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Sample records for home furnaces kitchen

  1. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  2. Addressing Kitchen Contaminants for Healthy, Low-Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, J. Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Cooking and cooking burners emit pollutants that can adversely affect indoor air quality in residences and significantly impact occupant health. Effective kitchen exhaust ventilation can reduce exposure to cooking-related air pollutants as an enabling step to healthier, low-energy homes. This report by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory identifies barriers to the widespread adoption of kitchen exhaust ventilation technologies and practice and proposes a suite of strategies to overcome these barriers. The recommendations have been vetted by a group of industry, regulatory, health, and research experts and stakeholders who convened for two meetings and provided input and feedback to early drafts of this document. The most fundamental barriers are (1) the common misconception, based on a sensory perception of risk, that kitchen exhaust when cooking is unnecessary and (2) the lack of a code requirement for kitchen ventilation in most U.S. locations. Highest priority objectives include the following: (1) Raise awareness among the public and the building industry of the need to install and routinely use kitchen ventilation; (2) Incorporate kitchen exhaust ventilation as a requirement of building codes and improve the mechanisms for code enforcement; (3) Provide best practice product and use-behavior guidance to ventilation equipment purchasers and installers, and; (4) Develop test methods and performance targets to advance development of high performance products. A specific, urgent need is the development of an over-the-range microwave that meets the airflow and sound requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  3. Addressing Kitchen Contaminants for Healthy, Low-Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, J. Chris; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking and cooking burners emit pollutants that can adversely affect indoor air quality in residences and significantly impact occupant health. Effective kitchen exhaust ventilation can reduce exposure to cooking-related air pollutants as an enabling step to healthier, low-energy homes. This report identifies barriers to the widespread adoption of kitchen exhaust ventilation technologies and practice and proposes a suite of strategies to overcome these barriers. The recommendations have been vetted by a group of industry, regulatory, health, and research experts and stakeholders who convened for two web-based meetings and provided input and feedback to early drafts of this document. The most fundamental barriers are (1) the common misconception, based on a sensory perception of risk, that kitchen exhaust when cooking is unnecessary and (2) the lack of a code requirement for kitchen ventilation in most US locations. Highest priority objectives include the following: (1) Raise awareness among the public and the building industry of the need to install and routinely use kitchen ventilation; (2) Incorporate kitchen exhaust ventilation as a requirement of building codes and improve the mechanisms for code enforcement; (3) Provide best practice product and use-behavior guidance to ventilation equipment purchasers and installers, and; (4) Develop test methods and performance targets to advance development of high performance products. A specific, urgent need is the development of an over-the-range microwave that meets the airflow and sound requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  4. The Labor-saving Kitchen: Sources for Designs of the Architects’ Small Home Service Bureau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Tucker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the kitchen has received much attention from designers and design historians. Since the writings of Catharine Beecher, designers, household engineers, and others have written about the importance of the kitchen as the center of the home. This research traces the impact of the writings of theorists such as Frederick Taylor, Georgie Boynton Child, Helen Binkerd Young, and Christine Frederick on the designs produced by the architects in the first quarter of the 20th century.  Frederick’s work took the concept of an efficient kitchen to a new level applying movement studies and introducing new ideas to the kitchen layout and arrangement.  In a properly laid out and equipped kitchen, steps were saved by placing kitchen cabinets, ovens and stoves, refrigerators and sinks where they were needed in the sequence of food preparation and delivery to dining table as well as clean up after the meal.  In her books, she also provided advice on a variety of considerations, such as appliances and accessories, lighting and ventilation; materials, finishes and color; and appliances and equipment.  In 1919 a group of architects dedicated to improving the housing stock in the United States through good design banded together to form the Architects’ Small House Service Bureau (ASHSB.  Their first plan book, How to Plan Finance and Build your Home published in 1921, also encouraged labor-saving kitchen design and provided advice on kitchen design. The research reported here assesses how the influence of Frederick and Boyton’s advice as reflected in the work of and interpreted by Helen Binkerd Young is demonstrated in the kitchen designs of the ASHSB’s first plan book. A plan content analysis instrument, developed using Frederick’s writings and edited to include other variables from Young and Child, is used to analyze the 99 kitchens and two essays in the ASHSB’s plan book.  The plans and accompanying comments evidence enthusiasm for

  5. Home Kitchen Safety Lessons for Children and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wingfield, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to design a series of lessons introducing food safety concepts and hand washing to children ages three to five, which is a group that is considered an ‘at risk’ population with food safety regards. There are other curriculum that reach this audience, but the intent of this one is to target stay-at-home mothers, whose children are not in preschool. The project goal is to teach the mother and child food safety concepts while simultaneously using hands on cooking ...

  6. Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osintsev, V V; Khidiyatov, A M

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to improve the operating efficiency of the furnace device containing prefurnaces connected to the main combustion chamber. For this purpose in the proposed furnace device is equipped with prefurnaces with burners, rectangular vertical chamber of combustion is equipped with central hearth projection. As indicated by studies, the hearth projection of the indicated projections promotes the development of transverse streams which guarantee effective mixing of the combustion products in the upper part of the combustion chamber 3. This reduces the nonuniformity of temperature at the outlet from the latter, decreases the probability of slagging and hot spots on the heating surface.

  7. The Kitchen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    in housing architecture. In this paper the analysis focuses particularly on the kitchen. A 100 years ago the kitchen of the bourgeoisie and the middle class was used only by servants and other employees – the kitchen was not designed to be used by the residents. Today the kitchen has developed into a central...

  8. Home kitchen ventilation, cooking fuels, and lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort of never smoking women in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christopher; Gao, Yu-Tang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Barone-Adesi, Francesco; Zhang, Yawei; Hosgood, H Dean; Ma, Shuangge; Shu, Xiao-ou; Ji, Bu-Tian; Chow, Wong-Ho; Seow, Wei Jie; Bassig, Bryan; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-02-01

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) caused by cooking has been associated with lung cancer risk in retrospective case-control studies in developing and rural countries. We report the association of cooking conditions, fuel use, oil use, and risk of lung cancer in a developed urban population in a prospective cohort of women in Shanghai. A total of 71,320 never smoking women were followed from 1996 through 2009 and 429 incident lung cancer cases were identified. Questionnaires collected information on household living and cooking practices for the three most recent residences and utilization of cooking fuel and oil, and ventilation conditions. Cox proportional hazards regression estimated the association for kitchen ventilation conditions, cooking fuels, and use of cooking oils for the risk of lung cancer by hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Ever poor kitchen ventilation was associated with a 49% increase in lung cancer risk (HR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.15-1.95) compared to never poor ventilation. Ever use of coal was not significantly associated. However, ever coal use with poor ventilation (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.22-2.35) and 20 or more years of using coal with poor ventilation (HR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.35-3.05) was significantly associated compared to no exposure to coal or poor ventilation. Cooking oil use was not significantly associated. These results demonstrate that IAP from poor ventilation of coal combustion increases the risk of lung cancer and is an important public health issue in cities across China where people may have lived in homes with inadequate kitchen ventilation. © 2014 UICC.

  9. Kitchen Corner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes one third-grade classroom's experience engaging in a lesson plan inspired by Larry Yanez's "Cocina Jaiteca" and images of the cheerful kitchen. In the lesson, the students were to draw their own kitchens based on their observations of the many details in Yanez's kitchen example, such as the calendar on the wall,…

  10. Field Measurements of Heating Efficiency of Electric Forced-Air Furnaces in Six Manufactured Homes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Bob; Palmiter, Larry S.; Siegel, Jeff

    1994-07-26

    This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency for six manufactured homes in the Pacific Northwest heated with electric forced-air systems. This is the first in a series of regional and national efforts to measure in detail the heating efficiency of manufactured homes. Only six homes were included in this study because of budgetary constraints; therefore this is not a representative sample. These investigations do provide some useful information on the heating efficiency of these homes. Useful comparisons can be drawn between these study homes and site-built heating efficiencies measured with a similar protocol. The protocol used to test these homes is very similar to another Ecotope protocol used in the study conducted in 1992 and 1993 for the Bonneville Power Administration to test the heating efficiency of 24 homes. This protocol combined real-time power measurements of furnace energy usage with energy usage during co-heat periods. Accessory data such as house and duct tightness measurements and tracer gas measurements were used to describe these homes and their heating system efficiency. Ensuring that manufactured housing is constructed in an energy and resource efficient manner is of increasing concern to manufactured home builders and consumers. No comparable work has been done to measure the heating system efficiency of MCS manufactured homes, although some co-heat tests have been performed on manufactured homes heated with natural gas to validate HUD thermal standards. It is expected that later in 1994 more research of this kind will be conducted, and perhaps a less costly and less time-consuming method for testing efficiencies will be develops.

  11. Kitchen gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Numeracy is the practical application of mathematics in context. In schools, contexts such as kitchen gardens can provide a real world and exciting environment for engaging students in mathematical thinking and discussion associated with situations of proportion. This article presents examples from...... a primary school kitchen garden project in which Year 5 students engaged in tasks requiring proportional reasoning, which is a key aspect of numeracy....

  12. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Cirujano, Diego; Picking, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people’s autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appr...

  13. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certificati...

  14. Results of the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-2013: impact of natural gas appliances on air pollutant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, N A; Li, J; Russell, M L; Spears, M; Less, B D; Singer, B C

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the current impact of natural gas appliances on air quality in California homes. Data were collected via telephone interviews and measurements inside and outside of 352 homes. Passive samplers measured time-resolved CO and time-integrated NOX , NO2 , formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde over ~6-day periods in November 2011 - April 2012 and October 2012 - March 2013. The fraction of indoor NOX and NO2 attributable to indoor sources was estimated. NOX , NO2 , and highest 1-h CO were higher in homes that cooked with gas and increased with amount of gas cooking. NOX and NO2 were higher in homes with cooktop pilot burners, relative to gas cooking without pilots. Homes with a pilot burner on a floor or wall furnace had higher kitchen and bedroom NOX and NO2 compared to homes without a furnace pilot. When scaled to account for varying home size and mixing volume, indoor-attributed bedroom and kitchen NOX and kitchen NO2 were not higher in homes with wall or floor furnace pilot burners, although bedroom NO2 was higher. In homes that cooked 4 h or more with gas, self-reported use of kitchen exhaust was associated with lower NOX , NO2 , and highest 1-h CO. Gas appliances were not associated with higher concentrations of formaldehyde or acetaldehyde. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Virginia Tech's Center For Real Life Kitchen Design Is A Success!

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Jane Anne

    2003-01-01

    Explore Your Dream Kitchen, a two-day workshop offered in Virginia Tech's Center for Real Life Kitchen Design, will be offered twice in May to participants who want to learn about planning and designing a kitchen that really meets their needs. Attendees explore and experience kitchens with a wide variety of designs, products, materials, and technologies during this fun and interactive course. Participants are asked to bring plans, ideas, and questions about their homes and kitchens as everyon...

  16. An in-home video study and questionnaire survey of food preparation, kitchen sanitation, and hand washing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Elizabeth; Herbold, Nancie

    2010-06-01

    Foodborne illnesses pose a problem to all individuals but are especially significant for infants, the elderly, and individuals with compromised immune systems. Personal hygiene is recognized as the number-one way people can lower their risk. The majority of meals in the U.S. are eaten at home. Little is known, however, about the actual application of personal hygiene and sanitation behaviors in the home. The study discussed in this article assessed knowledge of hygiene practices compared to observed behaviors and determined whether knowledge equated to practice. It was a descriptive study involving a convenience sample of 30 households. Subjects were recruited from the Boston area and a researcher and/or a research assistant traveled to the homes of study participants to videotape a standard food preparation procedure preceded by floor mopping. The results highlight the differences between individuals' reported beliefs and actual practice. This information can aid food safety and other health professionals in targeting food safety education so that consumers understand their own critical role in decreasing their risk for foodborne illness.

  17. Programming in the Kitchen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Eskildsen, Toke; Sperschneider, Werner

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we discuss issues for the integration of computing power in mundane artefactts. We do so with reference to a recent project with a manufaturer of ovens for larger kitchens and catering service. We introduce three levels of obstacles when integrating computers into mundane tools and ...

  18. A community randomised controlled trial evaluating a home-based environmental intervention package of improved stoves, solar water disinfection and kitchen sinks in rural Peru: rationale, trial design and baseline findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger, S M; Lanata, C F; Hattendorf, J; Gil, A I; Verastegui, H; Ochoa, T; Mäusezahl, D

    2011-11-01

    Pneumonia and diarrhoea are leading causes of death in children. There is a need to develop effective interventions. We present the design and baseline findings of a community-randomised controlled trial in rural Peru to evaluate the health impact of an Integrated Home-based Intervention Package in children aged 6 to 35 months. We randomised 51 communities. The intervention was developed through a community-participatory approach prior to the trial. They comprised the construction of improved stoves and kitchen sinks, the promotion of hand washing, and solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS). To reduce the potential impact of non-blinding bias, a psychomotor stimulation intervention was implemented in the control arm. The baseline survey included anthropometric and socio-economic characteristics. In a sub-sample we determined the level of faecal contamination of drinking water, hands and kitchen utensils and the prevalence of diarrhoegenic Escherichia coli in stool specimen. We enrolled 534 children. At baseline all households used open fires and 77% had access to piped water supplies. E. coli was found in drinking water in 68% and 64% of the intervention and control households. Diarrhoegenic E. coli strains were isolated from 45/139 stool samples. The proportion of stunted children was 54%. Randomization resulted in comparable study arms. Recently, several critical reviews raised major concerns on the reliability of open health intervention trials, because of uncertain sustainability and non-blinding bias. In this regard, the presented trial featuring objective outcome measures, a simultaneous intervention in the control communities and a 12-month follow up period will provide valuable evidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Cornell Kitchen: Housing and Design Research in Postwar America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    The Cornell Kitchen (1950-55) was produced at Cornell University by a multidisciplinary team with expertise in home economics, engineering, architecture, and psychology. It promised to deliver rational design, functional principles, aesthetic appeal, and emotional satisfaction in one prefabricated, easy-to-install package. This article sets out the kitchen's history from its design to its field-testing phase to its impact on postwar kitchens. It argues that the kitchen represents an important effort to approach housing in a more scientific way; scientific methods were deployed to understand both the physical and socio-psychological problems of dwelling. The project also sought to introduce a specific model for leveraging housing research into the real world, partnering with industry to mass produce scientific designs. Social scientific methods were hence used to create not only more livable but also more saleable products in an effort to appeal to manufacturers and consumers alike.

  20. Physics in the kitchen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barham Peter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The kitchen is a laboratory and cooking is an experimental science. When we cook we generally follow a recipe (either written or from memory; we select, quantify and process the ingredients and then serve the food to our friends, family or guests. A good cook (or scientist will keep records in a notebook of exactly what they do so that they can repeat the experiment (recipe as required.

  1. A smart kitchen for ambient assisted living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Cirujano, Diego; Picking, Richard

    2014-01-17

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people's autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc.) and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled). Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi), which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63) and carers (31) in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility.

  2. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Blasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people’s autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc. and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled. Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi, which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63 and carers (31 in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility.

  3. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Cirujano, Diego; Picking, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people's autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc.) and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled). Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi), which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63) and carers (31) in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility. PMID:24445412

  4. Sex in the Kitchen: The Re-interpretation of Gendered Space Within the Post-World War II Suburban Home in the West

    OpenAIRE

    Lockette, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    In the decades following 1945, Americans moved increasingly out of cities into suburbs. The migration illustrated the emergence of a new, broader middle class as a result of growing postwar affluence. In the previous half-century, families living in a suburb could claim middle-class status. The emerging class built its identity on the forms and values adopted from this earlier, more affluent Victorian middle class. These adopted values were played out in a home designed around Progressive era...

  5. Shared decision-making in home-care from the nurse's perspective: sitting at the kitchen table--a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truglio-Londrigan, Marie

    2013-10-01

    To come to know, understand and describe the experience of shared decision-making in home-care from the nurse's perspective. The literature presents the concept of shared decision-making as a complex process characterised by a partnership between the healthcare provider and the patient, which is participatory and action oriented with education and negotiation leading to agreement. Few studies have been carried out to explore and describe the events that make up the experiences of shared decision-making in home-care from the nurse's perspective. A qualitative descriptive study was implemented. Semi structured interviews were performed with 10 home-care nurses who were asked to reflect on a time in their practice when they were involved in a shared decision-making process with their patient. All data were analysed using Colaizzi's method. The following Themes were uncovered: Begin where the patient is; Education for shared decision-making; The village and shared decision-making; and Whose decision is it? Each of the four Themes contained Subthemes. The findings of this study present shared decision-making as a complex, multidimensional and fluid process. A thorough understanding of shared decision-making is essential within the multiple contexts in which care is delivered. Nurses in clinical practice need to know and understand the events of the experience of shared decision-making. A more comprehensive understanding of these facts can assist home-care nurses in their practice with regard to the application of shared decision-making. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Kitchen chemistry: A scoping review of the diversionary use of pharmaceuticals for non-medicinal use and home production of drug solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    Misuse of pharmaceuticals is of increasing drug policy and public health concern. A scoping review was conducted on the diversionary use of pharmaceuticals for non-medicinal use and home production of drug solutions. The research question was broad: What is known from the existing literature about the diversion of pharmaceuticals for non-medicinal use and for home production of drug solutions? The scoping process centred on the systematic selection, collection, and summarization of extant knowledge within this broad thematic remit. One hundred and thirty-four records were grouped into discrete thematic categories namely: non medicinal use and tampering with pharmaceuticals, oral misuse of codeine cough syrups, homemade drug solutions, and home-produced drug-related harms in the narrative review design. Forms of abuse of codeine cough syrup include mixtures with alcohol or soft drinks ('Purple Drank'), with kratom leaves ('Kratom cocktails'), or chemically altered to extract dextromorphan ('Lemon Drop'). Production of homemade opiates ('Cheornaya', 'Kolyosa', Himiya', 'Braun', 'Krokodil'), methamphetamine ('Vint', 'Pervitin'), methcathinone ('Jeff'), and cathinone ('Boltushka') are described. Displacement patterns between the non-medical use of pharmaceuticals, commercial, and homemade drugs appear dependent on availability of opiates, prescribing practices, supervision of substitution drug dosing, availability of cheap ingredients, policing, and awareness of harms. Adverse health and social consequences relate to the use of unknown and contaminated (end) substances, injecting practices, redosing, medical complications, and death. The review highlights a public health imperative requiring a multidisciplinary approach to quantify potential impact and required integrated policy responses incorporating international regulation, enforcement, health surveillance and service delivery. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Slim by Design: Kitchen Counter Correlates of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S.; Kaipainen, Kirsikka

    2016-01-01

    Background: The home is one place where people can control what foods are available and how the environment is arranged. Given the impact of environments on health, the objective of this study is to determine whether the presence of foods on a person's kitchen counter are associated with their body mass index (BMI). Method: In Study 1, a…

  8. Gas cooking, kitchen ventilation, and exposure to combustion products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, SM; Brunekreef, B; Oldenwening, M; Smit, HA; Kerkhof, M; De Vries, H

    We evaluated a questionnaire-based system for classifying homes into groups with distinctly different chances of accumulating combustion products from cooking appliances. The system was based on questions about type of cooking appliance, type and use of ventilation provisions, and kitchen size.

  9. Optimum Design for Multi-angle Kitchen Grater Mechanism for Biodegrading Kitchen Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Razali Zol Bahri; Abdul Hasim Abdul Rahim; Daud Mohd Hisam

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this report is regarding on the conceptual design of the grater machine which meant to shred food wastes into small and fine size particle. This study will focus on the waste management factor of the food waste produced in the home kitchen. A study is conducted to compare the most suitable material and geometric shape of the grating blades by comparing with similar existing devices in the market. The chosen material and blade design are to be evaluated for its character...

  10. Kitchen Units for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This study is concerned with functional standards for storage of equipment, use of space, and arrangement of work centers in kitchen units for four students within a high school foods laboratory. Lists of equipment and measurements for storage areas are given for each work center. (FS)

  11. Thermal comfort in commercial kitchens (RP-1469)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Stoops, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory, and working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type of establishment (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, the size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., further complicate an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in commercial kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are stipulated in international standards (e.g., ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN 7730), but are these standardized methods applicable...... dissatisfied (PMV/PPD) index is not directly appropriate for all thermal conditions in commercial kitchens....

  12. Thermal Environment evaluation in Commercial kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    as commercial kitchens? There is therefore a need to study the indoor environment in commercial kitchens and to establish standardized methods and procedures for setting criteria that have to be met for the design and operation of kitchens. The present paper introduces a data collection protocol based......The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory and the working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence the thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., complicate further an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are expressed in international standards such as ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN7730. But are these standardised methods applicable for such environments...

  13. Heat treatment furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  14. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  15. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  16. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  17. Kitchen Physics: Lessons in Fluid Pressure and Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieyra, Rebecca Elizabeth; Vieyra, Chrystian; Macchia, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Although the advent and popularization of the "flipped classroom" tends to center around at-home video lectures, teachers are increasingly turning to at-home labs for enhanced student engagement. This paper describes two simple at-home experiments that can be accomplished in the kitchen. The first experiment analyzes the density of four liquids using a waterproof case and a smartphone barometer in a container, sink, or tub. The second experiment determines the relationship between pressure and temperature of an ideal gas in a constant volume container placed momentarily in a refrigerator freezer. These experiences provide a ripe opportunity both for learning fundamental physics concepts as well as to investigate a variety of error analysis techniques that are frequently overlooked in introductory physics courses.

  18. Red alder kitchen cabinets—How does application of commercial stains influence customer choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of consumer reaction and preferences for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) secondary products will help Alaska producers in entering new markets. In this study, red alder kitchen cabinets were commercially stained to six different levels and displayed at home shows in Portland, Oregon, and Anchorage, Alaska. The stains simulated...

  19. Sources of product information used by consumers when purchasing kitchen cabinets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David L. Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2004-01-01

    Survey data from home shows in Seattle, Washington and Anchorage, Alaska were used to determine the sources of product information used by consumers when buying kitchen cabinets. Results show that in-store sales staff are the most common source of product information, and that consumers' favorite wood species, age, and gender can influence the source of product...

  20. Home

    Science.gov (United States)

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  1. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  2. Optimum Design for Multi-angle Kitchen Grater Mechanism for Biodegrading Kitchen Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Zol Bahri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this report is regarding on the conceptual design of the grater machine which meant to shred food wastes into small and fine size particle. This study will focus on the waste management factor of the food waste produced in the home kitchen. A study is conducted to compare the most suitable material and geometric shape of the grating blades by comparing with similar existing devices in the market. The chosen material and blade design are to be evaluated for its characteristics and performance by using the FEM method. The analysis is taking all the constraints regarding the design as well as its advantages are to be considered in designing a new grating blade for the optimum end product making. This design derived through in the consideration for the home application rather than domestic use. This brings the meaning that the compact and small size design. With the detailed evaluation of the stress reaction on the blades to provide the safety and sustainability factor of the device as well as the people that is using the device.

  3. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  4. Therapeutic kitchens for residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, J P; Meehan, R A; Calkins, M P

    2001-01-01

    Long-term care facilities are increasingly incorporating some sort of kitchen, often referred to as a therapeutic kitchen, for resident, staff, and family use through remodeling efforts or new construction. A study, consisting of five site visits and a questionnaire mailed to 631 facilities providing dementia care, was conducted to identify physical features that are typically included in therapeutic kitchen design and to explore how these features support daily use in relation to activities programming and food service systems. Findings indicate that universal design features should be incorporated to a greater extent and certain features are more common, reinforce homelike imagery, or enhance safety. Results also suggest that a higher number of residents participate in more recreational activities, such as baking, than they do in household chores, such as meal set-up, and therapeutic kitchens are not always linked to food service systems.

  5. KITCHEN ISLAND FURNITURE DESIGN FOR RESIDENTIAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braileanu Patricia Isabela

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In terms of spatial configuration, kitchens design is related to the number of work fronts, shapes and their arrangement in the assembly, storage and distribution areas, as well as the location of the dining place. This paper focuses upon designing a prototype by taking into account the kitchen geometry, as well as different materials and their properties, thus providing an optimum combination of materials likely to ensure a long lifespan of the product at a minimum cost.

  6. TEACH Kitchen: A Chronological Review of Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jung Hee; Ansa, Benjamin E.; Smith, Selina A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Eating and Cooking Healthy (TEACH) Kitchen was founded at the Medical College of Georgia in 2015 as a nutrition-based intervention to combat the high prevalence of obesity and obesity-related chronic diseases in the area of Augusta, Georgia. Despite the importance of diet in the management of chronic diseases, inadequate nutrition education among patients and healthcare providers presents a barrier. The purpose of TEACH Kitchen is to address this gap. Methods TEACH Kitchen is as a student-led initiative that promotes healthy cooking among medical students and patients with chronic diseases. Healthy nutrition and cooking classes are held during the academic year. Participants spend four weeks on each of four modules: obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. Data collection, which began in January 2017, is currently on going. TEACH Kitchen has collaborated with Augusta University, Sodexo, and Kohl’s. Results Currently, TEACH Kitchen has enrolled 14 patients and 6 children. Anticipated results include measurements of pre-and post-intervention changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and competence in nutrition, as well as differences in clinical indicators, including body mass index, blood pressure, lipid profile, and HbA1c. Conclusions TEACH Kitchen is the first medical school-based nutrition/cooking education initiative in Augusta, Georgia. It provides patients and medical students with hands-on healthy nutrition/cooking experience with the goal of decreasing the prevalence and improving the outcome of obesity-related diseases. PMID:28890945

  7. Center for Real Life Kitchen Design open house to showcase latest in residential kitchens

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Virginia Tech will unveil its newly refurbished Center for Real Life Kitchen Design at an open house set for Monday, April 2. The 1,500-square foot center, located in 247 Wallace Hall, features six fully functional residential kitchen designs that reflect a variety of price levels, lifestyles, and use of space for today's homeowner.

  8. Recognition and Use of Kitchen Tools and Utensils. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 4.4. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 4: Equipment Handling, Operation, and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with common tools and utensils used in commercial kitchens. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided on various kitchen tools (cutting,…

  9. Risk factors for frequent work-related burn and cut injuries and low back pain among commercial kitchen workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Shigeru; Muto, Takashi; Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Haruyama, Yasuo; Ito, Akiyoshi; Muto, Shigeki; Haratani, Takashi; Seo, Akihiko; Ayabe, Makoto; Katamoto, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated risk factors for frequent work-related burn and cut injuries and low back pain (LBP) among kitchen workers including personal, work-related and environmental factors. Subjects were 991 kitchen workers in 103 schools, 17 hospitals and nursing homes, and 6 restaurants in central Japan. A cross-sectional survey was carried out using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between frequent injuries/LBP and risk factors. The effective response rate was 75.1% (n=744), the mean age was 40.7 (SD 11.7) and 77.2% were female. Burn injury was associated with a smaller kitchen (OR 1.94; 95%CI, 1.13-3.33), and gas kitchens rather than electric kitchens (OR 2.30; 95%CI, 1.17-4.52). LBP was associated with female gender (OR 2.46; 95%CI, 1.37-4.43), high body height (>160 cm) (OR 2.03; 95%CI, 1.22-3.36), and large number of meals produced per person (≥ 150 meals) (OR 1.83; 95%CI, 1.12-3.00). The results of this study suggest that securing adequate work space and introducing electric kitchen systems may reduce the risk to kitchen workers, as well as the importance of adequate height of cooking equipment and selecting an appropriate volume of meals to produce per person to prevent LBP in kitchen workers.

  10. Recovery After Stroke: Managing Life at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be made before you go home. Staying Safe Connected and  Write out emergency phone numbers in large ... learn how to manage many sharp or hot objects that pose serious dangers in the kitchen. To ...

  11. Steam generators and furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swoboda, E

    1978-04-01

    The documents published in 1977 in the field of steam generators for conventional thermal power plants are classified according to the following subjects: power industry and number of power plants, planning and operation, design and construction, furnaces, environmental effects, dirt accumulation and corrosion, conservation and scouring, control and automation, fundamental research, and materials.

  12. Modification of radon levels in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breysse, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Radon infiltration from the ground into a house is primarily due to pressure differences between the interior of the home and the soil. If the atmospheric pressure inside the home is lower than the pressure in the soil, flow into the house will be accelerated since air flows from high pressure to lower pressure. Pressure differences can arise due to wind action. Temperature differences between indoors and outdoors also affect the relative indoor and outdoor pressure. These temperature and pressure variations can produce a stack effect which sucks air in from the bottom of the structure where the interior pressure is lowered and out toward the top. The internal pressure in houses is usually less than the gas pressure in the soil. Internal pressure in houses, however, can be further lowered as the result of the operation of kitchen, bathroom and attic exhaust fans as well as by the use of fireplaces, furnaces and wood stoves, and clothes dryers. This further reduction in internal pressure will likely increase the entry of radon into the house

  13. Kitchen hygiene in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, R.R.; Kusumaningrum, H.D.

    2003-01-01

    More and more data are available indicating that numerous (infectious) diseases are related to the home environment. Airborne microorganisms (bacteria, fungi), mites (in sheets or carpets), and (parts of) insects and beetles may be the cause of respiratory diseases such as asthma. In Europe and

  14. Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    AF Branding & Trademark Licensing Join the Air Force Home About Us The Air Force Symbol Display Resources Document Library TM Connect Search AF Branding and Trademark Licensing Program: important links Legal Documents 10 U.S.C. § 2260 15 U.S.C. § 167;167; 1114-1125 DODI 5535.12, DoD Branding and

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    Science.gov (United States)

    intersect as Attack Wing leaders change roles The 112th COS postured as cyber shield for Pa. infrastructure 111th Attack Wing 111th Attack Wing 21st Century Guard Airmen Home News Photos Art Video Resources - The Balance Search 111th Attack Wing: COMMUNITY/ENVIRO May 16, 2018; Pa. Department of Health update

  16. 24 CFR 3280.204 - Kitchen cabinet protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kitchen cabinet protection. 3280... Kitchen cabinet protection. (a) The bottom and sides of combustible kitchen cabinets over cooking ranges... is designed for the future installation of a cooking range, the metal hood and cabinet protection...

  17. When the kids conquered the kitchen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Since the first Danish children's cookbook was published in 1847, cooking has been taught to Danish children. The objective of this article is to present a historical based analysis of Danish children's cookbooks from 1971-2016 with a perspective into the development of the New Nordic Kitchen. Al...

  18. Treatment of kitchen wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwin, Rijwana; Karar Paul, Kakoli

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes for treatment of raw kitchen wastewater was studied in the present research work. An artificial wetland of 30 liter capacity was created for phytoremediation of kitchen wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes. Kitchen wastewater samples were collected from hostel of an educational institute in India. Samples were characterized based on physical and chemical parameters such as pH, turbidity, total hardness, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon and total dissolved solid. The physico-chemical parameter of kitchen wastewater samples were analysed for durations of 0 (initial day), 4 and 8 days. After 8 days of retention period, it was observed that pH value increases from 6.25 to 6.63. However, percentage reduction for turbidity, total hardness, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon and total dissolved solid were found to be 74.71%, 50%, 78.75%, 60.28%, 25.31%, 33.33%, 15.38% and 69.97%, respectively. Hence water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is found efficient and easy to handle and it can be used for low cost phytoremediation technique.

  19. Determining Absolute Zero in the Kitchen Sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Robert; Siegel, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Presents an experiment to demonstrate Charles's Law of Ideal Gases by creating a constant-pressure thermometer from materials that can be found in the kitchen. Discusses the underlying mathematical relationships and a step-by-step description of the experiment. (MDH)

  20. Staff motion reduction at a Japanese restaurant by kitchen layout redesign after kitchen simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Shimmura, Takeshi; Fujii, Nobutada; Kaihara, Toshiya

    2017-01-01

    10TH CIRP CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT COMPUTATION IN MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING - CIRP ICME '16. This study was conducted to decrease the moving distance of kitchen staff at a Japanese cuisine restaurant store by remodeling the kitchen layout according to simulation results. Restaurants must reduce moving distance because it deeply affects employee fatigue. Furthermore, moving distance reduction is important for customers because it reduces cooking times and therefore waiting times. Conventional...

  1. Improved Casting Furnace Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tolman, David Donald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In an attempt to ensure more consistent casting results and remove some schedule variance associated with casting, an improved casting furnace concept has been developed. The improved furnace uses the existing arc melter hardware and glovebox utilities. The furnace concept was designed around physical and operational requirements such as; a charge sized of less than 30 grams, high heating rates and minimal additional footprint. The conceptual model is shown in the report as well as a summary of how the requirements were met.

  2. From Vienna to Frankfurt Inside Core-House Type 7: A History of Scarcity through the Modern Kitchen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Hochhaeusl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces a history of war-induced scarcity through the material and technological properties of household appliances and kitchens from 1914 to 1930. Investigating the Austrian settlement and allotment garden movement, it argues that the practices of users, self-help builders, and inhabitants who reacted to living with limited resources in the state of emergency found their way into the designs of modern homes, and into the works of canonical modern architecture, in particular the famous Frankfurt Kitchen. This paper thus investigates the design and production of the modern kitchen and its transformations, from Vienna to Frankfurt, moving from a cooperative vernacular building movement to one of the largest construction endeavors to standardize and prefabricate modern housing in Germany.

  3. SAFETY DAN SANITASI DI AREA KITCHEN AMAROOSSA HOTEL BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Rizki Yano Putra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrac - In the tourism industry sectors of the hospitality industry is engaged in services, very influential on the development of tourism. Hotels are required to provide satisfaction to both guests of the facilities provided to meet the needs of guests. The hotel must be able to create a comfortable atmosphere for guests, one way to improve safety and sanitation in all department. This observation examines the main problems, namely: "How is safety and sanitation in the kitchen area, what is the procedure to clean kitchen areas, wash your food how procedures and equipment in the kitchen, and whatever obstacles that occur during operations in the kitchen". The method used in this thesis is "Descriptive Method". Data collection techniques used by direct observation to the object of research, conduct interviews with employees Amaroossa Hotel Bandung kitchen, equipped with library research to obtain theoretical data as a basis for discussion. The results of this observation that the state of safety and sanitation of kitchen area has not met the requirements of safety and sanitation. Cleaning the kitchen area has been going well, but spacious kitchen is limited. Washing equipment and food ingredients not meet safety and sanitation that is using the sink in the same place for washing. Operational constraints in a narrow kitchen space and limited washing tubs and equipment. . Keyword: Safety, Health, Kitchen   Abstrak - Dalam industri kepariwisataan, perhotelan merupakan sektor industri yang bergerak dalam bidang jasa dan sangat berpengaruh terhadap perkembangan kepariwisataan. Hotel dituntut dapat memberikan kepuasan kepada tamu baik dari fasilitas yang disediakan dalam memenuhi kebutuhan tamu. Pihak hotel harus mampu menciptakan suasana yang nyaman untuk tamu, salah satu caranya meningkatkan safety dan sanitasi pada semua department. Penelitian ini mengkaji permasalahan pokok yaitu: “Bagaimana safety dan sanitasi di area kitchen, bagaimana

  4. Testing conformal mapping with kitchen aluminum foil

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, S.; Cooke, D. A.; Crivelli, P.

    2016-01-01

    We report an experimental verification of conformal mapping with kitchen aluminum foil. This experiment can be reproduced in any laboratory by undergraduate students and it is therefore an ideal experiment to introduce the concept of conformal mapping. The original problem was the distribution of the electric potential in a very long plate. The correct theoretical prediction was recently derived by A. Czarnecki (Can. J. Phys. 92, 1297 (2014)).

  5. Karen Strohm Kitchener (1943-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Melba J T

    2016-12-01

    Presents an obituary for Karen Strohm Kitchener, who passed away on April 4, 2016, in a tragic accident near Oahu, Hawaii. One of Karen's major contributions was the development of the Reflective Judgment Model with her colleague, Patricia M. King. This model describes the development of people's ability to make intellectually defensible choices about complex problems that defy right or wrong answers and instead are resolved using multidimensional approaches and reasoned interpretations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Glass: Rotary Electric Glass Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    Compared to conventional gas-fired furnaces, the new rotary electric furnace will increase energy efficiency while significantly reducing air emissions, product turnaround time, and labor costs. As this informative new fact sheet explains, the thousand different types of glass optical blanks produced for the photonics industry are used for lasers, telescopes, cameras, lights, and many other products.

  7. The importance of hygiene in the domestic kitchen: implications for preparation and storage of food and infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Elizabeth C; Griffith, Christopher J

    2009-03-01

    Public concerns relating to food safety remain high with most attention focused on manufactured foods and those served in catering operations. However, previous data have suggested that the home may be the main location for cases of food-borne disease. The aim of this paper is to review the microbiological risks associated with hygiene in the domestic kitchen related to food and infant formula safety. Compared to other food sectors, research on consumer food hygiene, domestic food-handling and preparation of infant formula is relatively understudied. Behavioural and microbiological studies of consumer hygiene and the domestic kitchen have been reviewed to incorporate research relating to the safety of infant formula. Incidence data identify the home as an important location for acquiring food-borne disease. The domestic kitchen can be used for a variety of purposes and is often contaminated with potentially harmful micro-organisms such as Campylobacter and Salmonella. Consumer hygiene habits have frequently been found to be inadequate and relate both to microbial growth, survival and cross-contamination. Due to the reduced immune response of infants, the activities associated with the preparation of infant formula and associated bottles and equipment are of particular concern. Cumulatively, the data suggest that more effort should be made to educate the consumer in food hygiene, especially when the kitchen is used to reconstitute infant formula. This information needs to be provided in a form appropriate for use by consumers.

  8. Design your kitchen versus kitchen design / Ontwerp je keuken versus keukenontwerp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two kitchen designs from the immediate post-war period - one by Swiss French architect Le Corbusier and the other by the Danish artists Asger Jorn and Erik Nyholm. These two works present a different understanding of the hegemony of design and designer versus the user. Both...

  9. A kitchen course in electricity and magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Nightingale, David

    2014-01-01

    Electricity is all around us: cars, telephones, computers, lights -- the modern world runs entirely on electrons. But what are electrons? How do they behave? How do we control them? This book will show you how to build a battery, detect static electricity and construct a basic current meter, all using common items from your kitchen. Along the way you'll learn about the meaning of ""voltage"" and ""current"", what makes an LED work and the difference between AC and DC. The last chapter uses transistors -- the basic building blocks of every computer -- for lots of interesting experiments. With p

  10. Cold War Kitchen: Americanization, Technology, and European users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenziel, R.; Zachmann, K.

    2009-01-01

    Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev's famous "kitchen debate" in 1958 involved more than the virtues of American appliances. Both Nixon and Khrushchev recognized the political symbolism of the modern kitchen; the kind of technological innovation represented in this everyday context spoke to the

  11. PERANAN COOK DI EVENT KITCHEN HOTEL HYATT REGENCY BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Firdaus

    2016-03-01

      Abstrak - Hotel merupakan salah satu pendukung pariwisata, dimana keberadaanya begitu penting untuk mengakomodir kebutuhan-kebutuhan wisatawan yang berkaitan dengan penginapan, restoran, penyelenggaraan event dan hiburan, sehingga faktor kualitas pelayanan yang diberikan menjadi kunci keberhasilan dari suatu hotel. Penyelenggaraan event di hotel menjadi tren tersendiri dan sangat berpotensi untuk terus dikembangkan, salah satu kualitas pelayanan yang sangat penting yaitu penyediaan hidangan bagi kegiatan event, maka peran cook di event kitchen menjadi aspek yang dapat menentukan baik tidaknya event terlaksana. Hotel Hyatt Regency Bandung sebagai hotel bintang 5 memiliki 6 outlet untuk mendukung pelayanan hidangan bagi event yang diselenggarakan di hotel tersebut. Keenam outlet tersebut yaitu outlet Banquet Kitchen, outlet Taruma Café Kitchen, outlet Regecy Kitchen, outlet Cha Yuen Kitchen, outlet Commissary Kitchen dan outlet Simider Kitchen. Dalam suatu outlet biasanya terdiri dari 6 sampai 7 cook. Dimana mereka memiliki tugas masing-masing, seperti bagian chef de partie yang bertugas untuk menyediakan dan mengawasi pengadaan kebutuhan bahan makanan, dan ada pula bagian commis yang bertugas untuk mengolah bahan makanan menjadi masakan yang dapat disajikan untuk kegiatan event. Peran dari masing-masing bagian begitu penting bagi kelancaran event yang terlaksana, dan kelancaran suatu event yang terlaksana berdampak baik pada image hotel dimata konsumen.   Kata Kunci : Hotel, Even Kitchen, Cook.

  12. Psyche and Society in Sendak's "In the Night Kitchen"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rebecca V. L.; Rabkin, Eric S.

    2007-01-01

    While "Where the Wild Things Are" may be Maurice Sendak's most popular book, "In the Night Kitchen" is arguably the greater work. Though his journey in "Wild Things" shares many of the elements of Mickey's adventure in "Night Kitchen"--swinging between the protagonist's initiatory verbal assertions and silent, completely pictorial spreads that…

  13. The Use of Kitchen Effluent as Alternative Nutrient Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recovery of oil based drilling muds was monitored for a period of 12 weeks upon inoculation with kitchen effluent. Oil based drilling muds inoculated with varying volumes (200ml, 250ml and 300ml) of kitchen effluent constituted the experimental set-ups, while the control set-ups were made up of oil based drilling muds ...

  14. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  15. Furnace for treating bituminous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotzer, M

    1922-04-28

    A furnace with saw-teeth-like profiled hearth, which by means of a kind of shaking slide executes a backward and forward motion, for carrying out the process according to Patent 422,391. It is characterized in that the stroke of the hearth moving in the furnace is smaller than the length of the profile tooth and the height of the feed is held less than the tooth height.

  16. From Vienna to Frankfurt Inside Core-House Type 7: A History of Scarcity through the Modern Kitchen

    OpenAIRE

    Hochhaeusl, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces a history of war-induced scarcity through the material and technological properties of household appliances and kitchens from 1914 to 1930. Investigating the Austrian settlement and allotment garden movement, it argues that the practices of users, self-help builders, and inhabitants who reacted to living with limited resources in the state of emergency found their way into the designs of modern homes, and into the works of canonical modern architecture, in particular the fam...

  17. The impact of kitchen and food service preparation practices on the volatile aroma profile in ripe tomatoes: Effects of refrigeration and blanching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both refrigeration and blanching of red stage tomatoes are common practices in Japan home kitchens and in food service operations. However, little is reported on the impact of such practices on aroma profiles in tomato fruits. In this study, ‘FL 47’ tomatoes at red stage were dipped in 50 °C hot wat...

  18. Behavioral Observation and Microbiological Analysis of Older Adult Consumers' Cross-Contamination Practices in a Model Domestic Kitchen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of foodborne illness is higher in older adults because of their increased susceptibility; therefore, food safety practices are important. However, inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes toward food safety have been reported, which may increase use of unsafe food handling practices. Data on the actual food safety behaviors of older adults are lacking. In this study, food safety practices of older adults were observed and linked to microbiological analysis of kitchen surfaces to identify suspected routes of contamination. Older adults (≥60 years, n = 100) prepared a set meal in a model domestic kitchen sanitized according to a validated protocol to ensure minimal and consistent microbiological loads. Food safety behaviors were observed using ceiling-mounted cameras and recorded using a predetermined behavioral checklist. Surface microbiological contamination also was determined after food preparation. Overall, older adults frequently implemented unsafe food handling practices; 90% failed to implement adequate hand decontamination immediately after handling raw chicken. For older adults who used a larger number of adequate hand decontamination attempts, microbiological contamination levels in the kitchen following the food preparation session were significantly lower ( P food handling practices as suspected routes of microbiological cross-contamination in a model domestic kitchen. Findings indicate the potential impact on domestic food safety of unsafe food handling practices used by older adult consumers. This innovative approach revealed that a large proportion of older adults implement behaviors resulting in microbiological cross-contamination that may increase the risk of foodborne illness in the home.

  19. Thermal Environment Evaluation in Commercial Kitchens of United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory and the working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The differences between type (fast food, dining, etc.) and climatic zone can have an influence on the environment conditions and on th......The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory and the working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The differences between type (fast food, dining, etc.) and climatic zone can have an influence on the environment conditions...... of defining the values of thermal comfort parameters in kitchens. It can also help to evaluate if the standardized methods are applicable for such non-uniform environment, like commercial kitchens. By using an established method and procedure for evaluating the indoor thermal comfort in commercial kitchens...... more than 100 kitchens environments in the United States were investigated in summer and winter. Results show the influence due to type of kitchen (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic region. Physical measurement confirmed that communally the workers are exposed to a warm or hot environment...

  20. 78 FR 69614 - Home Improvements and Structural Alterations (HISA) Benefits Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... more than one kitchen, we interpret the statutory reference to ``essential lavatory and sanitary... single kitchen facility is a reasonable interpretation of ``essential'' lavatory and sanitary facilities... continuation of treatment for the veteran's disability or to provide access to the home or to essential...

  1. Accelerated staining technique using kitchen microwave oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Mukunda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Histopathological diagnosis of specimens is greatly dependent on good sample preparation and staining. Both of these processes is governed by diffusion of fluids and dyes in and out of the tissue, which is the key to staining. Diffusion of fluids can be accelerated by the application of heat that reduces the time of staining from hours to the minute. We modified an inexpensive model of kitchen microwave oven for staining. This study is an attempt to compare the reliability of this modified technique against the tested technique of routine staining so as to establish the kitchen microwave oven as a valuable diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: Sixty different tissue blocks were used to prepare 20 pairs of slides for 4 different stains namely hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson′s, 0.1% toluidine blue and periodic acid-Schiff. From each tissue block, two bits of tissues were mounted on two different slides. One slide was stained routinely, and the other stained inside a microwave. A pathologist evaluated the stained slides and the results so obtained were analyzed statistically. Results: Microwave staining considerably cut down the staining time from hours to seconds. Microwave staining showed no loss of cellular and nuclear details, uniform-staining characteristics and was of excellent quality. Interpretation and Conclusion: The cellular details, nuclear details and staining characteristics of microwave stained tissues were better than or equal to the routine stained tissue. The overall quality of microwave-stained sections was found to be better than the routine stained tissue in majority of cases.

  2. Heat and PAHs Emissions in Indoor Kitchen Air and Its Impact on Kidney Dysfunctions among Kitchen Workers in Lucknow, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amarnath; Kamal, Ritul; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Satyanarayana, Gubbala Naga Venkata; Bihari, Vipin; Shukla, Nishi; Khan, Altaf Hussain; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality and heat exposure have become an important occupational health and safety concern in several workplaces including kitchens of hotels. This study investigated the heat, particulate matter (PM), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions in indoor air of commercial kitchen and its association with kidney dysfunctions among kitchen workers. A cross sectional study was conducted on 94 kitchen workers employed at commercial kitchen in Lucknow city, North India. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect the personal and occupational history of the kitchen workers. The urine analysis for specific gravity and microalbuminuria was conducted among the study subjects. Indoor air temperature, humidity, wet/ dry bulb temperature and humidex heat stress was monitored during cooking activities at the kitchen. Particulate matter (PM) for 1 and 2.5 microns were monitored in kitchen during working hours using Hazdust. PAHS in indoor air was analysed using UHPLC. Urinary hydroxy-PAHs in kitchen workers were measured using GC/MS-MS. Higher indoor air temperature, relative humidity, PM1 and PM2.5 (pworkers (pworkers. Urinary PAH metabolites detected among kitchen workers were 1-NAP, 9-HF, 3-HF, 9-PHN and 1-OHP. Continuous heat exposure in kitchens due to cooking can alter kidney functions viz., high specific gravity of urine in kitchen workers. Exposure to PM, VOCs and PAHs in indoor air and presence of urinary PAHs metabolites may lead to inflammation, which can cause microalbuminuria in kitchen workers, as observed in the present study.

  3. Wellbeing at work among kitchen workers during organic food conversion in Danish public kitchens: a longitudinal survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Nørgaard; Løje, Hanne; Tetens, Inge

    2016-01-01

    among kitchen workers before and after participating in educational training programmes in organic food conversion. Method: This longitudinal study applied an online self-administered questionnaire among kitchen workers before and after the implementation of an organic food conversion programme with 1......-up (63% of those surveyed at baseline). No substantive differences between baseline and follow-up measurements of organic food conversion were detected on physical or psychological wellbeing at work. Kitchen workers reported a significant improvement in the perceived food quality, motivation to work...

  4. Development of vacuum brazing furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Yedle, Kamlesh; Jain, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    In joining of components where welding process is not possible brazing processes are employed. Value added components, high quality RF systems, UHV components of high energy accelerators, carbide tools etc. are produced using different types of brazing methods. Furnace brazing under vacuum atmosphere is the most popular and well accepted method for production of the above mentioned components and systems. For carrying out vacuum brazing successfully it is essential to have a vacuum brazing furnace with latest features of modern vacuum brazing technology. A vacuum brazing furnace has been developed and installed for carrying out brazing of components of copper, stainless steel and components made of dissimilar metals/materials. The above furnace has been designed to accommodate jobs of 700mm diameter x 2000mm long sizes with job weight of 500kgs up to a maximum temperature of 1250 degC at a vacuum of 5 x 10 -5 Torr. Oil diffusion pumping system with a combination of rotary and mechanical booster pump have been employed for obtaining vacuum. Molybdenum heating elements, radiation shield of molybdenum and Stainless Steel Grade 304 have been used. The above furnace is computer controlled with manual over ride facility. PLC and Pentium PC are integrated together to maneuver steps of operation and safety interlocks of the system. Closed loop water supply provides cooling to the system. The installation of the above system is in final stage of completion and it will be ready for use in next few months time. This paper presents insights of design and fabrication of a modern vacuum brazing furnace and its sub-system. (author)

  5. High energy density supercapacitors using macroporous kitchen sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    Macroporous, low-cost and recyclable kitchen sponges are explored as effective electrode platforms for supercapacitor devices. A simple and scalable process has been developed to fabricate MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge supercapacitor electrodes

  6. Investigation of Subject perceptions of the Environment in Commercial kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    In a country such as the United States, the largest employee sector is in the restaurant industry. This makes the commercial kitchens an important space that needs to be evaluated and consequently improved in terms of thermal comfort and indoor air quality conditions, for the wellbeing of the emp......In a country such as the United States, the largest employee sector is in the restaurant industry. This makes the commercial kitchens an important space that needs to be evaluated and consequently improved in terms of thermal comfort and indoor air quality conditions, for the wellbeing....... Today, no study on subjective feedback from kitchen employees has been reported. In the present paper, two types of survey were developed and tested in the field. The questions are based on the ISO 10551 standard and adapted to the kitchen environment. Answers dealing with the working conditions...

  7. Burn injury in kitchen workers: a cause for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riina, L H; Simpson, R L; Gudjonsson, O; Glickman, L T; Harris, S U; Johnson, D; Ginocchio, M

    2000-01-01

    Preventable thermal injuries in professional kitchen workers have been identified, and we have introduced a protective garment. Because of the nature of their occupation, kitchen workers are prone to thermal injuries. It has been our experience that the majority of these injuries are scald injuries on the ankles and dorsum of the feet. We propose that a protective garment, such as a waterproof shoe and garter, could reduce the incidence of these injuries.

  8. Biogas yield from Sicilian kitchen waste and cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the chemical composition of kitchen waste and cheese whey, as well as the biogas yield obtained from the Anaerobic Digestion (AD tests of these two raw materials. Since the separated waste collection is performed in the town of Marineo (Palermo, a sample of kitchen waste, different from food industry one and included in the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, was collected from the mass stored at the households of this town. Moreover, a sample of cheese whey was collected in a Sicilian mini dairy plant, where sheep milk is processed. This investigation was carried out inside laboratory digesters of Aleksandras Stulginskis University (Lithuania. Total Solids (TS resulted 15.6% in kitchen waste and 6% in cheese whey, while both the raw materials showed a high content of organic matter, 91.1% and 79.1%, respectively. The biogas yield resulted 104.6 l kg–1 from kitchen waste and 30.6 l kg–1 from cheese whey. The biogas yield from TS resulted 672.6 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 384.7 l kg–1 using cheese whey. The biogas yield from Volatile Solids (VS resulted 738.9 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 410.3 l kg–1 using cheese whey.

  9. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP), to be located at the Savannah River Site SRS, is a combined development and testing effort by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and the Australian National Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulating package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces types considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment

  10. Design of a rotating-hearth furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, H A [Verein Deutscher Eisenhuettenleute (VDEh), Duesseldorf (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-10-01

    Presented in two parts, this paper is intended to provide an outline of the theoretical fundamentals for the design of rotating-hearth furnaces for heating round stock and deals with the characteristic design features of such furnaces.

  11. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  12. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  13. A cylindrical furnace for absorption spectral studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A cylindrical furnace with three heating zones, capable of providing a temperature of 1100°C, has been fabricated to enable recording of absorption spectra of high temperature species. The temperature of the furnace can be controlled to ± 1°C of the set temperature. The salient feature of this furnace is that the material ...

  14. Self-Portrait on The Kitchen Towel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Stevanović

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Philosopher, feminist theoretician and artist Alenka Spacal paints her self-portraits on kitchen towels (2003–2005. After first being placed in exhibition, eventually the hanging of these pieces morphed into performance, dubbed Hanged Woman, during which the artist hung her self-portraits on a rope with clothespins in front of an audience. Transgressing gender, religion and race, Spacal through these self-portraits situates herself in different subjective positions. During such a journey, the artist multiplicates subjectivities, accomplishing theoretical and artistic figuration of nomadic subject, which, according to Rosi Braidotti constitutes by changing subject positions and thus overcoming dominant phallocentric rationality. In this case it occurs through artistic practice and irony. The second portion of this paper is devoted to the children’s picture book Rainbow Masquerade, also written and illustrated by Spacal, who abandons the essentialist dual normativity of sex and gender in order to represent plurality of the two categories in the fantastic world of a wood and its inhabitants.

  15. Curcumin as "Curecumin": from kitchen to clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ajay; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2008-02-15

    Although turmeric (Curcuma longa; an Indian spice) has been described in Ayurveda, as a treatment for inflammatory diseases and is referred by different names in different cultures, the active principle called curcumin or diferuloylmethane, a yellow pigment present in turmeric (curry powder) has been shown to exhibit numerous activities. Extensive research over the last half century has revealed several important functions of curcumin. It binds to a variety of proteins and inhibits the activity of various kinases. By modulating the activation of various transcription factors, curcumin regulates the expression of inflammatory enzymes, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and cell survival proteins. Curcumin also downregulates cyclin D1, cyclin E and MDM2; and upregulates p21, p27, and p53. Various preclinical cell culture and animal studies suggest that curcumin has potential as an antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antiangiogenic agent; as a mediator of chemoresistance and radioresistance; as a chemopreventive agent; and as a therapeutic agent in wound healing, diabetes, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and arthritis. Pilot phase I clinical trials have shown curcumin to be safe even when consumed at a daily dose of 12g for 3 months. Other clinical trials suggest a potential therapeutic role for curcumin in diseases such as familial adenomatous polyposis, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, hypercholesteremia, atherosclerosis, pancreatitis, psoriasis, chronic anterior uveitis and arthritis. Thus, curcumin, a spice once relegated to the kitchen shelf, has moved into the clinic and may prove to be "Curecumin".

  16. Behavior of coke in large blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, N

    1978-01-01

    Three blast furnaces were quenched in operation and the contents were examined; the temperature distribution was also measured, using Tempil pellets. The furnaces examined included a low productivity one, which was examined to see what was wrong. Changes in the quality of coke as it descends in the furnace, and coke behavior in the raceway and hearth are reported. The functions required of coke, and the effects of poor coke quality, are explained, together with the coke quality required in large blast furnaces. A theoretical study of the role of coke in large blast furnaces is included.

  17. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  18. Industrial furnace with improved heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes an industrial furnace for heating work which emits volatiles during heating. It comprises a generally cylindrical, closed end furnace section defining a sealable heat transfer chamber for heating work disposed therein; fan means for directing furnace atmosphere as a swirling wind mass about the interior of the furnace section over a portion thereof; heat means for heating the wind mass within the fan chamber; and an incineration track formed as a circumferentially extending groove about the exterior of the furnace section and in heat transfer relationship with and situated at least to extend about a portion of the fan chamber.

  19. Mem and Cookie: The Colonial Kitchen in Malaysia and Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Leong-Salobir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the emergence of a distinctive colonial cuisine in the British colonies of Malaysia and Singapore beginning in the late nineteenth century. This colonial cuisine evolved over time and was a combination of culinary practices derived from European and Asian foodways, much of which came from colonial India. As in India, this acculturation developed through the reliance of colonizers on their domestic servants for food preparation. While domestic servants (as cooks, or known locally as “cookie” were generally represented as dirty, dishonest and lacking in intelligence according to colonial narratives, they were responsible for the preparation of food for the family. Asian cooks in the colonial home played a much more crucial role than the negative image painted of them by British colonizers and other historians. While the mem (short for memsahib, meaning mistress held the supervisory role of the household, it was the physical contribution of the domestic servants that enabled her to fulfill this function. The large number of servants employed enabled the mem to make the colonial home move seamlessly between the private domain of the home and the official venue for the empire’s tasks. The mem as the head of the household decided on the rituals and tasks that defined the colonial space as home, and as a bastion of white imperialism. In contrast, it was the cooks’ local knowledge that procured food. Most kitchens were fashioned according to the requirements of the servants and the cooks did all the cooking, usually preparing local dishes. The argument is that, had it not been for the servants’ input, the mems would have had to work harder. As it was, the work of the servants not only saved white labour, it helped shape colonial culture, despite the Britons’ best efforts to keep themselves socially distant. Colonial cuisine would not have developed with such distinctive features without the skills and local knowledge of

  20. Wellbeing at work among kitchen workers during organic food conversion in Danish public kitchens: a longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Nina N; Løje, Hanne; Tetens, Inge; Wu, Jason H Y; Neal, Bruce; Lassen, Anne D

    2016-04-01

    In 2011, the Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries launched the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 intending to double the organic agricultural area in Denmark. This study aims to measure experienced physical and psychological wellbeing at work along with beliefs and attitudes among kitchen workers before and after participating in educational training programmes in organic food conversion. This longitudinal study applied an online self-administered questionnaire among kitchen workers before and after the implementation of an organic food conversion programme with 1-year follow-up. The study targeted all staff members in the participating public kitchens taking part in the organic food conversion process funded by the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Of the 448 eligible kitchen workers, 235 completed the questionnaire at baseline (52%) and 149 at follow-up (63% of those surveyed at baseline). No substantive differences between baseline and follow-up measurements of organic food conversion were detected on physical or psychological wellbeing at work. Kitchen workers reported a significant improvement in the perceived food quality, motivation to work and application of nutritional guidelines. Reported organic food percentages for the kitchens also increased significantly (Pfood products to producing more food from base was indicated. Within 1 year, a significant increase in motivation to work among kitchen staff was observed with no substantive changes in physical or psychological wellbeing at work identified. The results support the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 and initiatives of similar kind. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Multikilowatt variable frequency microwave furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Everleigh, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a new type of microwave processing furnace in which the frequency can be varied continuously from 4 to 8 GHz and the power level varied from zero up to 2.5 kW. The extraordinary bandwidth of this furnace is achieved by using a traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier originally developed for electronic warfare applications. The TWT is a linear beam device characterized by a traveling electromagnetic wave that continuously extracts energy longitudinally along the path of an electron beam. The TWT, unlike other microwave tubes such as the magnetron, klystron, gyrotron, and others, does not depend upon resonant RF fields and is therefore capable of wide bandwidth operation.operation

  2. Evaluation of the level of domestic hygiene in household kitchens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, A; Carraro, V; Sanna, C; Cabiddu, C; Brandas, V; Coroneo, V

    2014-01-01

    Each year in industrialized countries, 30-40% or more cases of food poisoning occur in the household. The aims of this study are to describe the aspects related to food safety in households by carrying out a microbiological characterization of the kitchens in residential dwellings and to increase consumers' awareness concerning the importance of good hygienic practices, which are required for preventing foodborne diseases at household level. The collection of data involved taking 760 analytical samples of kitchen-counter tops and food from 80 kitchens of private dwellings; the manner in which food was treated was evaluated from the moment of purchase to its transformation and storage by means of a checklist; the questionnaire enabled us to determine the extent of consumers' knowledge concerning the food sector. Overall, the results showed a good level of hygiene concerning both food and kitchen-counter top food surfaces. The respondents of the questionnaire did not appear to be aware of various health risks especially concerning the management of the temperature and compartments of refrigerators as well as food storage times and the cooking or heating of food. The data indicate that final consumers should take more care when cleaning kitchen-counter tops and washing salad; special training programmes should be included in school curricular in order to increase citizens' awareness and knowledge concerning food risks within the household.

  3. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of a two track approach for the disposition of weapons usable plutonium. As such, the Department of Energy is funding a development and testing effort for the PIP. This effort is being performed jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulting package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment. Due to the radiation levels and contamination associated with the plutonium material, the sintering process will be fully automated and contained within nuclear material gloveboxes. As such, the furnace currently under development incorporates water and air cooling to minimize heat load to the glovebox. This paper will describe the furnace equipment and systems needed to employ a fully automated puck sintering process within nuclear gloveboxes as part of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  4. Enhanced fermentable sugar production from kitchen waste using various pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafid, Halimatun Saadiah; Rahman, Nor'Aini Abdul; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom; Baharudin, Azhari Samsu

    2015-06-01

    The kitchen waste fraction in municipal solid waste contains high organic matter particularly carbohydrate that can contribute to fermentable sugar production for subsequent conversion to bioethanol. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of single and combination pretreatments of kitchen waste by liquid hot water, mild acid pretreatment of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and enzymatic hydrolysis (glucoamylase). The maximum total fermentable sugar produced after combination pretreatment by 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase consisted of 93.25 g/L glucose, 0.542 g/L sucrose, 0.348 g/L maltose, and 0.321 g/L fructose. The glucose released by the combination pretreatment method was 0.79 g glucose/g KW equivalent to 79% of glucose conversion. The effects of the pre-treatment on kitchen waste indicated that the highest solubilization was 40% by the combination method of 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase. The best combination pre-treatment gave concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid of 11.74 g/L, 6.77 g/L, and 1.02 g/L, respectively. The decrease of aliphatic absorbance bands of polysaccharides at 2851 and 2923 cm(-1) and the increase on structures of carbonyl absorbance bands at 1600 cm(-1) reflects the progress of the kitchen waste hydrolysis to fermentable sugars. Overall, 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase treatment was the most profitable process as the minimum selling price of glucose was USD 0.101/g kitchen waste. Therefore, the combination pretreatment method was proposed to enhance the production of fermentable sugar, particularly glucose from kitchen waste as the feedstock for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ergonomic suitability of kitchen furniture regarding height accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrovatin, Jasna; Prekrat, Silvana; Oblak, Leon; Ravnik, David

    2015-03-01

    It is possible to significantly ease kitchen chores with properly sized and appropriately arranged cupboards. In designing kitchen furniture and the optimal depth and the height of storage capacities, accessibility should be taken into consideration. It is known that the optimal storage zone is between 800 and 1100 mm and that there is reduced visibility and accessibility at the level between 1400 and 1700 mm, which is even more prominent for the elderly. This suggests that wall cabinets are not recommended for the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent kitchens manufactured by Slovenian furniture manufacturers are suitable for users of different age groups with regard to the accessibility of goods stored in the cupboards. Furthermore, based on the measurement analysis, recommendations are provided for designing kitchen furniture that would meet the needs of the elderly. The study, carried out using a computer simulation model, analyzed the products of three Slovenian kitchen manufacturers. The cross section of accessibility in the wall cabinets was determined for different age groups of men and women. The results show that the efficacy of the volume in wall cabinets higher than 600 mm, in comparison to places where objects are easily reachable, is 30% lower for women, thus indicating the inefficiency of storage space in wall cabinets. In terms of accessibility, existing kitchens are not optimal for the elderly, and a model with a deeper worktop and wall cabinets lowered onto the worktop is proposed. Accessibility in such wall cabinets is increased by up to 70% if the body is moved forward by 30°.

  6. Respiratory health and lung function in Chinese restaurant kitchen workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tze Wai; Wong, Andromeda H S; Lee, Frank S C; Qiu, Hong

    2011-10-01

    To measure air pollutant concentrations in Chinese restaurant kitchens using different stove types and assess their influence on workers' respiratory health. 393 kitchen workers from 53 Chinese restaurants were surveyed over 16 months: 115 workers from 21 restaurants using only electric stoves and 278 workers from 32 restaurants using only gas stoves. Workers were interviewed about their respiratory symptoms and had their lung function tested. Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) were measured using portable monitors and air-bag sampling. Temperature and noise levels were assessed. Median concentrations of NO, NO(2) and CO were 7.4, 1.5 and 1.6 times higher in gas-fuelled kitchens than in electric ones and average concentrations of PM(2.5) and TVOC were 81% and 78% higher, respectively. Differences were smaller for CH(4) and NMHC. Electricity-run kitchens were 4.5°C cooler and 9 dBA less noisy than gas-fuelled ones. Workers using electric cookers had significantly better lung function than their gas-using counterparts and their mean FEV(1) and FVC values were 5.4% and 3.8% higher, respectively, after adjustment for confounders. Wheeze, phlegm, cough and sore throat were more prevalent in workers using gas. The adjusted OR for having phlegm regularly was significantly higher. The poorer lung function and higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers in gas-fuelled kitchens compared to those in electricity-powered kitchens may be associated with exposure to higher concentrations of toxic air pollutants generated during gas cooking.

  7. When cooking fish wreaks havoc in Danish kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel

    2008-01-01

    Ignorance about the purchase and cooking of fish hampers consumption of fish in Denmark. A new research project shows that this ignorance is likely to produce many chaotic incidents in Danish kitchens, but also that relatively simple measures can combat the lack of knowhow.......Ignorance about the purchase and cooking of fish hampers consumption of fish in Denmark. A new research project shows that this ignorance is likely to produce many chaotic incidents in Danish kitchens, but also that relatively simple measures can combat the lack of knowhow....

  8. Visually-aided smart kitchen environment for elderly suffering from dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y. (Yahui)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This thesis was part of smart kitchen project, it aimed to use current technology to facilitate senior citizens with mild dementia’s cooking process in the kitchen. As different senior citizens with mild dementia had different living habit and kitchen environment, smart kitchen had context aware and learning ability to adapt itself to fit senior citizens with mild dementia’s habit and living condition to assist the...

  9. Explore Your Dream Kitchen at Virginia Tech; popular two-day workshop returns in May

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2005-01-01

    -- Explore Your Dream Kitchen, a two-day workshop offered in Virginia Tech's Center for Real Life Kitchen Design, will be offered twice in May to participants who want to learn about planning and designing a kitchen that really meets their needs.

  10. Market opportunities for kitchen cabinets made from Alaska hardwoods: a synthesis and review of recent research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Maria C. Stiefel

    2007-01-01

    The kitchen cabinet industry has shown significant growth recently, with expanding residential markets, new cabinet styles, and larger kitchens. This industry represents an opportunity for small Alaska wood producers to create high-value secondary products. In response to recent trends in kitchen cabinet manufacturing and the need to identify opportunities for...

  11. 76 FR 62364 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the Countervailing Duty... countervailable duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks (``Kitchen Racks'') from the People's...: Background On July 27, 2009, the Department published a CVD order on Kitchen Racks from the PRC. See Certain...

  12. 78 FR 33809 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Roper Corporation; Subzone 26G (Kitchen Ranges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... choose the duty rates during customs entry procedures that apply to gas and electric kitchen ranges (duty... Activity; Roper Corporation; Subzone 26G (Kitchen Ranges); Lafayette, Georgia Roper Corporation (Roper... currently has authority to produce various types of kitchen ranges using certain imported components. The...

  13. Evaluation of subjective thermal strain in different kitchen working environments using subjective judgment scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, Yasuo; Muto, Takashi; Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Ito, Akiyoshi; Tomita, Shigeru; Muto, Shigeki; Haratani, Takashi; Seo, Akihiko; Ayabe, Makoto; Katamoto, Shizuo

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate the subjective thermal strain of workers in kitchen working environments, we performed a cross-sectional study involving 991 workers in 126 kitchen facilities in Japan, using a self-reporting questionnaire survey and subjective judgment scales (SJS). The ambient temperature, mean radiant temperature (MRT), and wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index were measured in 10 kitchen facilities of the 126 kitchens. The association of SJS with the types of kitchen was estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Of the 991 kitchen workers, 809 (81%) responded to the questionnaire survey. Compared with the electric kitchens, the proportion of workers who perceived the room temperature as hot to very hot was significantly higher, and the ambient temperature, MRT, and WBGT were significantly higher in the gas kitchens. Compared with the electric kitchens, workers in gas kitchens had a more than fivefold (males) and tenfold (females) higher SJS adjusted for confounding factors (male odds ratio (OR), 5.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-15.9; and female OR, 10.9; 95%CI, 3.89-30.5). Although SJS was affected by some confounding factors, our results suggest that workers in gas kitchens might be exposed to a higher heat strains than those in electric kitchens.

  14. The Role of the Home Environment in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Lori J.; Aiello, Allison E.; Larson, Elaine

    2002-01-01

    Examines current health care literature on the microbiology of the home environment, summarizing evidence of transmission within the home and assessing the effectiveness of cleaning practices and products. The article focuses on the kitchen, bathroom, and laundry room, then looks at routes of transmission of infection within the home and discusses…

  15. 78 FR 53625 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... average number of burner operating hours for mobile home furnaces (BOH SS) . BOH SS is the same as in 10.4....2.12 (non-condensing systems), 11.3.12 (condensing systems), 11.4.12 (non-condensing modulating systems), and 11.5.12 (condensing modulating systems) of ANSI/ASHRAE 103-1993 (incorporated by reference...

  16. Heat and PAHs Emissions in Indoor Kitchen Air and Its Impact on Kidney Dysfunctions among Kitchen Workers in Lucknow, North India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarnath Singh

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality and heat exposure have become an important occupational health and safety concern in several workplaces including kitchens of hotels. This study investigated the heat, particulate matter (PM, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs emissions in indoor air of commercial kitchen and its association with kidney dysfunctions among kitchen workers. A cross sectional study was conducted on 94 kitchen workers employed at commercial kitchen in Lucknow city, North India. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect the personal and occupational history of the kitchen workers. The urine analysis for specific gravity and microalbuminuria was conducted among the study subjects. Indoor air temperature, humidity, wet/ dry bulb temperature and humidex heat stress was monitored during cooking activities at the kitchen. Particulate matter (PM for 1 and 2.5 microns were monitored in kitchen during working hours using Hazdust. PAHS in indoor air was analysed using UHPLC. Urinary hydroxy-PAHs in kitchen workers were measured using GC/MS-MS. Higher indoor air temperature, relative humidity, PM1 and PM2.5 (p<0.001 was observed in the kitchen due to cooking process. Indoor air PAHs identified are Napthalene, fluorine, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and indeno [1,2,3-cd pyrene. Concentrations of all PAHs identified in kitchen were above the permissible OSHA norms for indoor air. Specific gravity of urine was significantly higher among the kitchen workers (p<0.001 as compared to the control group. Also, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was higher (p<0.001 among kitchen workers. Urinary PAH metabolites detected among kitchen workers were 1-NAP, 9-HF, 3-HF, 9-PHN and 1-OHP. Continuous heat exposure in kitchens due to cooking can alter kidney functions viz., high specific gravity of urine in kitchen workers. Exposure to PM, VOCs and PAHs in indoor air and presence of urinary PAHs

  17. Supervision of Nutrition, From Soil to Kitchen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daei, Mohammad Ali; Daei, Manizheh; Daei, Bijan

    2017-04-01

    degradation and drought through food imbalances have changed human flora extensively during the past few decades. Unfortunately, the risks of excess and imbalanced minerals and the importance of intestinal flora is not fully understood in medicine. Using tremendous amount of antibiotic, antiseptic, and mineral fortified foods and drinks is well expressive of their thinking. Strong evidences are referring to mineral imbalance and floral distortion as the main causes of many somatic and mental diseases, including worldwide epidemic violence at new era. It is not surprising if we see most violent people come from arid regions or has close relation to arid zone populations. As all we know, soils with low organic matter and extreme PH give imbalanced food abnormal flora and inappropriate thinking. Bizarre intestinal flora may be contagious! Farm to kitchen supervision of foods is our urgent duty which cannot be achieved without better understanding and cooperation between the all sections. Today soil minerals and microbe interaction shape our destiny more than the past. At least in special situations nutrition and microbial flora, may overcome culture, family care and education.

  18. Microbiological Safety of Kitchen Sponges Used in Food Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Wolde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kitchen sponges are among the possible sources of contaminants in food establishments. The main purpose of the current study was, therefore, to assess the microbiological safety of sponges as it has been used in selected food establishments of Jimma town. Accordingly, the microbiological safety of a total of 201 kitchen sponges randomly collected from food establishments was evaluated against the total counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and yeast and molds. The mean counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 7.43 to 12.44 log CFU/mm3. The isolated genera were dominated by Pseudomonas (16.9%, Bacillus (11.1%, Micrococcus (10.6%, Streptococcus (7.8%, and Lactobacillus (6% excluding the unidentified Gram positive rods (4.9% and Gram negative rods (9.9%. The high microbial counts (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and molds reveal the existence of poor kitchen sponge sanitization practice. Awareness creation training on basic hygienic practices to food handlers and periodic change of kitchen sponges are recommended.

  19. A New Discourse on the Kitchen: Feminism and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, Holly A.; Baker-Sperry, Lori; Dallinger, Judith M.

    2015-01-01

    Popularised feminist discourse has devalued daily cooking and implicitly defined it as work that reinforces women's second-class status. In an era of climate change linked to industrialised foods and disease epidemics caused by the modern Western diet, kitchen work has acquired political importance. Daily cooking must be understood as public, as…

  20. Methodology for the conceptual design of solar kitchens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macia G, A F; Estrada V, D A; Chejne J, F; Velasquez, H I; Rengifo, R

    2005-01-01

    A detailed description of the methodology for the conceptual design of solar kitchens has appeared, which allows its detailed design. The methodology is based on three main phases that natural and has been very intuitively identified given to the characteristics and conditions of the project: conceptual phase, detail phase and execution phase

  1. Separation and recovery of organic acids from fermented kitchen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic acids produced from anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste were recovered using a new integrated method which consisted of freezing and thawing, centrifugation, filtration and evaporation. The main organic acid produced was lactic acid (98%). After the freezing and thawing process, 73% of the total suspended ...

  2. Separation and recovery of organic acids from fermented kitchen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Figure 1 shows the recovery process of organic acids from fermen- ted kitchen waste. ... freezing process was carried out using a deep freezer at -30°C for overnight. .... few factors which affect the production of lactic acid in the.

  3. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit examined the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces over the life of the product, as measured by steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. The team identified 12 furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines, Iowa, metropolitan area and worked with a local heating, ventilation, and air conditioning contractor to retrieve furnaces and test them at the Gas Technology Institute laboratory for steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace as installed in the house.

  4. Combining interventions: improved chimney stoves, kitchen sinks and solar disinfection of drinking water and kitchen clothes to improve home hygiene in rural Peru L’association d’interventions - améliorer les cuisinières à bois, mettre en place des éviers, désinfecter l’eau domestique et le linge de cuisine par le solaire – permet d’améliorer l’hygiène dans les foyers ruraux du Pérou Intervenciones combinadas: mejorar las cocinas a leña, instalar fregaderos y desinfectar el agua para beber y los paños de cocina con energía solar para mejorar la higiene en hogares rurales en Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Gil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Home based interventions are advocated in rural areas against a variety of diseases. The combination of different interventions might have synergistic effects in terms of health improvement and cost effectiveness. However, it is crucial to ensure cultural acceptance. The aim of the study was to develop an effective and culturally accepted home-based intervention package to reduce diarrhoea and lower respiratory illnesses in children. In two rural Peruvian communities we evaluated the performance and acceptance of cooking devices, household water treatments (HWT and home- hygiene interventions, with qualitative and quantitative methods. New ventilated stove designs reduced wood consumption by 16%. The majority of participants selected solar water disinfection as HWT in a blind tasting. In-depth interviews on hygiene improvement further revealed a high demand for kitchen sinks. After one year of installation the improved chimney stoves and kitchen sinks were all in use.  The intervention package was successfully adapted to local customs, kitchen-, home- and hygiene management. High user satisfaction was primarily driven by convenience gains due to the technical improvements and only secondarily by perceived health benefits.Les interventions à domicile sont recommandées dans les zones rurales pour éviter diverses maladies. L’association de différentes interventions entraîne une synergie en termes d’amélioration de la santé et de rapport coût-efficacité. Il est cependant crucial d’obtenir l’adhésion de la population. Le but de l’étude était d'élaborer un programme d’interventions à domicile, efficaces et acceptées par la population, visant à réduire la diarrhée et les affections des voies respiratoires basses chez l’enfant. Nous avons évalué, dans deux communautés rurales du Pérou, l’efficacité et l’acceptation d’appareils de cuisson, des traitements de l’eau domestique (HWT et d’interventions d

  5. L'Ecrivain Kitchen Dinner Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    L'Ecrivain

    2017-01-01

    Dublin born Derry trained in the classical French tradition in the Man Friday in Kinsale. He came home to Dublin to continue his training under the direction of John Howard in Le Coq Hardi for four years. He then spent 8 years as Head Chef in le Bon Appetit Restaurant where his aspirations were always to open a place of his own.Derry and Sallyanne married in 1987 and opened l’Ecrivain Restaurant in July 1989. They have had several transformations and now l’Ecrivain stands on the site of two o...

  6. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities: Best Management Practice Case Study #11: Commercial Kitchen Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    The Exchange, formerly the Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES), is a joint military activity and the U.S. Department of Defense?s (DOD) oldest and largest retailer. The Exchange is taking a leadership role in water efficiency improvements in their commercial kitchens by integrating water efficiency concepts into the organization?s overall sustainability plan and objectives.

  7. Optimizing of Make Up Air Performance for Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manshoor B.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A commercial kitchen is a complicated environment where multiple components of a ventilation system including kitchen hood, exhaust fan, air supply, and make up air systems work together but not always in unison. For the commercial kitchen environment, make up air systems used to control the kitchen space from unwanted odor and thermal confort. Make air systems for commercial kitchen already established. However, an optimization is important to determine the most suitable make air systems and at the same time can improve the thermal comfort in the working space. In this study, a simulation work was conducted to investigate a suitable supply air velocity to optimize the make up air for kitchen ventilation system. In order to achieve the objectives, ANSYS FLUENT software (CFD was used to carry out the simulation and analysis. 3D kitchen space with 10m x 8m x 3m with air supply velocity was set to 0 m/s, 0.14 m/s, 0.28 m/s and 0.42 m/s. From the simulation work, the velocity of air flow tested which is 0.28 m/s is enough to control the heat and give an enough comfort to the working space for the size of kitchen simulated. Well implementation of the make up air in the kitchen hood can improve an air quality in the commercial kitchen and also keep the kitchen space comfortable to the workers.

  8. Kitchen safety in hospitals: practices and knowledge of food handlers in istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Aydan; Kiziltan, Gul

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to identify the practices and knowledge of food handlers about workplace safety in hospital kitchens (four on-premises and eight off-premises) in Istanbul. A kitchen safety knowledge questionnaire was administered and a kitchen safety checklist was completed by dietitians. The mean total scores of the on-premise and off-premise hospital kitchens were 32.7 ± 8.73 and 37.0 ± 9.87, respectively. The mean scores for the items about machinery tools, electricity, gas, and fire were lower in off-premise than on-premise hospital kitchen workers. The kitchen safety knowledge questionnaire had five subsections; 43.7% of the food handlers achieved a perfect score. Significant differences were found in the knowledge of food handlers working in both settings about preventing slips and falls (p kitchen safety knowledge of the food handlers (p < .05). Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Natural gas-fired kitchen of a caterer in Veghel, Netherlands; Cateraar in Veghel gebruikt fonkelnieuwe grootkeuken op aardgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havinga, J. [ed.

    1995-06-01

    A new kitchen for a catering firm in Veghel, Netherlands, has been build. The gas utility Obragas, Gasunie and the engineering office Van Heugten advised the catering company on the choice for new kitchen equipment. The cooperation resulted in a head kitchen, laundry and a washing-up kitchen, mainly gas-fired. 6 ills.

  10. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R&D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  11. Fluxless furnace brazing and its theoretical fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lison, R.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the theoretical fundamental of fluxless furnace brazing are described. The necessary conditions for a wetting in the vacuum, under a inert-gas and with a reducing gas are discussed. Also other methods to reduce the oxygen partial pressure are described. Some applications of fluxless furnace brazing are outlined. (orig.) [de

  12. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO 2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R and D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO 2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  13. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  14. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  15. Biomass furnace: projection and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira; Silva, Juarez Sousa e; Silva, Denise de Freitas; Sampaio, Cristiane Pires; Nascimento Junior, Jose Henrique do [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Of all the ways to convert biomass into thermal energy, direct combustion is the oldest. The thermal-chemical technologies of biomass conversion such as pyrolysis and gasification, are currently not the most important alternatives; combustion is responsible for 97% of the bio-energy produced in the world (Demirbas, 2003). For this work, a small furnace was designed and constructed to use biomass as its main source of fuel, and the combustion chamber was coupled with a helical transporter which linked to the secondary fuel reservoir to continually feed the combustion chamber with fine particles of agro-industrial residues. The design of the stove proved to be technically viable beginning with the balance of mass and energy for the air heating system. The proposed heat generator was easily constructed as it made use of simple and easily acquired materials, demanding no specialized labor. (author)

  16. Design and Development of Tilting Rotary Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Varun, V.; Tejesh, P.; Prashanth, B. N.

    2018-02-01

    Casting is the best and effective technique used for manufacturing products. The important accessory for casting is furnace. Furnace is used to melt the metal. A perfect furnace is one that reduces the wastage of material, reduces the cost of manufacturing and there by reduces the cost of production. Of all the present day furnaces there may be wastage of material, and the chances of increasing the time of manufacturing as the is continuous need of tilting of the furnace for every mould and then changing the moulds. Considering these aspects, a simple and least expensive tilting rotary furnace is designed and developed. The Tilting and Rotary Furnace consists of mainly melting chamber and the base. The metal enters the melting chamber through the input door that is provided on the top of the melting chamber. Inside the melting chamber there is a graphite furnace. The metal is melted in the graphite crucible. An insulation of ceramic fibre cloth is provided inside the furnace. The metal is melted using Propane gas. The propane gas is easily available and economic. The gas is burned using a pilot burner. The pilot burner is more efficient that other burners. The pilot burner is lit with a push button igniter. The pilot burner is located at the bottom of the combustion chamber. This enables the uniform heating of the metal inside the crucible. The temperature inside the melting chamber is noted using a temperature sensor. The gas input is cut-off if the temperature is exceeding a specific temperature. After the melting of the metal is done the furnace is tilted and after the mould is filled it is rotated. The external gears are used to controlling the tilting. The results of studies carried out for the design & development of low cost, simple furnace that can be mounted anywhere on the shop floor and this can be very much useful for the education purposes and small scale manufacturing. The furnace can be rotated in 360 degrees and can help in reducing the time taken

  17. Model based energy benchmarking for glass furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardeshpande, Vishal; Gaitonde, U.N.; Banerjee, Rangan

    2007-01-01

    Energy benchmarking of processes is important for setting energy efficiency targets and planning energy management strategies. Most approaches used for energy benchmarking are based on statistical methods by comparing with a sample of existing plants. This paper presents a model based approach for benchmarking of energy intensive industrial processes and illustrates this approach for industrial glass furnaces. A simulation model for a glass furnace is developed using mass and energy balances, and heat loss equations for the different zones and empirical equations based on operating practices. The model is checked with field data from end fired industrial glass furnaces in India. The simulation model enables calculation of the energy performance of a given furnace design. The model results show the potential for improvement and the impact of different operating and design preferences on specific energy consumption. A case study for a 100 TPD end fired furnace is presented. An achievable minimum energy consumption of about 3830 kJ/kg is estimated for this furnace. The useful heat carried by glass is about 53% of the heat supplied by the fuel. Actual furnaces operating at these production scales have a potential for reduction in energy consumption of about 20-25%

  18. Uranium casting furnace automatic temperature control development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Development of an automatic molten uranium temperature control system for use on batch-type induction casting furnaces is described. Implementation of a two-color optical pyrometer, development of an optical scanner for the pyrometer, determination of furnace thermal dynamics, and design of control systems are addressed. The optical scanning system is shown to greatly improve pyrometer measurement repeatability, particularly where heavy floating slag accumulations cause surface temperature gradients. Thermal dynamics of the furnaces were determined by applying least-squares system identification techniques to actual production data. A unity feedback control system utilizing a proportional-integral-derivative compensator is designed by using frequency-domain techniques. 14 refs

  19. Programmable temperature regulator of VAO-1 furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahalka, F.

    1979-01-01

    A programmable temperature controller is described for a furnace for high-level waste processing. Furnace temperature is controlled by a program compiled from a combination of 3 parts with different linear increments or decrements of time dependent temperature and 2 parts with isothermal control for over a preset period. The equipment consists essentially of a programming unit, a programmed digital-to-analog converter and a power unit. The design is described in detail and its specifications are given. The maximum operating temperature of 1500 degC may be reached in the furnace charge section. (B.S.)

  20. Alternative fuels for multiple-hearth furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracket, B D; Lawson, T U

    1980-04-01

    Results are described of a feasibility study on the use of refuse-derived fuel, shredded paper, wood waste, coal, and waste oil in multiple-hearth furnaces at the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre in Australia. An assessment of waste fuel availability and characteristics is given, and a summary is made of the technical and economic aspects of using these alternative fuels and of minimizing furnace fuel requirements by reducing sludge moisture. The recommended method of reducing fuel oil consumption in the furnace is shown to be sludge drying, using process exhaust heat in a rotary dryer.

  1. Internal heat exchange tubes for industrial furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1992-05-26

    This patent describes a method for cooling the work within an industrial furnace. It comprises providing a longitudinally extending outer tube which extends into the furnace having a closed axial end and an open axial end; providing a preformed inner tube open at both ends within the outer tube; injecting a coolant into the inner tube so that the coolant flows from one axial end of the tube out the opposite end adjacent the closed end of the outer tube, and from the closed end of the outer tube to the open end thereof; circulating a gas within the furnace against the outer tube to effect heat transfer therewith.

  2. Elevated oxidative damage in kitchen workers in Chinese restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajia; Luo, Xiaolin; Xu, Bin; Wei, Jun; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhu, Huilian

    2011-01-01

    To investigate associations between occupational exposure to cooking oil fumes (COFs) and potential oxidative and genotoxic effects in kitchen workers. Sixty-seven male kitchen workers and 43 male controls from Chinese restaurants in Guangzhou were recruited. For all the participants, the levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in urine, binucleated micronucleus (BNMN) frequency, comet tail length and tail DNA% in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum were measured. The inhalable particulates (PM(10)) in their workplaces were also monitored. Our results showed that the exposed group had a significantly higher median level of urinary 1-OHP than that of the control group (pkitchen and cooking time per day. All these positive associations remained after adjusting for the four confounders in a subsequent multivariate linear regression analysis. Occupational exposure to COFs led to increased oxidative damage in Chinese kitchen workers. The health consequences of these oxidative changes need further investgation. Urinary 1-OHP and 8-oxodG are noninvasive and effective biomarkers for assessment of oxidative damage in restaurants workers.

  3. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Quadrant Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-02-01

    Quadrant moved ducts and high efficiency furnace inside conditioned space on nearly all 300 customizable house plans. The builder uses dry, true factory-assembled walls, extensive air sealing, and just in time delivery for pre-sold homes.

  4. International blast furnace hearth and raceway symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Papers presented discussed some of the physical and chemical processes occuring in the raceway and hearths of blast furnaces. The injection of coal or fuel slurries to replace some of the coke was also covered. Fourteen papers are abstracted separately.

  5. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Mark M [Charlotte, NC; True, Bradford G [Charlotte, NC

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  6. Hopewell Furnace NHS : alternative transportation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-31

    This study assesses the potential for an alternative transportation system (ATS) at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS). The Volpe Center investigated internal circulation and potential partnerships with local historic, cultural, and recrea...

  7. Metallurgy of mercury in Almaden: from aludel furnaces until Pacific furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero-Manzanares, J.; Garrido Saenz, I.; Mata Cabrera, F.; Rubio Mesas, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the different types of furnaces for roasting cinnabar, used in the metallurgy of quicksilver over the centuries of exploitation of the Almaden Mines (Spain). Some of these techniques are part of our industrial heritage. They have contributed to name UNESCO World Heritage Site the vast technological legacy of these mines recently. This research contributes to close the long way of metallurgical activity from aludel furnaces until Pacif furnaces, first and lasted technology to produce on an industrial scale. It is delved into the most relevant aspects having to do with the type, evolution and number of furnaces existing on each of the periods. (Author)

  8. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2009-05-06

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

  9. A furnace for firing carbon products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudavskii, A M

    1979-12-05

    A furnace for firing carbon products is patented that consists of several chambers with a perforated hearth, which are interconnected by a lower and an upper reservoir with a locking fixture, and a flue. In order to intensify the firing process by increasing the specific hearth productivity, the flue is connected to the upper reservoir. A block diagram of the patented furnace is given, together with a description of its operation.

  10. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace - Transformational Ironmaking Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Kao [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Debski, Paul [Andritz Metals Inc.,Canonsburg, PA (United States)

    2014-11-19

    The U. S. steel industry has reduced its energy intensity per ton of steel shipped by 33% since 1990. However, further significant gains in energy efficiency will require the development of new, transformational iron and steelmaking processes. The Paired Straight Hearth Furnace (PSH) process is an emerging alternative high productivity, direct reduced iron (DRI) technology that may achieve very low fuel rates and has the potential to replace blast furnace ironmaking. The PSH furnace can operate independently or may be coupled with other melting technologies to produce liquid hot metal that is both similar to blast furnace iron and suitable as a feedstock for basic oxygen steelmaking furnaces. The PSH process uses non-metallurgical coal as a reductant to convert iron oxides such as iron ore and steelmaking by-product oxides to DRI pellets. In this process, a multi-layer, nominally 120mm tall bed of composite “green balls” made from oxide, coal and binder is built up and contained within a moving refractory hearth. The pellet bed absorbs radiant heat energy during exposure to the high temperature interior refractory surfaces of the PSH while generating a strongly reducing gas atmosphere in the bed that yields a highly metalized DRI product. The PSH concept has been well tested in static hearth experiments. A moving bed design is being developed. The process developers believe that if successful, the PSH process has the potential to replace blast furnaces and coke ovens at a fraction of the operating and capital cost while using about 30% less energy relative to current blast furnace technology. DRI output could also feed electric arc furnaces (EAFs) by displacing a portion of the scrap charge.

  11. Multiphase flow modelling of furnace tapholes

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Quinn G.; Erwee, Markus W.

    2017-01-01

    Pyrometallurgical furnaces of many varieties make use of tapholes in order to facilitate the removal of molten process material from inside the vessel. Correct understanding and operation of the taphole is essential for optimal performance of such furnaces. The present work makes use of computational fluid dynamics models generated using the OpenFOAM® framework in order to study flow behaviour in the taphole system. Single-phase large-eddy simulation models are used to quantify the discharge ...

  12. HYGIENE DAN SANITASI DI THE 18th KITCHEN THE TRANS LUXURY HOTEL BANDUNG

    OpenAIRE

    Dimas Setio Kresnadi; Rian Andriani

    2016-01-01

    Abstract - Kitchen is a food processing center at the hotel. Good and bad food products in hotel determined on Personal hygiene, sanitation food, sanitation equipment, and sanitary environment in the hotel kitchen is well organized. Hygiene and sanitation in the kitchen is essential to produce healthy food and clean, this study found that poor personal hygiene are employees who are less aware of hand hygiene, food storage facilities that do not match the standard, not the availability of ultr...

  13. Operational Research on Design and Process Optimization of Ozone Water Application in Kitchen

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Zhun Jing; Chou Pui May; Hoo Choon Lih; Lu Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Food safety is a very important focus in the kitchen industry today, as bacteria such as E.Coli and Salmonella are very difficult to tackle. The objective of the present study was to optimize nozzle designs that use ozone technology to bring out the best results in cleaning and sterilizing the kitchen utensils in Taylor’s University School of Hospitality kitchen area. This includes customization of the Medklinn International Sdn Bhd ozone machine and nozzle profiles that improve the effective...

  14. Solar Convective Furnace for Metals Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Deepesh; Tiwari, Sheetanshu; Sharma, Piyush; Pardeshi, Ravindra; Chandra, Laltu; Shekhar, Rajiv

    2015-11-01

    Metals processing operations, primarily soaking, heat treatment, and melting of metals are energy-intensive processes using fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly as electricity, to operate furnaces at high temperatures. Use of concentrated solar energy as a source of heat could be a viable "green" option for industrial heat treatment furnaces. This paper introduces the concept of a solar convective furnace which utilizes hot air generated by an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR)-based solar tower technology. The potential for heating air above 1000°C exists. Air temperatures of 700°C have already been achieved in a 1.5-MWe volumetric air receiver demonstration plant. Efforts to retrofit an industrial aluminium soaking furnace for integration with a solar tower system are briefly described. The design and performance of an OVAR has been discussed. A strategy for designing a 1/15th-scale model of an industrial aluminium soaking furnace has been presented. Preliminary flow and thermal simulation results suggest the presence of recirculating flow in existing furnaces that could possibly result in non-uniform heating of the slabs. The multifarious uses of concentrated solar energy, for example in smelting, metals processing, and even fuel production, should enable it to overcome its cost disadvantage with respect to solar photovoltaics.

  15. [The electric furnace of Henri Moissan at one hundred years: connection with the electric furnace, the solar furnace, the plasma furnace?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royère, C

    1999-03-01

    The trace of Henri Moissan's pioneer work 100 years ago is clearly evidenced by an overview of achievements in high temperature devices; 1987: "Le four électrique" by Henri Moissan; 1948-1952: "High temperature heating in a cavity rotary kiln using focusing of solar radiation" by Félix Trombe; 1962: "The cavity rotary kiln using focused solar radiation jointly with a plasma gun" by Marc Foëx; 1970: "The rotary kiln with two plasma guns and arc transfer" by Marc Foëx; 1984: "The plasma furnace" by Electricité de France (EDF) at Renardières; 1997: "The plasma furnace" by the Atomic Energy Center (CEA) at Cadarache, the VULCANO program. The first part of this contribution is devoted to Henri Moissan. Re-reading his early book on the electric furnace, especially the first chapter and the sections on silica, carbon vapor and experiments performed in casting molten metal--the conclusions are outstanding--provides modern readers with an amazing insight into future developments. The last two parts are devoted to Félix Trombe and Marc Foëx, tracing the evolution of high temperature cavity processus leading to the solar furnace and the present day plasma furnace at the CEA. Focus is placed on research conducted by the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) with the solar and plasma furnaces at Odeillo. The relationships with Henri Moissan's early work are amazing, offering a well deserved homage to this pioneer researcher.

  16. Energy Saving in Industrial Annealing Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma ÇANKA KILIÇ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an energy efficiency studies have been carried out in a natural gas-fired rolling mill annealing furnace of an industrial establishment. In this context, exhaust gas from the furnace has been examined in terms of waste heat potential. In the examinations that have been made in detail; waste heat potential was found as 3.630,31 kW. Technical and feasibility studies have been carried out to realize electricity production through an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system for evaluating the waste heat potential of the annealing furnace. It has been calculated that 1.626.378,88 kWh/year of electricity can be generated by using the exhaust gas waste heat of the annealing furnace through an ORC system to produce electric energy with a net efficiency of 16%. The financial value of this energy was determined as 436.032,18 TL/year and the simple repayment period of the investment was 8,12 years. Since the annealing period of the annealing furnace is 2800 hours/year, the investment has not been found to be feasible in terms of the feasibility studies. However, the investment suitability can be assured when the annealing furnace is operating at full capacity for 8,000 hours or more annually.

  17. Design and evaluation of a kitchen for persons with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutintara, Benjamas; Somboon, Pornpun; Buasri, Virajada; Srettananurak, Metinee; Jedeeyod, Piyanooch; Pornpratoom, Kittikan; Iam-cham, Veraya

    2013-03-01

    Visually impaired people need skills on daily living, such as cooking, and Ratchasuda College offers independent living training for them. In order to fulfill their needs, a suitable kitchen should be designed with the consideration of their limitations. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a kitchen for persons with visual impairments. Before designing the kitchen, interviews and an observation were carried out to obtain information on the needs of blind and low vision persons. Consequently, a kitchen model was developed, and it was evaluated by 10 persons with visual impairments. After the design improvement, the kitchen was built and has been routinely used for training persons with visual impairments to prepare meals. Finally, a post-occupancy evaluation of the kitchen was conducted by observing and interviewing both trainers and those with visual impairments during the food preparation training. The results of the study indicated that kitchens for persons with visual impairments should have safety and usability features. The results of the post-occupancy evaluation showed that those who attended cooking courses were able to cook safely in the kitchen. However, the kitchen still had limitations in some features.

  18. A research on the preferences of material and size in the Turkish kitchen furniture industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Dilik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to investigate the interaction developing rapidly through the impact of globalization experienced in every field on the material and size preferences of the kitchen furniture sector. The results of the survey conducted on the Turkish kitchen furniture manufacturers were evaluated within the framework of the international kitchen trends. As a result it was seen that the most preferred kitchen area was between 8 and 11 m2 regarding the distribution of the kitchen areas in Turkey. A tendency of using MDF in the production of the kitchen cabinets was observed with 61.8% in relation with the body material preferred to be used in the kitchen furniture sector. The preferred body sizes of the kitchen cabinet was determined by considering the width and height preferences of both the upper and lower cabinets, the size of 61-90 cm seemed to be the most preferred sizes both for the upper and lower cabinets. According to the height, 72 cm size was found to be the most preferred size. While the most preferred size among the cellar cabinets was determined to be smaller than 60 cm, its height was revealed to be bigger than 200 cm. The most preferred kitchen furniture base was detected to be 12 cm.

  19. War of the Chefs: Women and Men Chefs in Professional Kitchens

    OpenAIRE

    İnce, Şengül

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the domestic kitchen that is counted as the space of women, the professional kitchens are seen as a space of men. As a part of the division of labor according to gender, cooking is a part of women’s role and the kitchen is the space for that. However, the professional kitchen is a space for men with all the set of characteristics associated with men and this space is structured with these allocated characteristics. Women are either kept outside this masculine space or positioned in low...

  20. Industrial furnace with improved heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described for effecting improved heat transfer with in an industrial furnace having a cylindrical furnace section, a door at one end of the furnace section, an end plate at the opposite end of the section a circular fan plate concentrically positioned within the furnace section to define a cylindrical fan chamber between the plate and the end section with a fan there between and a heat treat chamber between the plate and the door, the fan plate defining a non-orificing annular space extending between the interior of the cylindrical furnace section and the outer edge of the plate, the plate having a centrally located under-pressure opening extending there through and a plurality of circumferentially spaced tubular heating elements extending through the annular space into the heat treating chamber, the method comprising the steps of: (a) heating the heating elements to a temperature which is hotter that the temperature of the work within the heat treating chamber; (b) rotating the fan at a speed sufficient to form a portion of the furnace atmosphere as a wind mass swirling about the fan chamber; (c) propagating the wind mass through the annular space into the heat treating chamber as a swirling wind mass in the form of an annulus, the wind mass impinging the heating elements to establish heat transfer contact therewith while the mass retains its annulus shape until contacting the door and without any significant movement of the wind mass into the center of the heat treating chamber; (d) drawing the wind mass through the under-pressure zone after the wind mass comes into heat transfer contact with the work in the heat treating chamber; and (e) thereafter heating the work by radiation from the beating elements at high furnace temperatures in excess of about 1,600 F.

  1. Kitchen and cooking’, a serious game for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria eManera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been a growing interest in employing serious games for the assessment and rehabilitation of elderly people with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, Alzheimer’s disease (AD and related disorders. In the present study we examined the acceptability of ‘Kitchen and cooking’ - a serious game developed in the context of the EU project VERVE (http://www.verveconsortium.eu/ - in these populations. In this game a cooking plot is employed to assess and stimulate executive functions (such as planning abilities and praxis. The game is installed on a tablet, to be flexibly employed at home and in nursing homes. 21 elderly participants (9 MCI and 12 AD, including 14 outpatients and 7 patients living in nursing homes, as well as 11 apathetic and 10 non-apathetic took part in a 1-month trail, including a clinical and neuropsychological assessment, and 4-week training where the participants were free to play as long as they wanted on a personal tablet. During the training, participants met once a week with a clinician in order to fill in self-report questionnaires assessing their overall game experience (including acceptability, motivation, and perceived emotions. The results of the self reports and of the data concerning game performance (e.g. time spent playing, number of errors, etc confirm the overall acceptability of Kitchen and cooking for both patients with MCI and patients with AD and related disorders, and the utility to employ it for training purposes. Interestingly, the results confirm that the game is adapted also to apathetic patients.

  2. Comparison of a burning mass ceramics coating in laboratory furnace and instrustrial furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, R.A.L.; Castro, J.R. de S.

    2012-01-01

    This work intends to analyze the differences obtained in the technological properties of a ceramic coating after firing in two distinct environments, laboratory furnace and industrial furnace. For this, was characterized a ceramic mass used in the production of porous coating. The analyzes were performed chemical, mineralogical and thermal mass in that. The specimens were obtained by compacting and burned in the maximum temperature of 1140 deg C in two furnaces, laboratory and industrial. The technological tests were performed linear shrinkage, water absorption, bulk density and mechanical strength. The microstructure was evaluated by ray-X diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that both furnaces provided significant differences in analyzed specimens, such as increased strength and low water absorption in the fired samples in a laboratory furnace, for example. (author)

  3. Geochemical analysis may indicate oil kitchen near Seychelles bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, P.S. (Seychelles National Oil Co., Victoria, Mahe, Seychelles (CA))

    1992-08-31

    This paper reports that the regular occurrence of tarballs on beaches in the Seychelles archipelago attests to the presence of a mature and generating hydrocarbon kitchen in the Mesozoic succession on and/or adjacent to the Seychelles bank. Since 1978 many tarballs have been collected and analyzed form Coetivy Island while, despite a seemingly annual occurrence of tarballs on the main island of Mahe and nearby Silhouette some 300-350 km to the north northwest, to date only one such sample has been analyzed from each island.

  4. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    OpenAIRE

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2009-01-01

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment....

  5. Kitchen Organization in Full-Service Restaurants: Reducing Heat and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Szende

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available How a restaurant kitchen is organized directly correlates to how the guest receives an experience. The authors investigated five different kitchens to find out how their design impacted its front and back of house staff, and guests experience.

  6. Writing and Retelling Multiple Ethnographic Tales of a Soup Kitchen for the Homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dana L.; Creswell, John W.; Olander, Lisa

    An ethnographic study narrated three tales about a soup kitchen for the homeless and the near-homeless. To provide a cultural, ethnographic analysis, and share fieldwork experiences the study began with realist and confessional tales. These two tales emerged from the initial writing and presenting of the soup kitchen ethnography to qualitative…

  7. 78 FR 54450 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic...\\ is certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks. The subject merchandise is currently classifiable...

  8. 77 FR 72324 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Administrative Review, 2010... countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic of China. See Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

  9. 78 FR 63166 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Administrative Review; 2011... order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks (kitchen racks) from the People's Republic of.... Scope of the Order This order covers shelving and racks for refrigerators, freezers, combined...

  10. 77 FR 61396 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Administrative Review; 2010... order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks (``kitchen racks'') from the People's Republic of...-1785, respectively. Scope of the Order The scope of the order consists of shelving and racks for...

  11. 76 FR 62765 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the First Administrative... review of the antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's... administrative review of certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the PRC for the period March 5, 2009...

  12. Assessment of a remediation technique using the replacement of contaminated soils in kitchen gardens nearby a former lead smelter in Northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douay, F; Roussel, H; Pruvot, C; Loriette, A; Fourrier, H

    2008-08-15

    Vegetables cultivated in kitchen gardens that are strongly contaminated by heavy metals (Pb, Cd) may represent to consumers a means of exposure to these metals. This exposure is more problematic for those families that include a large quantity of home-grown vegetables in their diet. Researchers have shown that the majority of vegetables produced in kitchen gardens in the vicinity of the Metaleurop Nord smelter (Northern France) do not conform to European regulations. This study was carried out in three of these kitchen gardens. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the topsoils were up to 24 and 3300 mg kg(-1) respectively. The method consisted of delineating a surface area of about 50 to 100 m(2) for each garden, then removing the contaminated soil and replacing it with a clean one. Seven species of vegetables were cultivated from 2003 to 2005 in the original contaminated soils and the remediated ones. The data showed a clear improvement of the quality of the vegetables cultivated in remediated soils, although 17% of them were still over the European legislative limits for foodstuffs. This suggested that there was a foliar contamination due to contaminated dust fallout coming from the closed smelter site and the adjacent polluted soils. In addition, the measurement of the Cd and Pb concentrations in the dust fallout showed that the substantial rise in metal concentrations in the remediated soil was not only due to atmospheric fallout. These results raise questions about possible technical, economic and sociological problems associated with this kind of remediation.

  13. Industrial and process furnaces principles, design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale. Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency,

  14. HYGIENE DAN SANITASI DI THE 18th KITCHEN THE TRANS LUXURY HOTEL BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Setio Kresnadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Kitchen is a food processing center at the hotel. Good and bad food products in hotel determined on Personal hygiene, sanitation food, sanitation equipment, and sanitary environment in the hotel kitchen is well organized. Hygiene and sanitation in the kitchen is essential to produce healthy food and clean, this study found that poor personal hygiene are employees who are less aware of hand hygiene, food storage facilities that do not match the standard, not the availability of ultraviolet sterilization box for kitchen Utensil, sewerage is inadequate and the use of non-sterile rubber carpet. The research method used in this research is descriptive method. Based on the data obtained, the management should improve the standard of hygiene and sanitation in the kitchen by providing training routine personal hygiene, and keep adding to the food storage bins, providing ultraviolet Utensil box for the kitchen, replacing the flooring with anti slip floor and improve drainage waste according to the standard.   Keywords: Hygiene, Sanitation in kitchen hotel     Abstrak - Kitchen merupakan pusat pengolahan makanan di hotel. Baik buruknya produk makanan di hotel  ditentukan  pada  Personal hygiene, sanitasi makanan, sanitasi peralatan, dan sanitasi lingkungan di kitchen hotel yang teratur dengan baik. Hygiene dan sanitasi di kitchen sangatlah penting untuk menghasilkan makanan yang sehat dan bersih, dalam penelitian ini ditemukan personal hygiene yang kurang baik yaitu karyawan yang kurang sadar akan kebersihan tangan, tempat penyimpanan makanan yang tidak sesuai standar, tidak tersedianya ultraviolet box untuk sterilisasi kitchen utensil,  saluran pembuangan air limbah yang kurang memadai dan penggunaan karpet karet yang tidak steril. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif. Berdasarkan data yang diperoleh maka management sebaiknya memperbaiki standar hygiene dan sanitasi di kitchen dengan cara

  15. Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-09-23

    The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

  16. High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

  17. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW depend largely on the waste's initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW. After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW, the following findings were obtained: (1 HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC than LKWC MSW, but the field capacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2 the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3 compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4 the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5 the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  18. Identification of anaerobic microorganisms for converting kitchen waste to biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirhossein Malakahmad; Shahrom Mohd Zain; Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri; Shamsul Rahman Mohamed Kutty; Mohd Hasnain Isa

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion process is one of the alternative methods to convert organic waste into methane gas which is a fuel and energy source. Activities of various kinds of microorganisms are the main factor for anaerobic digestion which produces methane gas. Therefore, in this study a modified Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with working volume of 50 liters was designed to identify the microorganisms through biogas production. The mixture of 75% kitchen waste and 25% sewage sludge was used as substrate. Observations on microorganisms in the ABR showed that there exists a small amount of protozoa (5%) and fungi (2%) in the system, but almost 93% of the microorganism population consists of bacteria. It is definitely clear that bacteria are responsible for anaerobic biodegradation of kitchen waste. Results show that in the acidification zone of the ABR (front compartments of reactor) fast growing bacteria capable of growth at high substrate levels and reduced pH was dominant. A shift to slower growing scavenging bacteria that grow better at higher pH was occurring towards the end of the reactor. Due to the ability of activity in acetate environment the percentages of Methanococcus, Methanosarcina and Methanotrix were higher than other kinds of methane former in the system. (Author)

  19. SANITARY ASPECT OF NUTRITION CONTROL IN PUBLIC KITCHEN IN NIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Milutinovic

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to evaluate sanitary condition of food preparation and distribution in the "Public kitchen" in Nis, as well as the meals’ quality in order to assess the health risks. The local inspection of the objects and microbiological analysis of swaps were done according to standard methods. Energetical values and biochemical structure of the meals were assessed by bromatological methods and energetical density was calculated. The study was being conducted from 2002 – 2005. The results show that sanitary conditions in the object were not adequate, because of a high percentage of incorrect samples (13.4% from the total number of samples. Energetical values of meals were usually adequate (1157 – 1564 kcal, 4837 – 6581 kJ, but constantly decreased. The chemical structure of the meals was adequate too, meaning that meals were very well- planed. The energetic density of meals was high (1,18 – 1,42 kcal/g. Our conclusion is that there are no alternatives to continuous health care education of the medical stuff and regular sanitary hygienic control, all with the aim to accomplish complete social function of the public kitchen and to protect the health of its consumers.

  20. High energy density supercapacitors using macroporous kitchen sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Macroporous, low-cost and recyclable kitchen sponges are explored as effective electrode platforms for supercapacitor devices. A simple and scalable process has been developed to fabricate MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge supercapacitor electrodes using ordinary kitchen sponges. Two organic electrolytes (1 M of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (Et 4NBF 4) in propylene carbonate (PC), 1 M of LiClO 4 in PC) are utilized with the sponge-based electrodes to improve the energy density of the symmetrical supercapacitors. Compared to aqueous electrolyte (1 M of Na 2SO 4 in H 2O), the energy density of supercapacitors tripled in Et 4NBF 4 electrolyte, and further increased by six times in LiClO 4 electrolyte. The long-term cycling performance in different electrolytes was examined and the morphology changes of the electrode materials were also studied. The good electrochemical performance in both aqueous and organic electrolytes indicates that the MnO 2-CNT-sponge is a promising low-cost electrode for energy storage systems. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Triassic oils and related hydrocarbon kitchens in the Adriatic basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, L.; Demaison, G. (AGIP, Milan (Italy))

    1988-08-01

    Without exception, the oils from both the Abruzzi basin and Albanian foredeep are of lower Liassic to Upper Triassic origin. This is demonstrated by biological marker-based correlations between the oils and stratigraphically controlled, carbonate-rich source rocks. The biomarker studies also provided proof to conclude that many of the oils possess low API gravities and high sulfur contents because they are immature rather than biodegraded. Following the geochemical investigations, a computer-aided, basinwise maturation simulation of the hydrocarbon kitchens was carried out, with backstripping in geologic time. The simulations, performed with the Tissot-Espitalie kinetic model, used basin-specific kerogen activation energies obtained by the optimum method. These simulated values were calibrated with observed values in deep wells. Two characteristics diverge from normal petroleum basin situations (e.g., the North Sea basin): sulfur-rich kerogens in the source rocks, featuring relatively low activation energy distributions, and low geothermal gradients in the subsurface. The geographic outlines of simulated Triassic-lower Liassic hydrocarbon kitchens closely coincide with the zones of petroleum occurrence and production in the Adriatic basin. Furthermore, API gravities of the oils are broadly predicted by the mathematical simulations. This methodology has once again shown its ability to rationally high-grade the petroleum-rich sectors of sedimentary basin while identifying those areas where chances of success are extremely low regardless of the presence of structures.

  2. Better kitchens and toilets: both needed for better health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Khaiwal; Smith, Kirk R

    2018-05-01

    Both poor water, sanitation, hygiene (WaSH) and household air pollution (HAP) adversely affect the health of millions of people each year around the globe and specifically in developing countries. The objective of current work is to highlight the importance of HAP in parallel to WaSH for decision making to achieve better health specially in developing countries. There are examples, where developing countries are strengthening efforts to tackle the issue of poor water and sanitation such as 'Clean India Mission' was recently launched by the Government of India. However, there is lack of actions to address the issue related to HAP-to extend the coverage of clean fuel, efficient stoves and ventilated kitchens to the deprived population under the 'Clean India Mission'. Most of the rural household and urban slums in developing countries have only a single room, where people cook and sleep. This leads them to exposure to toxic HAP, which can be minimized by developing country specific indoor air quality guidelines and action framework. Hence, there should be policies to provide them not only the subsidy for clean fuel but also to build properly ventilated kitchens along with the promotion of clean toilets and water supplies. There is a need to strengthen global efforts, to jointly address the challenges associated with the risks related to WaSH and HAP in order to efficiently reduce the global burden of disease. Further, this will also help to timely attain the sustainable development goals for better health and environment.

  3. Commercial kitchens - Feasibility study of energy consumption and food wastage; Storkoek - Foerstudie av energifoerbrukning och livsmedelssvinn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolfsman, Lennart; Pettersson, Ulrik; Barr, Ulla-Karin; Sund, Veronica

    2010-07-01

    A pre project aiming at the end to create demonstration examples of full scale professional kitchens is reported. To create a big impact school meals were chosen for the investigation. In Sweden all children are during the day given a cooked lunch. For that reason large kitchens exist in all schools. There are two main different organizations. A central kitchen delivers hot meals to each school where the meals are served to the children. The other model is local kitchens in each school. There are more non technical differences between different communities making the need to analyze more than one kitchen of each type. The two parameters in the study are energy and wasted food

  4. A research on the effect of global trends in Turkish kitchen furniture sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Uçar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Through survey results, this study evaluated global trends’ effects on Turkish kitchen furniture production. The level of knowledge and difficulties of catching up with and implementing developmental trends in the Turkish kitchen furniture sector has been seen as having a structure equivalent to world standards because the level of material and technological development has been determined by four criteria: consumer demand, housing plans, technology inadequacy, and material inadequacy. According to the results, findings in this framework, consumer demand was most influential (45.4% in capturing and implementing enterprises’ trends. Evaluation results on kitchen furniture projects implemented by Turkish enterprises within the last 5 years showed that they mostly worked with models with one-lid views in cabinet-door applications (41.6%. As a result, world trends reflect the direct influence of Turkish kitchen furniture manufacturers on cabinet-door models and color preferences for kitchen units.

  5. Acoustic Levitator With Furnace And Laser Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Stoneburner, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic-levitation apparatus incorporates electrical-resistance furnace for uniform heating up to temperature of about 1,000 degrees C. Additional local heating by pair of laser beams raise temperature of sample to more than 1,500 degrees C. High temperature single-mode acoustic levitator generates cylindrical-mode accoustic resonance levitating sample. Levitation chamber enclosed in electrical-resistance furnace. Infrared beams from Nd:YAG laser provide additional local heating of sample. Designed for use in containerless processing of materials in microgravity or in normal Earth gravity.

  6. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rose, W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  7. Design of a rotating-hearth furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, H A [LOI Industrieofenanlagen G.m.b.H., Essen (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-09-01

    Part I of this paper is intended to present a review of the theory of heating round stock of a length considerably exceeding the diameter. It is permissible to neglect heating from the ends of the cylinders. With short and thick ingots as used in pilgrim mills, for instance, such simplification is not possible. The method for calculating the waste gas temperature can also be used for the remaining furnace sections provided certain conditions are allowed for and computational procedures observed. Part II of the paper will deal with this and with the major design features of rotating-hearth furnaces.

  8. Process and furnace for working bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotzer, M

    1921-06-28

    A process for working up bitumen-containing materials, such as coal, peat and shale is characterized in that the material in thin-height batches with constant shaking by means of forward and backward movement of an elongated horizontal hearth heated underneath on which the material freely lies and on which it is moved in the furnace, through a single narrow furnace space with zone-wise heating of the hearth. A drying zone, a spent-material removal zone, and a carbonization zone are provided. Under separate hoods the gases and vapors are removed from these zones.

  9. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  10. Glass Furnace Project, October 1982-March 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, K.M.; Klingler, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the Glass Furnace Project currently under way at Mound, a treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste is being evaluated that will combine volume reduction and immobilization in one step. Initial work focused on demonstrating the ability of the furnace to efficiently incinerate nonradioactive, simulated power-plant waste and on determining the adequacy of immobilization in a soda-lime silica matrix. Further evaluation of the system will involve a demonstration of the combustion and containment of radioactive waste. In preparation for this next phase of the program, preliminary investigation and design work were conducted during the past six months. 5 figures, 1 table

  11. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senk, D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

    Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

  12. 77 FR 21744 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Countervailing Duty... countervailable duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks (``Kitchen Racks'') from the People's... Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

  13. Ups and downs of using ``kitchen sink'' experiments in an introductory fluid mechanics class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Nigel

    2015-11-01

    Both positive and negative experiences from two semesters of using take home ``kitchen sink'' experiments in an introductory civil engineering fluid mechanics class are reported. Four different experimental assignments were given each semester to groups of four students. The students were tasked with using common household equipment to measure various properties of fluids or fluid flows. These included the density of cooking oil, the exit velocity from a garden hose, and the mass flux of air from a compressed air can. Students were given minimal guidance on how to do the measurements and each measurement had to be done in at least two different ways. The labs were used to relate their course work to everyday situations and was also used as a platform for discussing experimental uncertainty and error propagation in calculations. In general the students successfully completed each task using at least one method. Finding a second method sometimes proved problematic. The presentation will discuss the logistics of running the program and the positive and negative aspects from the instructor viewpoint. A summary of student feedback on the labs will also be presented. Links to resources for those interested in implementing such a program will be provided.

  14. Microbial contamination in kitchens and bathrooms of rural Cambodian village households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R G; Gerba, C P

    2011-02-01

    To quantify microbial contamination on kitchen and bathroom surfaces (fomites) in rural Cambodian homes and to compare these concentrations to similar data from the United States and Japan. This study monitored the numbers of faecal coliforms (i.e. thermotolerant coliforms), total coliforms, Escherichia coli and heterotrophic plate count bacteria on household surfaces in a rural village of Cambodia. Faecal coliform levels in Cambodia were highest on moist locations such as the plastic ladle used for sink water, the toilet seat surface and the cutting board surface with 100-fold higher levels of faecal coliform bacteria than E. coli and 100-fold higher levels of faecal coliforms than the US and Japanese studies. A single public health intervention barrier, such as an improved latrine, is only partially effective for household sanitation. For complete sanitation, multiple environmental barriers may be necessary. These barriers occur in a house constructed with easily washable surfaces, a chlorinated water distribution system, house climate control and cleaning product availability. Results of this study can be used to emphasize the importance of increasing household environmental sanitation barriers. © 2010 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Atomic energy in the kitchen: The news television from an educational perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Hugo R.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main functions of the public communication of science is to enable ordinary people to appropriate the necessary knowledge to understand the risks and benefits of scientific and technological developments that are part of everyday life. This task is particularly important in cases of important events that move public opinion and call into question the appropriateness of its use. In these cases it is desirable that the journalistic use teaching tools for communicating important aspects of the facts, since they are usually embedded or hidden in the large volume of information provided from the media. This is particularly important in the case of television, which by its characteristics of speed and brevity leaves little time to understand what happened finishing. This paper shows the production made in a television news of Cordoba, including a didactic exhibition on the conditions that occurred during the accident at Japanese nuclear plants after the earthquake and tsunami catastrophe that hit the northeast of the island in March 2011. To carry the note took into account the disparate fields of knowledge existing in the audience, the complexity of disciplinary knowledge to be transmitted and the need to organize content based on the recipients. Used in their making everyday items that exist in any home kitchen in order to introduce the audience to developments and major technical problems affecting nuclear facilities, by explaining the basics of physics involved in accidental situation. (author) [es

  16. BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are the Savings?

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2006-01-01

    Residential gas furnaces contain blowers to distribute warm air. Currently, furnace blowers use either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important for understanding electricity consumption of furnaces. The electricity consumption of blower motors depends on the static pressure across the blower. This p...

  17. Electric melting furnace for waste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaki, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    To avoid electric troubles or reduction of waste processing performance even when platinum group elements are contained in wastes to be applied with glass solidification. For this purpose, a side electrode is disposed to the side wall of a melting vessel and a central electrode serving as a counter electrode is disposed about at the center inside the melting vessel. With such a constitution, if conductive materials are deposited at the bottom of the furnace or the bottom of the melting vessel, heating currents flow selectively between the side electrode and the central electrode. Accordingly, no electric currents flow through the conductive deposits thereby enabling to prevent abnormal heating in the bottom of the furnace. Further, heat generated by electric supply between the side electrode and the central electrode is supplied efficiently to raw material on the surface of the molten glass liquid to improve the processing performance. Further, disposition of the bottom electrode at the bottom of the furnace enables current supply between the central electrode and the bottom electrode to facilitate the temperature control for the molten glass in the furnace than in the conventional structure. (I.S.)

  18. Blast furnace hearth lining: post mortem analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Bruno Vidal de; Vernilli Junior, Fernando, E-mail: bva@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Neves; Elton Silva; Silva, Sidiney Nascimento [Companhia Siderugica Nacional (CSN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    The main refractory lining of blast furnace hearth is composed by carbon blocks that operates in continuous contact with hot gases, liquid slag and hot metal, in temperatures above 1550 deg C for 24 hours a day. To fully understand the wear mechanism that acts in this refractory layer system it was performed a Post Mortem study during the last partial repair of this furnace. The samples were collected from different parts of the hearth lining and characterized using the following techniques: Bulk Density and Apparent Porosity, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The results showed that the carbon blocks located at the opposite side of the blast furnace tap hole kept its main physicochemical characteristics preserved even after the production of 20x10{sup 6} ton of hot metal. However, the carbon blocks around the Tap Hole showed infiltration by hot metal and slag and it presents a severe deposition of zinc and sulfur over its carbon flakes. The presence of these elements is undesired because it reduces the physic-chemical stability of this refractory system. This deposition found in the carbon refractory is associated with impurities present in the both coke and the sinter feed used in this blast furnace in the last few years. (author)

  19. Thermal model of the whole element furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    A detailed thermal analysis was performed to calculate temperatures in the whole element test furnace that is used to conduct drying studies of N-Reactor fuel. The purpose of this analysis was to establish the thermal characteristics of the test system and to provide a basis for post-test analysis

  20. Sintering furnace for remote fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.

    1978-10-01

    Component testing and evaluation of a chemical vapor deposition Re/W muffle has been initiated. Hydrogen permeation testing and thermal cycling behavior will be evaluated. Fabrication of prototype 10-12 Kg furnace is scheduled for completion late in 1979, at which time testing of the system will be initiated

  1. Blast furnace hearth lining: post mortem analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Bruno Vidal de; Vernilli Junior, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The main refractory lining of blast furnace hearth is composed by carbon blocks that operates in continuous contact with hot gases, liquid slag and hot metal, in temperatures above 1550 deg C for 24 hours a day. To fully understand the wear mechanism that acts in this refractory layer system it was performed a Post Mortem study during the last partial repair of this furnace. The samples were collected from different parts of the hearth lining and characterized using the following techniques: Bulk Density and Apparent Porosity, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The results showed that the carbon blocks located at the opposite side of the blast furnace tap hole kept its main physicochemical characteristics preserved even after the production of 20x10"6 ton of hot metal. However, the carbon blocks around the Tap Hole showed infiltration by hot metal and slag and it presents a severe deposition of zinc and sulfur over its carbon flakes. The presence of these elements is undesired because it reduces the physic-chemical stability of this refractory system. This deposition found in the carbon refractory is associated with impurities present in the both coke and the sinter feed used in this blast furnace in the last few years. (author)

  2. Aerosol and particle transport in biomass furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, van H.P.; Obernberger, G.

    2005-01-01

    The particulate emissions of solid fuel fired furnaces typically exhibit a bimodal distribution: a small peak in the range of 0.1 mm and a larger one above 10 mm. The particles with sizes above 10 mm are formed by a mechanical process like disintegration of the fuel after combustion, or erosion,

  3. Furnace for distillation of shales, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germain-Clergault, M

    1863-07-09

    Practical experience and continuous operation of 55 retorts for 5 years of the system of vertical retorts patented in 1857 (French Patent 18,422) has shown the advantages resulting from this furnace which gives over a mean yield of 5% of Auton shale, which is /sup 1///sub 2/% more than the old systems with a fuel economy varying from 15 to 20%.

  4. Effect of electropolishing on vacuum furnace design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanwi Lahiri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermal shields of materials having low emissivity in vacuum furnaces is well-known. However, the surface condition of the heat shields is one of the most important factors governing their efficiency as radiation resistances. The emissivity of the thermal shields dictates the power rating of the heaters in furnace design. The unpolished materials used in the heater tests showed poor performance leading to loss of a signi­ficant percentage of the input power. The present work deals with the refur­bishment of the radiation heat shields used in a furnace for heating graphite structure. The effect of refurbishment of the heat shields by the buffing and subsequently electro­polishing was found to improve the performance of the shields as heat reflectors. The com­position of the electrolyte was chosen in such a way that the large shields of Mo, Inconel and SS can be polished using the same reagents in different ratios. The present work deals with the development of a standard electropolishing procedure for large metallic sheets and subsequently qualifying them by roughness and emissivity measure­ments. The improvement noted in the shielding efficiency of the furnace in the subsequent runs is also discussed here.

  5. Dynamics and control of a gas-fired furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roffel, B.; Rijnsdorp, J.E.

    1974-01-01

    A non-linear model has been developed for a gas-fired furnace in which oil is heated. The model is applicable from minimum to maximum heat load of the furnace. The dynamics of the model have been compared to experimental results, which were obtained for a pilot-scale furnace. They are in good

  6. Modeling of aerodynamics in vortex furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anufriev, I.; Krasinsky, D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics; Salomatov, V.; Anikin, Y.; Sharypov, O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics; Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation); Enkhjargal, Kh. [Mongol Univ. of Science and Technology, Ulan Bator (Mongolia)

    2013-07-01

    At present, the torch burning technology of pulverized-coal fuel in vortex flow is one of the most prospective and environmentally-friendly combustion technologies of low-grade coals. Appropriate organization of aerodynamics may influence stability of temperature and heat flux distributions, increase slag catching, and reduce toxic emissions. Therefore, from scientific point of view it is interesting to investigate aerodynamics in the devices aiming at justification of design and operating parameters for new steam generators with vortex furnace, and upgrade of existing boiler equipment. The present work is devoted to physical and mathematical modeling of interior aerodynamics of vortex furnace of steam generator of thermal power plants. Research was carried out on the air isothermal model which geometry was similar to one section of the experimental- industrial boiler TPE-427 of Novosibirsk TPS-3. Main elements of vortex furnace structure are combustion chamber, diffuser, and cooling chamber. The model is made from organic glass; on the front wall two rectangular nozzles (through which compressed air is injected) are placed symmetrically at 15 to the horizon. The Laser Doppler Velocimeter LAD-05 was used for non-contact measurement of vortex flow characteristics. Two velocity components in the XY-plane (in different cross- sections of the model) were measured in these experiments. Reynolds number was 3.10{sup 5}. Numerical simulation of 3-D turbulent isothermal flow was performed with the use of CFD package FLUENT. Detailed structure of the flow in vortex furnace model has been obtained in predictions. The distributions of main flow characteristics (pressure, velocity and vorticity fields, turbulent kinetic energy) are presented. The obtained results may be used at designing boilers with vortex furnace. Computations were performed using the supercomputer NKS-160.

  7. Thermal Analysis of an Industrial Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Filipponi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Industries, which are mainly responsible for high energy consumption, need to invest in research projects in order to develop new managing systems for rational energy use, and to tackle the devastating effects of climate change caused by human behavior. The study described in this paper concerns the forging industry, where the production processes generally start with the heating of steel in furnaces, and continue with other processes, such as heat treatments and different forms of machining. One of the most critical operations, in terms of energy loss, is the opening of the furnace doors for insertion and extraction operations. During this time, the temperature of the furnaces decreases by hundreds of degrees in a few minutes. Because the dispersed heat needs to be supplied again through the combustion of fuel, increasing the consumption of energy and the pollutant emissions, the evaluation of the amount of lost energy is crucial for the development of systems which can contain this loss. To perform this study, CFD simulation software was used. Results show that when the door opens, because of temperature and pressure differences between the furnace and the ambient air, turbulence is created. Results also show that the amount of energy lost for an opening of 10 min for radiation, convection and conduction is equal to 5606 MJ where convection is the main contributor, with 5020 MJ. The model created, after being validated, has been applied to perform other simulations, in order to improve the energy performance of the furnace. Results show that reducing the opening time of the door saves energy and limits pollutant emissions.

  8. PENDELEGASIAN TUGAS KEPADA TRAINEE DI MAIN KITCHEN GRAND ROYAL PANGHEGAR HOTEL BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Rijwan

    2016-03-01

      Abstrak - Masalah yang di teliti adalah bagaimana pendelegasian tugas kepadatraineedi main kitchen, bagaimana standar operasional prosedur pendelegasian tugas kepada trainee di main kitchen, serta bagaimana kesempatan dan peluang dari pendelegasian tugas kepada trainee di main kitchen.  Dalam hal pengolahan data, penulis menggunakan analisis deskriptif, yaitu metode yang berusaha mengumpulkan data dan sesuai dengan keadaan yang sebenarnya, menyajikan serta menganalisanya sehigga dapat memberikan gambaran yang cukup jelas atas objek yang diteliti dan kemudian di ambil kesimpulannya. Berdasarkan hasil observasi ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa pendelegasian tugas kepada trainee di Main Kitchen Grand Royal Panghegar Hotel sudah dilaksanakan dengan sangat baik, hal ini dapat dilihat dengan di selesaikannya delegasi tugas dengan baik pula oleh trainee. Standar operasional prosedur pendelegasian kepada trainee di Main Kitchen Grand Royal Panghegar Hotel sudah baik, hal ini dapat dilihat bahwa trainee dapat melaksanakan kegiatan- kegiatan yang ada di main kitchen dengan baik pula. Peluang dari pendelegasian tugas kepada trainee di Main Kitchen Grand Royal Panghegar Hotel menjadikan trainee lebih percaya diri, memiliki pengalaman baru dalam mengolah makanan, lebih meningkatnya skill trainee, dan memiliki pengetahuan yang lebih dari sebelumnya, dan staff pun tidak akan mendapat terlalu banyak beban pekerjaan, karena sebagian dapat dikerjakan oleh trainee dengan baik. Berdasarkan dari hasil observasi dan pembahasan tersebut, penulis menyimpulkan bahwa apabila standar operasional prosedur pendelegasian kepada Trainee dijalankan dengan baik, maka selain berdampak baik kepada trainee akan berdampak baik pula kepada staff atau hotel itu sendiri.

  9. Use of additive and pretreatment to control odors in municipal kitchen waste during aerobic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Yang, Qingyuan; Zhang, Zhiye; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Wenhai; Zhang, Difang

    2015-11-01

    The effects of adding a bulking agent and chemically pretreating municipal kitchen waste before aerobic composting were studied using a laboratory-scale system. The system used 20-L reactors and each test lasted 28days. The objective was to decrease NH3 and H2S emissions during composting. The bulking agent, dry cornstalks, was mixed with the kitchen waste to give a mixture containing 15% (wet weight) bulking agent. A combined treatment was also conducted, in which kitchen waste mixed with the bulking agent was pretreated with ferric chloride (FeCl3). Less leachate was produced by the composted kitchen waste mixed with bulking agent than by the kitchen waste alone, when the materials had reached the required maturity. The presence of cornstalks also caused less H2S to be emitted, but had little impact on the amount of NH3 emitted. The FeCl3 was found to act as an effective chemical flocculant, and its presence significantly decreased the amounts of NH3 and H2S emitted. Kitchen waste mixed with cornstalks and treated with FeCl3 emitted 42% less NH3 and 76% less H2S during composting than did pure kitchen waste. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Disposal of Kitchen Waste from High Rise Apartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Kirki; Bharti, Ajay; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-09-01

    The high rise building has numbers of floor and rooms having variety of users or tenants for residential purposes. The huge quantities of heterogenous mixtures of domestic food waste are generated from every floor of the high rise residential buildings. Disposal of wet and biodegradable domestic kitchen waste from high rise buildings are more expensive in regards of collection and vertical transportation. This work is intended to address the technique to dispose of the wet organic food waste from the high rise buildings or multistory building at generation point with the advantage of gravity and vermicomposting technique. This innovative effort for collection and disposal of wet organic solid waste from high rise apartment is more economical and hygienic in comparison with present system of disposal.

  11. Water state changes during the composting of kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Yu-Qiang; Huang, Huan-Lin; Hu, Li-Fang; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-04-01

    Changes in water states during the composting of kitchen waste were determined. Three experiments, R(55), R(60), and R(65), with different initial moisture contents, 55%, 60%, and 65%, respectively, were performed. Three water states, entrapped water (EW), capillary water (CW), and multiple-molecular-layer water (MMLW), were monitored during the experiments. Changes only occurred with the EW and CW during the composting process. The percentage of EW increased, and the percentage of CW decreased as the composting process progressed. The R(60) experiment performed better than the other experiments according to changes in the temperature and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N). The percentage of EW correlated well (P<0.05) with the dissolved organic carbon content (DOC), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and C/N, and was affected by the hemicellulose and cellulose contents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sources and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in kitchen air, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lizhong; Wang, Jing

    2003-02-01

    Twelve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, multi-ringed compounds known to be carcinogenic in air of six domestic kitchens and four commercial kitchens of China were measured in 1999-2000. The mean concentration of total PAHs in commercial kitchens was 17 microg/m3, consisting mainly of 3- and 4-ring PAHs, and 7.6 microg/m3 in domestic kitchens, where 2- and 3-ring PAHs were predominant, especially naphthalene. The BaP levels in domestic kitchens were 0.0061-0.024 microg/m3 and 0.15- 0.44 microg/m3 in commercial kitchens. Conventional Chinese cooking methods were responsible for such heavy PAHs pollution. The comparative study for PAH levels in air during three different cooking practices: boiling, broiling and frying were conducted. It was found that boiling produced the least levels of PAHs. For fish, a low-fat food, frying it produced a larger amount of PAHs compared to broiling practice, except pyrene and anthracene. In commercial kitchens, PAHs came from two sources, cooking practice and oil-fumes, however the cooking practice had a more predominant contribution to PAHs in commercial kitchen air. In domestic kitchens, except for cooking practice and oil-fumes, there were other PAHs sources, such as smoking and other human activities in the domestic houses, where 3-4 ring PAHs mainly came from cooking practice. Naphthalene (NA, 2-ring PAHs) was the most predominant kind, mostly resulting from the evaporation of mothball containing a large quantity of NA, used to prevent clothes against moth. A fingerprint of oil-fumes was the abundance of 3-ring PAHs. Heating at the same temperature, the PAHs concentrations in different oil-fumes were lard > soybean oil > rape-seed oil. An increase in cooking temperature increased the levels of PAHs, especially acenaphthene.

  13. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  14. Evaluation of residential furnace filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowser, D. [Bowser Technical Inc. (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Various filters rotated through six houses in southern Ontario during the heating season were evaluated for their filtration efficiency, including their ability to trap respirable particulate matter. Particulate levels were continuously monitored in the outside air, before and after the filter in the ducting system; also in the air in two rooms in each house. Results show that the filters performed according to their respective efficiency ratings. The integrated breathing zone exposure reading were not considered as significant as the reductions in the ducting system, dur to the fact that the integrated breathing zone exposure reflects both dust generation and dust removal mechanisms. Electronic air filters were found to produce ozone inside the home when the air-handling system was in operation. There was no evidence of any particular relationship between cleanliness and ozone production. Indoor ozone levels were always lower than outdoor levels. Continuous blower operation was found to improve filtration efficiency , however, it could result in an increase of about $250 in annual energy expenses. Bypass filters recorded significantly higher electrical energy consumption than full-flow systems. Continuous low-speed air handler fan operation appeared to be the most effective strategy. Portable air cleaners were shown to be highly effective in removing particulates in a single room. Removing footwear on entering the house, keeping major dust generators out of the house, frequent vacuuming, improving the air tightness of the house, and installing an air intake filter on the air supply may all be all be helpful in controlling exposure to particulates. 21 refs., 8 tabs., 32 figs.

  15. Nutrition for homeless populations: shelters and soup kitchens as opportunities for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Katherine A; Bharel, Monica; Henderson, David C

    2016-05-01

    Nutrition is a daily challenge for the homeless population in America. Homeless individuals suffer from a high prevalence of diseases related to poor diet, yet there has been little public health effort to improve nutrition in this population. Shelters and soup kitchens may have an untapped potential to impact food access, choice and quality. We offer ideas for intervention and lessons learned from ten shelters and soup kitchens around Greater Boston, MA, USA. By advancing food quality, education and policies in shelters and soup kitchens, the homeless population can be given an opportunity to restore its nutrition and health.

  16. Test of pyrolysis gasifier stoves in two institutional kitchens in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendelbo, Pall; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    : The main purpose of the paper is to evaluate tests of institutional kitchens carried out at schools in Uganda 1997. The results of the tests for the institutional kitchen with pyrolysis gasifier stoves are compared with the fuel use in traditional kitchens with three-stone stoves. The project......, respectively. The cooking place was build up with a rotating plate on which tree gasifier units were placed. In this way it was possible to change on of the gasifier units when necessary. The pot was then mounted on a tripod app. 10 cm above the gasifier units. The results of the tests show that the improved...

  17. Heat Release Rate of an Open Kitchen Fire of Small Residential Units in Tall Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, W.K.

    2014-01-01

    Many small units of area less than 30 m2 in residential buildings over 200 m tall are equipped with open kitchens in Asia, including Hong Kong. Fire safety provisions of these kitchens are determined by performance-based design (PBD). In most PBD projects, only the spread of smoke from the kitchen on fire to the outside was commonly studied. However, a fire load survey in Hong Kong indicated large quantities of combustibles are stored in residential units. Cooking oil was found to be ignited ...

  18. AUTOMATION OF GLASS TEMPERING FURNACE BY USING PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah BÜYÜKYILDIZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a furnace which is used for observation of environments under high temperature, and also used for manufacturing of glasses which are resisted to high temperature has been designed and implemented. Automation of this system has been done by using PLC. Operating parameters of furnace such as materials entering, the furnace, the local temperature control of furnace, cooling control and materials outing have been sensed with Hall Effect Sensor. Furthermore, the observation of parameters of furnace on screen has been provided with SCADA software. Obtained products have been shown the system works successfully.

  19. Monitoring device for glass melting furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Noboru; Asano, Naoki; Higuchi, Tatsuo; Koyama, Mayumi; Hanado, Shinji.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention can monitor, from a remote place, a liquid surface in a glass melting furnace for use in a solidification treatment, for example, of high level radioactive wastes. Namely, a vertical sleeve is disposed penetrating a ceiling wall of a melting vessel. A reflection mirror is disposed above the vertical sleeve and flex an optical axis. A monitoring means is disposed on the optical axis of the reflecting mirror at a spaced position. The monitoring means may have an optical telescopic means, a monitoring camera by way of a half mirror and an illumination means. The reflection mirror may be made of a metal. The monitoring device thus constituted suffer from no effects of high temperature and high radiation dose rate, thereby enabling to easily monitor the liquid surface in the melting furnace. (I.S.)

  20. [Optimization of fuel ethanol production from kitchen waste by Plackett-Burman design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Zhi; Gong, Li-Juan; Wang, Qun-Hui; Zhang, Wen-Yu; Xu, Wen-Long

    2008-05-01

    Kitchen garbage was chosen to produce ethanol through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Zymomonas mobilis. Plackett-Burman design was employed to screen affecting parameters during SSF process. The parameters were divided into two parts, enzymes and nutritions. None of the nutritions added showed significant effect during the experiment, which demonstrated that the kitchen garbage could meet the requirement of the microorganism without extra supplementation. Protease and glucoamylase were determined to be affecting factors for ethanol production. Single factor experiment showed that the optimum usage of these two enzymes were both 100 U/g and the corresponding maximum ethanol was determined to be 53 g/L. The ethanol yield could be as high as 44%. The utilization of kitchen garbage to produce ethanol could reduce threaten of waste as well as improve the protein content of the spent. This method could save the ethanol production cost and benefit for the recycle of kitchen garbage.

  1. PENGARUH SANITASI HYGIENE DI AREA RESTORAN & MAIN KITCHEN TERHADAP KEPUASAN TAMU DI HARRIS HOTEL & CONVENTIONS MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dewi hermin sutanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to provides an overview of the influence of sanitation hygiene in the restaurant area and main kitchen toward guest satisfaction. The purpose this research is to know the influence of sanitation and hygiene in the restaurant area and main kitchen. Research methodology used in this research was descriptive qualitative. Data analysis technique include data collection, data reduction, data presentation and conclusion. The result obtained from this research is hygiene sanitation condition in the restaurant area and main kitchen that fulfilled the requirement can give guests satisfaction. The qualified� hygiene sanitation be able to support employees perfomance at the main kitchen. Sanitation and hygiene are very important to the development of a hotel especially in provide security and comfort and health to the various guest.

  2. COMPARISON OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESTAURANT KITCHENS IN TEHRAN WITH AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result indicated that the mean levels of CO and NO2 in restaurant kitchens were below the recommended limit of 25 and 3ppm, respectively. Correlations between indoor and outdoor air quality were performed consequently. Results of the mean ambient temperature and relative humidity were above the guideline. In this study the mean levels of CO and NO2 gas cooking in restaurant kitchens were found to be lower compared with the similar studies.

  3. Dental Porcelain Furnaces: Test and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    D Q)L a ) a) C ) C C C C c *. . 3a)0. >4 a)->4 >4 -, Z 0 -a-’- 4-% a) ( nca )m m nU Cs C ) (3 ) 11) a) a) a3) Q) a) W) a2) C C~~ >4 L > > >1 >1 4 > 4...Fig. 1) is a computerized programmable porcelain furnace with 45 open programs. This unit has a large detachable cathode -ray tube (CRT) screen which

  4. Furnaces for the distillation of coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, F A; Deacon, M; Brady, N P.W.

    1918-08-14

    A tunnel or other furnace for the distillation of coal of the kind provided with inverted pockets in its roof to collect diverse distillates in the manner described, characterized by one or more of the pockets being provided with a sloping roof whose gradient from the higher end downwards is in the direction of the forward travel of the fuel beneath it for the purposes described.

  5. Husk energy for boilers and furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deven, M.

    1985-10-01

    In view of the technical feasibility and economic viability, industries located in rice, coconut, and cotton growing areas, can easily switch over from oil/coal fired furnace/boilers to husk fired ones and thereby effect fuel economy. The banks and financial institutions will readily agree to provide finance as per directions of the governments and in some cases they also offer subsidy for development and utilization of energy saving devices.

  6. Analisis Pengaruh Brand Image, Price Perception, Dan Service Quality Terhadap Customer Loyalty Pada Pelanggan Urban Kitchen

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua, Timothy Joshua; Haryadi, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the influence of Brand Image, Price Perception, and Customer Service Qualityon Customer Loyalty in Urban Kitchen. The questionnaires were distributed to 150 respondents in four locations of Urban Kitchen employing simple random sampling technique. The data obtained were processed and analyzed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) with LISREL8.72. The results indicate that Brand Image and Service Quality have significant influences on Customer Loyalty,...

  7. Ethanol Production from Kitchen Garbage Using Zymomonas mobilis: Optimization of Parameters through Statistical Experimental Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, H.; Wang, Q.; Gong, L.; Wang, X.; Yin, W.

    2008-01-01

    Plackett-Burman design was employed to screen 8 parameters for ethanol production from kitchen garbage by Zymomonas mobilis in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The parameters were divided into two parts, four kinds of enzymes and supplementation nutrients. The result indicated that the nutrient inside kitchen garbage could meet the requirement of ethanol production without supplementation, only protease and glucoamylase were needed to accelerate the ethanol production. The opti...

  8. Recipes for Citizenship: Women, Cookbooks, and Citizenship in the Kitchen, 1941-1945

    OpenAIRE

    Staub, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    This thesis argues that cookbooks and cooking literature prescribed domesticity, specifically linked to the kitchen, as an obligation for American women in World War II. Building on the work of culinary historians and gender scholars, I argue that the government enlisted women as â kitchen citizens.â In contrast to the obligations of male military service, government propaganda, commercially-published cookbooks, community cookbooks, and agriculture extension pamphlets used understandings o...

  9. Fat, oil and grease reduction in commercial kitchen ductwork: a novel biological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mudie, S.; Vahdati, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has characterised emissions upon cooking a variety of foods in a commercial catering environment in terms of volume, particle size and composition. However, there has been limited focus on the deposition of solid grease in commercial kitchen ductwork, the sustainability of these systems and their implications on the heat recovery potential of kitchen ventilation extract air.\\ud \\ud This paper reviews the literature concerning grease, commonly referred to as Fat, Oils and Greas...

  10. Correlation between Students Academic Performance and Entrepreneurial Ability When Taught Saponification Reaction Using Kitchen Resources

    OpenAIRE

    NJA Cecilia OBI; NEJI Hope Amba

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined the correlation between chemistry student?s academic performance and entrepreneurial ability when told saponification reaction using kitchen resources. Saponification reaction was taught using kitchen resources such as, ashes from unripe plantain, ashes from cocoa pods peels, ashes from oil palm husks, vegetable oil, coconut oil and kernel oil. The sample comprised of 50 students from Community Secondary School, Akparabong in Ikom Local Government Area of Cross River State...

  11. Biogas performance from co-digestion of Taihu algae and kitchen wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Ming-Xing; Ruan, Wen-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-digestion mode improves the biogas yield of Taihu algae and kitchen wastes. • Neutral protease enzyme reached maximum in algae only group. • The activity of dehydrogenase enzyme in mixed substrate groups was higher than that of algae and kitchen wastes only group. - Abstract: Co-digestion of Taihu algae with high carbon content substrate can balance the nutrients in the fermentation process. In this study, optimal mixing ratio for co-digestion of Taihu algae and kitchen wastes were investigated in order to improve biogas production potential. The results indicated that the biogas yield reached 388.6 mL/gTS at C/N15:1 group, which was 1.29 and 1.18 times of algae and kitchen wastes only. The maximum concentration of VFA reached 4239 mg/L on 8th day in kitchen wastes group, which was 1.21 times of algae group. Neutral protease enzyme activity in algae group reached maximum of 904.2 μg/(gTS h), while dehydrogenase enzyme at C/N 15:1 group reached maximum of 3402.2 μgTF/(gTS h). The feasibility of adjusting the C/N with co-digestion of Taihu algae and kitchen wastes to increase biogas production was demonstrated. Remarkably, the C/N of 15:1 was found to be the most appropriate ratio

  12. Effect of Radiation Processing as an Integral Part of Safe Recycling Kitchen Waste for Poultry Feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.; Diaa El-Din, H.

    2004-01-01

    Kitchen wastes are relevant as a source of organic matter (i.e. protein, carbohydrate, minerals, and vitamins). Several microorganisms break down organic matter into methane, carbon dioxide, and other organic compounds containing sulfur and halogens. Kitchen wastes are valuable whereas they are too hazardous to be rejected into the environment without any attempt to recover and recycle them in a valuable form. Recycling kitchen waste as a feedstuff could have a considerable effect on reducing costs and solving some disposal problems. Treated such wastes with ionizing radiation can make an important contribution to minimize the risk of pathogens and the emission of greenhouse gases. The study was undertaken with two hundred and thirty kitchen waste samples collected from different restaurants in Cairo, Egypt. Effect of radiation treatment at 10 kGy on crude protein, amino acids profile, available lysine and the in-vitro digestibility of kitchen waste protein have been studied. The results suggest that radiation pasteurization of dried kitchen waste has a beneficial effect on recycling of such waste and permits waste to be included in poultry ration without any health hazard and nutritional problem. (author)

  13. Investigation of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among male kitchen workers in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Shankar; Murugesan, Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and risks among male kitchen workers in the catering industry. Data were collected with the help of the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire and by direct observations. In total, 114 male kitchen workers from various hostels of a college in South India were considered for this study. The average age and mean years of employment of the workers are 26.4 (SD 7.7) and 7.8 respectively. The statistical analysis carried out reveals that 67.5% of male kitchen workers reported MSDs during the past 12 months. The highest prevalence rate has been found in the lower back (65.8%) and shoulder region (62.3%). Among different categories of kitchen work analyzed, it is evident that chief cooks suffer more from MSDs (79.2%) than assistant cooks (74.3%) and kitchen aides (30.0%). Workers in the older group, i.e., ≥ 41 years, and workers with 6-10 years of experience suffer with higher risk of MSDs, i.e., 93.9% and 87.5%, respectively. The male kitchen workers who participated in this research were found to possess both MSDs and ergonomic hazards.

  14. A Field Study of Wall Furnace Venting and Coincident Exhaust Fan Usage in 16 Northern California Apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Less, Brennan D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brooks, Andrew [Association for Energy Affordability, Emeryville, CA (United States); Cohn, Sebastian [Association for Energy Affordability, Emeryville, CA (United States); Finn, Brian [Association for Energy Affordability, Emeryville, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    To inform efforts to improve combustion appliance testing in residential energy efficiency programs, we studied the frequency of coincident fan use and depressurization-induced downdrafting and spillage from atmospherically vented (i.e., natural draft) wall furnaces in airtight apartments. Indoor environmental conditions, heating appliance operation, use of exhaust fans, and cooking with stovetop or oven were monitored for approximately three weeks each in 16 apartment units in two buildings in Northern California. Apartments also were assessed using standard combustion appliance safety test methods and enhanced protocols. Monitoring occurred in February and March of 2016, with heating demand corresponding to 7.3 ± 0.5 heating degree-days at a 65ºF reference temperature. Most of the furnaces spilled combustion products when the apartments were depressurized in the “worst-case” challenge condition of all exhaust fans operating at their highest settings and all windows closed. Many also spilled under less challenging conditions (e.g., with kitchen exhaust fan on low and bathroom fan operating). On average, bathroom exhaust fans were operated 3.9% of monitored minutes (13.5% max), and cooking (burner or kitchen fan operation) occurred 4.6% of minutes (max 13.3%). Event lengths averaged 17 minutes (max 540) and 34 minutes (max 324), respectively. Their coincident operation averaged 0.34% of minutes (max 2.0%), with average event length of 13 minutes (max 92 minutes). This suggests that the operation of apartment units at or near the currently used worst-case challenge condition is quite rare. Wall furnace burners operated an average of 2.8% of minutes (max of 8.9%), with average burner cycle length of 14 minutes (max 162). Coincident bath fan use, cooking and wall furnace operation was very rare, occurring only a handful of times across all apartments. The highest rate was 0.075% of monitored minutes in one apartment, and the longest event length was 12 minutes

  15. Mass Balance Modeling for Electric Arc Furnace and Ladle Furnace System in Steelmaking Facility in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (I)smail Ekmek(c)i; Ya(s)ar Yetisken; (U)nal (C)amdali

    2007-01-01

    In the electric arc furnace (EAF) steel production processes, scrap steel is principally used as a raw material instead of iron ore. In the steelmaking process with EAF, scrap is first melted in the furnace and then the desired chemical composition of the steel can be obtained in a special furnace such as ladle furnace (LF). This kind of furnace process is used for the secondary refining of alloy steel. LF furnace offers strong heating fluxes and enables precise temperature control, thereby allowing for the addition of desired amounts of various alloying elements. It also provides outstanding desulfurization at high-temperature treatment by reducing molten steel fluxes and removing deoxidation products. Elemental analysis with mass balance modeling is important to know the precise amount of required alloys for the LF input with respect to scrap composition. In present study, chemical reactions with mass conservation law in EAF and LF were modeled altogether as a whole system and chemical compositions of the final steel alloy output can be obtained precisely according to different scrap compositions, alloying elements ratios, and other input amounts. Besides, it was found that the mass efficiency for iron element in the system is 95.93%. These efficiencies are calculated for all input elements as 8.45% for C, 30.31% for Si, 46.36% for Mn, 30.64% for P, 41.96% for S, and 69.79% for Cr, etc. These efficiencies provide valuable ideas about the amount of the input materials that are vanished or combusted for 100 kg of each of the input materials in the EAF and LF system.

  16. Cellulose nanofiber extraction from grass by a modified kitchen blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaito, Antonio Norio; Ikenaga, Koh; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose nanofibers have been used to reinforce polymers, delivering composites with strength that in some cases can be superior to that of engineering plastics. The extraction of nanofibers from plant fibers can be achieved through specialized equipment that demands high energy input, despite delivering extremely low yields. The high extraction cost confines the use of cellulose nanofibers to the laboratory and not for industrial applications. This study aims to extract nanofibers from grass by using a kitchen blender. Earlier studies have demonstrated that paper sheets made of blender-extracted nanofibers (after 5 min to 10 min of blending) have strengths on par with paper sheets made from commercially available cellulose nanofibers. By optimizing the design of the blender bottle, nanofibrillation can be achieved in shorter treatment times, reducing the energy consumption (in the present case, to half) and the overall extraction cost. The raw materials used can be extended to the residue straw of agricultural crops, as an alternative to the usual pulp fibers obtained from wood.

  17. Continuous feed, on-site composting of kitchen garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eung-Ju; Shin, Hang-Sik; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2002-04-01

    Kitchen garbage generated at a school cafeteria was treated and stabilised in a controlled on-site composting unit for volume reduction and on-site utilisation of processed garbage. The on-site composter was fed with the garbage on a daily basis during the two-months experimental period. Compost was not removed from the unit but was entirely reused as a bulking agent in order to minimise the need for additional bulking agent and compost handling. Performance of the composter tinder this condition was investigated. Most of the easily degradable organic matter (EDM) in the garbage was biodegraded rapidly, and the final product had a low content of EDM. Lipids, total sugar, and hemi-cellulose were degraded 96%, 81%, and 66% respectively. Free air space (FAS) was higher than 0.5 all the time, so accumulation of dry matter in the unit was not significant in reducing reaction efficiency. Other reaction parameters such as pH and MC were kept within a suitable range; however, it was advisable to maintain MC at over 46%. As a result, this method of operation was able to stabilise the garbage with low sawdust demand and little compost production.

  18. Kitchen knives and homicide: a systematic study of people charged with murder in the Lothian and Borders region of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, S H; Hughes, N S; Crichton, J H M

    2014-07-01

    A recent English study demonstrated high rates of kitchen knife use in homicides by mentally disordered offenders subject to independent inquiries. Everyone accused of homicide in Scotland undergoes psychiatric examination; all such evaluations in a Scottish region between 2006 and 2011 were systematically analysed to identify homicide characteristics. It was hypothesised that kitchen knives would be the commonest sharp instruments used, and would be associated with unplanned domestic homicide against known victims, with no independent association with mental disorder. Kitchen knives were used in 32 of 55 homicides: 94% of 34 sharp object homicides (p < 0.05). No independent association was found between kitchen knife use and planning, location, relationship, intoxication or mental disorder. Kitchen knife use in homicide appears to be a significant public health issue, and not only in the mentally disordered population. Research is recommended into kitchen knife use in non-fatal violence, and weapon control in populations at increased risk of knife violence.

  19. 7 CFR 3560.69 - Supplemental requirements for congregate housing and group homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 1924, subparts A and C. (b) Design criteria. Congregate housing and group homes must be designed to accommodate all special services that will be provided. (c) Services. Congregate housing and... access to the following services will be provided or made available: (i) A common kitchen in which to...

  20. Home in a Wheelchair: House Design Ideas for Easier Wheelchair Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasin, Joseph

    Intended to aid in the building or purchase of a home suitable for use by a handicapped individual in a wheelchair, the booklet provides detailed design guidelines. Included is information on the decision process, finances, ramps, a car shelter, doors communication devices, electrical needs, windows, elevators and chair lifts, the kitchen, an…

  1. Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, James P.; Johnson, Beverly E.; Beri, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The furnace has a hearth which rotates inside a stationary closed chamber and is supported therein on vertical cylindrical conduit which extends through the furnace floor and is supported by a single center bearing. The charge is deposited through the furnace roof on the rim of the hearth as it rotates and is moved toward the center of the hearth by rabbles. Externally generated hot gases are introduced into the furnace chamber below the hearth and rise through perforations in the hearth and up through the charge. Exhaust gases are withdrawn through the furnace roof. Treated charge drops from a center outlet on the hearth into the vertical cylindrical conduit which extends downwardly through the furnace floor to which it is also sealed.

  2. Application of Carbon Composite Bricks for Blast Furnace Hearth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Haibin; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Jianliang; Zhao, Yongan; Jiao, Kexin

    Traditional refractory materials for blast furnace hearth lining are mainly composed of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. However, these materials can't meet the demands for long service life design of blast furnaces. In this paper, a new refractory called carbon composite brick (CCB) was introduced, which combined the advantages of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. In this case, the resistance of the CCB against corrosion was equal to the ceramic cup and the thermal conductivity of the CCB was equal to carbon bricks. From the results of more than 20 blast furnaces, the CCB could be well used in small blast furnaces and large blast furnaces. In the bad condition of low grade burden and high smelting intensity, the CCB gave full play to the role of cooling system, and effectively resisted the erosion of hot metal to improve the service life of blast furnaces.

  3. The Nest Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickerill, Heath [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The purpose of the project was to build a competitive solar-powered house for the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2015 held in Irvine, California. The house, named the Nest Home, was an innovative design that works with the environment to meet the needs of the occupants, identified as a growing family. Reused materials were instrumental in the design. Three refurbished shipping containers composed the primary structure of the house, creating an open floor plan that defies common architecture for container homes. The exterior siding was made of deconstructed shipping pallets collected locally. Other recycled products included carpet composed of discarded fishing nets, denim batting made of recycled blue jeans that outperform traditional fiberglass insulation in sound proofing and thermal resistance, and kitchen cabinets that were purchased used and refinished. Collectively these elements formed a well-balanced blend of modern design, comfort, and sustainability. The house was Missouri University of Science and Technology’s sixth entry in the DOE Solar Decathlon. Missouri S&T has been invited to compete in six of the seven decathlons held, more than any other university worldwide. The house was brought back to Rolla after the Decathlon in California where it has been placed in its permanent location on the S&T campus.

  4. How do the work environment and work safety differ between the dry and wet kitchen foodservice facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hye-Ja; Kim, Jeong-Won; Ju, Se-Young; Go, Eun-Sun

    2012-08-01

    In order to create a worker-friendly environment for institutional foodservice, facilities operating with a dry kitchen system have been recommended. This study was designed to compare the work safety and work environment of foodservice between wet and dry kitchen systems. Data were obtained using questionnaires with a target group of 303 staff at 57 foodservice operations. Dry kitchen facilities were constructed after 2006, which had a higher construction cost and more finishing floors with anti-slip tiles, and in which employees more wore non-slip footwear than wet kitchen (76.7%). The kitchen temperature and muscular pain were the most frequently reported employees' discomfort factors in the two systems, and, in the wet kitchen, "noise of kitchen" was also frequently reported as a discomfort. Dietitian and employees rated the less slippery and slip related incidents in dry kitchens than those of wet kitchen. Fryer area, ware-washing area, and plate waste table were the slippery areas and the causes were different between the functional areas. The risk for current leakage was rated significantly higher in wet kitchens by dietitians. In addition, the ware-washing area was found to be where employees felt the highest risk of electrical shock. Muscular pain (72.2%), arthritis (39.1%), hard-of-hearing (46.6%) and psychological stress (47.0%) were experienced by employees more than once a month, particularly in the wet kitchen. In conclusion, the dry kitchen system was found to be more efficient for food and work safety because of its superior design and well managed practices.

  5. How do the work environment and work safety differ between the dry and wet kitchen foodservice facilities?

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hye-Ja; Kim, Jeong-Won; Ju, Se-Young; Go, Eun-Sun

    2012-01-01

    In order to create a worker-friendly environment for institutional foodservice, facilities operating with a dry kitchen system have been recommended. This study was designed to compare the work safety and work environment of foodservice between wet and dry kitchen systems. Data were obtained using questionnaires with a target group of 303 staff at 57 foodservice operations. Dry kitchen facilities were constructed after 2006, which had a higher construction cost and more finishing floors with ...

  6. How do the work environment and work safety differ between the dry and wet kitchen foodservice facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Won; Ju, Se-Young; Go, Eun-Sun

    2012-01-01

    In order to create a worker-friendly environment for institutional foodservice, facilities operating with a dry kitchen system have been recommended. This study was designed to compare the work safety and work environment of foodservice between wet and dry kitchen systems. Data were obtained using questionnaires with a target group of 303 staff at 57 foodservice operations. Dry kitchen facilities were constructed after 2006, which had a higher construction cost and more finishing floors with anti-slip tiles, and in which employees more wore non-slip footwear than wet kitchen (76.7%). The kitchen temperature and muscular pain were the most frequently reported employees' discomfort factors in the two systems, and, in the wet kitchen, "noise of kitchen" was also frequently reported as a discomfort. Dietitian and employees rated the less slippery and slip related incidents in dry kitchens than those of wet kitchen. Fryer area, ware-washing area, and plate waste table were the slippery areas and the causes were different between the functional areas. The risk for current leakage was rated significantly higher in wet kitchens by dietitians. In addition, the ware-washing area was found to be where employees felt the highest risk of electrical shock. Muscular pain (72.2%), arthritis (39.1%), hard-of-hearing (46.6%) and psychological stress (47.0%) were experienced by employees more than once a month, particularly in the wet kitchen. In conclusion, the dry kitchen system was found to be more efficient for food and work safety because of its superior design and well managed practices. PMID:22977692

  7. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-03-01

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste

  8. Predictive control of thermal state of blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbasova, T. A.; Filimonova, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The work describes the structure of the model for predictive control of the thermal state of a blast furnace. The proposed model contains the following input parameters: coke rate; theoretical combustion temperature, comprising: natural gas consumption, blasting temperature, humidity, oxygen, blast furnace cooling water; blast furnace gas utilization rate. The output parameter is the cast iron temperature. The results for determining the cast iron temperature were obtained following the identification using the Hammerstein-Wiener model. The result of solving the cast iron temperature stabilization problem was provided for the calculated values of process parameters of the target area of the respective blast furnace operation mode.

  9. Comprehensive Numerical Modeling of the Blast Furnace Ironmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenn; Tang, Guangwu; Wang, Jichao; Fu, Dong; Okosun, Tyamo; Silaen, Armin; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Blast furnaces are counter-current chemical reactors, widely utilized in the ironmaking industry. Hot reduction gases injected from lower regions of the furnace ascend, reacting with the descending burden. Through this reaction process, iron ore is reduced into liquid iron that is tapped from the furnace hearth. Due to the extremely harsh environment inside the blast furnace, it is difficult to measure or observe internal phenomena during operation. Through the collaboration between steel companies and the Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation, multiple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to simulate the complex multiphase reacting flow in the three regions of the furnace, the shaft, the raceway, and the hearth. The models have been used effectively to troubleshoot and optimize blast furnace operations. In addition, the CFD models have been integrated with virtual reality. An interactive virtual blast furnace has been developed for training purpose. This paper summarizes the developments and applications of blast furnace CFD models and the virtual blast furnace.

  10. Nitrogen oxide emissions from a kraft recovery furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prouty, A.L.; Stuart, R.C.; Caron, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions from a rebuilt kraft recovery furnace slightly exceeded the specified limit of 1.1 lb/ton (0.55 kg/metric ton) of black-liquor solids. Mill trials were undertaken to determine whether NOx emissions could be minimized by modifying furnace operation. NOx emissions increased when secondary air was shifted to tertiary ports. NOx emissions fell when the amounts of primary and total air were decreased, but this increased emissions of other pollutants. After demonstrating that best operation of the furnace could not meet the permit with an emissions limit that matched the furnace's performance at best operation

  11. A review of temperature measurement in the steel reheat furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martocci, A.P.; Mihalow, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    The incentive for conducting research and development on reheat furnaces is substantial; the domestic steel industry spent approximately one billion dollars on fuel in reheat furnaces in 1981. Bethlehem Steel Corp. spent /145 million of that total, and neither figure includes fuel consumed in soaking pits or annealing furnaces. If the authors set a goal to save 10% of these annual fuel costs, that translates into /100 million for the domestic steel industry and /14.5 million for Bethlehem Steel. These large sums of money are significant incentives. The purpose of this paper is to review the historical heating practices and equipment at steel reheat furnaces along with current practices and instrumentation

  12. Continuous denitration device using a microwave furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hajime

    1982-04-01

    A continuous denitration device is described that enables to obtain dried U or Pu dioxide or a mixture of these from a solution of uranyl or plutonium nitrate or a mixed solution of these by irradiation with microwaves. This device allows uranyl or plutonium nitrate to crystallize and the resulting crystals to be separated from the solution. A belt conveyer carries the crystals to a microwave heating furnace for denitration. Approximately 2.4 kg dried cake of U dioxide per hour is obtained [fr

  13. Oil injection into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil

  14. Home interventions are effective at decreasing indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, L M; Diette, G B; Scott, M; McCormack, M C; Matsui, E C; Curtin-Brosnan, J; Williams, D L; Kidd-Taylor, A; Shea, M; Breysse, P N; Hansel, N N

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), a by-product of combustion produced by indoor gas appliances such as cooking stoves, is associated with respiratory symptoms in those with obstructive airways disease. We conducted a three-armed randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing indoor NO2 concentrations in homes with unvented gas stoves: (i) replacement of existing gas stove with electric stove; (ii) installation of ventilation hood over existing gas stove; and (iii) placement of air purifiers with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and carbon filters. Home inspection and NO2 monitoring were conducted at 1 week pre-intervention and at 1 week and 3 months post-intervention. Stove replacement resulted in a 51% and 42% decrease in median NO2 concentration at 3 months of follow-up in the kitchen and bedroom, respectively (P = 0.01, P = 0.01); air purifier placement resulted in an immediate decrease in median NO2 concentration in the kitchen (27%, P kitchen (20%, P = 0.05). NO2 concentrations in the kitchen and bedroom did not significantly change following ventilation hood installation. Replacing unvented gas stoves with electric stoves or placement of air purifiers with HEPA and carbon filters can decrease indoor NO2 concentrations in urban homes. Several combustion sources unique to the residential indoor environment, including gas stoves, produce nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and higher NO2 concentrations, are associated with worse respiratory morbidity in people with obstructive lung disease. A handful of studies have modified the indoor environment by replacing unvented gas heaters; this study, to our knowledge, is the first randomized study to target unvented gas stoves. The results of this study show that simple home interventions, including replacement of an unvented gas stove with an electric stove or placement of HEPA air purifiers with carbon filters, can significantly decrease indoor NO2 concentrations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A

  15. Multitargeting by turmeric, the golden spice: From kitchen to clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Subash C; Sung, Bokyung; Kim, Ji Hye; Prasad, Sahdeo; Li, Shiyou; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2013-09-01

    Although much has been published about curcumin, which is obtained from turmeric, comparatively little is known about turmeric itself. Turmeric, a golden spice obtained from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa, has been used to give color and taste to food preparations since ancient times. Traditionally, this spice has been used in Ayurveda and folk medicine for the treatment of such ailments as gynecological problems, gastric problems, hepatic disorders, infectious diseases, and blood disorders. Modern science has provided the scientific basis for the use of turmeric against such disorders. Various chemical constituents have been isolated from this spice, including polyphenols, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenoids, sterols, and alkaloids. Curcumin, which constitutes 2-5% of turmeric, is perhaps the most-studied component. Although some of the activities of turmeric can be mimicked by curcumin, other activities are curcumin-independent. Cell-based studies have demonstrated the potential of turmeric as an antimicrobial, insecticidal, larvicidal, antimutagenic, radioprotector, and anticancer agent. Numerous animal studies have shown the potential of this spice against proinflammatory diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, depression, diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. At the molecular level, this spice has been shown to modulate numerous cell-signaling pathways. In clinical trials, turmeric has shown efficacy against numerous human ailments including lupus nephritis, cancer, diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, acne, and fibrosis. Thus, a spice originally common in the kitchen is now exhibiting activities in the clinic. In this review, we discuss the chemical constituents of turmeric, its biological activities, its molecular targets, and its potential in the clinic. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Consumers' Use of Personal Electronic Devices in the Kitchen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Amy M; Bazaco, Michael C; Chen, Yi

    2018-02-23

    Smartphones, tablets, and other personal electronic devices have become ubiquitous in Americans' daily lives. These devices are used by people throughout the day, including while preparing food. For example, a device may be used to look at recipes and therefore be touched multiple times during food preparation. Previous research has indicated that cell phones can harbor bacteria, including opportunistic human pathogens such as Staphylococcus and Klebsiella spp. This investigation was conducted with data from the 2016 Food Safety Survey (FSS) and from subsequent focus groups to determine the frequency with which consumers use personal electronic devices in the kitchen while preparing food, the types of devices used, and hand washing behaviors after handling these devices. The 2016 FSS is the seventh wave of a repeated cross-sectional survey conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The goal of the FSS is to evaluate U.S. adult consumer attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge about food safety. The FSS included 4,169 adults that were contacted using a dual-frame (land line and cell phone interviews) random-digit-dial sampling process. The personal electronics module was the first of three food safety topics discussed by each of eight consumer focus groups, which were convened in four U.S. cities in fall 2016. Results from the 2016 FSS revealed that of those individuals who use personal electronic devices while cooking, only about one third reported washing hands after touching the device and before continuing cooking. This proportion is significantly lower than that for self-reported hand washing behaviors after touching risky food products such as raw eggs, meat, chicken, or fish. Results from the focus groups highlight the varied usage of these devices during food preparation and the related strategies consumers are using to incorporate personal electric devices into their cooking routines.

  17. Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program, China: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanran; Yao, Xiaoxun; Gu, Lan

    2014-09-01

    Mondelēz Hope Kitchen is a community program initiated jointly in 2009 by Mondelēz International and the China Youth Development Foundation (CYDF). In response to the urgent needs of students, parents, and teachers at primary and middle schools in poverty-stricken rural areas of China, the program addresses the complex and intertwined issues of undernutrition and obesity. By funding both kitchen equipment and teacher training in health and nutrition, the Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program improves the capacity of schools to supply healthy meals, helping students to access safe and nutritious foods and, ultimately, to improve their nutritional status and health. In 2011, the Mondelēz International Foundation awarded CYDF a grant to formally assess the impact of the original program design. The Mondelēz International Foundation encouraged CYDF and six other healthy lifestyles-focused community partners around the world to participate in this program evaluation workshop. The goals of this study were to describe the logic model of the Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program, summarize a recent evaluation of the Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program, and conduct a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis to identify Critical Quality Control Points (CCPs) and a suite of impact indicators. The findings were presented at the Healthy Lifestyles Program Evaluation Workshop held in Granada, Spain, 13-14 September 2013, under the auspices of the Mondelēz International Foundation. The authors developed the program's PIP diagram based on deliberations involving the program managers and Director and consulting the "Hope Kitchen Management Rules "and "Hope Kitchen Inspection and Acceptance Report". The PIP analyses identified three CCPs: buy-in from schools, kitchen infrastructure, and changes in teachers' knowledge of nutrition after training. In addition, changes in children's knowledge of nutrition will be added to the core suite of impact evaluation indicators that also includes children

  18. Reactor as furnace and reactor as lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldanskii, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    There are presented general characteristics of the following ways of transforming of nuclear energy released in reactors into chemical : ordinary way (i.e. trough the heat, mechanical energy and electricity); chemonuclear synthesis ; use of high-temperature fuel elements (reactor as furnace); use of the mixed nγ-radiation of reactors; use of the radiation loops; radiation - photochemical synthesis (reactor as lamp). Advantage and disadvantages of all above variants are compared. The yield of the primary product of fixation of nitrogen (nitric oxide NO) in reactor with the high-temperature (above ca. 1900degC) fuel elements (reactor-furnace) can exceed W ∼ 200 kg per gram of burned uranium. For the latter variant (reactor-lamp) the yield of chemical products can reach W ∼ 60 kg. per gram of uranium. Such values of W are close to or even strongly exceed the yields of chemical products for other abovementioned variants and - what is particularly important - are not connected to the necessity of archscrupulous removal of radioactive contamination of products. (author)

  19. Energy Efficiency Model for Induction Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Asit Kr

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a system of a solar induction furnace unit was design to find out a new solution for the existing AC power consuming heating process through Supervisory control and data acquisition system. This unit can be connected directly to the DC system without any internal conversion inside the device. The performance of the new system solution is compared with the existing one in terms of power consumption and losses. This work also investigated energy save, system improvement, process control model in a foundry induction furnace heating framework corresponding to PV solar power supply. The results are analysed for long run in terms of saving energy and integrated process system. The data acquisition system base solar foundry plant is an extremely multifaceted system that can be run over an almost innumerable range of operating conditions, each characterized by specific energy consumption. Determining ideal operating conditions is a key challenge that requires the involvement of the latest automation technologies, each one contributing to allow not only the acquisition, processing, storage, retrieval and visualization of data, but also the implementation of automatic control strategies that can expand the achievement envelope in terms of melting process, safety and energy efficiency.

  20. Emission spectroscopy for coal-fired cyclone furnace diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehrmeyer, J.A.; Boll, D.E.; Smith, R. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-08-01

    Using a spectrograph and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, ultraviolet and visible light emission spectra were obtained from a coal-burning electric utility's cyclone furnaces operating at either fuel-rich or fuel-lean conditions. The aim of this effort is to identify light emission signals that can be related to a cyclone furnace's operating condition in order to adjust its air/fuel ratio to minimize pollutant production. Emission spectra at the burner and outlet ends of cyclone furnaces were obtained. Spectra from all cyclone burners show emission lines for the trace elements Li, Na, K, and Rb, as well as the molecular species OH and CaOH. The Ca emission line is detected at the burner end of both the fuel-rich and fuellean cyclone furnaces but is not detected at the outlet ends of either furnace type. Along with the disappearance of Ca is a concomitant increase in the CaOH signal at the outlet end of both types of furnaces. The OH signal strength is in general stronger when viewing at the burner end rather than the exhaust end of both the fuel-rich and fuel-lean cyclone furnaces, probably due to high, non-equilibrium amounts of OH present inside the furnace. Only one molecular species was detected that could be used as a measure of air/fuel ratio: MgOH. It was detected at the burner end of fuel-rich cyclone furnaces but not detected in fuel-lean cyclone furnaces. More direct markers of air/fuel ratio, such as CO and 02 emission, were not detected, probably due to the generally weak nature of molecular emission relative to ambient blackbody emission present in the cyclone furnaces, even at ultraviolet wavelengths.

  1. Ethanol production from kitchen waste using the flocculating yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain KF-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yue-Qin; Liu, Kai; An, Ming-Zhe; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Koike, Yoji [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., 1-7-7 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Wu, Xiao-Lei [Department of Energy and Resources Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A process for producing ethanol from kitchen waste was developed in this study. The process consists of freshness preservation of the waste, saccharification of the sugars in the waste, continuous ethanol fermentation of the saccharified liquid, and anaerobic treatment of the saccharification residue and the stillage. Spraying lactic acid bacteria (LCB) on the kitchen waste kept the waste fresh for over 1 week. High glucose recovery (85.5%) from LCB-sprayed waste was achieved after saccharification using Nagase N-40 glucoamylase. The resulting saccharified liquid was used directly for ethanol fermentation, without the addition of any nutrients. High ethanol productivity (24.0 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}) was obtained when the flocculating yeast strain KF-7 was used in a continuous ethanol fermentation process at a dilution rate of 0.8 h{sup -1}. The saccharification residue was mixed with stillage and treated in a thermophilic anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR); a VTS loading rate of 6 g l{sup -1} d{sup -1} with 72% VTS digestion efficiency was achieved. Using this process, 30.9 g ethanol, and 65.2 l biogas with 50% methane, was produced from 1 kg of kitchen waste containing 118.0 g total sugar. Thus, energy in kitchen waste can be converted to ethanol and methane, which can then be used as fuels, while simultaneously treating kitchen waste. (author)

  2. Ethanol production from kitchen waste using the flocculating yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain KF-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.-Q.; Koike, Yoji; Liu Kai; An, M.-Z.; Morimura, Shigeru; Wu Xiaolei; Kida, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from kitchen waste was developed in this study. The process consists of freshness preservation of the waste, saccharification of the sugars in the waste, continuous ethanol fermentation of the saccharified liquid, and anaerobic treatment of the saccharification residue and the stillage. Spraying lactic acid bacteria (LCB) on the kitchen waste kept the waste fresh for over 1 week. High glucose recovery (85.5%) from LCB-sprayed waste was achieved after saccharification using Nagase N-40 glucoamylase. The resulting saccharified liquid was used directly for ethanol fermentation, without the addition of any nutrients. High ethanol productivity (24.0 g l -1 h -1 ) was obtained when the flocculating yeast strain KF-7 was used in a continuous ethanol fermentation process at a dilution rate of 0.8 h -1 . The saccharification residue was mixed with stillage and treated in a thermophilic anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR); a VTS loading rate of 6 g l -1 d -1 with 72% VTS digestion efficiency was achieved. Using this process, 30.9 g ethanol, and 65.2 l biogas with 50% methane, was produced from 1 kg of kitchen waste containing 118.0 g total sugar. Thus, energy in kitchen waste can be converted to ethanol and methane, which can then be used as fuels, while simultaneously treating kitchen waste

  3. Modeling of indoor/outdoor fungi relationships in forty-four homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    From April through October 1994, a study was conducted in the Moline, Illinois-Bettendorf, Iowa area to measure bioaerosol concentrations in 44 homes housing a total of 54 asthmatic individuals. Air was sampled 3 to 10 times at each home over a period of seven months. A total of 852 pairs of individual samples were collected indoors at up to three locations (basement, kitchen, bedroom, or living room) and outside within two meters of each house.

  4. Open fireplace furnace as an adequate heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terbrack, E.

    The fireplace furnace is a furnace for the open fireplace. It is connected to the existing fuel-oil or gas central heating and is used for house heating and warm water preparation when the fire in the fireplace is on. It combines the romanticism of the open fireplace with the necessity of saving fuel oil and gas, ensuring heat supply.

  5. Liquid flow in the hearth of the blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauje, P.; Nicolle, R.; Steiler, J.M.; Venturini, M.J.; Libralesso, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The hearth of a blast furnace is poorly known. Our approach to characterize the hearth involves classical methods of chemical engineering, assessing the flow conditions by means of radioactive tracer techniques. The most important feature of this study is to combine measurements on industrial blast furnaces, experiments on a small scale model and flow model. calculations. 8 refs., 16 figs

  6. Design and Construction of Oil Fired Compact Crucible Furnace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a prelude to necessary industrialization, foundries are springing up in various parts of Nigeria and most of these foundries rely on oil fired furnaces in their operation. This study is aimed at developing an oil fired crucible furnace from locally sourced materials for foundries in Nigeria. In our design, a new system of fuel ...

  7. Modeling and Simulation of Claus Unit Reaction Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Pahlavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reaction furnace is the most important part of the Claus sulfur recovery unit and its performance has a significant impact on the process efficiency. Too many reactions happen in the furnace and their kinetics and mechanisms are not completely understood; therefore, modeling reaction furnace is difficult and several works have been carried out on in this regard so far. Equilibrium models are commonly used to simulate the furnace, but the related literature states that the outlet of furnace is not in equilibrium and the furnace reactions are controlled by kinetic laws; therefore, in this study, the reaction furnace is simulated by a kinetic model. The predicted outlet temperature and concentrations by this model are compared with experimental data published in the literature and the data obtained by PROMAX V2.0 simulator. The results show that the accuracy of the proposed kinetic model and PROMAX simulator is almost similar, but the kinetic model used in this paper has two importance abilities. Firstly, it is a distributed model and can be used to obtain the temperature and concentration profiles along the furnace. Secondly, it is a dynamic model and can be used for analyzing the transient behavior and designing the control system.

  8. Estimation of slagging in furnaces; Kuonaavuuden ennustaminen kivihiilen poelypoltossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, T; Jaeaeskelaeinen, K; Oeini, J; Koskiahde, A; Jokiniemi, J; Pyykkoenen, J [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Understanding and estimation of slagging in furnaces is essential in the design of new power plants with high steam values or in modifications like low-NO{sub x} retrofits in existing furnaces. Major slagging yields poor efficiency, difficult operation and high maintenance costs of the plant. The aim of the project is to develop a computational model for slagging in pulverized coal combustion. The model is based on Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) analysis of mineral composition of the coal and physical models for behaviour of minerals inside a furnace. The analyzed mineral particles are classified to five composition classes and distributed to calculational coal particles if internal minerals of coal. The calculational coal particles and the external minerals are traced in the furnace to find out the behaviour of minerals inside the furnace. If the particle tracing indicates that the particle hits the heat transfer surface of the furnace the viscosity of the particle is determined to see if particle is sticky. The model will be implemented to 3D computational fluid dynamics based furnace simulation environment Ardemus which predicts the fluid dynamics, heat transfer and combustion in a furnace. (orig.)

  9. Development of a cylindrical gas-fired furnace for reycling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the development of a cylindrical gas-fired furnace, which could be used for recycling aluminum in small-scale foundries in Nigeria. The crucible, combustion chamber, suspension shaft and bearings were appropriately sized. The furnace chamber was 410 mm high and 510 mm diameter and had a ...

  10. Granulated blast furnace slag – A boon for foundry industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Silica sand; Blast Furnace Slag; Mould properties; Ferrous and nonferrous ... raw material for the production of cast components in foundry industries. ... applications for conserving natural resources and reduce the cost of the raw .... in an elevated temperature melting furnace with temperature values of 750 to.

  11. CHARCOAL PACKED FURNACE FOR LOW-TECH CHARRING OF BONE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    A low-tech furnace for charring of raw bone using char coal is developed and tested. The furnace consists of a standard oil drum, fitted with simple materials as available in every market in small towns in developing counties. 80 kg of raw bone and 6 kg of charcoal are used for production of 50 kg...

  12. Non-polluting steam generators with fluidized-bed furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, H [Deutsche Babcock A.G., Oberhausen (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-07-01

    The author reports on a 35 MW steam generator with hard coal fluidized-bed furnace a planned 35 MW steam generator with flotation-dirt fluidized-bed furnace, and on planned steam generators for fluidized-bed firing of hard coal up to a steam power of about 200 MW.

  13. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  14. Evaluating return on investment in a school based health promotion and prevention program: the investment multiplier for the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, Simon; Dawber, James; Yeatman, Heather; Quinsey, Karen; Morris, Darcy

    2014-08-01

    Successful health promotion and disease prevention strategies in complex community settings such as primary schools rely on acceptance and ownership across community networks. Assessing multiplier impacts from investment on related community activity over time are suggested as key alongside evidence of program health effects on targeted groups of individuals in gauging community network engagement and ownership, dynamic impacts, and program long term success and return on investment. An Australian primary school based health promotion and prevention strategy, the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program (SAKGNP), which has been providing garden and kitchen classes for year 3-6 students since 2008, was evaluated between 2011 and 2012. Returns on Australian Federal Government investment for school infrastructure grants up to $60,000 are assessed up to and beyond a two year mutual obligation period with: (i) Impacts on student lifestyle behaviours, food choices and eating habits surveyed across students (n = 491 versus 260) and parents (n = 300 versus 234) in 28 SAKGNP and 14 matched schools, controlling for school and parent level confounders and triangulated with SAKGNP pre-post analysis; (ii) Multiplier impacts of investment on related school and wider community activity up to two years; and (iii) Evidence of continuation and program evolution in schools observed beyond two years. SAKGNP schools showed improved student food choices (p = 0.024) and kitchen lifestyle behaviour (p = 0.019) domains compared to controls and in pre-post analysis where 20.0% (58/290) reported eating fruit and vegetables more often and 18.6% (54/290) preparing food at home more often. No significant differences were found in case control analysis for eating habits or garden lifestyle behaviour domains, although 32.3% of children helped more in the garden (91/278) and 15.6% (45/289) ate meals together more often in pre-post analysis. The multiplier impact on total

  15. Waste recycling: utilization of coffee grounds and kitchen waste in vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi, A J; Noor, Z M

    2009-01-01

    Vermicomposting using Lumbricus rubellus for 49 days was conducted after 21 days of pre-composting. Three different combination of treatments were prepared with eight replicates for each treatment namely cow dung: kitchen waste in 30:70 ratio (T(1)), cow dung: coffee grounds in 30:70 ratio (T(2)), and cow dung: kitchen waste: coffee grounds in 30:35:35 ratio (T(3)). The multiplication of earthworms in terms of numbers and weight were measured at the end of vermicomposting. Consequently, only T(2) showed significant increase (from it initial stage) compared to other treatments. The presence of coffee grounds in T(2) and T(3) showed higher percentage of nutrient elements in vermicompost produced. The data reveal that coffee grounds can be decomposed through vermicomposting and help to enhance the quality of vermicompost produced rather than sole use of kitchen waste in vermicomposting.

  16. Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe 3 O 4 . Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe 2 O 3 . Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs

  17. Orthogonal design on range hood with air curtain and its effects on kitchen environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xing; Xi, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Conventional range hoods cannot effectively prevent the oil fumes containing cooking-induced harmful material from escaping into the kitchen Air curtains and guide plates have been used in range hoods to reduce the escape of airborne emissions and heat, thereby improving the kitchen environment and the cook's degree of comfort. In this article, numerical simulations are used to study the effects of the jet velocity of an air curtain, the jet angle of the air curtain, the width of the jet slot, the area of the guide plate, and the exhaust rate of the range hood on the perceived temperature, the perceived concentration of oil fumes, the release temperature of oil fumes, and the concentration of escaped oil fumes in a kitchen. The orthogonal experiment results show that the exhaust rate of the range hood is the main factor influencing the fumes concentration and the temperature distribution in the kitchen. For the range hood examined in the present study, the optimum values of the exhaust rate, the jet velocity of the air curtain, the jet angle of the air curtain, the width of the jet slot, and the area of the guide plate are 10.5 m(3)/min, 1.5 m/s, -5°, 4 mm, and 0.22 m(2), respectively, based on the results of the parametric study. In addition, the velocity field, temperature field, and oil fumes concentration field in the kitchen using the proposed range hood with the air curtain and guide plate are analyzed for those parameters. The study's results provide significant information needed for improving the kitchen environment.

  18. Improving flow patterns and spillage characteristics of a box-type commercial kitchen hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Han, Meng-Ji; Priyambodo, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    A conventional box-type commercial kitchen hood and its improved version (termed the "IQV commercial kitchen hood") were studied using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique and tracer-gas (sulfur hexafluoride) detection methods. The laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique qualitatively revealed the flow field of the hood and the areas apt for leakages of hood containment. The tracer-gas concentration detection method measured the quantitative leakage levels of the hood containment. The oil mists that were generated in the conventional box-type commercial kitchen hood leaked significantly into the environment from the areas near the front edges of ceiling and side walls. Around these areas, the boundary-layer separation occurred, inducing highly unsteady and turbulent recirculating flow, and leading to spillages of hood containment due to inappropriate aerodynamic design at the front edges of the ceiling and side walls. The tracer-gas concentration measurements on the conventional box-type commercial kitchen hood showed that the sulfur hexafluoride concentrations detected at the hood face attained very large values on an order of magnitude about 10(3)-10(4) ppb. By combining the backward-offset narrow suction slot, deflection plates, and quarter-circular arcs at the hood entrance, the IQV commercial kitchen hood presented a flow field containing four backward-inclined cyclone flow structures. The oil mists generated by cooking were coherently confined in these upward-rising cyclone flow structures and finally exhausted through the narrow suction slot. The tracer-gas concentration measurements on the IQV commercial kitchen hood showed that the order of magnitude of the sulfur hexafluoride concentrations detected at the hood face is negligibly small--only about 10(0) ppb across the whole hood face.

  19. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  20. A community kitchen in the Kamanves slum, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, E R; Holkar, V M

    1978-01-01

    The Kamanves slum in the town of Mijar (Maharashtra State) is an impoverished area of about 2500 people, most living in 1-room mud-walled houses. About 70% have either no or only nominal education, and more than half are only informally or temporarily employed. The average income amounts to less than $0.85 per day for an average family of 5. In 1974 a group of Kamanves residents formed a committee, backed by the Director of the Department of Community Health of the Miraj Medical Center, to try to alleviate some of the area's problems. Through community discussions, the 1st priority of the committee was held to be to provide for the nutritional needs of the children (about 35% of the population). The group tried to raise money internally, but when this was seen to be impossible, funds were sought from outside (Terre des Hommes in Germany, and the National Committee for People's Self Development of the United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.). Steps were taken to build an extension of the local school, and the local school board was used as the legal base for the organization of a public trust, with its own bank account and constitution (later revised to cover additional projects). The 1st projects were provision of a morning meal for some 150 children under 5, and an evening meal for older children, with special supplementary foods for those suffering from nutritional diseases. The meal includes rice and meat twice a week and fruit 3 times a week. Health care is provided through monitoring of weight, regular medical examinations, treatment of worms and minor ailments. Personal hygiene is taught. A very small fee is charged for each child weekly. Additional projects later included a communal meal for the very poorest adults and expansion of the kitchen (run on a rotating basis by community mothers under management of specially trained women) to help feed the poorer patients at the Miraj Medical Center (this project will undergo evaluation by the community to see if

  1. Chemistry in the kitchen. Making ground meat more healthful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, D M; Oliva, C; Tercyak, A

    1991-01-10

    The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends a diet containing less than 30 percent of calories in the form of fat, less than 10 percent in the form of saturated fat, and less than 300 mg of cholesterol per day. Since Americans' diets generally exceed these recommendations, we wished to find an easy kitchen method to reduce substantially saturated fat and cholesterol in ground meat. Raw ground meat was heated in vegetable oil and rinsed with boiling water to extract fat and cholesterol. The fat-free broth was recombined with the meat to restore flavor. The amounts of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol in the meat after extraction were compared with the amounts in meat cooked as patties and in stir-fried, rinsed meat. When raw ground beef containing 9.6 to 20.8 percent fat was cooked as patties and the fat poured off, 6 to 17 percent of the fat and 1.3 to 4.3 percent of the cholesterol were lost. In stir-fried, rinsed ground beef, 23 to 59 percent of the fat and 9.0 to 18.8 percent of the cholesterol were lost. When vegetable oil was used to extract fat and cholesterol from beef containing 20.7 percent fat, a mean (+/- SD) of 67.7 +/- 1.6 percent of the fat and 39.2 +/- 5.1 percent of the cholesterol were lost. The differences between conventionally cooked meat and meat prepared by the extraction of fat were significant (P less than 0.001). An average of 43 percent (range, 38 to 49) of cholesterol was extracted from a wide variety of ground meats. Although conventional cooking produced no change in fatty-acid composition as compared with raw meat, our extraction process greatly increased the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat, from 1.32 in conventionally cooked meat to 2.92 to 4.56 in meat after extraction. Extraction resulted in the loss of 72 to 87 percent of saturated fat. This method produces a tasty meat product that is much lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than conventionally cooked meat, and that can be used in sauces, soups, and

  2. 77 FR 82 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the... Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the...

  3. 77 FR 27029 - Certain Kitchen Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-942] Certain Kitchen Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of... certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic of China, covering the review...

  4. 78 FR 21594 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative... countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic of...\\ See Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

  5. 78 FR 5414 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China; 2010-2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China; 2010-2011; Final Results of Antidumping Duty... of the antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's... September 1, 2010, through August 31, 2011. \\1\\ See Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the...

  6. 78 FR 78815 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the... on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the PRC.\\1\\ On September 30, 2013, the...

  7. 77 FR 21734 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial Rescission of First... duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

  8. 76 FR 27990 - Certain Kitchen Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Racks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of... countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic of China... the Countervailing Duty Administrative Review of Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the...

  9. Cross-contamination in the kitchen: effect of hygiene measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.; Nauta, M.J.; Jonge, de R.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To determine the effect of hygiene measures on cross-contamination of Campylobacter jejuni at home and to select a safe tracer organism for C. jejuni. Methods and Results: Comparative tests were conducted with nonpathogenic Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus casei and L. casei was chosen as

  10. Recycling of electric arc furnace dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques Sobrinho, Vicente de Paulo Ferreira; Oliveira, Jose Roberto de; Tenorio, Jorge Alberto Soares; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to study the process of incorporation of the metal iron in electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), from a steel mill producing long steel by liquid iron in addition to the changing temperature of 1400 degrees Celsius of EAFD 'as received', the percentage of EAFD to be added (5, 10 and 20% of initial weight of sample pig iron) and the time of withdrawal of the sample of pig iron and slag (30 minutes after the addition of EAFD). Previously, the EAFD will be characterized using the following techniques: chemical analysis, size analysis, specific surface area, Xray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis. . After characterization, the EAFD will be added to the bath of liquid pig iron. It is expected that the results obtained at the end of the research allow the evaluation of the iron metal incorporation of EAFD in pig iron bath. (author)

  11. Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Nursing Homes Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... Reason For Living in A Nursing Home Some type of disability with activities of daily living (ADLs) ...

  12. Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are part of home healthcare agencies. You may benefit from home care if you are dealing with ... it will trigger an emergency response or checkup phone call. Newer technologies ... or mobile testing technology (home diagnostics), including x-rays and ...

  13. Analysis on carbon dioxide emission reduction during the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology of sludge and kitchen waste: Taking kitchen waste synergetic digestion project in Zhenjiang as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qia; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-11-01

    With the popularization of municipal sewage treatment facilities, the improvement of sewage treatment efficiency and the deepening degree of sewage treatment, the sludge production of sewage plant has been sharply increased. Carbon emission during the process of municipal sewage treatment and disposal has become one of the important sources of greenhouse gases that cause greenhouse effect. How to reduce carbon dioxide emissions during sewage treatment and disposal process is of great significance for reducing air pollution. Kitchen waste and excess sludge, as two important organic wastes, once uses anaerobic synergetic digestion technology in the treatment process can on the one hand, avoid instability of sludge individual anaerobic digestion, improve sludge degradation rate and marsh gas production rate, and on the other hand, help increase the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to a great extent. The paper uses material balance method, analyzes and calculates the carbon dioxide emissions from kitchen waste and sludge disposed by the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology, compares the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology with traditional sludge sanitary landfill technology and works out the carbon dioxide emission reductions after synergetic digestion. It takes the kitchen waste and sludge synergetic digestion engineering project of Zhenjiang city in Jiangsu province as an example, makes material balance analysis using concrete data and works out the carbon dioxide daily emission reductions. The paper analyzes the actual situation of emission reduction by comparing the data, and found that the synergetic digestion of kitchen waste and sludge can effectively reduce the carbon dioxide emission, and the reduction is obvious especially compared with that of sludge sanitary landfill, which has a certain effect on whether to promote the use of the technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of indoor air quality at residential homes in Hong Kong - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shun Cheng Lee; Waiming Li; Chiohang Ao

    2002-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been a matter of public concern in Hong Kong. Recently, the Hong Kong Government has recognized the potential risk and problems related to indoor air pollution, and it is striving to establish IAQ objectives for different types of indoor environments. This study attempts to provide more information about the present IAQ of local resident flats. Air pollutants measured in this study included carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), respirable suspended particulate matter (PM 10 ), formaldehyde (HCHO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and airborne bacteria. The results of this study indicate that the 8-h average concentrations of CO 2 and PM 10 in the domestic kitchens investigated were 14% and 67% higher than those measured in the living rooms. The indoor air pollution caused by PM 10 was more serious in domestic kitchens than in living rooms as almost all of the kitchens investigated had higher indoor levels of PM 10 . The majority of the domestic living rooms and kitchens studied had average concentrations of airborne bacteria higher than 500CFU/m 3 . The mean total bacteria count recorded in kitchens was greater than that obtained in living rooms by 23%. In homes where occupants smoke, the negative impact of benzene, toluene and m,p-xylene on the IAQ was greatly enhanced. The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stove has more significant impact on indoor VOCs than the use of cooking stoves with natural gas as cooking fuel. (Author)

  15. Air Quality and Acute Respiratory Illness in Biomass Fuel using homes in Bagamoyo, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nakai

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory Diseases are public health concern worldwide. The diseases have been associated with air pollution especially indoor air pollution from biomass fuel burning in developing countries. However, researches on pollution levels and on association of respiratory diseases with biomass fuel pollution are limited. A study was therefore undertaken to characterize the levels of pollutants in biomass fuel using homes and examine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI disease in Nianjema village in Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Pollution was assessed by measuring PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations in kitchen, living room and outdoors. ARI prevalence was assessed by use of questionnaire which gathered health information for all family members under the study. Results showed that PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations were highest in the kitchen and lowest outdoors. Kitchen concentrations were highest in the kitchen located in the living room for all pollutants except CO. Family size didn’t have effect on the levels measured in kitchens. Overall ARI prevalence for cooks and children under age 5 making up the exposed group was 54.67% with odds ratio (OR of 5.5; 95% CI 3.6 to 8.5 when compared with unexposed men and non-regular women cooks. Results of this study suggest an association between respiratory diseases and exposure to domestic biomass fuel smoke, but further studies with improved design are needed to confirm the association.

  16. Pollutant Concentrations and Emission Rates from Scripted Natural Gas Cooking Burner Use in Nine Northern California Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lorenzetti, David M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    METHODS: Combustion pollutant concentrations were measured during the scripted operation of natural gas cooking burners in nine homes. In addition to a base condition of closed windows, no forced air unit (FAU) use, and no mechanical exhaust, additional experiments were conducted while operating an FAU and/or vented range hood. Test homes included a 26m2 two-room apartment, a 134m2 first floor flat, and seven detached homes of 117–226m2. There were four single-story, four two-story and one 1.5 story homes. Cooktop use entailed boiling and simmering activities, using water as a heat sink. Oven and broiler use also were simulated. Time-resolved concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen oxides (NOX), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particles with diameters of 6 nm or larger (PN), carbon monoxide (CO), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were measured in the kitchen (K) and bedroom area (BR) of each home. CO2, NO, NO2, and PN data from sequential experiments were analyzed to quantify the contribution of burner use to the highest 1h and 4h time-integrated concentrations in each room. RESULTS: Four of the nine homes had kitchen 1h NO2 exceed the national ambient air quality standard (100 ppb). Two other homes had 1h NO2 exceed 50 ppb in the kitchen, and three had 1h NO2 above 50 ppb in the bedroom, suggesting substantial exposures to anyone at home when burners are used for a single substantial event. In all homes, the highest 1h kitchen PN exceeded 2 x105 cm-3-h, and the highest 4h PN exceeded 3 x105 cm-3-hr in all homes. The lowest 1h kitchen/bedroom ratios were 1.3–2.1 for NO in the apartment and two open floor plan homes. The largest K/BR ratios of 1h NO2 were in a two-story 1990s home retrofitted for deep energy savings: ratios in this home were 3.3 to 6.6. Kitchen 1h ratios of NO, NO2 and PN to CO2 were used to calculate fuel normalized emission factors (ng J-1). Range hood use substantially reduced cooking burner pollutant concentrations both

  17. Study Of Lampungnese Traditional Home Garden Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, R. A.; Gunawan

    2017-10-01

    Lampung is one area in Indonesia which has a traditional culture that comes from two groups of descents, they are ulun Lampung Pepadun and ulun Lampung Saibatin. Lampungnese traditional culture has been well-known by Indonesian people for its traditional dances, traditional clothing, or traditional home architecture. However, Lampungnese traditional home garden recently may not yet been described. Information related to Lampungnese traditional home garden is still very limited and it does not yet represented the culture based design concept. This research was directed to identify the elements of the home garden and map it into design concept of the Lampungnese traditional home garden based on information of Lampungnese traditional culture. The study was conducted by using descriptive approach through literature review, interviews and cultural exploration, as well as field observation. The study was able to identify the elements forming the Lampungnese traditional home garden, namely gakhang hadap, walai, outdoor kitchenette, firewood place, outdoor kitchen, livestock barns, as well as plants. Space layout of the home garden comprises front yard (tengahbah/terambah/beruan), side yard (kebik/kakebik), and backyard (kudan/juyu/kebon). Each element of the garden is located in the right place of the space layout.

  18. The Automation Control System Design of Walking Beam Heating Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yu LIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Combining the transformation project of certain strip steel rolling production line, the techniques process of walking beam heating furnace was elaborated in this paper. The practical application of LOS-T18-2ZC1 laser detector was elaborated. The network communication model of walking beam heating furnace control system was designed. The realization method of production process automation control was elaborated. The entire automation control system allocation picture and PLC power distribution system picture of walking beam heating furnace were designed. Charge machine movement process was elaborated. Walking beam movement process was elaborated. Extractor movement process was elaborated. The hydraulic station of walking mechanism was elaborated. Relative control circuit diagram was designed. The control function of parallel shift motor, uplifted and degressive motor was elaborated. The control circuit diagram of parallel shift motor of charge machine and extractor of first heating furnace was designed. The control circuit diagram of uplifted and degressive motor of charge machine and extractor of first heating furnace was designed. The realization method of steel blank length test function was elaborated. The realization method of tracking and sequence control function of heating furnace field roller were elaborated. The design provides important reference base for enhancing walking beam heating furnace control level.

  19. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  20. Holden gas-fired furnace baseline data. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherspoon, K.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Holden gas-fired furnace is used in the enriched uranium recovery process to dry and combust small batches of combustibles. The ash is further processed. The furnace operates by allowing a short natural gas flame to burn over the face of a wall of porous fire brick on two sides of the furnace. Each firing wall uses two main burners and a pilot burner to heat the porous fire brick to a luminous glow. Regulators and orifice valves are used to provide a minimum gas pressure of 4 in. water column at a rate of approximately 1,450 scf/h to the burners. The gas flow rate was calculated by determining the gas flow appropriate for the instrumentation in the gas line. Observed flame length and vendor literature were used to calculate pilot burner gas consumption. Air for combustion, purging, and cooling is supplied by a single blower. Rough calculations of the air-flow distribution in piping entering the furnace show that air flow to the burners approximately agrees with the calculated natural gas flow. A simple on/off control loop is used to maintain a temperature of 1,000 F in the furnace chamber. Hoods and glove boxes provide contamination control during furnace loading and unloading and ash handling. Fan EF-120 exhausts the hoods, glove boxes, and furnace through filters to Stack 33. A review of the furnace safety shows that safety is ensured by design, interlocks, procedure, and a safety system. Recommendations for safety improvements include installation of both a timed ignition system and a combustible-gas monitor near the furnace. Contamination control in the area could be improved by redesigning the loading hood face and replacing worn gaskets throughout the system. 33 refs., 16 figs

  1. The technological raw material heating furnaces operation efficiency improving issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonov, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    The issue of fuel oil applying efficiency improving in the technological raw material heating furnaces by means of its combustion intensification is considered in the paper. The technical and economic optimization problem of the fuel oil heating before combustion is solved. The fuel oil heating optimal temperature defining method and algorithm analytically considering the correlation of thermal, operating parameters and discounted costs for the heating furnace were developed. The obtained optimization functionality provides the heating furnace appropriate thermal indices achievement at minimum discounted costs. The carried out research results prove the expediency of the proposed solutions using.

  2. Reduction of microbial counts during kitchen scale washing and sanitization of salad vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssemanda, James Noah; Joosten, Han; Bagabe, Mark Cyubahiro; Zwietering, Marcel H.; Reij, Martine W.

    2018-01-01

    Washing with or without sanitizers is one of the important steps designated to reduce or eliminate microbial hazards in fresh vegetables but the settings, conditions and effectiveness of this step remain contentious. In this study, we investigated kitchen scale salad preparation practices in a field

  3. Triple-Loop Learning in a Cross-Sector Partnership: The DC Central Kitchen Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, Patrizia; Kayes, D. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to build on notions of a higher level of organizational learning to suggest another dimension: interorganizational learning that emerges in a cross-sector partnership. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was conducted with the DC Central Kitchen (DCCK) partnership with for-profit and governmental entities. Research…

  4. Kitchen Science Investigators: Promoting Identity Development as Scientific Reasoners and Thinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Tamara Lynnette

    2010-01-01

    My research centers upon designing transformative learning environments and supporting technologies. Kitchen Science Investigators (KSI) is an out-of-school transformative learning environment we designed to help young people learn science through cooking. My dissertation considers the question, "How can we design a learning environment in which…

  5. An exploration in kitchen blender interactions aimed at designing for high levels of engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rheden, V.; Hengeveld, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper illustrates three novel kitchen blender interactions aimed at bringing about a higher level of engagement with interactive products, as a response to current, seemingly un-engaging interactions. We describe our starting points and approach after which we present the designed blender

  6. Operational Research on Design and Process Optimization of Ozone Water Application in Kitchen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Zhun Jing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is a very important focus in the kitchen industry today, as bacteria such as E.Coli and Salmonella are very difficult to tackle. The objective of the present study was to optimize nozzle designs that use ozone technology to bring out the best results in cleaning and sterilizing the kitchen utensils in Taylor’s University School of Hospitality kitchen area. This includes customization of the Medklinn International Sdn Bhd ozone machine and nozzle profiles that improve the effectiveness of ozone generated. Reduction or elimination of chemicals and water usage would be a part of the study. This will bring a huge impact on cost effectiveness, time saving and safety of the users. Return on investment (ROI using ozone technology is calculated at the end of the research. To compare between the traditional way of cleaning and using ozone technology, the volume of water and dishwashing liquid used, and the Relative Light Units (RLU before and after washing were recorded. The RLU numbers are found using the 3M Clean Trace measuring equipment. RLU was recorded to determine the cleanliness of the kitchen utensils before and after washing. It has been proved that ozone water with the accompaniment of the selected nozzle prototype is as efficient as the traditional way of cleaning.

  7. Expanding Children's Food Experiences: The Impact of a School-Based Kitchen Garden Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K.; Johnson, Britt; Block, Karen; Macfarlane, Susie; Gold, Lisa; Kulas, Jenny; Townsend, Mardie; Long, Caroline; Ukoumunne, Obioha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate achievement of the "Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program" in increasing child appreciation of diverse, healthy foods. Design: Comparative 2-year study. Setting: Six program and 6 comparison primary schools in rural and metropolitan Victoria, Australia, matched for socioeconomic status and size. Participants: A…

  8. Paleo-Eskimo kitchen midden preservation in permafrost under future climate conditions at Qajaa, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Matthiesen, Henning; Jørgensen, Christian Juncher

    2011-01-01

    characteristics measured in situ and from permafrost cores. Measurements of thermal properties, heat generation, oxygen consumption and CO2 production show that the kitchen midden can be characterized as peat but produces 4–7 times more heat than natural sediment. An analytical model from permafrost research has...

  9. National Kitchen Research Survey. A Report to the Curricula Advisory Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Craft Curricula and Certification Board for the Hotel, Catering and Tourism Industry, Dublin (Ireland).

    In 1983, as part of its overall review of craft catering education and training in Ireland, the National Craft Curricula and Certification Board commissioned a nationwide research study of the trends and developments in professional kitchen practice in all sectors of the hotel and catering industry. The study was conducted through interviews with…

  10. The wood household furniture and kitchen cabinet industries: a contrast in fortune

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2009-01-01

    In 1977, the value of wood household furniture shipments from domestic manufacturers exceeded kitchen cabinet shipments by 170 percent; conversely, in 2006 shipments of cabinets exceeded shipments of furniture by 78 percent. The most apparent reason for the decrease in domestic furniture shipments is the increase in furniture imports, whereas cabinet demand has...

  11. Gas cooking, kitchen ventilation, and asthma, allergic symptoms and sensitization in young children - the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, SM; Brunekreef, B; Oldenwening, M; Smit, HA; Kerkhof, M; Gerritsen, J; De Jongste, JC; De Vries, H.

    Background: Several studies reported inconsistent associations between using gas for cooking and respiratory symptoms or lung function in children. Kitchen ventilation characteristics may modify the relationship between gas cooking and respiratory health. The aim of this study was to investigate the

  12. Some effects of integrated production planning in large-scale kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Eva Høy; Friis, Alan; Jacobsen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Integrated production planning in large-scale kitchens proves advantageous for increasing the overall quality of the food produced and the flexibility in terms of a diverse food supply. The aim is to increase the flexibility and the variability in the production as well as the focus on freshness ...

  13. 77 FR 61385 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 2010-2011... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the... INFORMATION: Scope of the Order The scope of this order consists of shelving and racks for refrigerators...

  14. 77 FR 12811 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty... review of the antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's... Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China, dated January 10, 2012; and Letter to the...

  15. Preferred Residential kitchen cabinets Cover Models: The Case of the province of Artvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Atılgan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, residential kitchen cabinets today and should be preferred to determine the reasons for the cover models were investigated. The study of urban settlement area of ​​the province of Artvin, the different socio-economic (lower / middle / upper SES levels, cuisine sampling method was chosen families. Data were obtained from the poll and systematic observation. Determination of the outstanding elements of the study and interpretation of the choice of species to cover some of the statistical techniques used. According to the results, residential kitchen cabinets, the most multi-chipboard / mdflam cover (25%, aluminum framed door is at least (1.09% were used. Reasons to prefer the technological developments and the launch of new products, while effective proposals were received by property owners, manufacturers, cover models, significantly affects the reasons for cost differences should be preferred. Another important result, is a form of property owners to ensure the kitchen cabinets. Accordingly, the vast majority of users provided by way of kitchen furniture, in order, while the other places and provided in the reinforcing elements are usually prepared production are known.

  16. The world's largest study of the indoor environment in commercial kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; Simone, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy (ICIEE) at DTU Civil Engineering has conducted a study on the thermal conditions of the working environment in more than 100 commercial kitchens in the USA during summer and winter. The study shows that employees generally feel the working...

  17. Service-Learning and Integrated Course Redesign: Principles of Management and the Campus Kitchen Metaproject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Brenda L.; Pragman, Claudia H.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the process of redesigning a Principles of Management course to integrate a service-learning metaproject. The metaproject was Campus Kitchen, a food recovery and delivery program operated on a handful of university campuses across the United States. We used L. Dee Fink's integrated course design approach as well as systems…

  18. Homing oneself

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2009-01-01

    What is home? A building, a physical and mental phenomenon, or a concept?  There are many homes and ways `to home oneself´. Many of us quite often dwell in other places than at home (as professional commuters between two places, as travellers staying in hotels, as children of divorced parents...

  19. Feasibility of high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry in flame and furnace for sulphur determination in petroleum products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewska, Zofia

    2011-07-01

    For the first time, high-resolution molecular absorption spectrometry with a high-intensity xenon lamp as radiation source has been applied for the determination of sulphur in crude oil and petroleum products. The samples were analysed as xylene solutions using vaporisation in acetylene-air flame or in an electrothermally heated graphite furnace. The sensitive rotational lines of the CS molecule, belonging to the ∆ν = 0 vibrational sequence within the electronic transition X 1∑ + → A 1П, were applied. For graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry, the Pd + Mg organic modifier was selected. Strong interactions with Pd atoms enable easier decomposition of sulphur-containing compounds, likely through the temporal formation of Pd xS y molecules. At the 258.056 nm line, with the wavelength range covering central pixel ± 5 pixels and with application of interactive background correction, the detection limit was 14 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and 18 mg kg -1 in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. Meanwhile, application of 2-points background correction found a characteristic mass of 12 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and a characteristic concentration of 104 mg kg -1 in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. The range of application of the proposed methods turned out to be significantly limited by the properties of the sulphur compounds of interest. In the case of volatile sulphur compounds, which can be present in light petroleum products, severe difficulties were encountered. On the contrary, heavy oils and residues from distillation as well as crude oil could be analysed using both flame and graphite furnace vaporisation. The good accuracy of the proposed methods for these samples was confirmed by their mutual consistency and the results from analysis of reference samples (certified reference materials and home reference materials with sulphur content determined by X-ray fluorescence

  20. Feasibility of high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry in flame and furnace for sulphur determination in petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalewska, Zofia, E-mail: zofia.kowalewska@obr.pl

    2011-07-15

    For the first time, high-resolution molecular absorption spectrometry with a high-intensity xenon lamp as radiation source has been applied for the determination of sulphur in crude oil and petroleum products. The samples were analysed as xylene solutions using vaporisation in acetylene-air flame or in an electrothermally heated graphite furnace. The sensitive rotational lines of the CS molecule, belonging to the {Delta}{nu} = 0 vibrational sequence within the electronic transition X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} {yields} A{sup 1}{Pi}, were applied. For graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry, the Pd + Mg organic modifier was selected. Strong interactions with Pd atoms enable easier decomposition of sulphur-containing compounds, likely through the temporal formation of Pd{sub x}S{sub y} molecules. At the 258.056 nm line, with the wavelength range covering central pixel {+-} 5 pixels and with application of interactive background correction, the detection limit was 14 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and 18 mg kg{sup -1} in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. Meanwhile, application of 2-points background correction found a characteristic mass of 12 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and a characteristic concentration of 104 mg kg{sup -1} in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. The range of application of the proposed methods turned out to be significantly limited by the properties of the sulphur compounds of interest. In the case of volatile sulphur compounds, which can be present in light petroleum products, severe difficulties were encountered. On the contrary, heavy oils and residues from distillation as well as crude oil could be analysed using both flame and graphite furnace vaporisation. The good accuracy of the proposed methods for these samples was confirmed by their mutual consistency and the results from analysis of reference samples (certified reference materials and home reference materials with

  1. Development of a novel compound microbial agent for degradation of kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kaining; Xu, Rui; Zhang, Ying; Tang, Hao; Zhou, Chuanbin; Cao, Aixin; Zhao, Guozhu; Guo, Hui

    Large quantities of kitchen waste are produced in modern society and its disposal poses serious environmental and social problems. The aim of this study was to isolate degradative strains from kitchen waste and to develop a novel and effective microbial agent. One hundred and four strains were isolated from kitchen waste and the 84 dominant strains were used to inoculate protein-, starch-, fat- and cellulose-containing media for detecting their degradability. Twelve dominant strains of various species with high degradability (eight bacteria, one actinomycetes and three fungi) were selected to develop a compound microbial agent "YH" and five strains of these species including H7 (Brevibacterium epidermidis), A3 (Paenibacillus polymyxa), E3 (Aspergillus japonicus), F9 (Aspergillus versicolor) and A5 (Penicillium digitatum), were new for kitchen waste degradation. YH was compared with three commercial microbial agents-"Tiangeng" (TG), "Yilezai" (YLZ) and Effective Microorganisms (EM), by their effects on reduction, maturity and deodorization. The results showed that YH exerted the greatest efficacy on mass loss which decreased about 65.87% after 14 days. The agent inhibited NH 3 and H 2 S emissions significantly during composting process. The concentration of NH 3 decreased from 7.1 to 3.2ppm and that of H 2 S reduced from 0.7 to 0.2ppm. Moreover, E 4 /E 6 (Extinction value 460nm /Extinction value 665nm ) of YH decreased from 2.51 to 1.31, which meant YH had an obvious maturity effect. These results highlighted the potential application of YH in composting kitchen waste. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a novel compound microbial agent for degradation of kitchen waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaining Zhao

    Full Text Available Abstract Large quantities of kitchen waste are produced in modern society and its disposal poses serious environmental and social problems. The aim of this study was to isolate degradative strains from kitchen waste and to develop a novel and effective microbial agent. One hundred and four strains were isolated from kitchen waste and the 84 dominant strains were used to inoculate protein-, starch-, fat- and cellulose-containing media for detecting their degradability. Twelve dominant strains of various species with high degradability (eight bacteria, one actinomycetes and three fungi were selected to develop a compound microbial agent "YH" and five strains of these species including H7 (Brevibacterium epidermidis, A3 (Paenibacillus polymyxa, E3 (Aspergillus japonicus, F9 (Aspergillus versicolor and A5 (Penicillium digitatum, were new for kitchen waste degradation. YH was compared with three commercial microbial agents-"Tiangeng" (TG, "Yilezai" (YLZ and Effective Microorganisms (EM, by their effects on reduction, maturity and deodorization. The results showed that YH exerted the greatest efficacy on mass loss which decreased about 65.87% after 14 days. The agent inhibited NH3 and H2S emissions significantly during composting process. The concentration of NH3 decreased from 7.1 to 3.2 ppm and that of H2S reduced from 0.7 to 0.2 ppm. Moreover, E4/E6 (Extinction value460nm/Extinction value665nm of YH decreased from 2.51 to 1.31, which meant YH had an obvious maturity effect. These results highlighted the potential application of YH in composting kitchen waste.

  3. Impact of kitchen organization on oral intake of malnourished inpatients: A two-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Velasco-Gimeno, Cristina; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Pintor-de-la-Maza, Begoña; Frías-Soriano, Laura; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; García-Peris, Pilar; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; García-Fernández, Camino; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D

    2017-10-01

    To determine the impact of the type of hospital kitchen on the dietary intake of patients. A cross-sectional, two-centre study, of cooking in a traditional kitchen (TK) and in a chilled kitchen (CK). Subjective global assessment (SGA) was used for nutritional diagnosis. Before study start, a dietician performed a nutritional assessment of the menus of each hospital. All dishes were weighed upon arrival to the ward and at the end of the meal. 201 and 41 patients from the centres with TK and CK respectively were evaluated. Prevalence of malnutrition risk was 50.2% at the hospital with TK and 48.8% at the hospital with CK (p=0.328). Forty-eight and 56 dishes were nutritionally evaluated at the hospitals with TK and CK respectively. Intake analysis consisted of 1993 and 846 evaluations in the hospitals with TK and CK respectively. Median food consumption was 76.83% at the hospital with TK (IQR 45.76%) and 83.43% (IQR 40.49%) at the hospital with CK (p<0.001). Based on the prevalence of malnutrition, a higher protein and energy intake was seen in malnourished patients from the CK as compared to the TK hospital, but differences were not significant after adjustment for other factors. Cooking in a chilled kitchen, as compared to a traditional kitchen, may increase energy and protein intake in hospitalized patients, which is particularly beneficial for malnourished patients. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Jingqing [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Guohui [School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yuan, Zhenhong, E-mail: yuanzh@ms.giec.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  5. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Jingqing; Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Guohui; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others

  6. Indoor air quality in restaurant kitchens in the south Tehran (2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Naseri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Generally nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 and carbon monoxide (CO are emitted Toxic gases like carbon monoxide (CO., carbon dioxide (CO 2 , nitrogen oxides (NOx will remain in the kitchen when cooking with a gas stove. The purpose of the present study was to measure carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 levels during the operation of cooking  in restaurant kitchens that use gas or natural gas, which are widely used in Tehran.     Methods   One hundred thirty one restaurants were chosen randomly from a list of 276 restaurants in five region different geographic categories, of the metropolitan Tehran, area, in summer 2006. Simultaneous indoor and outdoor air sampling occurred at each sampling site.   Carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations were measured by a real-time analyzer portable computer monitors.     Results   The results of this study showed that %83 and %68 kitchens had local exhaust ventilation and fan system, respectively. The results of this study showed that the mean concentrations of CO and NO 2 with gas stoves for food cooking in restaurant kitchens were below the standard which was established as TLV-TWA=25 and 3 ppm, respectively by ACGIH. The I/O  ratios of CO and NO 2 , were larger than 1 when there were indoor sources.     Conclusion  In this study, the mean levels of CO and NO 2 indoor were upper than the CO and  NO 2 outdoor the restaurants. Generally, improved methods of cooking besides appropriate  ventilation of all indoor combustion appliances, including gas stoves, should be adopted in  industrial kitchens

  7. Home, Smart Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj; Mullins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The article places focus on how smart technologies integrated in a one family- home and particular the window offer unique challenges and opportunities for designing buildings with the best possible environments for people and nature. Toward an interdisciplinary approach, we address the interaction...... between daylight defined in technical terms and daylight defined in aesthetic, architectural terms. Through field-tests of a Danish carbon-neutral home and an analysis of five key design parameters, we explore the contradictions and potentials in smart buildings, using the smart window as example of how...... to the energy design is central. The study illuminates an approach of the design of smart houses as living organisms by connecting technology with the needs of the occupants with the power and beauty of daylight....

  8. Innovation in electric arc furnaces scientific basis for selection

    CERN Document Server

    Toulouevski, Yuri N

    2013-01-01

    This book equips a reader with knowledge necessary for critical analysis of  innovations in electric arc furnaces and helps to select the most effective ones and for their successful implementation. The book also covers general issues related to history of development, current state and prospects of steelmaking in Electric Arc Furnaces. Therefore, it can be useful for everybody who studies metallurgy, including students of colleges and universities. The modern concepts of mechanisms of Arc Furnace processes are are discussed in the book at the level sufficient to solve practical problems: To help readers lacking knowledge required in the field of heat transfer as well as hydro-gas dynamics, it contains several chapters which provide the required minimum of information in these fields of science. In order to better assess different innovations, the book describes experience of the application of similar innovations in open-hearth furnaces and oxygen converters. Some promising ideas on key issues regarding int...

  9. Evaluation of Grade 120 Granulated Ground blast Furnace Slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    This study evaluates Grade 120 Granulated Ground Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) and its effect on the properties of hydraulic cement concretes used in structural and pavement construction. Several mix designs, structural and pavement, were used for this ...

  10. Elements of the electric arc furnace's environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, Adrian; Semenescu, Augustin; Costoiu, Mihnea; Marcu, Dragoş

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a theoretical and experimental analysis of the polluting generating mechanisms for steel making in the Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF). The scheme for the environment's polluting system through the EAF is designed and presented in this paper. The ecological experimenting consisted of determining by specialized measures of the dust percentage in the evacuated gases from the EAF and of thereof gas pollutants. From the point of view of reducing the impact on the environment, the main problem of the electric arc furnace (EAF) is the optimization of the powder collecting from the process gases, both from the furnace and from the work-area. The paper deals with the best dependence between the aggregate's constructive, functional and technological factors, which are necessary for the furnace's ecologization and for its energetically-technologically performances increasing.

  11. Reliability of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spectrometry as alternative method for trace analysis of ... Purpose: To evaluate the comparative efficiency of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry .... Methods comparison and validation .... plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

  12. CMOS Thermal Ox and Diffusion Furnace: Tystar Tytan 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Names: CMOS Wet Ox, CMOS Dry Ox, Boron Doping (P-type), Phos. Doping (N-Type)This four-stack furnace bank is used for the thermal growth of silicon...

  13. SITE - DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY - MINERGY CORPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) was developed by Minergy Corporation (Minergy), of Waukesha, Wisconsin. Minergy originally developed vitrification technologies to process wastewater sludge into glass aggregate that could be sold as a commercial product. Minergy modified a st...

  14. MINERGY CORPORATION GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents performance and economic data for a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program demonstration of the Minergy Corporation (Minergy) Glass Furnace Technology (GFT). The demonstration evaluated the techno...

  15. Modular Distributed Concentrator for Solar Furnace, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research proposes to develop a lightweight approach to achieving the high concentrations of solar energy needed for a solar furnace achieving temperatures of...

  16. The Flexibility of Pusher Furnace Grate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słowik J.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lifetime of guide grates in pusher furnaces for heat treatment could be increased by raising the flexibility of their structure through, for example, the replacement of straight ribs, parallel to the direction of grate movement, with more flexible segments. The deformability of grates with flexible segments arranged in two orientations, i.e. crosswise (perpendicular to the direction of compression and lengthwise (parallel to the direction of compression, was examined. The compression process was simulated using SolidWorks Simulation program. Relevant regression equations were also derived describing the dependence of force inducing the grate deformation by 0.25 mm ‒ modulus of grate elasticity ‒ on the number of flexible segments in established orientations. These calculations were made in Statistica and Scilab programs. It has been demonstrated that, with the same number of segments, the crosswise orientation of flexible segments increases the grate structure flexibility in a more efficient way than the lengthwise orientation. It has also been proved that a crucial effect on the grate flexibility has only the quantity and orientation of segments (crosswise / lengthwise, while the exact position of segments changes the grate flexibility by less than 1%.

  17. Furnace coking simulations in a laboratory apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, Paul [Champion Technologies Inc (United States)], email: paul.eaton@champ-tech.com; Newman, Bruce [ConocoPhillips (United States)], email: Bruce.A.Newman@conocophillips.com; Gray, Murray; Kubis, Alan; Derakhshesh, Marzie; Holt, Chris; Mitlin, David [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This work deals with simulating fouling behavior of crude oil in a delayed coker furnace. Fouling on different heated metal probes was investigated; these were mainly stainless steel, iron, or mild steel probes. Heat transfer theory was used to calculate the system fouling factor, and this parameter was recorded as a function of time to model in-situ fouling intensity. Physical and chemical properties such as buildup thickness and composition were investigated using different measuring techniques, most important of which were extractive-iron-nickel ion chromatography, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). Changes in surface layers of the metallic probe during coke formation along with microstructures of the coke were examined using a focused-ion beam (FIB). It was shown that the iron probe exhibited more buildups on its surface than stainless steels, and fouling of mild steel came in between. As for oils with different concentrations, fouling of diluted atmospheric tower bottom (ATB) was greater than that of undiluted ATP.

  18. The Automation Control System Design of Walking Beam Heating Furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Yu LIU; Jun-Qing LIU; Jun-Jie XI

    2014-01-01

    Combining the transformation project of certain strip steel rolling production line, the techniques process of walking beam heating furnace was elaborated in this paper. The practical application of LOS-T18-2ZC1 laser detector was elaborated. The network communication model of walking beam heating furnace control system was designed. The realization method of production process automation control was elaborated. The entire automation control system allocation picture and PLC power distributio...

  19. Nonmetallic inclusions in carbon steel smelted in plasma furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shengelaya, I B; Kostyakov, V N; Nodiy, T K; Imerlishvili, V G; Gavisiani, A G [AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Tbilisi. Inst. Metallurgii

    1979-01-01

    A complex investigation on nonmetallic inclusions in carbon cast iron, smelted in plasma furnace in argon atmosphere and cast partly in the air and partly in argon atmosphere, has been carried out. As compared to open-hearth furnace carbon steel, the test metal was found to contain more oxide inclusions and nitrides; besides, in chromium-containing metal, chromium nitrides form the larger part of nitrides.

  20. Atomization mechanisms for barium in furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styris, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry are used simultaneously in order to elucidate atomization mechanisms of barium dichloride in pyrolytic graphite, vitreous carbon, and tantalum furnaces. Gas-phase barium dicarbide is observed to appear concurrently with the free barium. Barium oxide and barium dihydroxide precursors appear with the chlorides. Surface reactions involving species that are absorbed on the various furnaces are postulated to explain the appearances of the species that are observed in the gas phase. 49 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  1. Study on the correlation between volatile fatty acids and gas production in dry fermentation of kitchen waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiangqiang; Ma, Yunfeng; Du, Boying; Wang, Qi; Hu, Qiongqiong; Bian, Yushan

    2018-02-01

    In this study, continuous kitchen waste fermentation and anaerobic digestion experiments were conducted to analyze the gas production potential, and to study the correlation between gas production rate and volatile fatty acid (VFAs) and its component concentration. During the experiment, the total solid(TS) concentration of the reaction system was increased by adding the kitchen waste, analysis of kitchen waste dry fermentation process to start, run, imbalance and imbalance after recovery and the parameters in the process of realizing the change trend and influencing factors of dry fermentation process, pH and ammonia concentration.

  2. Isolation and Quantification of Polyamide Cyclic Oligomers in Kitchen Utensils and Their Migration into Various Food Simulants

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Yutaka; Mutsuga, Motoh; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Yoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Small amounts of cyclic monomers and oligomers are present in polyamide (PA)-based kitchen utensils. In this study, we isolated eight PA-based cyclic monomers and oligomers from kitchen utensils made from PA6 (a polymer of ε-caprolactam) and PA66 (a polymer of 1,6-diaminohexane and adipic acid). Their structures were identified using high-resolution mass spectrometry and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and their residual levels in PA-based kitchen utensils and degree of m...

  3. Similarity of Ferrosilicon Submerged Arc Furnaces With Different Geometrical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machulec B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine reasons of unsatisfactory production output regarding one of the 12 MVA furnaces, a comparative analysis with a furnace of higher power that showed a markedly better production output was performed. For comparison of ferrosilicon furnaces with different geometrical parameters and transformer powers, the theory of physical similarity was applied. Geometrical, electrical and thermal parameters of the reaction zones are included in the comparative analysis. For furnaces with different geometrical parameters, it is important to ensure the same temperature conditions of the reaction zones. Due to diverse mechanisms of heat generation, different criteria for determination of thermal and electrical similarity for the upper and lower reaction zones were assumed contrary to other publications. The parameter c3 (Westly was assumed the similarity criterion for the upper furnace zones where heat is generated as a result of resistive heating while the parameter J1 (Jaccard was assumed the similarity criterion for the lower furnace zones where heat is generated due to arc radiation.

  4. Assessing energy efficiency of electric car bottom furnaces intended for thermal energization of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhegorodov, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with a new concept of electric furnaces for roasting and thermal energization of vermiculite and other minerals with vibrational transportation of a single-layer mass under constant thermal field. The paper presents performance calculation and comparative assessment of energy data for furnaces of different modifications: flame and electric furnaces with three units, furnaces with six units and ones with series-parallel connection of units, and furnaces of new concept.

  5. TECHNOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES O F MELTING AND OUT-OF-FURNACE PROCESSING OF BALANCED STEELS IN CONDITIONS OF ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING AND CONTINUOUS CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Terletski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological peculiarities of melting and out-of-furnace processing of balanced steels in conditions of electric furnace steelmaking and continuous cast of RUP “BMZ” are considered.

  6. Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shan-Wen [Steel and Aluminum Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812 (China); Chen, Wei-Hsin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Lucas, John A. [School of Engineering of the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals departing from the general trend. One of the coals with the fuel ratio of 6.22 has shown its merit in combustion, implying that the blending ratio of the coal in PCI operation can be raised for a higher coke replacement ratio. The experiments also suggested that increasing blast temperature was an efficient countermeasure for promoting the combustibility of the injected coals. Higher fuel burnout could be achieved when the particle size of coal was reduced from 60-100 to 100-200 mesh. However, once the size of the tested coals was in the range of 200 and 325 mesh, the burnout could not be improved further, resulting from the agglomeration of fine particles. Considering coal blend reactions, the blending ratio of coals in PCI may be adjusted by the individual coal burnout rather than by the fuel ratio. (author)

  7. Correlates of Smoke-Free Home Policies in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinpin Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Approximately 63.7% of nonsmokers in China are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS in their homes. The current study documents the prevalence and correlates of smoke-free home policies in Shanghai, as well as reasons for implementing such a policy and places where smoking is most commonly allowed. Methods. We conducted in-person surveys of 500 participants using a multistage proportional random sampling design in an urban and suburban district. Results. Overall, 35.3% had a smoke-free home policy. In the logistic regression, having higher income, not having smokers in the home, having children in the home, having fewer friends/relatives who permit smoking at home, and not being a current smoker were correlates of having a smoke-free home policy P<0.05. Concern about the health impact of SHS was reportedly the most important reason for establishing a smoke-free home. Among participants with no or partial bans, the most common places where smoking was allowed included the living room (64.2%, kitchen (46.1%, and bathroom (33.8%. Conclusions. Smoke-free home policies were in place for a minority of households surveyed. Establishing such a policy was influenced by personal smoking behavior and social factors. These findings suggest an urgent need to promote smoke-free home policies through tobacco control programs.

  8. Home hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agar, John W; Perkins, Anthony; Heaf, James G

    2015-01-01

    We describe the infrastructure that is necessary for hemodialysis in the home focusing on physical requirements, the organization of plumbing and water, and the key features that should guide the selection of machines that are suitable for home use.......We describe the infrastructure that is necessary for hemodialysis in the home focusing on physical requirements, the organization of plumbing and water, and the key features that should guide the selection of machines that are suitable for home use....

  9. Cookbooks, High-tech Kitchens and Gender Culture: addressing the sugar and spice in the contemporary couple relations

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rosalina

    2013-01-01

    This text focuses on the cookbook and related “mundane practices” (Martens) within the context of the appropriation of high-tech equipment in the kitchen to discuss the power of the socialisation of gender. Our argument is that cookbooks can be a way to dissipate the old difficulties that men, particularly, face in the kitchen; and at the same time, their use (and misuse) reinforces the persistence of some gaps due to previous and unequal socialisation regarding cookery as a skill.

  10. Archtechtual Envilomental and Eequipment Laboratory Issues on HVAC System in a Commercial Kitchen(Educational Practice through Research)

    OpenAIRE

    吉野, 一; Hajime, Yoshino

    2017-01-01

    Generally, large amount of heat, oil fume including chemical substances and exhaust gases were generated during cooking in commercial kitchens. Therefore, it is important to keep highly safe and good hygienic condition by HVAC System. In this paper, health effect of oil fume and fire spread were surveyed based on investigation of previous studies. Lastly, current issues and future prospects of commercial kitchens HVAC system in Japan were described.

  11. Home health care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or walker Walk between your bedroom, bathroom, and kitchen Go up and down stairs ... EJ, Fitz JG, eds. Andreoli and Carpenter's Cecil Essentials of Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  12. Occupational allergic diseases in kitchen and health care workers: an underestimated health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Ugur; Unluoglu, Ilhami; Son, Nazan; Keskin, Ahmet; Korkut, Yasemin; Unalacak, Murat

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the frequencies of allergic symptoms and rate of upper respiratory infections during the past year in the general population, kitchen workers (KW) and health care workers (HCW). The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was used to inquire retrospectively about asthma and asthma-like symptoms and the number of treatments required for previous upper respiratory tract infections (URTI: acute pharyngitis, acute sinusitis, etc.) during the past year for health care workers, kitchen workers, and members of the general population. Adjusted odds ratios by gender, age, and smoking status were calculated. 579 subjects (186 from the general population, 205 KW, and 188 HCW; 263 females, 316 males) participated in the study. Noninfectious (allergic) rhinitis was significantly higher in the HCW and KW groups than in the general population (P issue. Health care providers should become familiar with workplace environments and environmental causes of occupational rhinitis and asthma.

  13. [Evaluation of the hygienic-sanitary conditions of kitchens in public and philanthropic daycare centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mariana de Novaes; Brasil, Anne Lise Dias; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of kitchens in philanthropic and public daycare centers in the city of São Paulo using a tool of easy application. Information on the hygienic-sanitary conditions was gathered observing the operational conditions of five public and philanthropic daycare centers in the city of São Paulo. A score was developed for classifying the risks of food contamination. The operational conditions in the kitchens of the studied philanthropic and public daycare centers in the city of São Paulo can result in contamination of the prepared food. Among the most important risk factors for food contamination is the behavior of the workers who handle the food. Training and continuous supervision of the involved personnel are the best and easiest alternatives for assuring the appropriate hygienic-sanitary conditions and quality of the food offered to the children in these daycare centers.

  14. Synergistic effect of fly ash in in-vessel composting of biomass and kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyapu, Vivek; Mandpe, Ashootosh; Kumar, Sunil

    2018-03-01

    The present study aims to utilize coal fly ash for its property to adsorb heavy metals and thus reducing the bioavailability of the metals for plant uptake. Fly ash was incorporated into the in-vessel composting system along with organic waste. The in-vessel composting experiments were conducted in ten plastic vessels of 15 L capacity comprising varying proportions of biomass waste, kitchen waste and fly ash. In this study, maximum degradation of organic matter was observed in Vessel 3 having k value of 0.550 d -1 . In vessel 10, 20% fly ash with a combination of 50% biomass waste and 30% kitchen waste along with the addition of 5% jaggery as an additive produced the best outcome with least organic matter (%C) loss and lowest value of rate constant (k). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Workers' load and job-related stress after a reform and work system change in a hospital kitchen in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Haruyama, Yasuo; Muto, Takashi; Aikawa, Kaoru; Ito, Akiyoshi; Katamoto, Shizuo

    2013-03-01

    Many kitchen work environments are considered to be severe; however, when kitchens are reformed or work systems are changed, the question of how this influences kitchen workers and environments arises. The purpose of this study is to examine whether there was a change in workload and job-related stress for workers after a workplace environment and work system change in a hospital kitchen. The study design is a pre-post comparison of a case, performed in 2006 and 2008. The air temperature and humidity in the workplace were measured. Regarding workload, work hours, fluid loss, heart rate, and amount of activity [metabolic equivalents of task (METs)] of 7 and 8 male subjects pre- and post-reform, respectively, were measured. Job-related stress was assessed using a self-reporting anonymous questionnaire for 53 and 45 workers pre- and post-system change, respectively. After the reform and work system change, the kitchen space had increased and air-conditioners had been installed. The workplace environment changes included the introduction of temperature-controlled wagons whose operators were limited to male workers. The kitchen air temperature decreased, so fluid loss in the subjects decreased significantly. However, heart rate and METs in the subjects increased significantly. As for job-related stress, although workplace environment scores improved, male workers' total job stress score increased. These results suggest that not only the workplace environment but also the work system influenced the workload and job stress on workers.

  16. Comparison of costs for three hypothetical alternative kitchen waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiettecatte, Wim; Tize, Ronald; De Wever, Heleen

    2014-11-01

    Urban water and waste management continues to be a major challenge, with the Earth's population projected to rise to 9 billion by 2050, with 70% of this population expected to live in cities. A combined treatment of wastewater and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste offers opportunities for improved environmental protection and energy recovery, but the collection and transport of organic wastes must be cost effective. This study compares three alternative kitchen waste collection and transportation systems for a virtual modern urban area with 300,000 residents and a population density of 10,000 persons per square kilometre. Door-to-door collection, being the standard practice in modern urban centres, remains the most economically advantageous at a cost of 263 euros per tonne of kitchen waste. Important drawbacks are the difficult logistics, increased city traffic, air and noise pollution. The quieter, cleaner and more hygienic vacuum transport of kitchen waste comes with a higher cost of 367 euros per tonne, mainly resulting from a higher initial investment cost for the system installation. The third option includes the well-known use of under-sink food waste disposers (often called garbage grinders) that are connected to the kitchen's wastewater piping system, with a total yearly cost of 392 euros per tonne. Important advantages with this system are the clean operation and the current availability of a city-wide sewage conveyance pipeline system. Further research is recommended, for instance the application of a life cycle assessment approach, to more fully compare the advantages and disadvantages of each option. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Study on pollution control in residential kitchen based on the push-pull ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Bin; Chen, Feng; Dong, Zhibo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •The push-pull ventilation system is proposed to improve IAQ inside kitchen, where air is supplied through slot air curtain and then exhausted through range hood. •CO2 reduction efficiency with application of air curtain in experiment and simulation in breathing zone was 23.7% and 23.......1%, respectively. •By orthogonal method, the influence of factors on pollution control of the push-pull ventilation system was presented....

  18. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathopoulos, V.N., E-mail: vasta@teihal.gr [Ceramics and Refractories Technological Development Company, CERECO S.A., 72nd km Athens Lamia National Road, P.O. Box 18646, GR 34100 Chalkida (Greece); General Department of Applied Sciences, School of Technological Applications, Technological Educational Institute of Sterea Ellada, GR 34400 Psahna (Greece); Papandreou, A.; Kanellopoulou, D.; Stournaras, C.J. [Ceramics and Refractories Technological Development Company, CERECO S.A., 72nd km Athens Lamia National Road, P.O. Box 18646, GR 34100 Chalkida (Greece)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Zn is stabilized due to formation of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and/or willemite type phases. • EAFD/clay fired mixtures exhibit improved mechanical properties. • Hollow bricks were successfully fabricated from the mixtures studied. • Laboratory articles and scaled up bricks found as environmentally inert materials. -- Abstract: In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in

  19. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, V N; Papandreou, A; Kanellopoulou, D; Stournaras, C J

    2013-11-15

    In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in an increase of mechanical strength. Moreover, leaching tests performed according to the Europeans standards on the EAFD-block samples showed that the quantities of heavy metals leached from crushed blocks were within the regulatory limits. Thus the EAFD-blocks can be regarded as material of no environmental concern. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  20. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathopoulos, V.N.; Papandreou, A.; Kanellopoulou, D.; Stournaras, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Zn is stabilized due to formation of ZnAl 2 O 4 spinel and/or willemite type phases. • EAFD/clay fired mixtures exhibit improved mechanical properties. • Hollow bricks were successfully fabricated from the mixtures studied. • Laboratory articles and scaled up bricks found as environmentally inert materials. -- Abstract: In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in an

  1. A new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraka, K.; Oikawa, H.; Shimizu, T.; Kadoya, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Yamada, Y.; Ishii, J.

    2013-01-01

    More and more NMIs are realizing their primary scale themselves with fixed-point blackbodies as their reference standard. However, commercially available fixed-point blackbody furnaces of sufficient quality are not always easy to obtain. CHINO Corp. and NMIJ, AIST jointly developed a new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace. The new furnace has such features as 1) improved temperature uniformity when compared to previous products, enabling better plateau quality, 2) adoption of the hybrid fixed-point cell structure with internal insulation to improve robustness and thereby to extend lifetime, 3) easily ejectable and replaceable heater unit and fixed-point cell design, leading to reduced maintenance cost, 4) interchangeability among multiple fixed points from In to Cu points. The replaceable cell feature facilitates long term maintenance of the scale through management of a group of fixed-point cells of the same type. The compact furnace is easily transportable and therefore can also function as a traveling standard for disseminating the radiation temperature scale, and for maintaining the scale at the secondary level and industrial calibration laboratories. It is expected that the furnace will play a key role of the traveling standard in the anticipated APMP supplementary comparison of the radiation thermometry scale

  2. Natural Ventilation Effectiveness of Round Wall-Mounted Vent Caps in Residential Kitchens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Pin Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effect of different numbers of wall-mounted vent caps and their installation locations on the indoor air environment in residential kitchens, for which limited information is available. Wind tunnel tests were performed to study the induced ventilation rates of a vent cap, and the impact of vent caps on the natural ventilation efficiency in residential kitchens was examined using computational fluid dynamics (CFD numerical simulations. The results were then applied to determine the appropriate quantity of vent caps and their proper installation location. The wind tunnel test results indicated that outdoor winds with speeds of 0–6 m/s that flow parallel to the wall with a vent cap induce indoor air to exit through the cap with ventilation rates of 0–20 m3/h; when the wind blows perpendicular to the wall, outdoor air with 0–31.9 m3/h flows indoors. CFD numerical simulations showed that the installation of kitchen vent caps can reduce the average carbon monoxide concentration in the cook’s breathing zone. A sufficient quantity of vent caps and the proper installation location are required to ensure the natural ventilation effectiveness of wall-mounted vent caps.

  3. Bacterial and Aspergillus spp. Contamination of Domestic Kitchens in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwakeel, Suaad S.

    2007-01-01

    A randomized sampling of 50 households in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia was conducted to determine microbial and Aspergillus spp contaminants in domestic kitchens between May and June 2006. Samples were taken from open air in the kitchen and from used kitchen sponges. Inoculation procedures were varied from direct inoculation of the sponge into the medium to dilution of a cut portion of the sponge. A total of 200 samples were taken from which, 700 culture plates were done (BAP and Nutrient agar). Identification by the API system of identification (Analytical Profile Index, BioMerieux) revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter cloacae, Diphtheroids and Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus spp. was isolated and identified microscopically. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis , Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 90% of the plates followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (83%) , Klebsiella pneumonia ; Bacillus cereus (63%).and Aspergillus spp (15%) These opportunistic pathogens may be harmful especially in immunocompromised hosts. In this setting, there is a constant risk of contamination and transfer to willing hosts, thus appropriate measures should be implemented such as the use of disposable sponges. (author)

  4. Soup kitchen users' social representations of healthy eating associated with their household food security status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina BENTO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify whether what users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, think about a healthy diet and the challenges they face to eat healthy are associated with their household food security status. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,656 users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte. Socioeconomic and household food security data, and healthy-eating discourses were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were submitted to descriptive analyses for constructing frequency distribution tables, and to univariate analysis. Discourse analysis was based on the social representation theory. Results: To cut, reduce, avoid, not eat, eat less, and decrease carbohydrates, salt, meats, various beverages, and other foods are the most frequent changes (71.4% that food-secure users have made or intend to make. Food-insecure users intended to eat more fruits, non-starchy vegetables, and other foods (34.4%. The main obstacles food-secure and food-insecure users face to adopt a healthier diet are lack of time (82.9% and low income (53.5%, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: What users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte think about food and the obstacles they face to adopt a healthier diet are related to their household food security status. The results provide valuable data for effective proposals of food and nutrition education, which should act on the producers of subjectivity in this group and consider this group's food and nutrition security status.

  5. [Socio-demographic and food insecurity characteristics of soup-kitchen users in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Kátia Cruz; Sávio, Karin Eleonora Oliveira; Akutsu, Rita de Cássia; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize users of a government soup-kitchen program and the association with family food insecurity, using a cross-sectional design and random sample of 1,637 soup-kitchen users. The study used a questionnaire with socioeconomic variables and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and measured weight and height. The chi-square test was applied, and the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Prevalent characteristics included per capita income ranging from one-half to one minimum wage (35.1%), complete middle school (39.8%), and food security (59.4%). Users in the North of Brazil showed the worst data: incomplete primary school (39.8%), per capita income up to one-half the minimum wage (50.8%), and food insecurity (55.5%). Prevalence ratios for food insecurity were higher among users with per capita income up to one-fourth the minimum wage (p soup-kitchen users with food insecurity can help orient the program's work, location, and operations.

  6. Fat, oil and grease reduction in commercial kitchen ductwork: A novel biological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, S; Vahdati, M

    2017-03-01

    Recent research has characterised emissions upon cooking a variety of foods in a commercial catering environment in terms of volume, particle size and composition. However, there has been limited focus on the deposition of solid grease in commercial kitchen ductwork, the sustainability of these systems and their implications on the heat recovery potential of kitchen ventilation extract air. This paper reviews the literature concerning grease, commonly referred to as Fat, Oils and Grease (FOG) abatement strategies and finds that many of these systems fall short of claimed performances. Furthermore these technologies often add to the energy cost of the operation and reduce the potential application of heat recovery in the ventilation ductwork. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel FOG removal system, with a focus on low environmental impact. The novel FOG removal system, utilises the biological activity of Bacillus subtilis and associated enzymes. The biological reagent is delivered via a misting system. The temperature, relative humidity and FOG deposit thickness were measured in the ductwork throughout a 3month trial period. FOG deposit thickness was reduced by 47% within 7weeks. The system was found to be effective at reducing the FOG deposit thickness with minimal energy cost and impact upon the kitchen and external environment. Internal ductwork operating temperature was measured with respect to future heat recovery potential and a reduction of 7°C was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results.

  8. Radiometric report for a blast furnace tracing with radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanase, G.; Tanase, M.

    1995-01-01

    One of the methods to monitor refractory wall of blast furnace is its tracing with radioactive isotopes. The tracer isotope can be detected by two ways: the external dosimetric measurement at the armour of the blast furnace and/or the radiometric measurement of the iron sample charge by charge. Any change in radiometric situation of tracer radioisotope is recorded in a radiometric report. This paper presents an original concept of radiometric report based upon PARADOX and CORELDRAW soft kits. Their advantage are: quick and easy changes, easy recording of current radioactivity of tracer isotope, short history of changes, visual mapping of the tracer isotope and others. In this way we monitored 6 blast furnaces and more than 180 radioactive sources

  9. Production of blast furnace coke from soft brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, G.; Wundes, H.; Schkommodau, F.; Zinke, H.-G. (VEB Gaskombinat Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1988-01-01

    Reviews experimental production and utilization of high quality brown coal coke in the GDR during 1985 and 1986. The technology of briquetting and coking brown coal dust is described; the superior parameters of produced coke quality are listed in comparison to those of regular industrial coke made from brown and black coal. Dust emission from high quality brown coal coke was suppressed by coke surface treatment with dispersion foam. About 4,200 t of this coke were employed in black coal coke substitution tests in a blast furnace. Substitution rate was 11%, blast furnace operation was positive, a substitution factor of 0.7 t black coal coke per 1 t of brown coal coke was calculated. Technology development of high quality brown coal coke production is regarded as complete; blast furnace coke utilization, however, requires further study. 8 refs.

  10. Unique furnace system for high-energy-neutron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotou, N.F.; Green, D.R.; Price, L.S.

    1982-03-01

    The low flux of high energy neutron sources requires optimum utilization of the available neutron field. A furnace system has been developed in support of the US DOE fusion materials program which meets this challenge. Specimens positioned in two temperature zones just 1 mm away from the outside surface of a neutron window in the furnace enclosure can be irradiated simultaneously at two independent, isothermal (+- 1 0 C) temperatures. The temperature difference between these closely spaced isothermal zones is controllable from 0 to 320 0 C and the maximum temperature is 400 0 C. The design of the system also provides a controlled specimen environment, rapid heating and cooling and easy access to heaters and thermocouples. This furnace system is in use at the Rotating Target Neutron Source-II of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  11. Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with diff erent addition of water glass, bentonite and cement. Quality of briquettes was tested by compression – strength test and by break down test in green state, after drying and afterstoring (1 month.

  12. Lead scrap processing in rotary furnaces: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, M

    1987-01-01

    Formerly, the lead scrap had been processed mainly in reverberatory and shaft furnaces or, even, in rotary furnaces (R.F.). The direct smelting of battery scrap entrains an expensive pollution control and high operating costs because of slag recirculation, coke consumption, losses in slag and matte. Nowadays, mechanized battery wrecking plants allow selective separation of casings and separators from metallic Pb (grids, poles, solders) as well as lead in non-metallic form (PbSO/sub 4/, PbO, PbO/sub 2/, contaminated with some Sb) frequently called paste. Because of their high performance and flexibility in metallurgical processing (melting, reducing, oxidizing and selective pouring) the R.F. supersedes the reverberatory furnace worldwide.

  13. Computational Modeling of Arc-Slag Interaction in DC Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Quinn G.

    2017-02-01

    The plasma arc is central to the operation of the direct-current arc furnace, a unit operation commonly used in high-temperature processing of both primary ores and recycled metals. The arc is a high-velocity, high-temperature jet of ionized gas created and sustained by interactions among the thermal, momentum, and electromagnetic fields resulting from the passage of electric current. In addition to being the primary source of thermal energy, the arc jet also couples mechanically with the bath of molten process material within the furnace, causing substantial splashing and stirring in the region in which it impinges. The arc's interaction with the molten bath inside the furnace is studied through use of a multiphase, multiphysics computational magnetohydrodynamic model developed in the OpenFOAM® framework. Results from the computational solver are compared with empirical correlations that account for arc-slag interaction effects.

  14. Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance and Operability Test Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSTON, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed Loss on Ignition (LOI) equipment, including a model 1608FL CMTM Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of the furnace will be verified. The arrangement of the equipment placed in Glovebox 157-3/4 to perform LOI testing on samples supplied from the Thermal Stabilization line will be verified. In addition to verifying proper operation of the furnace, this ATP/OTP will also verify the air flow through the filters, verify a damper setting to establish and maintain the required differential pressure between the glovebox and the room pressure, and test the integrity of the newly installed HEPA filter. In order to provide objective evidence of proper performance of the furnace, the furnace must heat 15 crucibles, mounted on a crucible rack, to 1000 C, according to a program entered into the furnace controller located outside the glovebox. The glovebox differential pressure will be set to provide the 0.5 to 2.0 inches of water (gauge) negative pressure inside the glovebox with an expected airflow of 100 to 125 cubic feet per minute (cfm) through the inlet filter. The glovebox inlet G1 filter will be flow tested to ensure the integrity of the filter connections and the efficiency of the filter medium. The newly installed windows and glovebox extension, as well as all disturbed joints, will be sonically tested via ultra probe to verify no leaks are present. The procedure for DOS testing of the filter is found in Appendix A

  15. Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance and Operability Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, D.C.

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed LOI equipment, including a model 1608FL CM{trademark} Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of the furnace will be verified. The arrangement of the equipment placed in Glovebox 157-3/4 to perform Loss on Ignition (LOI) testing on samples supplied from the Thermal Stabilization line will be verified. In addition to verifying proper operation of the furnace, this ATP/OTP will also verify the air flow through the filters, verify a damper setting to establish and maintain the required differential pressure between the glovebox and the room pressure, and test the integrity of the newly installed HEPA filter. In order to provide objective evidence of proper performance of the furnace, the furnace must heat 15 crucibles, mounted on a crucible rack, to 1000 C, according to a program entered into the furnace controller located outside the glovebox. The glovebox differential pressure will be set to provide the 0.5 to 2.0 inches of water (gauge) negative pressure inside the glovebox with an airflow of 100 to 125 cubic feet per minute (cfm) through the inlet filter. The glovebox inlet Glfilter will he flow tested to ensure the integrity of the filter connections and the efficiency of the filter medium. The newly installed windows and glovebox extension, as well as all disturbed joints, will be sonically tested via ultra probe to verify no leaks are present. The procedure for DOS testing of the filter is found in Appendix A.

  16. Model technique for aerodynamic study of boiler furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-02-01

    The help of the Division was recently sought to improve the heat transfer and reduce the exit gas temperature in a pulverized-fuel-fired boiler at an Australian power station. One approach adopted was to construct from Perspex a 1:20 scale cold-air model of the boiler furnace and to use a flow-visualization technique to study the aerodynamic patterns established when air was introduced through the p.f. burners of the model. The work established good correlations between the behaviour of the model and of the boiler furnace.

  17. Modelling and control of a diffusion/LPCVD furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaard, H.; Dekoning, W. L.

    1988-12-01

    Heat transfer inside a cylindrical resistance diffusion/Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) furnace is studied with the aim of developing an improved temperature controller. A model of the thermal behavior is derived, which covers the important class of furnaces equipped with semitransparent quartz process tubes. The model takes into account the thermal behavior of the thermocouples. Currently used temperature controllers are shown to be highly inefficient for very large scale integration applications. Based on the model an alternative temperature controller of the LQG (linear quadratic Gaussian) type is proposed which features direct wafer temperature control. Some simulation results are given.

  18. Modernization of two gas-fired shaft annealing furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthof, G.; Porst, G.; Raczek, S.

    1986-04-01

    The objective was to modernize two existing shaft-type annealing furnaces used for the heat treatment of grey iron castings with the aim of reducing the consumption of gaseous fuel, minimize the formation of scale, decrease maintenance expense and apply more automatic control to the annealing process. This was to be achieved by an optimum combination of new types of construction materials and advanced firing and control equipment. The author describes the furnace in its condition prior to and after reconstruction. The operating results obtained after reconstruction were found to justify the costs incurred. The payback period is roughly one year.

  19. Video monitoring system for enriched uranium casting furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, P.C.

    1978-03-01

    A closed-circuit television (CCTV) system was developed to upgrade the remote-viewing capability on two oralloy (highly enriched uranium) casting furnaces in the Y-12 Plant. A silicon vidicon CCTV camera with a remotely controlled lens and infrared filtering was provided to yield a good-quality video presentation of the furnace crucible as the oralloy material is heated from 25 to 1300 0 C. Existing tube-type CCTV monochrome monitors were replaced with solid-state monitors to increase the system reliability

  20. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdeja, L. F.; Gonzalez, R.; Alfonso, A.; Barbes, M. F.

    2003-01-01

    Criteria developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node) of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid. (Author) 31 refs

  1. Computer simulation of processes in the dead–end furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavorin, A S; Khaustov, S A; Zaharushkin, Russia N A

    2014-01-01

    We study turbulent combustion of natural gas in the reverse flame of fire–tube boiler simulated with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Aerodynamic structure and volumetric pressure fields of the flame were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. The effect of the twist parameter for a drag coefficient of dead–end furnace was estimated. Finite element method was used for simulating the following processes: the combustion of methane in air oxygen, radiant and convective heat transfer, turbulence. Complete geometric model of the dead–end furnace based on boiler drawings was considered

  2. Use of coal-water mixtures in blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malgarini, G; Giuli, M; Davide, A; Carlesi, C [Centro Sviluppo Materiali, Rome (Italy); Italsider, Genoa [Italy; Deltasider, Piombino [Italy

    1989-03-01

    At the present time, an ironworks blast furnace employing a pulverized coal injection (PCI) system is in operation at the Piombino Works (Italy). A wide development, within this industry, of PCI techniques is expected in the near future to limit, as much as possible, the rebuilding of coke ovens. Research activities and industrial trials aimed at maximizing the use of coal injection into blast furnaces are in course of development. This paper uses flowsheets to illustrate such a system and provides graphs to indicate the economic convenience of PCI systems as compared with systems using naphtha as an injected fuel.

  3. Optimizing of Work Arc Furnace to Decopperisation of Flash Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bydałek A.W.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Discusses an attempt to optimize the operation of an electric furnace slag to be decopperisation suspension of the internal recycling process for the production of copper. The paper presents a new method to recover copper from metallurgical slags in arc-resistance electric furnace. It involves the use of alternating current for a first period reduction, constant or pulsed DC in the final stage of processing. Even distribution of the electric field density in the final phase of melting caused to achieve an extremely low content of metallic copper in the slag phase. They achieved by including the economic effects by reducing the time reduction.

  4. Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Peng; Meng Yuedong; Yu Xinyao; Chen Longwei; Jiang Yiman; Nie Guohua; Chen Mingzhou

    2009-01-01

    In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V/1000 A DC as an example, the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat loss of the furnace were analyzed based on the energy conservation law, so as to achieve the total heat information and energy balance during plasma processing, and to provide a theoretical basis for an optimized design of the structure and to improve energy efficiency. (plasma technology)

  5. High density of fox and cat faeces in kitchen gardens and resulting rodent exposure to Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Matthieu; Vaniscotte, Amelie; Combes, Benoit; Umhang, Gerald; Germain, Estelle; Gouley, Valentin; Pierlet, Alice; Quintaine, Thomas; Forin-Wiart, Marie-Amelie; Villena, Isabelle; Aubert, Dominique; Boue, Franck; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine

    2018-03-08

    The faeces of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus), and the domestic cat, Felis catus (Linnaeus), can be responsible for spreading eggs of Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 and oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) into the environment. The accidental ingestion of these eggs or oocysts, through consumption of raw fruits or vegetables grown in or in contact with contaminated soil, can lead to alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or toxoplasmosis in humans. The present study provides a quantitative assessment of the faecal deposition by foxes and cats in kitchen gardens where fruits and vegetables are grown and its consequences for zoonosis transmission. The density of definitive host faeces is considered as one of the main factors in infection risk for intermediate hosts. The density of fox and cat faeces, as well as the prevalence of both AE and toxoplasmosis in rodent populations (contaminated by ingestion of eggs or oocysts), were compared within and outside kitchen gardens. Our results showed that the mean density of fox faeces did not significantly differ between kitchen gardens and habitat edges (0.29 ± 0.04 faeces/m 2 vs 0.22 ± 0.02 faeces/m 2 ), the latter being known as an area of high fox faeceal densities. The density of cat faeces was significantly higher within the kitchen garden than outside (0.86 ± 0.22 faeces/m 2 vs 0.04 ± 0.02 faeces/m 2 ). The sampled kitchen gardens might therefore be considered as possible hotspots for both fox and cat defecation. Of the 130 rodents trapped, 14% were infected by at least one species of fox or cat intestinal parasite. These rodents were significantly more often infected when they were exposed to a kitchen garden. These results suggest that the deposit of fox and cat faeces in kitchen gardens would significantly impact the risk of human exposure to E. multilocularis and T. gondii. and should be prevented using effective means.

  6. Successful and cost neutral strategies to increase organic food used in public kitchens: results from the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Brorson, B.; Lassen, Anne Dahl

    of practical strategies being effective in increasing the organic food used in the public kitchens.MethodsStudy design included baseline data collection, training sessions for all kitchens employees, goal setting, strategy development and implementation for each kitchen, and end point data collection...... baseline to end point were 29 percentage points (Pemployees were trained in the principles of organic food production. The organic price premium was covered within...... existing budget by optimizing the budget and menu planning, minimizing food waste, increase production of homemade food, focusing on seasonal food, and optimizing meat and fish consumption.ConclusionsThis study demonstrates a large potential for public kitchens to increase the level of organic food...

  7. Unimaginable homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kristian; Klausen, Maja

    2018-01-01

    The chapter draw from critical mediatization theory, critical intimacy theory, and cultural gerontology and asks: How do elderly people practice their mediatized homes? Which roles do media play in constituting and disturbing the flows of bodies into the home? Moreover: how do dominant...... in the making of the mediatized home space. We conclude by returning to the research questions and making explicit how researching flows of bodies that in many ways inhabit homes of the in-between contributes to both gerontological and geomediatization research agendas....

  8. Dimensions of taste qualifying didactic reflections on home economics education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    Aim: Traditionally and worldwide home economics education has been concerned with taste and flavorings based training associated with students cooking in the school kitchen. In contrast new educational research on food knowledge in the Danish public school shows that taste is used as a didactic...... review on children, learning, food and taste followed by analyses in a value reflective pedagogy perspective as well as quantitative and qualitative research in home economic education. This has been combined with systems theory developed by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann providing concepts...... element and "overtakes" more traditional didactic elements like motivation and active participation. The purpose of this proposal is to present a systematic model for qualifying reflections on taste in home economics and food education. The objective is to identify four dimensions of taste that can...

  9. Effect of Scale on Slab Heat Transfer in a Walking Beam Type Reheating Furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Man Young Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the effects of scale on thermal behavior of the slab in a walking-beam type reheating furnace is studied by considering scale formation and growth in a furnace environment. Also, mathematical heat transfer model to predict the thermal radiation in a complex shaped reheating furnace with slab and skid buttons is developed with combined nongray WSGGM and blocked-off solution procedure. The model can attack the heat flux distribution within the furnace and the temperature distribut...

  10. Energy conservation in industrial furnaces with vertical radiation roofs of reinforced refractory concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafe, E

    1981-01-01

    The paper discusses static systems for furnaces of reinforced refractory concrete, the temperature field over the finned-plate cross section, the calculation of the reinforced refractory concrete, experimental application in a flat open-hearth pusher furnace, a pack heating furnace, and a sinker furnace. There are cantilever beam plates, frames, and drop ceiling elements particularly suited for efficient use of high-performance burners.

  11. Concrete with steel furnace slag and fractionated reclaimed asphalt pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Steel furnace slag (SFS) is an industrial by-product material that can contain free calcium oxide (CaO) and free magnesium oxide (MgO), both : of which can cause significant expansion when hydrated. SFS aggregates are therefore not commonly used in c...

  12. REFINERY STAGE OF OXIDES RESTORATION IN ROTATIONAL FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of process of the iron-containing waste recycling in rotary tilting furnaces, in particular, to the phenomenon of formation of ball iron at transition from hard-phase to liquid-phase stage of iron restoration from scale.

  13. Analysis of a furnace for heat generation using polydisperse biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Edney Alves; Silva, Juarez de Sousa e; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Oliveira Filho, Delly [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Donzeles, Sergio Mauricio Lopes [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In many agro-industrial activities, the processing of raw material generates a substantial amount of fine materials. Examples include the production of soluble coffee, processing of rice, and wood processing, among others. In many regions, these by-products keep piling up on the courtyard of companies or become an environmental problem for land dumps. However, detailed tests of these byproducts indicate that they are excellent sources of energy. With this in mind, a furnace was developed to generate clean and hot air, using the alimentation system for pneumatic transport. Wood sawdust was used as fuel for analysis. The obtained results were considered satisfactory, proven by the small heat losses, primarily by the non-burned carbon monoxide (less than 0.2%) and the cooling of the furnace (less than 2.5%) whereas the losses by the exhaust gases were a little more than 23%. The thermal efficiency of the furnace was considered high when compared to others with an indirect heating system, obtaining an average value of 73%. The developed furnace, beyond being efficient, allows the use of the waste from the wood industry, which is important in the reduction of environmental impacts and minimizing production costs associated with the acquisition of conventional energy. (author)

  14. Optimization of burners in oxygen-gas fired glass furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersbergen, M.J. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Sarmiento-Darkin, W.; Kobayashi, H.

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency performance, production stability and emissions of oxygen-fired glass furnaces are influenced by the type of burner, burner nozzle sizes, burner positions, burner settings, oxygen-gas ratios and the fuel distribution among all the burners. These parameters have been optimized

  15. Modeling of evaporation processes in glass melting furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, van J.A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of glass furnaces worldwide, apply fossil fuel combustion to transfer heat directly by radiation from the combustion processes to the melting batch and glass melt. During these high temperature melting processes, some glass components, such as: sodium, potassium, boron and lead species

  16. Metal diffusion from furnace tubes depends on location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    Studies of metal samples from an ethylene furnace on the Texas Gulf Coast, using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX), reveal preferential diffusion of chromium, titanium, and aluminum in the coil wall to the surfaces of the tube where they form metal oxides. These elements are gradually depleted from the tube wall. Complicated surface reactions that include the formation of several metal oxides, metal sulfides, and metal-catalyzed coke also occur. Several mechanisms can be postulated as to how metal fines or compounds are formed and transferred in the coil and transfer lines exchanger (TLX) of ethylene units. These surface reactions directly or indirectly affect coke formation in the tube. Finally, creep in the coils is likely a factor in promoting corrosion. Such creep is promoted by variable temperature-time patterns to which a coil is exposed during pyrolysis, and then decoking. Periods of stress and compression occur in the coil walls. Knowledge of the diffusion and reactions that take place can result in better furnace operations and decoking procedures to extend the life of the furnace tubes. In this second installment of a four-part series, photomicrographs of four pyrolysis tube samples from the ethylene furnace indicate that significant differences existed between the outer surfaces, inner surfaces, and cross-sectional areas of the samples. The first installment of the series dealt with coke

  17. Development of synthetic graphite resistive elements for sintering furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, C.; Rezende, Mirabel C.; Polidoro, H.A.; Otani, S.

    1987-01-01

    The synthetic graphites have been produced using lignin coke, natural graphite and phenolic resin. The bulk density, porosity, flexural strength and eletrical resistivity measurements have been performed on specimens at about 2400 0 C. The performance of these materials, as heating elements, was evaluated in a sintering furnace prototype. This paper reports the fabrication process and the experimental results. (Author) [pt

  18. Studying and improving blast furnace cast iron quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. К. Balgabekov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are presented the results of studies to improve the quality of blast furnace cast iron. It was established that using fire clay suspension for increasing the mould covering heat conductivity improves significantly pig iron salable condition and filtration refining method decreases iron contamination by nonmetallic inclusions by 50 – 70 %.

  19. Fuzzy diagnosis of float-glass production furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaanenburg, L; TerHaseborg, H; Nijhuis, JAG; Reusch, B

    1997-01-01

    The industrial production of high-quality float-glass is usually supervised by the single human expert. It is of interest to formalize his empirical knowledge to support the furnace operator at all times during the day. The paper describes the systematic development of a fuzzy expert with 6 blocks

  20. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Jung, Jae Hee; Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2012-01-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO 2 and NO X emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO 2 -rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO 3 , which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO 3 sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO 2 atmosphere due to the higher CO 2 partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO 2 atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain–subgrain structure model in both the air and CO 2 atmospheres.

  1. Furnace Fire and Women: Agents of Iron Production and Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... production either in the decoration of technical ceramics or activities and usage of or exchanges of words among the workers during production activities. Such rich experience lends a means of putting together ingredients resulting in a material culture made of iron. Key words: Ethiopia, Oromo, myth, furnace, fire, women, ...

  2. Numerical modelling of an industrial glass-melting furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, S C [Brigham Young Univ., Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center, Provo, UT (United States); Webb, B W; McQuay, M Q [Brigham Young Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Provo, UT (United States); Newbold, J [Lockheed Aerospace, Denver, CO (United States)

    2000-03-01

    The predictive capability of two comprehensive combustion codes, PCGC-3 and FLUENT, to simulate local flame structure and combustion characteristics in a industrial gas-fired, flat-glass furnace is investigated. Model predictions are compared with experimental data from the furnace for profiles of velocity, species concentrations, temperatures, and wall-incident radiative heat flux. Predictions from both codes show agreement with the measured mean velocity profiles and incident radiant flux on the crown. However, significant differences between the code predictions and measurements are observed for the flame-ozone temperatures and species concentrations. The observed discrepancies may be explained by (i) uncertainties in the distributions of mean velocity and turbulence in the portneck, (ii) uncertainties in the port-by-port stoichiometry, (iii) different grid-based approximations to the furnace geometry made in the two codes, (iv) the assumption of infinitely fast chemistry made in the chemical reaction model of both codes, and (v) simplifying assumptions made in the simulations regarding the complex coupling between the combustion space, batch blanket, and melt tank. The study illustrates the critical need for accurate boundary conditions (inlet air and fuel flow distributions, boundary surface temperatures, etc.) and the importance of representative furnace geometry in simulating these complex industrial combustion systems. (Author)

  3. A review of NOx formation mechanisms in recovery furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, K.M.; Thompson, L.M.; Empie, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Review of NOx formation studies shows that NO forms in recovery furnaces primarily by two independent mechanisms, thermal and fuel. Thermal NO formation is extremely temperature-sensitive. However, theoretical predictions indicate that recovery furnace temperatures are not high enough to form significant thermal NO. Fuel NO formation is less temperature-sensitive, and is related to fuel nitrogen content. Black liquors are shown to contain 0.05 to 0.24 weight percent fuel nitrogen. Conversion of just 20% of this would yield approximately 25-120 ppm NOx (at 8% 0 2 ) in the flue gas, enough to represent the majority of the total NOx. Data from operating recovery furnaces show NOx emissions ranging from near zero to over 100 ppm at 8% 0 2 . An apparent increase in recovery furnace NOx emissions was observed with increasing solids. This increase is much less than predicted by thermal NO formation theory, indicating that other NO formation/destruction mechanisms, such as fuel NO formation, are important. No data are available to show the relative importance of thermal and fuel NO to total NOx during black liquor combustion

  4. Materials analyses of ceramics for glass furnace recuperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G.W.; Tennery, V.J.

    1979-11-01

    The use of waste heat recuperation systems offers significant promise for meaningful energy conservation in the process heat industries. This report details the analysis of candidate ceramic recuperator materials exposed to simulated industrial glass furnace hot flue gas environments. Several candidate structural ceramic materials including various types of silicon carbide, several grades of alumina, mullite, cordierite, and silicon nitride were exposed to high-temperature flue gas atmospheres from specially constructed day tank furnaces. Furnace charging, operation, and batch composition were selected to closely simulate industrial practice. Material samples were exposed in flues both with and without glass batch in the furnace for times up to 116 d at temperatures from 1150 to 1550/sup 0/C (2100 to 2800/sup 0/F). Exposed materials were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence to identify material degradation mechanisms. The materials observations were summarized as: Silicon carbide exhibited enhanced corrosion at lower temperatures (1150/sup 0/C) when alkalies were deposited on the carbide from the flue gas and less corrosion at higher temperatures (1550/sup 0/C) when alkalies were not deposited on the carbide; alumina corrosion depended strongly upon purity and density and alumina contents less than 99.8% were unsatisfactory above 1400/sup 0/C; and mullite and cordierite are generally unacceptable for application in soda-lime glass melting environments at temperatures above 1100/sup 0/C.

  5. Analyses of laser and furnace treated sol-gel coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hosson, JT; De Haas, M; Sudarshan, TS; Jeandin, M; Khor, KA

    1998-01-01

    Here we explore a new method that allows thin films to be made with almost any composition and degree of porosity by means of a combination of sol-gel and laser technology. Results are presented for furnace and laser treated TEOTI-(tetraethylorthotitanate as sol precursor) coated silicon samples.

  6. Analysis of combustion efficiency in a pelletizing furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Simões Vieira de Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research is to assess how much the improvement in the combustion reaction efficiency can reduce fuel consumption, maintaining the same thermal energy rate provided by the reaction in a pelletizing furnace. The furnace for pelletizing iron ore is a complex thermal machine, in terms of energy balance. It contains recirculation fan gases and constant variations in the process, and the variation of a single process variable can influence numerous changes in operating conditions. This study demonstrated how the main variables related to combustion in the burning zone influence fuel consumption (natural gas from the furnace of the Usina de Pelotização de Fábrica (owned by VALE S/A, without changing process conditions that affect production quality. Variables were analyzed regarding the velocity and pressure of the fuel in the burners, the temperature of the combustion air and reactant gases, the conversion rate and the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio of the reaction. For the analysis, actual data of the furnace in operation was used, and for the simulation of chemical reactions, the software Gaseq® was used. The study showed that the adjustment of combustion reaction stoichiometry provides a reduction of 9.25% in fuel consumption, representing a savings of US$ 2.6 million per year for the company.

  7. Reliability of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the comparative efficiency of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) for trace analysis of arsenic (As) in natural herbal products (NHPs). Method: Arsenic analysis in natural herbal products and standard reference ...

  8. A REVIEW OF MILD COMBUSTION AND OPEN FURNACE DESIGN CONSIDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Noor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Combustion is still very important to generate energy. Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution (MILD combustion is one of the best new technologies for clean and efficient combustion. MILD combustion has been proven to be a promising combustion technology in industrial applications with decreased energy consumption due to the uniformity of its temperature distribution. It is clean compared to traditional combustion due to producing low NOx and CO emissions. This article provides a review and discussion of recent research and developments in MILD. The issue and applications are summarized, with some suggestions presented on the upgrading and application of MILD in the future. Currently MILD combustion has been successfully applied in closed furnaces. The preheating of supply air is no longer required since the recirculation inside the enclosed furnace already self-preheats the supply air and self-dilutes the oxygen in the combustion chamber. The possibility of using open furnace MILD combustion will be reviewed. The design consideration for open furnace with exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR was discussed.

  9. [Study of relationship between consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon on plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masako; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko

    2009-10-01

    Consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated as indices of total organic matter migrated into water from plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys for children. The samples were soaked in water at 60 or 95 degrees C for 30 min for kitchen utensils and food packages, and at 40 degrees C for 30 min for toys and the eluates were examined, using the two indices. The quantitation limits were both 0.5 microg/mL. Among 97 kitchen utensils and food packages tested, consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC were 0.5-10.9 microg/mL and ND-18.9 microg/mL for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tea-pot spouts and nylon kitchen utensils, respectively. Among 32 toys tested, the levels were 0.8-45.5 microg/mL and 0.5-8.9 microg/mL from PVC toys and block toys made by ethylene vinyl acetate resin. The levels for other samples were very low. There were large discrepancies between consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC for some PVC products and nylon kitchen utensils. The cause may be a marked difference of the oxidation decomposition rate by potassium permanganate, depending on the kind of organic matter that migrated from the plastics.

  10. Isolation and Quantification of Polyamide Cyclic Oligomers in Kitchen Utensils and Their Migration into Various Food Simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Mutsuga, Motoh; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Yoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Small amounts of cyclic monomers and oligomers are present in polyamide (PA)-based kitchen utensils. In this study, we isolated eight PA-based cyclic monomers and oligomers from kitchen utensils made from PA6 (a polymer of ε-caprolactam) and PA66 (a polymer of 1,6-diaminohexane and adipic acid). Their structures were identified using high-resolution mass spectrometry and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and their residual levels in PA-based kitchen utensils and degree of migration into food simulants were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry using purchased PA6 monomer and isolated PA66 monomers, and isolated PA6 and PA66 oligomers as calibration standards. Their total residual levels among 23 PA-based kitchen utensils made from PA6, PA66, and copolymers of PA6 and PA66 (PA6/66) ranged from 7.8 to 20 mg/g. Using water, 20% ethanol, and olive oil as food simulants, the total migration levels of the PA monomers and oligomers ranged from 0.66 to 100 μg/cm2 under most examined conditions. However, the total migration levels of the PA66 monomer and oligomers from PA66 and PA6/66 kitchen utensils into 20% ethanol at 95°C were very high (1,700 and 2,200 μg/cm2, respectively) due to swelling by high-temperature ethanol.

  11. Study the velocity and pressure exerted in front of the filter surface in the kitchen hood system by using ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmuin, Norzelawati; Pairan, M. Rasidi; Isa, Norasikin Mat; Sies, Farid

    2017-04-01

    Commercial kitchen hood ventilation system is a device used to capture and filtered the plumes from cooking activities in the kitchen area. Nowadays, it is very popular in the industrial sector such as restaurant and hotel to provide hygiene food. This study focused at the KSA filter part which installed in the kitchen hood system, the purpose of this study is to identify the critical region which indicated by observing the velocity and pressure of plumes exerted at of KSA filter. It is important to know the critical location of the KSA filter in order to install the nozzle which will helps increase the filtration effectiveness. The ANSYS 16.1 (FLUENT) software as a tool used to simulate the kitchen hood systems which consist of KSA filter. The commercial kitchen hood system model has a dimension 700 mm width, 1600 mm length and 555 mm height. The system has two inlets and one outlet. The velocity of the plumes is set to be 0.235m/s and the velocity of the inlet capture jet is set to be 1.078m/s. The KSA filter is placed 45 degree from the y axis. The result shows the plumes has more tendency flowing pass through at the bottom part of KSA filter.

  12. Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, A. N., E-mail: tgtu-kafedra-ese@mail.ru [Tver State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces.

  13. 10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431... CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces § 431.72 Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart D, and of subparts...

  14. 76 FR 56339 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ...) which covered furnaces (but not boilers), and it establishes amended energy efficiency standards for... Database for Residential Furnaces and Boilers,\\7\\ and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency's Qualifying...\\ Consortium of Energy Efficiency, Qualifying Furnace and Boiler List (2010) (Available at: http://www.cee1.org...

  15. 46 CFR 59.15-5 - Stayed furnaces and combustion chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stayed furnaces and combustion chambers. 59.15-5 Section... and combustion chambers. (a) Where the plate forming the walls of stayed furnaces or combustion... wall of a stayed furnace or combustion chamber, the defective portion of the plate shall be cut away...

  16. 75 FR 41102 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public Comment Period AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... work of residential heating and cooling systems (``furnace fans''). The comment period closed on July 6... information relevant to the furnace fan rulemaking will be accepted until July 27, 2010. ADDRESSES: Interested...

  17. Efficient use of power in electric arc furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, E R; Medley, J E

    1978-02-01

    The maximum transfer of electric energy to the metal in an arc furnace depends on the length of arc and the impedance of the electrical supply system from the generators to the arc itself. The use of directly-reduced sponge iron by continuous feeding results in long periods of flat-bath operation, when it is particularly important to keep a short high-current arc to get the heat into the metal rather than to the refractories, which would suffer excessive wear. By reference to a 125 ton furnace, a method of assessing the optimum operating currents and power factors and the effects of differing power-supply systems is illustrated. The importance of a low-impedance power system is illustrated, and the possibility of being unable to use the maximum furnace power without excessive refractory wear is noted. The particular problems of connecting arc-furnace loads to electrical supply systems are reviewed, and consideration is given to the problem of voltage flicker. The use of compensators is discussed with reference to existing installations, in which strong supplies from the supply-authority system are not economically available. The furnace operating characteristics, which indicate the optimum points of working, have to be checked on commissioning, and the test procedures are outlined. The optimum points for each type of charge and steel can be assessed only during their actual production. The importance of proper recording of relevant data is stressed, and reference is made to the use of computers and automatic power-input controllers.

  18. Numerical study of particle filtration in an induction crucible furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, Amjad; Kratzsch, Christoph; Dudczig, Steffen; Aneziris, Christos G.; Schwarze, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Removing particles from a melt in an induction furnace by using a filter is introduced. • The effect of filter and its permeability on the melt flow is shown. • The impact of filter permeability and particle diameter on filter efficiency is studied. • The filter efficiency depends on filter position and number of the used filter. - Abstract: The present paper deals with a numerical investigation of the turbulent melt flow driven by the electromagnetic force in an induction furnace. The main scope of the paper is to present a new principle to remove non-metallic particles from steel melt in an induction furnace by immersing a porous filter in the melt. The magnetic field acting on the melt is calculated by using the open source software MaxFEM"®, while the turbulent flow is simulated by means of the open source computational fluid dynamics library OpenFOAM"®. The validation of the numerical model is accomplished by using experimental results for the flow without the immersed filter. Here it is shown that the time-averaged flow, obtained numerically is in a good quantitive agreement with the experimental data. Then, the validated numerical model is employed to simulate the melt flow with the immersed filter in the induction furnace of a new type of real steel casting simulator investigated at Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg. The considerable effect of the filter on the flow pattern is indicated in the present work. Moreover, it is shown that the filter permeability and its position have a significant influence on the melt flow in the induction furnace. Additionally, particles are injected in the flow domain and tracked by using Lagrangian framework. In this case, the efficiency of the used filter is determined in the present investigation depending on its permeability, its position and the particles diameter.

  19. Indoor air pollution and its association with poor lung function, microalbuminuria and variations in blood pressure among kitchen workers in India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amarnath; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Kamal, Ritul; Bihari, Vipin; Ansari, Afzal; Azeez, Parappurath Abdul; Saxena, Prem Narain; Ks, Anil Kumar; Khan, Altaf Hussain

    2017-04-04

    The present study is an attempt to explore the association between kitchen indoor air pollutants and physiological profiles in kitchen workers with microalbuminuria (MAU) in north India (Lucknow) and south India (Coimbatore). The subjects comprised 145 control subjects, 233 kitchen workers from north India and 186 kitchen workers from south India. Information related to the personal and occupational history and health of the subjects at both locations were collected using a custom-made questionnaire. Worker lung function was measured using a spirometer. Blood pressure was monitored using a sphygmomanometer. Urinary MAU was measured using a urine analyzer. Indoor air monitoring in kitchens for particulate matter (PM), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) was conducted using indoor air quality monitors. The size and shape of PM in indoor air was assessed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to detect organic or inorganic compounds in the air samples. Particulate matter concentrations (PM 2.5 and PM 1 ) were significantly higher in both north and south Indian kitchens than in non-kitchen areas. The concentrations of TVOC, CO and CO 2 were higher in the kitchens of north and south India than in the control locations (non-kitchen areas). Coarse, fine and ultrafine particles and several elements were also detected in kitchens in both locations by SEM and elemental analysis. The FTIR spectra of kitchen indoor air at both locations show the presence of organic chemicals. Significant declines in systolic blood pressure and lung function were observed in the kitchen workers with MAU at both locations compared to those of the control subjects. A higher prevalence of obstruction cases with MAU was observed among the workers in the southern region than in the controls (p workers in south India have lower lung capacities and a greater risk of obstructive and

  20. Occupational Dermatoses Among Kitchen Workers In A Chain Of Vegetarian Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai Reena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify occupation related skin problems among hotel workers. One thousand three hindered and ninety employees of a chain of vegetarian hotels were examined. Of the 273 people working in the kitchen, 206 (75.4% had dermatosis related to work. The Kitchen workers were classified according to the type of work they routinely performed. Forty eight out of the 63 (76.1% cooks who were involved in stirring had callosity at sites of contact with ladle and 28 of the40 (70% cooks who were involved in frying had pigmentation and scars due to contact with hot oil and water. All the onion peelers had staining and fissuring of the palmer aspect of the fingers. Thirty two of the 46(69.5% vegetable cutters had callosity on the palm at areas of contact with knife. Poori markers had pigmentation and callosity of knuckles due to pressing the dough with their knuckles. Nine of the 12 (66% rice cleaners had chapping of nails. Seven of the 12 (58.3% paratha markers had erythema of palm due to contact with hot tava. Tandoori experts had singing of hair over right forearm. Two workers (0.73% had pigmentation of the face probably due to prolonged exposure to heat. Two of the16 (12.5% grinders had paronychia and onychomycosis due to constant contact with water and dough. Nine of the 15 (60% coconut graters had callosities of the palms. We conclude the minor occupational dermatosis is prevalent among kitchen workers employed in hotels

  1. UTILIZATION OF POULTRY, COW AND KITCHEN WASTES FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Animasahun

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The amount of solid wastes generated in developing countries such as Nigeria has steadily increased over the last two decades as a result of population explosion and continuous growth of industries and agricultural practices. In agriculture, particularly cattle rearing, large quantities of cow wastes are generated, which could be used as biogas inputs to compliment the fuel usage alternative. In addition, a large number of families generate heavy wastes in the kitchen on a daily basis, which could be converted to economic benefits. In this work, a comparative study of biogas production from poultry droppings, cattle dung, and kitchen wastes was conducted under the same operating conditions. 3kg of each waste was mixed with 9L of water and loaded into the three waste reactors. Biogas production was measured for a period of 40 days and at an average temperature of 30.5oC. Biogas production started on the 7th day, and attained maximum value on the 14th days for reactor 1. Production reached its peak on the 14th day with 85´10-3dm3 of gas produced in reactor 2. For reactor 3, biogas production started on the 8th day and production reached a peak value on the 14th day. The average biogas production from poultry droppings, cow dung and kitchen waste was 0.0318dm3/day, 0.0230dm3/day and 0.0143dm3/day, respectively. It is concluded that the wastes can be managed through conversion into biogas, which is a source of income generation for the society.

  2. Brominated flame retardants in black plastic kitchen utensils: Concentrations and human exposure implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jiangmeng; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Harrad, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Concerns exist that restricted brominated flame retardants (BFRs) present in waste polymers may have, as a result of recycling, inadvertently contaminated items not required to meet flame retardancy regulations (e.g. plastic kitchen utensils). To investigate the extent to which kitchen utensils are contaminated with BFRs and the potential for resultant human exposure, we collected 96 plastic kitchen utensils and screened for Br content using a hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. Only 3 out of 27 utensils purchased after 2011 contained detectable concentrations of Br (≥3μg/g). In contrast, Br was detected in 31 out of the 69 utensils purchased before 2011. Eighteen utensils with Br content higher than 100μg/g, and 12 new utensils were selected for GC-MS analysis of BFRs. BFRs targeted were polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209, and novel BFRs (NBFRs) pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE). The ability of XRF to act as a surrogate metric of BFR concentration was indicated by a significant (Spearman coefficient=0.493; p=0.006) positive relationship between Br and ΣBFR concentration. Measurements of ΣBFRs were always exceeded by those of Br. This may be due partly to the presence of BFRs not targeted in our study and also to reduced extraction efficiency of BFRs from utensils. Of our target BFRs, BDE-209 was the most abundant one in most samples, but an extremely high concentration (1000μg/g) of BTBPE was found in one utensil. Simulated cooking experiments were conducted to investigate BFR transfer from selected utensils (n=10) to hot cooking oil, with considerable transfer (20% on average) observed. Estimated median exposure via cooking with BFR contaminated utensils was 60ng/day for total BFRs. In contrast, estimated

  3. Case study of the effectiveness of passive grease trap for management on domestic kitchen waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidzamuddin, M. Y.; Juffrizal, K.; Mustapha, F.; Zulfattah, Z. M.; Tan, C. F.; Taha, M. M.; Hidayah, I.; Hilwa, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Household waste, generally known as trash or garbage is mostly includes food wastes, product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes that are coming from domestic household. Grease waste such as oil and fats can contaminate water and also clot on pipes provoking blockages. Thus, waste water from kitchen sink need a proper way of filtration. Grease trap developed in this paper is viable in trapping the grease residue. The experiments have been conducted in controlled environment and the objectives are to investigate the effectiveness of grease trap by proving the existence of retention time and the expected ratio of collected water and oil during experiment process using a prototype model.

  4. Metallurgy of mercury in Almaden: from aludel furnaces until Pacific furnaces; La metalurgia del mercurio en Almaden: desde los hornos de aludeles a los hornos Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejero-Manzanares, J.; Garrido Saenz, I.; Mata Cabrera, F.; Rubio Mesas, M. L.

    2014-07-01

    This paper shows the different types of furnaces for roasting cinnabar, used in the metallurgy of quicksilver over the centuries of exploitation of the Almaden Mines (Spain). Some of these techniques are part of our industrial heritage. They have contributed to name UNESCO World Heritage Site the vast technological legacy of these mines recently. This research contributes to close the long way of metallurgical activity from aludel furnaces until Pacif furnaces, first and lasted technology to produce on an industrial scale. It is delved into the most relevant aspects having to do with the type, evolution and number of furnaces existing on each of the periods. (Author)

  5. CFD simulation of gas and particles combustion in biomass furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griselin, Nicolas

    2000-11-01

    In this thesis, gas and particle combustion in biomass furnaces is investigated numerically. The aim of this thesis is to use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology as an effective computer based simulation tool to study and develop the combustion processes in biomass furnaces. A detailed model for the numerical simulation of biomass combustion in a furnace, including fixed-bed modeling, gas-phase calculation (species distribution, temperature field, flow field) and gas-solid two-phase interaction for flying burning particles is presented. This model is used to understand the mechanisms of combustion and pollutant emissions under different conditions in small scale and large scale furnaces. The code used in the computations was developed at the Division of Fluid Mechanics, LTH. The flow field in the combustion enclosure is calculated by solving the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, with standard {kappa} - {epsilon} turbulence closure, together with the energy conservation equation and species transport equations. Discrete transfer method is used for calculating the radiation source term in the energy conservation equation. Finite difference is used to solve the general form of the equation yielding solutions for gas-phase temperatures, velocities, turbulence intensities and species concentrations. The code has been extended through this work in order to include two-phase flow simulation of particles and gas combustion. The Favre-averaged gas equations are solved in a Eulerian framework while the submodels for particle motion and combustion are used in the framework of a Lagrangian approach. Numerical simulations and measurement data of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), CO, H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and temperature on the top of the fixed bed are used to model the amount of tar and char formed during pyrolysis and combustion of biomass fuel in the bed. Different operating conditions are examined. Numerical calculations are compared with the measured data. It is

  6. Fuel sparing: Control of industrial furnaces using process gas as supplemental fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisvert, Patrick G.; Runstedtler, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Combustible gases from industrial processes can be used to spare purchased fuels such as natural gas and avoid wasteful flaring of the process gases. One of the challenges of incorporating these gases into other furnaces is their intermittent availability. In order to incorporate the gases into a continuously operating furnace, the furnace control system must be carefully designed so that the payload is not affected by the changing fuel. This paper presents a transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of an industrial furnace that supplements natural gas with carbon monoxide during furnace operation. A realistic control system of the furnace is simulated as part of the CFD calculation. The time dependent changes in fuels and air injection on the furnace operation is observed. It is found that there is a trade-off between over-controlling the furnace, which results in too sensitive a response to normal flow oscillations, and under-controlling, which results in a lagged response to the fuel change. - Highlights: •Intermittently available process gases used in a continuously operating furnace. •Study shows a trade-off between over-controlling and under-controlling the furnace. •Over-controlling: response too sensitive to normal flow oscillations. •Under-controlling: lagged response to changing fuel composition. •Normal flow oscillations in furnace would not be apparent in steady-state model

  7. Oil and grease (O&G) removal from commercial kitchen waste water using carbonised grass as a key media

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat Siti Nazahiyah; Mohd Ali Ahmad Zurisman; Wan Ibrahim Mohd Haziman; Alias Nur Azrena

    2017-01-01

    Oil and grease (O&G) are usually found in kitchen waste water. O&G are poorly soluble in water and can cause serious problems during the wastewater treatment. Adsorption is a fundamental process in the treatment of kitchen waste water and very economical. Activated carbon is the most effective adsorbent for this application. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to determine the potential of four materials (i.e. sand, gravel, carbonised grass (CG) and clay powder) as filter media for O&G...

  8. Feasibility study of utilizing solar furnace technology in steel making industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaspoursani, K. [The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Takestan Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: a.abbaspour@tiau.ac.ir; Tofigh, A.A.; Nahang Toudeshki, S.; Hadadian, A. [Department of Energy, Materials and Energy Research Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: Ali.A.Tofigh@gmail.com, email: toudeshki@hotmail.com, email: Arash.Hadadian@gmail.com; Farahmandpour, B. [Iranian Fuel Conservation company (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: farahmandpour@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In Iran, the casting industry consumes 33.6% of electricity production, and most of this electricity is used in the melting process. Currently, scrap preheating is done using electric arc furnaces and the aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of replacing electric arc furnaces with solar furnaces. The performance of solar furnaces in the Iran Alloy Steel Company under Yazd climate conditions was studied. It was found that the solar irradiation time and solar insulation are sufficient to operate a solar furnace with the capacity to preheat 250 thousand tons per year of scrap to 500 degrees celsius. Results showed that such a furnace would decrease energy consumption by 40 GWh per year and that it would take 5 years to return the investment. This study demonstrated that operating a solar furnace in the Iran Alloy Steel Company under Yazd climate conditions is feasible and would result in economic and environmental benefits.

  9. Investigation and analysis of the usefulness of the Zellik method to design energy conserving electric furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, L.; Fay, G.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics predetermined by the method Zellik in designing the electrical furnaces isolated traditionally are comparable with measured values of furnaces in operation. The newest furnaces have been built with isolation resulting in a lower energy consumption. To plot the static characteristics, the furnace was heated up three times to the steady state. In determining the static heat capacity the stored heat was measured by the conventional method. With a view to determining the kinetic heat capacity the furnace was heated up at different rates. On the base of the operating results of the furnace can be stated both the practicability of the method Zellik and the improvement of the characteristics of the furnace isolated with fibrous material.

  10. Radon water to air transfer measured in a bathroom in an energy-efficient home with a private well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, Naomi H.; Chittaporn, Passaporn; Cook, Gordon B.; Fisenne, Isabel M.

    2014-01-01

    Monthly measurements of radon in kitchen and bath tap water along with indoor air concentrations were made from 1994 to 1996 in an energy-efficient home with a private well. The well supplies all water to the home. The radon in cold and hot kitchen water averaged 69±2 and 52±2 Bq l -1 , respectively. Radon in cold and hot water from the bath/shower room shower head averaged 60±1 and 38±2 Bq l -1 , respectively, whereas hot water collected in the shower at the tub base averaged 5±1 Bq l -1 or a 92 % radon loss to air. While the calculated transfer factor of 1/10 000, i.e. radon concentration in air to radon in water, conventionally applies to the whole house, measurements for the specific water release during showering in a bathroom exhibit a larger transfer factor of 1/2300, due to smaller room volume. (authors)

  11. Simplex-centroid mixture formulation for optimised composting of kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, N; Chin, N L

    2010-11-01

    Composting is a good recycling method to fully utilise all the organic wastes present in kitchen waste due to its high nutritious matter within the waste. In this present study, the optimised mixture proportions of kitchen waste containing vegetable scraps (V), fish processing waste (F) and newspaper (N) or onion peels (O) were determined by applying the simplex-centroid mixture design method to achieve the desired initial moisture content and carbon-to-nitrogen (CN) ratio for effective composting process. The best mixture was at 48.5% V, 17.7% F and 33.7% N for blends with newspaper while for blends with onion peels, the mixture proportion was 44.0% V, 19.7% F and 36.2% O. The predicted responses from these mixture proportions fall in the acceptable limits of moisture content of 50% to 65% and CN ratio of 20-40 and were also validated experimentally. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbiological Quality of Food Contact Surfaces in A Hospital Kitchen in Shiraz, Iran, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Baghapour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The consumption of healthy food is considered as an essential need to devoid the physical, chemical, and biological hazards. The importance of this issue is more conspicuous in places such as hospitals where people with somehow compromised immune systems are under treatment. Therefore, this research aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of food contact surfaces in a kitchen in one of the hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In the present study, samples were taken from 48 food contact surfaces according to ISO 18593:2004(E and placed into the bags containing diluting solution; they were then transferred to the laboratory for microbial analysis in the cold chain. The microbial analysis was carried out according to ISO 4833-1:2013 and BS ISO 4832:2006 for enumeration of total bacterial count and coliform. Results: Based on the results presented here, 39.6% and 85.7% of the samples showed acceptable contamination with regard to the enumeration of total bacterial and coliform count. Besides, 18.2% and 72.7 % of work surfaces groups (cutting board, table, and hand showed acceptable contamination with regard to the enumeration of total bacterial count and coliform in comparison to the standards. Furthermore, 45.9% and 89.2% of other surfaces showed acceptable total bacterial and coliform count, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that safe management of the kitchen, education of the staff and also improvement of the equipment used are necessary.

  13. Occupational Allergic Diseases in Kitchen and Health Care Workers: An Underestimated Health Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Bilge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated the frequencies of allergic symptoms and rate of upper respiratory infections during the past year in the general population, kitchen workers (KW and health care workers (HCW. Methods. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS was used to inquire retrospectively about asthma and asthma-like symptoms and the number of treatments required for previous upper respiratory tract infections (URTI: acute pharyngitis, acute sinusitis, etc. during the past year for health care workers, kitchen workers, and members of the general population. Adjusted odds ratios by gender, age, and smoking status were calculated. Results. 579 subjects (186 from the general population, 205 KW, and 188 HCW; 263 females, 316 males participated in the study. Noninfectious (allergic rhinitis was significantly higher in the HCW and KW groups than in the general population (P<0.001. Cumulative asthma was significantly higher only in the HCW group (P<0.05. In addition, the HCW and KW groups had significantly higher risks of ≥2/year URTI (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07–2.38 versus OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.05–2.38 than the general population. Conclusion. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases are an important and growing health issue. Health care providers should become familiar with workplace environments and environmental causes of occupational rhinitis and asthma.

  14. Residents’ Preferences for Household Kitchen Waste Source Separation Services in Beijing: A Choice Experiment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A source separation program for household kitchen waste has been in place in Beijing since 2010. However, the participation rate of residents is far from satisfactory. This study was carried out to identify residents’ preferences based on an improved management strategy for household kitchen waste source separation. We determine the preferences of residents in an ad hoc sample, according to their age level, for source separation services and their marginal willingness to accept compensation for the service attributes. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the data, collected from 394 residents in Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing City through a choice experiment. The results show there are differences of preferences on the services attributes between young, middle, and old age residents. Low compensation is not a major factor to promote young and middle age residents accept the proposed separation services. However, on average, most of them prefer services with frequent, evening, plastic bag attributes and without instructor. This study indicates that there is a potential for local government to improve the current separation services accordingly.

  15. Model of Chinese Household Kitchen Waste Separation Behavior: A Case Study in Beijing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High participation rates by the public in authority projects are key in increasing resident recycling levels. Understanding waste separation behavior is crucial to achieving sustainable waste management within such household-based schemes. To identify the driving forces behind the seldom-discussed kitchen garbage separation behavior, five psychological factors, namely, attitude, perceived behavior control, subjective norms, moral norms, and responsibility denial, are established. Our data originate from a social study of Beijing citizens conducted in July 2013 (n = 362. Through structural equation modeling, we find that moral norms are consistently the most important predictor of household kitchen waste (KW separation behavior. Subjective norms have a larger effect on such behavior than responsibility denial. Data analysis shows that perceived behavior control contributes significantly and independently to the explanation of such behavior. By contrast, attitude towards KW separation is found to be significantly negatively correlated with separation behavior. In conclusion, the model with direct and indirect effects of psychological factors explains 50.3% of the variance in household KW source separation behavior. Implications of the results for the promotion of household KW separation programs are discussed.

  16. [Study on the chemical components of edible oil fume in kitchen and its genotoxity on Drosophila].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Wang, Y; Zhang, J; Zhao, X

    1999-01-30

    To study the chemical components of the condensate of edible oil fume in kitchen and its genotoxicity on Drosophila. Analysis for the chemical components was carried out by gas chromatography and mass spectra (GC/MS) and its genotoxicity was studied by sex linked recessive lethal (SLRL) test in Drosophila. A total of 74 organic compounds were found in samples of condensed oil from the fume in kitchen. It included hydroxylic acids, hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones, aromatic compounds, and steroids, etc. The total mutagenicity rates in SLRL test induced by the samples at concentrations of 110,320 and 960 mg/L were 0.1732%, 0.4306% and 0.1707% respectively. The sterility rates of the first broods were 2.564%, 2.056% and 2.845% at above 3 concentrations respectively(P < 0.05, as compared with the control). The mutagenicity rate of the second brood at 320 mg/L was 0.530% and that of the third brood at 110 mg/L 0.540%(P < 0.001). Some of the compounds in the condensate of edible oil fume were proved to have high recessive lethal effect and genotoxic effect on the reproductive system of Drosophila.

  17. Substitution of the burning PRIOR SSB 10 for SSB7 in the Furnace 10 of the Company Major Ernesto Che Guevara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivett María Ramírez-Pérez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental causes of massive destruction of chambers and vaults in the Furnace of Reduction at the Ernesto Che Guevara Factory is due to operate the combustion chambers with excess of contribution of heat, causing that the flame of very high temperature penetrates into the homes, affecting the throats of the chambers, the vaults, teeth and arms. The burners current are Prior SSB10. In this paper is demonstrated that the burning Prior SSB 10 have double productivity that the SSB 7 with the same quantity of air to the burner. It is evaluated the substitution of the burning Prior SSB 10 by SSB 7 on the operation of the Furnace of Reduction No. 10 at the Ernesto Che Guevara (ECG Factory. Demonstrating that the change not produce variations in the operation.

  18. The effectiveness of the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 to increase the level of organic public procurement in Danish public kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Nørgaard; Tetens, Inge; Løje, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    and after kitchen employees participated in conversion projects. Public kitchens participating in the nine organic food conversion projects under the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020, initiated during autumn 2012 and spring 2013 and completed in summer 2015. A total of 622 public kitchens. The average...... (median) increase in organic food percentage from baseline to follow-up was 24 percentage points (Pincrease remained significant for seven out of eight kitchens. Furthermore......’, ‘menu planning’, ‘network’ and ‘Organic Cuisine Label method’ to ensure successful implementation. The study reports significant increases in the level of organic food procurement among public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Recommendations for future organic conversion...

  19. Machiavelli's Kitchen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R. ten

    2002-01-01

    Berlin's ideas about value pluralism are used in order to criticize business ethics. These ideas can be traced back to Machiavelli, a philosopher who has been remarkably popular among managers and business leaders. The first part of the article, therefore, enters into why Berlin thought Machiavelli

  20. Kitchen Thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or in bird) 165 Eggs and Egg Dishes Eggs Cook until yolk and white are firm Egg dishes 160 Leftovers and Casseroles 165 *These temperatures are recommended for consumer cooking. They are not intended for processing, institutional, or ...

  1. Chemical energy in electro arc furnace - examples from experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shushlevski, Ljupcho; Georgievski, Panche; Hadzhidaovski, Ilija

    2004-01-01

    Great competition on the market in steel-producing and chemical lack of electrical energy leads to realization of new project in section Steelworks AD 'Makstil' - Skopje named: 'Substitution of electrical energy i.e. entering of additional chemical energy in Electrical arc furnace for steel melting using fuels-naturual gas (CH 4 ), oxygen (O 2 ) and carbon (C)'. It is accumulate experience from two and one half year of intensive use of chemical energy with its accompanying problems, appropriate efficiency and economy in process for steel producing. In 2001 year we announced and described project for using of an additional alternative chemical energy in aggregate Electrical are furnace. In this work we will present realization, working experience and efficiency of the system for generating chemical energy. Practical realization needs serious approach in chemical energy usage The usage of chemical energy brings restrictions and needs many innovation for protection of equipment from shown aggressiveness during the combustion of fuel gasses. (Author)

  2. Advanced wood burning furnaces. 2. rev. ed.; Moderne Holzfeuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, W. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    New and environment-friendly technologies meet high requirements in terms of emission reduction and comfort of operation. In the field of wood burning furnaces, there is still a lack of knowledge which results in excessive cost, environmental pollution and loss of image. This brochure shows how wood furnaces should be operated correctly and also reviews the state of the art. [German] Durch die technische Entwicklung neuer, wirkungsvoller und vor allem umweltfreundlicher Heiztechniken wird zudem den in den letzten Jahren gestiegenen Anforderungen an den Emissionsschutz und den Bedienungskomfort Rechnung getragen. Mit Holz wird jedoch z. T. nicht immer richtig geheizt. Das kostet Geld und fuehrt zu vermeidbaren Umweltbelastungen und Imageschaeden. Ziel dieser Broschuere ist es daher, mit den Techniken des Heizens mit Holz vertraut zu machen und einen Ueberblick ueber den heutigen Stand zu geben. (orig.)

  3. Simulating the heat transfer process of horizontal anode baking furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Q. Zhang; C.G. Zheng; M.H. Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2005-07-01

    A transient two-dimensional mathematical model of a horizontal baking furnace is presented. The model combines complex thermal phenomena in a baking process such as air infiltration, evolution and combustion of volatile matters, combustion of packing coke, and heat losses. The predicted results are in good agreement with measured data. Furthermore, the process is simulated under different operating conditions such as firing cycle time, airflow and air infiltration. The simulated results indicate that the fuel consumption decreases as the firing cycle time decreases. It is also found that reducing the airflow and air infiltration will help to save fuel. The model is proved to be a useful tool for the process optimisation of the baking furnace in the aluminum industry.

  4. Simulation, optimization and control of a thermal cracking furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoumi, M.E.; Sadrameli, S.M.; Towfighi, J.; Niaei, A.

    2006-01-01

    The ethylene production process is one of the most important aspect of a petrochemical plant and the cracking furnace is the heart of the process. Since, ethylene is one of the raw materials in the chemical industry and the market situation of not only the feed and the product, but also the utility is rapidly changing, the optimal operation and control of the plant is important. A mathematical model, which describes the static and dynamic operations of a pilot plant furnace, was developed. The static simulation was used to predict the steady-state profiles of temperature, pressure and products yield. The dynamic simulation of the process was used to predict the transient behavior of thermal cracking reactor. Using a dynamic programming technique, an optimal temperature profile was developed along the reactor. Performances of temperature control loop were tested for different controller parameters and disturbances. The results of the simulation were tested experimentally in a computer control pilot plant

  5. Performance characterization of the SERI High-Flux Solar Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, A.; Bingham, C. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (United States)); O' Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.; Sagie, D. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes a unique, new solar furnace at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) that can generate a wide range of flux concentrations to support research in areas including materials processing, high-temperature detoxification and high-flux optics. The furnace is unique in that it uses a flat, tracking heliostat along with a long focal length-to-diameter (f/D) primary concentrator in an off-axis configuration. The experiments are located inside a building completely outside the beam between the heliostat and primary concentrator. The long f/D ratio of the primary concentrator was designed to take advantage of a nonimaging secondary concentrator to significantly increase the flux concentration capabilities of the system. Results are reported for both the single-stage and two-stage configurations. (orig.).

  6. Through-furnace for burning solid organic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmler, G.; Schlich, E.

    1984-01-01

    The through-furnace for burning radio-active organic solid waste consists of a reaction pipe heated from the outside, an input device and an output device. A solid pump is used as the input device, which has a common longitudinal axis with the reaction pipe. The reaction pipe is widened in the transport direction of the combustion pipe, where the angle between the longitudinal axis and the pipe wall is 0.5 to 5 0 . The pipe wall is wholely or partially permeable to gas. The thermal treatment of the solid organic substances can occur by combustion or by pyrohydrolysis or pyrolysis in the through-furnace. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Water cooling system for sintering furnaces of nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work has as a main objective to develop a continuous cooling water system, which is necessary for the cooling of the sintering furnaces. This system is used to protect them as well as for reducing the water consumption, ejecting the heat generated into this furnaces and scattering it into the atmosphere in a fast and continuous way. The problem was defined and the reference parameters established, making the adequate research. The materials were selected as well as the length of the pipeline which will carry the secondary refrigerant fluid (water). Three possible solutions were tried,and evaluated, and from these, the thermal and economically most efficient option was selected. The layout of the solution was established and the theoretical construction of a cooling system for liquids using dichlorofluoromethane (R-22), as a refrigerant and a air cooled condenser, was accomplished. (Author)

  8. Orgin of Slag from Early Medieval Age Furnaces in Nitra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Dekan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of archaeological artefacts from remains of Early Medieval Age furnaces excavated in Nitra are analysed. They are supposed to originate from slag of glass and iron production. Employing Mossbauer spectrometry, iron crystallographic sites are identified and compared. In all samples, Fe2+ and Fe3+ structural positions were revealed. Some of the archeological artefacts including those that were supposed to originate from glass production show a presence of metallic iron and/or magnetic oxides. Based on the results of Mossbauer effect measurements performed at room temperature as well as 77 K (liquid nitrogen temperature analytical evidence is provided that the iron sites identified are not as those usually encountered in glasses. Consequently, a conclusion is proposed that neither of the investigated furnaces was used for glass production.

  9. Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Angerer, M.

    1993-03-01

    Based on literature surveys, personal contacts to designers, manufactures and users of woold furnaces, as well as informations of experts from Austria and Switzerland, the used wood fuels and combustion techniques and the potentially by commercial and industrial wood burning emitted air pollutants are described; including the mechanism of pollutant formation, concentrations, and their environmental relevance. The actual situation in Baden-Wuerttemberg concerning the used wood fuels, the state of installed and operated furnaces and the amount of emitted pollutants is presented basing on informations of the 'Statistical Country Bureau' and a country-wide inquiry round the chimney-sweepers. In order to realize the described existing possibilities to reduce pollutant emissions the introduction of a general brand test and certification mode is proposed. (orig.). 53 figs., 118 refs [de

  10. Fuzzy Logic Temperature Control System For The Induction Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lei Hnin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper describes the fuzzy logic temperature control system of the induction furnace. Temperature requirement of the heating system varies during the heating process. In the conventional control schemes the switching losses increase with the change in the load. A closed loop control is required to have a smooth control on the system. In this system pulse width modulation based power control scheme for the induction heating system is developed using the fuzzy logic controller. The induction furnace requires a good voltage regulation to have efficient response. The controller controls the temperature depending upon weight of meat water and time. This control system is implemented in hardware system using microcontroller. Here the fuzzy logic controller is designed and simulated in MATLAB to get the desire condition.

  11. System design description for the whole element furnace testing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; King, D.A.

    1998-05-01

    This document provides a detailed description of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Whole Element Furnace Testing System located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory G-Cell (327 Building). Equipment specifications, system schematics, general operating modes, maintenance and calibration requirements, and other supporting information are provided in this document. This system was developed for performing cold vacuum drying and hot vacuum drying testing of whole N-Reactor fuel elements, which were sampled from the 105-K East and K West Basins. The proposed drying processes are intended to allow dry storage of the SNF for long periods of time. The furnace testing system is used to evaluate these processes by simulating drying sequences with a single fuel element and measuring key system parameters such as internal pressures, temperatures, moisture levels, and off-gas composition

  12. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hee [Environment Sensor System Research Center, KIST 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin [Environmental Systems Research Division, KIMM 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Soo, E-mail: sskim@kaist.ac.kr [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO{sub 3}, which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO{sub 3} sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere due to the higher CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain-subgrain structure model in both the air and CO{sub 2} atmospheres.

  13. Automated handling for SAF batch furnace and chemistry analysis operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.; Sherrell, D.L.; Wiemers, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication Program is developing a remotely operated breeder reactor fuel pin fabrication line. The equipment will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility being constructed at Hanford, Washington. Production is scheduled to start in mid-1986. The application of small pneumatically operated industrial robots for loading and unloading product into and out of batch furnaces and for distribution and handling of chemistry samples is described

  14. Calcinating petroleum coke in a furnace with a rotating hearth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmetov, M M; Ezhov, B M; Galeeva, Z G; Goriunov, V S; Karpinskaia, N N; Zaitseva, S A

    1980-01-01

    A scheme is described for an industrial device with a bottom furnace for calcinating coke from slow coking. The consumption and operational indicators of the process during the calcination of standard and needle cokes are given, together with data on the quality of dry and calcinated cokes under different conditions. The basic drawbacks in the operation of the device are described, and measures are proposed for increasing its operational effectiveness.

  15. Furnace for degasification and gasification of combustibles rich in ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-05-13

    A furnace is described for the degasification and the gasification of combustibles rich in ashes with continuous-functioning vertical chambers of transversal rectangular sections in which the washing gas flows from one side to the other, traversing the combustible, characterized by the fact that the height of the combustible surrounded by the washing gas stays in a proportion higher than 10:1 to the thickness of the width of combustible.

  16. 77 FR 33337 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other Products Required Under the Energy... furnace or central air conditioner meets applicable Department of Energy regional efficiency standards... members install products that comply with Department of Energy (DOE) efficiency standards. II. Background...

  17. Reduction of exposure to ultrafine particles by kitchen exhaust hoods: the effects of exhaust flow rates, particle size, and burner position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Donghyun; Wallace, Lance; Nabinger, Steven; Persily, Andrew

    2012-08-15

    Cooking stoves, both gas and electric, are one of the strongest and most common sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in homes. UFP have been shown to be associated with adverse health effects such as DNA damage and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. This study investigates the effectiveness of kitchen exhaust hoods in reducing indoor levels of UFP emitted from a gas stove and oven. Measurements in an unoccupied manufactured house monitored size-resolved UFP (2 nm to 100 nm) concentrations from the gas stove and oven while varying range hood flow rate and burner position. The air change rate in the building was measured continuously based on the decay of a tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride, SF(6)). The results show that range hood flow rate and burner position (front vs. rear) can have strong effects on the reduction of indoor levels of UFP released from the stove and oven, subsequently reducing occupant exposure to UFP. Higher range hood flow rates are generally more effective for UFP reduction, though the reduction varies with particle diameter. The influence of the range hood exhaust is larger for the back burner than for the front burner. The number-weighted particle reductions for range hood flow rates varying between 100 m(3)/h and 680 m(3)/h range from 31% to 94% for the front burner, from 54% to 98% for the back burner, and from 39% to 96% for the oven. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Melting method for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste and melting furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, Toru; Furukawa, Hirofumi; Uda, Nobuyoshi; Katsurai, Kiyomichi

    1998-01-01

    A vessel containing miscellaneous solid wastes is inserted in a crucible having a releasable material on the inner surface, they are induction-heated from the outside of the crucible by way of low temperature heating coils to melt low melting point materials in the miscellaneous wastes within a temperature range at which the vessel does not melt. Then, they are induction-heated by way of high temperature heating coils to melt the vessel and not yet melted materials, those molten materials are cooled, solidified molten material and the releasable material are taken out, and then the crucible is used again. Then, the crucible can be used again, so that it can be applied to a large scaled melting furnace which treats wastes by a unit of drum. In addition, since the cleaning of the used crucible and the application of the releasable material can be conducted without interrupting the operation of the melting furnace, the operation cycle of the melting furnace can be shortened. (N.H.)

  19. Methods of steel manufacturing - The electric arc furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragna, E. C.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.

    2018-01-01

    Initially, the carbon content was reduced by mixing “the iron” with metallic ingots in ceramic crucibles/melting pots, with external heat input. As time went by the puddling procedure was developed, a procedure which also assumes a mixture with oxidized iron ore. In 1856 Bessemer invented the convertor, thus demonstrating that steel can be obtained following the transition of an air stream through the liquid pig iron. The invention of Thomas, a slightly modified basic-lined converter, fostered the desulphurization of the steel and the removal of the phosphate from it. During the same period, in 1865, in Sireuil, the Frenchman Martin applies Siemens’ heat regeneration invention and brings into service the furnace with a charge composed of iron pig, scrap iron and iron ore, that produces a high quality steel [1]. An act worthy of being highlighted within the scope of steelmaking is the start-up of the converter with oxygen injection at the upper side, as there are converters that can produce 400 tons of steel in approximately 50 minutes. Currently, the share of the steel produced in electric arc furnaces with a charge composed of scrap iron has increased. Due to this aspect, the electric arc furnace was able to impose itself on the market.

  20. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

  1. [Home births].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welffens, K; Kirkpatrick, C; Daelemans, C; Derisbourg, S

    In Belgium, very few women give birth outside the delivery room. In the United Kingdom and in the Netherlands, they are more numerous. Several studies evaluated obstetric and neonatal outcomes of home births compared with hospital births. We selected seven recent and large studies (with cohorts of more than 5.000 women) using PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Several questions were examined. Is there any difference in maternal and neonatal outcomes depending on the intended place of birth? Does parity affect outcomes ? What are the characteristics of women who choose to deliver at home ? We conclude that giving birth at home improves obstetric outcomes but is riskier for the baby, especially for the first one. The women delivering at home are mainly white Europeans, between 25 and 35 years old, in a relationship, multiparous and wealthier. In order to avoid this increased risk for the baby while preserving the obstetric advantages, alongside birth centers offer an intermediate solution. They combine the reassuring home-like atmosphere with the safety of the hospital. In Belgium, the first alongside birth center " Le Cocon " (a low technicity unit distinct from the delivery room) offers now this type of alternative place of birth for women in Hôpital Erasme in Brussels.

  2. Blast furnace top gas and dusts; Masuunin huippukaasu ja poelyt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohi, T.K.; Mannila, P.; Karjalahti, T.; Haerkki, J.

    1997-12-31

    This report is related to the `Gas Phase Reactions in a Blast Furnace` project. The aim of the project is to clarify the behaviour of gas phase in a blast furnace with high oil injection rate. The effect of blast furnace operation, iron reduction reactions, the amount of oil injected, alkalis, zinc and sulfur on the formation of top gas and dusts has been examined in this work. In addition, the gas cleaning system, i.e. the dust sack, gas scrubber, venturi scrubbers and an electric filter, of the blast furnaces of Rautaruukki Oy is presented. The composition of the top gas as well as the amount and composition of the dust from the gas cleaners were investigates in the experimental part of the research. The work has been focused on the analysis of carbon, iron, zinc, sulfur and alkalis. In addition to this, possible systematic variations caused by the discharge of hot metal were investigated. The experiments were made at blast furnaces no 1 and 2 of Rautaruukki Raahe Steel. The relationship between dust quantity and composition in the dust sack and the quantity of oil injected was analyzed on the basis of collected data. On the basis of experimental results, hot metal discharge has no effect on the composition or quantity of the top gas and dust. The composition of the dust varied between different gas cleaners. The coarsest and heaviest material remains in the dust sack. The lightest material separates at the electric filter. The main components at every gas cleaner were iron (9.4 - 38.1 %) and carbon (31.5 - 63.7 %). Particles with zinc and sulfur were separated at the venturi scrubbers (Zn = 3.0 % and S = 2.2 %) and the electric filter (Zn = 3.2 % and S = 2.6 %). Particles with alkalis were separated at the end of the gas cleaning process. The amount of sodium at the venturi scrubbers and the electric filter was 1.0 % on average. The average amount of potassium was 0.5 % at the venturi scrubber and 1.4 % at the electric filter 28 refs., 31 figs.

  3. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO(sub X) selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO(sub 3) formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO(sub X) control than at removing SO(sub 3) formed in the furnace. The SO(sub 3) removal results were presented in the

  4. Time and Temperature Test Results for PFP Thermal Stabilization Furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COMPTON, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The national standard for plutonium storage acceptability (standard DOE-STD-3013-99, generally known as ''the 3013 standard'') has been revised to clarify the requirement for processes that will produce acceptable storage materials. The 3013 standard (Reference 1) now states that ''Oxides shall be stabilized by heating the material in an oxidizing atmosphere to a Material Temperature of at least 950 C (1742 F) for not less than 2 hours.'' The process currently in use for producing stable oxides for storage at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) heats a furnace atmosphere to 1000 C and holds it there for 2 hours. The temperature of the material being stabilized is not measured directly during this process. The Plutonium Process Support Laboratories (PPSL) were requested to demonstrate that the process currently in use at PFP is an acceptable method of producing stable plutonium dioxide consistently. A spare furnace identical to the production furnaces was set up and tested under varying conditions with non-radioactive surrogate materials. Reference 2 was issued to guide the testing program. The process currently in use at the PFP for stabilizing plutonium-bearing powders was shown to heat all the material in the furnace to at least 950 C for at least 2 hours. The current process will work for (1) relatively pure plutonium dioxide, (2) dioxide powders mixed with up to 20 weight percent magnesium oxide, and (3) dioxide powders with up to 11 weight percent magnesium oxide and 20 weight percent magnesium nitrate hexahydrate. Time and temperature data were also consistent with a successful demonstration for a mixture containing 10 weight percent each of sodium and potassium chloride; however, the molten chloride salts destroyed the thermocouples in the powder and temperature data were unavailable for part of that run. These results assume that the current operating limits of no more than 2500 grams per furnace charge and a powder height of no more than 1.5 inches remain

  5. Modelling of carry-over in recovery furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, Reza [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Metallurgy

    2000-04-01

    Development of mathematical modelling of the combustion process in the furnace of recovery boilers is the subject of this work. This work as a continuation of many years of modelling efforts carried out at KTH/Vaerme- och Ugnsteknik focussed particularly on: char bed modelling; droplets-wall interaction modelling; and carry-over modelling. The char bed model has been studied. Droplets/parcels were considered as a single reactor working independently of the other droplets. The mass of the droplets was not distributed uniformly but induced in the landing place. The droplets hitting the char bed will stick to it and they are alive and part of the calculation. In this way the distribution of the mass on the char bed is only dependent on the parameters which effect flight history such as droplet/parcel diameter, boilers flow field, etc. The droplet- wall interaction model has been studied and found to be very important for obtaining the correct temperature distribution in the recovery furnace. The new approach is based on removal of droplets which hits the wall in the upper part of the recovery boiler from carryover calculation. This model has been proposed and implemented into the GRFM (General Recovery Furnace Model). The carryover modelling effort was based on mass balance in which the number and physical statistics of the droplets/parcel were estimated and the amount of unburned mass was calculated. All of the above listed models were tested together with all other models of heat and mass transfer processes in recovery furnaces using a GRFM. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the industrial recovery boiler (63 kg/s, 82 bar, 480 deg C) were performed. The number of grid was 232,000 and the number of air ports in this simulation was 178. The air entering the furnace by these ports has different flow rates. Flow and temperature fields as well as species distributions were calculated. The results show good agreement with previously published data and modelling

  6. Comparison of possibilities the blast furnace and cupola slag utilization by concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In process of pig iron and cast iron production secondary raw materials and industrial wastes are formed The most abundant secondaryproduct originating in these processes are furnace slag. Blast furnace slag and cupola furnace slag originates from melting of gangue parts of metal bearing materials, slag forming additions and coke ash. In general, slag are compounds of oxides of metallic and non-metallic elements, which form chemical compounds and solutions with each other and also contain small volume of metals, sulfides of metals and gases. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of slag determinate their utilisation in different fields of industry.The paper presents results from the research of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag utilization in the concrete production. Pilotexperiments of the concrete production were performed, by that the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag with a fractions of 0–4mm;4–8mm; 8–16mm were used as a natural substitute. A cupola furnace slag and combination of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slagwere used in the experiments. The analysis results show that such concretes are suitable for less demanding applications.

  7. Estimating the energy-saving benefit of reduced-flow and/or multi-speed commercial kitchen ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.; Schmid, F.; Spata, A.J.

    1999-07-01

    Kitchen exhaust ventilation systems are recognized as a major energy user within commercial food service facilities and restaurants. Minimizing the design ventilation rate of an appliance/hood system by optimizing hood performance in the laboratory is a viable strategy for reducing the makeup air heating and cooling loads as well as the exhaust and supply fan energy. Cutting back the exhaust flow under conditions of noncooking (appliance idle) can further reduce the energy load associated with a kitchen ventilation system. An optimized, two-speed exhaust system was installed within the scope of an energy-efficient, quick service restaurant (QSR) design and demonstration project. This paper evaluates the energy benefit of this variable-flow strategy as well as the savings associated with reducing the design ventilation rate (compared to an off-the-shelf exhaust hood). The paper describes a new public-domain software tool for estimating heating and cooling loads associated with the makeup air requirements of commercial kitchens. This bin-based software provides ASHRAE engineers with an alternative to hand calculations or more sophisticated hour-by-hour simulation. The dramatic impact that both makeup air set point and geographic location have on the outdoor air load is illustrated. The paper concludes with an industry-wide projection of energy savings associated with optimizing the design and operation of commercial kitchen ventilation (CKV) systems.

  8. The Classroom-Kitchen Table Connection: The Effects of Political Discussion on Youth Knowledge and Efficacy. CIRCLE Working Paper #72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellotti, Tim; Matto, Elizabeth C.

    2010-01-01

    CIRCLE Working Paper #72 addresses whether efforts to systematically incorporate media into school curricula increases several elements of civic engagement, including students' media use, political knowledge or their sense of being able to understand and influence politics (internal political efficacy). In "The Classroom-Kitchen Table…

  9. Growing Community: The Impact of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program on the Social and Learning Environment in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K.; Gold, Lisa; Johnson, Britt; Macfarlane, Susie; Long, Caroline; Townsend, Mardie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents results from a mixed-method evaluation of a structured cooking and gardening program in Australian primary schools, focusing on program impacts on the social and learning environment of the school. In particular, we address the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program objective of providing a pleasurable experience that has…

  10. Enhanced primary treatment of concentrated black water and kitchen residues within DESAR concept using two types of anaerobic digesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Elmitwalli, T.A.; Zeeman, G.

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of concentrated domestic wastewater streams - black or brown water, and solid fraction of kitchen waste is considered as a core technology in a source separation based sanitation concept (DESAR - decentralised sanitation and reuse). A simple anaerobic digester can be implemented

  11. 77 FR 22559 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the... Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Selection of an Additional Mandatory...

  12. Valid Issues but Limited Scope: A Response to Kitchen and Berk's Research Commentary on Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie

    2017-01-01

    In their Research Commentary, Kitchen and Berk (2016) argue that educational technology may focus only on skills for low-income students and students of color, further limiting their opportunities to learn mathematical reasoning, and thus pose a challenge to realizing standards-based reforms. Although we share the concern about equity and about…

  13. An Invitation to Kitchen Earth Sciences, an Example of MISO Soup Convection Experiment in Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, K.; Kumagai, I.; Davaille, A.

    2008-12-01

    In recent frontiers of earth sciences such as computer simulations and large-scale observations/experiments involved researchers are usually remote from the targets and feel difficulty in having a sense of touching the phenomena in hands. This results in losing sympathy for natural phenomena particularly among young researchers, which we consider a serious problem. We believe the analog experiments such as the subjects of "kitchen earth sciences" proposed here can be a remedy for this. Analog experiments have been used as an important tool in various research fields of earth science, particularly in the fields of developing new ideas. The experiment by H. Ramberg by using silicone pate is famous for guiding concept of the mantle dynamics. The term, "analog" means something not directly related to the target of the research but in analogical sense parallel comparison is possible. The advantages of the analog experiments however seem to have been overwhelmed by rapid progresses of computer simulations. Although we still believe in the present-day meaning, recently we are recognizing another aspect of its significance. The essence of "kitchen earth science" as an analog experiment is to provide experimental setups and materials easily from the kitchen, by which everyone can start experiments and participate in the discussion without special preparations because of our daily-experienced matter. Here we will show one such example which can be used as a heuristic subject in the classrooms at introductory level of earth science as well as in lunch time break of advanced researchers. In heated miso soup the fluid motion can be easily traced by the motion of miso "particles". At highly heated state immiscible part of miso convects with aqueous fluid. At intermediate heating the miso part precipitates to form a sediment layer at the bottom. This layered structure is destroyed regularly by the instability caused by accumulated heat in the miso layer as a bursting. By showing

  14. Thermophilic bio-energy process study on hydrogen fermentation with vegetable kitchen waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ze-Kun; Li, Shiue-Lin; Kuo, Pei-Chen; Chen, I.-Chieh; Tien, Yu-Min; Huang, Yu-Jung; Chuang, Chung-Po; Wong, Son-Chi; Cheng, Sheng-Shung [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701, ROC (China)

    2010-12-15

    An intermittent-continuous stirred tank reactor (I-CSTR) was evaluated for thermophilic anaerobic hydrogen fermentation with vegetable kitchen waste (VKW). The seeding sludge was enriched from kitchen waste compost. Because of different seasonal dietary habits, the quality of vegetable kitchen waste was unstable, and all variations of composition were in the range from 20 to 40%. The I-CSTR process was conducted under different volumetric loading rates (VLR) with different VKW-diluted concentrations. The hydrogen production rate and yield in Run 2 (VLR as 28 g-COD L{sup -1} day{sup -1}) were 1.0 L-H{sub 2} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} and 1.7 mmol-H{sub 2} g-COD{sup -1}, which were higher than those in Run1 (VLR as 19 g-COD/L-day). The hydrolysis efficiency of organic solids (VSS) was about 45% in Run 1 better than the 32% in Run 2. The carbohydrate component of VKW was clearly degraded with the accumulation of butyrate, while the organic nitrogen component was converted to ammonia. The vegetable cellulose was degraded from 3.2 g L{sup -1} and 3.6-1.8 and 3.2 g L{sup -1} in Runs 1 and 2, respectively. In addition, the high concentration of lactate from the acidified VKW could be degraded completely both in Runs 1 and 2. According to the results of the time series profile in day 59, oil and grease were not degraded significantly. The removal of oil and grease was superficially caused by stacking on the wall, pipe, and propeller of the reactor, or by floating on the liquid surface. The 16S rDNA cloning library and sequence were applied for analyzing microbial communities. The dominant OTU was closely affiliated to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum, which is considered as the predominant hydrogen-producing bacteria. The OTUs closely related to Moorella thermoacetica and Clostridiaceae bacterium FH052 were considered as acetogenic bacterium and hydrogen-producing bacteria in the I-CSTR system. (author)

  15. Lung function and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after improved cooking fuels and kitchen ventilation: a 9-year prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Zhou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biomass smoke is associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but few studies have elaborated approaches to reduce the risk of COPD from biomass burning. The purpose of this study was to determine whether improved cooking fuels and ventilation have effects on pulmonary function and the incidence of COPD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A 9-y prospective cohort study was conducted among 996 eligible participants aged at least 40 y from November 1, 2002, through November 30, 2011, in 12 villages in southern China. Interventions were implemented starting in 2002 to improve kitchen ventilation (by providing support and instruction for improving biomass stoves or installing exhaust fans and to promote the use of clean fuels (i.e., biogas instead of biomass for cooking (by providing support and instruction for installing household biogas digesters; questionnaire interviews and spirometry tests were performed in 2005, 2008, and 2011. That the interventions improved air quality was confirmed via measurements of indoor air pollutants (i.e., SO₂, CO, CO₂, NO₂, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less in a randomly selected subset of the participants' homes. Annual declines in lung function and COPD incidence were compared between those who took up one, both, or neither of the interventions. Use of clean fuels and improved ventilation were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV₁: decline in FEV₁ was reduced by 12 ml/y (95% CI, 4 to 20 ml/y and 13 ml/y (95% CI, 4 to 23 ml/y in those who used clean fuels and improved ventilation, respectively, compared to those who took up neither intervention, after adjustment for confounders. The combined improvements of use of clean fuels and improved ventilation had the greatest favorable effects on the decline in FEV₁, with a slowing of 16 ml/y (95% CI, 9 to 23 ml/y. The longer the duration of improved fuel use and

  16. Returning home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jytte; Brøgger, Ditte

    2016-01-01

    flows. By focusing on these educational migrants, this paper explores how they connect to their rural homes. Guided by a critical reading of the migration-development scholarship, the paper examines how migrants and their relatives make sense of educational migrants’ remitting and returning practices......, and by comparing three groups of educational migrants, the migrants’ reasons for staying connected and sending remittances are scrutinized. The paper finds that although educational migrants do not generate extensive economic remittances for local development in Nepal, they stay connected to their rural homes...

  17. Bacteriological safety assessment, hygienic habits and cross-contamination risks in a Nigerian urban sample of household kitchen environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejechi, Bernard O; Ochei, Ono P

    2017-06-01

    Urban household kitchen environment was assessed for safety by determining their levels of indicator bacteria, hygienic habits and risk of cross-contamination. Household kitchens (60) were selected in Warri Town, Nigeria, by the multi-stage sampling technique. Contact surfaces, water and indoor kitchen air were analysed for aerobic plate counts, total and faecal coliforms using Nutrient and McConkey media by swab/rinse method, membrane filtration and sedimentation methods, respectively. Hygienic habits and risk of cross-contamination were assessed with structured questionnaire which included socio-demographic variables. On the basis of median counts, the prevalence of high counts (log cfu/cm 2 /m 3 /100 mL) of aerobic plate counts (>3.0), total coliforms (>1.0) and faecal coliforms (>0) on contact surfaces and air was high (58.0-92.0%), but low in water (30.0-40.0%). Pots, plates and cutleries were the contact surfaces with low counts. Prevalence of poor hygienic habits and high risk of cross-contamination was 38.6 and 67.5%, respectively. Education, occupation and kitchen type were associated with cross-contamination risk (P = 0.002-0.022), while only education was associated with hygienic habits (P = 0.03). Cross-contamination risk was related (P = 0.01-0.05) to aerobic plate counts (OR 2.30; CL 1.30-3.17), total coliforms (OR 5.63; CL 2.76-8.25) and faecal coliforms (OR 4.24; CL 2.87-6.24), while hygienic habit was not. It can be concluded that urban household kitchens in the Nigerian setting are vulnerable to pathogens likely to cause food-borne infections.

  18. The Black Yeast Exophiala dermatitidis and Other Selected Opportunistic Human Fungal Pathogens Spread from Dishwashers to Kitchens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Zupančič

    Full Text Available We investigated the diversity and distribution of fungi in nine different sites inside 30 residential dishwashers. In total, 503 fungal strains were isolated, which belong to 10 genera and 84 species. Irrespective of the sampled site, 83% of the dishwashers were positive for fungi. The most frequent opportunistic pathogenic species were Exophiala dermatitidis, Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Exophiala phaeomuriformis, Fusarium dimerum, and the Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces clade. The black yeast E. dermatitidis was detected in 47% of the dishwashers, primarily at the dishwasher rubber seals, at up to 106 CFU/cm2; the other fungi detected were in the range of 102 to 105 CFU/cm2. The other most heavily contaminated dishwasher sites were side nozzles, doors and drains. Only F. dimerum was isolated from washed dishes, while dishwasher waste water contained E. dermatitidis, Exophiala oligosperma and Sarocladium killiense. Plumbing systems supplying water to household appliances represent the most probable route for contamination of dishwashers, as the fungi that represented the core dishwasher mycobiota were also detected in the tap water. Hot aerosols from dishwashers contained the human opportunistic yeast C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and E. dermatitidis (as well as common air-borne genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Cladosporium. Comparison of fungal contamination of kitchens without and with dishwashers revealed that virtually all were contaminated with fungi. In both cases, the most contaminated sites were the kitchen drain and the dish drying rack. The most important difference was higher prevalence of black yeasts (E. dermatitidis in particular in kitchens with dishwashers. In kitchens without dishwashers, C. parapsilosis strongly prevailed with negligible occurrence of E. dermatitidis. F. dimerum was isolated only from kitchens with dishwashers, while Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces isolates were only found within

  19. Isolation and Quantification of Polyamide Cyclic Oligomers in Kitchen Utensils and Their Migration into Various Food Simulants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Abe

    Full Text Available Small amounts of cyclic monomers and oligomers are present in polyamide (PA-based kitchen utensils. In this study, we isolated eight PA-based cyclic monomers and oligomers from kitchen utensils made from PA6 (a polymer of ε-caprolactam and PA66 (a polymer of 1,6-diaminohexane and adipic acid. Their structures were identified using high-resolution mass spectrometry and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and their residual levels in PA-based kitchen utensils and degree of migration into food simulants were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry using purchased PA6 monomer and isolated PA66 monomers, and isolated PA6 and PA66 oligomers as calibration standards. Their total residual levels among 23 PA-based kitchen utensils made from PA6, PA66, and copolymers of PA6 and PA66 (PA6/66 ranged from 7.8 to 20 mg/g. Using water, 20% ethanol, and olive oil as food simulants, the total migration levels of the PA monomers and oligomers ranged from 0.66 to 100 μg/cm2 under most examined conditions. However, the total migration levels of the PA66 monomer and oligomers from PA66 and PA6/66 kitchen utensils into 20% ethanol at 95°C were very high (1,700 and 2,200 μg/cm2, respectively due to swelling by high-temperature ethanol.

  20. Meeting Summary of Kitchen Cabinet on Financial Due Diligence to Reduce Proliferation Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, Gretchen; Weise, Rachel A.; Carr, Geoffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory convened the Kitchen Cabinet (KC) to facilitate a candid discussion about the role of financial institutions (FIs) in antiproliferation efforts to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by identifying suspicious business transactions and exports when making lending or insurance decisions. The meeting brought together a group of export control specialists, largely representatives from the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Participating Governments (PGs) and finance experts representing banks and insurance companies. By assembling a KC of experts, the group could understand what suspicious transactions look like from each other's perspectives and better inform each of their operations. The goal was to develop red flags FIs could use to identify suspicious proliferation-related transactions and to help governments gain a clearer picture of proliferation using financial information.

  1. Ett företag utifrån en kundsynvinkel - Team Kitchen Ab

    OpenAIRE

    Dristig, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Uppdragsgivaren för detta examensarbete är företaget Team Kitchen Ab vars huvudsakliga verksamhetsområde är ordnandet av matlagningskurser för både privata samt företagskunder. Syftet med arbetet är att redogöra för och mäta kundtillfredställelse och tjänstekvalitet hos uppdragsgivaren samt att redogöra för förbättrings-, och utvecklingsmöjligheter inom företagets tjänster och verksamhet. Teorier som behandlas i detta arbete är kvalitet och processer av bl.a. Lecklin och Edvardsson, SERVQUAL ...

  2. Factors associated with consumption of fruits and vegetables among Community Kitchens customers in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Garcés, Flavia A; Vargas-Matos, Iván; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Trujillo, Antonio J; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-12-01

    Community Kitchens (CKs) are one of the main food providers to low-income families in Peru and may encourage healthier diets. We aimed to determine the prevalence of fruit and vegetable consumption and associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors among CKs customers. A cross-sectional study enrolling customers of 48 CKs in two areas of Lima, Peru, was performed. The self-reported amount of fruits and vegetables consumed (customers reported consuming ≥ 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily. This pattern was 4-fold more likely among those with higher levels of education (≥ 12 vs. customers that does not appear to be dependent on familial income. The profiles reported in this study can inform appropriate strategies to increase healthier eating in this population.

  3. Effects of added polyacrylamide on changes in water states during the composting of kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Qiang; Chen, Zhuo-Xian; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-02-01

    The effects of adding polyacrylamide (PAM), to attempt to delay the loss of capillary water and achieve a better level of organic matter humification, in the composting of kitchen waste were evaluated. Four treatments, with initial moisture content of 60 % were used: 0.1 % PAM added before the start of composting (R1), 0.1 % PAM added when the thermophilic phase of composting became stable (at >50 °C) (R2), 0.1 % PAM added when the moisture content significantly decreased (R3), and no PAM added (R4). The introduction of PAM in R1 and R2 significantly increased the capillary force and delayed the loss of moisture content and capillary water. The introduction of PAM in R2 and R3 improved the composting process, in terms of the degradation of biochemical fractions and the humification degree. These results show that the optimal time for adding PAM was the initial stage of the thermophilic phase.

  4. Meeting Summary of Kitchen Cabinet on Financial Due Diligence to Reduce Proliferation Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weise, Rachel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carr, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory convened the Kitchen Cabinet (KC) to facilitate a candid discussion about the role of financial institutions (FIs) in antiproliferation efforts to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by identifying suspicious business transactions and exports when making lending or insurance decisions. The meeting brought together a group of export control specialists, largely representatives from the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Participating Governments (PGs) and finance experts representing banks and insurance companies. By assembling a KC of experts, the group could understand what suspicious transactions look like from each other’s perspectives and better inform each of their operations. The goal was to develop red flags FIs could use to identify suspicious proliferation-related transactions and to help governments gain a clearer picture of proliferation using financial information.

  5. Heat treatment of nuclear reactor pump part in integrated furnace facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    A flexible heat treating system is meeting strict work specifications while accommodating the production flow pattern requirements and floor space needs of Advanced Metal Treating, Inc., Butler, Wis. Modular design and appropriate furnace configurations allow realization of the most efficient heat treat processing and energy use in a relatively small production area. The totally-integrated system (Pacemaker--manufactured by Lindberg, A Unit of General Signal, Chicago) consists of an electric integral-quench furnace with companion draw furnaces, washer unit and a material transfer car. With its one-side, inout configuration, the furnace operates with a minimum of drawing and washing equipment. The integral-quench furnace has a work chamber dimension of 30 by 48 by 30 inches (76.2 x 122 x 76.2 cm). The firm has two of these units, plus three in-out draw furnaces, one washer, one transfer car and two endothermic gas generators

  6. Methods for monitoring heat flow intensity in the blast furnace wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L'. Dorčák

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measurement and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat flow is calculated using multi-layer implicit difference scheme and in the case of only one measured temperature, the heat flow is calculated using a method based on application of fractional-order derivatives. Thirdly, monitored is the theoretical temperature of the blast furnace combustion process in the area of tuyeres.

  7. Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on Pollutant Levels in California Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Singer, Brett C.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents results from the first year of a 2-year study, investigating associations of five air pollutants (CO, NO2, NOX, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) with the presence of natural gas appliances in California homes. From November 2011 to March 2012, pollutant concentration and occupant activity data were collected in 155 homes for 6-day periods. The sample population included both single-family (68%) and multi-family (32%) dwellings, with 87% having at least one gas appliance and 77% having an unvented gas cooking appliance. The geometric mean (GM) NO2 levels measured in the kitchen, bedroom and outside of homes were similar at values of 15, 12 and 11 ppb, respectively. In contrast, the GM NOx levels measured in the kitchen and bedroom of homes were much higher than levels measured outdoors, at levels of 42 and 41 ppb, compared to 19 ppb, respectively. Roughly 10% of sampled homes had 6-day average NO2 levels that exceeded the outdoor annual average limit set by the California Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) (30 ppb). The GMs of the highest 1-h and 8-h CO level measured in homes were 2.5 and 1.1 ppm, respectively. Four homes had a 1-h or 8-h concentration that exceeded the outdoor limits set by the CAAQS. The GM formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations measured in homes were 15 and 7 ppb, respectively. Roughly 95% of homes had average formaldehyde levels indoors that exceeded the Chronic Reference Exposure Level set by the California EPA (7 ppb). Concentrations of NO2 and NOx, and to a lesser extent CO were associated with use of gas appliances, particularly unvented gas cooking appliances. Based on first principles, it is expected that effective venting of cooking pollutant emissions at the source will lead to a reduction of pollutant concentrations. However, no statistical association was detected between kitchen exhaust fan use and pollutant concentrations in homes in this study where gas cooking occurred frequently. The lack of

  8. Methodology for the evaluation of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, L; Staiger, P K; Townsend, M; Macfarlane, S; Gold, L; Block, K; Johnson, B; Kulas, J; Waters, E

    2013-04-01

    Community and school cooking and gardening programs have recently increased internationally. However, despite promising indications, there is limited evidence of their effectiveness. This paper presents the evaluation framework and methods negotiated and developed to meet the information needs of all stakeholders for the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden (SAKG) program, a combined cooking and gardening program implemented in selectively funded primary schools across Australia. The evaluation used multiple aligned theoretical frameworks and models, including a public health ecological approach, principles of effective health promotion and models of experiential learning. The evaluation is a non-randomised comparison of six schools receiving the program (intervention) and six comparison schools (all government-funded primary schools) in urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia. A mixed-methods approach was used, relying on qualitative measures to understand changes in school cultures and the experiential impacts on children, families, teachers, parents and volunteers, and quantitative measures at baseline and 1 year follow up to provide supporting information regarding patterns of change. The evaluation study design addressed the limitations of many existing evaluation studies of cooking or garden programs. The multistrand approach to the mixed methodology maintained the rigour of the respective methods and provided an opportunity to explore complexity in the findings. Limited sensitivity of some of the quantitative measures was identified, as well as the potential for bias in the coding of the open-ended questions. The SAKG evaluation methodology will address the need for appropriate evaluation approaches for school-based kitchen garden programs. It demonstrates the feasibility of a meaningful, comprehensive evaluation of school-based programs and also demonstrates the central role qualitative methods can have in a mixed-method evaluation. So what? This paper

  9. Evaluation the anaerobic digestion performance of solid residual kitchen waste by NaHCO3 buffering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shumei; Huang, Yue; Yang, Lili; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Mingxing; Xu, Zhiyang; Huang, Zhenxing; Ruan, Wenquan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The maximum methane production of SRKW was 479 mL/gTS added . • Anaerobic digestion capacity increased by 33.3% through NaHCO 3 buffering. • Protease activity was mainly affected by high organic load. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion has been considered as a promising energy-producing process for kitchen waste treatment. In this paper, the anaerobic digestion (AD) performances of solid residual kitchen waste (SRKW) with or without NaHCO 3 buffering were investigated. The results indicated that the methane production reached the maximum of 479 mL/gTS added at the inoculum to substrate ratio (ISR, based on VS) of 1:1.4 without buffering, accompanied by VS removal rate of 78.91%. Moreover, the anaerobic digestion capacity increased by 33.3% through NaHCO 3 buffering, and the methane yield at ISR 1:2.8 was improved by 48.5% with NaHCO 3 addition. However, the methanogenesis with or without NaHCO 3 buffer was suppressed at ISR 1:3.5, indicated from the lowest methane yield of 55.50 mL/gTS added and high volatile fatty acids concentration of more than 14,000 mg/L. Furthermore, proteins in SRKW were not degraded completely at excessive organic loading, since the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen in ISR 1:3.5 groups with (2738 mg/L) and without NaHCO 3 buffering (2654 mg/L) were lower than the theoretical value of 3500 mg/L and the protease activities in ISR 1:3.5 groups were also inhibited

  10. Fermilab | Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industry Students and teachers Media ... Five (more) fascinating facts about DUNE Engineering the Mathematics in Music June 2 10 a.m. Get to Know the Lederman Science Center June 3 1 p.m. Ask a Scientist Security, Privacy, Legal Use of Cookies Quick Links Home Contact Phone Book Fermilab at Work For Industry

  11. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  12. Thermal design and analysis of the HTGR fuel element vertical carbonizing and annealing furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llewellyn, G.H.

    1977-06-01

    Computer analyses of the thermal design for the proposed HTGR fuel element vertical carbonizing and annealing furnace were performed to verify its capability and to determine the required power input and distribution. Although the furnace is designed for continuous operation, steady-state temperature distributions were obtained by assuming internal heat generation in the fuel elements to simulate their mass movement. The furnace thermal design, the analysis methods, and the results are discussed herein

  13. 浅析餐饮废弃物的危害及环境管理对策%Analysis of the Harmness and Management of Kitchen Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万涛

    2013-01-01

    介绍了餐饮废弃物的特点,处理不当污染环境,探讨餐饮废弃物无害化处理方式,并提出了针对餐饮业废弃物的环境管理对策。%This paper introduced kitchen waste characterization .The waste will pollute environment if it has been mishandled .It also discussed on Innocent Treatment of kitchen waste and proposed some countermeasures for the management of kitchen waste .

  14. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two

  15. The fate of injectant coal in blast furnaces: The origin of extractable materials of high molecular mass in blast furnace carryover dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, S.N.; Wu, L.; Paterson, N.; Herod, A.A.; Dugwell, D.R.; Kandiyoti, R. [University of London Imperial College of Science & Technology, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the work was to investigate the fate of injectant coal in blast furnaces and the origin of extractable materials in blast furnace carryover dusts. Two sets of samples including injectant coal and the corresponding carryover dusts from a full sized blast furnace and a pilot scale rig have been examined. The samples were extracted using 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) solvent and the extracts studied by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The blast furnace carryover dust extracts contained high molecular weight carbonaceous material, of apparent mass corresponding to 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} u, by polystyrene calibration. In contrast, the feed coke and char prepared in a wire mesh reactor under high temperature conditions did not give any extractable material. Meanwhile, controlled combustion experiments in a high-pressure wire mesh reactor suggest that the extent of combustion of injectant coal in the blast furnace tuyeres and raceways is limited by time of exposure and very low oxygen concentration. It is thus likely that the extractable, soot-like material in the blast furnace dust originated in tars is released by the injectant coal. Our results suggest that the unburned tars were thermally altered during the upward path within the furnace, giving rise to the formation of heavy molecular weight (soot-like) materials.

  16. Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkki, J; Tervola, K [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquidus temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 2 refs.

  17. Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervola, K.; Haerkki, J.

    1996-12-31

    The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquids temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) (14 refs.)

  18. Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkki, J.; Tervola, K. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquidus temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 2 refs.

  19. Combustion of biodiesel in a large-scale laboratory furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Caio; Wang, Gongliang; Costa, Mário

    2014-01-01

    Combustion tests in a large-scale laboratory furnace were carried out to assess the feasibility of using biodiesel as a fuel in industrial furnaces. For comparison purposes, petroleum-based diesel was also used as a fuel. Initially, the performance of the commercial air-assisted atomizer used in the combustion tests was scrutinized under non-reacting conditions. Subsequently, flue gas data, including PM (particulate matter), were obtained for various flame conditions to quantify the effects of the atomization quality and excess air on combustion performance. The combustion data was complemented with in-flame temperature measurements for two representative furnace operating conditions. The results reveal that (i) CO emissions from biodiesel and diesel combustion are rather similar and not affected by the atomization quality; (ii) NO x emissions increase slightly as spray quality improves for both liquid fuels, but NO x emissions from biodiesel combustion are always lower than those from diesel combustion; (iii) CO emissions decrease rapidly for both liquid fuels as the excess air level increases up to an O 2 concentration in the flue gas of 2%, beyond which they remain unchanged; (iv) NO x emissions increase with an increase in the excess air level for both liquid fuels; (v) the quality of the atomization has a significant impact on PM emissions, with the diesel combustion yielding significantly higher PM emissions than biodiesel combustion; and (vi) diesel combustion originates PM with elements such as Cr, Na, Ni and Pb, while biodiesel combustion produces PM with elements such as Ca, Mg and Fe. - Highlights: • CO emissions from biodiesel and diesel tested are similar. • NO x emissions from biodiesel tested are lower than those from diesel tested. • Diesel tested yields significantly higher PM (particulate matter) emissions than biodiesel tested. • Diesel tested originates PM with Cr, Na, Ni and Pb, while biodiesel tested produces PM with Ca, Mg and Fe

  20. Chapter 5: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jacobson, David [Jacobson Energy Research, Providence, RI (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The high-efficiency boiler and furnace measure produces gas heating savings resulting from installation of more energy-efficient heating equipment in a residence. Such equipment, which ranges in size from 60 kBtu/hr to 300 kBtu/hr, is installed primarily in single-family homes and multifamily buildings with individual heating systems for each dwelling unit. This protocol does not cover integrated heating and water heating units which can be used in lieu of space heating only equipment.