe del primer episodio podrían disminuir la incidencia de este evento iatrogénico.Introduction: reexposure to a causal agent represents a potentially serious event in hepatotoxicity. Objectives: to assess the characteristics and outcome of cases with positive reexposure. Material and methods: a retrospective study of cases with evidence of positive reexposure included in Registro Español de Hepatopatías Asociadas a Medicamentos, and an analysis of their relation to demographic and clinical variables

  6. Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: Hypotheses and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, P.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years toward better understanding the problem, the causes of bat fatalities at turbines remain unclear. In this synthesis, we review hypothesized causes of bat fatalities at turbines. Hypotheses of cause fall into 2 general categoriesproximate and ultimate. Proximate causes explain the direct means by which bats die at turbines and include collision with towers and rotating blades, and barotrauma. Ultimate causes explain why bats come close to turbines and include 3 general types: random collisions, coincidental collisions, and collisions that result from attraction of bats to turbines. The random collision hypothesis posits that interactions between bats and turbines are random events and that fatalities are representative of the bats present at a site. Coincidental hypotheses posit that certain aspects of bat distribution or behavior put them at risk of collision and include aggregation during migration and seasonal increases in flight activity associated with feeding or mating. A surprising number of attraction hypotheses suggest that bats might be attracted to turbines out of curiosity, misperception, or as potential feeding, roosting, flocking, and mating opportunities. Identifying, prioritizing, and testing hypothesized causes of bat collisions with wind turbines are vital steps toward developing practical solutions to the problem. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  7. Reporting Iraqi civilian fatalities in a time of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olander William E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In February, 2007, the Associated Press (AP conducted a poll of 1,002 adults in the United States about their attitudes towards the war in Iraq. Respondents were remarkably accurate estimating the current death toll of US soldiers, yet were grossly inaccurate in estimating the current death toll of Iraqi civilians. We conducted a search of newspapers reports to determine the extent of the discrepancy between reporting Coalition and Iraqi civilian deaths, hypothesizing that there would be an over-representation of Coalition deaths compared to Iraqi civilian deaths. Methods We examined 11 U.S. newspapers and 5 non-U.S. newspapers using electronic databases or newspaper web-archives, to record any reports between March 2003 and March 2008 of Coalition and Iraqi deaths that included a numeric indicator. Reports were described as "events" where they described a specific occurrence involving fatalities and "tallies" when they mentioned the number of deaths over a period of time. We recorded the number of events and tallies related to Coalition deaths, Iraqi civilian deaths, and Iraqi combatant deaths Results U.S. newspapers report more events and tallies related to Coalition deaths than Iraqi civilian deaths, although there are substantially different proportions amongst the different U.S. newspapers. In four of the five non-US newspapers, the pattern was reversed. Conclusion This difference in reporting trends may partly explain the discrepancy in how well people are informed about U.S. and Iraqi civilian fatalities in Iraq. Furthermore, this calls into question the role of the media in reporting and sustaining armed conflict, and the extent to which newspaper and other media reports can be used as data to assess fatalities or trends in the time of war.

  8. Repeat non-fatal suicidal behaviour at Johannesburg Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M YH Moosa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the characteristics of non-fatal suicide behaviour (NFSB in a group of patients and to determine factors, if any, that may be associated with repetition of this behaviour. Method. The study included all patients treated for NFSB at Johannesburg Hospital during the period August 2002 - October 2002. The information was gathered by means of a structured questionnaire designed to evaluate characteristics of the behaviour. Results. The study sample comprised 43 patients with NFSB (mean age 29.7 years, range of 16 - 75 years, of whom 26 (60% were female. Sixty-three per cent of the patients overdosed with medication and 33% ingested household poisons. Events that precipitated the event included relationship problems (70%, illness (12%, financial difficulties (9%, and depressed mood (9%. In 65% of patients the behaviour was impulsive. Factors associated with non-fatal repetition included being in the 18 - 30-year age group (76% (χ2 = 6.74, p < 0.05; being female (90% (χ2 = 4.75, p < 0.05; having children (90% (χ2 = 4.72, p < 0.05; a past psychiatric history (50% (χ2 = 4.08, p < 0.05; and the current attempt deemed medically serious (50% (χ2 = 6.67, p < 0.05. Conclusions. NFSB is a major problem in South Africa and the incidence is still increasing. Hospital-based interventions following admission are recommended to reduce repeat attempts in such patients. Significant factors associated with non-fatal repetition include among others, a history of a previous medically serious attempt and/or a known psychiatric illness.

  9. Fatal accidents due to train surfing in Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, H; Wirth, I; Geserick, G

    1998-06-08

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of analysing under the aspect of legal medicine, fatal accidents due to train surfing in the local transport system of Berlin (S-Bahn and underground). The period of investigation was from 1989 through 1995, with 41 train surfing accidents, among them 18 with fatal outcome. Evaluation included those 14 deaths which were forensically autopsied. It was based on autopsy records of Berlin-based university institutes (Humboldt University and Free University) as well as the Brandenburg State Institute of Legal Medicine. Also used were data obtained from the Berlin Transport Police Record. The casualties were aged between 13 and 25 years, most of them between 16 and 20. The male-female gender ratio was 13:1. Accidents occurred above all in the warmer season of the year, most of them between 20:00 h and midnight. More than 50% of all cases were affected by alcohol, but centrally acting medicaments or other addictive drugs were not noticed at all. Most of the fatal accidents occurred to users of the Berlin S-Bahn network. Older train models were the preferred surfing objects due to their structural peculiarities. Collision with close-to-track obstacles and slipping from the train proved to be the major sources of danger. An analysis of injuries revealed polytraumatisation but for one exception, with craniocerebral injuries being the most common and severest events. The longest survival time amounted to 24 h. As the psychosocial causes of high-risk behaviour of adolescents will hardly be controllable, withdrawal of technical, that is structural design possibilities appears to be the most important approach to prevention of accidents in the future. This demand is met by the new series of the Berlin S-Bahn. The model of the old series, suitable for surfing, still accounts for about 10% of the rolling stock and is to be decommissioned in 1998.

  10. Fatal defect in computerized glow curve deconvolution of thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, T.

    2001-01-01

    The method of computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) is a powerful tool in the study of thermoluminescence (TL). In a system where the plural trapping levels have the probability of retrapping, the electrons trapped at one level can transfer from this level to another through retrapping via the conduction band during reading TL. However, at present, the method of CGCD has no affect on the electron transition between the trapping levels; this is a fatal defect. It is shown by computer simulation that CGCD using general-order kinetics thus cannot yield the correct trap parameters. (author)

  11. Fatal poisoning in drug addicts in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Anni; Teige, Brita; Ceder, Gunnel

    2001-01-01

    The study includes medicolegally examined fatal poisonings among drug addicts in 1997 in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and the results are compared to a similar investigation from 1991. A common definition of ‘‘drug addict’’ was applied...... by the participating countries. The highest death rate by poisoning in drug addicts was observed in Denmark, where it was 6.54 per 105 inhabitants, followed by Norway with 6.35, Sweden with 2.21, Finland with 1.63 and Iceland with 1.20 per 105 inhabitants. All countries showed a higher death rate in 1997 than in 1991...

  12. Legionella jamestowniensis fatal pneumonia in an immunosuppressed man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Paul H

    2017-01-01

    A fatal case of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella jamestowniensis is reported in a severely immunocompromised patient with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver and kidney transplants. L. jamestowniensis was cultured from two separate respiratory tract specimens and a PCR test for Legionella species was also positive from the same specimens. This is apparently the first reported case of human infection caused by L. jamestowniensis. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fatal Lyme carditis and endodermal heterotopia of the atrioventricular node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, N. R.; Fox, B.; Wright, D. J.; Cutler, S. J.; Shapiro, L. M.; Grace, A. A.

    1990-01-01

    A fatal case of Lyme carditis occurring in a Suffolk farmworker is reported. Post-mortem examination of the heart showed pericarditis, focal myocarditis and prominent endocardial and interstitial fibrosis. The additional finding of endodermal heterotopia ('mesothelioma') of the atrioventricular node raises the possibility that this could also be related to Lyme infection and account for the relatively frequent occurrence of atrioventricular block in this condition. Lyme disease should always be considered in a case of atrioventricular block, particularly in a young patient from a rural area. The heart block tends to improve and therefore only temporary pacing may be required. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2349186

  14. [Fatal course of neonatal citrobacter infection and its legal evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokrdová, Z; Janouch, J

    2011-02-01

    The article describes fatal course of citrobacter central nervous system infection in the neonates and the subsequent legal responsibility of the medical facility. Case report with the review of a lawyer specialized in medical law. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Health Studies, University of Pardubice, Pardubice, Faculty of Military Health Science, University of Defence, Hradec Králové. The court granted plaintiff's claim has been fully paid by the insurance company, since it did not show the fault of the medical facility. Health injury was caused by operational activities and the right to compensation is in accordance with Section 420a of the Civil Code.

  15. A rare fatality due to calcified stylohyoid ligament (Eagle syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Avneesh; Aggrawal, Anil; Setia, Puneet

    2017-06-01

    The elongation or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament that leads to pressure symptoms, or entrapment of nearby glossopharyngeal nerve or carotid artery, is known as Eagle syndrome. A PubMed search leads to finding of rare fatality among the 49 reported cases. In the present case, the deceased was a 40-year-old male who choked on his food. We hypothesise that the impaction of food in the upper respiratory tract, as well as the inability to intubate the person, were both the result of the calcified stylohyoid ligament.

  16. Consecuencias del uso de cocaína en las personas que ejercen la prostitución Consequences of cocaine use among prostitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Meneses Falcón

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las circunstancias y las consecuencias del consumo de cocaína en el entorno del ejercicio de la prostitución. Material y métodos: Estudio cualitativo sobre una muestra de 60 personas, de 18-50 años de edad, que ejercen la prostitución en la calle, apartamentos y clubs de 6 ciudades españolas, mediante entrevista semiestructurada. Resultados: El alcohol y la cocaína son las principales sustancias de consumo en este contexto. Se trata de consumos ocasionales e instrumentales que permiten a las personas que ejercen la prostitución sobrellevar la actividad que realizan, resistir muchas horas la prestación de prácticas sexuales con diferentes clientes, obtener mayores beneficios económicos y eludir los servicios sexuales. Las consecuencias del consumo por parte de estas personas pueden llevar a la desprotección en las prácticas sexuales y a ser víctimas de agresión o violencia por parte del cliente. Las personas prostituidas desarrollan estrategias de disminución del consumo: reducción de las dosis de consumo, simulación del uso de drogas o selección de los clientes consumidores. Conclusiones: El estudio destaca que los consumos de drogas se encuentran asociados al contexto de realización de los servicios sexuales. Sin embargo, las consecuencias de éstos pueden implicar riesgos para la salud por la desprotección de las prácticas sexuales que demanda el cliente.Objective: To describe the circumstances and consequences of cocaine use in the setting of prostitution. Material and method: We performed a qualitative study with fieldwork in 6 Spanish cities. Semi-structured interviews were carried out to 60 persons aged between 18 and 50 years old involved in prostitution in different settings: street, flat and brothel. Results: The main substances used in prostitution were alcohol and cocaine. Consumption was occasional and instrumental and helped to reduce psychological barriers or inhibition and increase

  17. Assessing the impact of Syrian refugees on earthquake fatality estimations in southeast Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wilson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influx of millions of Syrian refugees into Turkey has rapidly changed the population distribution along the Dead Sea Rift and East Anatolian fault zones. In contrast to other countries in the Middle East where refugees are accommodated in camp environments, the majority of displaced individuals in Turkey are integrated into local cities, towns, and villages – placing stress on urban settings and increasing potential exposure to strong earthquake shaking. Yet displaced populations are often unaccounted for in the census-based population models used in earthquake fatality estimations. This study creates a minimally modeled refugee gridded population model and analyzes its impact on semi-empirical fatality estimations across southeast Turkey. Daytime and nighttime fatality estimates were produced for five fault segments at earthquake magnitudes 5.8, 6.4, and 7.0. Baseline fatality estimates calculated from census-based population estimates for the study area varied in scale from tens to thousands of fatalities, with higher death totals in nighttime scenarios. Refugee fatality estimations were analyzed across 500 semi-random building occupancy distributions. Median fatality estimates for refugee populations added non-negligible contributions to earthquake fatalities at four of five fault locations, increasing total fatality estimates by 7–27 %. These findings communicate the necessity of incorporating refugee statistics into earthquake fatality estimations in southeast Turkey and the ongoing importance of placing environmental hazards in their appropriate regional and temporal context.

  18. Assessing the impact of Syrian refugees on earthquake fatality estimations in southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bradley; Paradise, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The influx of millions of Syrian refugees into Turkey has rapidly changed the population distribution along the Dead Sea Rift and East Anatolian fault zones. In contrast to other countries in the Middle East where refugees are accommodated in camp environments, the majority of displaced individuals in Turkey are integrated into local cities, towns, and villages - placing stress on urban settings and increasing potential exposure to strong earthquake shaking. Yet displaced populations are often unaccounted for in the census-based population models used in earthquake fatality estimations. This study creates a minimally modeled refugee gridded population model and analyzes its impact on semi-empirical fatality estimations across southeast Turkey. Daytime and nighttime fatality estimates were produced for five fault segments at earthquake magnitudes 5.8, 6.4, and 7.0. Baseline fatality estimates calculated from census-based population estimates for the study area varied in scale from tens to thousands of fatalities, with higher death totals in nighttime scenarios. Refugee fatality estimations were analyzed across 500 semi-random building occupancy distributions. Median fatality estimates for refugee populations added non-negligible contributions to earthquake fatalities at four of five fault locations, increasing total fatality estimates by 7-27 %. These findings communicate the necessity of incorporating refugee statistics into earthquake fatality estimations in southeast Turkey and the ongoing importance of placing environmental hazards in their appropriate regional and temporal context.

  19. Different features of Vδ2 T and NK cells in fatal and non-fatal human Ebola infections

    OpenAIRE

    Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Romanelli, Antonella; Tumino, Nicola; Sacchi, Alessandra; Bordoni, Veronica; Casetti, Rita; Turchi, Federica; Martini, Federico; Bore, Joseph A.; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Michel, Janine; Holm, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human Ebola infection is characterized by a paralysis of the immune system. A signature of αβ T cells in fatal Ebola infection has been recently proposed, while the involvement of innate immune cells in the protection/pathogenesis of Ebola infection is unknown. Aim of this study was to analyze γδ T and NK cells in patients from the Ebola outbreak of 2014–2015 occurred in West Africa, and to assess their association with the clinical outcome. Methodology/Principal findings: ...

  20. A fatal case of hypernatraemic dehydration in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Eveline; Wilkins, Barry

    2012-09-01

    Problems with lactation can result in hypernatraemic dehydration in the neonate, with potentially severe adverse consequences. This is illustrated in this fatal case of a 10 day old neonate who presented with excessive hypernatraemic dehydration due to insufficient breast milk intake, resulting in cerebral sinus vein thrombosis with cerebral haemorrhage and infarction. Differential diagnosis included excessive sodium intake (through inappropriately mixed formula or house remedies or through hyperaldosteronism) and high water deficit (renal or gastrointestinal losses, nephrogenic or central diabetes insipidus), all of which were ruled out by specific investigations or history. No evidence was found for inborn error of metabolism. The dehydration in this baby, however, was accentuated by trans-epidermal water loss due to an ichthyosiform skin condition. This first ever reported Australian fatality from neonatal hypernatraemic dehydration supports the concern of health care professionals over rising incidences of this entity in exclusively breastfed infants, and should encourage endorsement of improved monitoring of weight loss in newborns and breastfeeding support for their mothers. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Measles Case Fatality Rate in Bihar, India, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murhekar, Manoj V.; Ahmad, Mohammad; Shukla, Hemant; Abhishek, Kunwar; Perry, Robert T.; Bose, Anindya S.; Shimpi, Rahul; Kumar, Arun; Kaliaperumal, Kanagasabai; Sethi, Raman; Selvaraj, Vadivoo; Kamaraj, Pattabi; Routray, Satyabrata; Das, Vidya Nand; Menabde, Nata; Bahl, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Background Updated estimates of measles case fatality rates (CFR) are critical for monitoring progress towards measles elimination goals. India accounted for 36% of total measles deaths occurred globally in 2011. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to estimate measles CFR and identify the risk factors for measles death in Bihar–one of the north Indian states historically known for its low vaccination coverage. Methods We systematically selected 16 of the 31 laboratory-confirmed measles outbreaks occurring in Bihar during 1 October 2011 to 30 April 2012. All households of the villages/urban localities affected by these outbreaks were visited to identify measles cases and deaths. We calculated CFR and used multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for measles death. Results The survey found 3670 measles cases and 28 deaths (CFR: 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.47–1.30). CFR was higher among under-five children (1.22%) and children belonging to scheduled castes/tribes (SC/ST, 1.72%). On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors associated with measles death were age Measles CFR in Bihar was low. To further reduce case fatality, health authorities need to ensure that SC/ST are targeted by the immunization programme and that outbreak investigations target for vitamin A treatment of cases in high risk groups such as SC/ST and young children and ensure regular visits by health-workers in affected villages to administer vitamin A to new cases. PMID:24824641

  2. Fatal thrombocytopenia: A rare case with possible explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Ramachandra; Patnaik, A. N.; Gulati, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    A 22 year old male presented with breathlessness on exertion, ecchymosis, jaundice and features of worsening right heart failure for the last fifteen days. On physical examination, he had a mid diastolic murmur in the tricuspid area and an ejection systolic murmur in the pulmonary area. Bone marrow histopathology report showed an increased in megakaryocytes count. Routine investigations reports were normal. Echocardiography and computerized tomography (CT) revealed a single mobile large intra cardiac mass originating from the right atrium and causing dynamic obstruction of the right ventricular inflow and outflow tract. Associated fatal thrombocytopenia did not respond to intravenous steroids or platelet transfusion. Patient could not be operated because of very low platelet count, and died during hospital stay before excision biopsy could be done. Pathological autopsy was not done. This is a rare case, as the fatal thrombocytopenia observed here was the result of mechanical effects like frictional and shear force, which can be attributed to the physical presence of a large intra cardiac mass resulting in obstruction to flow. PMID:22629036

  3. Emergency management and mass fatalities: who owns the dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Jim

    2009-11-01

    Mass fatality incidents are always unexpected and put a sudden stress on local response agencies to cooperate and share resources to accomplish tasks that are outside their normal activities. Lines of legal authority are often conflicting when two or more agencies are statutorily in charge. Within the USA, the local coroner system is almost universally delegated as responsible for all involved tasks including body recovery, yet the coroner is almost always the smallest responding agency, with the smallest labour pool from which to draw and the least experience of formal Incident Command System (ICS) procedures at large incidents. This paper explores the many tasks required following a mass fatality incident and the necessity for pre-event written agreements to be negotiated between local, state and federal agencies to ensure that material and personnel can be readily shared and reimbursed without bureaucratic misunderstanding in order to accomplish known objectives. Also explored are potential National Incident Management System conflicts in applying unified command to situations where legal authority and level of commitment are not synonymous.

  4. Fatal motorcycle accidents in the county of Funen (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1988-01-01

    A study of motorcycle fatalities in the period 1977-1983 in the county of Funen, Denmark was compared with an analysis of data obtained from the Accident Register at the Odense University Hospital. Among the operators killed one fifth were illegally operating the motorcycle. A remarkable statisti......A study of motorcycle fatalities in the period 1977-1983 in the county of Funen, Denmark was compared with an analysis of data obtained from the Accident Register at the Odense University Hospital. Among the operators killed one fifth were illegally operating the motorcycle. A remarkable...... statistical difference in distribution of accidents involved motorcycles and the total distribution of motorcycles in the county was reported, thus finding an over-representation of heavy motorcycles in the present study. No important differences were found in the distribution of type of accidents compared...... to other studies. In the present study all but one victim were tested for blood-alcohol concentration (BAC). The results differ from previous studies in as much as 50% of the killed operators of an accident involving motorcycles had a BAC above 0.08%. The reported distribution by age, licensing experience...

  5. Pedestrian fatalities and injuries involving Irish older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, A J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been established internationally that road traffic accidents (RTAs) involving older drivers follow clearly different patterns of timing, location and outcomes from those of younger age groups. Older pedestrians are also a vulnerable group and fewer analyses have been undertaken of the phenomenology of their injuries and fatalities. We studied the pattern of pedestrian RTAs in Ireland over a five-year period with the aim of identifying differences between older pedestrians (aged 65 or older) and younger adults. METHODS: We examined the datasets of the Irish National Road Authority (now the Road Safety Authority) from 1998-2002. We analysed patterns of crashes involving older pedestrians (aged 65) and compared them with younger adults (aged 18-64). RESULTS: Older people represented 36% (n = 134) of pedestrian fatalities and 23% of serious injuries while they only account for 19% of total RTAs. Mortality in RTA is more than doubled for older pedestrians compared to younger adults (RR 2.30). Most accidents involving older pedestrians happen in daylight with good visibility (56%) and in good weather conditions (77%). CONCLUSIONS: Older pedestrians are particularly vulnerable in RTAs. These occur more frequently during daylight hours and in good weather conditions. This may point to a need for prevention strategies that are targeted at the traffic environment and other road users rather than at older people.

  6. Animal-caused fatalities in New Mexico, 1993-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Sarah L

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate animal-caused fatalities in New Mexico using data collected during medicolegal death investigations, including toxicology, survival interval, and circumstances. A retrospective review of the computerized database and hard copies of files from a centralized, statewide medical examiner's office, excluding deaths due to zoonotic diseases and motor vehicle collisions involving animals. Between 1993 and 2004, 63 deaths caused by animals were reported in New Mexico. The majority of decedents were male (46/63, 73%) and non-Hispanic white (33/63, 52%). Horses were the most commonly implicated animals, with 43 (68%) deaths due to a person being thrown from, crushed, dragged, or kicked by a horse. Cattle caused 9 deaths (14%), dogs caused 3 (5%), and venomous animals caused 3, whereas a bear was responsible for 1 death. Ten decedents (16%) had alcohol present at the time of death, and 8 would have been over the legal blood alcohol concentration for driving (0.08%). Ten deaths (16%) were work-related and included deaths of jockeys and ranch workers. The majority of deaths (42/63, 67%) occurred in remote locations, potentially delaying access to treatment. Survival intervals ranged from 1 day to 33 years. Whereas both human and animal behavior can be difficult to predict, a review of animal-caused fatalities investigated by a medical examiner revealed that in many cases, deaths could have been prevented by either the use of protective gear or alterations in human behavior.

  7. Fatal methemoglobinemia complicating alkaptonuria (ochronosis): a rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Amanda R; Wills, Stephen M

    2018-06-01

    A 61-year-old female died in hospital with multiple organ failure 4 weeks following presentation with acute kidney injury, hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia. At autopsy, brown to black discoloration of cartilages was observed. Histology revealed brown pigmentation of the hyaline cartilage, with focal full-thickness erosion of the articular hyaline cartilage, characteristic of alkaptonuria (ochronosis). Although alkaptonuria is rarely fatal, this case illustrates a rare acute fatal complication. Accumulation of circulating homgentisic acid secondary to acute derangement of renal function is believed to have overwhelmed the endogenous antioxidant processes, resulting in hemolysis and methemoglobinemia, which were refractory to treatment. Small numbers of cases have previously been reported in the literature in patients known to suffer with the disease, all of which were preceded by acute kidney injury. Whilst the clinical diagnosis of alkaptonuria may be challenging, the autopsy findings of this rare condition are striking and this case illustrates the utility of the autopsy, albeit retrospectively, in arriving at a diagnosis. To our knowledge this is the first reported case where previously undiagnosed alkaptonuria has presented with methemoglobinemia.

  8. Traumatic asphyxia--fatal accident in an automatic revolving door.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortis, J; Falk, J; Rothschild, M A

    2015-09-01

    Due to continuing modernisation, the number of automatic doors in routine use, including powered revolving doors, has increased in recent years. Automatic revolving doors are found mostly in department stores, airports, railway stations and hospitals. Although safety arrangements and guidelines concerning the installation of automatic doors are in existence, their disregard in conjunction with obsolete or incorrect installation can lead to fatal accidents. In this report, a 19-month-old boy is described whose right arm was caught between the elements of an automatic revolving door. As a direct result of rescue attempts, the child's body was drawn further into the narrow gap between elements of the door. To get the boy's body out of the 4-cm-wide gap between the fixed outer wall of the revolving door and the revolving inner, back-up batteries had to be disconnected so as to stop the electrical motor powering the door. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was begun immediately after the rescue but was unsuccessful; the child was declared dead at the hospital he was taken to. The cause of death was a combination of compression-related skull and brain injury together with thoracic compression. This case shows an outstanding example of the preventive aspect as a special task of forensic medicine. Additionally, it serves as a warning for the correct installation and use of automatic revolving doors. Even so, small children should not use these doors on their own, but only with an alert companion, so as to prevent further fatal accidents of this sort.

  9. Electrical fatalities among U.S. construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ore, T; Casini, V

    1996-06-01

    Over 2000 electrocution deaths were identified among U.S. construction workers from 1980 to 1991, with the highest mean annual crude mortality rate (2.5 per 100,000 people), and second highest mean age-adjusted rate (2.7 per 100,000 people) of all industries. Although the crude fatality rates showed a downward trend, construction workers are still about four times more likely to be electrocuted at work than are workers in all industries combined. Nearly 40% of the 5083 fatal electrocutions in all industries combined occurred in construction, and 80% were associated with industrial wiring, appliances, and transmission lines. Electrocutions ranked as the second leading cause of death among construction workers, accounting for an average of 15% of traumatic deaths in the industry from 1980 to 1991. The study indicates that the workers most at risk of electrical injury are male, young, nonwhite, and electricians, structural metal workers, and laborers. The most likely time of injury is 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. from June to August. Focusing prevention on these populations and characteristics through better methods of worker and supervisor electrical safety training, use of adequate protective clothing, and compliance with established procedures could minimize the average annual loss of 168 U.S. construction workers.

  10. Fatal Hyperammonemic Brain Injury from Valproic Acid Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Bega

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperammonemia is known to cause neuronal injury, and can result from valproic acid exposure. Prompt reduction of elevated ammonia levels may prevent permanent neurological injury. We report a case of fatal hyperammonemic brain injury in a woman exposed to valproic acid. Case: A 38-year-old woman with schizoaffective disorder and recent increase in valproic acid dosage presented with somnolence and confusion and rapidly progressed to obtundation. Brain MRI showed diffuse bilateral restricted diffusion in nearly the entire cerebral cortex. She had normal liver function tests but serum ammonia level was severely elevated at 288 µmol/l. Genetic testing showed no mutation in urea cycle enzymes. Despite successful elimination of ammonia with hemodialysis she developed fatal cerebral edema. Conclusion: Cerebral edema secondary to hyperammonemia is potentially reversible if recognized early. Ammonia excretion can be facilitated by initiation of hemodialysis and administration of scavenging agents (sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate. Severe hyperammonemia can result from valproic acid exposure even in the absence of hepatotoxicity or inborn errors of metabolism. It is important to check serum ammonia in any patient with encephalopathy who has had recent valproic acid exposure.

  11. [Fatal alveolar haemorrhage following a "bang" of cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassin, F; André, M; Rallec, B; Combes, E; Vinsonneau, U; Paleiron, N

    2011-09-01

    The new methods of cannabis consumption (home made water pipe or "bang") may be responsible for fatal respiratory complications. We present a case, with fatal outcome, of a man of 19 years with no previous history other than an addiction to cannabis using "bang". He was admitted to intensive care with acute dyspnoea. A CT scan showed bilateral, diffuse alveolar shadowing. He was anaemic with an Hb of 9.3g/l. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed massive alveolar haemorrhage. Investigations for infection and immunological disorder were negative and toxicology was negative except for cannabis. Antibiotic treatment was given and favourable progress allowed early discharge. Death occurred 15 days later due to alveolar haemorrhage following a further "bang" of cannabis. Autopsy showed toxic alveolar haemorrhage. The probable mechanism is pulmonary damage due to acid anhydrides released by the incomplete combustion of cannabis in contact with plastic. These acids have a double effect on the lungs: a direct toxicity with severe inflammation of the mucosa leading to alveolar haemorrhage and subsequently the acid anhydrides may lead to the syndrome of intra-alveolar haemorrhage and anaemia described in occupational lung diseases by Herbert in Oxford in 1979. It manifests itself by haemoptysis and intravascular haemolysis. We draw attention to the extremely serious potential consequences of new methods of using cannabis, particularly the use of "bang" in homemade plastic materials. Copyright © 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Fatal crashes of passenger vehicles before and after adding antilock braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C M; Lund, A K; Trempel, R E; Braver, E R

    1997-11-01

    Fatal crash rates of passenger cars and vans were compared for the last model year before four-wheel antilock brakes were introduced and the first model year for which antilock brakes were standard equipment. Vehicles selected for analysis had no other significant design changes between the model years being compared, and the model years with and without antilocks were no more than two years apart. The overall fatal crash rates were similar for the two model years. However, the vehicles with antilocks were significantly more likely to be involved in crashes fatal to their own occupants, particularly single-vehicle crashes. Conversely, antilock vehicles were less likely to be involved in crashes fatal to occupants of other vehicles or nonoccupants (pedestrians, bicyclists). Overall, antilock brakes appear to have had little effect on fatal crash involvement. Further study is needed to better understand why fatality risk has increased for occupants of antilock vehicles.

  13. The New Zealand child work-related fatal injury study: 1985-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Rebbecca; Feyer, Anne-Marie; Langley, John; Wren, John

    2004-05-21

    To estimate the numbers and rates of work-related fatal injury for children under the age of 15 years. Potential cases of work-related injury deaths of persons aged workplace work-related fatalities were identified. The vast majority of children identified were fatally injured while a bystander to another person's work. Workplace bystander involvement was found to vary by age, with the majority of workers identified aged 10-14 years old. With a third of all fatalities, the agricultural industry was the most common industry for workplace work-related fatalities in children. In the period 1985-94, children New Zealand's total workplace bystander deaths. Children contribute significantly to the overall burden of work-related fatal injury in New Zealand, especially as bystanders to other people's work. The high contribution to bystander deaths by children aged <15 years suggests that hazard control in certain work settings is lacking.

  14. Alteraciones en el eje intestino-riñón durante la enfermedad renal crónica: causas, consecuencias y propuestas de tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Armando Osuna-Padilla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad renal crónica y el estado urémico se asocian con alteraciones en la permeabilidad intestinal y cambios en la microbiota intestinal, provocando una mayor producción y translocación de toxinas urémicas como sulfato de indoxilo (IS y sulfato de p-cresilo (pCS, detonando una respuesta inflamatoria. El estado inflamatorio y el incremento en concentraciones séricas de IS y pCS se han asociado con una mayor mortalidad, mayor número de eventos cardiovasculares y mayores alteraciones en el metabolismo mineral y óseo. Se han estudiado diversas estrategias nutricionales y farmacológicas para modular la microbiota intestinal y mejorar las alteraciones en la permeabilidad intestinal, entre ellas la suplementación con probióticos, prebióticos y simbióticos, modificaciones en la composición de la dieta y uso de agentes adsorbentes. El objetivo del presente trabajo es realizar una revisión de las causas de las alteraciones intestinales y de la microbiota intestinal en el paciente con enfermedad renal crónica, analizando las consecuencias de dichos cambios y las intervenciones estudiadas hasta la actualidad.

  15. Consecuencias de la Promulgación de la Ley 1150 de 2007 y del Decreto 066 de 2008 para la selección de ingenieros consultores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Suárez Montaño

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo examina las consecuencias de la Ley 1150 de 2007 y el Decreto de Ley 066 de 2008 para la consultoría en ingeniería en Colombia. Así mismo, llama la atención sobre los beneficios de la legislación reciente. El autor enfatiza las dificultades de la ley, particularmente, el caso del conflicto de intereses, la lista corta y la no exhibición del certificado de disponibilidad presupuestal de las entidades públicas para la contratación de consultoría. El autor concluye con una reflexión acerca del papel de la universidad en los procesos de contratación de consultoría./ This article examines the consequences of the Law 1150 of 2007 and the Decree 066 of 2008 to the engineering consultancy in Colombia. The author also stress the benefits of the recent legislation, but either proposes to a future legislative agenda the difficulties the law has; particularly, the case of conflict of interest, the short list, and the non-production of a certificate of availability budget by the public entities for consultancy contracts. The article concludes with a reflection on the role of the university in engineering consultancy.

  16. Relativización de la importancia de la partitura en la educación musical: unas consecuencias pedagógicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastián Ochoa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El texto plantea una mirada crítica al papel actual de la partitura convencional occidental dentro de la educación musical formal y, propone, a partir de una reflexión sobre el carácter ontológico de la partitura como herramienta de uso descriptivo y prescriptivo (siguiendo la propuesta del musicólogo Charles Seeger, tres consecuencias pedagógicas que se desprenden de relativizar la importancia de la partitura en los tiempos actuales: ampliar la noción de notación musical, privilegiar una educación musical sonoro-corporal, y hacer un uso mayor de las nuevas tecnologías de grabación y reproducción en el aula. La conclusión es que una relativización de la partitura debe llevarnos a una educación musical necesariamente menos racionalizada y más sonoro-corporal, menos leída y más vivida.

  17. La alimentación inadecuada del lactante sano y sus consecuencias THE INADEQUATE NUTRITION OF THE SOUND INFANT AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia María Díaz-Argüelles Ramírez-Corría

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El desconocimiento de prácticas y actitudes adecuadas relacionadas con la nutrición de los lactantes que tienen los profesionales a cargo de la atención de estos, es uno de los problemas que confronta la salud pública en nuestro país. Se resume la caracterización histórica de la alimentación del lactante en Cuba; en especial la relacionada con la lactancia materna exclusiva y el uso de leches para lactantes, y las consecuencias para la salud.The lack of knowledge about the adequate practices and attitudes related to the nutrition of infants on the part of the professionals in charge of their care is one of the problems faced by public health in our country. The historical characterization of the infant's nutrition in Cuba, specially that connected with exclusive breast-feeding and the use of milks for infants, as well as the consequences for health, are summarized.

  18. Unique fatality due to claw injuries in a tiger attack: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Hrishikesh; Dixit, Pradeep; Dhawane, Shailendra; Meshram, Satin; Shrigiriwar, Manish; Dingre, Niraj

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes a unique case of a fatal tiger attack in the wild. In the present case, a tiger fatally mauled a 34-year-old female with its claws, instead of the usual mechanism of killing by the bite injury to the neck. The autopsy revealed multiple fatal and non-fatal injuries caused by the tiger claws. The characteristic injuries due to the tooth impacts were absent as the teeth of the offending tiger were either fallen or non-functional. To the best of our knowledge, probably this rare case would be the first reported human fatality due to the tiger claw injuries in the world. The purpose of the present article is to highlight the fatal injuries due to the tiger claws, as the claw-induced fatal injuries in a tiger attack are not reported in the medico-legal literature. Moreover, this report would be an illustrative one for differentiation between the fatal injuries due to the claws and tooth impacts in a tiger attack. Furthermore, the present report establishes the importance of the tiger claws as a source of fatal injuries in a tiger attack. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gasoline Prices and Their Relationship to Rising Motorcycle Fatalities, 1990–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Jim P.; Hilsenrath, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among young adults. Although automobile fatalities have declined in recent years, motorcycle fatalities are rapidly increasing. The purpose of our research was to quantify the relationship between changing fuel prices and motorcycle fatalities. Our findings suggest that people increasingly rely on motorcycles to reduce their fuel costs in response to rising gasoline prices. We estimate that use of motorcycles and scooters instead of 4-wheeled vehicles results in over 1500 additional motorcycle fatalities annually for each dollar increase in gas prices. Motorcycle safety should receive more attention as a leading public health issue. PMID:19696374

  20. Results from the Hawaii domestic violence fatality review, 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobutsky, Ann; Brown, Melissa; Nakao, Lisa; Reyes-Salvail, Florentina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Patterns of domestic violence fatalities and agency responses in Hawaii have not been explicated. Methods: Retrospective reviews of events leading up to domestic violence related fatalities in Hawaii were assessed from 45 adjudicated cases that resulted in 62 fatalities for the ten year period from 2000-2009. Results: Almost one-half of the fatalities were homicide/suicide combinations. Females were disproportionately more likely to be fatal victims of domestic violence relative to their proportion in the population. Those aged 21-40 years and those over 80 years were more likely to be fatal victims of domestic violence, relative to their proportion in the population. Filipinas and ‘Other” ethnic groups are disproportionately more likely to be fatal victims of domestic violence while Native Hawaiians and Japanese are less likely to be fatal victims, relative to their proportions in the population. In more than two-thirds of the cases, the victim had made some attempt to leave the relationship prior to the fatality. Conclusions: In the majority of cases there was agency involvement in some form: either the victim alone or the perpetrator alone, or both. However, less than one-third (31.1%) of the cases over the past ten years had documentation of prior violence from medical reports, so this may be an area to further document and address domestic violence. PMID:24292165

  1. Trends in the Fractures and Fatalities of Farmyard Injuries in Ireland: A 10 year analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, MJ

    2017-01-01

    The farming and agricultural sector remains one of Ireland’s primary industries. Fatality rates remain higher than the European average. The aim of this study was to analyze the national trend in hospital in-patient admissions for farmyard related fractures and related fatalities in Ireland from 2005 to 2014. Relevant socioeconomic trends were used for comparison. There were 2,064 farm-related fractures and 187 fatalities recorded over the same period. Despite a decrease in incidence of farmyard fractures over 2005-2014, fatality rates have increased indicating the alarming continued occupational hazards and severity of sustained injuries.

  2. Prevalence of Chlorpheniramine in Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities, 1991-1996

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soper, John

    1999-01-01

    .... During fatal aircraft accident investigations, postmortem samples collected from the pilots at autopsy are submitted to the Civil Aeromedical Institute for toxicological evaluation, and the findings...

  3. Fatal accidents at railway level crossings in Great Britain 1946-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew W

    2011-09-01

    This paper investigates fatal accidents and fatalities at level crossings in Great Britain over the 64-year period 1946-2009. The numbers of fatal accidents and fatalities per year fell by about 65% in the first half of that period, but since then have remained more or less constant at about 11 fatal accidents and 12 fatalities per year. At the same time other types of railway fatalities have fallen, so level crossings represent a growing proportion of the total. Nevertheless, Britain's level crossing safety performance remains good by international standards. The paper classifies level crossings into three types: railway-controlled, automatic, and passive. The safety performance of the three types of crossings has been very different. Railway-controlled crossings are the best-performing crossing type, with falling fatal accident rates. Automatic crossings have higher accident rates per crossing than railway controlled or passive crossings, and the accident rates have not decreased. Passive crossings are by far the most numerous, but many have low usage by road users. Their fatal accident rate has remained remarkably constant over the whole period at about 0.9 fatal accidents per 1000 crossings per year. A principal reason why fatal accidents and fatalities have not fallen in the second half of the period as they did in the first half is the increase in the number of automatic crossings, replacing the safer railway controlled crossings on some public roads. However, it does not follow that this replacement was a mistake, because automatic crossings have advantages over controlled crossings in reducing delays to road users and in not needing staff. Based on the trends for each type of crossing and for pedestrian and non-pedestrian accidents separately, in 2009 a mean of about 5% of fatal accidents were at railway controlled crossings, 52% were at automatic crossings, and 43% were at passive crossings. Fatalities had similar proportions. About 60% of fatalities were

  4. Results from the Hawaii domestic violence fatality review, 2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Pobutsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Patterns of domestic violence fatalities and agency responses in Hawaii have not been explicated. Methods: Retrospective reviews of events leading up to domestic violence related fatalities in Hawaii were assessed from 45 adjudicated cases that resulted in 62 fatalities for the ten year period from 2000-2009. Results: Almost one-half of the fatalities were homicide/suicide combinations. Females were disproportionately more likely to be fatal victims of domestic violence relative to their proportion in the population. Those aged 21-40 years and those over 80 years were more likely to be fatal victims of domestic violence, relative to their proportion in the population. Filipinas and „Other” ethnic groups are disproportionately more likely to be fatal victims of domestic violence while Native Hawaiians and Japanese are less likely to be fatal victims, relative to their proportions in the population. In more than two-thirds of the cases, the victim had made some attempt to leave the relationship prior to the fatality. Conclusions: In the majority of cases there was agency involvement in some form: either the victim alone or the perpetrator alone, or both. However, less than one-third (31.1% of the cases over the past ten years had documentation of prior violence from medical reports, so this may be an area to further document and address domestic violence.

  5. Insomnia symptoms and risk for unintentional fatal injuries--the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugsand, Lars Erik; Strand, Linn B; Vatten, Lars J; Janszky, Imre; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2014-11-01

    To assess the association between insomnia symptoms and risk of fatal unintentional injuries. Population-based prospective cohort study with a mean follow-up of 14 y, linking health survey data with information on insomnia symptoms to the National Cause of Death Registry. Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. A total of 54,399 men and women 20-89 y of age who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study between 1995 and 1997. N/A. There were 277 unintentional fatal injuries, including 57 fatal motor vehicle injuries during follow-up. There was a dose-dependent association between the number of insomnia symptoms and risk of unintentional fatal injuries (P for trend 0.001) and fatal motor vehicle injuries (P for trend 0.023), respectively. The proportion of unintentional fatal injuries cases that could have been prevented in the absence of difficulties initiating sleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, and having a feeling of nonrestorative sleep were 8%, 9%, and 8%, respectively. The corresponding estimates for motor vehicle injuries were 34%, 11%, and 10%. Insomnia is a major contributor to both unintentional fatal injuries in general as well as fatal motor vehicle injuries. Increasing public health awareness about insomnia and identifying persons with insomnia may be important in preventing unintentional fatal injuries.

  6. Crash Fatality Rates After Recreational Marijuana Legalization in Washington and Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydelotte, Jayson D; Brown, Lawrence H; Luftman, Kevin M; Mardock, Alexandra L; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Coopwood, Ben; Brown, Carlos V R

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate motor vehicle crash fatality rates in the first 2 states with recreational marijuana legalization and compare them with motor vehicle crash fatality rates in similar states without recreational marijuana legalization. We used the US Fatality Analysis Reporting System to determine the annual numbers of motor vehicle crash fatalities between 2009 and 2015 in Washington, Colorado, and 8 control states. We compared year-over-year changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates (per billion vehicle miles traveled) before and after recreational marijuana legalization with a difference-in-differences approach that controlled for underlying time trends and state-specific population, economic, and traffic characteristics. Pre-recreational marijuana legalization annual changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado were similar to those for the control states. Post-recreational marijuana legalization changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado also did not significantly differ from those for the control states (adjusted difference-in-differences coefficient = +0.2 fatalities/billion vehicle miles traveled; 95% confidence interval = -0.4, +0.9). Three years after recreational marijuana legalization, changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado were not statistically different from those in similar states without recreational marijuana legalization. Future studies over a longer time remain warranted.

  7. Smallpox virus plaque phenotypes: genetic, geographical and case fatality relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Victoria A; Karem, Kevin L; Smith, Scott K; Hughes, Christine M; Damon, Inger K

    2009-04-01

    Smallpox (infection with Orthopoxvirus variola) remains a feared illness more than 25 years after its eradication. Historically, case-fatality rates (CFRs) varied between outbreaks (<1 to approximately 40 %), the reasons for which are incompletely understood. The extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) form of orthopoxvirus progeny is hypothesized to disseminate infection. Investigations with the closely related Orthopoxvirus vaccinia have associated increased comet formation (EEV production) with increased mouse mortality (pathogenicity). Other vaccinia virus genetic manipulations which affect EEV production inconsistently support this association. However, antisera against vaccinia virus envelope protect mice from lethal challenge, further supporting a critical role for EEV in pathogenicity. Here, we show that the increased comet formation phenotypes of a diverse collection of variola viruses associate with strain phylogeny and geographical origin, but not with increased outbreak-related CFRs; within clades, there may be an association of plaque size with CFR. The mechanisms for variola virus pathogenicity probably involves multiple host and pathogen factors.

  8. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of non-fatal stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A T; Lidegaard, O; Kreiner, S

    1997-01-01

    haemorrhage, 846 thromboembolic infarction, 321 transient ischaemic attack) and 3171 controls. FINDINGS: After adjustment for confounding variables and correction for the trend in sales of HRT preparations, no significant associations were detected between current use of unopposed oestrogen replacement...... influence on the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage (1.22 [0.79-1.89]), intracerebral haemorrhage (1.17 [0.64-2.13]), or thromboembolic infarction (1.17 [0.92-1.47]). A significantly increased incidence of transient ischaemic attacks among former users of HRT and among current users of unopposed oestrogen may...... to some extent be explained by selection--HRT users being more aware of symptoms than non-users. INTERPRETATION: Unopposed oestrogen and combined oestrogen-progestagen replacement therapy have no influence on the risk of non-fatal thromboembolic or haemorrhagic stroke in women aged 45-64 years....

  9. Fatal Toxoplasma gondii infection in the giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongyu; Wang, Zedong; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Caiwu; Wei, Feng; Liu, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals. We report an acute fatal T. gondii infection in the endangered giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in a zoo in China, characterized by acute gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. T. gondii infection was confirmed by immunological and molecular methods. Multilocus nested PCR-RFLP revealed clonal type I at the SAG1 and c29-2 loci, clonal type II at the SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, and L358 loci, and clonal type III at the alternative SAG2 and SAG3 loci, thus, a potential new genotype of T. gondii in the giant panda. Other possible pathogens were not detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a giant panda. © H. Ma et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  10. Fatal Neonatal Herpes Simplex Infection Likely from Unrecognized Breast Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Scott S

    2016-02-01

    Type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is very prevalent yet in rare circumstances can lead to fatal neonatal disease. Genital acquisition of type 2 HSV is the usual mode for neonatal herpes, but HSV-1 transmission by genital or extragenital means may result in greater mortality rates. A very rare scenario is presented in which the mode of transmission was likely through breast lesions. The lesions were seen by nurses as well as the lactation consultant and obstetrician in the hospital after delivery of the affected baby but not recognized as possibly being caused by herpes. The baby died 9 days after birth with hepatic failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Peripartum health care workers need to be aware of potential nongenital (including from the breast[s]) neonatal herpes acquisition, which can be lethal. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Fatal Toxoplasma gondii infection in the giant panda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals. We report an acute fatal T. gondii infection in the endangered giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca in a zoo in China, characterized by acute gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. T. gondii infection was confirmed by immunological and molecular methods. Multilocus nested PCR-RFLP revealed clonal type I at the SAG1 and c29-2 loci, clonal type II at the SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, and L358 loci, and clonal type III at the alternative SAG2 and SAG3 loci, thus, a potential new genotype of T. gondii in the giant panda. Other possible pathogens were not detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a giant panda.

  12. Fatal systemic cladosporiosis in a merino sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haligur, Mehmet; Ozmen, Ozlem; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2010-12-01

    Systemic cladosporiosis is described in 25 merino sheep from a flock consisting 250 animals. The fungal pneumonia appeared after an intensive antibiotic treatment, because of a respiratory system disorder. The pen of the flock was humid and crowded, and animals had signs of respiratory distress, coughing, fever and anorexia. All of the ill animals died, and necropsy was performed on 10 sheep. The lesions were characterized by a multifocal pyogranulomatous pneumonia and an abomasitis. Severe hemorrhages were observed in the lungs. At the histopathological examination, severe vasculitis with thrombosis was observed in various organs, especially in the lungs and abomasums, suggestive for a hematogenous dissemination of the infection in these organs. Numerous PAS-positive fungal elements were seen in the pyogranulomatous foci. Dark green fungal colonies were seen in the blood agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar that were identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides. This report highlights that phaeohyphomycosis can cause a severe systemic and fatal disease in merino sheep under insufficient management conditions.

  13. Fatal methemoglobinemia caused by liniment solutions containing sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, T; Takeichi, S; Yukawa, N; Osawa, M

    1996-01-01

    We describe a case of fatal methemoglobinemia (MetHb-emia) resulting from application of liniment solution containing large quantities of sodium nitrite. As a remedial treatment of atopic dermatitis, the liniment solution was applied all over the boy's body. Autopsy findings showed no significant macroscopic or microscopic findings except blood tinted chocolate brown color and chronic atopic dermatitis over the whole surface of the body. Quantitation of the methemoglobin (MetHb) in the blood was performed using spectrophotometer; MetHb concentration of the blood was 76%. Ion chromatographic determination revealed a nitrite concentration of 1 mg/L in the serum. Such a liniment solution is not authorized by the Ministry of Public Welfare.

  14. Trends in fatal snakebites in Venezuela, 1995-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Jesús A; Rifakis, Pedro M; Vargas, Jair A; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2007-01-01

    There have been few studies evaluating snakebite mortality in Venezuela and South America. In this study we evaluate trends in fatal snakebites occurring in Venezuela between 1995 and 2002. Epidemiological data for this study were retrieved from the records of the Ministry of Health of Venezuela. Using these data, we analyzed the impact of snakebites in Venezuela during the study period. During the study period, there were 266 reports of death due to snakebite; 79.7% were males, and 20.3% were females (P Mortality rate by age showed an age-dependent rate, with higher rates in older ages (P = .038). Snake envenomations are an important cause of injury and deaths in Venezuela as in many American countries. Surveillance of envenomations is essential for establishing guidelines, planning therapeutic supplies, and training medical staff on snakebite treatment, as well as assessing risk zones for travelers.

  15. Fatal mediastinal biopsy: How interventional radiology saves the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Yaacob

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This was a case of a 35-year-old man with mediastinal mass requiring computed tomography (CT-guided biopsy for tissue diagnosis. A posterior approach with an 18-gauge biopsy needle was used to obtain tissue sample. Post biopsy, patient condition deteriorated and multiphase CT study detected active bleeding in arterial phase at the biopsy site with massive hemothorax. Subsequent angiography showed arterial bleeder arising from the apical branch of the right pulmonary artery. Selective endovascular embolization with NBCA (n-Butyl cyanoacrylate was successful. Patient survived the complication. The case highlighted a rare complication in a common radiology procedure and the value of the interventional radiology unit in avoiding a fatal outcome.

  16. Fatal subacute liver failure after repeated administration of sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizek, David; Ribnikar, Marija; Zizek, Bogomir; Ferlan-Marolt, Vera

    2010-01-01

    Sevoflurane is a widely used halogenated inhalation anaesthetic. In comparison with other similar anaesthetics, it is not metabolized to potentially hepatotoxic trifluoroacetylated proteins. In this case report, we present a 66-year-old woman with breast carcinoma, who underwent sevoflurane general anaesthesia twice in 25 days. Soon after the second elective surgical procedure, jaundice and marked elevations in serum transaminases developed. The patient died 66 days thereafter. Autopsy results denied evidence of major cardiovascular abnormality, and histological examination confirmed massive liver cell necrosis with no feature of chronic liver injury. Sevoflurane anaesthesia was imputed as the cause after exclusion of other possible aetiological agents. Besides, coexistent malignant tumours found in the patient could have modulated the immunological response to the applied anaesthetic followed by fatal consequences.

  17. Acryloylfentanyl: Identification in seized powder and a fatal forensic case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breindahl, Torben; Kimergård, Andreas; Sejer Pedersen, Daniel

    identified in a forensic pathology case, where it was suspected to have caused a fatal overdose in combination with aspiration. This is an example of a rapidly transforming drug market, where new synthetic opioids emerge at a growing rate and cause harm. New synthetic opioids of the fentanyl class......Background Powder in a capsule seized during a smuggling attempt in a forensic psychiatric department in Denmark was analysed and unambiguously identified as the new synthetic opioid acryloylfentanyl. Shortly after, in the same geographical region, a 28-year-old male was found dead. The police...... and a forensic physician performed a crime scene investigation. The decedent was a known drug user, and he and a friend had been snorting “fentanyl and benzo”. Medico-legal autopsy was performed on the deceased and relevant samples were submitted for toxicological examination. Methods Identification...

  18. Postpartum Clostridium sordellii infection associated with fatal toxic shock syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, C; Petersen, Ina Sleimann; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2000-01-01

    Clostridium bacteria are anaerobic Gram positive spore-form-ing bacilli, known to cause distinct clinical syndromes such as botulism, tetanus, pseudomembranous colitis and myonecrosis. The natural habitats of Clostridium species are soil, water and the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans....... In 5-10% of all women, Clostridium species are also found to be normal inhabitants in the microbial flora of the female genital tract. In case of a non-sexually transmitted genital tract infection, Clostridium species are isolated in 4-20%, and clostridium welchii seems to be the most common isolate....... Clostridium sordellii is rarely encountered in clinical specimens (1% of Clostridium species), but it has been described as a human pathogen with fatal potential. Two toxins, a lethal and a hemorrhagic (that antigenically and pathophysiologically appear similar to Clostridium difficile toxins B and A...

  19. [Fatal flecainide intoxication in a 17-year-old girl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokter, M; Talarico, G; Armbrust, S; Below, E; Bockholdt, B

    2018-05-01

    A 17-year-old girl was found vomiting and somnolent at home and was taken to a hospital. The girl initially presented with ventricular tachycardia with broad QRS complexes which was very difficult to control. During the course a subsequent cardiogenic shock developed and despite exhaustion of all therapeutic options the fatal outcome could not be averted. The medicolegal autopsy revealed no evidence of any form of violence but the signs of medical treatment. Furthermore, no pathology of internal organs was detected. The toxicological analyses revealed a lethal intoxication with flecainide as the cause of death. The investigations of the police indicated that the girl took flecainide in suicidal intention.

  20. Fatal Complications of Aesthetic Techniques: The Gluteal Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapkiewicz, Amy V; Kenerson, Katherine; Hutchins, Kenneth D; Garavan, Fintan; Lew, Emma O; Shuman, Mark J

    2018-02-21

    Cosmetic procedures are common and utilize many techniques to obtain aesthetically good outcomes for patient satisfaction with acceptable safety standards. Cosmetic procedures that involve the gluteal region are becoming increasingly popular as various procedures can target the gluteal region such as liposuction, tumescent liposuction, cosmetic filler injections, autologous fat transfer, depot drug delivery, and implants. Complications of cosmetic gluteal procedures can be localized or systemic with systemic complications being responsible for most deaths. These reported systemic complications include sepsis, thromboembolism, fat embolism with or without fat embolism syndrome, macroscopic fat embolism, anesthesia-related and blood volume abnormalities. We herein report 10 deaths due to elective gluteal cosmetic procedures. Autologous fat transfer (fat grafting, lipoinjection) following liposuction resulted in 8 of 10 fatal outcomes of the gluteal aesthetic procedures. A comprehensive discussion of gluteal anatomy, gluteal contouring procedures, and the approach to such cases is presented along with the autopsy findings of the reported cases. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. FAMILY VIOLENCE – MARRIAGE VIOLENCE WITH A FATAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kostic-Banovic

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Family violence represents an especially dangerous social form of violence by means of which the rights of an individual – a member of a family – to live, to have psychic, physical and sexual integrity, freedom, security and human dignity, have been violated. The term marriage violence entails every form of physical, sexual, psychic and economic abuse of women by husbands or illegitimate partner. The family violence represents a widespread form of crime, and since it has become dramatic and dynamic during the recent years, the need for a direct forensic processing of the violence consequences within this specific and sensitive social group has arisen. In accordance with what has been outlined above, three cases of extreme, systematic and continuous marriage violence with fatal consequences of the abused women, whose bodies have been abducted at the Forensics Institute in Nis, have been presented in this paper.

  2. Pheniramine Maleate-Induced Rhabdomyolysis and Aki: Is it Fatal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, K; Reddy, M Mallikarjun; Bharathraj, M Y; Jaligidad, Kadappa; Kushal, D P

    2014-01-01

    Pheniramine maleate is an easily accessible, over-the-counterantihistaminic, which is frequently involved in overdoses. Pheniramine has antimuscarinic effect causing tachycardia, dilated pupils, urinary retention, and dry flushed skin, and decreased bowel sounds, confusion, mild increase in body temperature, cardiac arrhythmias, and seizures at lethal doses. It has not been implicated as an important cause of rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury (AKI). Rhabdomyolysis causing AKI is rarely reported in the literature. This case report emphasizes the occurrence of nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis in pheniramine maleate overdose which required hemodialysis. Since there is a lack of a specific antidote, treatment is mainly symptomatic and supportive. We report a fatal case of a young male with a very high dose of consumption of pheniramine maleate (4.077 g), which was complicated by seizures, respiratory depression, nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis, and AKI. Despite hemodialysis, ventilator support, and other intensive supportive care, patient could not survive and death ensued due to multiorgan dysfunction syndrome.

  3. Non-fatal hemorrhage from pontine vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Junkoh; Aoyama, Ikuhiro; Gi, Hidefuku; Handa, Hajime

    1982-01-01

    Pontine vascular malformations have usually been found at autopsy as an incidental finding or as a cause of a fatal hemorrhage. In recent years, however, computerized tomography (CT) has made it possible to visualize these lesions while the patinents are still alive. In this paper, we report 2 cases with non-fatal hemorrhages from pontine vascular malformation. The first case was a 31-year-old housewife with cheif complaints of a sensory disturbance of the left half of the body, double vision, nausea, and vomiting of 2 weeks' duration. CT revealed a small high-density mass, which was partially slightly contrast-enhanced, in the right lower pontine tegmentum, affecting the medial and lateral lemnisci, abducens, facial and acoustic nerves, brachium pontis, medial longitudinal fasciculus, corticospinal and corticobulbar fibers, and parepontine reticular formation. The second case was a 52-year-old female clerk with chief complaints of a sensory disturbance of the right half of the body and gait disturbance of 7 months' duration. CT revealed a small high-density mass, which was partially contrast-enhanced, in the left midpontine tegmentum, affecting the medial and lateral lemnisci, lateral spinothalamic tract, ventral ascending tract of V, and brachium pontis. Although there was no evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, both cases were deterirating progressively, probably due to tepeated small intraparenchymal hemorrhages. They were treated by radiation therapy in order to prevent further rebleeding. Fortunately, their symptoms gradually subsided, and both of them were doing well 2 years and one and a half years respectively after radiation therapy. The value of radiation therapy for this disease entity has not yet been established, but it may be worthwhile when the symptoms are worsening and there is no other suitable treatment. (J.P.N.)

  4. The risk of groundling fatalities from unintentional airplane crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K M; Rabouw, R F; Cooke, R M

    2001-12-01

    The crashes of four hijacked commercial planes on September 11, 2001, and the repeated televised images of the consequent collapse of the World Trade Center and one side of the Pentagon will inevitably change people's perceptions of the mortality risks to people on the ground from crashing airplanes. Goldstein and colleagues were the first to quantify the risk for Americans of being killed on the ground from a crashing airplane for unintentional events, providing average point estimates of 6 in a hundred million for annual risk and 4.2 in a million for lifetime risk. They noted that the lifetime risk result exceeded the commonly used risk management threshold of 1 in a million, and suggested that the risk to "groundlings" could be a useful risk communication tool because (a) it is a man-made risk (b) arising from economic activities (c) from which the victims derive no benefit and (d) exposure to which the victims cannot control. Their results have been used in risk communication. This analysis provides updated estimates of groundling fatality risks from unintentional crashes using more recent data and a geographical information system approach to modeling the population around airports. The results suggest that the average annual risk is now 1.2 in a hundred million and the lifetime risk is now 9 in ten million (below the risk management threshold). Analysis of the variability and uncertainty of this estimate, however, suggests that the exposure to groundling fatality risk varies by about a factor of approximately 100 in the spatial dimension of distance to an airport, with the risk declining rapidly outside the first 2 miles around an airport. We believe that the risk to groundlings from crashing airplanes is more useful in the context of risk communication when information about variability and uncertainty in the risk estimates is characterized, but we suspect that recent events will alter its utility in risk communication.

  5. El humo y sus consecuencias

    OpenAIRE

    Chimenos Küstner, Eduardo; López López, José, 1958-; López Jiménez, Julián

    2000-01-01

    El humo es un producto gaseoso, resultante de la combustión incompleta de diversas sustancias. En este trabajo se describen los principales componentes del humo del tabaco. También se exponen algunos aspectos relevantes del efecto producido por el humo del tabaco en las diversas estructuras anatómicas de la cavidad bucal, mediante su acción fisica (irritativa, térmica y mecánica), química y biológica. Se expresan asimismo las pautas más recomendables para evitar los efectos de este fluido....

  6. Análisis de las causas y consecuencias de los accidentes laborales ocurridos en dos proyectos de construcción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. González

    Full Text Available Las labores que se realizan en los proyectos de construcción son consideradas de alto riesgo al facilitar la ocurrencia de accidentes laborales que afectan la integridad física, mental y social de los colaboradores como la productividad de las empresas. Por tal motivo, el propósito de este artículo es analizar las causas y consecuencias de los accidentes laborales ocurridos durante el segundo semestre del año 2012 en dos proyectos de construcción de Neiva, Colombia. El alcance fue de tipo documental considerando como fuente de información los soportes de los accidentes laborales reportados ante la Administradora de Riesgo Laborales (ARL; para determinar las causas que dieron origen a dichos accidentes se utilizó el modelo de Frank E. Bird. Se analizaron 117 accidentes en los que se identificaron 195 faltas de control, 136 factores personales, 112 factores del trabajo, 151 actos inseguros y 54 condiciones inseguras; lo anterior teniendo en cuenta que en algunos accidentes se presentaron más de una causa. De esta manera se concluye que el mayor porcentaje de accidentes de trabajo, ha sido generado por faltas de control seguidos por actos inseguros. Por tal motivo se recomienda la realización de programas de gestión de riesgos prioritarios, basados en una adecuada identificación de peligros, que permitan mitigar y controlar los riesgos, desarrollando a la vez en los trabajadores una cultura de autocuidado

  7. El abuso sexual infantil: perfil del abusador, la familia, el niño víctima y consecuencias psíquicas del abuso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibeth Villanueva Sarmiento

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reflects the results of the theoretical Project funded by Colciencias: “Psycho-legal points of view on incest in Caribbean region” is linked to the objective of this project, which is to identify risk factors related to the incest perpetrator and his family. With regards to the sex abuser’s profile, family and the child victim specifically, there were psychological consequences to the victim due to the sexual abuse. In most cases of children who have suffered sexual abuse during their childhood, the abuser is a family member or someone close to the family. Incest victims feel a disruption in their development in all areas of their lives: physical, emotional, cognitive and interpersonal. Resumen El presente artículo de reflexión muestra resultados del proyecto financiado por Colciencias: “Perspectiva psicojurídica del incesto en la región Caribe”, referente al objetivo de identificar factores de riesgo en el incesto, relacionados con el victimario y su familia. Más específicamente, en lo relativo al perfil del abusador sexual, la familia y el niño víctima, así como en las consecuencias psicológicas del abuso sexual para la víctima. En la mayoría de los niños que han sufrido abuso sexual en la infancia, el abusador resulta ser un familiar directo o una persona próxima al grupo familiar. Las víctimas de incesto ven perturbadas sus posibilidades de desarrollo en todas las áreas de su vida: física, emocional, cognitiva e interpersonal.

  8. El modelo de proceso político a debate. Una explicación alternativa al origen y consecuencias del movimiento social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANA AGUILAR FERNÁNDEZ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La inicial ausencia de respuesta del gobierno del PP ante el desastroso vertido provocado por el petrolero Prestige condujo, entre otras razones, a la aparición en Galicia del movimiento social Nunca Máis. Este movimiento ha mantenido un indiscutible protagonismo en las protestas ciudadanas que, tanto a nivel regional como nacional, denunciaban la mala gestión gubernamental de la crisis ecológica y económica causada por el derrame, ampliando además su agenda a las movilizaciones en contra de la guerra en Irak en el 2003. La primera pregunta a la que se intenta responder es por qué Nunca Máis surge tan tardíamente, en el año 2002, cuando las costas gallegas han sufrido una cantidad importante de derrames de distinto tipo en las últimas tres décadas. A diferencia de Sidney Tarrow (1998, que se centra en la (favorable estructura de oportunidades políticas para explicar la aparición de las protestas, este artículo otorga una gran relevancia a la existencia de redes sociales previas y a la emergencia de agravios que se imponen súbitamente (en la forma de shock moral, que constituyó el accidente del Prestige a la hora de entender cuándo surge la movilización. Una segunda cuestión a tratar es la de las consecuencias de Nunca Máis o la de por qué el movimiento no consiguió realizar las amplias expectativas de cambio político que había generado.

  9. El aprendizaje en la era de la modulación: consecuencias del Proceso de Bolonia para la Enseñanza Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewald Terhart

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor discute a partir de su propia experiencia en diversas universidades los presupuestos, formas y repercusiones de la reestructuración de la enseñanza superior en dirección a una «modularización». Esta forma de configuración de los estudios constituye un elemento esencial en el así llamado «Proceso de Bolonia». Tras una exposición de los orígenes del concepto de modularización, el autor analiza las consecuencias y los problemas concretos derivados de la introducción de la modularización en facultades e institutos universitarios. Por lo que atañe a las universidades alemanas, esta modularización representa para muchas asignaturas un grado muy elevado de escolarización de los estudios. La reglamentación a que deben someterse tanto estudiantes como docentes se hace mucho mayor. Al mismo tiempo, también aumenta el potencial conflictivo en el seno del profesorado. Dado que la modularización provoca un crecimiento muy notable tanto de la demanda de clases, como de las tareas burocráticas que conllevan los exámenes y la extensión de certificados, pero ello sin que pueda esperarse un aumento paralelo de personal docente, la modularización incide notablemente en la configuración del puesto de trabajo del profesor universitario 

  10. Spatial clustering of fatal, and non-fatal, suicide in new South Wales, Australia: implications for evidence-based prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Michelle; Konings, Paul; Batterham, Philip J; Christensen, Helen

    2017-10-06

    Rates of suicide appear to be increasing, indicating a critical need for more effective prevention initiatives. To increase the efficacy of future prevention initiatives, we examined the spatial distribution of suicide deaths and suicide attempts in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to identify where high incidence 'suicide clusters' were occurring. Such clusters represent candidate regions where intervention is critically needed, and likely to have the greatest impact, thus providing an evidence-base for the targeted prioritisation of resources. Analysis is based on official suicide mortality statistics for NSW, provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and hospital separations for non-fatal intentional self-harm, provided through the NSW Health Admitted Patient Data Collection at a Statistical Area 2 (SA2) geography. Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were applied to detect suicide clusters occurring between 2005 and 2013 (aggregated), for persons aged over 5 years. The final dataset contained 5466 mortality and 86,017 non-fatal intentional self-harm cases. In total, 25 Local Government Areas were identified as primary or secondary likely candidate regions for intervention. Together, these regions contained approximately 200 SA2 level suicide clusters, which represented 46% (n = 39,869) of hospital separations and 43% (n = 2330) of suicide deaths between 2005 and 2013. These clusters primarily converged on the Eastern coastal fringe of NSW. Crude rates of suicide deaths and intentional self-harm differed at the Local Government Areas (LGA) level in NSW. There was a tendency for primary suicide clusters to occur within metropolitan and coastal regions, rather than rural areas. The findings demonstrate the importance of taking geographical variation of suicidal behaviour into account, prior to development and implementation of prevention initiatives, so that such initiatives can target key problem areas where they are likely to have

  11. Typhoid fever complicated by intestinal perforation: a persisting fatal disease requiring surgical management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, T.; Knight, J.; Nath, S. K.; Speelman, P.; Roy, S. K.; Azad, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    In Bangladesh, clinical records of 323 patients with typhoid fever were reviewed to study the incidence, fatality, and optimal therapy of the complication of intestinal perforation. Fifteen patients (4.6%) developed intestinal perforation. Case-fatality rates were six of nine patients treated

  12. Reflections on involuntary treatment in the prevention of fatal anorexia nervosa: A review of five cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Janni Schmidt; Brixen, Kim; Andries, Alin

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Involuntary treatment in the prevention of fatal anorexia nervosa (AN) is still controversial. METHOD: Five fatal cases of AN were identified out of 1,160 patients who attended a specialized eating disorder unit between 1994 and 2006. Information on inpatient, ambulatory, and emergency...

  13. Fatal haemoptysis from the pulmonary artery as a late complication of pulmonary irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makker, H.K.; Barnes, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Fatal massive haemoptysis occured as a late complication of erosion of the pulmonary artery by a non-malignant ulcer of the left main bronchus. Symptoms attributed to radiation pulmonary fibrosis are uncommon. We report a case of fatal massive haemoptysis in a patient known to have postirradiation pulmonary fibrosis. (author)

  14. Cilia-associated bacteria in fatal Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica frequently causes nonfatal tracheobronchitis, but its role in fatal pneumonia is less well-studied. The objectives of this study were to identify the frequency of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in fatal cases of bronchopneumonia in dogs and cats and to compare the diag...

  15. Lake tourism fatalities: a 46-year history of death at Lake Powell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates tourist mortality at Lake Powell over a 46-year period. To date no comprehensive long-term investigation examining the relationship between the lake environment and tourist mortality exists. A retrospective study was conducted of all tourist fatalities between 1959 and 2005. There were 351 fatal incidents resulting in 386 deaths between 1959 and 2005. Over the 46-year period, the average number of fatalities was 8.4 (±5.26) per year. Out of all fatalities, 282 were classified as accidental, 80 were classified as natural deaths, 13 were suicides and 5 were classified as homicides. Males accounted for 80% of fatalities and tourists aged 20-29 years and 10-19 years accounted for 36% of all fatalities. The highest number of fatalities was recorded in July (74), May (64), August (63) and June (59). Out of all accidental deaths, boating (29%) and swimming (22%) were the most common pre-death activities. High winds capsizing boats and carbon monoxide poisoning from boat engines were common factors contributing to 31 boating fatalities. Fatigue and exhaustion contributed to 22 swimming deaths. Recreational boating and swimming account for over half of all accidental deaths. Tourists visiting Lake Powell for recreational purposes should be informed of the risks associated with the lake environment.

  16. Effects of urban sprawl and vehicle miles traveled on traffic fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jiho; Park, Sungjin; Jang, Kitae

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that urban sprawl increases auto-dependency and that excessive auto use increases the risk of traffic fatalities. This indirect effect of urban sprawl on traffic fatalities is compared to non-vehicle miles traveled (VMT)-related direct effect of sprawl on fatalities. We conducted a path analysis to examine the causal linkages among urban sprawl, VMT, traffic fatalities, income, and fuel cost. The path diagram includes 2 major linkages: the direct relationship between urban sprawl and traffic fatalities and the indirect effect on fatalities through increased VMT in sprawling urban areas. To measure the relative strength of these causal linkages, path coefficients are estimated using data collected nationally from 147 urbanized areas in the United States. Through both direct and indirect paths, urban sprawl is associated with greater numbers of traffic fatalities, but the direct effect of sprawl on fatalities is more influential than the indirect effect. Enhancing traffic safety can be achieved by impeding urban sprawl and encouraging compact development. On the other hand, policy tools reducing VMT may be less effective than anticipated for traffic safety.

  17. Individual and occupational factors related to fatal occupational injuries: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Vicent; Garcia, Ana M

    2011-01-01

    This study has been designed in order to identify factors increasing the risk of a fatal outcome when occupational accidents occur. The aim is to provide further evidence for the design and implementation of preventive measures in occupational settings. The Spanish Ministry of Labour registry of occupational injuries causing absence from work includes information on individual and occupational characteristics of injured workers and events. Registered fatal occupational injuries in 2001 (n=539) were compared to a sample of non-fatal injuries in the same year (n=3493). Risks for a fatal result of occupational injuries, adjusted by individual and occupational factors significantly associated, were obtained through logistic regression models. Compared to non-fatal injuries, fatal occupational injuries were mostly produced by trapping or by natural causes, mostly related to elevation and transport devices and power generators, and injured parts of body more frequently affected were head, multiple parts or internal organs. Adjusted analyses showed increased risk of fatality after an occupational injury for males (adjusted odds ratio aOR=10.92; 95%CI 4.80-24.84) and temporary workers (aOR=5.18; 95%CI 2.63-10.18), and the risk increased with age and with advancing hour of the work shift (p for trends accidents in agricultural or construction companies. These data can help to select and define priorities for programmes aimed to prevent fatal consequences of occupational injuries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fatal cutaneous mycosis in tentacled snakes caused by the chrysosporium anamorph of nannizziposis vriesii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Crawshaw, Graham J.; Sigler, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    The fungus Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii was identified as the caurse of fatal, multifocal, heterophilic dermatitis in for freshwater aquatic captive-bred tentacled snakes......The fungus Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii was identified as the caurse of fatal, multifocal, heterophilic dermatitis in for freshwater aquatic captive-bred tentacled snakes...

  19. An oxcarbazepine-related fatality with an overview of 26 oxcarbazepine postmortem cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K.; Steentoft, A.; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese

    2008-01-01

    We present an oxcarbazepine-related fatality together with an overview of 26 postmortem cases involving oxcarbazepine observed during the period 2001-2006. The fatality case concerned a 27-year-old woman with epilepsy, who was found dead in her bed. Oxcarbazepine and its active metabolite, 10-hyd...

  20. Subarachnoid haemorrhage in Sweden 1987-2002 : regional incidence and case fatality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffijberg, H.; Buskens, E.; Granath, F.; Adami, J.; Ekbom, A.; Rinkel, G. J. E.; Blomqvist, P.

    Background: Incidence estimates of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in Sweden vary, which may be caused by regional variations. Reliable estimates of age-specific case fatality rates are lacking. We analysed regional incidence rates and case fatality rates of SAH in Sweden. Methods: The Swedish

  1. Roles of Fatalism and Parental Support in the Relationship between Bullying Victimization and Bystander Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiqiong; Chen, Peter Y.; Chen, Fu-Li; Wu, Wen-Chi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how past bullied victims engage two types of bystander behaviors (defender and outsider) when they witness bullying situations.We also investigate if fatalism mediates the relationship between past victimization and two bystander behaviors. Finally, we test if parental support moderates the relationship between fatalism and…

  2. Are markers of inflammation more strongly associated with risk for fatal than for nonfatal vascular events?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sattar, Naveed

    2009-06-23

    Circulating inflammatory markers may more strongly relate to risk of fatal versus nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, but robust prospective evidence is lacking. We tested whether interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen more strongly associate with fatal compared to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke.

  3. Do Blue Laws Save Lives? The Effect of Sunday Alcohol Sales Bans on Fatal Vehicle Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovenheim, Michael F.; Steefel, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of state-level Sunday alcohol sales restrictions ("blue laws") on fatal vehicle accidents, which is an important parameter in assessing the desirability of these laws. Using a panel data set of all fatal vehicle accidents in the U.S. between 1990 and 2009 combined with 15 state repeals of blue laws, we show that…

  4. Fatal gunshots to the head and neck regions in Benin City, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the magnitude of fatal gunshot injuries to the head and neck in Benin City. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study of fatal gun shots to the head and neck region with respect to age, sex, intent for the gunshots, type of gun, area of the head and neck affected and who did the ...

  5. Co-Infection of Rickettsia rickettsii and Streptococcus pyogenes: Is Fatal Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Underdiagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczniak, Gregory A.; Kato, Cecilia; Chung, Ida H.; Austin, Amy; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Weis, Erica; Levy, Craig; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria S.; Mitchell, Audrey; Bjork, Adam; Regan, Joanna J.

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is challenging to diagnose and rapidly fatal if not treated. We describe a decedent who was co-infected with group A β-hemolytic streptococcus and R. rickettsii. Fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever may be underreported because they present as difficult to diagnose co-infections. PMID:25331804

  6. Seeking Information after the 2010 Haiti Earthquake: A Case Study in Mass-Fatality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kailash

    2013-01-01

    The 2010 earthquake in Haiti, which killed an estimated 316,000 people, offered many lessons in mass-fatality management (MFM). The dissertation defined MFM in seeking information and in recovery, preservation, identification, and disposition of human remains. Specifically, it examined how mass fatalities were managed in Haiti, how affected…

  7. Cirrus Airframe Parachute System and Odds of a Fatal Accident in Cirrus Aircraft Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaziz, Mustafa; Stolfi, Adrienne; Olson, Dean M

    2017-06-01

    General aviation (GA) accidents have continued to demonstrate high fatality rates. Recently, ballistic parachute recovery systems (BPRS) have been introduced as a safety feature in some GA aircraft. This study evaluates the effectiveness and associated factors of the Cirrus Airframe Parachute System (CAPS) at reducing the odds of a fatal accident in Cirrus aircraft crashes. Publicly available Cirrus aircraft crash reports were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database for the period of January 1, 2001-December 31, 2016. Accident metrics were evaluated through univariate and multivariate analyses regarding odds of a fatal accident and use of the parachute system. Included in the study were 268 accidents. For CAPS nondeployed accidents, 82 of 211 (38.9%) were fatal as compared to 8 of 57 (14.0%) for CAPS deployed accidents. After controlling for all other factors, the adjusted odds ratio for a fatal accident when CAPS was not deployed was 13.1. The substantial increased odds of a fatal accident when CAPS was not deployed demonstrated the effectiveness of CAPS at providing protection of occupants during an accident. Injuries were shifted from fatal to serious or minor with the use of CAPS and postcrash fires were significantly reduced. These results suggest that BPRS could play a significant role in the next major advance in improving GA accident survival.Alaziz M, Stolfi A, Olson DM. Cirrus Airframe Parachute System and odds of a fatal accident in Cirrus aircraft crashes. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):556-564.

  8. Road traffic fatalities in selected governorates of Iraq from 2010 to 2013: prospective surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidman, Eva; Maliniak, Maret; Sultan, Abdul-Salam Saleh; Hassan, Ahmed; Hussain, Syed Jaffar; Bilukha, Oleg O

    2016-01-01

    The insurgency tactics that characterize modern warfare, such as suicide car bombs and roadside bombs, have the potential to significantly impact road traffic injuries in conflict affected-countries. As road traffic incidents are one of the top ten causes of death in Iraq, changes in incidence have important implications for the health system. We aimed to describe patterns of road traffic fatalities for all demographic groups and types of road users in Iraq during a period characterized by a resurgence in insurgency activity. Iraqi Ministry of Health routine prospective injury surveillance collects information on all fatal injuries in eight governorates of Iraq: Baghdad, Al-Anbar, Basrah, Erbil, Kerbala, Maysan, Ninevah, and Al-Sulaimaniya. From all injury fatalities documented at the coroner office, we analyzed only those attributed to road traffic that occurred between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013. Coroners ascertain information from physical examinations, police reports and family members. Analysis included 7,976 road traffic fatalities. Overall, 6,238 (78.2 %) fatalities were male and 2,272 (28.5 %) were children under 18 years of age. The highest numbers of road traffic fatalities were among males 15 to 34 years of age and children of both sexes under 5 years of age. 49.2 % of fatalities occurred among pedestrians. Among children and females, the majority of road traffic fatalities were pedestrians, 69.0 % and 56.6 %, respectively. Fatalities among motorcyclists (3.7 %) and bicyclists (0.4 %) were least common. Rates of road traffic fatalities ranged from 8.6 to 10.7 per 100,000 population. The injury surveillance system provides the first data from a conflict-affected country on road traffic fatalities disaggregated by type of road user. The highest numbers of fatalities were among children and young men. Nearly half of fatalities were pedestrians, a proportion nearly double that of any neighboring country. As insurgency activity increased in

  9. Determination of the Main Influencing Factors on Road Fatalities Using an Integrated Neuro-Fuzzy Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Masoud Rahimi

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposed an integrated algorithm of neuro-fuzzy techniques to examine the complex impact of socio-technical influencing factors on road fatalities. The proposed algorithm could handle complexity, non-linearity and fuzziness in the modeling environment due to its mechanism. The Neuro-fuzzy algorithm for determination of the potential influencing factors on road fatalities consisted of two phases. In the first phase, intelligent techniques are compared for their improved accuracy in predicting fatality rate with respect to some socio-technical influencing factors. Then in the second phase, sensitivity analysis is performed to calculate the pure effect on fatality rate of the potential influencing factors. The applicability and usefulness of the proposed algorithm is illustrated using the data in Iran provincial road transportation systems in the time period 2012-2014. Results show that road design improvement, number of trips, and number of passengers are the most influencing factors on provincial road fatality rate.

  10. Review of fatal and severe cases of box jellyfish envenomation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaikruea, Lakkana; Siriariyaporn, Potjaman; Wutthanarungsan, Rochana; Smithsuwan, Punnarai

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to describe severe and fatal cases of box jellyfish stings in Thailand. Medical records were reviewed and patients, relatives, health staffs, and witnesses were interviewed. The pictures of suspected box jellyfish were sent via e-mail to experts in the toxic jellyfish network for further identification. There were at least 8 cases of box jellyfish envenomation, with 4 fatal and 4 near-fatal cases. There were an equal number of male and female patients from 4 to 26 years of age. In each case, there was immediate severe pain followed by systemic reactions. Immediately after exposure to the sting, 7 victims collapsed experiencing severe pain at the tentacle marks, respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest. All patients had tentacle marks on their bodies. In none of the fatal cases was vinegar applied to the tentacle marks as first aid, but 3 out of the 4 near-fatal cases were treated with a vinegar application. © 2012 APJPH.

  11. Road Accidents and Road Fatalities in Denmark from 1968 to 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the road accidents and road fatalities in Denmark in the period 1968-2004. Only accidents registered by the police were used. Crude and gender & age specific fatality rates (counts per 1,000,000 inhabitants) were estimated for all road users...... and for bicyclists. The accident and fatality rates have decreased by around 70% from 1968 to 2004, while the motorisation rate has increased by approximately 90%. The sharpest decrease in the fatality rate was observed among the youngest (below 18 years old) and the older (above 64) road users. Gender related...... and actions targeted to improve road safety have indeed led to a significant reduction in injury accidents and fatalities. Further research and more detailed data, especially on traffic volume and individual exposure are necessary in order to investigate properly a causal relation between the number...

  12. Analyses of fatalities from natural catastrophes in different income groups over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Identifying not only economic and insured losses but also numbers of fatalities from natural catastrophes provides new information on resilience and prevention measures in the countries affected. In this talk, we examine how fatalities from Munich Re's NatCatSERVICE database, caused by natural disasters have developed. In addition to the standard approach based on fatalities by country, we introduced a new measure, "fatalities per million inhabitants", and factored in population development over time. The World Bank definition was used to determine the wealth classification of individual countries. This methodology enables us to compare countries with different population sizes and thus produce an index for humanitarian impact. The analyses are key information on ascertaining whether prevention measures or early-warning systems have in fact reduced the number of fatalities in recent decades (1980-2016).

  13. Features of fatal injuries in older cyclists in vehicle-bicycle accidents in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Shoko; Hitosugi, Masahito

    2018-01-02

    The purpose of this study was to identify and better understand the features of fatal injuries in cyclists aged 75 years and over involved in collisions with either hood- or van-type vehicles. This study investigated the fatal injuries of cyclists aged 75 years old and over by analyzing accident data. We focused on the body regions to which the fatal injury occurred using vehicle-bicycle accident data from the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) in Japan. Using data from 2009 to 2013, we examined the frequency of fatally injured body region by gender, age, and actual vehicle travel speed. We investigated any significant differences in distributions of fatal injuries by body region for cyclists aged 75 years and over using chi-square tests to compare with cyclists in other age groups. We also investigated the cause of fatal head injuries, such as impact with a road surface or vehicle. The results indicated that head injuries were the most common cause of fatalities among the study group. At low vehicle travel speeds for both hood- and van-type vehicles, fatalities were most likely to be the result of head impacts against the road surface. The percentage of fatalities following hip injuries was significantly higher for cyclists aged 75 years and over than for those aged 65-74 or 13-59 in impacts with hood-type vehicles. It was also higher for women than men in the over-75 age group in impacts with these vehicles. For cyclists aged 75 years and over, wearing a helmet may be helpful to prevent head injuries in vehicle-to-cyclist accidents. It may also be helpful to introduce some safety measures to prevent hip injuries, given the higher level of fatalities following hip injury among all cyclists aged 75 and over, particularly women.

  14. Fatal injuries among grounds maintenance workers: United States, 2003--2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    A total of 1,142 grounds maintenance workers (GMWs) were fatally injured at work during 2003--2008, an average of 190 each year. GMWs accounted for 3.4% of all occupational fatalities, and 31% of those GMWs were Hispanic or Latino. Approximately 83% of the Hispanic or Latino GMWs who died were born outside the United States. In 2008, approximately 1.52 million persons were employed as GMWs, constituting 1.0% of the U.S. workforce. During 2003--2007, an average of 13.3 per 100,000 employed GMWs died each year, compared with an overall rate of 4.0 fatalities per 100,000 U.S. workers. The rate of on-the-job fatal injuries among GMWs has remained elevated relative to other workers for >20 years. This report characterizes events leading to GMW fatalities and differences in fatality characteristics across demographic groups among GMWs, based on an evaluation of 2003--2008 data from the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) program. The report also identifies workplace interventions that might reduce the incidence of fatal injuries. Major events leading to GMW occupational fatalities included transportation incidents (31%), contact with objects and equipment (25%), falls (23%), and traumatic acute exposures to harmful substances or environments (e.g., electrocution and drowning) (16%). To reduce the incidence of such fatalities, employers, trade and worker associations, and policy makers should focus on effective, targeted workplace safety interventions such as frequent hazard identification and training for specific hazards. Diversity among the populations of workers requires use of culture- and language-appropriate training techniques as part of comprehensive injury and illness prevention programs.

  15. Mass-Fatality Incident Preparedness Among Faith-Based Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Qi; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Gershon, Robyn R

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Members of faith-based organizations (FBOs) are in a unique position to provide support and services to their local communities during disasters. Because of their close community ties and well-established trust, they can play an especially critical role in helping communities heal in the aftermath of a mass-fatality incident (MFI). Faith-based organizations are considered an important disaster resource and partner under the National Response Plan (NRP) and National Response Framework; however, their level of preparedness and response capabilities with respect to MFIs has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to develop appropriate measures of preparedness for this sector; (2) to assess MFI preparedness among United States FBOs; and (3) to identify key factors associated with MFI preparedness. Problem New metrics for MFI preparedness, comprised of three domains (organizational capabilities, operational capabilities, and resource sharing partnerships), were developed and tested in a national convenience sample of FBO members. Data were collected using an online anonymous survey that was distributed through two major, national faith-based associations and social media during a 6-week period in 2014. Descriptive, bivariate, and correlational analyses were conducted. One hundred twenty-four respondents completed the online survey. More than one-half of the FBOs had responded to MFIs in the previous five years. Only 20% of respondents thought that roughly three-quarters of FBO clergy would be able to respond to MFIs, with or without hazardous contamination. A higher proportion (45%) thought that most FBO clergy would be willing to respond, but only 37% thought they would be willing if hazardous contamination was involved. Almost all respondents reported that their FBO was capable of providing emotional care and grief counseling in response to MFIs. Resource sharing partnerships were typically in place with other voluntary

  16. Investigation of fatalities due to acute gasoline poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María A; Ballesteros, Salomé

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents a simple, rapid, reliable, and validated method suited for forensic examination of gasoline in biological samples. The proposed methodology has been applied to the investigation of four fatal cases due to gasoline poisoning that occurred in Spain in 2003 and 2004. Case histories and pathological and toxicological findings are described in order to illustrate the danger of gasoline exposure under several circumstances. Gasoline's tissular distribution, its quantitative toxicological significance, and the possible mechanisms leading to death are also discussed. The toxicological screening and quantitation of gasoline was performed by means of gas chromatography (GC) with flame-ionization detection, and confirmation was performed using GC-mass spectrometry in total ion chromatogram mode. m,p-Xylene peak was selected to estimate gasoline in all biological samples. Gasoline analytical methodology was validated at five concentration levels from 1 to 100 mg/L. The method provided extraction recoveries between 77.6% and 98.3%. The limit of detection was 0.3 mg/L, and the limit of quantitation was 1.0 mg/L. The linearity of the blood calibration curves was excellent with r2 values of > 0.997. Intraday and interday precisions had a coefficient of variation inhalation of gasoline vapor inside a small enclosed space. Case 3 is a death by recreational gasoline inhalation in a male adolescent. Heart blood concentrations were 28.4, 18.0, and 38.3 mg/L, respectively; liver concentrations were 41.4, 52.9, and 124.2 mg/kg, respectively; and lung concentrations were 5.6, 8.4, and 39.3 mg/kg, respectively. Case 4 was an accidental death due to gasoline ingestion of a woman with senile dementia. Peripheral blood concentration was 122.4 mg/L, the highest in our experience. Because pathological findings were consistent with other reports of gasoline intoxication and constituents of gasoline were found in the body, cause of death was attributed to acute gasoline

  17. Fatal atypical reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golombeck Stefanie Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome – a reversible subacute global encephalopathy clinically presenting with headache, altered mental status, visual symptoms such as hemianopsia or cortical blindness, motor symptoms, and focal or generalized seizures – is characterized by a subcortical vasogenic edema symmetrically affecting posterior brain regions. Complete reversibility of both clinical signs and magnetic resonance imaging lesions is regarded as a defining feature of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome is almost exclusively seen in the setting of a predisposing clinical condition, such as pre-eclampsia, systemic infections, sepsis and shock, certain autoimmune diseases, various malignancies and cytotoxic chemotherapy, transplantation and concomitant immunosuppression (especially with calcineurin inhibitors as well as episodes of abrupt hypertension. We describe for the first time clinical, radiological and histological findings in a case of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome with an irreversible and fatal outcome occurring in the absence of any of the known predisposing clinical conditions except for a hypertensive episode. Case presentation A 58-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a two-week history of subacute and progressive occipital headache, blurred vision and imbalance of gait and with no evidence for raised arterial blood pressure during the two weeks previous to admission. Her past medical history was unremarkable except for controlled arterial hypertension. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated cortical and subcortical lesions with combined vasogenic and cytotoxic edema atypical for both venous congestion and arterial infarction. Routine laboratory and cerebrospinal fluid parameters were normal. The diagnosis of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome was established. Within hours after

  18. Natural History of Tuberculosis: Duration and Fatality of Untreated Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV Negative Patients: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, Edine W.; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Williams, Brian G.; Nagelkerke, Nico J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prognosis, specifically the case fatality and duration, of untreated tuberculosis is important as many patients are not correctly diagnosed and therefore receive inadequate or no treatment. Furthermore, duration and case fatality of tuberculosis are key parameters in interpreting

  19. Natural history of tuberculosis: duration and fatality of untreated pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV negative patients: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; van der Werf, M.J.; Borgdorff, M.W.; Williams, B.G.; Nagelkerke, N.J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The prognosis, specifically the case fatality and duration, of untreated tuberculosis is important as many patients are not correctly diagnosed and therefore receive inadequate or no treatment. Furthermore, duration and case fatality of tuberculosis are key parameters in interpreting

  20. Fatal disseminated cryptococcosis and concurrent ehrlichiosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, M G; Doyle, A S; Reyers, F; Kruse, T; Fabian, B

    1987-12-01

    Laboratory findings in an adult bull terrier presented with a history of anorexia and weight loss included the following: severe anaemia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, Ehrlichia canis morulae in monocytes, hypergammaglo-bulinaemia, a bleeding tendency, icterus and proteinuria. In addition, a high Haemobartonella canis parasitaemia, non-encapsulated yeasts on urinalysis and a localised Demodex canis infestation were present. Treatment for ehrlichiosis was initiated but the dog died. Lesions found were a severe cryptococcal granulomatous pneumonia and cryptococcal colonies in the lungs, bronchial lymph nodes, kidneys, liver, spleen, heart, meninges, eyes and thoracic cavity. In addition, hyphal forms resembling Filobasidiella neoformans, the teleomorph of Cryptococcus neoformans, were seen in lung fine needle aspiration smears, impression smears and lung sections. C. neoformans was cultured from urine, lung and liver. Lung and kidney also yielded Salmonella typhimureum. Cortical atrophy with T-cell depletion of lymph nodes as well as splenic lymphoid follicular atrophy, typical of chronic ehrlichiosis-induced cell mediated immunosuppression, could have predisposed to the fatal disseminated cryptococcis.

  1. A whiff of death: fatal volatile solvent inhalation abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffee, C H; Davis, G J; Nicol, K K

    1996-09-01

    Inhalation abuse of volatile solvents, previously known generically as "glue sniffing," is typically pursued by adolescents. A wide range of legal, easily obtained products containing volatile substances are available for abuse. We report two illustrative cases of fatal volatile substance abuse: gasoline sniffing in a 20-year-old man and aerosol propellant gas inhalation (aerosol air freshener) in a 16-year-old girl with underlying reactive airway disease. Although the ratio of deaths to nonfatal inhalation escapades is extremely low, volatile solvent abuse carries the risk of sudden death due to cardiac arrest after a dysrhythmia or vasovagal event, central nervous system respiratory depression, hypoxia and hypercapnia due to the techniques of inhalation, and other mechanisms. Investigation of the patient's substance abuse history, examination of the scene of death, and special toxicologic analyses are critical to identifying volatile substance inhalation abuse as the cause of death because anatomic autopsy findings will typically be nonspecific. Above all, physicians must suspect the diagnosis of volatile substance inhalation abuse, especially in any case of sudden death involving an otherwise healthy young person.

  2. Fatal Yellow Fever in Travelers to Brazil, 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Davidson H; Angelo, Kristina; Caumes, Eric; van Genderen, Perry J J; Florescu, Simin A; Popescu, Corneliu P; Perret, Cecilia; McBride, Angela; Checkley, Anna; Ryan, Jenny; Cetron, Martin; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2018-03-23

    Yellow fever virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes yellow fever, an acute infectious disease that occurs in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. Most patients with yellow fever are asymptomatic, but among the 15% who develop severe illness, the case fatality rate is 20%-60%. Effective live-attenuated virus vaccines are available that protect against yellow fever (1). An outbreak of yellow fever began in Brazil in December 2016; since July 2017, cases in both humans and nonhuman primates have been reported from the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro, including cases occurring near large urban centers in these states (2). On January 16, 2018, the World Health Organization updated yellow fever vaccination recommendations for Brazil to include all persons traveling to or living in Espírito Santo, São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro states, and certain cities in Bahia state, in addition to areas where vaccination had been recommended before the recent outbreak (3). Since January 2018, 10 travel-related cases of yellow fever, including four deaths, have been reported in international travelers returning from Brazil. None of the 10 travelers had received yellow fever vaccination.

  3. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identifiable problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four-year pe......, results suggest the necessity of designing education campaigns for parents, promoting information campaigns for road users and allocating resources for infrastructural interventions and law enforcement in order to address the identified major problems.......-year period between 2003 and 2006. Results show the existence of five pedestrian accident patterns: (i) elderly pedestrians crossing on crosswalks far from intersection in metropolitan areas; (ii) pedestrians crossing suddenly or from hidden places and colliding with two-wheel vehicles on urban road sections......; (iii) male pedestrians crossing at night and being hit by four-wheel vehicles on rural road sections; (iv) young male pedestrians crossing at night wide road sections in both urban and rural areas; (v) children and teenagers crossing road sections in small rural communities. From the policy perspective...

  4. Fatal cerebral mycoses caused by the ascomycete Chaetomium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, S P; Sigler, L; McAleer, R; McGough, D A; Rinaldi, M G; Mizell, G

    1995-10-01

    Three cases of fatal cerebral mycosis in males with prior histories of intravenous drug use from the United States and Australia are reported. Infection in each case was limited to brain abscess; no other sites of infection were observed. The fungus seen by histopathology and isolated from the brain tissue in each case was identified as Chaetomium strumarium. This is the first report of human infection by this species, and C. strumarium is the second species of Chaetomium known to cause primary brain infection. Chaetomium strumarium is unusual among members of the genus Chaetomium in forming ascocarps covered with pale, thin-walled, flexuous hairs, a feature leading to its original placement in the genus Achaetomium. Presence of pinkish exudate droplets and/or crystals associated with hyphae or ascocarps, sometimes accompanied by a pinkish diffusible pigment; good growth at 42 degrees C; and production of small conidia further distinguish this species. The brain abscess isolates were compared with isolates from prior cases of cerebral infection which had been identified as either Chaetomium atrobrunneum or Chaetomium globosum. With reidentification of one isolate originally identified as C. globosum to C. atrobrunneum, only C. strumarium and C. atrobrunneum have been confirmed to cause infection involving the brain.

  5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome masking a fatal metabolic disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, Marianne

    2013-05-01

    Disorders of fatty acid oxidation are rare but can be fatal. Hypoglycaemia with acidosis is a cardinal feature. Cases may present during early childhood or can be delayed into adolescence or beyond. We present a case of multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD), an extremely rare disorder of fatty acid oxidation. Our 20-year-old patient presented with cardiovascular collapse, raised anion gap metabolic acidosis and non-ketotic hypoglycaemia. She subsequently developed multi-organ failure and sadly died. She had a previous diagnosis of cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) for more than 10 years, warranting frequent hospital admissions. The association between CVS and MADD has been made before though the exact relationship is unclear. All patients with persistent severe CVS should have metabolic investigations to exclude disorders of fatty acid oxidation. In case of non-ketotic hypoglycaemia with acidosis, the patient should be urgently referred to a specialist in metabolic diseases. All practitioners should be aware of these rare disorders as a cause of unexplained acidosis.

  6. Fatal pesticide intoxication - case report of a 2 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej Tkaczyk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides is a collective term for a group of chemicals used predominantly in agriculture and against vectors in vectorborne diseases such as malaria, filariasis, etc. Organophosphates (OP have become nowadays the most widely used pesticides among the world. However, they are very highly toxic to humans. Poisoning with OP is a life - threatening condition. It is responsible for the symptoms due to a cholinergic effects. The Acetylcholinesterase (ACHE enzyme inhibition leads to an acetylcholine accumulation, which causes symptoms such as diarrhea, sweating, vomiting, small pupils, muscle tremors, increased saliva and tears production and confusion. Other type of pesticides are also common used in agriculture. Glyphosate is a broad‐spectrum systemic herbicide used to kill weeds. It is promoted by the manufacturer as having no risks to human health. We present two patients with a fatal pesticide poisoning. First patient drank OP agent, which was decanted in a non-original bottle. Despite the intensive treatment, including high doses of atropine, and toxogonine, patient died after 6 days due to acute respiratory failure. The second one, tried to commit suicide by drinking 2 glasses of a pesticide called ‘Roundap’ (glyphosate. Short time after admission to a hospital, a myocardial infarction occurred. The patient died the same day, due to a cardiac arrest.

  7. Pembrolizumab-induced myasthenia gravis: A fatal case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Katherine L; Samarin, Michael J; Sodhi, Amik; Owens, Ryan E

    2018-03-01

    Purpose Pembrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody which inhibits the programmed cell death 1 receptor, has been shown to efficaciously enhance pre-existing immune responses to malignancies. However, safety concerns must also be considered as pembrolizumab use has been associated with several life-threatening immune-related adverse events (irAEs). We report a fatal case of pembrolizumab-induced myasthenia gravis in a patient with no prior myasthenia gravis history. Case report A 63-year-old male presented with right eyelid drooping, puffiness, blurred vision, and shortness of breath two weeks after an initial infusion of pembrolizumab. He was subsequently diagnosed with new onset acetylcholine-receptor positive myasthenia gravis. Despite aggressive treatment with corticosteroids, pyridostigmine, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis, the patient clinically deteriorated and ultimately expired from acute respiratory failure after a 12-day hospitalization. Discussion Current package labeling for pembrolizumab warns against various irAEs associated with its use including pneumonitis, colitis, and endocrinopathies. To date, only one case of new onset myasthenia gravis and two case reports of myasthenia gravis exacerbation have been identified. This case further highlights the mortality risk associated with development of irAEs. Conclusion While rare, evidence for the development of MG associated with pembrolizumab is growing. Prompt recognition of symptoms and discontinuation of pembrolizumab is necessary to help improve prognosis.

  8. Fatal anoxia due to rachacha consumption: Two cases reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteil-Ganiere, Catherine; Gaulier, Jean-Michel; Chopineaux, Daniel; Barrios, Lucia; Pineau, Alain; Dailly, Éric; Clément, Renaud

    2014-12-01

    Deaths due to ingesting rachacha, which is a homemade paste obtained by decocting poppy heads, are very rare. No fatalities have been recorded in scientific publications. This product is not considered to be very dangerous by its users. We are reporting the first deaths (a 30-year-old man and a 28-year-old woman), after ingesting rachacha balls and alcohol consumption during an evening with a friend. Signs compatible with acute anoxia were observed during autopsy. Toxicological analyses highlighted the presence of morphine and codeine in the blood, urine and bile, with an absence of 6-acetylmorphine. Concomitant consumption of alcohol certainly played a role in the occurrence of death. The black paste found at the scene was identified as rachacha. The mean of consumption (orally) was confirmed by the presence of morphine and codeine in the gastric contents of both victims. The analysis of hair samples was performed to reveal the substance consumption history. Therefore, a possibility of contamination by sweat and/or putrefactive liquids in the post-mortem period must be considered for the interpretation of the results. These two cases show that taking rachacha can be dangerous, especially when combined with the consumption of substances which could potentiate respiratory depression induced by morphine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Anesthesia unrelated triggering of a fatal malignant hyperthermia crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthoff, D; Vonderlind, C

    1997-12-01

    For incidents of malignant hyperthermia (MH) outside the hospital, a high number of unrecorded cases must be reckoned with because of an insufficient knowledge of emergency services and poor identification and documentation that make it impossible to classify acute situations under the diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia crisis. As a result, there are no statistical data in this field, and only case reports with a broad spectrum of suspected trigger mechanisms have been published. The case described in this report is a proved example of a non-anesthesia-related triggering of MH in a 21-year-old man who had had an anesthetic-induced MH manifestation in childhood, which was confirmed with an in vitro contracture test. After visiting a restaurant, he became unconscious and convulsive after consuming a high level of alcohol (2.9/1000). The first cardiocirculatory arrest occurred directly before hospitalization. After admission, the patient showed a full-blown MH episode whose subsequent fatality was unavoidable in spite of adapted and optimal therapy. Suspected trigger mechanisms seem to be multifactoral (excessive alcohol consumption, over-heating, mental stress) as a forensic investigation did not point to any particular signs of typical trigger substances. The case demonstrates again that an MH attack might be triggered under certain non-anaesthesia-related situations. For patients with an MH disposition, additional information on their behavior outside the hospital is required.

  10. Near fatal pulmonary embolism in a 16-year-old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farlow, D.; Field, L.

    1992-01-01

    Acute pulmonary thrombo-embolism (PE) may present with a variety of clinical problems; patients with this condition may range from being asymptomatic to acutely unwell, with sudden death being at the extreme end of the spectrum. This case report of a young man with PE demonstrates the scintigraphic features of massive, near-fatal embolism. On transfer to the Nuclear Medicine Department, the patient's blood pressure was unrecordable, the heart rate was 150/min, there was deep cyanosis despite 100 per cent oxygen and the pupils were fixed and dilated. A limited perfusion scan was obtained using 76 MBq of 99m Tc-MAA (Technescan MAA, Mallinckrodt), with an estimated 260 000 MAA particles being injected directly into a peripheral vein. Anterior and posterior images showed perfusion only to a small portion of the left upper lobe. The patient recovered quickly following embolectomy resulting in removal of a large amount of thrombus from both pulmonary arteries. It has been thus demonstrated that the perfusion scan is a rapid and safe method of confirming suspected massive PE prior to surgery. 4 refs., 2 figs

  11. Ciprofloxacin and Clozapine: A Potentially Fatal but Underappreciated Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Clozapine provides a 50%–60% response rate in refractory schizophrenia but has a narrow therapeutic index and is susceptible to pharmacokinetic interactions, particularly with strong inhibitors or inducers of cytochrome P450 (CYP 1A2. Case Report. We report the case of a 28-year-old nonsmoking female with intellectual disability who was maintained for 3 years on clozapine 100 mg orally twice daily. The patient was treated for presumptive urinary tract infection with ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally twice daily and two days later collapsed and died despite resuscitation efforts. The postmortem femoral clozapine plasma level was dramatically elevated at 2900 ng/mL, and the cause of death was listed as acute clozapine toxicity. Conclusion. Given the potentially fatal pharmacokinetic interaction between clozapine and ciprofloxacin, clinicians are advised to monitor baseline clozapine levels prior to adding strong CYP450 1A2 inhibitors, reduce the clozapine dose by at least two-thirds if adding a 1A2 inhibitor such as ciprofloxacin, check subsequent steady state clozapine levels, and adjust the clozapine dose to maintain levels close to those obtained at baseline.

  12. The relationship between gasoline price and patterns of motorcycle fatalities and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P

    2015-06-01

    Economic factors such as rising gasoline prices may contribute to the crash trends by shaping individuals' choices of transportation modalities. This study examines the relationship of gasoline prices with fatal and non-fatal motorcycle injuries. Data on fatal and non-fatal motorcycle injuries come from California's Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System for 2002-2011. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regressions were used to estimate the impact of inflation-adjusted gasoline price per gallon on trends of motorcycle injuries. Motorcycle fatalities and severe and minor injuries in California were highly correlated with increasing gasoline prices from 2002 to 2011 (r=0.76, 0.88 and 0.85, respectively). In 2008, the number of fatalities and injuries reached 13,457--a 34% increase since 2002, a time period in which inflation-adjusted gasoline prices increased about $0.30 per gallon every year. The majority of motorcycle riders involved in crashes were male (92.5%), middle-aged (46.2%) and non-Hispanic white (67.9%). Using ARIMA modelling, we estimated that rising gasoline prices resulted in an additional 800 fatalities and 10,290 injuries from 2002 to 2011 in California. Our findings suggest that increasing gasoline prices led to more motorcycle riders on the roads and, consequently, more injuries. Aside from mandatory helmet laws and their enforcement, other strategies may include raising risk awareness of motorcyclists and investment in public transportation as an alternative transportation modality to motorcycling. In addition, universally mandated training courses and strict licensing tests of riding skills should be emphasised to help reduce the motorcycle fatal and non-fatal injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Modeling the effect of operator and passenger characteristics on the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Kashani, Ali; Rabieyan, Rahim; Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In Iran more than 25% of crash fatalities belong to motorcycle operators and passengers in the recent years, from which about 20% are related to passenger fatalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the motorcycle operator and passenger characteristics as well as other contributory factors that may affect the fatality risk of motorcyclists involved in traffic crashes. To this end, motorcycle crash data between 2009 and 2012 was extracted from Iran traffic crash database and a logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain odds ratio estimates for each of the study variables. The fatality risk of motorcyclists has a direct relationship with the number of pillion passengers carried. Results also indicate that the amount of increase in the likelihood of having a fatality in a motorcycles crash is considerably higher when the operator is accompanied by a male passenger of the same age. Furthermore, results showed that if the crash is occurred in the darkness, on curves, in rural areas and on highways, then the crash would be more likely to be fatal. Moreover, the head-on collisions, older operators, unlicensed operators and not using a safety helmet were found to increase the likelihood of a fatality in a motorcycle crash. Preventative measures such as, imposing stricter rules regarding safety helmet usage and confining the number of pillion passengers to one, might be implemented to reduce the fatality risk in motorcycle crashes. In addition, more appropriate infrastructures for penalizing offending motorcyclists could also reduce the frequency of law violations such as not wearing helmet or riding without motorcycle license, which in turn, would result into a reduction in the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes. © 2016 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  14. Factors associated with the severity of fatal accidents in construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandeh, Farideh; Kabir-Mokamelkhah, Elaheh; Kahani, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Construction work (building houses, roads, workplaces, and repairing and maintaining infrastructures) is a dangerous land-based job. This includes many hazardous tasks and conditions such as working at the following conditions: Height, excavation, noise, dust, power tools and equipment. Construction work has been increased in developed and underdeveloped countries over the past few years. Occupational fatalities have increased with an increase in this type of work. Occupational fatalities refer to individuals who pass way while on the job or performing work related tasks. In the present study, to identify the factors, personal characteristics and work-related factors associated with fatal occupational mortality were assessed using data for Tehran, Iran, 2014-2016. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study, using 967 postmortem reports from fatal occupational injuries collected through postmortem investigations during 2014-2016. A sampling frame of 967 postmortem reports from fatal occupational injuries was used to draw a total sample of 714 fatal construction accidents for this cross-sectional study. Pearson χ2 test and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Based on the results of this study, male gender (n=714; 100%), age range of 30-39 years (n=183; 25.6%), secondary educational level (n=273; 38.2%), being married (317; 44.4%), causal employee (n=389; 54.5%), unskilled performance (389; 54.5%), no insurance coverage (472; 66.1%), and daytime duty work (287; 40.2%) were identified as risk factors for fatality in the event of construction fatal injury. A significant relationship was found between the type of injury and sociodemographic and work related variables. Conclusion: Workers' characteristics such as age, gender, experience, and educational background, and work related variables such as skill training, safety measurement, and close monitoring could be used to discriminate among different severity levels of

  15. Factors Associated with Fatal Occupational Accidents among Mexican Workers: A National Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Delgado, Mery; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Robles, Eduardo; Borja, Víctor H.; Aguilar, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the factors associated with fatal occupational injuries in Mexico in 2012 among workers affiliated with the Mexican Social Security Institute. Methods Analysis of secondary data using information from the National Occupational Risk Information System, with the consequence of the occupational injury (fatal versus non-fatal) as the response variable. The analysis included 406,222 non-fatal and 1,140 fatal injuries from 2012. The factors associated with the lethality of the injury were identified using a logistic regression model with the Firth approach. Results Being male (OR=5.86; CI95%: 4.22-8.14), age (OR=1.04; CI95%: 1.03-1.06), employed in the position for 1 to 10 years (versus less than 1 year) (OR=1.37; CI95%: 1.15-1.63), working as a facilities or machine operator or assembler (OR: 3.28; CI95%: 2.12- 5.07) and being a worker without qualifications (OR=1.96; CI95%: 1.18-3.24) (versus an office worker) were associated with fatality in the event of an injury. Additionally, companies classified as maximum risk (OR=1.90; CI 95%: 1.38-2.62), workplace conditions (OR=7.15; CI95%: 3.63-14.10) and factors related to the work environment (OR=9.18; CI95%:4.36-19.33) were identified as risk factors for fatality in the event of an occupational injury. Conclusions Fatality in the event of an occupational injury is associated with factors related to sociodemographics (age, sex and occupation), the work environment and workplace conditions. Worker protection policies should be created for groups with a higher risk of fatal occupational injuries in Mexico. PMID:25790063

  16. Fatal alcohol-related traffic crashes increase subsequent to changes to and from daylight savings time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, G J; Davis, J W; Hicks, R A

    1998-06-01

    On the hypothesis that sleepiness and alcohol interact to increase the risk of alcohol-related traffic fatalities, the percentages of alcohol-related fatal traffic crashes were assessed for the entire state of New Mexico for the years 1989-1992, for each of the seven days that preceded the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time and for each of the 14 days which followed the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time. Consistent with our hypothesis the percentage of alcohol-related fatal crashes increased significantly during the first seven days after these changes in Daylight Savings Time.

  17. The extent of evidence-based information about child maltreatment fatalities in social science textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Emily M; Serino, Patricia J

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has established that child welfare workers lack important information about child maltreatment fatalities and risk factors leading to death. Further, training has not been associated with improvements in knowledge. The authors assessed the presence of evidence-based information about child maltreatment fatalities and risk factors for death in 24 social science textbooks about child abuse and neglect or child welfare. The results indicate that basic information, such as definitions and incidence rates of child maltreatment fatalities are routinely included in social science textbooks, but information about child, parent, and household risk factors are not, and that inaccurate information is often included. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Apoptosis in fatal Ebola infection. Does the virus toll the bell for immune system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baize, S; Leroy, E M; Mavoungou, E; Fisher-Hoch, S P

    2000-02-01

    In fatal Ebola virus hemorrhagic fever massive intravascular apoptosis develops rapidly following infection and progressing relentlessly until death. While data suggest that T lymphocytes are mainly deleted by apoptosis in PBMC of human fatal cases, experimental Ebola infection in animal models have shown some evidence of destruction of lymphocytes in spleen and lymph nodes probably involving both T and B cells. Nevertheless, we are able to conclude from the accumulated evidence that early interactions between Ebola virus and the immune system, probably via macrophages, main targets for viral replication, lead to massive destruction of immune cells in fatal cases.

  19. Epidemiology of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Sari, Iran in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Yazdani Charati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: Road traffic injuries are one of the most important health problems in recent communities that annually takes the lives of more than 12,000 people around the world. The present study examined the epidemiology of fatal traffic accidents in Sari, Mazandaran province, Iran, in  2014. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted using the information about the people who died due to traffic accidents during early April 2014-March 2015. This information was taken from the Mazandaran Legal Medicine Center. All the required information was collected using the checklist. The age and gender of the population were obtained from the Statistical Center of Iran, which was collected in the population census carried out in 2014. Data analysis was performed using Excel 2013.Results: According to the results, a total of 112 individuals had died due to traffic accidents in Sari, 76 cases of whom were male (68%. The highest number of deaths was found to be between the ages of 15 and 24 years old. Sari-Kaiser and Sari-Juybar road had the maximum (19 cases and minimum (two cases numbers of death, respectively. In addition, the spring and winter with 35 and 19 killed had the most and least numbers of death in Sari in 2014. Conclusion: As the findings of the present study indicated, Sari has a high rate of accidents, particularly among the young people. Regarding this, some measures such as ratifying strict rules, increasing vehicle safety, as well as improving culture and education, especially among the children and adolescents should be taken to reduce this rate.

  20. A fatal case of thallium toxicity: challenges in management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyaz, R; Pandalai, S L; Schwartz, M; Kazzi, Z N

    2013-03-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic compound and is occasionally involved in intentional overdoses or criminal poisonings. Accidental poisonings also occur, but are increasingly rare owing to restricted use and availability of thallium. We report a fatal suicidal ingestion of thallium sulfate rodenticide in which multi-dose activated charcoal (MDAC) and Prussian Blue (PB) were both used without changing the outcome. A 36 year old man ingested an unknown amount of thallium sulfate grains from an old rodenticide bottle. He presented to an emergency department (ED) 45 minutes later with abdominal pain and vomiting. On examination he was agitated with a blood pressure of 141/60 mmHg and a heart rate of 146 beats per minute (bpm). He received MDAC during his initial ED management and was started on PB 18 hours post arrival; he was intubated on the following day for airway protection. The patient continued to be tachycardic and hypertensive and subsequently developed renal failure. On hospital day three, the patient developed hypotension that did not respond to fluids. The patient required vasopressors and was transferred to a tertiary care center to undergo continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The patient died shortly after his transfer. His last blood thallium concentration was 5369 mcg/L, a spot urine thallium >2000 mcg/L, and a 24- hour urine thallium was >2000 mcg/L. Though extremely rare, thallium intoxication can be lethal despite early administration of MDAC and use of Prussian blue therapy. Rapid initiation of hemodialysis can be considered in cases of severe thallium poisoning, to remove additional thallium, to correct acid-base disturbance, or to improve renal function.

  1. Predictions of space radiation fatality risk for exploration missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A; To, Khiet; Cacao, Eliedonna

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we describe revisions to the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model focusing on updates to probability distribution functions (PDF) representing the uncertainties in the radiation quality factor (QF) model parameters and the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF). We integrate recent heavy ion data on liver, colorectal, intestinal, lung, and Harderian gland tumors with other data from fission neutron experiments into the model analysis. In an earlier work we introduced distinct QFs for leukemia and solid cancer risk predictions, and here we consider liver cancer risks separately because of the higher RBE's reported in mouse experiments compared to other tumors types, and distinct risk factors for liver cancer for astronauts compared to the U.S. The revised model is used to make predictions of fatal cancer and circulatory disease risks for 1-year deep space and International Space Station (ISS) missions, and a 940 day Mars mission. We analyzed the contribution of the various model parameter uncertainties to the overall uncertainty, which shows that the uncertainties in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors at high LET due to statistical uncertainties and differences across tissue types and mouse strains are the dominant uncertainty. NASA's exposure limits are approached or exceeded for each mission scenario considered. Two main conclusions are made: 1) Reducing the current estimate of about a 3-fold uncertainty to a 2-fold or lower uncertainty will require much more expansive animal carcinogenesis studies in order to reduce statistical uncertainties and understand tissue, sex and genetic variations. 2) Alternative model assumptions such as non-targeted effects, increased tumor lethality and decreased latency at high LET, and non-cancer mortality risks from circulatory diseases could significantly increase risk estimates to several times higher than the NASA limits. Copyright © 2017 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR

  2. Fatal road traffic accidents in Mauritius (2006 – 2011) – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2016-01-13

    Jan 13, 2016 ... seven hundred and seventy seven (777) fatal road traffic accidents were reported during ... the influence of alcohol, riding without restraint, poor vehicle maintenance ..... emphasize on the road posters signal rules and regular ...

  3. Driver alcohol involvement in fatal crashes by age group and vehicle type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The data in this research note demonstrate that while the overall proportion of passenger vehicle drivers with alcohol in fatal crashes is lower in older age groups, the median blood : alcohol concentration (BAC) is generally higher for those age gro...

  4. The effectiveness of automatic belts in reducing fatality rates in Toyota Cressidas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, C E

    1989-12-01

    Toyota Cressidas have had motor driven automatic belts since 1981. Their observed use rates have been consistently close to 100%. This paper compares fatality rates in Toyota Cressidas with those in the similar Nissan Maximas (which are equipped with three-point manual belts) using the latest data from the Fatal Accident Reporting System. After making adjustments for differences in the average ages of front seat occupants of the two fleets, the Toyotas have a fatality rate that is about three-quarters that of the Nissans. From this, the fatality-reducing effectiveness for the Toyota automatic belts is estimated to be 40% with an uncertainty of +/- 8%. This effectiveness estimate is consistent with earlier estimates of automatic belt effectiveness.

  5. The incidence of multiple fatality accidents in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, R.F.; Fryer, L.S.

    1978-03-01

    The report presents a compilation of available data showing the frequency of occurrence of accidents resulting in multiple fatalities in the United Kingdom (or Great Britain, as the data permits). Frequency vs. number-of-fatalities graphs are plotted for the following five classes of fatalities:- persons killed in fires in the UK; crew members of UK registered ships; railway passengers in Great Britain; passengers of aircraft on the British register; occupants of Public Service Vehicles in Great Britain. The information needed to compile a more comprehensive set of graphs was found to be unobtainable. The report concludes with the suggestion that procedures for reporting and recording details of fatal accidents should be reviewed. (author)

  6. Analysis of Construction Fatalities - The OSHA Data Base 1985-1989

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    .... Statistics from the OSHA data base are compared with construction fatality data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the National Safety Council.

  7. Effectiveness of antilock braking systems in reducing motorcycle fatal crash rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R

    2011-04-01

    Overbraking and underbraking have been shown to be common factors in motorcycle crashes. Antilock braking systems (ABS) prevent wheels from locking during braking and may make riders less reluctant to apply full braking force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ABS in fatal motorcycle crashes. Motorcycle drivers involved in fatal crashes per 10,000 registered vehicle years were compared for 13 motorcycle models with optional ABS and those same models without the option during 2003-2008. Motorcycles with optional ABS were included only if the presence of the option could be identified from the vehicle identification number. The rate of fatal motorcycle crashes per 10,000 registered vehicle years was 37 percent lower for ABS models than for their non-ABS versions. ABS appears to be highly effective in preventing fatal motorcycle crashes based on some early adopters of motorcycle ABS technology.

  8. Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huso, Manuela M. P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Hayes, John P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This report details an experiment on the effectiveness of changing wind turbine cut-in speed on reducing bat fatality from wind turbines at the Casselman Wind Project in Somerset County, Pennsylvania.

  9. Fatal varicella in immigrants from tropical countries: Case reports and forensic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnini, Gianni; Lo Baido, Simone; Poli, Francesca; Govi, Annamaria; Borin, Sveva; Fais, Paolo; Pelotti, Susi

    2018-05-01

    The primary Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) infection results in varicella, a generally benign, self-limiting disease in immunocompetent children. Despite the usual course a possible fatal evolution of the primary infection is observed predominantly in immunocompromised subjects and in adults, especially emigrating from tropical regions. Two cases of fatal varicella have been investigated and discussed. Death occurred in two patients over 40 years of age, coming from South Asia and receiving chronic immunosuppressive therapy. The forensic expert must be cautious and consider all clinical records in managing fatal varicella cases, bearing in mind risk factors and pre-existing conditions such as age, geographical provenance and pathological comorbidity, which may lead to a bad prognosis irrespective of therapies. Based on the severe and fatal course observed in the reported cases, an extension of the immunization program appears advisable for immigrants from tropical countries, especially before scheduled immunotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Deconstructing fatalism: ethnographic perspectives on women's decision making about cancer prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Elaine M; Schoenberg, Nancy E

    2011-06-01

    Researchers have long held that fatalism (the belief in a lack of personal power or control over destiny or fate) constitutes a major barrier to participation in positive health behaviors and, subsequently, adversely affects health outcomes. In this article, we present two in-depth, ethnographic studies of rural women's health decisions surrounding cancer treatments to illustrate the complexity and contestability of the long-established fatalism construct. Narrative analyses suggest that for these women, numerous and complex factors--including inadequate access to health services, a legacy of self-reliance, insufficient privacy, combined with a culturally acceptable idiom of fatalism--foster the use of, but not necessarily a rigid conviction in, the notion of fatalism.

  11. Toxicological findings in fatally injured pilots of 979 amateur-built aircraft accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "Biological samples collected from fatally injured pilots in aviation accidents involving all types of aircraft, including : amateur-built aircraft, are submitted to the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for accident investigation. : These sam...

  12. Urban violence is the biggest cause of fatal work-related accidents in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Luz, Verônica Gronau; Hennington, Élida Azevedo; Martins, Ana Cláudia Alves; Tófoli, Luís Fernando

    2017-12-11

    To quantify the occurrence of deaths directly associated with urban violence among fatal work-related accidents. Verbal autopsies were performed with the relatives and coworkers of residents of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil, who died from external causes in 2015. We have also analyzed police reports and reports of the Legal Medical Institute related to these deaths. We have identified 82 fatal work-related accidents in Campinas in 2015, of which 25 were murders, 35 were traffic accidents not directly related to work activities, and three were suicides at work. The proportional mortality rate for homicides, traffic accidents, and suicides among fatal work-related accidents was estimated at 30.5%, 42.7%, and 3.7%, respectively. Urban violence accounted for three-fourths of the fatal work-related accidents recorded in the period studied.

  13. Poverty and fatalism: Impacts on the community dynamics and on hope in Brazilian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidade, Elívia Camurça; Moura, James Ferreira; Nepomuceno, Bárbara Barbosa; Ximenes, Verônica Morais; Sarriera, Jorge Castellá

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the consequences of poverty on expressions of fatalism, hope, and sense of community of two Brazilian States: Ceará and Rio Grande do Sul. Seven-hundred and thirty-one people, divided in four groups (extreme poverty, poverty, median income, and adequate income) answered a questionnaire. The variables sense of community and hope were found to be predictors of fatalism. Individuals in situations of poverty and extreme poverty showed high indices of fatalism, pessimism, divinity control, and luck, and low indices of hope and sense of community. Individuals with adequate income have low levels of fatalism, pessimism, and divinity control. It is concluded that poverty has consequences on the life of those who experience it, and that attitudes of pessimism, hopelessness, and belief in luck as well as the weakening of community networks, articulate and support the maintenance of the status quo.

  14. Fatal Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the United States, 1999–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, F. Scott; Holman, Robert C.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Callinan, Laura S.; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Death from Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is preventable with prompt, appropriate treatment. Data from two independent sources were analyzed to estimate the burden of fatal RMSF and identify risk factors for fatal RMSF in the United States during 1999–2007. Despite increased reporting of RMSF cases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, no significant changes in the estimated number of annual fatal RMSF cases were found. American Indians were at higher risk of fatal RMSF relative to whites (relative risk [RR] = 3.9), and children 5–9 years of age (RR = 6.0) and adults ≥ 70 years of age (RR = 3.0) were also at increased risk relative to other ages. Persons with cases of RMSF with an immunosuppressive condition were at increased risk of death (RR = 4.4). Delaying treatment of RMSF was also associated with increased deaths. These results may indicate a gap between recommendations and practice. PMID:22492159

  15. Fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States, 1999-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, F Scott; Holman, Robert C; Paddock, Christopher D; Callinan, Laura S; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2012-04-01

    Death from Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is preventable with prompt, appropriate treatment. Data from two independent sources were analyzed to estimate the burden of fatal RMSF and identify risk factors for fatal RMSF in the United States during 1999-2007. Despite increased reporting of RMSF cases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, no significant changes in the estimated number of annual fatal RMSF cases were found. American Indians were at higher risk of fatal RMSF relative to whites (relative risk [RR] = 3.9), and children less than 10 years of age (RR=5.1) [corrected] and adults ≥ 70 years of age (RR = 3.0) were also at increased risk relative to other ages. Persons with cases of RMSF with an immunosuppressive condition were at increased risk of death (RR = 4.4). Delaying treatment of RMSF was also associated with increased deaths. These results may indicate a gap between recommendations and practice.

  16. Demographic profile of intentional fatalities on railroad rights-of-way in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    One of the Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) primary safety concerns is trespassing on railway rights-of-way. Some trespasser events end as fatalities which can be intentional or unintentional. This project reviews available trespasser data t...

  17. Definition of the risk grounding fatalities due to unintentional airplane crashes by calculates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.Л. Государська

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available  Estimates of the expected number of grounding fatalities, are given which probably will arise due to accident of air carriers, air taxi and general aviation. Measures regulation of the risk is considered.

  18. Examination of Conservatism in Early/Latent Fatality Estimation in Level 3 PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Due to the computational model driven-nature of the work, there exist various sources of uncertainty in level 3 PRA. They are related with source release, environmental transport and deposition, human behavior involved in dosimetry, health effect and risk assessment. For instance, a total of 376 parameters have been considered in Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Assessment Using COSYMA and the details on the number of parameters in each analysis are listed in Table 1. In 2012, the report of NPP accident consequence simulation was distributed by the Korean Federation for Environmental Movement (KFEM). They insisted that Kori Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident would lead to 48,000 early fatalities and 850,000 cancer fatalities in Busan and Hanbit NPP accident would lead to 550,000 cancer fatalities in Seoul. This report exemplifies the misuse of collective dose, that is effective dose multiplied by population and time. Even though very low effective dose is considered, collective dose could give over-conservative estimate when high population and long time period is multiplied. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) forewarned about the misuse of collective dose, in their ICRP Publication 103, such as applying it to simplified calculation of fatality and risk. As part of investigation of conservatism in early and latent fatality estimation, the existing methods of early and latent fatality calculation was reviewed and the results from the use of the existing methodology were examined in this study. The method of early and latent fatality estimation in level 3 PRA was investigated and the conservatism in the result was examined in this study. For the purpose of estimating both early and latent fatality, appropriate dose distributions among the affected population are found to be important. This study showed that large conservatism may be involved in the estimated fatality if the distribution of population dose as a function of

  19. Examination of Conservatism in Early/Latent Fatality Estimation in Level 3 PRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Due to the computational model driven-nature of the work, there exist various sources of uncertainty in level 3 PRA. They are related with source release, environmental transport and deposition, human behavior involved in dosimetry, health effect and risk assessment. For instance, a total of 376 parameters have been considered in Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Assessment Using COSYMA and the details on the number of parameters in each analysis are listed in Table 1. In 2012, the report of NPP accident consequence simulation was distributed by the Korean Federation for Environmental Movement (KFEM). They insisted that Kori Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident would lead to 48,000 early fatalities and 850,000 cancer fatalities in Busan and Hanbit NPP accident would lead to 550,000 cancer fatalities in Seoul. This report exemplifies the misuse of collective dose, that is effective dose multiplied by population and time. Even though very low effective dose is considered, collective dose could give over-conservative estimate when high population and long time period is multiplied. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) forewarned about the misuse of collective dose, in their ICRP Publication 103, such as applying it to simplified calculation of fatality and risk. As part of investigation of conservatism in early and latent fatality estimation, the existing methods of early and latent fatality calculation was reviewed and the results from the use of the existing methodology were examined in this study. The method of early and latent fatality estimation in level 3 PRA was investigated and the conservatism in the result was examined in this study. For the purpose of estimating both early and latent fatality, appropriate dose distributions among the affected population are found to be important. This study showed that large conservatism may be involved in the estimated fatality if the distribution of population dose as a function of

  20. Endocarditis fatal con localización mitral producida por Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Fatal mitral valve endocarditis by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Vallespi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso fatal de endocarditis en válvula mitral por Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, en un paciente varón de 45 años con antecedentes de etilismo crónico y sin contacto previo con animales. Presentaba un síndrome febril prolongado con poliartralgias, pérdida de peso y dolor en región lumbar y miembros inferiores. Los hemocultivos (2/2 fueron positivos a las 48 hs. de incubación y en el examen directo se observaron bacilos gram-positivos pleomórficos. En el subcultivo en agar sangre ovina al 5% desarrollaron colonias puntiformes con alfa hemólisis, catalasa y oxidasa negativas, PYR y LAP positivas y con producción de H2S en medio TSI. La cepa aislada fue identificada como E. rhusiopathiae de acuerdo a la metodología convencional y confirmada con API Coryne. El cuadro se asumió como una probable endocarditis demostrada mediante un ecocardiograma transtorácico. Se comenzó el tratamiento endovenoso con ampicilina y gentamicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente y se tornó afebril, sin embargo falleció a los 19 días de internación por edema agudo de pulmón. La prueba de sensibilidad por E-test demostró resistencia a vancomicina y gentamicina y sensibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima. Es importante valorar los aislamientos de bacilos gram-positivos pleomórficos, catalasa y oxidasa negativos y realizar la prueba de producción de SH2 en el medio TSI. La resistencia a vancomicina ayuda a la identificación y permite establecer una correcta terapia antimicrobiana. Si bien se considera que las infecciones por E. rhusiopathiae son de carácter ocupacional, el contacto con cerdos u otros animales puede no ser evidente.A fatal case of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae mitral valve endocarditis is described in a 45 years old male, with a history of chronic alcohol abuse and without animals contact. He presented intermittent fever, polyarthralgia, weight loss, and low back pain. In blood cultures (2 bottles, gram

  1. Microcephaly Case Fatality Rate Associated with Zika Virus Infection in Brazil: Current Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves da; de Magalhães-Barbosa, Maria Clara; Lima-Setta, Fernanda; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade; Prata-Barbosa, Arnaldo

    2017-05-01

    Considering the currently confirmed cases of microcephaly and related deaths associated with Zika virus in Brazil, the estimated case fatality rate is 8.3% (95% confidence interval: 7.2-9.6). However, a third of the reported cases remain under investigation. If the confirmation rates of cases and deaths are the same in the future, the estimated case fatality rate will be as high as 10.5% (95% confidence interval: 9.5-11.7).

  2. Is the Societal burden of fatal occupational injury different among NORA industry sectors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Elyce Anne

    2015-01-01

    Problem Since the implementation of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, safety and health in the work environment has seen marked improvement. Although these improvements are laudable, workplace hazards continue to plague the American worker. Understanding the economic burden of fatalities by industry sector is important to setting broad occupational safety and health research priorities. Cost estimates provide additional information about how fatal injuries affect society and hence can improve injury prevention program planning, policy analysis, evaluation, and advocacy. Method This study estimated the total, mean, and median societal costs by worker and case characteristic in 2003–2006 for the industry sectors identified in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). Analyses were conducted with restricted access to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data. These data exclude military personnel, decedents with unknown age or sex, and fatalities occurring in New York City. Societal costs were estimated using the cost-of-illness approach, which combines direct and indirect costs to yield an overall cost of an fatal occupational injury. Results During this period, the cost of the 22,197 fatal occupational injuries exceeded $21 billion. The mean and median costs of these fatalities were $960,000 and $944,000 respectively. Total societal costs by NORA sector ranged from a high of $5.8 billion in Services to a low of $530 million in Healthcare and Social Assistance with mean costs ranging from the nearly $800,000 in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing to almost $1.1 million in Mining. Discussion The societal costs—total, mean, and median costs—of case and worker characteristics for occupational fatal injuries varied within each NORA sector. Impact on Industry To have the greatest societal impact, these costs can be used to target resources for public and private sector

  3. Effect of mobile phone proliferation on crash notification times and fatality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickles, Jimmy L; Kempema, James M; Brown, Lawrence H

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether increased proliferation of mobile telephones has been associated with decreased MVC notification times and/or decreased MVC fatality rates in the United States (US). We used World Bank annual mobile phone market penetration data and US Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) fatal MVC data for 1994-2014. For each year, phone proliferation was measured as mobile phones per 100 population. FARS data were used to calculate MVC notification time (time EMS notified - time MVC occurred) in minutes, and to determine the MVC fatality rate per billion vehicle miles traveled (BVMT). We used basic vector auto-regression modeling to explore relationships between changes in phone proliferation and subsequent changes in median and 90th percentile MVC notification times, as well as MVC fatality rates. From 1994 to 2014, larger year-over-year increases in phone proliferation were associated with larger decreases in 90th percentile notification times for MVCs occurring during daylight hours (p=0.004) and on the national highway system (p=0.046) two years subsequent, and crashes off the national highway system three years subsequent (p=0.023). There were no significant associations between changes in phone proliferation and subsequent changes in median crash notification times, nor with subsequent changes in MVC fatality rates. Between 1994 and 2014 increased mobile phone proliferation in the U.S. was associated with shorter 90th percentile EMS notification times for some subgroups of fatal MVCs, but not with decreases in median notification times or overall MVC fatality rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever in Kosova : a fatal case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raka Lul

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF is an often fatal viral infection described in about 30 countries around the world. The authors report a fatal case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF observed in a patient from Kosova. The diagnosis of CCHF was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR. Late diagnosis decreased the efficacy of treatment and patient died due to severe complications of infection.

  5. Is the societal burden of fatal occupational injury different among NORA industry sectors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Elyce Anne

    2013-02-01

    Since the implementation of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, safety and health in the work environment has seen marked improvement. Although these improvements are laudable, workplace hazards continue to plague the American worker. Understanding the economic burden of fatalities by industry sector is important to setting broad occupational safety and health research priorities. Cost estimates provide additional information about how fatal injuries affect society and hence can improve injury prevention program planning, policy analysis, evaluation, and advocacy. This study estimated the total, mean, and median societal costs by worker and case characteristic in 2003-2006 for the industry sectors identified in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). Analyses were conducted with restricted access to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data. These data exclude military personnel, decedents with unknown age or sex, and fatalities occurring in New York City. Societal costs were estimated using the cost-of-illness approach, which combines direct and indirect costs to yield an overall cost of an fatal occupational injury. During this period, the cost of the 22,197 fatal occupational injuries exceeded $21 billion. The mean and median costs of these fatalities were $960,000 and $944,000 respectively. Total societal costs by NORA sector ranged from a high of $5.8 billion in Services to a low of $530 million in Healthcare and Social Assistance with mean costs ranging from the nearly $800,000 in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing to almost $1.1 million in Mining. The societal costs-total, mean, and median costs-of case and worker characteristics for occupational fatal injuries varied within each NORA sector. To have the greatest societal impact, these costs can be used to target resources for public and private sector research by industry. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The Effect of Child Access Prevention Laws on Non-Fatal Gun Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff DeSimone; Sara Markowitz

    2005-01-01

    Many states have passed child access prevention (CAP) laws, which hold the gun owner responsible if a child gains access to a gun that is not securely stored. Previous CAP law research has focused exclusively on gun-related deaths even though most gun injuries are not fatal. We use annual hospital discharge data from 1988-2001 to investigate whether CAP laws decrease non-fatal gun injuries. Results from Poisson regressions that control for various hospital, county and state characteristics, i...

  7. Fatal haemorrhagic duodenal mucormycosis in a non-immunocompromised host: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simbarashe G. Mungazi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the fungi of the Mucorales order of the class Zygomycetes. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is an uncommon, fatal condition accounting for only 7% of the cases. We present the case of a gastroduodenal mucormycosis presenting as recurrent massive hematemesis. We report this case to alert clinicians of this rare but fatal condition and to encourage further research into its pathogenesis and management.

  8. Economic development and road traffic fatalities in two neighbouring African nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J. Wiebe

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Road crash fatalities increased in recent decades in both Zambia and Botswana. But the rapid economic development in Botswana over this time period appears to have driven proportionate road traffic fatality increases. There are opportunities for newly emerging economies such as Zambia, Angola, and others to learn from the Botswana experience. Evidence-based investments in road safety interventions should be concomitant with economic development.

  9. Urban violence is the biggest cause of fatal work-related accidents in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Luz, Verônica Gronau; Hennington, Élida Azevedo; Martins, Ana Cláudia Alves; Tófoli, Luís Fernando

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To quantify the occurrence of deaths directly associated with urban violence among fatal work-related accidents. METHODS Verbal autopsies were performed with the relatives and coworkers of residents of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil, who died from external causes in 2015. We have also analyzed police reports and reports of the Legal Medical Institute related to these deaths. RESULTS We have identified 82 fatal work-related accidents in Campinas in 2015, of which 25...

  10. Causes of Fatal Accidents Involving Cranes in the Australian Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gharaie, Ehsan; Lingard, Helen; Cooke, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    In ten years from 2004 to 2013, 359 workers died in the Australian construction industry because of work related causes. This paper investigates crane-related fatalities in order to find the upstream causation of such accidents. The National Coroners’ Information System (NCIS) database was searched to identify fatal accidents in the construction industry involving the use of a crane.  The narrative description of the cases provided in the coroners’ findings and associated documents were conte...

  11. Uniformity in the basal metabolic rate of marsupials: its causes and consequences Uniformidad en la tasa metabólica basal de marsupiales: sus causas y consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRIAN K. MACNAB

    2005-06-01

    99.2 % en la variación de la BMR de los marsupiales. Los marsupiales difieren de los euterios por no tener especies con altas BMR’s, esto según los estándares generales para mamíferos. Esto ocurre, incluso a pesar de consumir vertebrados o pastos, estos últimos, hábitos tróficos asociados con altas BMR en mamíferos euterios. La ausencia de altas tasas basales en marsupiales refleja la ausencia de correlación entre la tasa de producción con BMR, una correlación que si está presente en euterios. Estas diferencias tienen dos consecuencias: (1 los marsupiales son menos tolerantes a ambientes fríos que los euterios, y (2 los marsupiales coexisten con los euterios solo cuando sus hábitos alimentarios están asociados a BMR’s bajos y además cuando cuando los euterios poseen tasas de reproducción bajas. En Australia y Sudamérica los marsupials carnívoros se diversificaron en ausencia de euterios equivalentes. La importación de los dingos Australianos por los humanos, parece ser la causa inmediata de la extinción de los tilacinos y del demonio de Tasmania. Cuando se terminó de formar el puente de Panamá los carnívoros de Sudamérica fueron reemplazados por euterios. Los macrópodos, que poseen BMR`s mas bajas que los pastoreadores euterios, sobreviven en Australia central pues probablemente son capaces de tolerar ambientes xéricos, mientras que los herbívoros domésticos requieres de la provisión humana de agua

  12. Naturaleza de los abusos sexuales a menores y consecuencias en la salud mental de las víctimas Characteristics of sexual abuse of minors and its consequences on victims' mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Mª Rosario Cortés Arboleda; José Cantón Duarte; David Cantón-Cortés

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia, la naturaleza y las consecuencias de los abusos sexuales sufridos durante la infancia o la adolescencia. Métodos: 2.159 estudiantes de la Universidad de Granada respondieron voluntariamente y de forma anónima a un cuestionario sobre abuso sexual. Establecido el grupo de víctimas, se formó otro de comparación con estudiantes sin antecedentes de abusos. En una segunda sesión se evaluó la salud mental de ambos grupos. Resultados: 269 (12,5%) estudiantes manif...

  13. Factores condicionantes de la inejecución de la multa y sus consecuencias en el proceso civil del distrito judicial de Puno, en el periodo de 2004-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Ticona, Esther Soledad

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación titulado: "FACTORES CONDICIONANTES DE LA INEJECUCIÓN DE LA MULTA Y SUS CONSECUENCIAS EN EL PROCESO CIVIL DEL DISTRITO JUDICIAL DE PUNO, EN EL PERÍODO DE 2004 - 2006", es el estudio de la imposición de la multa a los sujetos procesales en atención a su conducta asumida en el proceso, su repercusion, que órgano impone las multas y la importancia que se le da a efecto de hacerla efectiva. El planteamiento del problema se traduce en la formulación de la siguie...

  14. Associations between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in fatal crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Wilson, Fernando; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Rodriguez, Mayra; Walters, Scott; Thombs, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    Helmet use reduces mortality risk for motorcyclists, regardless of drug and alcohol use. However, the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet utilization is not well known. This study examines the relationship between drug use and motorcycle helmet use among fatally injured motorcycle riders. Using data from the 2005-2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we examined the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in a multivariable logistic regression analysis of 9861 fatally injured motorcycle riders in the United States. For fatally injured motorcycle riders, use of alcohol, marijuana, or other drugs was associated with increased odds of not wearing a motorcycle helmet, controlling for the effects of state motorcycle helmet laws and other confounding variables. Predicted probabilities indicate that helmet use substantially decreases among fatally injured riders mixing alcohol with marijuana and other drugs. Furthermore, the likelihood of helmet use between marijuana-only users and other drug users is virtually the same across all blood alcohol content (BAC) levels. This study provides evidence that alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use is associated with not wearing a motorcycle helmet in fatal motorcycle crashes. There is a clear need for additional prevention and intervention efforts that seek to change helmet and drug use norms among motorcycle riders.

  15. Aviation-Related Wildland Firefighter Fatalities--United States, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Corey R; O'Connor, Mary B; Lincoln, Jennifer M

    2015-07-31

    Airplanes and helicopters are integral to the management and suppression of wildfires, often operating in high-risk, low-altitude environments. To update data on aviation-related wildland firefighting fatalities, identify risk factors, and make recommendations for improved safety, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed reports from multiple data sources for the period 2000-2013. Among 298 wildland firefighter fatalities identified during 2000-2013, 78 (26.2%) were aviation-related occupational fatalities that occurred during 41 separate events involving 42 aircraft. Aircraft crashes accounted for 38 events. Pilots, copilots, and flight engineers represented 53 (68%) of the aviation-related fatalities. The leading causes of fatal aircraft crashes were engine, structure, or component failure (24%); pilot loss of control (24%); failure to maintain clearance from terrain, water, or objects (20%); and hazardous weather (15%). To reduce fatalities from aviation-related wildland firefighting activities, stringent safety guidelines need to be followed during all phases of firefighting, including training exercises. Crew resource management techniques, which use all available resources, information, equipment, and personnel to achieve safe and efficient flight operations, can be applied to firefighting operations.

  16. Fatal occupational injuries in the Malaysian construction sector–causes and accidental agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, A.; Shaari, A. A.; Zaki, M. F. M.; Munaaim, M. A. C.

    2018-04-01

    The construction sector is associated with various accidents and fatal injuries. These occupational accidents are caused by numerous factors, such as lack of supervision; lack of adherence to safe work technique; failure to wear personal protective equipment; and failure to comply with the safe use of tools, vehicles, and machines. Using 2013–2016 secondary data from the Department of Occupational Safety and Health and Social Security Organization, this study conducted a descriptive exploration survey to identify common fatal occupational injuries associated with the Malaysian construction sector, as well as their causes and accidental agents. Results indicated that construction, followed by manufacturing, agriculture, forestry, logging, and fishery, are the riskiest job sectors in Malaysia. The highest incidences of occupational casualties were reported in Sarawak, Johor, and Selangor. These states accounted for approximately 13.33% to 18.18% of all cases of fatal occupational accidents. In these states, the lack of safety and health regulations and poor execution of risk management increased the risk of occupational accidents. Falls from heights accounted for 46.28% of fatal occupational injuries. Furthermore, being crushed by objects, materials, or vehicles accounted for 9.09% to 17.36% of fatal occupational injuries. Substandard work environment and transportation and lifting equipment, such as scaffolds, are primary accidental agents. Results of this study could enhance the knowledge and awareness of construction workers and management of job-related injuries to decrease the incidence of fatal occupational accidents.

  17. Intergenerational differences in occupational injury and fatality rates among Canada's immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiagi, R

    2016-12-01

    Empirical evidence on occupational injury and/or fatality rates among Canada's immigrants has been largely mixed and has almost exclusively focused on the first generation. Over time, as immigrants assimilate into the economy, future generations may be expected to work in less hazardous occupations compared with prior generations. There has been no prior analysis of the differences in occupational injury and fatality rates among later generations. To analyse whether there are intergenerational differences in occupational injury and fatality rates among the first, second and third (or more) immigrant generations in Canada. Data drawn from the 2011 National Household Survey and the Association of Workers' Compensation Boards of Canada were used to determine the difference in occupational injury and fatality rates between the first or the third generation and the second generation, using a Poisson regression framework. Second-generation immigrants worked in jobs with lower occupational injury rates compared with the first generation and the third generation (or more). Similar results were observed for occupational fatality rates. Second-generation immigrants worked in less hazardous jobs compared with the first generation and compared with the third (or more) generations. These results suggest that the second generation may not face the same economic hurdles and challenges, in terms of workplace injuries or fatalities, as those faced by the first or third (or more) generations of immigrants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Traffic fatality indicators in Brazil: State diagnosis based on data envelopment analysis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Jorge Tiago; Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Ferraz, Antonio Clóvis Pinto

    2015-08-01

    The intense economic growth experienced by Brazil in recent decades and its consequent explosive motorization process have evidenced an undesirable impact: the increasing and unbroken trend in traffic fatality numbers. In order to contribute to road safety diagnosis on a national level, this study presents a research into two main indicators available in Brazil: mortality rate (represented by fatalities per capita) and fatality rate (represented by two sub-indicators, i.e., fatalities per vehicle and fatalities per vehicle kilometer traveled). These indicators were aggregated into a composite indicator or index through a multiple layer data envelopment analysis (DEA) composite indicator model, which looks for the optimum combination of indicators' weights for each decision-making unit, in this case 27 Brazilian states. The index score represents the road safety performance, based on which a ranking of states can be made. Since such a model has never been applied for road safety evaluation in Brazil, its parameters were calibrated based on the experience of more consolidated European Union research in ranking its member countries using DEA techniques. Secondly, cluster analysis was conducted aiming to provide more realistic performance comparisons and, finally, the sensitivity of the results was measured through a bootstrapping method application. It can be concluded that by combining fatality indicators, defining clusters and applying bootstrapping procedures a trustworthy ranking can be created, which is valuable for nationwide road safety planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Parachuting from fixed objects: descriptive study of 106 fatal events in BASE jumping 1981-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, A; Rosén, M; Berggren, P; Björnstig, U

    2008-06-01

    To analyse the characteristics of fatal incidents in fixed object sport parachuting (building, antenna, span, earth (BASE) jumping) and create a basis for prevention. Descriptive epidemiological study. Data on reported fatal injury events (n = 106) worldwide in 1981-2006 retrieved from the BASE fatality list. Human, equipment and environmental factors. Identification of typical fatal incident and injury mechanisms for each of the four fixed object types of BASE jumping (building, antenna, span, earth). Human factors included parachutist free fall instability (loss of body control before parachute deployment), free fall acrobatics and deployment failure by the parachutist. Equipment factors included pilot chute malfunction and parachute malfunction. In cliff jumping (BASE object type E), parachute opening towards the object jumped was the most frequent equipment factor. Environmental factors included poor visibility, strong or turbulent winds, cold and water. The overall annual fatality risk for all object types during the year 2002 was estimated at about one fatality per 60 participants. Participants in BASE jumping should target risk factors with training and technical interventions. The mechanisms described in this study should be used by rescue units to improve the management of incidents.

  20. Occupational fatality risks in the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeloff, John; Staetsky, Laura

    2014-01-01

    There are very few careful studies of differences in occupational fatality rates across countries, much less studies that try to account for those differences. We compare the rate of work injury fatalities (excluding deaths due to highway motor vehicle crashes and those due to violence) identified by the US Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries in recent years with the number reported to the Health and Safety Executive in the United Kingdom (UK) and by other European Union (EU) members through Eurostat. In 2010, the fatality rate in the UK was about 1/3 the rate in the US. In construction the rate was about ¼ the US rate, a difference that had grown substantially since the 1990s. Several other EU members had rates almost as low as the UK rate. Across EU countries, lower rates were associated with high-level management attention to safety issues and to in-house preparation of "risk assessments." Although work fatality rates have declined in the US, fatality rates are much lower and have declined faster in recent years in the UK. Efforts to find out the reasons for the much better UK outcomes could be productive. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The work-related fatal injury study: numbers, rates and trends of work-related fatal injuries in New Zealand 1985-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyer, A M; Langley, J; Howard, M; Horsburgh, S; Wright, C; Alsop, J; Cryer, C

    2001-01-26

    To determine the number and rates of work-related fatal injuries by employment status, occupation, industry, age and gender in New Zealand 1985-1994. Potential cases of work-related injury deaths of persons aged 15-84 years were identified from the national electronic mortality data files. Main exclusions were deaths due to suicide and deaths due to motor vehicle crashes. The circumstances of the deaths of each fatal incident meeting inclusion criteria were then reviewed directly from coronial files to determine work-relatedness. The rate of work-related fatal injury in New Zealand was 5.03/100000 workers per year for the study period. There was a significant decline in crude rate over the study period. However, this was in substantial part accounted for by changes in occupation and industry mix. Older workers, male workers, self-employed workers, and particular occupational groups, all had substantially elevated rates. Agricultural and helicopter pilots, forestry workers and fishery workers had the highest rates. Farmers, forestry workers, and fishery workers also had high numbers of deaths, together accounting for nearly 40% of all deaths. This study has demonstrated that work-related fatal injury remains a pressing problem for New Zealand. Several areas in urgent need of prevention efforts were highlighted.

  2. Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-17

    This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to 4 key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners' Court of Victoria's (CCOV) Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014. Information relating to the deceased ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. One hundred and thirty-eight unintentional fatal ORU crashes were identified in the CCOV Surveillance Database. Of these fatal ORU crashes, most involved older drivers (44%), followed by older pedestrians (32%), older passengers (17%), older pedal cyclists (4%), older motorcyclists (1%), and older mobility scooter users (1%). The average annual rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0-10.2). In terms of the crash characteristics and circumstances, most fatal ORU crashes involved a counterpart (98%), of which the majority were passenger cars (50%) or fixed/stationary objects (25%), including trees (46%) or embankments (23%). In addition, most fatal ORU crashes occurred close to home (73%), on-road (87%), on roads that were paved (94%), on roads with light traffic volume (37%), and during low-risk conditions: between 12 p.m. and 6 p.m. (44%), on weekdays (80%), during daylight (75%), and under dry/clear conditions (81%). Road user (RU) error was identified by the police and/or the coroner for the majority of fatal crashes (55%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORUs deemed to have failed to yield (54%) or misjudged (41%). RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the

  3. Evaluation of poly-drug use in methadone-related fatalities using segmental hair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2015-03-01

    In Denmark, fatal poisoning among drug addicts is often related to methadone. The primary mechanism contributing to fatal methadone overdose is respiratory depression. Concurrent use of other central nervous system (CNS) depressants is suggested to heighten the potential for fatal methadone toxicity. Reduced tolerance due to a short-time abstinence period is also proposed to determine a risk for fatal overdose. The primary aims of this study were to investigate if concurrent use of CNS depressants or reduced tolerance were significant risk factors in methadone-related fatalities using segmental hair analysis. The study included 99 methadone-related fatalities collected in Denmark from 2008 to 2011, where both blood and hair were available. The cases were divided into three subgroups based on the cause of death; methadone poisoning (N=64), poly-drug poisoning (N=28) or methadone poisoning combined with fatal diseases (N=7). No significant differences between methadone concentrations in the subgroups were obtained in both blood and hair. The methadone blood concentrations were highly variable (0.015-5.3, median: 0.52mg/kg) and mainly within the concentration range detected in living methadone users. In hair, methadone was detected in 97 fatalities with concentrations ranging from 0.061 to 211ng/mg (median: 11ng/mg). In the remaining two cases, methadone was detected in blood but absent in hair specimens, suggesting that these two subjects were methadone-naive users. Extensive poly-drug use was observed in all three subgroups, both recently and within the last months prior to death. Especially, concurrent use of multiple benzodiazepines was prevalent among the deceased followed by the abuse of morphine, codeine, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and ethanol. By including quantitative segmental hair analysis, additional information on poly-drug use was obtained. Especially, 6-acetylmorphine was detected more frequently in hair specimens, indicating that regular abuse of

  4. Use of the Trauma Embolic Scoring System (TESS) to predict symptomatic deep vein thrombosis and fatal and non-fatal pulmonary embolism in severely injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K M; Rao, S; Rittenhouse, K J; Rogers, F B

    2014-11-01

    Fatal pulmonary embolism is the third most common cause of death after major trauma. We hypothesised that the Trauma Embolic Scoring System (TESS) would have adequate calibration and discrimination in a group of severely injured trauma patients in predicting venous thromboembolism (VTE), and could be used to predict fatal and non-fatal symptomatic pulmonary embolism. Calibration and discrimination of the TESS were assessed by the slope and intercept of the calibration curve and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, respectively. Of the 357 patients included in the study, 74 patients (21%) developed symptomatic VTE after a median period of 14 days following injury. The TESS predicted risks of VTE were higher among patients who developed VTE than those who did not (14 versus 9%, P=0.001) and had a moderate ability to discriminate between patients who developed VTE and those who did not (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.65 to 0.77). The slope and intercept of the calibration curve were 2.76 and 0.34, respectively, suggesting that the predicted risks of VTE were not sufficiently extreme and overall, underestimated the observed risks of VTE. Using 5% predicted risk of VTE as an arbitrary cut-point, TESS had a high sensitivity and negative predictive value (both ≥0.97) in excluding fatal and non-fatal pulmonary embolism. The TESS had a reasonable ability to discriminate between patients who developed VTE and those who did not and may be useful to select different strategies to prevent VTE in severely injured patients.

  5. Las consecuencias de la aplicación del Real Decreto-Ley de Regulación Sanitaria RD 16/2012 sobre la salud de las mujeres inmigradas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Morero Beltrán

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El Real Decreto-Ley 16/2012, de 20 de abril, de “Medidas urgentes para garantizar la sostenibilidad del Sistema Nacional de Salud y mejorar la calidad y seguridad de sus prestaciones”, supuso la eliminación del derecho al acceso a la salud para las personas no inscritas en el Régimen de la Seguridad Social, poniendo así punto y final a la atención sanitaria gratuita y universal para toda la ciudadanía del Estado español. Como consecuencia de la aplicación de este Real Decreto-ley se ha generado un acceso desigual a un derecho humano básico y legalmente reconocido. Este artículo pretende ofrecer un diagnóstico del impacto de la eliminación de dicha atención en las personas inmigradas, concretamente en lo que se refiere a las mujeres, y de las consecuencias derivadas del Real Decreto-ley en materia de violencia contra las mujeres y de derechos sexuales y reproductivos. Además, este artículo tiene también como objetivo recoger el trabajo realizado por las organizaciones y plataformas surgidas para la reivindicación y la defensa del derecho a la salud. En ambos casos, se abordará de manera particular el caso de Cataluña.

  6. Unintentional, non-fatal drowning of children: US trends and racial/ethnic disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Heather; Myers, John; Liu, Gil; Davis, Deborah Winders

    2015-12-15

    The current study aimed to better understand trends and risk factors associated with non-fatal drowning of infants and children in the USA using two large, national databases. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the National Inpatient Sample and the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample databases. The analytic sample (n=19,403) included children near-drowning/non-fatal drowning. Descriptive, χ(2) and analysis of variance techniques were applied, and incidence rates were calculated per 100,000 population. Non-fatal drowning incidence has remained relatively stable from 2006 to 2011. In general, the highest rates of non-fatal drowning occurred in swimming pools and in children from racial/ethnic minorities. However, when compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian children, children from racial/ethnic minorities were more likely to drown in natural waterways than in swimming pools. Despite the overall lower rate of non-fatal drowning among non-Hispanic Caucasian children, the highest rate of all non-fatal drowning was for non-Hispanic Caucasian children aged 0-4 years in swimming pools. Children who were admitted to inpatient facilities were younger, male and came from families with lower incomes. Data from two large US national databases show lack of progress in preventing and reducing non-fatal drowning admissions from 2006 to 2011. Discrepancies are seen in the location of drowning events and demographic characteristics. New policies and interventions are needed, and tailoring approaches by age and race/ethnicity may improve their effectiveness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. The state of the residential fire fatality problem in Sweden: Epidemiology, risk factors, and event typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Anders; Bonander, Carl; Nilson, Finn; Huss, Fredrik

    2017-09-01

    Residential fires represent the largest category of fatal fires in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of fatal residential fires in Sweden and to identify clusters of events. Data was collected from a database that combines information on fatal fires with data from forensic examinations and the Swedish Cause of Death-register. Mortality rates were calculated for different strata using population statistics and rescue service turnout reports. Cluster analysis was performed using multiple correspondence analysis with agglomerative hierarchical clustering. Male sex, old age, smoking, and alcohol were identified as risk factors, and the most common primary injury diagnosis was exposure to toxic gases. Compared to non-fatal fires, fatal residential fires more often originated in the bedroom, were more often caused by smoking, and were more likely to occur at night. Six clusters were identified. The first two clusters were both smoking-related, but were separated into (1) fatalities that often involved elderly people, usually female, whose clothes were ignited (17% of the sample), (2) middle-aged (45-64years old), (often) intoxicated men, where the fire usually originated in furniture (30%). Other clusters that were identified in the analysis were related to (3) fires caused by technical fault, started in electrical installations in single houses (13%), (4) cooking appliances left on (8%), (5) events with unknown cause, room and object of origin (25%), and (6) deliberately set fires (7%). Fatal residential fires were unevenly distributed in the Swedish population. To further reduce the incidence of fire mortality, specialized prevention efforts that focus on the different needs of each cluster are required. Cooperation between various societal functions, e.g. rescue services, elderly care, psychiatric clinics and other social services, with an application of both human and technological interventions, should reduce residential fire

  8. Smeed's law and expected road fatality reduction: An assessment of the Italian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persia, Luca; Gigli, Roberto; Usami, Davide Shingo

    2015-12-01

    Smeed's law defines the functional relationship existing between the fatality rate and the motorization rate.While focusing on the Italian case and based on the Smeed's law, the study assesses the possibility for Italy of reaching the target of halving the number of road fatalities by 2020, in light of the evolving socioeconomic situation. A Smeed's model has been calibrated based on the recorded Italian data. The evolution of the two indicators, fatality and motorization rates, has been estimated using the predictions of the main parameters (population, fleet size and fatalities). Those trends have been compared with the natural decreasing trend derived from the Smeed's law. Nine scenarios have been developed showing the relationship between the fatality rate and the motorization rate. In case of a limited increase (logistic regression) of the vehicle fleet and according to the estimated evolution of the population, the path defined by motorization and fatality rate is very steep, diverging from the estimated confidence interval of the Smeed's model. In these scenarios the motorization rate is almost constant during the decade. In the actual economic context, a limited development of the vehicle fleet is more plausible. In these conditions the target achievement of halving the number of fatalities in Italy may occur only in case of a structural break (i.e., the introduction of highly effective road safety policies). Practical application: The proposed tools can be used both to evaluate retrospectively the effectiveness of road safety improvements and to assess if a relevant effort is needed to reach the established road safety targets.

  9. Comparing avian and bat fatality rate estimates among North American wind energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, Shawn

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Wind energy development has expanded rapidly, and so have concerns over bird and bat impacts caused by wind turbines. To assess and compare impacts due to collisions, investigators use a common metric, fatalities/MW/year, but estimates of fatality rates have come from various wind turbine models, tower heights, environments, fatality search methods, and analytical methods. To improve comparability and asses large-scale impacts, I applied a common set of assumptions and methods to data in fatality monitoring reports to estimate fatality rates of birds and bats at 71 wind projects across North America (52 outside the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, APWRA). The data were from wind turbines of 27 sizes (range 0.04-3.00 MW) and 28 tower heights (range 18.5-90 m), and searched at 40 periodic intervals (range 1-90 days) and out to 20 distances from turbines (range 30-126 m). Estimates spanned the years 1982 to 2010, and involved 1-1,345 turbines per unique combination of project, turbine size, tower height, and search methodology. I adjusted fatality rates for search detection rates averaged from 425 detection trials, and for scavenger removal rates based on 413 removal trials. I also adjusted fatality rates for turbine tower height and maximum search radius, based on logistic functions fit to cumulative counts of carcasses that were detected at 1-m distance intervals from the turbine. For each tower height, I estimated the distance at which cumulative carcass counts reached an asymptote, and for each project I calculated the proportion of fatalities likely not found due to the maximum search radius being short of the model-predicted distance asymptote. I used the same estimator in all cases. I estimated mean fatalities/MW/year among North American wind projects at 12.6 bats (80% CI: 8.1-17.1) and 11.1 birds (80% CI: 9.5-12.7), including 1.6 raptors (80% CI: 1.3-2.0), and excluding the Altamont Pass I estimated fatality rates at 17.2 bats (80% CI: 9

  10. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A; Zare, M; Darparesh, M; Mohseni, S; Soleimani-Ahmadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor's Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the car

  11. Causes of fatal accidents for instrument-certified and non-certified private pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Bob Siyuan; Guindani, Michele; Boyd, Douglas D

    2014-11-01

    Instrument certification (IFR) enhances a pilot's skills in precisely controlling the aircraft and requires a higher level of standards in maintaining heading and altitude compared with the less stringent private pilot certificate. However, there have been no prior studies to compare fatal accident causes for airmen with, and without, this rating, The NTSB accident database was queried for general aviation fatal accidents for private pilots with, and without IFR certification. Exact Poisson tests were used to calculate whether two rate parameters were equal (ratio of 1), normalized to the number of IFR-rated pilots and flight hours in the given time period. Proportion tests were used to determine whether there were significant differences in fatal accident causes between IFR-certified and non-certified pilots. A logistic regression for log-odds success was used in determining the trend and effect of age on fatal accident rates. IFR certification was associated with a reduced risk of accidents due to failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance and spatial disorientation for day and night operations respectively. In contrast, the likelihood of fatal accident due to equipment malfunction during day operations was higher for IFR-certified pilots. The fatal accident rate decreased over the last decade for IFR-certified but not for non-IFR-certified private pilots. However, the overall accident rate for IFR-certified private pilots was more than double that of the cohort lacking this certification. Finally, we found a trend for an increased fatality rate with advancing age for both group of pilots. Our findings informs on where training and/or technology should be focused. Both training for aerodynamic stalls, which causes over a quarter of all fatal accidents, should be intensified for both IFR-certified and non-certified private pilots. Similarly, adherence to minimum safe altitudes for both groups of pilots should be encouraged toward reducing the fatal accidents

  12. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A; Zare, M; Darparesh, M; Mohseni, S; Soleimani-Ahmadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor’s Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the

  13. Disentangling age-gender interactions associated with risks of fatal and non-fatal road traffic injuries in the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aamri, Amira K; Padmadas, Sabu S; Zhang, Li-Chun; Al-Maniri, Abdullah A

    2017-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years lost in Oman, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. Injury prevention strategies often overlook the interaction of individual and behavioural risk factors in assessing the severity of RTI outcomes. We conducted a systematic investigation of the underlying interactive effects of age and gender on the severity of fatal and non-fatal RTI outcomes in the Sultanate of Oman. We used the Royal Oman Police national database of road traffic crashes for the period 2010-2014. Our study was based on 35 785 registered incidents: of these, 10.2% fatal injuries, 6.2% serious, 27.3% moderate, 37.3% mild injuries and 19% only vehicle damage but no human injuries. We applied a generalised ordered logit regression to estimate the effect of age and gender on RTI severity, controlling for risk behaviours, personal characteristics, vehicle, road, traffic, environment conditions and geographical location. The most dominant group at risk of all types of RTIs was young male drivers. The probability of severe incapacitating injuries was the highest for drivers aged 25-29 (26.6%) years, whereas the probability of fatal injuries was the highest for those aged 20-24 (26.9%) years. Analysis of three-way interactions of age, gender and causes of crash show that overspeeding was the primary cause of different types of RTIs. In particular, the probability of fatal injuries among male drivers attributed to overspeeding ranged from 3%-6% for those aged 35 years and above to 13.4% and 17.7% for those aged 25-29 years and 20-24 years, respectively. The high burden of severe and fatal RTIs in Oman was primarily attributed to overspeed driving behaviour of young male drivers in the 20-29 years age range. Our findings highlight the critical need for designing early gender-sensitive road safety interventions targeting young male and female drivers.

  14. Involvement of unendorsed motorcycle operators in fatal crashes in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of unendorsed motorcycle operators in fatal motorcycle crashes and the interrelationships of endorsement status and motorcycle type with operator characteristics like riding impaired. Cases were drawn from a database tracking fatal crashes occurring within Cuyahoga County, Ohio, from 2005 to 2011. Analysis focused on 75 fatal motorcycle crashes in which the deceased motorcycle operators were male and coroner's reports, police crash reports, and license endorsement status were available. Analysis included comparison of means, chi square testing, and binary logistic regression. More than half of motorcyclists (53%) did not have motorcycle endorsements. Mean age of unendorsed riders was 36.8 years, compared to 44.2 years for endorsed riders. Motorcyclists were considered at fault in 69 percent of cases, most often due to reckless operation, failure to control, or speeding. Mean blood alcohol concentration for fatally injured motorcyclists was 0.06 percent. Marijuana was the most common drug identified in blood tests. Nonendorsement was associated with younger age, single-vehicle crash, and having a prior license suspension. Neither endorsement status nor bike type was associated with likelihood of testing positive for alcohol or drugs of abuse. Riders of sport motorcycles were more likely than cruiser/touring bike operators to be wearing helmets and less likely to be endorsed. The large proportion of unendorsed motorcyclists involved in fatal crashes in northeast Ohio highlights the need for more stringent licensing requirements that make it more difficult to ride without an endorsement and limit learner's permit renewals.

  15. Implications of Functional Capacity Loss and Fatality for Vehicle Safety Prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Timothy L; Sherwood, Chris; Poplin, Gerald S; Seguí-Gómez, María; Crandall, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the use of the Functional Capacity Index (FCI) as a tool for establishing vehicle safety priorities by comparing the life year burden of injuries to the burden of fatality in frontal and side automotive crashes. We demonstrate FCI's utility by investigating in detail the resulting disabling injuries and their life year costs. We selected occupants in the 2000-2013 NASS-CDS database involved in frontal and side crashes, merged their injuries with FCI, and then used the merged data to estimate each occupant's overall functional loss. Lifetime functional loss was assessed by combining this measure of impairment with the occupants' expected future life spans, estimated from the Social Security Administration's Actuarial Life Table. Frontal crashes produce a large number of disabling injuries, particularly to the lower extremities. In our population, these crashes are estimated to account for approximately 400,000 life years lost to disability in comparison with 500,000 life years lost to fatality. Victims of side crashes experienced a higher rate of fatality but a significantly lower rate of disabling injury (0.3 vs. 1.0%), resulting in approximately 370,000 life years lost to fatality versus 50,000 life years lost to disability. The burden of disabling injuries to car crash survivors should be considered when setting vehicle safety design priorities. In frontal crashes this burden in life years is similar to the burden attributable to fatality.

  16. Survival in fatal road crashes: body mass index, gender, and safety belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, Michael; Schoettle, Brandon; Rupp, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluated the associations of body mass index (BMI), gender, and use of safety belts with the survival of drivers involved in fatal road crashes. The census data of all U.S. fatal crashes that did not involve pedestrians, bicyclists, or motorcyclists were examined for an 11-year period. If involved in a crash with one or more fatalities, the odds of female drivers being among the fatalities are 1.28 times higher than those of male drivers, and the odds of unbelted drivers being among the fatalities are 5.43 times higher than those of belted drivers. The relationship of survivability to BMI depends on the gender and safety belt use of the driver. For male drivers, increased BMI appears beneficial when safety belts are used but detrimental when not used. For belted female drivers, normal BMI is associated with the lowest odds of being killed, and both increased and decreased BMIs increase the odds. For unbelted female drivers, no reliable trends were present among the BMI categories.

  17. How did the economic recession (2008-2010) influence traffic fatalities in OECD-countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegman, Fred; Allsop, Richard; Antoniou, Constantinos; Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Elvik, Rune; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lloyd, Daryl; Wijnen, Wim

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents analyses of how the economic recession that started in 2008 has influenced the number of traffic fatalities in OECD countries. Previous studies of the relationship between economic recessions and changes in the number of traffic fatalities are reviewed. Based on these studies, a causal diagram of the relationship between changes of the business cycle and changes in the number of traffic fatalities is proposed. This causal model is tested empirically by means of multivariate analyses and analyses of accident statistics for Great Britain and Sweden. Economic recession, as indicated both by slower growth of, or decline of gross national product, and by increased unemployment is associated with an accelerated decline in the number of traffic fatalities, i.e. a larger decline than the long-term trend that is normal in OECD countries. The principal mechanisms bringing this about are a disproportionate reduction of driving among high-risk drivers, in particular young drivers and a reduction of fatality rate per kilometre of travel, probably attributable to changes in road user behaviour that are only partly observable. The total number of vehicle kilometres of travel did not change very much as a result of the recession. The paper is based on an ITF-report that presents the analyses in greater detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Breast Cancer Fatalism on Breast Cancer Awareness Among Turkish Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Hulya Kulakci; Ayyildiz, Tulay Kuzlu; Veren, Funda; Topan, Aysel Kose

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of breast cancer fatalism and other factors on breast cancer awareness among Turkish women. This cross-sectional and comparative descriptive study was conducted with 894 women. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Powe Fatalism Inventory and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale. Seriousness, health motivation, BSE benefits and BSE self-efficacy perceptions of the women were moderate, and susceptibility and BSE barriers perceptions were low. It was determined that awareness of breast cancer of the women was affected by breast cancer fatalism, age, education level, employment status, marital status, family type, economic status, social assurance, menopause status, family history of cancer, family history of breast cancer, knowledge on BSE, source of information on BSE, performing of BSE, frequency of BSE performing, having a problem with breast, having a breast examination in hospital, feeling during breast examination by healthcare professional, sex of healthcare professional for breast examination and their health beliefs (p breast cancer of the women was affected by breast cancer fatalism. In providing breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors, it is recommended to evaluate fatalism perceptions and health beliefs of the women and to arrange educational programs for this purpose.

  19. Epidemiology of subway-related fatalities in New York City, 1990-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Pearson, Julie M; Nandi, Vijay; Vlahov, David; Bucciarelli-Prann, Angela; Tracy, Melissa; Tardiff, Kenneth; Galea, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    Subway transit is a relatively safe mode of transportation, yet compared to all other forms of mass transit in the United States (U.S.), subways have the highest fatality rate. The aim of this paper is to characterize subway-related fatalities in order to identify opportunities for risk reduction. Medical examiner records for all New York City (NYC) subway-related deaths (1990-2003) were reviewed. Data were abstracted on decedents' demographics and autopsy findings, including laboratory findings. There were 668 subway-related fatalities, of these, 10 (1.5%) were homicides, 343 (51.3%) were determined to be suicides, and 315 (47.2%) were accidental. Although decedent characteristics varied between fatality categories, they were not particularly informative with regard to prevention. Prevention strategies that focus on structural controls are likely to be most efficacious in improving the overall safety of the NYC subway systems. These findings suggest that structural rather than individual-level interventions would be most successful in preventing subway fatalities.

  20. Work-related fatalities associated with tree care operations--United States, 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-24

    Workers in various industries and occupations are involved in the care and maintenance of trees, such as tree trimming, pruning, and removal. This work is recognized as having many safety hazards. Although previous analyses have involved subgroups of workers who perform this type of work, no analysis has focused on identifying injured workers from all industries and occupations that perform tree care operations. This report summarizes the characteristics of fatal occupational injuries, using data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) and a case series of fatality investigations conducted by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program. During 1992--2007, a total of 1,285 workers died while performing tree care and maintenance; 44% were trimming or pruning a tree when fatally injured. The most common causes of death were being struck by or against an object (42% of deaths), most commonly a tree or branch; falls to a lower level (34%); and electrocutions (14%). Most of the decedents (57%) worked for small establishments with 10 or fewer employees. Employers, trade and worker associations, and policymakers should take additional steps to improve the safety of workers involved in tree care, such as providing formal training to workers and ensuring that personal protective equipment (e.g., fall protection equipment) is used properly.