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Sample records for homarus americanus cardiac

  1. The steady-state force-Ca2+ relationship in intact lobster (Homarus americanus) cardiac muscle.

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    Shinozaki, T; Wilkens, J L; Yazawa, T; Cavey, M J; ter Keurs, H E D J

    2004-07-01

    The heart of the decapod crustacean is activated by regular impulse bursts from the cardiac ganglion. The cardiac pump function depends on ganglionic burst frequency, burst duration, and burst impulse frequency. Here, we activated isolated lobster cardiac ostial muscle (Orbicularis ostii muscle, OOM) by stimulus trains in vitro in order to characterize the response of the contractile apparatus to [Ca2+]i. We employed stimulus trains that generate a steady state between the [Ca2+]i and force in order to estimate the Ca2+ sensitivity of myofilaments. Force and [Ca2+]i transients were simultaneously recorded using a silicon strain gauge and the fluorescence of iontophoretically microinjected fura-2 salt. We examined the effects of tetanus duration (TD), the interval between trains, and 6 microM cyclopiazonic acid, an inhibitor of the SR Ca2+ pump, on the steady-state force-[Ca2+]i relationship. The instantaneous force-[Ca2+]i relationships appeared sigmoidal (EC50 and Hill coefficient, 98.8+/-32.7 nM and 2.47+/-0.20, mean +/- SD, respectively), as did the curves superimposed after 500 ms following the start of stimulation, indicating that the force-[Ca2+]i relationship had reached a steady state at that time. Also, the maximum activated force (Fmax) was estimated using the steady-state force-[Ca2+]i relationship. Prolonged stimulus trains, decreasing the interval between recurrent trains from 5 to 2.5 s, and cyclopiazonic acid each increased the measured EC50 without changing Fmax. The EC50 correlated strongly with averaged [Ca2+]i over time. We conclude that the steady-state force-[Ca2+]i relationships in the OOM indicate cooperation between force generation and Ca2+ binding by the myofilaments. Our data also suggest the existence of a novel Ca2+-dependent mechanism which reduces Ca2+ sensitivity and accelerates relaxation of lobster cardiac muscle myofilaments.

  2. Subcuticular urate accumulation in an American lobster (Homarus americanus).

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    Battison, A L

    2013-05-01

    An unusually "lumpy" lobster, Homarus americanus, was presented to the Atlantic Veterinary College Lobster Science Centre for evaluation. The lobster was weak with numerous pale, raised, and flat areas (diameter, 3-15 mm) on the exoskeleton, some of which were ulcerated. On postmortem examination, the pale areas corresponded to accumulations of viscous to free-flowing white material, which was found in only the subcuticular connective tissues. No internal organs were affected. Direct light examination of nonstained impression smears of the material showed abundant crystals resembling uric acid, amorphous urates, and sodium urate, which were readily soluble in 1 M potassium hydroxide. Wright-Giemsa stained imprints showed numerous fine, rounded, nonstaining granules free in the background and within individual round cells. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of urates or mixed urate salts. Hemolymph plasma urea (1.7 mmol/liter) and uric acid (287 μmol/liter) concentrations were slightly higher than those seen with 36-hour emersion. Histologic sections showed aggregates of vacuolated mononuclear cells in the loose subcuticular connective tissue occasionally infiltrating between underlying muscle fibers. Grossly visible urate deposits are occasionally documented in land crabs and rarely reported in the blue crab; none, however, are associated with deformation of the cuticle. Possible etiologies include increased uric acid intake or production or decreased excretion. Anecdotal reports of similarly affected lobsters have been received but are intermittent and undocumented.

  3. Molecular immune response of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) to the White Spot Syndrome Virus.

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    Clark, K Fraser; Greenwood, Spencer J; Acorn, Adam R; Byrne, Philip J

    2013-11-01

    The adult American lobster (Homarus americanus) is susceptible to few naturally occurring pathogens, and no viral pathogen is known to exist. Despite this, relatively little is known about the H. americanus immune system and nothing is known about its potential viral immune response. Hundreds of rural communities in Atlantic Canada rely on the lobster fishery for their economic sustainability and could be devastated by large-scale pathogen-mediated mortality events. The White Spot Syndrome Virus is the most economically devastating viral pathogen to global shrimp aquaculture production and has been proposed to be capable of infecting all decapod crustaceans including the European Lobster. An in vivo WSSV injection challenge was conducted in H. americanus and WSSV was found to be capable of infecting and replicating within lobsters held at 20°C. The in vivo WSSV challenge also generated the first viral disease model of H. americanus and allowed for the high-throughput examination of transcriptomic changes that occur during viral infection. Microarray analysis found 136 differentially expressed genes and the expression of a subset of these genes was verified using RT-qPCR. Anti-lipopolysaccharide isoforms and acute phase serum amyloid protein A expression did not change during WSSV infection, contrary to previous findings during bacterial and parasitic infection of H. americanus. This, along with the differential gene expression of thioredoxin and trypsin isoforms, provides compelling evidence that H. americanus is capable of mounting an immune response specific to infection by different pathogen classes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization and functional classification of American lobster (Homarus americanus) immune factor transcripts.

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    Clark, K Fraser

    2014-11-01

    The American lobster (Homarus americanus) is the most important commercially exploited marine species in Canada. Very little is known about the H. americanus molecular humoral immune response or how to determine if a seemingly healthy lobster is infected with a pathogen. The goal of this work is to characterize several important H. americanus immune genes as well as highlight and classify hundreds of others into functional immune groups. The protein sequence of H. americanus acute phase serum amyloid protein A (SAA) was found to be similar to that of vertebrate SAA, and is likely a good clinical marker for immune activation in lobsters and some crustaceans. Additionally, only one gene, Trypsin 1b, was found to be differentially regulated during bacterial, microparasitic and viral challenges in lobster and is likely critical for the activation of the H. americanus immune response. Bioinformatic analysis was used to functionally annotate, 263 H. americanus immune genes and identify the few shared patterns of differential gene expression in lobsters in response to bacterial, parasitic and viral challenge. Many of the described immune genes are biomarker candidates which could be used as clinical indicators for lobster health and disease. Biomarkers can facilitate early detection of pathogens, or anthropomorphic stressors, so that mitigation strategies can be developed in order to prevent the devastating economic losses that have occurred in Southern New England, USA. This work is contributes to further our understanding of how the lobster immune system works and how it can be used to maintain the health and sustainability of the overall American lobster fishery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuropeptidergic Signaling in the American Lobster Homarus americanus: New Insights from High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing.

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    Christie, Andrew E; Chi, Megan; Lameyer, Tess J; Pascual, Micah G; Shea, Devlin N; Stanhope, Meredith E; Schulz, David J; Dickinson, Patsy S

    2015-01-01

    Peptides are the largest and most diverse class of molecules used for neurochemical communication, playing key roles in the control of essentially all aspects of physiology and behavior. The American lobster, Homarus americanus, is a crustacean of commercial and biomedical importance; lobster growth and reproduction are under neuropeptidergic control, and portions of the lobster nervous system serve as models for understanding the general principles underlying rhythmic motor behavior (including peptidergic neuromodulation). While a number of neuropeptides have been identified from H. americanus, and the effects of some have been investigated at the cellular/systems levels, little is currently known about the molecular components of neuropeptidergic signaling in the lobster. Here, a H. americanus neural transcriptome was generated and mined for sequences encoding putative peptide precursors and receptors; 35 precursor- and 41 receptor-encoding transcripts were identified. We predicted 194 distinct neuropeptides from the deduced precursor proteins, including members of the adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin C, bursicon, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), CHH precursor-related peptide, diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, eclosion hormone, FLRFamide, GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, pyrokinin, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide families. While some of the predicted peptides are known H. americanus isoforms, most are novel identifications, more than doubling the extant lobster neuropeptidome. The deduced receptor proteins are the first descriptions of H. americanus neuropeptide receptors, and include ones for most of the peptide groups mentioned earlier, as well as those for ecdysis-triggering hormone, red pigment concentrating hormone

  6. Effect of confinement and starvation on stress parameters in the American lobster (Homarus americanus

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    Edo D'Agaro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The American lobster (Homarus americanus is one of the most important crustacean resources in North America. In Italy and Europe, this fishery product is available throughout the year and it has a high and increasing commercial demand. American lobsters are traditionally marketed live and stocked, without feed, in temperature controlled recirculating systems for several weeks before being sold in the market places. The current Italian legislation does not fix a maximum length of time for the crustacean confinement and specific welfare requirements. In the present research, a 4-week experiment was carried out using 42 adult H. americanus reared in 4 recirculating aquaculture tanks. After one month of confinement, mean glucose, protein and total haemocyte count levels in the hemolymph of H. americanus were stable and similar (P>0.05 to the values observed at the beginning of the experiment. Results of the proximate analysis of the abdominal muscles of H. americanus showed no significant differences in concentrations of crude protein, lipid and ash during the trial. At the end of the experiment, the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis revealed a marked degradation of the muscle myofibrillar proteins. A number of fragments, possibly from myosin, were evident in the range between 50 and 220 kDa between time t0 and t28. Results of this study show that the main hemolymphatic variables and degradation analysis of the muscle myofibrillar proteins can be used as sensitive indicators of the crustacean stress response to confinement and starvation.

  7. Comparative tissue expression of American lobster (Homarus americanus) immune genes during bacterial and scuticociliate challenge.

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    Clark, K Fraser; Acorn, Adam R; Wang, Haili; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2015-12-01

    The American lobster (Homarus americanus) fishery is the most economically significant fishery in Canada; although comparatively little is known about the lobsters' response to pathogenic challenge. This is the first study to investigate the expression of immune genes in tissues outside of the lobster hepatopancreas in response to challenges by the Gram-positive bacteria, Aerococcus viridans var. homari or the scuticociliate parasite, Anophryoides haemophila. The hepatopancreas has been regarded as the major humoral immune organ in crustaceans, but the contribution of other organs and tissues to the molecular immune response has largely been overlooked. This study used RT-qPCR to monitor the gene expression of several immune genes including three anti-lipopolysaccharide isoforms (ALF) Homame ALF-B1, Homame ALF-C1 and ALFHa-1, acute phase serum amyloid protein A (SAA), as well as thioredoxin and hexokinase, in antennal gland and gill tissues. Our findings indicate that the gene expression of the SAA and all ALF isoforms in the antennal gland and gill tissues increased in response to pathogenic challenge. However, there was differential expression of individual ALF isoforms that were dependent on both the tissue, and the pathogen used in the challenge. The gene expression changes of several immune genes were found to be higher in the antennal gland than have been previously reported for the hepatopancreas. This study demonstrates that increased immune gene expression from the gill and antennal gland over the course of pathogen induced disease contributes to the immune response of H. americanus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental infection and detection of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium in the American lobster Homarus americanus.

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    Avila-Villa, Luz A; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Martínez-Porchas, Marcel; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) is an obligated intracellular bacteria causing severe hepatopancreatic damages and mass mortalities in penaeid shrimp. The worldwide distribution of penaeid shrimp as alien species threatens the life cycle of other crustacean species. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of experimentally infecting the American lobster (Homarus americanus) with NHPB extracted from shrimp hepatopancreas. Homogenates from infected shrimp were fed by force to lobsters. Other group of lobsters was fed with homogenates of NHPB-free hepatopancreas. After the 15th day from initial inoculation, the presence of NHPB was detected by polymerase chain reaction in feces and hepatopancreas from lobsters inoculated with infected homogenates. Necrotized spots were observed in the surface of lobster hepatopancreas. In contrast, lobsters fed on NHPB-free homogenates resulted negative for NHPB. Evidence suggests the plasticity of NHPB which can infect crustacean from different species and inhabiting diverse latitudes. Considering the results, the American lobster could be a good candidate to maintain available NHPB in vivo.

  9. Experimental Infection and Detection of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium in the American Lobster Homarus americanus

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    Luz A. Avila-Villa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB is an obligated intracellular bacteria causing severe hepatopancreatic damages and mass mortalities in penaeid shrimp. The worldwide distribution of penaeid shrimp as alien species threatens the life cycle of other crustacean species. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of experimentally infecting the American lobster (Homarus americanus with NHPB extracted from shrimp hepatopancreas. Homogenates from infected shrimp were fed by force to lobsters. Other group of lobsters was fed with homogenates of NHPB-free hepatopancreas. After the 15th day from initial inoculation, the presence of NHPB was detected by polymerase chain reaction in feces and hepatopancreas from lobsters inoculated with infected homogenates. Necrotized spots were observed in the surface of lobster hepatopancreas. In contrast, lobsters fed on NHPB-free homogenates resulted negative for NHPB. Evidence suggests the plasticity of NHPB which can infect crustacean from different species and inhabiting diverse latitudes. Considering the results, the American lobster could be a good candidate to maintain available NHPB in vivo.

  10. Daily Rhythms of PERIOD protein in the eyestalk of the American lobster, Homarus americanus.

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    Grabek, Katharine R; Chabot, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    The daily rhythm of PERIOD protein (PER) expression is an integral component of the circadian clock, which is found among a broad range of animal species including fruit flies, marine mollusks and even humans. The use of antibodies directed against PER has provided a helpful tool in the discovery of PER homologues and the labeling of putative pacemaker cells, especially in animals for which an annotated genome is not readily available. In this study, DrosophilaPER antibodies were used to probe for PER in the American lobster, Homarus americanus. This species exhibits robust endogenous circadian rhythms but the circadian clock has yet to be located or characterized. PER was detected in the eyestalks of the lobster but not in the brain. Furthermore, a significant effect of the LD cycle on daily PER abundance was identified, and PER was significantly more abundant at mid dark than in early light or mid light hours. Our results suggest that PER is a part of the molecular machinery of the circadian clock located in the eyestalk of the lobster.

  11. Antimicrobial activity in the cuticle of the American lobster, Homarus americanus.

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    Mars Brisbin, Margaret; McElroy, Anne E; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Allam, Bassem

    2015-06-01

    American lobster, Homarus americanus, continues to be an ecologically and socioeconomically important species despite a severe decline in catches from Southern New England and Long Island Sound (USA) and a high prevalence of epizootic shell disease in these populations. A better understanding of lobster immune defenses remains necessary. Cuticle material collected from Long Island Sound lobsters was found to be active against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including Gram-negative and -positive species. The antimicrobial activity was characterized by boiling, muffling, and size fractioning. Boiling did not significantly reduce activity, while muffling did have a significant effect, suggesting that the active component is organic and heat stable. Size fractioning with 3 and 10 kDa filters did not significantly affect activity. Fast protein liquid chromatography fractions were also tested for antimicrobial activity, and fractions exhibiting protein peaks remained active. MALDI mass spectrometry revealed peptide peaks at 1.6, 2.8, 4.6, and 5.6 kDa. The data presented suggest that one or several antimicrobial peptides contribute to antimicrobial activity present in the American lobster cuticle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. American lobsters (Homarus americanus not surviving during air transport: evaluation of microbial spoilage

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    Erica Tirloni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen American lobsters (Homarus americanus, dead during air transport, were analysed in order to evaluate the microbial population of meat, gills and gut: no specific studies have ever been conducted so far on the microbiological quality of American lobsters’ meats in terms of spoilage microbiota. The meat samples showed very limited total viable counts, in almost all the cases below the level of 6 Log CFU/g, while higher loads were found, as expected, in gut and gills, the most probable source of contamination. These data could justify the possibility to commercialise these notsurviving subjects, without quality concerns for the consumers. Most of the isolates resulted to be clustered with type strains of Pseudoalteromonas spp. (43.1% and Photobacterium spp. (24.1%, and in particular to species related to the natural marine environment. The distribution of the genera showed a marked inhomogeneity among the samples. The majority of the isolates identified resulted to possess proteolytic (69.3% and lipolytic ability (75.5%, suggesting their potential spoilage ability. The maintanance of good hygienical practices, especially during the production of ready-to-eat lobsters-based products, and a proper storage could limit the possible replication of these microorganisms.

  13. American Lobsters (Homarus Americanus) not Surviving During Air Transport: Evaluation of Microbial Spoilage.

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    Tirloni, Erica; Stella, Simone; Gennari, Mario; Colombo, Fabio; Bernardi, Cristian

    2016-04-19

    Eighteen American lobsters (Homarus americanus), dead during air transport, were analysed in order to evaluate the microbial population of meat, gills and gut: no specific studies have ever been conducted so far on the microbiological quality of American lobsters' meats in terms of spoilage microbiota. The meat samples showed very limited total viable counts, in almost all the cases below the level of 6 Log CFU/g, while higher loads were found, as expected, in gut and gills, the most probable source of contamination. These data could justify the possibility to commercialise these not-surviving subjects, without quality concerns for the consumers. Most of the isolates resulted to be clustered with type strains of Pseudoalteromonas spp. (43.1%) and Photobacterium spp. (24.1%), and in particular to species related to the natural marine environment. The distribution of the genera showed a marked inhomogeneity among the samples. The majority of the isolates identified resulted to possess proteolytic (69.3%) and lipolytic ability (75.5%), suggesting their potential spoilage ability. The maintanance of good hygienical practices, especially during the production of ready-to-eat lobsters-based products, and a proper storage could limit the possible replication of these microorganisms.

  14. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors in the American lobster Homarus americanus: Molecular characterization and transcriptional response to Vibrio fluvialis challenge

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    Beale, K.M.; Towle, D.W.; Jayasundara, N.; Smith, C.M.; Shields, J.D.; Small, H.J.; Greenwood, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Two partial mRNA sequences predicted to encode anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) were identified among expressed sequence tags generated from the American lobster Homarus americanus and complete cDNA sequences were obtained from library clones. Comparison of the translated amino acid sequences to those publicly available confirmed similarity to arthropod anti-lipopolysaccharide factors. Both protein sequences, designated ALFHa-1 and ALFHa-2, contained an N-terminal signal peptide and two half-cysteines participating in a disulfide bridge, features conserved in other ALFs. Predicted secondary structures were similar to that described for the ALF from the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. As part of an exploratory study of immunity in H. americanus, lobsters were injected with the bacterium Vibrio fluvialis and gill, hematopoietic, and hepatopancreas tissues were sampled for analysis of gene expression of ALFHa-1 and ALFHa-2 by quantitative PCR. The relative abundance of ALFHa-2 mRNA was not significantly affected by Vibrio injection in any of the three tissues tested. In contrast, ALFHa-1 mRNA levels in gills were increased by the treatment some 17-fold. Our results support a molecularly specific regulation of antimicrobial proteins in response to bacterial infection in H. americanus. PMID:19956341

  15. A comparison of the structure of American (Homarus americanus) and European (Homarus gammarus) lobster cuticle with particular reference to shell disease susceptibility.

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    Davies, Charlotte E; Whitten, Miranda M A; Kim, Anita; Wootton, Emma C; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Tlusty, Michael; Vogan, Claire L; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-03-01

    The integument of arthropods is an important first-line defence against the invasion of parasites and pathogens. Once damaged, this can be subject to colonisation by microbial agents from the surrounding environment, which in crustaceans can lead to a condition termed shell disease syndrome. This condition has been reported in several crustacean species, including crabs and lobsters. The syndrome is a progressive condition where the outer cuticle becomes pitted and eroded, and in extreme cases is compromised, leaving animals susceptible to septicaemia. This study examined the susceptibility of juvenile American (Homarus americanus) and European (Homarus gammarus) lobsters to shell disease, as a result of mechanical damage. Scanning electron microscopy was used as a method to identify differences in the cuticle structure and consequences of mechanical damage. Claw regions were aseptically punctured, whilst carapaces were abraded using sterile sandpaper, to mimic natural damage. After a period of between 10 and 12 weeks, lobsters were sacrificed, fixed and stored for later examination. The carapace and claws of juvenile American lobsters were shown to be thinner and more vulnerable to abrasion damage than their European counterparts. In addition, the number and distribution of setal pits and pore canal openings also differed between the two species of lobster. Mechanical damage resulted in the formation of shell disease lesions on the claw and carapace of both lobster species. However, American lobsters, unlike their European counterparts, had extensive bacterial colonisation on the margins of these lesions. Overall, it is concluded that the cuticle of the American lobster is more susceptible to damage and resulting microbial colonisation. This may have implications for susceptibility of both species of lobster to shell disease syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A transcriptomic analysis of American lobster (Homarus americanus) immune response during infection with the bumper car parasite Anophryoides haemophila.

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    Clark, K Fraser; Acorn, Adam R; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2013-06-01

    Anophryoides haemophila is an important protistan parasite of American lobster, Homarus americanus, as it has been found to infect lobsters in the wild as well as causing major losses of lobsters maintained in commercial holding facilities. Expression of over 14,500 H. americanus hepatopancreatic genes were monitored during an A. haemophila infection challenge in order to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in the lobster immune response. One hundred and forty-five genes were found to be differentially expressed during infection. For many genes, this study is the first to link their expression to an immune response to a known lobster pathogen. Several of the genes have previously been linked to crustacean or invertebrate immune response including: several anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoforms (ALFHa), acute phase serum amyloid protein A (SAA), a serine protease inhibitor, a toll-like receptor, several haemocyanin subunits, phagocyte signaling-impaired protein, vitelline membrane outer layer protein-1, trypsin, and a C-type lectin receptor. Microarray results were verified using RT-qPCR and agreement was good between the two methods. The expression of six ALFHa isoforms was monitored via microarray where ALFHa-1, ALFHa-2, ALFHa-4 and ALFHa-6 were differentially expressed while ALFHa-3 and ALFHa7 were not. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed that ALFHa-1, ALFHA-2 and ALFHa-4 expression increased during infection with a peak at 5-7weeks for ALFHa-1 and 10weeks for ALFHa-2 and ALFHa-4. This suggests that different ALFHa isoforms are temporally expressed during A. haemophila infection. Importantly, these results provide evidence that different ALFHa isoforms have more significant roles in responding to A. haemophila infection. Significant increases in SAA gene expression were also found, corroborating previous findings of increased SAA expression during Aerococcus viridans infections; highlighting the importance of SAA as a marker of H. americanus immune activation and

  17. Classification of Homarus americanus hemocytes and the use of differential hemocyte counts in lobsters infected with Aerococcus viridans var. homari (Gaffkemia).

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    Battison, Andrea; Cawthorn, Richard; Horney, Barbara

    2003-11-01

    Hemocytes of the American lobster (Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards) were classified after examination of Wright-Giemsa stained cytocentrifuge preparations by brightfield light microscopy. Eleven hemocyte types were identified using morphologic criteria. The classification system was then used to monitor changes in the differential hemocyte count (DHC) of lobsters infected with the Gram positive coccus Aerococcus viridans var. homari, etiologic agent of gaffkemia. The appearance of less mature hemocytes in the DHCs of lobsters in the late stages of infection was similar to the 'left shift' of vertebrate inflammation. Results from this study suggest that DHCs can be used to assess and characterize inflammation in H. americanus and possibly other crustaceans.

  18. Mass Spectral Analysis of Neuropeptide Expression and Distribution in the Nervous System of the Lobster Homarus americanus

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    Chen, Ruibing; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Prieto Conaway, Maria C.; Mohtashemi, Iman; Hui, Limei; Viner, Rosa; Li, Lingjun

    2010-01-01

    The lobster Homarus americanus has long served as an important animal model for electrophysiological and behavioral studies. Using this model, we performed a comprehensive investigation of the neuropeptide expression and their localization in the nervous system, which provides useful insights for further understanding of their biological functions. Using nanoLC ESI Q-TOF MS/MS and three types of MALDI instruments, we analyzed the neuropeptide complements in a major neuroendocrine structure, pericardial organ. 57 putative neuropeptides were identified and 18 of them were de novo sequenced. Using direct tissue/extract analysis and bioinformatics software SpecPlot, we charted the global distribution of neuropeptides throughout the nervous system in H. americanus. Furthermore, we also mapped the localization of several neuropeptide families in the brain by high mass resolution and high mass accuracy mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) using a MALDI LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. We have also compared the utility and instrument performance of multiple mass spectrometers for neuropeptide analysis in terms of peptidome coverage, sensitivity, mass spectral resolution and capability for de novo sequencing. PMID:20025296

  19. Influence of natural inshore and offshore thermal regimes on egg development and time of hatch in American lobsters, Homarus americanus.

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    Goldstein, Jason S; Watson, Winsor H

    2015-02-01

    Some egg-bearing (ovigerous) American lobsters (Homarus americanus) make seasonal inshore-to-offshore movements, subjecting their eggs to different thermal regimes than those of eggs carried by lobsters that do not make these movements. Our goal was to determine if differences in thermal regimes influence the rate of egg development and the subsequent time of hatch. We subjected ovigerous lobsters to typical inshore or offshore water temperatures from September to August in the laboratory (n=8 inshore and 8 offshore, each year) and in the field (n=8 each, inshore and offshore), over 2 successive years. Although the rate of egg development did not differ significantly between treatments in the fall (P∼0.570), eggs exposed to inshore thermal regimes developed faster in the spring (Pregimes accumulated more GDD in the winter than did eggs carried by inshore lobsters, while eggs exposed to inshore temperatures acquired them more rapidly in the spring. Results suggest that seasonal movements of ovigerous lobsters influence the time and location of hatching, and thus the transport and recruitment of larvae to coastal and offshore locations. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  20. Mass Spectral Charting of Neuropeptidomic Expression in the Stomatogastric Ganglion at Multiple Developmental Stages of the Lobster Homarus americanus

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    2012-01-01

    The stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of the American lobster Homarus americanus serves as a useful model for studies of neuromodulatory substances such as peptides and their roles in the generation of rhythmic behaviors. As a central component of the STNS, the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) is rich in neuropeptides and contains well-defined networks of neurons, serving as an excellent model system to study the effect of neuropeptides on the maturation of neural circuits. Here, we utilize multiple mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques to study the neuropeptide content and abundance in the STG tissue as related to the developmental stage of the animal. Capillary electrophoresis (CE)-MS was employed to unambiguously identify low abundance neuropeptide complements, which were not fully addressed using previous methods. In total, 35 neuropeptides from 7 different families were detected in the tissue samples. Notably, 10 neuropeptides have been reported for the first time in this study. In addition, we utilized a relative quantitation method to compare neuropeptidomic expression at different developmental stages and observed sequential appearance of several neuropeptides. Multiple isoforms within the same peptide family tend to show similar trends of changes in relative abundance during development. We also determined that the relative abundances of tachykinin peptides increase as the lobster grows, suggesting that the maturation of circuit output may be influenced by the change of neuromodulatory input into the STG. Collectively, this study expands our knowledge about neuropeptides in the crustacean STNS and provides useful information about neuropeptide expression in the maturation process. PMID:22860213

  1. Differential expression of American lobster (Homarus americanus) immune related genes during infection of Aerococcus viridans var. homari, the causative agent of Gaffkemia.

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    Clark, K Fraser; Acorn, Adam R; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2013-02-01

    This is the first transcriptomic study focusing on immunity in the commercially valuable American lobster (Homarus americanus). We have conducted an in vivo infection trial using the Gram-positive bacterium Aerococcus viridans var. homari to determine how H. americanus responds to this naturally occurring lethal-pathogen. A novel H. americanus microarray was used to measure the transcriptomic changes occurring in over 14,000 genes in the lobster hepatopancreas. Hundreds of new immune genes and isoforms were identified and measured for the first time in this species, and our findings highlight 148 genes of interest involved in H. americanus pathogen response. We verified our microarray results using RT-qPCR on three anti-lipopolysaccharide (ALFHa-1, ALFHa-2, ALFHa-4), a thioredoxin, acute phase serum amyloid protein A, hexokinase and two trypsin genes. RT-qPCR and microarray findings show close agreement and highlight the significant increase in gene expression in many lobster immune genes during A. viridans infection. Differential expression of the ALFHa isoforms may indicate that the H. americanus immune response can be tailored to the class of pathogen causing disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Kinematics, hydrodynamics and force production of pleopods suggest jet-assisted walking in the American lobster (Homarus americanus).

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    Lim, Jeanette L; Demont, M Edwin

    2009-09-01

    The American lobster (Homarus americanus) displays a diverse set of locomotory behaviours that includes tail flips, walking and paddling. Paddling is carried out by the four pairs of paddle-shaped pleopods on the ventral abdomen. Although it is recognized that pleopod-generated fluid flows have some locomotory role in adults, reports on their relative importance in locomotion are inconsistent. This paper integrates experimental kinematics and hydrodynamics of lobster pleopod beating to determine the mechanism and magnitude of pleopod force production. A kinematic analysis of pleopod beating in live lobsters showed that the pleopods execute an adlocomotory metachronal beating pattern. We modelled in vivo pleopod kinematics with a set of simple trigonometric functions, and used these functions to program a mechanical lobster model consisting of motor-driven pleopods on a lobster abdomen exoskeleton. Based on flow visualizations obtained from applying particle image velocimetry to the lobster model, we propose that the unsteady metachronal kinematics of the pleopods can maximize thrust by exploiting forces arising from individual pleopod activity and interactions among adjacent pairs. The pleopods continuously entrain fluid surrounding the lobster and create a caudally directed fluid jet oriented parallel to the substratum. Inputting wake morphology and velocity data into a simplified model for steady jet thrust showed that the pleopods of the lobster model produced 27-54 mN of thrust, which is comparable to the propulsive forces generated by other proficient swimmers. These results suggest that lobster pleopods are capable of producing forces of a magnitude that could assist the walking legs in forward propulsion.

  3. Implications of Future Northwest Atlantic Bottom Temperatures on the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheuban, Jennie E.; Kavanaugh, Maria T.; Doney, Scott C.

    2017-12-01

    Sea surface temperatures of the northwest Atlantic have warmed dramatically over the last several decades, while benthic temperatures have increased at a slower pace. Here we analyze a subset of the CMIP5 global Earth system model ensemble using a statistical downscaling approach to determine potential future changes in benthic temperatures on the northwest Atlantic continental shelf and slope (business-as-usual (RCP8.5) and a climate-policy (RCP4.5) scenario are projected to increase by 0-1.5°C and 1.2-2.4°C by 2050 and 0-1.9°C and 2.3-4.3°C by the end of the century for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. H. americanus experiences thermal stress at temperatures above 20°C, and projected increases in temperature is likely to result in changes in the distribution of optimal thermal egg hatching and settlement indicators. Inshore regions of southern New England, where H. americanus biomass and catch have been declining historically, will likely become inhospitable under either future scenario, while thermal egg hatching and settlement indicators will expand offshore and in the Gulf of Maine. These changes imply that members of the fishery based in southern New England may need to recapitalize to larger vessels to prepare for potential changes brought on by future climate warming. Results from the downscaling presented here can be useful in preparing for potential changes to other fisheries or in future climate vulnerability analyses.

  4. Prediction of a neuropeptidome for the eyestalk ganglia of the lobster Homarus americanus using a tissue-specific de novo assembled transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E; Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C; Pascual, Micah G; Yu, Andy; Lameyer, Tess J; Stanhope, Meredith E; Dickinson, Patsy S

    2017-03-01

    In silico transcriptome mining is a powerful tool for crustacean peptidome prediction. Using homology-based BLAST searches and a simple bioinformatics workflow, large peptidomes have recently been predicted for a variety of crustaceans, including the lobster, Homarus americanus. Interestingly, no in silico studies have been conducted on the eyestalk ganglia (lamina ganglionaris, medulla externa, medulla interna and medulla terminalis) of the lobster, although the eyestalk is the location of a major neuroendocrine complex, i.e., the X-organ-sinus gland system. Here, an H. americanus eyestalk ganglia-specific transcriptome was produced using the de novo assembler Trinity. This transcriptome was generated from 130,973,220 Illumina reads and consists of 147,542 unique contigs. Eighty-nine neuropeptide-encoding transcripts were identified from this dataset, allowing for the deduction of 62 distinct pre/preprohormones. Two hundred sixty-two neuropeptides were predicted from this set of precursors; the peptides include members of the adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, bursicon α, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), CHH precursor-related peptide, diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, eclosion hormone, elevenin, FMRFamide-like peptide, glycoprotein hormone α2, glycoprotein hormone β5, GSEFLamide, intocin, leucokinin, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, pyrokinin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide, sulfakinin, tachykinin-related peptide and trissin families. The predicted peptides expand the H. americanus eyestalk ganglia neuropeptidome approximately 7-fold, and include 78 peptides new to the lobster. The transcriptome and predicted neuropeptidome described here provide new resources for investigating peptidergic

  5. Estimated prevalence of Aerococcus viridans and Anophryoides haemophila in American lobsters Homarus americanus freshly captured in the waters of Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, J; Hammell, K L; Spangler, E S; Cawthorn, R J

    2001-10-08

    The Canadian lobster industry holds lobsters Homarus americanus in captivity for various periods to supply markets with live product year-round. Mortality during holding results in considerable losses, estimated at 10 to 15 % yr(-1) by the industry. This study examined the prevalence of Anophryoides haemophila and Aerococcus viridans, causative agents of 'bumper car' disease and gaffkemia, respectively, in lobsters freshly captured in the waters of Prince Edward Island during the spring and fall fishing seasons of 1997. A total of 116 lobsters were sampled in the spring, and 138 in the fall. A. haemophila was not detected in the spring, while the prevalence was 0.72 % in the fall with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.02 to 3.97% and an overall prevalence of 0.39% (95% CI: 0.01 to 2.17%). The prevalence of A. viridans was estimated at 6.9% (95% CI: 3.0 to 13.14%) in the spring, 5.8% in the fall (95% CI: 2.54 to 11.10%), and 6.30% overall (95% CI: 3.64 to 10.03%). Because of the reduced interest in food of diseased lobsters, and compromised metabolism in the case of gaffkemia, these prevalence estimates are likely underestimates of the true prevalence of gaffkemia and 'bumper car' disease in the wild populations of lobster around Prince Edward Island.

  6. Bacterial communities associated with lesions of two forms of shell disease in the American lobster (Homarus americanus, Milne Edwards) from Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Robert A; Cawthorn, Richard J; Summerfield, Rachael L; Smolowitz, Roxanna; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y

    2013-06-01

    Shell disease is a major threat to the American lobster (Homarus americanus, Milne Edwards) fishery. Here we describe the composition of microbial communities associated with lesions of 2 forms of shell disease in Atlantic Canada, (i) a trauma shell disease (TSD) characterized by massive lesions and (ii) an enzootic shell disease (EnSD) characterized by irregularly shaped lesions with a distinct orange to yellow color. The microbiology of the lesions was described by polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA amplified from scrapings of the shell lesions and was compared with communities of unaffected carapaces and previously described forms of shell diseases. Both TSD and EnSD lesions were dominated by members of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Flavobacteria, all commonly detected in other forms of shell disease; however, unique members of Epsilonproteobacteria were also present. Two Vibrio spp. and 2 Pseudoalteromonas spp. were dominant in lesions of TSD and a Tenacibaculum sp. and Tenacibaculum ovolyticum were dominant in lesions of EnSD. The TSD and EnSD in this study contained similar taxa as other shell disease forms; however, their microbiology is mostly different and neither resembles that of epizootic shell disease.

  7. RAD genotyping reveals fine-scale genetic structuring and provides powerful population assignment in a widely distributed marine species, the American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benestan, Laura; Gosselin, Thierry; Perrier, Charles; Sainte-Marie, Bernard; Rochette, Rémy; Bernatchez, Louis

    2015-07-01

    Deciphering genetic structure and inferring connectivity in marine species have been challenging due to weak genetic differentiation and limited resolution offered by traditional genotypic methods. The main goal of this study was to assess how a population genomics framework could help delineate the genetic structure of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) throughout much of the species' range and increase the assignment success of individuals to their location of origin. We genotyped 10 156 filtered SNPs using RAD sequencing to delineate genetic structure and perform population assignment for 586 American lobsters collected in 17 locations distributed across a large portion of the species' natural distribution range. Our results revealed the existence of a hierarchical genetic structure, first separating lobsters from the northern and southern part of the range (FCT  = 0.0011; P-value = 0.0002) and then revealing a total of 11 genetically distinguishable populations (mean FST  = 0.00185; CI: 0.0007-0.0021, P-value < 0.0002), providing strong evidence for weak, albeit fine-scale population structuring within each region. A resampling procedure showed that assignment success was highest with a subset of 3000 SNPs having the highest FST . Applying Anderson's (Molecular Ecology Resources, 2010, 10, 701) method to avoid 'high-grading bias', 94.2% and 80.8% of individuals were correctly assigned to their region and location of origin, respectively. Lastly, we showed that assignment success was positively associated with sample size. These results demonstrate that using a large number of SNPs improves fine-scale population structure delineation and population assignment success in a context of weak genetic structure. We discuss the implications of these findings for the conservation and management of highly connected marine species, particularly regarding the geographic scale of demographic independence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Sublethal effects of petroleum fractions on the behavior of the lobster, Homarus americanus, and the mud snail, Nassarius obsoletus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atema, J.

    1976-01-01

    Studies by our laboratory on sublethal effects of petroleum fractions on behavior of H. americanus and N. obsoletus are summarized in an attempt to clarify contradictory results and to gain an understanding of the underlying principles. There appear a surprising number of similarities in the way specific petroleum fractions affect the behavior of a crustacean arthropod and a gastropod mollusc. Acute toxicity, caused perhaps by the branched-cyclic fraction, was evident in short term exposures to whole No. 2 fuel oil at 50 ppM and kerosene in ..mu..l/100 l quantities. Feeding attraction, caused perhaps by the branched-cyclic fraction in lower concentrations, was seen after exposure to 1 ppM No. 2 fuel oil, and to kerosene and its branched-cyclic and polar-aromatic fractions in ..mu..l/100 l quantities. Repulsion and feeding inhibition, caused perhaps by the polar-aromatic fraction which contains most of the soluble materials, was observed in response to many concentrations of No. 2 fuel oil and kerosene, and their soluble fractions down to 1 ppB levels. No effect was apparent in exposures to the lower concentrations of solubles of .1 and .01 ppM No. 2 fuel oil and to solubles of La Rosa crude at 10 ppB. The hypothesis is advanced that specific hydrocarbon fractions in specific amounts are responsible for distinct behavioral changes; these fractions are present in varying quantities in different oils; and the changes in behavior are general enough to affect a large number of marine invertebrates in a similar manner.

  9. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and gene expression changes under different growth conditions for the ciliate Anophryoides haemophila, the causative agent of bumper car disease in the American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acorn, Adam R; Clark, K Fraser; Jones, Sarah; Després, Béatrice M; Munro, Sarah; Cawthorn, Richard J; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2011-06-01

    The scuticociliate Anophryoides haemophila, causes bumper car disease in American lobster (Homarus americanus) in commercial holding facilities in Atlantic Canada. While the parasite has been recognized since the 1970s and much has been learned about its biology, minimal molecular characterization exists. With genome consortiums turning to model organisms like the ciliates Tetrahymena and Paramecium, the amount of relevant sequence data available has made sequence surveys more attractive for gene discovery in related ciliates. We sequenced 9984 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a non-normalized A. haemophila cDNA library to characterize gene expression patterns, functional gene distribution and to discover novel genes related to the parasitic life history. The A. haemophila ESTs were grouped into 843 clusters and singletons with 658 EST clusters having identifiable homologs, while 159 ESTs were unique and had no similarity to any sequences in the public databases. Not unexpectedly, about 67% of the A. haemophila ESTs have similarity to annotated and hypothetical genes from the related oligohymenophorean ciliate, Tetrahymena. Numerous cysteine proteases, hypothetical proteins and novel sequences possess putative secretory signal peptides suggesting that they may contribute to the pathogenesis of bumper car disease in lobster. Real time RT-qPCR analysis of cathepsin L and two homologs of cathepsin B did not show any changes in gene expression under varying in vitro growth conditions or during a modified-in vivo infection which may be suggestive of the opportunistic life history strategy of this ciliate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolution of identified arthropod neurons: the serotonergic system in relation to engrailed-expressing cells in the embryonic ventral nerve cord of the american lobster homarus americanus milne edwards, 1873 (malacostraca, pleocyemata, homarida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzsch, Steffen

    2003-06-01

    One of the long-standing questions in zoology is that on the phylogenetic relationships within the Arthropoda. Comparative studies on structure and development of the nervous system can contribute important arguments to this discussion. In the present report, the arrangement of serotonin- and engrailed-expressing cells was examined in the embryonic ventral nerve cord of the American lobster Homarus americanus Milne Edwards, 1873 (Malacostraca, Pleocyemata, Homarida), and the spatial relationship of these two cell classes was explored by a double-labelling approach. The goal of this study was to determine whether the lobster serotonergic neurons are homologous to similar cells present in representatives of the Hexapoda and other Arthropoda. The results indicate that, in fact, these neurons in the lobster ventral nerve cord have corresponding counterparts in many other mandibulate taxa. Based on the finding of these homologies, the arrangement of serotonergic neurons in a model trunk ganglion of the mandibulate ground pattern was reconstructed as comprising an anterior and a posterior pair of serotonergic neurons per hemiganglion, each cell with both an ipsilateral and a contralateral neurite. Starting from this ground pattern, the evolutionary diversification of this class of neurons within the Mandibulata is discussed.

  11. Diseases of American lobsters (Homarus americanus): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthorn, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    The American lobster fishery is a significant economic driver in coastal communities of North America. Increasingly, the impacts of infectious disease are recognized as important components and factors in the population ecology and subsequent management of the lobster fishery. Both environmental and anthropogenic factors impact marine diseases. The review herein highlights aspects of several important bacterial, fungal and protistan diseases, including gaffkemia, shell disease, vibriosis, disease caused by species of Lagenidium, Haliphthoros and Fusarium, paramoebiasis and Bumper Car disease. As the global environment continues to change, these diseases could more severely affect both wild caught and impounded lobsters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors affecting post-capture survivability of lobster Homarus americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basti, David; Bricknell, Ian; Hoyt, Ken; Chang, Ernest S; Halteman, William; Bouchard, Deborah

    2010-06-11

    Technological advances in gear and fishing practices have driven the global expansion of the American lobster live seafood market. These changes have had a positive effect on the lobster industry by increasing capture efficiency. However, it is unknown what effect these improved methods will have on the post-capture fitness and survival of lobsters. This project utilized a repeated measures design to compare the physiological changes that occur in lobsters over time as the result of differences in depth, hauling rate, and storage methodology. The results indicate that lobsters destined for long distance transport or temporary storage in pounds undergo physiological disturbance as part of the capture process. These changes are significant over time for total hemocyte counts, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, L-lactate, ammonia, and glucose. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for glucose indicates a significant interaction between depth and storage methodology over time for non-survivors. A Gram-negative bacterium, Photobacterium indicum, was identified in pure culture from hemolymph samples of 100% of weak lobsters. Histopathology revealed the presence of Gram-negative bacteria throughout the tissues with evidence of antemortem edema and necrosis suggestive of septicemia. On the basis of these findings, we recommend to the lobster industry that if a reduction in depth and hauling rate is not economically feasible, fishermen should take particular care in handling lobsters and provide them with a recovery period in recirculating seawater prior to land transport. The ecological role of P. indicum is not fully defined at this time. However, it may be an emerging opportunistic pathogen of stressed lobsters. Judicious preemptive antibiotic therapy may be necessary to reduce mortality in susceptible lobsters destined for high-density holding facilities.

  13. Cryptic speciation in the recently discovered American cycliophoran Symbion americanus; genetic structure and population expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, J.M.; Funch, Peter; Giribet, G.

    2007-01-01

      Symbion americanus was recently described as the second species in the phylum Cycliophora, living commensally on the American commercial lobster Homarus americanus. A previous genetic analysis of American and European populations of cycliophorans suggested that haplotype divergence in S....... americanus was much greater than in its European counterpart S. pandora. This study examined the population structure and demographics of 169 individuals thought to belong to S. americanus collected from lobsters over 13 North American localities (Nova Scotia, Canada to Maryland, USA) between October 2003...... and January 2006. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequence data clearly suggested the presence of three cryptic lineages in a species complex, often co-occurring in the same lobster specimens. One of these lineages, named the "G" lineage, was represented by very few individuals and therefore was excluded from...

  14. Size at onset of maturity of spiny lobsters Panulirus homarus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The size at onset of sexual maturity of the scalloped spiny lobster Panulirus homarus homarus captured off Mambrui, Kenya, was estimated from ovary condition, presence of external eggs and/or spermatophore remains (berry method), and presence of well developed ovigerous setae (setal method). The predictive utility of ...

  15. Linking ocean acidification and warming to the larval development of the American lobster (Homarus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, J. D.; Fields, D.; Wahle, R.; Mcveigh, H.; Greenwood, S.

    2016-02-01

    The American lobster upholds the most culturally and economically iconic fishery in New England. Over the past three decades lobster landings have risen steadily in northern New England as lobster populations have shifted northward, leaving policy makers and coastal communities wondering what the future of this fishery may hold. The underlying causes of this population shift are likely due to a suite of environmental stressors including increasing temperature and ocean acidification. In this study we investigated the interactive effects of IPCC predicted temperature and pH on key aspects of larval lobster development (size, survival, development time, respiration rate, swimming speed, prey consumption and gene expression). Our experiments showed that larvae raised in the high temperature treatments (19 °C) experienced significantly higher mortality than larvae in our control treatments (16 °C) with 50% mortality occurring in the high temperature treatment one week after hatching. The larvae in these high temperature treatments developed twice as fast and experienced respiration rates that were three times higher in the third and fourth larval stages. While temperature had a distinct effect, pH treatment had few significant effects on any of our measured parameters. These data suggest that projected end-century warming will have greater adverse effects than acidification on early larval survival, despite the hurrying effect of higher temperatures on lobster larval development and increase in physiological activity. There were no significant treatment effects on carapace length, dry weight, or carbon and nitrogen content. Analysis of swimming speed and gene expression (through RNA sequencing) are in progress. Understanding how the most vulnerable life stages of the lobster life cycle responds to climate change is essential in connecting the northward geographic shifts projected by habitat quality models, and the underlying physiological and genetic mechanisms that drive their ecology.

  16. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) NHE SODIUM/PROTON ANTIPORTER. (R823068)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF CALCIUM AND HEAVY METALS IN HEPATOPANCREAS OF THE ATLANTIC LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS). (R823068)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. CALCIUM UPTAKE BY MITOCHONDRIA OF ATLANTIC LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS). (R823068)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. HEPATOPANCREATIC CALCIUM DISTRIBUTION IN THE LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) DETERMINED BY CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY. (R823068)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: I. Peptide-specific actions of pyrokinins in the lobster cardiac neuromuscular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Patsy S; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A; Christie, Andrew E

    2015-09-01

    Although the crustacean heart is modulated by a large number of peptides and amines, few of these molecules have been localized to the cardiac ganglion itself; most appear to reach the cardiac ganglion only by hormonal routes. Immunohistochemistry in the American lobster Homarus americanus indicates that pyrokinins are present not only in neuroendocrine organs (pericardial organ and sinus gland), but also in the cardiac ganglion itself, where pyrokinin-positive terminals were found in the pacemaker cell region, as well as surrounding the motor neurons. Surprisingly, the single pyrokinin peptide identified from H. americanus, FSPRLamide, which consists solely of the conserved FXPRLamide residues that characterize pyrokinins, did not alter the activity of the cardiac neuromuscular system. However, a pyrokinin from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei [ADFAFNPRLamide, also known as Penaeus vannamei pyrokinin 2 (PevPK2)] increased both the frequency and amplitude of heart contractions when perfused through the isolated whole heart. None of the other crustacean pyrokinins tested (another from L. vannamei and two from the crab Cancer borealis) had any effect on the lobster heart. Similarly, altering the PevPK2 sequence either by truncation or by the substitution of single amino acids resulted in much lower or no activity in all cases; only the conservative substitution of serine for alanine at position 1 resulted in any activity on the heart. Thus, in contrast to other systems (cockroach and crab) in which all tested pyrokinins elicit similar bioactivities, activation of the pyrokinin receptor in the lobster heart appears to be highly isoform specific. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Limited prevalence of gaffkaemia (Aerococcus viridans var. homari) isolated from wild-caught European lobsters Homarus gammarus in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbing, P D; Pond, M J; Peeler, E; Small, H J; Greenwood, S J; Verner-Jeffreys, D

    2012-08-27

    Gaffkaemia, caused by Aerococcus viridans var. homari, causes fatal infections in Homarus spp. (clawed lobsters). Despite its high economic significance to the lobster fisheries in the USA and northern Europe, data on its prevalence in captured and wild populations, particularly in Europe, is scarce. Following an outbreak of gaffkaemia in a European lobster holding facility in South Wales (UK), a base-line survey was conducted for gaffkaemia in wild populations of European lobster Homarus gammarus around the coast of England and Wales. In addition, isolates recovered from the original outbreak and the survey were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and compared with previously characterised isolates from the USA, UK and Canada. Locally caught H. gammarus were sampled at 30 sites from around the coast of England and Wales between March 2006 and October 2008. Results confirmed that the prevalence of gaffkaemia in populations of H. gammarus was low, with only 9 positive isolates recovered from 952 samples examined. PFGE analysis showed that the isolates from the outbreak investigation shared the same pulsotype as A. viridans var. homari isolates from the USA, Norway and Canada, as well as an isolate (NCIMB 1119) reportedly recovered from an outbreak of European lobsters in England in the 1960s. This confirms earlier studies that suggest virulent strains of A. viridans var. homari show very limited geographical or temporal genetic variation and were introduced into the UK with American lobsters H. americanus.

  2. Morphological Dependence of Element Stoichiometry in the H. americanus Exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergelsberg, S. T.; Ulrich, R. N.; Dove, P. M.

    2016-02-01

    The crustacean exoskeleton is a complex biocomposite of inorganic mineral and organic macromolecules that expresses highly divergent morphologies across different taxa. While the structures and compositions of the organic framework show complex links to environmental and developmental pressures, little is known about the mineral chemistry. Previous studies of the cuticle have assumed that magnesium, phosphorous, and other trace metals are largely contained in the inorganic mineral fraction. Due to analytical limitations of structural analyses and in situ spectroscopic methods, the stoichiometry of the organic and inorganic portions could not be resolved. For example, previous Raman and XRD studies conclude the higher concentrations of trace elements, such as P and Mg measured in reinforced structures, e.g. the claw and abdomen, are primarily determined by the mineral fraction. Using the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) as a model organism to establish relationships between body part function and cuticle composition, this study quantified the distributions of Mg and P in the mineral and organic fractions. The experiments were designed to dissolve the exoskeleton of 10 body parts using three types of solutions that were specific to extracting 1) the mineral phase, 2) protein, and 3) polysaccharide. Analysis of the solutions by ICP-OES shows the mineral phase contains magnesium and phosphorous at concentrations sufficient to support the formation of calcium-magnesium and phosphate minerals. The protein fraction of the body parts contains significantly more Mg and P than previously hypothesized, while the levels of P contained in the organic portion are fairly constant. The findings demonstrate the lobster cuticle contains a significant amount of non-mineralized P and Mg that is readily water-soluble in the protein component. However, for those body parts used for defense and food acquisition, such as the claw, the mineral component determines the overall

  3. An Assessment of the Spiny Lobster Panulirus homarus Fishery in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The scalloped spiny lobster Panulirus homarus supports numerous traditional diving, trap and trammel net fisheries in the Western Indian Ocean. Commercial catches made in 2003 to 2005 in the Arabian Sea region of Oman (a coastline of ~1100 km, comprising Dhofar and. Al-Wusta) were sampled for length and sex ...

  4. An Assessment of the Spiny Lobster Panulirus homarus Fishery in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The scalloped spiny lobster Panulirus homarus supports numerous traditional diving, trap and trammel net fisheries in the Western Indian Ocean. Commercial catches made in 2003 to 2005 in the Arabian Sea region of Oman (a coastline of ~1100 km, comprising Dhofar and. Al-Wusta) were sampled for length ...

  5. Metal contaminants for modelling lobster (Homarus americanus) migration patterns in the Inner Bay of Fundy, Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C L; Paon, L A; Moffatt, J D

    2002-02-01

    A method, which uses metal compositions in lobster digestive glands as natural environmental tags, has been developed to trace lobster movements. Lobsters were collected from three selected sites, Minas Channel, Minas Basin, and Cobequid Bay, Inner Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada, that were known to be contaminated with Cu. Five metal variables (Ag, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn) were processed for principal component analysis (PCA). Metal concentration and burden models were investigated and PCA was able to differentiate lobsters from the respective catch sites. The method was applied to investigate the May and June lobsters collected at the three sites to determine the migration rate during this period of the fishing season. The results show a high level of mixing at Minas Basin and Cobequid Bay in June, and lobster movement inward toward the inner reaches of the bay, with very limited movement outward from the inner bay.

  6. ORGANIC CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENTS, POLYCHAETES (NEREIS VIRENS) AND THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS IN A LABORATORY FOOD CHAIN EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passa...

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF A BASOLATERAL ELECTRONEUTRAL NA+/H+ ANTIPORTER IN ATLANTIC LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) HEPATOPANCREATIC EPITHELIAL VESICLES. (R823068)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. Effect of copper on the characterization of proteins in the Spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus homarus (Linnaeus,1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharajan Athisuyambulingam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper is most toxic metal in marine organisms. Characterization of protein occurring in the metabolically active tissues of muscle (MU, hepatopancreas (HP and gills (GL of the spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus homarus on exposure to two sub-lethal doses (9.55 and 19.1 µg/l of copper were studied for 28 days of exposure (DoE. The electrophoretic pattern of muscle, hepatopancreas and gill proteins revealed 12, 8 and 8 slow moving bands (control. The number of bands decreased to 8 and 7, 6 and 5, 6 and 4 after 7 days of exposure to 9.55 µg/l and 19.1 µg/l concentrations of copper, respectively. After 28 days, the protein bands decreased to 7 and 6, 5 and 4, 4 and 4 at 9.55 µg/l and 19.1 µg/l concentrations of copper, respectively. Present study to indicate that to avoid the Cupro-Nickel coil in lobster holding centers in chiller plants used for cooling of water was found to be responsible for the mortality of lobsters during live transportation.

  9. A molecular phylogeny of the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus highlights a separately evolving lineage from the Southwest Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sohana P; Groeneveld, Johan C; Al-Marzouqi, Abdulaziz; Willows-Munro, Sandi

    2017-01-01

    Accurate species description in the marine environment is critical for estimating biodiversity and identifying genetically distinct stocks. Analysis of molecular data can potentially improve species delimitations because they are easily generated and independent, and yield consistent results with high statistical power. We used classical phylogenetic (maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) and coalescent-based methods (divergence dating with fossil calibrations and coalescent-based species delimitation) to resolve the phylogeny of the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus subspecies complex in the Indo-West Pacific. Analyses of mitochondrial data and combined nuclear and mitochondrial data recovered Panulirus homarus homarus and Panulirus homarus rubellus as separately evolving lineages, while the nuclear data trees were unresolved. Divergence dating analysis also identified Panulirus homarus homarus and Panulirus homarus rubellus as two distinct clades which diverged from a common ancestor during the Oligocene, approximately 26 million years ago. Species delimitation using coalescent-based methods corroborated these findings. A long pelagic larval life stage and the influence of ocean currents on post-larval settlement patterns suggest that a parapatric mode of speciation drives evolution in this subspecies complex. In combination, the results indicate that Panulirus homarus rubellus from the Southwest Indian Ocean is a separately evolving lineage and possibly a separate species.

  10. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus.

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    Charlie D Ellis

    Full Text Available Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding.

  11. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Charlie D; Hodgson, David J; André, Carl; Sørdalen, Tonje K; Knutsen, Halvor; Griffiths, Amber G F

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding.

  12. Directional preference of European lobster (Homarus gammarus movements on the Yorkshire Coast

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    James Michael Wood

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recaptures of 838 tagged Homarus gammarus individuals identified a directional preference, with bearings from release to recapture concentrated along a North-West to South-East axis, aligning with the predominant current direction for the study site.

  13. Evolutionary divergence of geographic subspecies within the scalloped spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus 1758.

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    Shane D Lavery

    Full Text Available Panulirus homarus is an economically important spiny lobster that is widespread through the Indo-West Pacific Region, but has an uncertain taxonomic status, with three or four geographic subspecies having been described. This study used mitochondrial (16S, COI and control region and nuclear (18S, ITS-1 DNA sequences to examine specimens of all putative subspecies and forms from throughout their range, in order to determine their genetic validity, and understand the evolutionary history of this species. Despite the range of diversity present in the loci examined, the results were consistent across genes. P. h. rubellus from the SW Indian Ocean comprised the most divergent lineage that was reciprocally monophyletic with respect to all other P. homarus (approx. 9% divergence in COI, and has likely evolved reproductive barriers. The putative P. h. "Brown" subspecies from the Marquesas Is in the central Pacific also comprised a somewhat divergent monophyletic lineage (approx. 3% in COI, but may simply be an allopatric population. The widespread P. h. homarus was not diverged at all from the described P. h. megasculpta from the NW Indian Ocean. The degree of evolutionary divergence of populations at the extremes distribution of the species is somewhat surprising, given the long pelagic larval stage, but suggests that allopatric speciation has been an important driver in the evolution of the genus.

  14. Isolation, characterization, and multiplexing of novel microsatellite markers for the tropical scalloped spiny lobster (Panulirus homarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delghandi, M; Goddard, S; Jerry, D R; Dao, H T; Afzal, H; Al-Jardani, S S

    2015-12-29

    Of the various spiny lobster species in the tropical and subtropical Indo-West Pacific region, the tropical scalloped spiny lobster (Panulirus homarus) supports one of the most commercially valuable fishery resources in many coastal African and Asian countries. The last decade has witnessed a serious decline in the wild populations of this species. Knowledge of the genetic basis of spiny lobster population structure is a prerequisite to achieve a sustainable fisheries management for this species. Here, we describe 13 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers developed for P. homarus, using a cross-species primer design strategy based on P. ornatus Roche 454 shot-gun generated sequencing. Microsatellite polymorphisms were assessed in 96 unrelated P. homarus individuals of a natural population, with the number of alleles per locus varying from 2 to 14, the observed and expected heterozygosity from 0.00 to 0.78 and from 0.03 to 0.79, respectively, and with only four loci (Pho-G27, Pho-G32, Pho-G36, and Pho-G58) deviating from Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium. Genetic linkage disequilibrium analysis between all pairs of the loci showed significant departure from the null hypothesis between loci Pho-G22 - Pho-G30, and Pho-G30 - Pho-G35. The successful cross amplification of these microsatellites highlights the potential of the developed microsatellites for future population genetic research within the different Panulirus species.

  15. PERBEDAAAN PADAT TEBAR TERHADAP TINGKAT PERTUMBUHAN DAN KELANGSUNGAN HIDUP POST PEURULUS LOBSTER PASIR (Panulirus homarus PADA BAK TERKONTROL

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    Nunik Cokrowati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Prospek budidaya Panulirus homarus menjanjikan dari segi ekonomi dan keadaan alam di wilayah NTB serta merupakan spesies komoditi ekspor utama di Indonesia.Potensi akuakultur lobster pasir tentunya membutuhkan teknik budidaya yang sesuai agar mendapatkan hasil yang optimal.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan padat tebar terhadap pertumbuhan dan nilai Survival rate (SR serta untuk mengetahui padat tebar yang dapat menghasilkan pertumbuhan dan nilai SR optimum post puerulus Panulirus homarus.Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimental dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan faktor tunggal yaitu padat tebar dengan densitas 20 ekor/m2, 40 ekor/m2, 60 ekor/m2, dan 80 ekor/m2. Parameter yang diamati adalah pertumbuhan spesifik dan kelangsungan hidup (SR post puerulus Panulirus homarus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian perlakuan perbedaan padat tebar berpengaruh (P<0,05 terhadap pertumbuhan spesifik dan kelangsungan hidup (SR post puerulus Panulirus homarus. Nilai SGR dan SR tertinggi terdapat pada kepadatan 20 ekor/m2 sebesar 2,15425% dengan nilai SR 75%, dengan kualitas air sebagai faktor pembatas dengan nilai rata-rata pH 7,2, suhu 26,930 C, salinitas 34,4 ppt dan DO 5,86 mg/l nilai tersebut dalam batas toleransi  sebagai kehidupan biota air khususnya  lobster pasir. Kata kunci : Panulirus homarus, padat tebar, survival rate

  16. Distribution of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale in Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, H. C.; Stoll, N. R.; Reber, E. W.; Chen, E. R.; Kang, B. T.; Kuo, M.

    1972-01-01

    In the first country-wide survey of hookworm infection in Liberia, diagnosis by test-tube filter-paper cultivation revealed a prevalence of more than 90%. This sensitive technique also permitted differential species determination. Necator americanus was found to occur in all regions and in a high proportion of the persons examined. Ancylostoma duodenale was mainly confined to a narrow coastal belt, and usually parasitized individuals harbouring N. americanus as well. The average number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) of infected individuals was lowest in the population of the hinterland. During the latter part of the studies a modified test-tube filter-paper cultivation technique was used in combination with dilution counting to obtain data on intensity of infection separately for the 2 species. For N. americanus there was little regional difference in the intensity of infection, but the EPG for A. duodenale was much higher in people living in the coastal area. PMID:4539819

  17. PHORBOL ESTER ACTIVATION OF AN NHE-LIKE ELECTRONEUTRAL NA+/H+ ANTIPORTER IN ISOLATED E-CELLS OF LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) HEPATOPANCREAS. (R823068)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. COPPER TRANSPORT BY ISOLATED AND PURIFIED DISTINCT CELL POPULATIONS OF THE LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) HEPATOPANCREAS USING A FLUOROMETRIC DYE. (R823068)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. Trichinella surveillance in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, J A; Kent, M L; Fowler, D R; Chomel, B B; Immell, D A

    2014-01-01

    We used serology and muscle digestion to test black bears (Ursus americanus) from western Oregon, USA, for Trichinella. Results indicate black bears in Oregon are not part of a sylvatic cycle for Trichinella, and risk of human exposure to Trichinella larvae from eating black bear meat from Oregon appears low.

  20. Massively parallel sequencing and analysis of the Necator americanus transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantacessi, Cinzia; Mitreva, Makedonka; Jex, Aaron R; Young, Neil D; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Hall, Ross S; Doyle, Maria A; Ralph, Stuart A; Rabelo, Elida M; Ranganathan, Shoba; Sternberg, Paul W; Loukas, Alex; Gasser, Robin B

    2010-05-11

    The blood-feeding hookworm Necator americanus infects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. In order to elucidate fundamental molecular biological aspects of this hookworm, the transcriptome of the adult stage of Necator americanus was explored using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 19,997 contigs were assembled from the sequence data; 6,771 of these contigs had known orthologues in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and most of them encoded proteins with WD40 repeats (10.6%), proteinase inhibitors (7.8%) or calcium-binding EF-hand proteins (6.7%). Bioinformatic analyses inferred that the C. elegans homologues are involved mainly in biological pathways linked to ribosome biogenesis (70%), oxidative phosphorylation (63%) and/or proteases (60%); most of these molecules were predicted to be involved in more than one biological pathway. Comparative analyses of the transcriptomes of N. americanus and the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, revealed qualitative and quantitative differences. For instance, proteinase inhibitors were inferred to be highly represented in the former species, whereas SCP/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7 proteins ( = SCP/TAPS or Ancylostoma-secreted proteins) were predominant in the latter. In N. americanus, essential molecules were predicted using a combination of orthology mapping and functional data available for C. elegans. Further analyses allowed the prioritization of 18 predicted drug targets which did not have homologues in the human host. These candidate targets were inferred to be linked to mitochondrial (e.g., processing proteins) or amino acid metabolism (e.g., asparagine t-RNA synthetase). This study has provided detailed insights into the transcriptome of the adult stage of N. americanus and examines similarities and differences between this species and A. caninum. Future efforts should focus on comparative transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the other predominant human hookworm, A

  1. Massively parallel sequencing and analysis of the Necator americanus transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Cantacessi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The blood-feeding hookworm Necator americanus infects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. In order to elucidate fundamental molecular biological aspects of this hookworm, the transcriptome of the adult stage of Necator americanus was explored using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses.A total of 19,997 contigs were assembled from the sequence data; 6,771 of these contigs had known orthologues in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and most of them encoded proteins with WD40 repeats (10.6%, proteinase inhibitors (7.8% or calcium-binding EF-hand proteins (6.7%. Bioinformatic analyses inferred that the C. elegans homologues are involved mainly in biological pathways linked to ribosome biogenesis (70%, oxidative phosphorylation (63% and/or proteases (60%; most of these molecules were predicted to be involved in more than one biological pathway. Comparative analyses of the transcriptomes of N. americanus and the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, revealed qualitative and quantitative differences. For instance, proteinase inhibitors were inferred to be highly represented in the former species, whereas SCP/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7 proteins ( = SCP/TAPS or Ancylostoma-secreted proteins were predominant in the latter. In N. americanus, essential molecules were predicted using a combination of orthology mapping and functional data available for C. elegans. Further analyses allowed the prioritization of 18 predicted drug targets which did not have homologues in the human host. These candidate targets were inferred to be linked to mitochondrial (e.g., processing proteins or amino acid metabolism (e.g., asparagine t-RNA synthetase.This study has provided detailed insights into the transcriptome of the adult stage of N. americanus and examines similarities and differences between this species and A. caninum. Future efforts should focus on comparative transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the other predominant human

  2. Are European lobsters (Homarus gammarus) susceptible to infection by a temperate Hematodinium sp.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Charlotte E; Rowley, Andrew F

    2015-05-01

    Hematodinium spp. infect over 40 species of crustaceans worldwide, but have not been reported to infect the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. In this study, Hematodinium parasites (a mixture of uni- and multinucleate trophont-like stages) were taken from donor crabs (Cancer pagurus) and injected into juvenile H. gammarus. Juvenile C. pagurus were also injected with the same inoculum. Haemolymph was taken at regular intervals and examined for the presence of Hematodinium using light microscopy and PCR, in two separate experiments of duration 4 and 8months. All lobsters were negative for Hematodinium whilst the C. pagurus challenged became infected. It is concluded that European lobsters are not susceptible to infection with a clade of Hematodinium that infects C. pagurus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiac catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - cardiac; Heart catheterization; Angina - cardiac catheterization; CAD - cardiac catheterization; Coronary artery disease - cardiac catheterization; Heart valve - cardiac catheterization; ...

  4. First record of the ant cricket Myrmecophilus (Myrmecophilina) americanus (Orthoptera: Myrmecophilidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Morales, Aldo I; Rodríguez, Quetzaly K Siller; Garza-Hernández, Javier A; Adeniran, Adebiyi A; Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A

    2017-04-27

    In September 2004, the New World ant cricket, Myrmecophilus americanus Saussure, 1877, was collected in association with longhorn crazy ants, Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille. 1802), in the state of Coahuila, Mexico. We are reporting the DNA barcode using the mitochrondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I for this first record of M. americanus in Mexico.

  5. Demodicosis in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, D J; Spalding, M G; Wooding, J B

    1993-01-01

    Demodicosis was diagnosed in five black bears (Ursus americanus) from north-central Florida. The first bear examined, a 5-yr-old male, had severe alopecia except for the dorsal neck, paws, and ears. The skin was characterized by moderate orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, and mild to moderate follicular hyperkeratosis. Superficial dermatitis, follicular pustules, and epidermal pustules were present, but rare. Specimens of Demodex sp. were seen most commonly within hair follicles devoid of hair and at the infundibulum of sebaceous glands. Four additional bears from the same area also had some degree of alopecia and skin scrapings were positive for Demodex sp. This mite may be common, although its prevalence is not known.

  6. Modulation of gene expression in heart and liver of hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Vadim B; Goropashnaya, Anna V; Tøien, Øivind; Stewart, Nathan C; Chang, Celia; Wang, Haifang; Yan, Jun; Showe, Louise C; Showe, Michael K; Barnes, Brian M

    2011-03-31

    Hibernation is an adaptive strategy to survive in highly seasonal or unpredictable environments. The molecular and genetic basis of hibernation physiology in mammals has only recently been studied using large scale genomic approaches. We analyzed gene expression in the American black bear, Ursus americanus, using a custom 12,800 cDNA probe microarray to detect differences in expression that occur in heart and liver during winter hibernation in comparison to summer active animals. We identified 245 genes in heart and 319 genes in liver that were differentially expressed between winter and summer. The expression of 24 genes was significantly elevated during hibernation in both heart and liver. These genes are mostly involved in lipid catabolism and protein biosynthesis and include RNA binding protein motif 3 (Rbm3), which enhances protein synthesis at mildly hypothermic temperatures. Elevated expression of protein biosynthesis genes suggests induction of translation that may be related to adaptive mechanisms reducing cardiac and muscle atrophies over extended periods of low metabolism and immobility during hibernation in bears. Coordinated reduction of transcription of genes involved in amino acid catabolism suggests redirection of amino acids from catabolic pathways to protein biosynthesis. We identify common for black bears and small mammalian hibernators transcriptional changes in the liver that include induction of genes responsible for fatty acid β oxidation and carbohydrate synthesis and depression of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, carbohydrate catabolism, cellular respiration and detoxification pathways. Our findings show that modulation of gene expression during winter hibernation represents molecular mechanism of adaptation to extreme environments.

  7. Hookworm (Necator americanus) Larval Enzymes Disrupt Human Vascular Endothelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souadkia, Nahed; Brown, Alan; Leach, Lopa; Pritchard, David I.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms used by Necator americanus larvae to penetrate the human skin and the vasculature would aid the development of effective vaccines against this important pathogen. In this work, the impact of N. americanus exsheathing fluid (EF) and excretory/secretory products (ES) on the endothelial barrier was examined using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Cellular responses were assessed by investigating molecular changes at cell–cell junctions and by determining levels of secreted IL-6, IL-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the culture medium. It would appear that a repertoire of larval proteases caused a dose-related increase in endothelial permeability as characterized by a decrease in monolayer resistance with increased permeation of tracer-albumin. These barrier changes were associated with disruption of junctional vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) and F-actin and an increase in endothelial secretion of IL-6 and IL-8. Our data suggest that larval proteases play an important role in negotiating the endothelium. PMID:20810819

  8. Tetranucleotide microsatellite loci from the black bear (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderlin, J.S.; Faircloth, B.C.; Shamblin, B.; Conroy, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    We describe primers and polymerase chain reaction conditions to amplify 21 tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA loci in black bears (Ursus americanus). We tested primers using individuals from two populations, one each in Georgia and Florida. Among individuals from Georgia (n = 29), primer pairs yielded an average of 2.9 alleles (range, one to four) and an average observed heterozygosity (HO) of 0.50 (range, 0.00 to 0.79). Among individuals from Florida (n = 19), primer pairs yielded an average of 5.7 alleles (range, one to 14) and an HO of 0.55 (range, 0.00 to 1.00). A comparison of previously developed markers with individuals from Georgia suggests that bear populations in Georgia and Florida have reduced allelic diversity relative to other populations. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  9. Microbial proliferation on gill structures of juvenile European lobster ( Homarus gammarus) during a moult cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemiss, Karen L.; Urbina, Mauricio A.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2015-12-01

    The morphology of gill-cleaning structures is not well described in European lobster ( Homarus gammarus). Furthermore, the magnitude and time scale of microbial proliferation on gill structures is unknown to date. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate development of setae in zoea, megalopa and juvenile stages (I-V). Microbes were classified and quantified on gill structures throughout a moult cycle from megalopa (stage IV) to juvenile (stage V). Epipodial serrulate setae, consisting of a naked proximal setal shaft with the distal portion possessing scale-like outgrowths (setules), occur only after zoea stage III. After moulting to megalopa (stage IV), gill structures were completely clean and no microbes were visible on days 1 or 5 postmoult. Microbial proliferation was first evident on day 10 postmoult, with a significant 16-fold increase from day 10 to 15. Rod-shaped bacteria were initially predominant (by day 10); however, by day 15 the microbial community was dominated by cocci-shaped bacteria. This research provides new insights into the morphology of gill-grooming structures, the timing of their development, and the magnitude, timescale and characteristics of gill microbial proliferation during a moult cycle. To some degree, the exponential growth of epibionts on gills found during a moult cycle will likely impair respiratory (gas exchange) and ion regulatory function, yet further research is needed to evaluate the physiological effects of the exponential bacterial proliferation documented here.

  10. Modulation of gene expression in heart and liver of hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hibernation is an adaptive strategy to survive in highly seasonal or unpredictable environments. The molecular and genetic basis of hibernation physiology in mammals has only recently been studied using large scale genomic approaches. We analyzed gene expression in the American black bear, Ursus americanus, using a custom 12,800 cDNA probe microarray to detect differences in expression that occur in heart and liver during winter hibernation in comparison to summer active animals. Results We identified 245 genes in heart and 319 genes in liver that were differentially expressed between winter and summer. The expression of 24 genes was significantly elevated during hibernation in both heart and liver. These genes are mostly involved in lipid catabolism and protein biosynthesis and include RNA binding protein motif 3 (Rbm3, which enhances protein synthesis at mildly hypothermic temperatures. Elevated expression of protein biosynthesis genes suggests induction of translation that may be related to adaptive mechanisms reducing cardiac and muscle atrophies over extended periods of low metabolism and immobility during hibernation in bears. Coordinated reduction of transcription of genes involved in amino acid catabolism suggests redirection of amino acids from catabolic pathways to protein biosynthesis. We identify common for black bears and small mammalian hibernators transcriptional changes in the liver that include induction of genes responsible for fatty acid β oxidation and carbohydrate synthesis and depression of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, carbohydrate catabolism, cellular respiration and detoxification pathways. Conclusions Our findings show that modulation of gene expression during winter hibernation represents molecular mechanism of adaptation to extreme environments.

  11. Geographic variation in winter adaptations of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Laura C.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Sheriff, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding adaptations of nonhibernating northern endotherms to cope with extreme cold is important because climate-induced changes in winter temperatures and snow cover are predicted to impact these species the most. We compared winter pelage characteristics and heat production of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777) on the southern edge of their range, in Pennsylvania (USA), to a northern population, in the Yukon (Canada), to investigate how hares might respond to changing environmental conditions. We also investigated how hares in Pennsylvania altered movement rates and resting spot selection to cope with variable winter temperatures. Hares from Pennsylvania had shorter, less dense, and less white winter coats than their northern counterparts, suggesting lower coat insulation. Hares in the southern population had lower pelage temperatures, indicating that they produced less heat than those in the northern population. In addition, hares in Pennsylvania did not select for resting spots that offered thermal advantages, but selected locations offering visual obstruction from predators. Movement rates were associated with ambient temperature, with the smallest movements occurring at the lower and upper range of observed ambient temperatures. Our results indicate that snowshoe hares may be able to adapt to future climate conditions via changes in pelage characteristics, metabolism, and behavior.

  12. The complete genome sequence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus', associated with Citrus huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Nelson A; Zhang, Shujian; Setubal, João C; Almeida, Nalvo F; Martins, Elaine C; Harakava, Ricardo; Kumar, Dibyendu; Rangel, Luiz Thiberio; Foissac, Xavier; Bové, Joseph M; Gabriel, Dean W

    2014-02-01

    Liberibacter spp. form a Rhizobiaceae clade of phloem-limited pathogens of limited host range. Two obligately parasitic species have been sequenced: 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', which causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB) worldwide, and 'Ca. L. solanacearum', which causes potato "zebra chip" disease. A third (proposed) species, Liberibacter crescens, was isolated from mountain papaya, grown in axenic culture, and sequenced. In an effort to identify common host determinants, the complete genomic DNA sequence of a second HLB species, 'Ca. L. americanus' strain 'São Paulo' was determined. The circular genome of 1,195,201 bp had an average 31.12% GC content and 983 predicted protein encoding genes, 800 (81.4%) of which had a predicted function. There were 658 genes common to all sequenced Liberibacter spp. and only 8 genes common to 'Ca. L. americanus' and 'Ca. L. asiaticus' but not found in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'. Surprisingly, most of the lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic genes were missing from the 'Ca. L. americanus' genome, as well as OmpA and a key regulator of flagellin, all indicating a 'Ca. L. americanus' strategy of avoiding production of major pathogen-associated molecular patterns present in 'Ca. L. asiaticus' and 'Ca. L. solanacearum'. As with 'Ca. L. asiaticus', one of two 'Ca. L. americanus' prophages replicated as an excision plasmid and carried potential lysogenic conversion genes that appeared fragmentary or degenerated in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'.

  13. Blindness in a wild American black bear cub (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Elizabeth; McGregor, Glenna F; Bauer, Bianca S; Parker, Dennilyn; Grahn, Bruce H

    2016-07-01

    An approximately six-month-old wild American black bear (Ursus americanus) was found wandering in Saskatchewan and was presented to the Veterinary Medical Centre of the Western College of Veterinary Medicine for apparent blindness. Clinical examination confirmed an inability to navigate a photopic maze, bilateral tapetal hyper-reflectivity, fundi devoid of retinal vessels, and small pale optic nerve papillae. Single-flash electroretinography revealed A and B-wave amplitudes of approximately 40 and 140 microvolts, respectively, in both eyes. Histologic abnormalities included bilateral optic papillary mineralization and bilateral segmental optic nerve degeneration, with occasional intralesional lymphocytes confirmed with immunohistochemistry for CD3+. There was also bilateral multifocal retinal dysplasia, gliosis, lymphocytic retinitis, a complete lack of retinal blood vessels, an intravitreal vascular membrane, and a mild lymphocytic-plasmacytic uveitis with small pre-iridal cellular membranes. The presence of a positive ERG in a blind bear with numerous retinal ganglion cells and degenerative changes in the optic nerve are most consistent with vision loss due to optic nerve injury, which given the young age of the bear likely occurred during ocular development. The presence of ocular inflammation suggests this injury resulted from an inflammatory/infectious process. The etiology could not be determined. Hepatic concentrations of vitamin A were within the normal reference range for domestic species. Pan-herpesvirus PCR and immunohistochemistry for canine distemper virus and Toxoplasma gondii were negative, although this does not rule out these or other infectious etiologies. This represents the first case report of neonatal or congenital ocular abnormalities in an ursid species. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. [Scanning electron microscopic observations on the copulatory spicules of the male Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S E; Lu, X J; Xie, L C; Zhang, D P

    1993-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopic observations were made on the morphological structures of the two copulatory spicules of the male Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. In both species, one of the two copulatory spicules was in the shape of a concave groove and the other, in the shape of an oblate tube. Owing to the difference in the concavity of the groove shaped copulatory spicule between the two species as shown by the cross sections, Necator americanus usually appear to have only one copulatory spicule whereas Ancylostoma duodenale usually show two separate copulatory spicules in appearance (Figs 1-10).

  15. [Sequencing of cytochrome C oxidase 1 gene of Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Zhan, B; Hawdon, J M; Gong, X; Xiao, S; Shan, Q; Feng, Z; Hotez, P J

    1999-01-01

    To identify the genetic diversity between Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. Mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene was amplified from genomic DNA of human hookworms collected from infected patients in Hejiang County, Sichuan Province, and the purified PCR products were directly sequenced by using Licor auto-sequencer. The PCR products were about 700 bp. Alignment of CO1 gene fragment sequences showed 89.7% similarity between Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus, but still certain nucleotide variations (10.3%) existed. CO1 gene sequence can be used as a marker to identify the two species of human hookworms.

  16. A model for the bioaccumulation of {sup 99}Tc in lobsters (Homarus gammarus) from the West Cumbrian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Y.S.; Vives i Batlle, J. E-mail: jordi.vives@westlakes.ac.uk

    2003-07-01

    A biokinetic model is presented that simulates the uptake and release of {sup 99}Tc by the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). This organism is of significant radioecological interest since lobsters, in contrast to most other organisms, have a high affinity for {sup 99}Tc. The model is designed to represent annually averaged {sup 99}Tc concentrations in lobsters from the Cumbrian coast, where significant levels of {sup 99}Tc have been released under authorisation by the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL Sellafield. This paper describes the construction of the model, how it was calibrated using data from published literature, and preliminary results indicating that model output agrees well with the available monitoring data. Given that this model successfully combines laboratory and field data, this research could potentially make a significant contribution to the field, as, to date, it has been difficult to predict and explain concentrations of {sup 99}Tc in lobsters.

  17. First record of Euchirograpsus americanus A. Milne-Edwards, 1880 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Plagusiidae from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio de Almeida Alves-Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract The crab Euchirograpsus americanus A. Milne-Edwards, 1880 (Plagusiidae has so far only been recorded in Brazil in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Here we report its first occurrence from northeastern Brazil, from the Potiguar Basin in the state of Rio Grande do Norte.

  18. The topographic distribution of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale in the human intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rep, B H

    1975-06-01

    During an investigation in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 28 human intestinal tracts were systematically inspected on the presence of hookworms. In total, 643 hookworms (508 Necator americanus and 135 Ancylostoma duodenale) were isolated from 19 intestinal tracts. The localization of these hookworms was determined. N. americanus worms were concentrated in the duodenum and jejunum, whereas A. duodenale worms rather prefer the jejunum and proximal ileum. Some preference of hookworms for the antimesenteric site of the intestinal wall was found. The relative distance between adjoining worms in the observed hookworm populations was 3.8 cm on the average for Necator and 5.5 cm for Ancylostoma. The distribution of the sexes in the worm-population revealed no monosexual or bisexual prevalence of the hookworms.

  19. Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus: effect of temperature on egg development and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G; Schad, G A

    1989-08-01

    The development and mortality of the eggs of Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus in distilled water were monitored over a range of temperatures between 15 and 35 degrees C. Egg demography was examined within the context of a four-parameter mathematical model of development and mortality. Over the range of temperatures studied, egg mortality (mu) was an increasing exponential function of temperature (T) measured in degrees Celsius. A single model adequately described the mortality of both species (In [mu] = 0.41*T-6.87). The minimum time (tau) to hatching was consistently less for A. duodenale (In [1/tau] = -(0.79 + 53.05*[1/T]) than N. americanus (In [1/tau] = -(0.99 + 53.05*[1/T

  20. A microchannel confocal examination of arsenic speciation and distribution in Bufo americanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Gordon, Robert A.; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2016-05-01

    We have used confocal methods to examine the distribution and speciation of arsenic within amphibian tissue (Bufo americanus) from a contaminated mine site. The use of new microchannel technology permits a confocal, and energy-independent, examination of a given voxel within the amphibian tissue without the need for sectioning. We observe differences in arsenic concentration and speciation depending on tissue type, with the Eberth- Katschenko layer in particular containing Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in addition to Ca and pentavalent arsenic.

  1. Systems metabolic effects of a necator americanus infection in Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulan; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Xue, Jian; Singer, Burton H; Utzinger, Jürg; Holmes, Elaine

    2009-12-01

    Hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) are blood-feeding intestinal nematodes that infect approximately 700 million people worldwide. To further our understanding of the systems metabolic response of the mammalian host to hookworm infection, we employed a metabolic profiling strategy involving the combination of (1)H NMR spectroscopic analysis of urine and serum and multivariate data analysis techniques to investigate the biochemical consequences of a N. americanus infection in the hamster. The infection was characterized by altered energy metabolism, consistent with hookworm-induced anemia. Additionally, disturbance of gut microbiotal activity was associated with a N. americanus infection, manifested in the alterations of microbial-mammalian cometabolites, including phenylacetylglycine, p-cresol glucuronide, 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-phenylpropionic acid, hippurate, 4-hydroxyphenylactate, and dimethylamine. The correlation between worm burden and metabolite concentrations also reflected a changed energy metabolism and gut microbial state. Furthermore, elevated levels of urinary 2-aminoadipate was a characteristic feature of the infection, which may be associated with the documented neurological consequences of hookworm infection.

  2. Effects of Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacteria and of Cell Extracts on Germination of Euonymus americanus L. Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Gary T.; Elliott, Larry P.

    1988-01-01

    In past attempts, the experimental germination of the seeds of Euonymus americanus L. in vitro has had little success. However, treatment of seeds with ruminal fluid containing viable microflora has been successful in stimulating germination. In the presence of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium, Clostridium cellobioparum ATCC 15832, seeds of E. americanus were stimulated to germinate. Subsequent studies were designed to determine whether the bacterium synthesized a cellulolytic enzyme responsible for initiating germination. The cell-free endocellulase from C. cellobioparum induced germination of the seeds. To support the hypothesis that the endocellulase from C. cellobioparum was responsible for triggering germination, a 1,4-β-d-glucan glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.4) from Penicillum funiculosum was used to treat the seeds. In addition, no germination was obtained from seeds treated with a commercial exocellulase enzyme. Also, Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 was found to initiate germination of E. americanus seeds. Thus, cellulase activity is indicated in the degradation of the testa of the seed, allowing imbibition and germination. PMID:16347528

  3. Aspects of gene regulation in the diploid and tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianciarullo Aurora M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietic and hemoglobin DNA transcriptional activities were analyzed in the diploid and the tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus. Flow cytometric analyses of DNA, RNA and mitochondrial contents showed increased genic activity in both diploid and tetraploid animals during erythropoiesis in vivo elicited by pretreatment phenylhydrazine. Generally, higher values were seen in immature tetraploid erythroid cells. On the 10th day of recovery from anemia, large amounts of messenger RNA were found in both specimens. Based on the mitochondrial content, the tetraploid cells had more intense energy metabolism than the diploid cells. Diploid O. americanus had about three times more erythroid cells than tetraploid specimens, indicating that there were differences in the regulatory mechanisms of erythroid cells. Hematological parameters showed that tetraploid cells had 30% more hemoglobin than the diploid, suggesting a regulatory mechanism of hemoglobin synthesis at the transcriptional level. Cytoplasmic inclusions resembling Heinz bodies were found in both types of cells. In the tetraploid cells they were previously found associated with RNA or RNP, suggesting that other regulatory system which controls the accumulation of nontranslated RNA transcribed in excess must be present. These differences at the physiological and molecular levels during erythropoiesis reinforce the hypothesis that speciation is occurring between diploid and tetraploid O. americanus.

  4. An approach to the assessment of risk from chronic radiation to populations of European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Wilson, R C; Watts, S J; McDonald, P; Jones, S R; Vives-Lynch, S M; Craze, A

    2010-03-01

    The basic principles underlying a four-discrete age group, logistic, growth model for the European lobster Homarus gammarus are presented and discussed at proof-of-concept level. The model considers reproduction, removal by predation, natural death, fishing, radiation and migration. Non-stochastic effects of chronic low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation are modelled with emphasis on (99)Tc, using three endpoints: repairable radiation damage, impairment of reproductive ability and, at higher dose rates, mortality. An allometric approach for the calculation of LD(50/30) as a function of the mass of each life stage is used in model calibration. The model predicts that at a dose rate of 1 Gy day(-1), lobster population reproduction and survival become severely compromised, leading eventually to population extinction. At 0.01 Gy day(-1), the survival rate of an isolated population is reduced by 10%, mainly through loss of fecundity, comparable to natural migration losses. Fishing is the main ecological stress and only dose rates in the range 0.03-0.1 Gy day(-1) can achieve discernible effects above it. On the balance of radiation and other ecological stresses, a benchmark value of 0.01 Gy day(-1) is proposed for the protection of lobster populations. This value appears consistent with available information on radiation effects in wildlife.

  5. Effect of CO2-related acidification on aspects of the larval development of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, K. E.; Findlay, H. S.; Spicer, J. I.; Daniels, C. L.; Boothroyd, D.

    2009-08-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 results in a reduction in pH termed "Ocean Acidification" (OA). Comparatively little attention has been given to the effect of OA on the early life history stages of marine animals. Consequently, we investigated the effect of culture in CO2-acidified sea water (approx. 1200 ppm, i.e. average values predicted using IPCC 2007 A1F1 emissions scenarios for year 2100) on early larval stages of an economically important crustacean, the European lobster Homarus gammarus. Culture in CO2-acidified sea water did not significantly affect carapace length of H. gammarus. However, there was a reduction in carapace mass during the final stage of larval development in CO2-acidified sea water. This co-occurred with a reduction in exoskeletal mineral (calcium and magnesium) content of the carapace. As the control and high CO2 treatments were not undersaturated with respect to any of the calcium carbonate polymorphs measured, the physiological alterations we record are most likely the result of acidosis or hypercapnia interfering with normal homeostatic function, and not a direct impact on the carbonate supply-side of calcification per se. Thus despite there being no observed effect on survival, carapace length, or zoeal progression, OA related (indirect) disruption of calcification and carapace mass might still adversely affect the competitive fitness and recruitment success of larval lobsters with serious consequences for population dynamics and marine ecosystem function.

  6. Effect of CO2-related acidification on aspects of the larval development of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Boothroyd

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 results in a reduction in pH termed "Ocean Acidification" (OA. Comparatively little attention has been given to the effect of OA on the early life history stages of marine animals. Consequently, we investigated the effect of culture in CO2-acidified sea water (approx. 1200 ppm, i.e. average values predicted using IPCC 2007 A1F1 emissions scenarios for year 2100 on early larval stages of an economically important crustacean, the European lobster Homarus gammarus. Culture in CO2-acidified sea water did not significantly affect carapace length of H. gammarus. However, there was a reduction in carapace mass during the final stage of larval development in CO2-acidified sea water. This co-occurred with a reduction in exoskeletal mineral (calcium and magnesium content of the carapace. As the control and high CO2 treatments were not undersaturated with respect to any of the calcium carbonate polymorphs measured, the physiological alterations we record are most likely the result of acidosis or hypercapnia interfering with normal homeostatic function, and not a direct impact on the carbonate supply-side of calcification per se. Thus despite there being no observed effect on survival, carapace length, or zoeal progression, OA related (indirect disruption of calcification and carapace mass might still adversely affect the competitive fitness and recruitment success of larval lobsters with serious consequences for population dynamics and marine ecosystem function.

  7. Homarus gammarus (Crustacea: Decapoda) larvae under an ocean acidification scenario: responses across different levels of biological organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato, Lénia D; Novais, Sara C; Lemos, Marco F L; Alves, Luís M F; Leandro, Sérgio M

    2017-12-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exposure to different target pCO 2 levels: control (C: 370μatm, pH=8.15) and ocean acidification (OA: 710μatm, pH=7.85) on development and biochemical responses related with oxidative stress and energy metabolism during the crustacean Homarus gammarus (L.) larval development, integrating different levels of biological organization. After hatching in the laboratory, larvae from the same female brood were exposed to the described conditions from hatching until reaching Stage III (last larval stage - 11days). H. gammarus larvae demonstrated some susceptibility when addressing the predicted pCO 2 levels for 2100. Further analysis at the biochemical and physiological level highlighted the occurrence of oxidative stress in the OA scenario (Superoxide Dismutase reduction and higher DNA damage) that was followed by developmental effects, increased inter-moult period from SII to SIII and reduced growth. The extended exposure to these conditions may affect organisms' key life-cycle functions such as physiological resistance, growth, sexual maturation, or reproduction with implications in their future fitness and population dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transfer across the human gut of environmental technetium in lobsters (Homarus gammarus L.) from the Irish Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.J. [The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: g.j.hunt@cefas.co.uk; Young, A.K.; Bonfield, R.A. [The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    Few data are available on the uptake by the human gut of the element technetium. Of current radiological interest in connection with discharges of technetium-99 in liquid discharges from BNFL, Sellafield, is uptake from European lobsters (Homarus gammarus), whose edible parts are known to concentrate technetium. In this study, a group of eight adult volunteers (six males and two females) ate samples of edible flesh from lobsters caught off the west Cumbrian coast and provided 24 h samples of urine and faeces for analysis. Detection of uptake from the gut by difference between intake and faecal measurements proved insensitive, suggesting a low value of the gut transfer factor (f{sub 1} value) of up to 0.1 with a maximum (two standard deviations) level of about 0.3. In urine, technetium was detectable at a relatively low level compared with the intakes, consistent with a low absorption across the gut. Values for f{sub 1} were derived with the aid of literature data for excretion following intravenous administration of technetium-95m as pertechnetate, and gave averaged data for f{sub 1} in the range 0.046 to 0.23. These results are in broad conformity with those derived from the faecal measurements, and suggest a lower value than the 0.5 used by ICRP. (author)

  9. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stian Aspaas

    Full Text Available The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the "naïve" treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the "exposed" treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles.

  10. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the "naïve" treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the "exposed" treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles.

  11. Morphology and pathology of the ectoparasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci ('lobster louse') in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Emma C; Pope, Edward C; Vogan, Claire L; Roberts, Emily C; Davies, Charlotte E; Rowley, Andrew F

    2011-09-01

    Ectoparasitic copepods have been reported in a wide range of aquatic animals, including crustacean shellfish. However, with the exception of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, our knowledge of such parasites in commercial species is rudimentary. The current study examines the morphology and pathology of the parasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the 'lobster louse') in its host, the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. Lobsters were sampled from waters surrounding Lundy Island (Bristol Channel, UK) and all individuals collected were found to harbour female adult N. astaci in their gills, with a mean of 47·3 parasites/lobster. The majority of N. astaci were found in the basal region of pleurobranch gills. The parasite was found to attach to gill filaments via its oral sucker, maxillae and maxillipeds, and to feed on host haemolymph (blood) through a funnel-like feeding channel. It caused varying degrees of damage to the host gill, including occlusion of gill filaments and disruption to the vascular system in the central axis. Although there was evidence of extensive host response (haemocytic infiltration) to the parasite, it was displaced from the parasite attachment site and thus was observed in the central gill axis below. The region of gill filament immediately underlying the parasite feeding channel was devoid of such activity suggesting that the parasite interferes with the cellular defence and haemostatic mechanisms of the lobster in order to maintain invasion of the host.

  12. Histología y ultraestructura del sistema reproductor masculino de la langosta espinosa de la India Panulirus homarus (Decapoda: Palinuridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Pillai, S.; Nasser, M.; Sanil, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    La langosta espinosa Panulirus homarus, distribuida a lo largo de las costas sudeste y sudoeste de la India, es una especie de importancia comercial con gran potencial para la maricultura. A pesar de su importancia, las características estructurales y ultraestructurales de las gónadas masculinas de esta especie han sido poco estudiadas. Debido a esto, el objetivo de este estudio fue describir el aparato reproductor masculino de dicha especie, utilizando técnicas convencionales de microscopía ...

  13. Histología y ultraestructura del sistema reproductor masculino de la langosta espinosa de la India Panulirus homarus (Decapoda: Palinuridae)

    OpenAIRE

    S Lakshmi Pillai; M Nasser; N. K. Sanil

    2014-01-01

    La langosta espinosa Panulirus homarus, distribuida a lo largo de las costas sudeste y sudoeste de la India, es una especie de importancia comercial con gran potencial para la mari-cultura. A pesar de su importancia, las características estructurales y ultraestructurales de las gónadas masculinas de esta especie han sido poco estudiadas. Debido a esto, el objetivo de este estudio fue describir el aparato reproductor masculino de dicha especie, utilizando técnicas convencionales de microscopía...

  14. The mitochondrial genomes of the human hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus (Nematoda: Secernentea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Chilton, Neil B; Gasser, Robin B

    2002-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequences were determined for two species of human hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale (13,721 bp) and Necator americanus (13,604 bp). The circular hookworm genomes are amongst the smallest reported to date for any metazoan organism. Their relatively small size relates mainly to a reduced length in the AT-rich region. Both hookworm genomes encode 12 protein, two ribosomal RNA and 22 transfer RNA genes, but lack the ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene, which is consistent with three other species of Secernentea studied to date. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T, but low in G and C. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. For both hookworm species, genes were arranged in the same order as for Caenorhabditis elegans, except for the presence of a non-coding region between genes nad3 and nad5. In A. duodenale, this non-coding region is predicted to form a stem-and-loop structure which is not present in N. americanus. The mitochondrial genome structure for both hookworms differs from Ascaris suum only in the location of the AT-rich region, whereas there are substantial differences when compared with Onchocerca volvulus, including four gene or gene-block translocations and the positions of some transfer RNA genes and the AT-rich region. Based on genome organisation and amino acid sequence identity, A. duodenale and N. americanus were more closely related to C. elegans than to A. suum or O. volvulus (all secernentean nematodes), consistent with a previous phylogenetic study using ribosomal DNA sequence data. Determination of the complete mitochondrial genome sequences for two human hookworms (the first members of the order Strongylida ever sequenced) provides a foundation for studying the systematics, population genetics and ecology of these and other nematodes of socio-economic importance.

  15. Cardiac catheterization - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - cardiac - discharge; Heart catheterization - discharge: Catheterization - cardiac; Heart catheterization; Angina - cardiac catheterization discharge; CAD - cardiac catheterization discharge; Coronary ...

  16. SURGICAL CORRECTION OF BILATERAL PATELLAR LUXATION IN AN AMERICAN BLACK BEAR CUB (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Katarina R; Desmarchelier, Marion R; Bailey, Trina R

    2015-06-01

    A wild orphaned male American black bear cub ( Ursus americanus ) presented with hind limb gait abnormalities and was found to have bilateral grade 3 laterally luxating patellas. There were no other significant abnormalities detected on neurologic, radiographic, or hematologic examinations. The trochlear grooves were deepened with a chondroplasty, and the redundant soft tissues imbricated. There was a marked improvement in the bear's gait postoperatively, with an apparent full return to function. To the authors' knowledge, patellar luxation has not been reported in the Ursidae family, and the success in this case suggests that this technique may be used in large wild or captive carnivore cubs.

  17. Differentiation between the human hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawdon, J M

    1996-08-01

    There are 2 major species of hookworms that infect humans. Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. Although traditionally considered to be identical for treatment purposes, there are significant life history differences between the species that must be considered for the rational design of chemotherapeutic and immunoprophylactic control strategies. However, identification of the species infecting a particular population has been problematic, as the eggs of the 2 species cannot be reliably differentiated by classical parasitological methods. A PCR-based technique for the differentiation of hookworm species that infect humans is reported. A fragment of the 3' untranslated region of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gene was amplified from A. duodenale and N. americanus genomic DNA using primers derived from the corresponding A. caninum cDNA. Digestion of the amplified DNA with the restriction enzymes HpaII, MboI, TaqI, and ThaI generated specific restriction fragment patterns unique to each species. The technique can distinguish between pure and mixtures of hookworm DNA and can amplify DNA from a single egg. The primers also amplify the fragment from the DNA of several other species of hookworms that infect humans and other animals. The technique is fast, simple, and hookworm specific and represents a considerable savings in time over current methods used for distinguishing between human hookworm infections.

  18. Mortality and deformities in European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles exposed to the anti-parasitic drug teflubenzuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, Ole B; Lunestad, Bjørn T; Farestveit, Eva; Grefsrud, Ellen S; Hannisdal, Rita; Holmelid, Bjarte; Tjensvoll, Tore; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2014-04-01

    This study describes experiments carried out to examine effects of the antiparasitic drug teflubenzuron, used in delousing farmed salmon, on a non-target species, the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). Juvenile lobsters were fed two doses of teflubenzuron, 10 and 20mg/kg successively for 7 days corresponding to a standard medication of the fish (10mg/kg day) and twice the standard dose (20mg/kg day). Monitoring lasted 3 months to include at least one moulting period for all individuals. Cumulative mortality was higher in all replicates given medicated feed compared with the control group. Mean cumulative mortality for each dosing was 41 ± 13% for 10mg/kg and 38 ± 8% for 20mg/kg, i.e. no difference. Drug residue was analysed in all juveniles that died, in addition to 12 juveniles at day 8 and the first 12 surviving lobsters. A decline in concentration of teflubenzuron from over 8,000 ng/g (day 5) to 14 ng/g (day 70) was observed in the juveniles that died during the experiment. Twelve individuals that died contained 82 ng/g or less whereas the mean concentration in the first 12 lobsters that survived moulting was 152 ng/g. Following a single oral administration, the half-life of teflubenzuron in lobster was estimated to 3.4 days and the initial concentration (C0) to 515 ng/g at time t0. At the end of the study a considerable number of juvenile lobsters were observed with deformities in various organs; carapace, walking legs, cheliped, tail fan, abdomen and antenna. The occurrence of observed deformities varied from 0 to 15% in treated replicates and will most likely affect ability to locate and consume food (antenna, claw and walking legs), respiration (carapace) and ability to move/swim (walking legs, tail fan and abdomen). In total, the mortality and senescent damages were close to 50% in all replicates. Juveniles that survived medication without deformities however, moulted and increased in size at each moult equally well as the unmedicated controls

  19. Biomarker analysis of American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles following exposure to atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the current study was to use a biomarker-based approach to investigate the influence of atrazine exposure on American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Atrazine is one of the most frequently detected herbicides in environme...

  20. Multi-annual fluctuations in reconstructed historical time-series of a European lobster (Homarus gammarus population disappear at increased exploitation levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Sundelöf

    Full Text Available Through the history of ecology, fluctuations of populations have been a dominating topic, and endogenous causes of fluctuations and oscillations have been recognized and studied for more than 80 years. Here we analyzed an historical dataset, covering more than 130 years, of European lobster (Homarus gammarus catches. The data shows periodic fluctuations, which are first dampened and then disappear over time. The disappearance of the periodicity coincided with a substantial increase in fishing effort and the oscillations have not reappeared in the time series. The shifting baseline syndrome has changed our perception of not only the status of the stock, but also the regulating pressures. We describe the transition of a naturally regulated lobster population into a heavily exploited fisheries controlled stock. This is shown by the incorporation of environmental and endogenous processes in generalized additive models, autocorrelation functions and periodicity analyses of time-series.

  1. Multi-Annual Fluctuations in Reconstructed Historical Time-Series of a European Lobster (Homarus gammarus) Population Disappear at Increased Exploitation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundelöf, Andreas; Bartolino, Valerio; Ulmestrand, Mats; Cardinale, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of ecology, fluctuations of populations have been a dominating topic, and endogenous causes of fluctuations and oscillations have been recognized and studied for more than 80 years. Here we analyzed an historical dataset, covering more than 130 years, of European lobster (Homarus gammarus) catches. The data shows periodic fluctuations, which are first dampened and then disappear over time. The disappearance of the periodicity coincided with a substantial increase in fishing effort and the oscillations have not reappeared in the time series. The shifting baseline syndrome has changed our perception of not only the status of the stock, but also the regulating pressures. We describe the transition of a naturally regulated lobster population into a heavily exploited fisheries controlled stock. This is shown by the incorporation of environmental and endogenous processes in generalized additive models, autocorrelation functions and periodicity analyses of time-series. PMID:23573187

  2. Population viability and connectivity of the Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufenberg, Jared S.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) granted Ursus americanus luteolus (Louisiana black bear) threatened status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973, listing loss and fragmentation of habitat as the primary threats. A study was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the University of Tennessee, the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, and the USFWS to estimate demographic rates and genetic structure of Louisiana black bear populations; evaluate relations between environmental and anthropogenic factors and demographic, genetic, and movement characteristics of Louisiana black bear populations; and develop data-driven stochastic population projection models to assess long-term persistence of individual subpopulations and the overall black bear population in Louisiana.

  3. Hookworm infections among migrant workers in Malaysia: Molecular identification of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Douadi, Benacer; Mohd Khalid, Mohd Khairul Nizam; Wilson, John-James; Behnke, Jerzy M; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2017-09-01

    Ongoing urbanisation of the working population as well as cross-border migration of workers particularly into large cities has contributed to the development and growth of urban slums. These deprived areas are conducive for the transmission of intestinal pathogens including hookworm. The aim of this study was to determine both the prevalence and species identity of hookworm infections among the migrant worker community in Malaysia. A total of 388 faecal samples were collected from migrant workers between September 2014 and August 2015, representing workers from five employment sectors: construction, manufacturing, agriculture and plantations, food services and domestic services. Faecal samples were examined by microscopy and positive samples were subjected to molecular analysis. A total of 51 samples (13.1%) were positive by microscopy for hookworm infections. A two-step PCR based method amplifying a fragment of the 28S rRNA-ITS2 region was used to identify infections by Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. PCR products positive for Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced bidirectionally, and sequences analysed through BLAST and phylogenetic analysis. Samples containing Ancylostoma duodenale were further characterized by amplification and sequencing a fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. PCR amplicons were successfully obtained from 42 (82.4%) of 51 samples, with 81.0% (34 of 42) identified as Necator americanus, 16.7% (7 of 42) as Ancylostoma spp. and 2.4% (1 of 42) as mixed infections of both species. All eight Ancylostoma spp. were confirmed to be Ancylostoma duodenale and this is the first time A. duodenale was reported in Malaysia. Samples containing A. duodenale from Nepalese and Indonesian workers shared high-similarity and were distinct compared to sequences from other countries. This study highlights the prevalence of hookworm infections among migrant workers living in Malaysia. Our findings underscore the necessity of screening migrant

  4. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A., E-mail: oasojo@unmc.edu [Pathology and Microbiology Department, 986495 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6495 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins.

  5. Deformities in larvae and juvenile European lobster (Homarus gammarus) exposed to lower pH at two different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnalt, A.-L.; Grefsrud, E. S.; Farestveit, E.; Larsen, M.; Keulder, F.

    2013-12-01

    The ongoing warming and acidification of the world's oceans are expected to influence the marine ecosystems, including benthic marine resources. Ocean acidification may especially have an impact on calcifying organisms, and the European lobster (Homarus gammarus) is among those species at risk. A project was initiated in 2011 aiming to investigate long-term effects of ocean acidification on the early life-cycle of lobster under two temperatures. Larvae were exposed to pCO2 levels of ambient water (water intake at 90 m depth), medium 750 (pH = 7.79) and high 1200 μatm pCO2 (pH = 7.62) at temperatures 10 and 18 °C. The water parameters in ambient water did not stay stable and were very low towards the end of the experiment in the larval phase at 10 °C,with pH between 7.83 and 7.90. At 18°, pH in ambient treatment was even lower, between 7.76 and 7.83, i.e. close to medium pCO2 treatment. Long-term exposure lasted 5 months. At 18 °C the development from stage 1 to 4 lasted 14 to 16 days, as predicted under optimal water conditions. Growth was very slow at 10 °C and resulted in three larvae reaching stage 4 in high pCO2 treatment only. There were no clear effects of pCO2 treatment, on either carapace length or dry weight. However, deformities were observed in both larvae and juveniles. The proportion of larvae with deformities increased with increasing pCO2 exposure, independent of temperature. In the medium treatment about 23% were deformed, and in the high treatment about 43% were deformed. None of the larvae exposed to water of pH >7.9 developed deformities. Curled carapace was the most common deformity found in larvae raised in medium pCO2 treatment, irrespective of temperature, but damages in the tail fan occurred in addition to a bent rostrum. Curled carapace was the only deformity found in high pCO2 treatment at both temperatures. Occurrence of deformities after five months of exposure was 33 and 44% in juveniles raised in ambient and low pCO2 levels

  6. Molecular detection of Ancylostoma duodenale, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, and Necator americanus in humans in northeastern and southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosuk, Issarapong; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aamnart, Witthaya; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    The 2 principal species of hookworms infecting humans are Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Case studies on zoonotic hookworm infections with Ancylostoma ceylanicum and/or Ancylostoma caninum are known mainly from Asian countries. Of these 2 zoonotic species, only A. ceylanicum can develop to adulthood in humans. In the present study, we report a molecular-based survey of human hookworm infections present in southern and northeastern Thailand. Thirty larval hookworm samples were obtained from fecal agar plate cultures of 10 patients in northeastren Thailand and 20 in southern Thailand. Partial ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2 regions of the ribosomal DNA genes were amplified using PCR. The amplicons were sequenced, aligned, and compared with other hookworm sequences in GenBank database. The results showed that, in Thailand, N. americanus is more prevalent than Ancylostoma spp. and is found in both study areas. Sporadic cases of A. ceylanicum and A. duodenale infection were seen in northeastern Thailand.

  7. Infective larvae of the human hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale differ in their orientation behaviour when crawling on surfaces.

    OpenAIRE

    Syafruddin D

    2004-01-01

    The infective third stage larvae of hookworms infect their hosts by active skin invasion, and they find and recognize their hosts by the behavioural phases of activation, directed crawling, and penetration. Here we analyse the orientation of the infective larvae of the human hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale when crawling on surfaces. Their behaviour differed from that of the larvae of the dog hookworm Ancylostoma caninum, but the two species also differed from each other...

  8. Molecular Detection of Ancylostoma duodenale, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, and Necator americanus in Humans in Northeastern and Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Phosuk, Issarapong; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aamnart, Witthaya; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-01-01

    The 2 principal species of hookworms infecting humans are Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Case studies on zoonotic hookworm infections with Ancylostoma ceylanicum and/or Ancylostoma caninum are known mainly from Asian countries. Of these 2 zoonotic species, only A. ceylanicum can develop to adulthood in humans. In the present study, we report a molecular-based survey of human hookworm infections present in southern and northeastern Thailand. Thirty larval hookworm samples were o...

  9. Behavioural strategies used by the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale to find, recognize and invade the human host.

    OpenAIRE

    Syafruddin D

    2004-01-01

    The infective third-stage larvae of the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale infect their human hosts by active skin invasion, but A. duodenale is in addition capable of oral infection. The behaviour of the larvae when crawling on surfaces has already been described. Here we analyse in various in vitro systems the other behavioural invasion phases: activation, penetration, and orientation within the host. The larvae normally remained in a motionless, energy-saving, resting p...

  10. First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

    2014-04-01

    The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of low-frequency tones and whale predator sounds by the American sand lance Ammodytes americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, S M; Mooney, T A

    2012-10-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) were used to measure the hearing range and auditory sensitivity of the American sand lance Ammodytes americanus. Responses to amplitude-modulated tone pips indicated that the hearing range extended from 50 to 400 Hz. Sound pressure thresholds were lowest between 200 and 400 Hz. Particle acceleration thresholds showed an improved sensitivity notch at 200 Hz but not substantial differences between frequencies and only a slight improvement in hearing abilities at lower frequencies. The hearing range was similar to Pacific sand lance Ammodytes personatus and variations between species may be due to differences in threshold evaluation methods. AEPs were also recorded in response to pulsed sounds simulating humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae foraging vocalizations termed megapclicks. Responses were generated with pulses containing significant energy below 400 Hz. No responses were recorded using pulses with peak energy above 400 Hz. These results show that A. americanus can detect the particle motion component of low-frequency tones and pulse sounds, including those similar to the low-frequency components of megapclicks. Ammodytes americanus hearing may be used to detect environmental cues and the pulsed signals of mysticete predators. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Epidemiological evidence for a differential effect of hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus, on iron status of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albonico, M; Stoltzfus, R J; Savioli, L; Tielsch, J M; Chwaya, H M; Ercole, E; Cancrini, G

    1998-06-01

    The hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus, cause significant gastrointestinal blood loss. In clinical studies, greater blood losses have been reported with A. duodenale. However, there has been no evidence that endemic A. duodenale infection has greater impact than N. americanus infection on the iron status of populations. In a sample of 525 school children in Pemba Island, Tanzania, we compared the degree of anaemia and iron deficiency associated with the two hookworm species at the individual and community (i.e. school) levels. Multiple regression was used to control for infection intensities and other child characteristics. In the 492 children with hookworm positive faecal cultures, haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations decreased with increasing proportions of A. duodenale. Among children with only N. americanus larvae, the prevalence of anaemia was 60.5 % and the prevalence of ferritin or =50% A. duodenale larvae, the respective prevalences were 80.6% and 58.9%. When children were grouped by the prevalence of A. duodenale at the school level, children from high prevalence (> or =20%) schools had significantly worse iron deficiency and anaemia than children from low prevalence schools. The species of hookworm being transmitted in a community influences the burden of iron deficiency anaemia in the community, and should be considered in prioritizing and planning programmes for hookworm and anaemia control.

  13. Infective larvae of the human hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale differ in their orientation behaviour when crawling on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Wilfried; Haberl, Bernhard; Syafruddin; Idris, Irfan; Kersten, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    The infective third stage larvae of hookworms infect their hosts by active skin invasion, and they find and recognize their hosts by the behavioural phases of activation, directed crawling, and penetration. Here we analyse the orientation of the infective larvae of the human hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale when crawling on surfaces. Their behaviour differed from that of the larvae of the dog hookworm Ancylostoma caninum, but the two species also differed from each other. N. americanus crawled towards light, but A. duodenale did not. Both species migrated towards the warm ends of thermal gradients, and this response was more sensitive than in other skin-invading helminths (threshold 0.09 degrees C/cm). However, A. duodenale turned back and accumulated at higher temperatures than N. americanus [turn-back 45.7 (44.5-49.9) vs 41.5 (38.5-43.9) degrees C; accumulation 43.6 (41.6-46.0) vs 39.5 (37.9-43.0) degrees C]. In contrast to other skin-invading helminths, both species showed no chemo-orientation towards skin compounds when crawling on surfaces. This behaviour may reflect adaptations for reaching the skin surface from hairs or adhering material, but the differences in the orientation of the two species could not be attributed to differing transmission strategies.

  14. Polymerase chain reaction-based differential diagnosis of Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus infections in humans in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gruijter, Johanna M; van Lieshout, Lisette; Gasser, Robin B; Verweij, Jaco J; Brienen, Eric A T; Ziem, Juventus B; Yelifari, Lawrence; Polderman, Anton M

    2005-06-01

    We evaluated a two-step semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach for the specific detection of Ancylostoma duodenale DNA in human faeces. The test was used to determine to what extent this species of hookworm is present in the regions of Bolgatanga and Garu of northern Ghana. Initially, the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR were tested using a range of well-defined control samples. Subsequently, a total of 378 human faecal DNA samples from Bolgatanga and Garu were subjected to the PCR. The results were compared with those obtained using a previously established PCR for the specific detection of Necator americanus DNA in human faeces. Infection with A. duodenale was recorded in 74 (19.6%) samples and N. americanus in 278 (73.5%), of which 64 (16.9%), represented co-infections with both species. While A. duodenale was predominantly detected in the samples from Bolgatanga, infections in Garu related almost exclusively to N. americanus. The results showed that the present PCR approach is a valuable complementary tool for the diagnosis of A. duodenale infection in humans in Ghana, having implications for epidemiological studies and for the monitoring of the success of control programmes in regions in Africa.

  15. Population structure and reproduction of Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Sciaenidae in Ubatuba-Enseada Bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ferreira Haluch

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Population structure and reproductive aspects of the southern kingfish Menticirrhus americanus in Santa Catarina northern coast were investigated. Trawl nets were used for the monthly surveys between October (2003 and September (2004. A total of 425 individuals between 4.2 and 31.8cm (mean 12.7 ± 5.7 were analyzed, and the majority of the individuals (4.2 to12.5cm was captured mainly in summer, autumn and winter, while larger individuals were captured in spring. Females of all size classes were predominant during summer and winter, and weight/length relationship showed significant differences between sexes and a positive alometric growth for the species. The size at first maturity (L50 was estimated in 16.7cm for females and 15.4cm for males. The reproductive period occurred in warm seasons, and M. americanus showed multiple spawning. The hepatossomatic index demonstrated a similar seasonal pattern as the gonadosomatic index, and was a good indicator of the spawning. The condition factor wasn’t a good indicator of the spawning period, but it was related with the recovery process and gonad maturation. Characteristics of the population dynamic showed that M. americanus utilizes the study area for reproduction and recruitment.

  16. The sensorial structures of Spondylus americanus Hermann,1781 (Mollusca: Bivalvia, Spondylidae

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    Marina Gomes Viana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult animals of Spondylus americanus were analyzed and specialized sensorial structures, the sensorial papillae and the eyes, were characterized. The sensorial papillae were projections on the edge of the mantle in form of light brown fingers which had function of percepting stimulus coming from the medium. They were constituted by loose conjunctive tissues with longitudinal muscular fibers and externally covered by ciliated cubic epithelium, which presented high amount of melanocytes that gave the coloration of the papillae. The eyes were more complex, being on small stalks histologically similar to the papillae. They exhibited a circular formate and had a metallic blue color. Theses structures were constituted by a corneo epithelium, cornea, lens, retina, basal stalk, periocular band and optical nerve. The eyes were distributed asymmetrically to both valves related with the sedentarism of the species. Right valve presented a smaller number of eyes when compared to left one.Foram examinados exemplares adultos de Spondylus. americanus Hermann, 1781 e estruturas especializadas na percepção de estímulos foram caracterizadas: as papilas sensoriais e os ocelos. As papilas sensoriais são projeções do bordo manto em forma de dedos de cor castanha e com a função de perceber estímulos vindo do meio, são constituídas por tecido conjuntivo frouxo contendo fibras musculares longitudinais e revestidas externamente por epitélio cúbico ciliado, o qual apresenta grande quantidade de melanócitos, que dão a coloração das papilas. Os ocelos são mais complexos, estando sobre pequenos pedúnculos histologicamente semelhante às papilas, têm formato circular e possui cor azul metálica. Constituí-se por um epitélio córneo, córnea, lente, retina, pedúnculo basal, banda periocular e nervo óptico. Os ocelos distribuem-se assimetricamente por ambas as valvas, o que está relacionado com o sedentarismo da espécie. A valva direita apresenta

  17. Histología y ultraestructura del sistema reproductor masculino de la langosta espinosa de la India Panulirus homarus (Decapoda: Palinuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lakshmi Pillai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La langosta espinosa Panulirus homarus, distribuida a lo largo de las costas sudeste y sudoeste de la India, es una especie de importancia comercial con gran potencial para la mari-cultura. A pesar de su importancia, las características estructurales y ultraestructurales de las gónadas masculinas de esta especie han sido poco estudiadas. Debido a esto, el objetivo de este estudio fue describir el aparato reproductor masculino de dicha especie, utilizando técnicas convencionales de microscopía histológica y electrónica. Se procesaron 94 ejemplares de P. homarus de vizhinjam (costa suroeste de la India (70 individuos para histología y 24 para ultraestructura, cuyos caparazones variaron de 37 mm a 92 mm de longitud. El sistema reproductor masculino de esta especie consistió en un par de testículos y un conducto deferente situados en la región céfalo-torácica. Macroscópicamente, el aparato reproductor se observó en langostas con una longitud de caparazón >35mm. En testículos inmaduros, la espermatogonia midió 6.9-13.8μm de diámetro y se encontró presente en los testículos maduros primarios (5.4-5.9μm, espermatocitos secundarios (2.8 a 3 μm y espermátidas (2.2-2.4μm. Cada conducto deferente consistió de porciones proximales y distales. La formación de la masa espermatofórica comienza en los conductos deferentes proximales. En el conducto deferente distal espermatofórico, la masa que contiene los espermatozoides está dispuesta en paquetes hacia la periferia, en una matriz gelatinosa producida por el tiflosol. Ultraestructuralmente, las espermatogonias presentan una lámina, núcleo y mitocondrias, los espermatocitos primarios tienen núcleo, cromatina densa y citoplasma vacuolado, mientras que las espermátidas tienen mitocondrias, retículo endoplasmático y centríolos. En las espermátidas, el retículo endoplásmico y la envoltura nuclear forman el acrosoma. Los brazos radiales con microtúbulos se forman en asociaci

  18. Cardiac Malpositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Shi Joon; Im, Chung Gie; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Hasn, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    Cardiac Malposition refers to any position of the heart other than a left-sided heart in a situs solitus individual. Associated cardiac malformations are so complex that even angiocardiographic and autopsy studies may not afford an accurate information. Although the terms and classifications used to describe the internal cardiac anatomy and their arterial connections in cardiac malpositions differ and tend to be confusing, common agreement exists on the need for a segmental approach to diagnosis. Authors present 18 cases of cardiac malpositions in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between 1971 and 1979. Authors analyzed the clinical, radiographic, operative and autopsy findings with the emphasis on the angiocardiographic findings. The results are as follows: 1. Among 18 cases with cardiac malpositions, 6 cases had dextrocardia with situs inversus, 9 cases had dextrocardia with situs solitus and 3 cases had levocardia with situs inversus. 2. There was no genuine exception to visceroatrial concordance rule. 3. Associated cardiac malpositions were variable and complex with a tendency of high association of transposition and double outlet varieties with dextrocardia in situs solitus and levocardia in situs inversus. Only one in 6 cases of dextrocardia with situs inversus had pure transposition. 4. In two cases associated pulmonary atresia was found at surgery which was not predicted by angiocardiography. 5. Because many of the associated complex lesions can be corrected surgically provided the diagnosis is accurate, the selective biplane angiocardiography with or without cineradiography is essential.

  19. Cardiac sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello BT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Benedict T Costello,1,2 James Nadel,3 Andrew J Taylor,1,21Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, 2Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, 3School of Medicine, University of Notre Dame, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Cardiac sarcoidosis is a rare but life-threatening condition, requiring a high degree of clinical suspicion and low threshold for investigation to make the diagnosis. The cardiac manifestations include heart failure, conducting system disease, and arrhythmias predisposing to sudden cardiac death. A number of investigations are available to assist in making the diagnosis. The diagnosis may be made from the clinical history and evidence of inflammation on imaging modalities in the active phase and evidence of myocardial scarring in the chronic phase. Keywords: cardiac magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography, sarcoidosis, sudden cardiac death

  20. Cardiac ablation procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheter ablation; Radiofrequency catheter ablation; Cryoablation - cardiac ablation; AV nodal reentrant tachycardia - cardiac ablation; AVNRT - cardiac ablation; Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome - cardiac ablation; Atrial fibrillation - cardiac ablation; Atrial flutter - ...

  1. Anaerobic oral flora in the North American black bear (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Elsburgh O; Stoskopf, Michael K; Minter, Larry J; Stringer, Elizabeth M

    2012-06-01

    Microbial flora can provide insight into the ecology and natural history of wildlife in addition to improving understanding of health risks. This study examines the anaerobic oral flora of hunter killed black bears (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina. Oral swabs from the buccal and lingual supragingival tooth surfaces of the first and second mandibular and maxillary molars of 22 black bears were inoculated onto Brucella Blood Agar plates supplemented with hemin and vitamin K after transport from the field using reduced oxoid nutrient broth. Sixteen anaerobic bacterial species, representing nine genera were identified using the RapID ANA II Micromethod Kit system and a number of organisms grown that could not be identified with the system. The most frequently identified anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus prevotii, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The diversity in the anaerobic oral flora of black bear in eastern North Carolina suggests the importance of including these organisms in basic health risk assessment protocols and suggests a potential tool for assessment of bear/habitat interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of cooking on levels of PCBs in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Durell, G.S.; Koczwara, G.; Spellacy, A.M. [Battelle Ocean Sciences, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Battelle Ocean Sciences performed a study to determine the effect of cooking on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Broiling, pan frying, and deep frying in oil were tested on fillets from 21 fish collected from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, on February 21, 1991. The evaluation involved estimating the change in PCB concentrations using a mass-balance approach that factored the change in fillet weight resulting from cooking with the changes in PCB concentration expressed on a precooked wet-weight basis. Deep frying in oil resulted in a 47% reduction in total PCB levels in fillet tissue. Additionally, deep frying caused a 40% reduction in fillet mass. Pan frying and broiling resulted in statistically in insignificant increases in total PCB levels of 15% and 17%, respectively. Fillet mass reductions resulting from pan frying and broiling were 7% and 15%, respectively. The effects of cooking on 18 individual congeners generally paralleled the results observed for total PCB. All 18 congeners were significantly reduced by deep frying. Congener Cl{sub 2}(08) also was significantly reduced by either pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105) and Cl{sub 5}(118) showed apparent significant increases in concentrations following pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105), Cl{sub 5}(118), and C1{sub 6}(138) showed significant increases in concentration following broiling.

  3. Genomic analysis of expressed sequence tags in American black bear Ursus americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sen; Shao, Chunxuan; Goropashnaya, Anna V; Stewart, Nathan C; Xu, Yichi; Tøien, Øivind; Barnes, Brian M; Fedorov, Vadim B; Yan, Jun

    2010-03-26

    Species of the bear family (Ursidae) are important organisms for research in molecular evolution, comparative physiology and conservation biology, but relatively little genetic sequence information is available for this group. Here we report the development and analyses of the first large scale Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) resource for the American black bear (Ursus americanus). Comprehensive analyses of molecular functions, alternative splicing, and tissue-specific expression of 38,757 black bear EST sequences were conducted using the dog genome as a reference. We identified 18 genes, involved in functions such as lipid catabolism, cell cycle, and vesicle-mediated transport, that are showing rapid evolution in the bear lineage Three genes, Phospholamban (PLN), cysteine glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3) and Troponin I type 3 (TNNI3), are related to heart contraction, and defects in these genes in humans lead to heart disease. Two genes, biphenyl hydrolase-like (BPHL) and CSRP3, contain positively selected sites in bear. Global analysis of evolution rates of hibernation-related genes in bear showed that they are largely conserved and slowly evolving genes, rather than novel and fast-evolving genes. We provide a genomic resource for an important mammalian organism and our study sheds new light on the possible functions and evolution of bear genes.

  4. Interaction of the tick (Haemaphysalis leporispalustris) with a cyclic snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, L B; Cary, J R

    1990-10-01

    Prevalence and intensity of the tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, were monitored during 1963 to 1976 in a cyclic snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) population near Rochester, Alberta, Canada. Prevalence was near zero from December through March, and near 100% among adult hares from May through September. Prevalence among juvenile hares approached 100% by age 2 mo. Intensity peaked for both adults and juveniles during May-June and again in August. Mean intensities were significantly higher among adult males than adult females in 5 of 13 yr, and almost significant in two others. Tick intensities were lowest during 3 yr, 1969 to 1971, when hare densities were highest. Tick intensities in spring were correlated with intensities the previous fall. Survival of marked adult and juvenile hares was unrelated to intensities of infestation. Mean numbers of corpora lutea and embryos tended to be lower among adult females with heavy tick infestations, and intra-uterine losses rose steadily from about 3 to 13% as tick intensities increased from none to heavy. Comparison of average tick intensities on adults 1-, 2-, and greater than or equal to 3-yr-old yielded no evidence of increased immunity with age.

  5. Elevated expression of protein biosynthesis genes in liver and muscle of hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Vadim B; Goropashnaya, Anna V; Tøien, Øivind; Stewart, Nathan C; Gracey, Andrew Y; Chang, Celia; Qin, Shizhen; Pertea, Geo; Quackenbush, John; Showe, Louise C; Showe, Michael K; Boyer, Bert B; Barnes, Brian M

    2009-04-10

    We conducted a large-scale gene expression screen using the 3,200 cDNA probe microarray developed specifically for Ursus americanus to detect expression differences in liver and skeletal muscle that occur during winter hibernation compared with animals sampled during summer. The expression of 12 genes, including RNA binding protein motif 3 (Rbm3), that are mostly involved in protein biosynthesis, was induced during hibernation in both liver and muscle. The Gene Ontology and Gene Set Enrichment analysis consistently showed a highly significant enrichment of the protein biosynthesis category by overexpressed genes in both liver and skeletal muscle during hibernation. Coordinated induction in transcriptional level of genes involved in protein biosynthesis is a distinctive feature of the transcriptome in hibernating black bears. This finding implies induction of translation and suggests an adaptive mechanism that contributes to a unique ability to reduce muscle atrophy over prolonged periods of immobility during hibernation. Comparing expression profiles in bears to small mammalian hibernators shows a general trend during hibernation of transcriptional changes that include induction of genes involved in lipid metabolism and carbohydrate synthesis as well as depression of genes involved in the urea cycle and detoxification function in liver.

  6. Bone formation is not impaired by hibernation (disuse) in black bears Ursus americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Seth W; Vaughan, Michael R; Demers, Laurence M; Donahue, Henry J

    2003-12-01

    Disuse by bed rest, limb immobilization or space flight causes rapid bone loss by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. This net bone loss increases the risk of fracture upon remobilization. Bone loss also occurs in hibernating ground squirrels, golden hamsters, and little brown bats by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. There is some histological evidence to suggest that black bears Ursus americanus do not lose bone mass during hibernation (i.e. disuse). There is also evidence suggesting that muscle mass and strength are preserved in black bears during hibernation. The question of whether bears can prevent bone loss during hibernation has not been conclusively answered. The goal of the current study was to further assess bone metabolism in hibernating black bears. Using the same serum markers of bone remodeling used to evaluate human patients with osteoporosis, we assayed serum from five black bears, collected every 10 days over a 196-day period, for bone resorption and formation markers. Here we show that bone resorption remains elevated over the entire hibernation period compared to the pre-hibernation period, but osteoblastic bone formation is not impaired by hibernation and is rapidly accelerated during remobilization following hibernation.

  7. Genomic analysis of expressed sequence tags in American black bear Ursus americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tøien Øivind

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species of the bear family (Ursidae are important organisms for research in molecular evolution, comparative physiology and conservation biology, but relatively little genetic sequence information is available for this group. Here we report the development and analyses of the first large scale Expressed Sequence Tag (EST resource for the American black bear (Ursus americanus. Results Comprehensive analyses of molecular functions, alternative splicing, and tissue-specific expression of 38,757 black bear EST sequences were conducted using the dog genome as a reference. We identified 18 genes, involved in functions such as lipid catabolism, cell cycle, and vesicle-mediated transport, that are showing rapid evolution in the bear lineage Three genes, Phospholamban (PLN, cysteine glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3 and Troponin I type 3 (TNNI3, are related to heart contraction, and defects in these genes in humans lead to heart disease. Two genes, biphenyl hydrolase-like (BPHL and CSRP3, contain positively selected sites in bear. Global analysis of evolution rates of hibernation-related genes in bear showed that they are largely conserved and slowly evolving genes, rather than novel and fast-evolving genes. Conclusion We provide a genomic resource for an important mammalian organism and our study sheds new light on the possible functions and evolution of bear genes.

  8. Behavioral response and kinetics of terrestrial atrazine exposure in American toads (bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrs, Mendez S.I.; Tillitt, D.E.; Rittenhouse, T.A.G.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians in terrestrial environments obtain water through a highly vascularized pelvic patch of skin. Chemicals can also be exchanged across this patch. Atrazine (ATZ), a widespread herbicide, continues to be a concern among amphibian ecologists based on potential exposure and toxicity. Few studies have examined its impact on the terrestrial juvenile or adult stages of toads. In the current study, we asked the following questions: (1) Will juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) avoid soils contaminated with ATZ? (2) Can they absorb ATZ across the pelvic patch? (3) If so, how is it distributed among the organs and eventually eliminated? We conducted a behavioral choice test between control soil and soil dosed with ecologically relevant concentrations of ATZ. In addition, we examined the uptake, distribution, and elimination of water dosed with 14C-labeled ATZ. Our data demonstrate that toads do not avoid ATZ-laden soils. ATZ crossed the pelvic patch rapidly and reached an apparent equilibrium within 5 h. The majority of the radiolabeled ATZ ended up in the intestines, whereas the greatest concentrations were observed in the gall bladder. Thus, exposure of adult life stages of amphibians through direct uptake of ATZ from soils and runoff water should be considered in risk evaluations. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  9. The effects of power station entrainment passage on three species of marine planktonic crustacean, Acartia tonsa (Copepoda), Crangon crangon (Decapoda) and Homarus gammarus (Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, Roger N; Seaby, Richard M H

    2004-05-01

    Experiments have been undertaken exposing larval common shrimp (Crangon crangon) and lobster (Homarus gammarus) and adult copepods (Acartia tonsa) to the key stresses of entrainment within power-station cooling-water systems. The apparatus has enabled the testing of mechanical, thermal, chlorine and realistic pressure effects both alone and in combination, the range of stressors spanning the standard conditions found within a temperate coastal direct-cooled power station. Mechanical stresses affected only lobster larvae, pressure changes affected only the Acartia adults. Residual chlorine caused significant mortality of Acartia and shrimp larvae, but had no effect on lobster larvae even at 1 ppm. The temperature increment significantly affected all three species, with a synergistic effect on chlorine sensitivity in the shrimp larvae, but only temperatures higher than would be experienced in a normally-operating power station affected the copepods. The majority of individuals of each species would survive passage through a power-station system under normal conditions. It is notable that, within the species tested, generalizations from the responses of one species to those of another are not valid.

  10. The proteasomes of two marine decapod crustaceans, European lobster (Homarus gammarus) and Edible crab (Cancer pagurus), are differently impaired by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Sandra; Bose, Aneesh; Sokolova, Inna M; Abele, Doris; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    The intracellular ubiquitin-proteasome system is a key regulator of cellular processes involved in the controlled degradation of short-living or malfunctioning proteins. Certain diseases and cellular dysfunctions are known to arise from the disruption of proteasome pathways. Trace metals are recognized stressors of the proteasome system in vertebrates and plants, but their effects on the proteasome of invertebrates are not well understood. Since marine invertebrates, and particularly benthic crustaceans, can be exposed to high metal levels, we studied the effects of in vitro exposure to Hg(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) on the activities of the proteasome from the claw muscles of lobsters (Homarus gammarus) and crabs (Cancer pagurus). The chymotrypsin like activity of the proteasome of these two species showed different sensitivity to metals. In lobsters the activity was significantly inhibited by all metals to a similar extent. In crabs the activities were severely suppressed only by Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) while Zn(2+) had only a moderate effect and Cd(2+) caused almost no inhibition of the crab proteasome. This indicates that the proteasomes of both species possess structural characteristics that determine different susceptibility to metals. Consequently, the proteasome-mediated protein degradation in crab C. pagurus may be less affected by metal pollution than that of the lobster H. gammarus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stage-Specific Changes in Physiological and Life-History Responses to Elevated Temperature and Pco2 during the Larval Development of the European Lobster Homarus gammarus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Daniel P; Calosi, Piero; Boothroyd, Dominic; Widdicombe, Steve; Spicer, John I

    2015-01-01

    An organism's physiological processes form the link between its life-history traits and the prevailing environmental conditions, especially in species with complex life cycles. Understanding how these processes respond to changing environmental conditions, thereby affecting organismal development, is critical if we are to predict the biological implications of current and future global climate change. However, much of our knowledge is derived from adults or single developmental stages. Consequently, we investigated the metabolic rate, organic content, carapace mineralization, growth, and survival across each larval stage of the European lobster Homarus gammarus, reared under current and predicted future ocean warming and acidification scenarios. Larvae exhibited stage-specific changes in the temperature sensitivity of their metabolic rate. Elevated Pco2 increased C∶N ratios and interacted with elevated temperature to affect carapace mineralization. These changes were linked to concomitant changes in survivorship and growth, from which it was concluded that bottlenecks were evident during H. gammarus larval development in stages I and IV, the transition phases between the embryonic and pelagic larval stages and between the larval and megalopa stages, respectively. We therefore suggest that natural changes in optimum temperature during ontogeny will be key to larvae survival in a future warmer ocean. The interactions of these natural changes with elevated temperature and Pco2 significantly alter physiological condition and body size of the last larval stage before the transition from a planktonic to a benthic life style. Thus, living and growing in warm, hypercapnic waters could compromise larval lobster growth, development, and recruitment.

  12. Effects of seawater alkalinity on calcium and acid-base regulation in juvenile European lobster (Homarus gammarus) during a moult cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemiss, Karen L; Urbina, Mauricio A; Wilson, Rod W

    2016-03-01

    Fluxes of NH4(+) (acid) and HCO3(-) (base), and whole body calcium content were measured in European lobster (Homarus gammarus) during intermoult (megalopae stage), and during the first 24h for postmoult juveniles under control (~2000 μeq/L) and low seawater alkalinity (~830 μeq/L). Immediately after moulting, animals lost 45% of the total body calcium via the shed exoskeleton (exuvia), and only 11% was retained in the uncalcified body. At 24h postmoult, exoskeleton calcium increased to ~46% of the intermoult stage. Ammonia excretion was not affected by seawater alkalinity. After moulting, bicarbonate excretion was immediately reversed from excretion to uptake (~4-6 fold higher rates than intermoult) over the whole 24h postmoult period, peaking at 3-6h. These data suggest that exoskeleton calcification is not completed by 24h postmoult. Low seawater alkalinity reduced postmoult bicarbonate uptake by 29% on average. Net acid-base flux (equivalent to net base uptake) followed the same pattern as HCO3(-) fluxes, and was 22% lower in low alkalinity seawater over the whole 24h postmoult period. The common occurrence of low alkalinity in intensive aquaculture systems may slow postmoult calcification in juvenile H. gammarus, increasing the risk of mortalities through cannibalism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Detailed surface morphology of the 'lobster louse' copepod, Nicothoë astaci, a haematophagous gill parasite of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Charlotte E; Thomas, Gethin R; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Wootton, Emma C; Penny, Mark W; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-10-01

    The ectoparasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the 'lobster louse'), infests the gills of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. There have been limited studies on this haematophagous species; therefore knowledge of this parasite is rudimentary. The current study examines the surface morphology of this parasitic copepod, detached from the host, concentrating on adaptations of the suctorial mouthpart, the oral disc. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy revealed structural adaptations that facilitate attachment of these parasites to the gill filaments of their lobster host. The aperture of the feeding channel, through which host haemolymph is drawn, is only ca. 5μm in diameter. The edge of the oral disc is lined with numerous setae, whilst the surface of the disc is covered with large numbers of small (<1μm in diameter) teeth-like structures, which presumably pierce through, and grip, the cuticle lining of the host's gill. Overall, these structures are thought to provide a 'vacuum seal' to assist in pumping of blood, via peristalsis, into the alimentary canal of the copepod host. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Field Grow-out of Juvenile American Lobsters in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Early benthic stage American lobsters, Homarus americanus, were held in a pilot nursery system in Long Island Sound (LIS) to test field grow-out, as a step toward...

  15. Cardiac Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program to help people who have A heart attack Angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting for coronary heart disease A heart valve repair or replacement A ...

  16. Cardiac rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25503364 . Balady GJ, Williams MA, Ades PA, et al. Core components of ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22070836 . Thompson PD. Exercise-based, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation. In: Mann DL, Zipes ...

  17. Cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also run other tests, depending on your health history and the results of these tests. Treatment Cardiac arrest needs emergency treatment right away to get the heart started again. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) . This is often the first type of ...

  18. Cardiac Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Esteves Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite cardiac metastases are found in about 20% of cancer deaths, the presence of primary cardiac tumors is rare. Most primary tumors are benign, and malignant tumors comprise about 15%. We report a 21-year-old man with fever, dyspnea, and hemoptysis that was diagnosed with angiosarcoma of the right atrium and pulmonary metastasis. Patient was submitted to surgical tumor resection without adjuvant therapy and died four months after diagnosis.

  19. Cardiac Angiosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Monique Esteves; Canale, Leonardo Secchin; Ramos, Rosana Grandelle; Salvador Junior, Edson da Silva; Lachtermacher, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Despite cardiac metastases are found in about 20% of cancer deaths, the presence of primary cardiac tumors is rare. Most primary tumors are benign, and malignant tumors comprise about 15%. We report a 21-year-old man with fever, dyspnea, and hemoptysis that was diagnosed with angiosarcoma of the right atrium and pulmonary metastasis. Patient was submitted to surgical tumor resection without adjuvant therapy and died four months after diagnosis.

  20. Cardiac Angiosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Monique Esteves; Canale, Leonardo Secchin; Ramos, Rosana Grandelle; Salvador Junior, Edson da Silva; Lachtermacher, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Despite cardiac metastases are found in about 20% of cancer deaths, the presence of primary cardiac tumors is rare. Most primary tumors are benign, and malignant tumors comprise about 15%. We report a 21-year-old man with fever, dyspnea, and hemoptysis that was diagnosed with angiosarcoma of the right atrium and pulmonary metastasis. Patient was submitted to surgical tumor resection without adjuvant therapy and died four months after diagnosis. PMID:24826214

  1. Growth of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and smooth flounder (Liopsetta putnami) in heated and unheated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoornbeek, F.K. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham); Sawyer, P.J.; Sawyer, E.S.

    1982-07-01

    O-group and I-group winter (Pseudopleuronetes americanus) and smooth (Liopsetta putnami) flounder were reared at the Jackson Estuarine Laboratory, Durham, NH, U.S.A., between November 1975 and June 1976. Both species gained weight approximately three times more rapidly in heated than in unheated water. In unheated water the smallest winter flounder gained, on average, 116% of their body weight per month. Larger O-group winter flounder increased body weight by 55% per month, while comparably sized female and male smooth flounder gained 52% and 28% per month, respectively. I-group female smooth flounder gained 9.5% and male smooth flounder 8.5% per month in heated water. In unheated water increases were 13%, 22%, and 14% per month for O-group winter, female smooth and male smooth flounder, respectively. I-group winter flounder in unheated water gained weight twice as rapidly (9.5%) per month) as I-group female and male smooth flounder (4.0% and 4.5% per month, respectively). Fish were fed a moist diet at a level of 10% of their body weight per day. Conversions (dry weight of food/wet weight of fish) ranged from 1:1 for O-group winter flounder in heated water to 27:1 for I-group smooth flounder in unheated water. Disease was a major cause of mortality. Vibrio anguillarum was confirmed as a pathogen; myxobacteria, and the protozoan parasites Kudoa sp. and Nosema sp. were associated with losses.

  2. Structural and functional characterization of a multifunctional alanine-rich peptide analogue from Pleuronectes americanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Migliolo

    Full Text Available Recently, defense peptides that are able to act against several targets have been characterized. The present work focuses on structural and functional evaluation of the peptide analogue Pa-MAP, previously isolated as an antifreeze peptide from Pleuronectes americanus. Pa-MAP showed activities against different targets such as tumoral cells in culture (CACO-2, MCF-7 and HCT-116, bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2 and fungi (Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (28d&E and T. rubrum (327. This peptide did not show toxicity against mammalian cells such as erythrocytes, Vero and RAW 264.7 cells. Molecular mechanism of action was related to hydrophobic residues, since only the terminal amino group is charged at pH 7 as confirmed by potentiometric titration. In order to shed some light on its structure-function relations, in vitro and in silico assays were carried out using circular dichroism and molecular dynamics. Furthermore, Pa-MAP showed partial unfolding of the peptide changes in a wide pH (3 to 11 and temperature (25 to 95°C ranges, although it might not reach complete unfolding at 95°C, suggesting a high conformational stability. This peptide also showed a conformational transition with a partial α-helical fold in water and a full α-helical core in SDS and TFE environments. These results were corroborated by spectral data measured at 222 nm and by 50 ns dynamic simulation. In conclusion, data reported here show that Pa-MAP is a potential candidate for drug design against pathogenic microorganisms due to its structural stability and wide activity against a range of targets.

  3. Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

    2012-03-01

    Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease.

  4. Necator americanus and helminth co-infections: further down-modulation of hookworm-specific type 1 immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Michael Geiger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminth co-infection in humans is common in tropical regions of the world where transmission of soil-transmitted helminths such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale as well as other helminths such as Schistosoma mansoni often occur simultaneously.We investigated whether co-infection with another helminth(s altered the human immune response to crude antigen extracts from either different stages of N. americanus infection (infective third stage or adult or different crude antigen extract preparations (adult somatic and adult excretory/secretory. Using these antigens, we compared the cellular and humoral immune responses of individuals mono-infected with hookworm (N. americanus and individuals co-infected with hookworm and other helminth infections, namely co-infection with either A. lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, or both. Immunological variables were compared between hookworm infection group (mono- versus co-infected by bootstrap, and principal component analysis (PCA was used as a data reduction method.Contrary to several animal studies of helminth co-infection, we found that co-infected individuals had a further downmodulated Th1 cytokine response (e.g., reduced INF-γ, accompanied by a significant increase in the hookworm-specific humoral immune response (e.g. higher levels of IgE or IgG4 to crude antigen extracts compared with mono- infected individuals. Neither of these changes was associated with a reduction of hookworm infection intensity in helminth co-infected individuals. From the standpoint of hookworm vaccine development, these results are relevant; i.e., the specific immune response to hookworm vaccine antigens might be altered by infection with another helminth.

  5. Cardiac echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Krstić Branislava A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatid disease is rare. We report on an uncommon hydatid cyst localized in the right ventricular wall, right atrial wall tricuspid valve left atrium and pericard. A 33-year-old woman was treated for cough, fever and chest pain. Cardiac echocardiograpic examination revealed a round tumor (5.8 x 4 cm in the right ventricular free wall and two smaller cysts behind that tumor. There were cysts in right atrial wall and tricuspidal valve as well. Serologic tests for hydatidosis were positive. Computed tomography finding was consistent with diagnosis of hydatid cyst in lungs and right hylar part. Surgical treatment was rejected due to great risk of cardiac perforation. Medical treatment with albendazole was unsuccessful and the patient died due to systemic hydatid involvement of the lungs, liver and central nervous system.

  6. [Cardiac amyloidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussabah, Elhem; Zakhama, Lilia; Ksontini, Iméne; Ibn Elhadj, Zied; Boukhris, Besma; Naffeti, Sana; Thameur, Moez; Ben Youssef, Soraya

    2008-09-01

    PREREQUIS: Amyloidosis is a rare infiltrative disease characterized by multiple clinical features. Various organs are involved and the cardiovascular system is a common target of amyloidosis. Cardiac involvement may occur with or without clinical manifestations and is considered as a major prognostic factor. To analyze the clinical features of cardiac involvement, to review actual knowledgement concerning echocardiographic diagnostic and to evaluate recent advances in treatment of the disease. An electronic search of the relevant literature was carried out using Medline and Pubmed. Keys words used for the final search were amyloidosis, cardiopathy and echocardiography. We considered for analysis reviews, studies and articles between 1990 and 2007. Amyloidosis represents 5 to 10% of non ischemic cardiomyoparhies. Cardiac involvement is the first cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy witch must be evoked in front of every inexplained cardiopathy after the age of forty. The amyloid nature of cardiopathy is suggered if some manifestations were associated as a peripheric neuropathy, a carpal tunnel sydrome and proteinuria > 3g/day. Echocardiography shows dilated atria, a granular sparkling appearance of myocardium, diastolic dysfunction and thickened left ventricle contrasting with a low electric voltage. The proof of amyloidosis is brought by an extra-cardiac biopsy, the indications of endomyocardial biopsy are very limited. The identification of the amyloid nature of cardiopathy has an direct therapeutic implication: it indicates the use of digitalis, calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers. Today the treatment of amyloidosis remains very unsatisfactory especially in the cardiac involvement. An early diagnosis before the cardiac damage may facilitate therapy and improve prognosis.

  7. The reaction of European lobster larvae (Homarus gammarus) to different quality food: effects of ontogenetic shifts and pre-feeding history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoo, Katherina L; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M; Schmalenbach, Isabel; Boersma, Maarten

    2014-02-01

    Young larval stages of many organisms represent bottlenecks in the life-history of many species. The high mortality commonly observed in, for example, decapod larvae has often been linked to poor nutrition, with most studies focussing on food quantity. Here, we focus instead on the effects of quality and have investigated its effects on the nutritional condition of lobster larvae. We established a tri-trophic food chain consisting of the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. In a set of experiments, we manipulated the C:N:P stoichiometry of the primary producers, and accordingly those of the primary consumer. In a first experiment, R. salina was grown under N- and P-limitation and the nutrient content of the algae was manipulated by addition of the limiting nutrient to create a food quality gradient. In a second experiment, the effect on lobster larvae of long- and short-term exposure to food of varying quality during ontogenetic development was investigated. The condition of the lobster larvae was negatively affected even by subtle N- and P-nutrient limitations of the algae. Furthermore, younger lobster larvae were more vulnerable to nutrient limitation than older ones, suggesting an ontogenetic shift in the capacity of lobster larvae to cope with low quality food. The results presented here might have substantial consequences for the survival of lobster larvae in the field, as, in the light of future climate change and re-oligotrophication of the North Sea, lobster larvae might face marked changes in temperature and nutrient conditions, thus significantly altering their condition and growth.

  8. Dental and Temporomandibular Joint Pathology of the American Black Bear (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E J; Chesnutt, S R; Winer, J N; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    Museum specimens (maxillae and/or mandibles) from 371 American black bears (Ursus americanus) acquired between 1889 and 2006 were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria, and 348 were included in this study. Of the 348 specimens, 126 (36.2%) were from male animals, 106 (30.5%) were from female animals and 116 (33.3%) were from animals of unknown sex. Specimen ages ranged from young adult (n = 63, 18.1%) to adult (n = 285, 81.9%), with juveniles excluded from the study. The number of teeth available for examination was 12,019 (82.2%); 7.0% of teeth were absent artefactually, 0.4% were deemed absent due to acquired tooth loss and 9.7% were absent congenitally. In 43 specimens (12.3%), 82 teeth (0.68%) were small vestigial structures with crowns that were flush with the level of surrounding alveolar bone. The remaining teeth (99.3%) were of normal morphology. Only three supernumerary teeth and three instances of enamel hypoplasia were encountered. Persistent deciduous teeth or teeth with an aberrant number of roots were not encountered in any of the specimens. Approximately one-third of the teeth examined (4,543, 37.8%) displayed attrition/abrasion, affecting nearly all of the specimens (n = 338, 97.1%). Incisor and molar teeth accounted for 52.5% and 34.3% of the affected teeth, respectively, with significantly more adults affected than young adults. Dental fractures were noted in 63 bears, affecting 18.1% of specimens and 1.0% of the total number of present teeth. The canine teeth were most often fractured, with adults having significantly more complicated crown fractures of these teeth than young adults. There were 11 specimens (3.2%) that displayed periapical lesions, affecting 12 (0.1%) dental alveoli. There were 179 specimens (51.4%) displaying bony changes indicative of periodontitis, affecting 816 (6.8%) dental alveoli. The proportion of adult bears affected by periodontitis (57.9%) was significantly greater than that of young adults

  9. Parathyroid hormone may maintain bone formation in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Seth W; Galley, Sarah A; Vaughan, Michael R; Patterson-Buckendahl, Patricia; Demers, Laurence M; Vance, Josef L; McGee, Meghan E

    2006-05-01

    Mechanical unloading of bone causes an imbalance in bone formation and resorption leading to bone loss and increased fracture risk. Black bears (Ursus americanus) are inactive for up to six months during hibernation, yet bone mineral content and strength do not decrease with disuse or aging. To test whether hibernating bears have biological mechanisms to prevent disuse osteoporosis, we measured the serum concentrations of hormones and growth factors involved in bone metabolism and correlated them with the serum concentration of a bone formation marker (osteocalcin). Serum was obtained from black bears over a 7-month duration that included periods of activity and inactivity. Both resorption and formation markers increased during hibernation, suggesting high bone turnover occurred during inactivity. However, bone formation appeared to be balanced with bone resorption. The serum concentration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) was higher in the hibernation (P=0.35) and post-hibernation (P=0.006) seasons relative to pre-hibernation levels. Serum leptin was lower (Phibernation relative to pre-hibernation and hibernation periods. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) decreased (Phibernation relative to pre-hibernation and reached its highest value during remobilization. There was no difference (P=0.64) in 25-OH vitamin D between the three seasons. Serum osteocalcin (bone formation marker) was significantly correlated with PTH, but not with leptin, IGF-I or 25-OH vitamin D. Osteocalcin and PTH were positively correlated when samples from all seasons were pooled and when only hibernation samples were considered, raising the possibility that the anabolic actions of PTH help maintain bone formation to prevent disuse osteoporosis. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) release from MC3T3 osteoblastic cells was significantly affected by treatment with bear serum from different seasons (i.e. hibernation versus active periods). The seasonal changes in PGE(2) release showed trends similar to the

  10. Sternal gland structures in males of bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti, and Poinsettia thrips, Echinothrips americanus, in comparison with those of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Stephanie; Subramanian, Sevgan; Niassy, Saliou; Moritz, Gerald B

    2015-09-01

    Sternal pores are important features for identification of male thrips, especially within the subfamily Thripinae. They vary in shape, size and distribution even between species of one genus. Their functional role is speculated to be that of sex- and/or aggregation pheromone production. Yet, sexual aggregations are not reported in Echinothrips americanus, known to have sternal pores, while we observed aggregations in Megalurothrips sjostedti, previously reported to lack them. We examined the sternal glands and pores of the thripine species E. americanus and M. sjostedti males, in comparison with those of Frankliniella occidentalis using light microscopy, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Pore plates of F. occidentalis were ellipsoid and medial on sternites III-VII, while in E. americanus they were distributed as multiple micro pore plates on sternites III-VIII. In M. sjostedti they appeared as an extremely small pore in front of the posterior margin of each of sternites IV-VII. Pore plate and pore plate area were distributed similarly on sternites III-VII in F. occidentalis. However, in E. americanus the total pore plate area increased significantly from sternites III to VIII. Ultrastructure of cells associated with sternal glands showed typical characteristics of gland cells that differ in size, shape and number. The function of sternal glands is further discussed on the basis of morphological comparisons with other thrips species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An environmental assessment and risk map of Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus distributions in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Rebecca; Clements, Archie C A; Lal, Aparna; Summers, David; Llewellyn, Stacey; Campbell, Suzy J; McCarthy, James; Gray, Darren J; V Nery, Susana

    2017-05-01

    In Timor-Leste there have been intermittent and ineffective soil-transmitted helminth (STH) deworming programs since 2004. In a resource-constrained setting, having information on the geographic distribution of STH can aid in prioritising high risk communities for intervention. This study aimed to quantify the environmental risk factors for STH infection and to produce a risk map of STH in Manufahi district, Timor-Leste. Georeferenced cross-sectional data and stool samples were obtained from 2,194 participants in 606 households in 24 villages in the Manufahi District as part of cross sectional surveys done in the context of the "WASH for Worms" randomised controlled trial. Infection status was determined for Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Baseline infection data were linked to environmental data obtained for each household. Univariable and multivariable multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis with random effects at the village and household level were conducted, with all models adjusted for age and sex. For A. lumbricoides, being a school-aged child increased the odds of infection, whilst higher temperatures in the coolest quarter of the year, alkaline soils, clay loam/loam soils and woody savannas around households were associated with decreased infection odds. For N. americanus, greater precipitation in the driest month, higher average enhanced vegetation index, age and sandy loam soils increased infection odds, whereas being female and living at higher elevations decreased the odds of infection. Predictive risk maps generated for Manufahi based upon these final models highlight the high predicted risk of N. americanus infection across the district and the more focal nature of A. lumbricoides infection. The predicted risk of any STH infection is high across the entire district. The widespread predicted risk of any STH infection in 6 to 18 year olds provides strong evidence to

  12. An environmental assessment and risk map of Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus distributions in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Wardell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Timor-Leste there have been intermittent and ineffective soil-transmitted helminth (STH deworming programs since 2004. In a resource-constrained setting, having information on the geographic distribution of STH can aid in prioritising high risk communities for intervention. This study aimed to quantify the environmental risk factors for STH infection and to produce a risk map of STH in Manufahi district, Timor-Leste.Georeferenced cross-sectional data and stool samples were obtained from 2,194 participants in 606 households in 24 villages in the Manufahi District as part of cross sectional surveys done in the context of the "WASH for Worms" randomised controlled trial. Infection status was determined for Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Baseline infection data were linked to environmental data obtained for each household. Univariable and multivariable multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis with random effects at the village and household level were conducted, with all models adjusted for age and sex. For A. lumbricoides, being a school-aged child increased the odds of infection, whilst higher temperatures in the coolest quarter of the year, alkaline soils, clay loam/loam soils and woody savannas around households were associated with decreased infection odds. For N. americanus, greater precipitation in the driest month, higher average enhanced vegetation index, age and sandy loam soils increased infection odds, whereas being female and living at higher elevations decreased the odds of infection. Predictive risk maps generated for Manufahi based upon these final models highlight the high predicted risk of N. americanus infection across the district and the more focal nature of A. lumbricoides infection. The predicted risk of any STH infection is high across the entire district.The widespread predicted risk of any STH infection in 6 to 18 year olds provides strong

  13. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Darracq Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a Pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus.

  14. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Danielle D; Duprau, Jennifer L; Wolff, Peregrine L; Evermann, James F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

  15. Serologic survey of Toxoplasma gondii in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus), from Alaska, 1988 to 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Zarnke, R L; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Mendes, E

    1995-10-01

    We tested 644 serum samples from 480 grizzly bears and 40 black bears from Alaska (USA), collected between 1988 and 1991, for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, using a commercially available latex agglutination test (LAT). A titer > or = 64 was considered positive. Serum antibody prevalence for T. gondii in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) was 18% (87 of 480). Prevalence ranged from 9% (seven of 77) on Kodiak Island to 28% (15 of 54) in northern Alaska. Prevalence was directly correlated to age. No grizzly bears grizzly bears captured north of the Arctic Circle. Antibody prevalence in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Interior Alaska was 15% (six of 40), similar to the prevalence in grizzly bears from the same area (13%; five of 40).

  16. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  17. Hookworm infection and anemia in adult women in rural Chiapas, Mexico Anemia e infección por Necator americanus en mujeres en Chiapas, México

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    Paula E. Brentlinger

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe associations between anemia and hookworm (Necator americanus infection in hospitalized women in rural Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the hospital records of 68 anemic women (defined as having a hemoglobin level OBJETIVO: Describir la asociación entre anemia severa e infección con Necator americanus en una población de mujeres hospitalizadas en el estado de Chiapas, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En el registro de ingresos del año 1999 de un hospital rural en Altamirano, Chiapas, se identificaron a las pacientes con diagnósticos de egreso de anemia (definida como hemoglobina<10mg/dl y/o parasitosis intestinal. También se revisó el registro de transfusiones para identificar a las mujeres mayores de 14 años de edad que recibieron sangre. La revisión de expedientes y el análisis de datos se llevó a cabo en el año 2000. Las comparaciones de las características de las pacientes se hicieron con la prueba t de Student (para variables continuas y la prueba ji2 (para variables categóricas. La significancia estadística se estableció con un valor de p< 0.01. RESULTADOS: En las mujeres en quienes se realizó examen coproscópico, 50% tuvieron N. americanus. La presencia de N. americanus no excluyó la presencia de otro factor de riesgo para anemia, por ejemplo embarazo o hemorragia. Los niveles de hemoglobina de las mujeres infectadas con N. americanus fueron significativamente más bajos (promedio 4.1 g/dl que los de las demás mujeres anémicas (promedio 7.0 gm/dl, y la prevalencia de N. americanus en mujeres anémicas fue más alta (50.0% que en la población atendida por el hospital (1.9%. CONCLUSIONES: Aunque la prevalencia de infección con N. americanus no se considera alta en la población general mexicana, fue importante en las mujeres anémicas que se sometieron a coproscopía en nuestro estudio. Las mujeres anémicas ameritan coproscopía donde existe N. americanus, y pueden

  18. Occurrence of Larvae and Juveniles of Eucinostomus argenteus, Eucinostomus gula, Menticirrhus americanus, Menticirrhus littoralis, Umbrina coroides and Micropogonias furnieri at Pontal do Sul beach, Paraná

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    Rodrigo Santiago Godefroid

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance, most ichthyoplankton studies in the South-Southeastern coast of Brazil, have been accomplished on the continental shelf. Regarding the beach environment, recognized as a nursery, little is known about the ichthyoplankton. We analyzed 288 samples collected with a 18 by 2 m seine net, 1 mm mesh and a conical plankton net, with a mesh of 300 mum and a 60 cm mouth. Eucinostomus argenteus comprised 78 % of the larvae and juveniles caught in the samples. The occurrence of gerreids was strongly concentrated in the summer, while the Menticirrhus littoralis, Menticirrhus americanus and Umbrina coroides were present during all seasons. M.littoralis was most abundant during spring, while M. americanus and U. coroides dominated during winter. For all species, the largest captures occurred during low tide. Environmental preferences are indicated in the principal component analysis, with the larvae and juveniles of E. argenteus and E. gula positively correlated with smaller waves and smaller morphodynamism, whereas M. americanus, U. coroides and M. furnieri seem to prefer periods with lower temperatures and larger morphodynamism.Apesar da importância, a maioria dos estudos de ictioplâncton na costa sul-sudeste do Brasil, foram realizados sobre a plataforma continental. No que se refere ao ambiente praial, reconhecido como área de criação, pouco se sabe sobre o ictioplâncton. Foram analisadas 288 amostras coletadas com uma rede tipo picaré com 18 x 2 m e malha de 1mm, e rede de plancton cônica, com malha de 300 mim e boca de 60 cm. A espécie E. argenteus totalizou 78 % das larvas e juvenis capturados. A ocorrência dos gerreideos foi fortemente concentrada no verão, enquanto que Menticirrhus littoralis, Menticirrhus americanus e Umbrina coroides estiveram presentes em todas as estações do ano. M. littoralis foi mais abundante na primavera, enquanto que M. americanus e U. coroides dominaram no inverno. Em todas as esp

  19. Cardiac conduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the ... contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle of ...

  20. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arrest (SCA) Back to Heart Diseases & Disorders Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Sudden Cardiac Arrest ( SCA ) occurs when the heart stops beating, abruptly ... to saving someone who is having a sudden cardiac arrest , it is important to understand the difference. The ...

  1. What Causes Sudden Cardiac Arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  2. What Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  3. Condição reprodutiva da betara preta, Menticirrhus americanus (Teleostei, Sciaenidae, na pesca realizada no litoral norte de Santa Catarina, Brasil = Reproductive status of Menticirrhus americanus (Teleostei, Sciaenidae in fisheries performed on the Southern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elneison da Rosa Muniz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No litoral brasileiro, a legislação costuma regular as práticas pesqueiras segundo o ciclo de vida das espécies-alvo, mas o fato deste não ser coincidente entre as espécies dominantesnas capturas dificulta o manejo em pescarias multiespecíficas. No litoral de Santa Catarina, o defeso aplica-se apenas à pesca de arrasto, e para tal considera o período reprodutivo do camarãosete-barbas, Xyphopenaeus kroyeri. O presente trabalho investiga a incidência da atividade pesqueira sobre indivíduos em reprodução da betara preta, Menticirrhus americanus, espécie comercialmenteapreciada e frequente nas pescarias. As amostragens ocorreram em 2006 e 2007, em desembarques do município de Itapoá, norte do Estado (26°00’S; 48°36’W. Calcularam-se os valores de proporção sexual, frequência de estádios de maturação, índice gonadossomático etamanho de primeira maturação, e relacionou-se a captura de indivíduos em reprodução com a época do ano e a arte de pesca utilizada. Concluiu-se que a atividade pesqueira incide sobre umaparcela populacional que compreende indivíduos em atividade reprodutiva durante, ao menos, duas estações do ano. Há diferenças entre as artes de pesca: a de arrasto não atinge indivíduos emreprodução; a de caceio atua majoritariamente sobre jovens e em maturação; e a de fundeio, principalmente sobre indivíduos em atividade reprodutiva, sobretudo na primavera e no verão.Fisheries rules usually take into account the life cycle of target species. But as these species differ, multi-specific fisheries provedifficult to be managed. In the southern coast of Brazil (26°00’S, 48°36’W, an annual closed fishing season is exclusive to trawling only, which target species such as the shrimp Xyphopenaeuskroyeri. In this region, the consequences of trawling and gillnets on the life cycles of fish remain unknown. The present work has surveyed the incidence of small-scale fisheries on the reproductive cycle of

  4. Application of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for identification of grouper (Epinephelus guaza), wreck fish (Polyprion americanus), and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Luis; González, Isabel; Fernández, Alicia; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Lobo, Esther; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2002-02-01

    A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was developed for the specific identification of grouper (Epinephelus guaza), wreck fish (Polyprion americanus), and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fillets. Using two different reaction primers (S1 and L1), RAPD analysis produced clear fingerprints from which the three fish species could be easily identified. This approach is rapid and reliable and offers the potential to detect fraudulent or unintentional mislabeling of these species in routine seafood authentication analysis.

  5. Binding of Excreted and/or Secreted Products of Adult Hookworms to Human NK Cells in Necator americanus-Infected Individuals from Brazil▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Fujiwara, Ricardo T.; Stemmy, Erik J.; Olive, Denise; Damsker, Jesse M.; Loukas, Alex; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Constant, Stephanie L.; Bethony, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of the interaction between excreted and/or secreted (ES) Necator americanus products and NK cells from Necator-infected individuals was analyzed. We investigated the binding of ES products to NK cells, the expression of NK cell receptors (CD56, CD159a/NKG2A, CD314/NKG2D, CD335/NKp46, and KLRF1/NKp80), the frequency of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing NK cells after whole-blood in vitro stimulation, and the capacity of N. americanus ES products to induce NK cell chemotaxis. In contrast to those from noninfected individuals, NK cells from Necator-infected individuals demonstrated no binding with N. americanus ES products. This phenomenon was not due to alterations in NK cell receptor expression in infected subjects and could not be reproduced with NK cells from uninfected individuals by incubation with immunoregulatory cytokines (interleukin-10/transforming growth factor β). Further, we found that a significantly greater percentage of NK cells from infected subjects than NK cells from uninfected individuals spontaneously produced IFN-γ upon ex vivo culture. Our findings support a model whereby NK cells from Necator-infected individuals may interact with ES products, making these cells refractory to binding with exogenous ES products. During N. americanus infection, human NK cells are attracted to the site of infection by chemotactic ES products produced by adult Necator worms in the gut mucosa. Binding of ES products causes the NK cells to become activated and secrete IFN-γ locally, thereby contributing to the adult hookworm's ability to evade host immune responses. PMID:18838519

  6. Lead, chromium and manganese removal by in vitro root cultures of two aquatic macrophytes species: Typha latifolia L. and Scirpus americanus pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro; Barrón-Cruz, María del Carmen

    2011-07-01

    The ability of in vitro roots cultures of Typha latifolia and Scirpus americanus to remove metals was studied. Roots were cultivated on Murashige-Skoog medium with 15 microg L(-1) Cr 11, 60 microg L(-1) Pb II or 1.8 mg L(-1) Mn II. Adsorbed metal to root surface was removed by washing with 0.042% HNO3. T. latifolia roots were able to uptake 68.8 microg Pb g(-1), 22.1 microg Cr g(-1) and 1680 microg Mn g(-1), while the S. americanus roots removed 148.3 microg Pb g(-1), 40.7 microg Cr g(-1) and 4037 microg Mn g(-1). About 80-90% of Pb and Cr were absorbed in both cultures. On the contrary, the Mn removal was due mainly to an adsorption process (82-86%). In comparison to the T. latifolia cultures, S. americanus cultures were twofold more efficient to remove Pb and Cr, and threefold more efficient to remove Mn. Both plant species capture metals in the following order: Cr >Pb >Mn. This investigation confirms that in vitro roots cultures could be an alternative as a phytoremediation approach for contaminated water with heavy metals.

  7. About Cardiac Arrest

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    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Cardiac Arrest Updated:Mar 10,2017 What is cardiac arrest? ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Cardiac Arrest • Home • About Cardiac Arrest • Understand Your Risk for ...

  8. Cardiac MRI in Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is often used in athletes to image cardiac anatomy and function and is increasingly requested in the context of screening for pathology that can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this thesis, patterns of cardiac adaptation to sports are investigated with

  9. Prevalence of Necator americanus infection and risk factors among school-age children in Mirab Abaya District, South Ethiopia

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    Habtamu Ketema

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine prevalence of hookworms, species identification, risk factors and its contribution to anemia in school-age children. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections was conducted among 423 school-age children in three primary schools. Data on socio-demographic variables and risk factors were collected using pre-tested questionnaire. Stool samples were processed using Kato-Katz thick smear technique and hemoglobin values were determined by HemoCue on capillary blood. Finally, positive samples containing ova of hookworms were cultured by modified Harada-Mori technique for species identification. Results: Overall prevalence of hookworm infection was 10.4% (44/423. The predominant species identified was Necator americanus (43/44. Prevalence of anemia among the children was 4.5%. Hookworm infection was not significantly associated with anemia (P = 0.98, however, lack of footwear showed significant association with hookworm infection (AOR = 2.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.172-4.867; P = 0.02. Conclusions: We conclude hookworm infection is relatively high among schoolchildren. Although our result shows no significant association between the infection and anemia, the observed prevalence of hookworm and anemia warrants a serious health problem among study participants. Proper intervention methods that include health education, personal and environmental hygiene are recommended. If possible children should be encouraged to wear shoes regularly.

  10. A new PCR-based method shows that blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)) consume winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Jackie L; Fitzgerald, Sean P; Hice, Lyndie A; Frisk, Michael G; McElroy, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA) region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York) in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6%) from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species.

  11. A new PCR-based method shows that blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun consume winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie L Collier

    Full Text Available Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6% from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species.

  12. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  13. The effects of hibernation and captivity on glucose metabolism and thyroid hormones in American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Stephanie; Ramsay, Ed; Kirk, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) have been shown to become transiently insulin resistant and hypothyroid during winter, but no studies have investigated these changes in long-term captive bears or in bears which remain awake year-round. Wild, captive hibernating, and captive nonhibernating bears were evaluated at times corresponding to three of their major physiologic stages: fall (hyperphagic stage), winter (hibernation stage), and summer (normal activity stage). Combined insulin and glucose tolerance tests and thyroid hormone profiles were performed on all bears during each stage. All three groups of bears had evidence of insulin resistance during the winter, as compared to the summer or fall, based on glucose tolerance curves. Analysis of thyroid hormone concentration varied and distinct patterns or similarities were not apparent. While obesity in captive American black bears is multifactorial, the finding that, regardless of their ability to hibernate, captive bears retain similar physiology to their wild counterparts indicates that captive bears' complex physiologic changes need to be addressed in their management.

  14. The tensile strength of black bear (Ursus americanus) cortical bone is not compromised with aging despite annual periods of hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kristin B; Drummer, Thomas D; Donahue, Seth W

    2005-11-01

    Black bears (Ursus americanus) may not develop disuse osteoporosis during long periods of disuse (i.e. hibernation) because they may be able to maintain bone formation. Previously, we found that cortical bone bending strength was not compromised with age in black bears' tibias, despite annual periods of disuse. Here we showed that cortical bone tensile strength (166-198MPa) also does not decrease with age (2-14 years) in black bear tibias. There were also no significant age-related changes in cortical bone porosity in black bear tibias. It is likely that the ability of black bears to maintain bone formation during hibernation keeps bone porosity low (2.3-8.6%) with aging, notwithstanding annual periods of disuse. This low porosity likely preserves ultimate stress with aging. Female bears give birth and nurse during hibernation; however, we found no significant differences between male and female tensile material properties, mineral content, or porosity. Our findings support the idea that black bears, which hibernate 5-7 months annually, have evolved biological mechanisms to mitigate the adverse effects of disuse on bone porosity and strength.

  15. PROPAGACIÓN POR ESTACAS JUVENILES DEL BALSO BLANCO (Heliocarpus americanus L. Sin. H. popayanensis UTILIZANDO PROPAGADORES DE SUBIRRIGACIÓN PROPAGATION OF WHITE BALSUM (Heliocarpus americanus L. Sin. H. popayanensis CUTTINGS USING NONMIST PROPAGATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Vásquez Restrepo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El mercado mundial de edulcorantes orgánicos es una oportunidad para la panela, producto básico de la canasta familiar que representa ingresos importantes para la población rural colombiana. El balso blanco (Heliocarpus americanus L. Sin. H. popayanensis Hook & Arn. es la especie más usada en procesos de clarificación de la panela en Antioquia y las zonas cañeras húmedas colombianas. Pero la extracción de la corteza de árboles obtenidos de la regeneración natural comienza a ser insostenible, por el daño causado a los individuos y la presión creciente a este recurso. La prohibición del uso de sustancias químicas en procesos de clarificación de panela ha aumentado la demanda de la corteza del balso blanco. En este trabajo se estimó el enraizamiento de estacas juveniles de balso blanco, por propagadores de subirrigación. Se realizaron dos experimentos, utilizando ácido anaftalenacético (ANA. En el primero se evaluó el efecto del transporte, cicatrizante y sustrato sobre el enraizamiento de las estacas de balso blanco. El mejor medio de transporte fue en cristales de hidrogel para mantener la humedad de las estacas, sin utilizar cicatrizante y sembrándolas en el sustrato tierra (55 % de enraizamiento. En el segundo se analizó la influencia de la intensidad lumínica y el área foliar en el porcentaje de enraizamiento de las estacas. El más alto enraizamiento se obtuvo con el tratamiento de doble sombra y un área foliar de 20 cm² (25 % de enraizamiento. Aunque los mejores resultados indican un relativo éxito en el uso de medios de enraizamiento, es una primera aproximación para propagar esta especie que necesita ser protegida.The world market of organic edulcorants is an opportunity for “panela”, a basic domestic consumption product that provides important income to rural population. White balsum (Heliocarpus americanus L. Sin. H. popayanensis Hook & Arn. is the most used species in the panela clarification processes in

  16. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or ... special help in making lifestyle changes. During your rehabilitation program you’ll… • Have a medical evaluation to ...

  17. Cardiac Syndrome X

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Sudden Cardiac Arrest Valve Disease Vulnerable Plaque Coronary Microvascular Disease (CMD) Related terms: angina, cardiac syndrome X, CMD, MVD, microvascular angina Coronary Microvascular Disease (CMD or MVD) is a type of heart ...

  18. Determining causes of genetic isolation in a large carnivore (Ursus americanus population to direct contemporary conservation measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Pelletier

    Full Text Available The processes leading to genetic isolation influence a population's local extinction risk, and should thus be identified before conservation actions are implemented. Natural or human-induced circumstances can result in historical or contemporary barriers to gene flow and/or demographic bottlenecks. Distinguishing between these hypotheses can be achieved by comparing genetic diversity and differentiation in isolated vs. continuous neighboring populations. In Ontario, American black bears (Ursus americanus are continuously distributed, genetically diverse, and exhibit an isolation-by-distance structuring pattern, except on the Bruce Peninsula (BP. To identify the processes that led to the genetic isolation of BP black bears, we modelled various levels of historical and contemporary migration and population size reductions using forward simulations. We compared simulation results with empirical genetic indices from Ontario black bear populations under different levels of geographic isolation, and conducted additional simulations to determine if translocations could help achieve genetic restoration. From a genetic standpoint, conservation concerns for BP black bears are warranted because our results show that: i a recent demographic bottleneck associated with recently reduced migration best explains the low genetic diversity on the BP; and ii under sustained isolation, BP black bears could lose between 70% and 80% of their rare alleles within 100 years. Although restoring migration corridors would be the most effective method to enhance long-term genetic diversity and prevent inbreeding, it is unrealistic to expect connectivity to be re-established. Current levels of genetic diversity could be maintained by successfully translocating 10 bears onto the peninsula every 5 years. Such regular translocations may be more practical than landscape restoration, because areas connecting the peninsula to nearby mainland black bear populations have been

  19. Behavioural strategies used by the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale to find, recognize and invade the human host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Wilfried; Haberl, Bernhard; Syafruddin; Idris, Irfan; Kallert, Dennis; Kersten, Stephanie; Stiegeler, Petra

    2005-01-01

    The infective third-stage larvae of the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale infect their human hosts by active skin invasion, but A. duodenale is in addition capable of oral infection. The behaviour of the larvae when crawling on surfaces has already been described. Here we analyse in various in vitro systems the other behavioural invasion phases: activation, penetration, and orientation within the host. The larvae normally remained in a motionless, energy-saving, resting posture. An activation to sinusoidal locomotion was stimulated in both species by similar cues such as touch, vibration, water currents, heat, light, and chemicals. Human breath in addition stimulated searching and waving ("nictating") behaviour, which facilitates a change-over to the host. Activating cues in air streams were warmth and moisture; CO2 activated only in combination with warmth and/or moisture. Penetration behaviour in both species was stimulated by warmth and skin extracts. The stimulating components of skin extracts were fatty acids, but their stimulating characteristics differed from those inducing schistosome cercarial skin penetration. After penetration into agar substrates, both species showed thermo-orientation, but only A. duodenale followed gradients of serum. The directing serum cues were not amino acids and glucose (the supposed cues for schistosome blood vessel localization), but Ringer's solution attracted the larvae. The host-finding and host-invasion behaviour of both hookworm species is well adapted to the invasion of the human skin, and there seems to be no particular adaptation of A. duodenale behaviour to the oral infection mode. Hookworm host-finding behaviour is not as complex as that of schistosome cercariae but seems well adapted to the ecological conditions in the transmission sites.

  20. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J R Lafferty

    Full Text Available Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol, key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116 as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD] and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD. We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  1. Wound healing during hibernation by black bears (Ursus americanus) in the wild: elicitation of reduced scar formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaizzo, Paul A; Laske, Timothy G; Harlow, Henry J; McClay, Carolyn B; Garshelis, David L

    2012-03-01

    Even mildly hypothermic body or limb temperatures can retard healing processes in mammals. Despite this, we observed that hibernating American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) elicit profound abilities in mounting inflammatory responses to infection and/or foreign bodies. In addition, they resolve injuries during hibernation while maintaining mildly hypothermic states (30-35 °C) and without eating, drinking, urinating or defecating. We describe experimental studies on free-ranging bears that document their abilities to completely resolve cutaneous cuts and punctures incurred during or prior to hibernation. We induced small, full-thickness cutaneous wounds (biopsies or incisions) during early denning, and re-biopsied sites 2-3 months later (near the end of denning). Routine histological methods were used to characterize these skin samples. All biopsied sites with respect to secondary intention (open circular biopsies) and primary intention (sutured sites) healed, with evidence of initial eschar (scab) formation, completeness of healed epidermis and dermal layers, dyskeratosis (inclusion cysts), and abilities to produce hair follicles. These healing abilities of hibernating black bears are a clear survival advantage to animals injured before or during denning. Bears are known to have elevated levels of hibernation induction trigger (delta-opioid receptor agonist) and ursodeoxycholic acid (major bile acid within plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine) during hibernation, which may relate to these wound-healing abilities. Further research as to the underlying mechanisms of wound healing during hibernation could have applications in human medicine. Unique approaches may be found to improve healing for malnourished, hypothermic, diabetic and elderly patients or to reduce scarring associated with burns and traumatic injuries. © 2012 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  2. Cardiac sodium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Ahmad S.; Asghari-Roodsari, Alaleh; Tan, Hanno L.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (I-Na) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of I-Na for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of

  3. Identification of Nile perch (Lates niloticus), grouper (Epinephelus guaza), and wreck fish (Polyprion americanus) fillets by PCR amplification of the 5S rDNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, L; González, I; Fernández, A; Céspedes, A; Rodríguez, M A; Hernández, P E; García, T; Martín, R

    2001-01-01

    Nile perch (Lates niloticus), grouper (Epinephelus guaza), and wreck fish (Polyprion americanus) were differentiated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the nuclear 5S rDNA gene. The design of 3 species-specific primers complementary to the nontranscribed intergenic spacer region from the 5S rDNA molecule allowed amplification of clearly distinguishable gene fragments in each fish species. This approach is rapid and reliable and offers the potential to detect fraudulent or unintentional mislabeling of these species in routine seafood authentication analysis.

  4. PCR-SSCP: a simple method for the authentication of grouper (Epinephelus guaza), wreck fish (Polyprion americanus), and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, L; González, I; Fernández, A; Rodríguez, M A; Hernández, P E; García, T; Martín, R

    2001-04-01

    A method of DNA analysis has been developed to verify the authenticity of grouper (Epinephelus guaza), wreck fish (Polyprion americanus), and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fillets. A short fragment (208 bp) of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism to get species-specific patterns of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). DNA strands were separated by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining. Discrimination among the three fish species studied was possible, because each one expressed a specific ssDNA pattern.

  5. Post-mating interactions and their effects on fitness of female and male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, a new insect pest in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Li

    Full Text Available Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species.

  6. Specific amplification of Necator americanus or Ancylostoma duodenale DNA by PCR using markers in ITS-1 rDNA, and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, J R; Chilton, N B; Qian, B Z; Gasser, R B

    1998-04-01

    Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale are the two most important species of human hookworm, and occur in sympatry over much of their distribution. The specific diagnosis of hookworm infections is central to control. Diagnosis currently relies on the detection of hookworm eggs in human faeces and/or the specific identification of larvae by 'copro-culture' combined with microscopic examination. However, the eggs of the two species are morphologically indistinguishable, and the procedure of copro-culture is tedious and time-consuming to carry out. To work toward overcoming these limitations, a molecular approach utilizing genetic markers in the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was established. The ITS-1 sequences of both hookworm species were determined, and specific oligonucleotide primers designed to regions of major sequence difference between the species were evaluated in polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using a range of control samples, the primers allowed the specific identification of as little as 10 pg DNA of A. duodenale or N. americanus. The findings indicate clearly the potential for specific PCR to confirm the identity of eggs from faeces and larvae from the environment or host tissues. This should have important implications for studying fundamental aspects relating to anthelmintic efficacy and the epidemiology of hookworms.

  7. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  8. Cardiac Innervation and Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Keiichi; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Ardell, Jeffrey L.; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2015-01-01

    Afferent and efferent cardiac neurotransmission via the cardiac nerves intricately modulates nearly all physiological functions of the heart (chronotropy, dromotropy, lusitropy and inotropy). Afferent information from the heart is transmitted to higher levels of the nervous system for processing (intrinsic cardiac nervous system, extracardiac-intrathoracic ganglia, spinal cord, brain stem and higher centers) which ultimately results in efferent cardiomotor neural impulses (via the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves). This system forms interacting feedback loops that provide physiological stability for maintaining normal rhythm and life-sustaining circulation. This system also ensures that there is fine-tuned regulation of sympathetic-parasympathetic balance in the heart under normal and stressed states in the short (beat to beat), intermediate (minutes-hours) and long term (days-years). This important neurovisceral /autonomic nervous system also plays a major role in the pathophysiology and progression of heart disease, including heart failure and arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Transdifferentiation of neurons in heart failure, functional denervation, cardiac and extra-cardiac neural remodeling have also been identified and characterized during the progression of disease. Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular processes governing innervation and the functional control of the myocardium in health and disease provides a rational mechanistic basis for development of neuraxial therapies for preventing SCD and other arrhythmias. Advances in cellular, molecular, and bioengineering realms have underscored the emergence of this area as an important avenue of scientific inquiry and therapeutic intervention. PMID:26044253

  9. Investigating the mechanism for maintaining eucalcemia despite immobility and anuria in the hibernating American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Rita L; Cross, Randal A; Rosen, Clifford J; Causey, Robert C; Gundberg, Caren M; Carpenter, Thomas O; Chen, Tai C; Halteman, William A; Holick, Michael F; Jakubas, Walter J; Keisler, Duane H; Seger, Richard M; Servello, Frederick A

    2011-12-01

    Ursine hibernation uniquely combines prolonged skeletal unloading, anuria, pregnancy, lactation, protein recycling, and lipolysis. This study presents a radiographic and biochemical picture of bone metabolism in free-ranging, female American black bears (Ursus americanus) that were active (spring bears and autumn bears) or hibernating (hibernating bears). Hibernating bears included lactating and non-lactating individuals. We measured serum calcium, albumin, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSALP), CTX, parathyroid hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-l), leptin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] and sclerostin from 35 to 50 tranquilized hibernating bears and 14 to 35 tranquilized spring bears. We compared metacarpal cortical indices (MCI), measured by digital X-ray radiogrammetry, from 60 hunter-killed autumn bears and 79 tranquilized, hibernating bears. MCI was greater in autumn than winter in younger bears, but showed no seasonal difference in older bears. During hibernation eucalcemia was maintained, BSALP was suppressed, and CTX was in the range expected for anuria. During hibernation 1,25(OH)(2)D was produced despite anuria. 1,25(OH)(2)D and IGF-I were less in hibernating than spring bears. In a quarter of hibernating bears, sclerostin was elevated. Leptin was greater in hibernating than spring bears. In hibernating bears, leptin correlated positively with BSALP in non-lactating bears and with CTX in lactating bears. Taken together the biochemical and radiographic findings indicate that during hibernation, bone turnover was persistent, balanced, and suppressed; bone resorption was lower than expected for an unloaded skeleton; and there was no unloading-induced bone loss. The skeleton appears to perceive that it was loaded when it was actually unloaded during hibernation. However, at the level of sclerostin, the skeleton recognized that it was unloaded. During hibernation leptin

  10. Isolation and characterization of new genetic types of Toxoplasma gondii and prevalence of Trichinella murrelli from black bear (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Hill, D; Zarlenga, D; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Driscoll, C P; Spiker, H; Su, C

    2013-09-01

    Black bears (Ursus americanus) are hosts for two important zoonotic parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. and bears are hunted for human consumption in the USA. Little is known of the genetic diversity of T. gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were found in juice from tongues of 17 (25.7%) of 66 wild black bear from Maryland during the hunting season of 2010 and 2011. Antibodies to T. gondii were assessed by the modified agglutination test. Tongues of 17 seropositive bears were bioassayed in mice and viable T. gondii was isolated from three samples. These three T. gondii isolates (TgBbMd1-3) were further propagated in cell culture and DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico). Results revealed three genotypes. TgBbMd1 is a Type 12 strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #4) and TgBbMd2 is ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #216, and TgBbMd3 is a Type II clonal strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1). The isolate TgBbMd2 was highly virulent for outbred Swiss Webster mice; all infected mice died of acute toxoplasmosis. Results indicate that mouse virulent strains of T. gondii are circulating in wildlife in the USA. These 66 tongues in addition to tongues collected during hunts in previous years were further investigated for the presence of muscle larvae of Trichinella spp. Tongues from 40 bears in 2005, 41 in 2006, 51 in 2007, 56 in 2008, 68 in 2009, 67 in 2010, and 66 in 2011 were subjected to digestion with pepsin/HCl and microscopic examination. Two bears were infected with Trichinella spp.; one in 2008 and one in 2009. Genotyping of collected muscle larvae revealed that the infecting species in both cases was Trichinella murrelli. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Multi-scale habitat relationships of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) in the mixed conifer landscape of the Northern Rockies, USA: Cross-scale effects of horizontal cover with implications for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph D. Holbrook; John R. Squires; Lucretia E. Olson; Rick L. Lawrence; Shannon L. Savage

    2016-01-01

    Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are an ecologically important herbivore because they modify vegetation through browsing and serve as a prey resource for multiple predators. We implemented a multiscale approach to characterize habitat relationships for snowshoe hares across the mixed conifer landscape of the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Our objectives were to (1)...

  12. Echocardiography and cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Constantinos H; Oikonomidis, Dimitrios; Lazaris, Efstathios; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros

    2017-12-05

    Cardiac arrhythmias refer to any abnormality or disturbance in the normal activation sequence of the myocardium and may be indicative of structural heart disease and the cause of significant cardiovascular complications and sudden cardiac death. The following review summarizes the current state-of-the-art knowledge on the role of echocardiography in the management of cardiac arrhythmias and focuses on atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias where echocardiography presents a particular diagnostic and prognostic interest. Moreover, a brief reference is made to the effect of cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities on echocardiographic examination. Copyright © 2017 Hellenic Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger

    1999-08-01

    Great strides have been made in the approach to the management of sudden cardiac death. Patients who have been successfully resuscitated from an episode of sudden cardiac death are at high risk of recurrence. Much larger groups of patients who have not had episodes of sudden cardiac death are also at substantial risk for this event, however. Because the survival rates associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are dismal, these high-risk populations must be targeted for prophylaxis. Beta-blockers have been shown to be an effective pharmacologic therapy in patients who have had myocardial infarction and, most recently, in patients with congestive heart failure. When possible, these agents should be used in these populations. No class I or class III antiarrhythmic drugs, with the possible exception of amiodarone, have been shown to have efficacy as prophylactic agents for the reduction of mortality in these populations. In patients who have hemodynamically significant sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias or an aborted episode of sudden cardiac death, the current therapy of choice is an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). For prophylaxis of sudden cardiac death in patients who have not had a previous event, several approaches may be considered. Currently, the best therapeutic approach for prophylaxis of sudden cardiac death seems to be the ICD; however, use of this device can be justified only in patients at substantial risk of sudden cardiac death. Defining the high-risk populations that will benefit from ICDs is critical in managing the problem of sudden cardiac death.

  14. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-06

    right ventricular fibrosis); (d) idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. (midwall fibrosis); (e) infiltrative cardiomyopathies (cardiac sarcoidosis); and (f) systemic vasculitides (Churg Strauss Syndrome). LV = left ventricle;. RV = right ...

  15. Styrax americanus Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.F Connor

    2004-01-01

    American snowbell, also known as mock orange or storax, is a deciduous shrub or small tree with a widely branched crown. It reaches 3 to 5 m in height, and the stems can reach 7.5 cm in diameter. While the bark on the stems is smooth and dark grey to brown, branches range in color from green to grey to red-brown. Young stems are pubescent, becoming glabrous with age....

  16. [Advances in cardiac pacing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carranza, María-José Sancho-Tello; Fidalgo-Andrés, María Luisa; Ferrer, José Martínez; Mateas, Francisco Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    This article contains a review of the current status of remote monitoring and follow-up involving cardiac pacing devices and of the latest developments in cardiac resynchronization therapy. In addition, the most important articles published in the last year are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety in cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siregar, S.

    2013-01-01

    The monitoring of safety in cardiac surgery is a complex process, which involves many clinical, practical, methodological and statistical issues. The objective of this thesis was to measure and to compare safety in cardiac surgery in The Netherlands using the Netherlands Association for

  18. Pregnancy and cardiac disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosing cardiac disease. History and examination. Many disorders can be identified by a clinical examination and a patient's history, but in the majority, if not all cases, an echocardiogram is required to confirm clinical suspicions. ARTICLE. Pregnancy and cardiac disease. C Elliott,1 MB ChB, FCOG (SA), MMed; K Sliwa ...

  19. Sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Parakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is one of the most common cause of mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances in the medical science, there is little improvement in the sudden cardiac death related mortality. Coronary artery disease is the most common etiology behind sudden cardiac death, in the above 40 years population. Even in the apparently healthy population, there is a small percentage of patients dying from sudden cardiac death. Given the large denominator, this small percentage contributes to the largest burden of sudden cardiac death. Identification of this at risk group among the apparently healthy individual is a great challenge for the medical fraternity. This article looks into the causes and methods of preventing SCD and at some of the Indian data. Details of Brugada syndrome, Long QT syndrome, Genetics of SCD are discussed. Recent guidelines on many of these causes are summarised.

  20. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  1. Mathematical cardiac electrophysiology

    CERN Document Server

    Colli Franzone, Piero; Scacchi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the main mathematical and numerical models in computational electrocardiology, ranging from microscopic membrane models of cardiac ionic channels to macroscopic bidomain, monodomain, eikonal models and cardiac source representations. These advanced multiscale and nonlinear models describe the cardiac bioelectrical activity from the cell level to the body surface and are employed in both the direct and inverse problems of electrocardiology. The book also covers advanced numerical techniques needed to efficiently carry out large-scale cardiac simulations, including time and space discretizations, decoupling and operator splitting techniques, parallel finite element solvers. These techniques are employed in 3D cardiac simulations illustrating the excitation mechanisms, the anisotropic effects on excitation and repolarization wavefronts, the morphology of electrograms in normal and pathological tissue and some reentry phenomena. The overall aim of the book is to present rigorously the mathematica...

  2. How Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  3. How Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  4. Identification of grouper (Epinephelus guaza), wreck fish (Polyprion americanus), and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fillets by polyclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Luis; González, Isabel; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Mayoral, Belén; López-Calleja, Inés; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2003-02-26

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed for the species identification of grouper (Epinephelus guaza), wreck fish (Polyprion americanus), and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fillets. The assay was performed in two different formats, microtiter plates and immunostick tubes, and uses polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits against muscle-soluble proteins of grouper (anti-GSP), wreck fish (anti-WSP), and Nile perch (anti-PSP). The antibodies were made species-specific by blocking them with the heterologous soluble muscle proteins. Immunorecognition of polyclonal antibodies adsorbed to their specific fish samples was made with swine antirabbit immunoglobulins conjugated to the enzyme horseradish peroxidase. Subsequent enzymatic conversion of the substrate allowed unequivocal identification of the species studied.

  5. Taxonomy and host-specificity of Gyrodactylus aideni n. sp. and G. pleuronecti (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum) in Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, A J; Cone, D K; Easy, R; Burt, M D B

    2010-11-01

    Wild and cultured winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum) from Passamaquoddy Bay were surveyed for species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832. Two species were found: G. pleuronecti Cone, 1981 and G. aideni n. sp, both members of Malmberg's 'groenlandicus group'. Although the hard parts in the haptor are very similar in the two species, hamuli of G. aideni are consistently shorter than those of G. pleuronecti. The two species differed by 35 base pairs in the ITS 1, 5.8 and ITS 2 region. A BLAST search identified a variety of species of Gyrodactylus from marine fishes in the Atlantic Ocean as closest matches, indicating the 'groenlandicus group' is part of a major marine lineage within Gyrodactylus (sensu lato) that has successfully radiated among coastal percid, pleuronectid, cottid and anarhichadid fishes. Exposure experiments suggested that winter flounder is the primary host of both species of parasites and that three other pleuronectid species in the bay may potentially serve only as occasional transport hosts.

  6. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from raccoons (Procyon lotor), cats (Felis domesticus), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), black bear (Ursus americanus), and cougar (Puma concolor) from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Quirk, T; Pittt, J A; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G V; Kwok, O C H; Leclair, D; Hill, R; Su, C

    2008-02-01

    Viable Toxoplasma gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice from tissues of 2 feral cats (Felis domesticus), 2 raccoons (Procyon lotor), a skunk (Mephitis mephitis) trapped in remote locations in Manitoba, Canada, and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kuujjuaq, northern Quebec, Canada. Genotyping of these T. gondii isolates using polymorphisms at 10 nuclear markers including SAGI, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and an apicoplast marker Apico revealed 4 genotypes. None of the isolates was clonal archetypal Types I, II, and III found in the United States. These results are in contrast with the Type II genotype that is widespread in domestic animals and humans throughout the United States and Europe. This is the first genotyping of T. gondii isolates from this part of North America.

  7. Estrutura populacional e biologia reprodutiva de Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Sciaenidae na baía de Ubatuba-Enseada, Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Oliveira Freitas

    2011-01-01

    primeira maturação gonadal (L50 foi estimado em 16,7cm para fêmeas e 15,4cm para machos. O período reprodutivo ocorreu nas estações quentes, e a espécie apresentou desova múltipla. O índice hepatossomático apresentou variação sazonal similar à descrita para o índice gonadossomático, e pode ser considerado bom indicador da desova. O fator de condição não foi um bom indicador do período de desova, mas esteve relacionado com o processo de recuperação e maturação das gônadas. Características da dinâmica populacional mostraram que M. americanus utiliza a área de estudo para reprodução e recrutamento.

  8. Cardiac tumors: echo assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Mankad MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tumors are exceedingly rare (0.001–0.03% in most autopsy series. They can be present anywhere within the heart and can be attached to any surface or be embedded in the myocardium or pericardial space. Signs and symptoms are nonspecific and highly variable related to the localization, size and composition of the cardiac mass. Echocardiography, typically performed for another indication, may be the first imaging modality alerting the clinician to the presence of a cardiac mass. Although echocardiography cannot give the histopathology, certain imaging features and adjunctive tools such as contrast imaging may aid in the differential diagnosis as do the adjunctive clinical data and the following principles: (1 thrombus or vegetations are the most likely etiology, (2 cardiac tumors are mostly secondary and (3 primary cardiac tumors are mostly benign. Although the finding of a cardiac mass on echocardiography may generate confusion, a stepwise approach may serve well practically. Herein, we will review such an approach and the role of echocardiography in the assessment of cardiac masses.

  9. Naturally occurring cardiac glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, D J; Gillies, A D; Hinds, J A; Duffy, P

    1986-05-12

    Cardiac glycoside poisoning from the ingestion of plants, particularly of oleanders, occurs with reasonable frequency in tropical and subtropical areas. We have assessed a variety of plant specimens for their cardiac glycoside content by means of radioimmunoassays with antibodies that differ in their specificity for cardiac glycosides. Significant amounts of immunoreactive cardiac glycoside were found to be present in the ornamental shrubs: yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana); oleander (Nerium oleander); wintersweet (Carissa spectabilis); bushman's poison (Carissa acokanthera); sea-mango (Cerbera manghas); and frangipani (Plumeria rubra); and in the milkweeds: redheaded cotton-bush (Asclepias curassavica); balloon cotton (Asclepias fruiticosa); king's crown (Calotropis procera); and rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandifolia). The venom gland of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) also contained large quantities of cardiac glycosides. The competitive immunoassay method permits the rapid screening of specimens that are suspected to contain cardiac glycosides. Awareness of the existence of these plant and animal toxins and their dangers allows them to be avoided and poisoning prevented. The method is also useful for the confirmation of the presence of cardiac glycosides in serum in cases of poisoning.

  10. Imaging for cardiac electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Desjardins

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical cardiac electrophysiology is the study of the origin and treatment of arrhythmia. There has been considerable recent development in this field, where imaging has had a transformational impact. In this invited review, we offer a global overview of the most important developments in the use of imaging in cardiac electrophysiology. We first describe the radiological imaging modalities involved in cardiac electrophysiology, to assess cardiac anatomy, function and scar. We then introduce an imaging modality with which readers are probably unfamiliar (electroanatomical mapping [EAM], but which is routinely used by electrophysiologists to plan and guide cardiac mapping and cardiac ablation therapy by catheter, a therapy which can reduce or even cure arrhythmia. We identify the limitations of EAM and describe how radiological imaging modalities can complement this technique. We then describe and illustrate how imaging has helped the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic conditions, and how imaging is used to plan and guide clinical cardiac electrophysiologic procedures and assess their results and complications. We focus on the two most common arrhythmias for which imaging has the greatest impact: atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.

  11. Genetics of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezzina, Connie R.; Lahrouchi, Najim; Priori, Silvia G.

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death occurs in a broad spectrum of cardiac pathologies and is an important cause of mortality in the general population. Genetic studies conducted during the past 20 years have markedly illuminated the genetic basis of the inherited cardiac disorders associated with sudden cardiac

  12. Socially differentiated cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Larsen, Finn Breinholt

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme after myocardial infarction (MI) improves quality of life and results in reduced cardiac mortality and recurrence of MI. Hospitals worldwide face problems with low participation rates in rehabilitation programmes. Inequality...... cardiac rehabilitation programme. Methods: From 1 September 2002 to 31 December 2005, 388 first-incidence MI patients ≤75 years were hospitalised. Register check for newly hospitalised MI patients, screening interview, and systematic referral were conducted by a project nurse. Patients were referred...... to a standard rehabilitation programme (SRP). If patients were identified as socially vulnerable, they were offered an extended version of the rehabilitation programme (ERP). Excluded patients were offered home visits by a cardiac nurse. Concordance principles were used in the individualised programme elements...

  13. Quantitative cardiac ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Rijsterborgh (Hans)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is about the various aspects of quantitative cardiac ultrasound. The first four chapters are mainly devoted to the reproducibility of echocardiographic measurements. These . are focussed on the variation of echocardiographic measurements within patients. An important

  14. Cardiac Tumors; Tumeurs cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissy, J.P.; Fernandez, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bichat Claude Bernard, Service d' Imagerie, 76 - Rouen (France); Mousseaux, E. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Service de Radiologie Cardio Vasculaire et Interventionnelle, 75 - Paris (France); Dacher, J.N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Charles Nicolle, 75 - Rouen (France); Crochet, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Laennec, Centre Hemodynamique, Radiologie Thoracique et Vasculaire, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2004-04-01

    Metastases are the most frequent tumors of the heart even though they seldom are recognized. Most primary cardiac tumors are benign. The main role of imaging is to differentiate a cardiac tumor from thrombus and rare pseudo-tumors: tuberculoma, hydatid cyst. Echocardiography is the fist line imaging technique to detect cardiac tumors, but CT and MRl arc useful for further characterization and differential diagnosis. Myxoma of the left atrium is the most frequent benign cardiac tumor. It usually is pedunculated and sometimes calcified. Sarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant tumor and usually presents as a sessile infiltrative tumor. Lymphoma and metastases are usually recognized by the presence of known tumor elsewhere of by characteristic direct contiguous involvement. Diagnosing primary and secondary pericardial tumors often is difficult. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis, characterization, pre-surgical evaluation and follow-up. (author)

  15. Cardiac Catheterization (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... will do the cardiac catheterization in a catheterization lab . The lab contains X-ray and imaging machines ...

  16. Autonomic cardiac innervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Wohaib

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targets, upon which target-derived trophic factors take over final maturation, synaptic strength and postnatal survival. Although target-derived neurotrophins have a central role to play in development, alternative sources of neurotrophins may also modulate innervation. Both developing and adult sympathetic neurons express proNGF, and adult parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons also synthesize and release NGF. The physiological function of these “non-classical” cardiac sources of neurotrophins remains to be determined, especially in relation to autocrine/paracrine sustenance during development.   Cardiac autonomic nerves are closely spatially associated in cardiac plexuses, ganglia and pacemaker regions and so are sensitive to release of neurotransmitter, neuropeptides and trophic factors from adjacent nerves. As such, in many cardiac pathologies, it is an imbalance within the two arms of the autonomic system that is critical for disease progression. Although this crosstalk between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves has been well established for adult nerves, it is unclear whether a degree of paracrine regulation occurs across the autonomic limbs during development. Aberrant nerve remodeling is a common occurrence in many adult cardiovascular pathologies, and the mechanisms regulating outgrowth or denervation are disparate. However, autonomic neurons display considerable plasticity in this regard with neurotrophins and inflammatory cytokines having a central regulatory

  17. Awareness in cardiac anesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Serfontein, Leon

    2010-02-01

    Cardiac surgery represents a sub-group of patients at significantly increased risk of intraoperative awareness. Relatively few recent publications have targeted the topic of awareness in this group. The aim of this review is to identify areas of awareness research that may equally be extrapolated to cardiac anesthesia in the attempt to increase understanding of the nature and significance of this scenario and how to reduce it.

  18. Cardiac imaging in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book approaches adult cardiac disease from the correlative imaging perspective. It includes chest X-rays and angiographs, 2-dimensional echocardiograms with explanatory diagrams for clarity, plus details on digital radiology, nuclear medicine techniques, CT and MRI. It also covers the normal heart, valvular heart disease, myocardial disease, pericardial disease, bacterial endocarditis, aortic aneurysm, cardiac tumors, and congenital heart disease of the adult. It points out those aspects where one imaging technique has significant superiority.

  19. [Cardiac CT: new applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenti-Rossi, D; Baron, N; Allouch, P; Convers, R; Gibault-Genty, G; Aubert, S

    2014-11-01

    Since the introduction of the 64-generation scanners, the accuracy and robustness of the diagnosis of coronary artery disease has progressed. The main advantage of cardiac CT is the exclusion of coronary artery disease by its excellent negative predictive value. Currently, cardiac CT applications extend thanks to innovations both in terms of technological development systems scanner or stents implanted, that the evolution of surgical procedures such as TAVI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiac T1 Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    T1 mapping of the heart has evolved into a valuable tool to evaluate myocardial tissue properties, with or without contrast injection, including assessment of myocardial edema and free water content, extra-cellular volume (expansion), and most recently cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The MRI pulse sequence techniques developed for these applications have had to address at least two important considerations for cardiac applications: measure magnetization inversion recoveries during cardiac motion w...

  1. [Psychosomatic aspects of cardiac arrhythmias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepmann, Martin; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2010-07-01

    Emotional stress facilitates the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias including sudden cardiac death. The prevalence of anxiety and depression is increased in cardiac patients as compared to the normal population. The risk of cardiovascular mortality is enhanced in patients suffering from depression. Comorbid anxiety disorders worsen the course of cardiac arrhythmias. Disturbance of neurocardiac regulation with predominance of the sympathetic tone is hypothesized to be causative for this. The emotional reaction to cardiac arrhythmias is differing to a large extent between individuals. Emotional stress may result from coping with treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Emotional stress and cardiac arrhythmias may influence each other in the sense of a vicious circle. Somatoform cardiac arrhythmias are predominantly of psychogenic origin. Instrumental measures and frequent contacts between physicians and patients may facilitate disease chronification. The present review is dealing with the multifaceted relationships between cardiac arrhythmias and emotional stress. The underlying mechanisms and corresponding treatment modalities are discussed.

  2. Cardiac radiology: centenary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Albert; Higgins, Charles B

    2014-11-01

    During the past century, cardiac imaging technologies have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of acquired and congenital heart disease. Many important contributions to the field of cardiac imaging were initially reported in Radiology. The field developed from the early stages of cardiac imaging, including the use of coronary x-ray angiography and roentgen kymography, to nowadays the widely used echocardiographic, nuclear medicine, cardiac computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) applications. It is surprising how many of these techniques were not recognized for their potential during their early inception. Some techniques were described in the literature but required many years to enter the clinical arena and presently continue to expand in terms of clinical application. The application of various CT and MR contrast agents for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is a case in point, as the utility of contrast agents continues to expand the noninvasive characterization of myocardium. The history of cardiac imaging has included a continuous process of advances in our understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system, along with advances in imaging technology that continue to the present day.

  3. Biokinetics of a transuranic ({sup 238}PU) and a rare earth element ({sup 152}Eu) in the lobster (Homarus gammarus): transfer mechanisms (accumulation and detoxification) in organs and at the cellular level; Biocinetiques d'un element transuranien, le {sup 238}PU, et d'une terre rare, le {sup 152}EU, chez le homard homarus gammarus (organes et niveau cellulaire) modalites des transferts (accumulation et detoxication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocquet, N

    1995-07-01

    The work presented here is an experimental investigation of the biokinetics of transfer of a transuranic and a rare earth element ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 152}Eu) in the lobster Homarus gammarus. The study of {sup 238}Pu biokinetics forms part of a wider framework of research concerning the transfer of transuranic elements in marine species, while the study of {sup 152}Eu is carried out with a view to supporting the analogy between the behaviour of transuranics and rare earths in living organisms. Exactly the same experimental protocol, based on techniques from various disciplines (biology, biochemistry and metrology), was used to Investigate the biokinetics of transfer of these two radionuclides. The Individual lobsters were radiolabelled by means of one-shot or chronic ingestion of spiked meals. As the first approach, the kinetics and transfer mechanisms were studied In whole animal samples and in different organs distinct series of pathways through the different organs were identified in the case of both radionuclides, being mainly linked to digestive processes induced by the meal as well as the transport function of hemo-lymph in this way, the Important role of the digestive gland was picked out, with two of four cellular types displaying a successive involvement In the fixation and then the retention of the studied radionuclides. As a corroborative approach, the digestive gland was subjected to a more detailed investigation with the aim of describing the mechanisms of Incorporation and elucidating transfer processes at the cellular and molecular levels. {sup 238}Pu is preferentially partitioned into the cytosol, where it is associated with various constituents such as ferritin (iron-storing protein). {sup 152}Eu is more diffusely distributed in the hepato-pancreatic cells, while the lysosomes appear to play a more important role during transfer. The results obtained in this study, both on the macroscopic scale (i.e. the whole animal and different organs) as well

  4. Autoantibodies and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hon-Chi; Huang, Kristin T. L.; Wang, Xiao-Li; Shen, Win-Kuang

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, afflicting about 5% of the population of the United States. They encompass a wide range of disorders that affect all organs of the human body and have a predilection for women. In the past, autoimmune pathogenesis was not thought to be a major mechanism for cardiovascular disorders, and potential relationships remain understudied. However, accumulating evidence suggests that a number of vascular and cardiac conditions are autoimmune-mediated. Recent studies indicate that autoantibodies play an important role in the development of cardiac arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation, modulation of autonomic influences on heart rate and rhythm, conduction system abnormalities, and ventricular arrhythmias. This manuscript will review the current evidence for the role of autoantibodies in the development of cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:21740882

  5. Assessing Cardiac Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Young, Martin E.; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Abel, E. Dale; Brunengraber, Henri; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Des Rosiers, Christine; Gerszten, Robert; Glatz, Jan F.; Griffin, Julian L.; Gropler, Robert J.; Holzhuetter, Hermann-Georg; Kizer, Jorge R.; Lewandowski, E. Douglas; Malloy, Craig R.; Neubauer, Stefan; Peterson, Linda R.; Portman, Michael A.; Recchia, Fabio A.; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Wang, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    In a complex system of interrelated reactions, the heart converts chemical energy to mechanical energy. Energy transfer is achieved through coordinated activation of enzymes, ion channels, and contractile elements, as well as structural and membrane proteins. The heart’s needs for energy are difficult to overestimate. At a time when the cardiovascular research community is discovering a plethora of new molecular methods to assess cardiac metabolism, the methods remain scattered in the literature. The present statement on “Assessing Cardiac Metabolism” seeks to provide a collective and curated resource on methods and models used to investigate established and emerging aspects of cardiac metabolism. Some of those methods are refinements of classic biochemical tools, whereas most others are recent additions from the powerful tools of molecular biology. The aim of this statement is to be useful to many and to do justice to a dynamic field of great complexity. PMID:27012580

  6. Pediatric cardiac postoperative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auler Jr. José Otávio Costa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo, Medical School is a referral center for the treatment of congenital heart diseases of neonates and infants. In the recent years, the excellent surgical results obtained in our institution may be in part due to modern anesthetic care and to postoperative care based on well-structured protocols. The purpose of this article is to review unique aspects of neonate cardiovascular physiology, the impact of extracorporeal circulation on postoperative evolution, and the prescription for pharmacological support of acute cardiac dysfunction based on our cardiac unit protocols. The main causes of low cardiac output after surgical correction of heart congenital disease are reviewed, and methods of treatment and support are proposed as derived from the relevant literature and our protocols.

  7. Fetal Cardiac Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to highlight fetal cardiac interventions (FCIs in terms of indications, strategies, and fetal prognoses. FCIs of the early years were predominantly pharmacological therapies for fetal arrhythmia or heart block. A transplacental transmission of therapeutic agents has now become the main route of pharmacological FCIs. There have been various FCI strategies, which can be categorized into three types: pharmacological, open FCIs, and closed FCIs. Rather than as a routine management for materno-fetal cardiac disorders, however, FCIs are only applied in those fetal cardiac disorders that are at an increased risk of mortality and morbidity and warrant an interventional therapy. Pharmacological FCIs have been well applied in fetal arrhythmias but require further investigations for novel therapeutic agents. The development of open FCI in humans is an issue for the long run. Closed FCIs may largely rely on advanced imaging techniques. Hybrid FCIs might be the future goal in the treatment of fetal heart diseases.

  8. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Hochstrasser, Stefan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe O

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The costs of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation are established and compared to the corresponding costs of usual care. The effect on health-related quality of life is analyzed. METHODS: An unprecedented and very detailed cost assessment was carried out, as no guidelines existed...... for the situation at hand. Due to challenging circumstances, the cost assessment turned out to be ex-post and top-down. RESULTS: Cost per treatment sequence is estimated to be approximately euro 976, whereas the incremental cost (compared with usual care) is approximately euro 682. The cost estimate is uncertain...... and may be as high as euro 1.877. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is more costly than usual care, and the higher costs are not outweighed by a quality of life gain. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is, therefore, not cost-effective....

  9. Cardiac Arrest: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Blood Institute Start Here About Cardiac Arrest (American Heart Association) Sudden Cardiac Arrest (Texas Heart Institute) Also in ... Blood Institute) Understand Your Risk for Cardiac Arrest (American Heart Association) Warning Signs of Heart Attack, Stroke and Cardiac ...

  10. Cardiac optogenetics : using light to monitor cardiac physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Charlotte D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41375491X; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Knöpfel, Thomas; de Boer, Teun P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481878X

    2017-01-01

    Our current understanding of cardiac excitation and its coupling to contraction is largely based on ex vivo studies utilising fluorescent organic dyes to assess cardiac action potentials and signal transduction. Recent advances in optogenetic sensors open exciting new possibilities for cardiac

  11. Exercise-related cardiac arrest in cardiac rehabilitation - The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to establish the safety of cardiac rehabilitation as a medical intervention at the Johannesburg Cardiac Rehabilitation Centre from its inception in September 1982 to July 1988, and analyses the medical status of patients who suffered a cardiac arrest (CA) in order to determine possible factors predictive of sudden death.

  12. THE CARDIAC ANXIETY QUESTIONNAIRE : CROSS-VALIDATION AMONG CARDIAC INPATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, M. H. C. T.; Voshaar, R. C. Oude; van Deelen, F. M.; van Balkom, A. J. L. M.; Pop, G.; Speckens, A. E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: General anxiety symptoms are common in patients with cardiac disease and considered to have an adverse effect on cardiac prognosis. The role of specific cardiac anxiety, however, is still unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the

  13. The cardiac anxiety questionnaire: cross-validation among cardiac inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.H. van; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; van Deelen, F.M.; Balkom, A.J. van; Pop, G.A.; Speckens, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: General anxiety symptoms are common in patients with cardiac disease and considered to have an adverse effect on cardiac prognosis. The role of specific cardiac anxiety, however, is still unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the

  14. The Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire: cross-validation among cardiac inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, M.H.C.T.; Voshaar, R.C.O.; van Deelen, F.M.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Pop, G.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: General anxiety symptoms are common in patients with cardiac disease and considered to have an adverse effect on cardiac prognosis. The role of specific cardiac anxiety, however, is still unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the

  15. Exercise-related cardiac cardiac rehabilitation arrest In

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    most important being myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest. (CA).1,2. 'Normal' ... myocardial infarction and CA in cardiac rehabilitation pro- ..... The acute risk of. Strenuous exercise.JAMA 1980; 244: 1799-1801. 5. Siscovick DS, Weiss NS, Fletcber RH et al. The incidence of primary cardiac arrest during vigorous exercise.

  16. Pneumothorax in cardiac pacing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Rikke Esberg; Johansen, Jens Brock; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To identify risk factors for pneumothorax treated with a chest tube after cardiac pacing device implantation in a population-based cohort.METHODS AND RESULTS: A nationwide cohort study was performed based on data on 28 860 patients from the Danish Pacemaker Register, which included all Danish...... patients who received their first pacemaker (PM) or cardiac resynchronization device from 1997 to 2008. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals for the association between risk factors and pneumothorax treated with a chest tube. The median...

  17. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  18. Estudos cariotípicos de peixes da familia Sciaenidae (Teleostei, Perciformes da região de Cananéia, SP, Brasil: 2. sobre o cariótipo de Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus,1758 Karyotypical study on fishes of family Sciaenidae (Teleostei, Perciformes from the region of Cananéia, SP Brazil: 2. on the karyotype of Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gomes

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o cariótipo de Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758, peixes teleósteos da família Sciaenidae, coletados na região estuarino-lagunar de Cananéia, SP, Brasil. Foram realizadas preparações de cromossomos mitóticos e meióticos e ensaios de bandeamentos C e G. O número diplóide encontrado para a espécie foi de 2n = 48 cromossomos, tipo t cujos tamanhos variaram entre 3,18 µm e 1,47 µm, em média, do maior para o menor par. O primeiro par de homólogos apresenta uma constricção secundária no terço superior dos cromossomos. O número haplóide encontrado foi n = 24. O conteúdo diplóide de DNA foi de 1,57 ± 0,03 picogramas por célula. Nao se obteve padrão nítido de bandas G, mas a aplicação da técnica facilitou a identificação de alguns pares adjacentes e a visualização da constricção secundária. Bandas C localizam-se, principalmente, nas regiões pericentrométricas.The chromosomes of M. americanus was studied. The diploid number is 48 acrocentric chromosomes and the haploid number is 24. The diploid DNA content of blood cell nucleus was measured. C- and G- banding techniques were tried.

  19. Data analysis in cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Miguel; Pedrón-Torecilla, Jorge; Hernández, Ismael; Liberos, Alejandro; Climent, Andreu M; Guillem, María S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are an increasingly present in developed countries and represent a major health and economic burden. The occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias is closely linked to the electrical function of the heart. Consequently, the analysis of the electrical signal generated by the heart tissue, either recorded invasively or noninvasively, provides valuable information for the study of cardiac arrhythmias. In this chapter, novel cardiac signal analysis techniques that allow the study and diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias are described, with emphasis on cardiac mapping which allows for spatiotemporal analysis of cardiac signals.Cardiac mapping can serve as a diagnostic tool by recording cardiac signals either in close contact to the heart tissue or noninvasively from the body surface, and allows the identification of cardiac sites responsible of the development or maintenance of arrhythmias. Cardiac mapping can also be used for research in cardiac arrhythmias in order to understand their mechanisms. For this purpose, both synthetic signals generated by computer simulations and animal experimental models allow for more controlled physiological conditions and complete access to the organ.

  20. The effect of soil composition and hydration on the bioavailability and toxicity of cadmium to hibernating juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stacy M.; Little, Edward E.; Semlitsch, Raymond D.

    2004-01-01

    The soil ecotoxicology literature has focused primarily on a few major taxa, to the neglect of other fossorial organisms such as amphibians. We selected cadmium (Cd) and the American toad (Bufo americanus) as a model contaminant and biological species to assess the impact of soil contamination on amphibian hibernation survival and post-hibernation condition. Soil sand composition (50, 70, 90%) and hydration (100, 150% water holding capacity (WHC)) were manipulated in addition to Cd concentration (0, 56, 165, 483 μg/g) to determine whether these soil properties affect toxicity. Soil Cd concentration significantly reduced survival and locomotor performance, and was correlated negatively with percent mass loss and positively with whole body Cd concentration. Higher sand content resulted in less mass loss and greater Cd uptake. Toads that were hibernated in 50% sand hydrated to 100% WHC had higher survival, less mass loss, and better sprint performance than those hibernated in 50% sand, 150% WHC. This study demonstrates that concentrations of Cd found in soil at highly contaminated sites can be bioaccumulated by hibernating amphibians and may reduce fitness. Differences in microhabitat use may cause species to vary in their exposure and susceptibility to soil contamination. The toxicity of Cd to amphibians could be greater in natural systems where there are multiple stressors and fluctuations in environmental variables.

  1. Application of large-scale parentage analysis for investigating natal dispersal in highly vagile vertebrates: a case study of American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer A; Draheim, Hope M; Etter, Dwayne; Winterstein, Scott; Scribner, Kim T

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect dispersal is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology, particularly as populations are faced with increasing anthropogenic impacts. Here we collected georeferenced genetic samples (n = 2,540) from three generations of black bears (Ursus americanus) harvested in a large (47,739 km2), geographically isolated population and used parentage analysis to identify mother-offspring dyads (n = 337). We quantified the effects of sex, age, habitat type and suitability, and local harvest density at the natal and settlement sites on the probability of natal dispersal, and on dispersal distances. Dispersal was male-biased (76% of males dispersed) but a small proportion (21%) of females also dispersed, and female dispersal distances (mean ± SE  =  48.9±7.7 km) were comparable to male dispersal distances (59.0±3.2 km). Dispersal probabilities and dispersal distances were greatest for bears in areas with high habitat suitability and low harvest density. The inverse relationship between dispersal and harvest density in black bears suggests that 1) intensive harvest promotes restricted dispersal, or 2) high black bear population density decreases the propensity to disperse. Multigenerational genetic data collected over large landscape scales can be a powerful means of characterizing dispersal patterns and causal associations with demographic and landscape features in wild populations of elusive and wide-ranging species.

  2. Application of large-scale parentage analysis for investigating natal dispersal in highly vagile vertebrates: a case study of American black bears (Ursus americanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Moore

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that affect dispersal is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology, particularly as populations are faced with increasing anthropogenic impacts. Here we collected georeferenced genetic samples (n = 2,540 from three generations of black bears (Ursus americanus harvested in a large (47,739 km2, geographically isolated population and used parentage analysis to identify mother-offspring dyads (n = 337. We quantified the effects of sex, age, habitat type and suitability, and local harvest density at the natal and settlement sites on the probability of natal dispersal, and on dispersal distances. Dispersal was male-biased (76% of males dispersed but a small proportion (21% of females also dispersed, and female dispersal distances (mean ± SE  =  48.9±7.7 km were comparable to male dispersal distances (59.0±3.2 km. Dispersal probabilities and dispersal distances were greatest for bears in areas with high habitat suitability and low harvest density. The inverse relationship between dispersal and harvest density in black bears suggests that 1 intensive harvest promotes restricted dispersal, or 2 high black bear population density decreases the propensity to disperse. Multigenerational genetic data collected over large landscape scales can be a powerful means of characterizing dispersal patterns and causal associations with demographic and landscape features in wild populations of elusive and wide-ranging species.

  3. Molecular phylogeny and SNP variation of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) derived from genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A; Rincon, Gonzalo; Meredith, Robert W; MacNeil, Michael D; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Cánovas, Angela; Medrano, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the relationships of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) with high throughput genomic sequencing data with an average coverage of 25× for each species. A total of 1.4 billion 100-bp paired-end reads were assembled using the polar bear and annotated giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) genome sequences as references. We identified 13.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the 3 species aligned to the polar bear genome. These data indicate that polar bears and brown bears share more SNP with each other than either does with black bears. Concatenation and coalescence-based analysis of consensus sequences of approximately 1 million base pairs of ultraconserved elements in the nuclear genome resulted in a phylogeny with black bears as the sister group to brown and polar bears, and all brown bears are in a separate clade from polar bears. Genotypes for 162 SNP loci of 336 bears from Alaska and Montana showed that the species are genetically differentiated and there is geographic population structure of brown and black bears but not polar bears.

  4. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) subsidize gray wolves (Canis lupus) during a moose (Alces americanus) decline: A case of apparent competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon; Mech, L. David

    2016-01-01

    Moose (Alces americanus) in northeastern Minnesota have declined by 55% since 2006. Although the cause is unresolved, some studies have suggested that Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) contributed to the decline. After the Moose decline, wolves could either decline or switch prey. To determine which occurred in our study area, we compared winter wolf counts and summer diet before and after the Moose decline. While wolf numbers in our study area nearly doubled from 23 in winter 2002 to an average of 41 during winters 2011–2013, calf:cow ratios (the number of calves per cow observed during winter surveys) in the wider Moose range more than halved from 0.93 in 2002 to an average of 0.31 during 2011–2013. Compared to summer 2002, wolves in summers 2011–2013 consumed fewer Moose and more White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus). While deer densities were similar during each period, average vulnerability, as reflected by winter severity, was greater during 2011–2013 than 2002, probably explaining the wolf increase. During the wolf increase Moose calves remained a summer food item. These findings suggest that in part of the Moose range, deer subsidized wolf numbers while wolves also preyed on Moose calves. This contributed to a Moose decline and is a possible case of apparent competition and inverse-density-dependent predation.

  5. Simultaneous detection and quantification of Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Oesophagostomum bifurcum in fecal samples using multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Jaco J; Brienen, Eric A T; Ziem, Juventus; Yelifari, Lawrence; Polderman, Anton M; Van Lieshout, Lisette

    2007-10-01

    A multiplex real-time PCR was developed and evaluated for the simultaneous detection of Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Oesophagostomum bifurcum in fecal samples. Using well-defined control samples (N = 150), known positive fecal samples (N = 50), and fecal samples from an area in Ghana where human infections with all 3 nematode species are endemic (N = 339), the method proved to be highly specific and sensitive. Cycle threshold (Ct) values, reflecting parasite-specific DNA load, showed significant correlation with the intensity of infection as measured by microscopy using Kato-Katz fecal smears or by species specific third-stage larval count after coproculture. The multiplex real-time PCR described combined with the simple fecal sample collection procedure and the potential for high throughput makes this approach a powerful diagnostic tool to study species-specific transmission patterns of human hookworm-like infections. Moreover, this procedure facilitates monitoring of intervention programs and allows species-specific detection of treatment failure following rounds of mass treatment.

  6. Hookworm burden reductions in BALB/c mice vaccinated with recombinant Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs) from Ancylostoma duodenale, Ancylostoma caninum and Necator americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, L; Ghosh, K; Bin, Z; Qiang, S; Thompson, M G; Hawdon, J M; Koski, R A; Shuhua, X; Hotez, P J

    2000-01-06

    Vaccination of mice with alum-precipitated recombinant Ancylostoma secreted protein-1 from the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum (Ac-ASP-1) results in protection against A. caninum larval challenge. Vaccine protection is manifested by host reductions in hookworm burden compared to control mice. The goal of this study was to determine whether ASP antigens cloned and expressed from different hookworm species will cross protect against A. caninum larval challenge. Cross-species protection against A. caninum challenge infections was observed with immunizations using recombinant ASP-1 from the human hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. However, the degree of protection was proportional to the extent of amino acid sequence homology between the ASP immunogen used for vaccination and the Ac-ASP-1 produced by the challenge larval strain. Vaccine protection was noted to decrease significantly as amino acid sequence homologies diverged 10% or more. It was also determined that Ac-ASP-2, a molecule cloned from A. caninum having 55% amino acid sequence homology to the C-terminus of Ac-ASP-1, did not elicit vaccine protection. These observations were partly reflected in the titer of antibodies that recognize Ac-ASP-1. The studies reported here will help to design immunogenic peptide vaccines based on the sequence divergence of hookworm ASPs.

  7. Population parameters and the relationships between environmental factors and abundance of the Acetes americanus shrimp (Dendrobranchiata: Sergestidae near a coastal upwelling region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Freitas dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe population dynamics of Acetes americanus was investigated, focusing on the sex ratio, individual growth, longevity, recruitment and relationship between abundance and environmental factors in the region of Macaé, strongly influenced by coastal upwelling. Otter trawl net samplings were performed from July 2010 to June 2011 at two points (5 m and 15 m. Nearly 19,500 specimens, predominantly females (77.15%, were captured. Their sizes, larger than that of males, indicated sexual dimorphism. Shrimps at lower latitudes present larger sizes and longer longevity than those from higher latitudes. This difference is probably due to low temperatures and high primary productivity. Though no statistical correlation was found between abundance and environmental factors, the species was more abundant in temperatures closer to 20.0º C and in months with high chlorophyll-a levels. Due to the peculiar characteristics of this region, A. americanusshowed greater differences in size and longevity than individuals sampled in other studies undertaken in the continental shelf of Southeast Brazil.

  8. When is a Cardiac Arrest Non-Cardiac?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ryan M; Cone, David C

    2017-10-01

    Introduction While the overall survival rate for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is low, ranging from 5%-10%, several characteristics have been shown to decrease mortality, such as presence of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), witnessed vs unwitnessed events, and favorable initial rhythm (VF/VT). More recently, studies have shown that modified CPR algorithms, such as chest-compression only or cardio-cerebral resuscitation, can further increase survival rates in OHCA. Most of these studies have included only OHCA patients with "presumed cardiac etiology," on the assumption that airway management is of lesser impact than chest compressions in these patients. However, prehospital personnel often lack objective and consistent criteria to assess whether an OHCA is of cardiac or non-cardiac etiology. Hypothesis/Problem The relative proportions of cardiac vs non-cardiac etiology in published data sets of OHCA in the peer-reviewed literature were examined in order to assess the variability of prehospital clinical etiology assessment. A Medline (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA) search was performed using the subject headings "OHCA" and "Emergency Medical Services" (EMS). Studies were included if they reported prevalence of cardiac etiology among OHCA in the entire patient sample, or in all arms of a comparison study. Studies that either did not report etiology of OHCA, or that excluded all cardiac or non-cardiac etiologies prior to reporting clinical data, were excluded. Twenty-four studies were identified, containing 27 datasets of OHCA which reported the prevalence of presumed cardiac vs non-cardiac etiology. These 27 datasets were drawn from 15 different countries. The prevalence of cardiac etiology among OHCA ranged from 50% to 91%. No obvious patterns were found regarding database size, year of publication, or global region (continent) of origin. There exists significant variation in published

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11313-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2e-05 AF229810_1( AF229810 |pid:none) Felis catus slow myosin heavy chai... 54 2e-05 CR382125_227( CR382125...AY232598_1( AY232598 |pid:none) Homarus americanus slow muscle myo... 52 1e-04 AB209996_1( AB209996 |pid:none)

  10. Sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Valenzuela, Antonio Jesus Sanchez; Lachica, E

    1992-01-01

    The study deals with the comparison of morphological, histochemical and biochemical methods applied to the detection of myocardial infarction in 150 medico-legal autopsies performed at the Institute of Forensic Pathology in Copenhagen. The study also included an NBT (formazan) test of cardiac cross...

  11. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-06

    Mar 6, 2011 ... Bruce Spottiswoode has a BSc in Electrical Engineering from the University of the Witwatersrand and a PhD in Biomedical Engineering on cardiac MRI from the. University of Cape Town. He has worked on developing electronics for the CSIR, on MRI image reconstruction for Siemens, and on X-ray imaging ...

  12. Integrative Cardiac Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    weight loss in obese adolescents . Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33:758–767. 27. Saarikangas J, Zhao H, Lappalainen P. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton...primary cardiac arrest. Circulation. 1998;97(2):155Y160. 8. Sesso HD, Lee IM, Gaziano JM, Rexrode KM, Glynn RJ, Buring JE. Maternal and paternal

  13. Post cardiac injury syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S L; Nielsen, F E

    1991-01-01

    The post-pericardiotomy syndrome is a symptom complex which is similar in many respects to the post-myocardial infarction syndrome and these are summarized under the diagnosis of the Post Cardiac Injury Syndrome (PCIS). This condition, which is observed most frequently after open heart surgery...

  14. Statins in cardiac surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Recent studies on the utility of statins in cardiac surgery appear to show conflicting results. Most studies are either retrospective or prospective observational, with small sample sizes. In order to address these limitations, we systematically reviewed studies from 2008 to the present, in order to determine ...

  15. Neonatal cardiac emergencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spending two wet years at the Royal Brompton Hospital as a Fellow in Paediatric Cardiac Intensive Care, during which he became tired of not being able to talk properly to his ..... on students. Nothing, apparently, can come between US students and sugary drinks. In states where schools banned sugary soft drinks to reduce.

  16. Maternal cardiac metabolism in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Laura X.; Arany, Zolt

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy causes dramatic physiological changes in the expectant mother. The placenta, mostly foetal in origin, invades maternal uterine tissue early in pregnancy and unleashes a barrage of hormones and other factors. This foetal ‘invasion’ profoundly reprogrammes maternal physiology, affecting nearly every organ, including the heart and its metabolism. We briefly review here maternal systemic metabolic changes during pregnancy and cardiac metabolism in general. We then discuss changes in cardiac haemodynamic during pregnancy and review what is known about maternal cardiac metabolism during pregnancy. Lastly, we discuss cardiac diseases during pregnancy, including peripartum cardiomyopathy, and the potential contribution of aberrant cardiac metabolism to disease aetiology. PMID:24448314

  17. Cardiac nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerson, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The book begins with a review of the radionuclide methods available for evaluating cardiac perfusion and function. The authors discuss planar and tomographic thallium myocardial imaging, first-pass and equilibrium radionuclide angiography, and imaging with infarct-avid tracers. Several common but more specialized procedures are then reviewed: nonogemetric measurement of left ventricular volume, phase (Fourier) analysis, stroke volume ratio, right ventricular function, and diastolic function. A separate chapter is devoted to drug interventions and in particular the use of radionuclide ventriculography to monitor doxorubicin toxicity and therapy of congestive heart failure. The subsequent chapters provide a comprehensive guide to test selection, accuracy, and results in acute myocardial infarction, in postmyocardial infarction, in chronic coronary artery disease, before and after medical or surgical revascularization, in valvular heart disease, in cardiomyopathies, and in cardiac trauma.

  18. Cardiac Screening for Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Senem Ozgur; Selmin Karademir

    2013-01-01

    As obesity and cardiovascular mortality has recently increased, sporting activities are recommended to people of all age groups more than past decades. Sudden cardiac death during sporting events resonate in a wide range of media and cause serious concern to the families. In order to reduce mortality, athlete screening has been raised. There is a disagreement about how to do the most effective and the least costly screening, also the necessity of screening. The American Heart Academy recommen...

  19. Innovations in cardiac transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Reema; Ela, Ashraf Abou El; Goldstein, Daniel

    2017-03-16

    As the number of people living with heart failure continues to grow, future treatments will focus on efficient donor organ donation and ensuring safe and durable outcomes. This review will focus on organ procurement, graft surveillance and emerging therapies. Preliminary studies into donation after cardiac death have indicated that this may be an effective means to increase the donor pool. Novel preservation techniques that include ex-vivo perfusion to improve donor metabolic stabilization prior to implantation may also expand the donor pool. Biomarkers, including circulating-free DNA, are emerging that could replace the endomyocardial biopsy for acute graft rejection, but we lack a risk predictive biomarker in heart transplantation. Novel immune suppressants are being investigated. Emerging therapeutics to reduce the development of chronic allograft vasculopathy are yet to be found. This review highlights the most recent studies and future possible therapies that will improve outcomes in cardiac transplantation. Larger clinical trials are currently taking place and will be needed in the future to develop and sustain current trends toward better survival rates with cardiac transplantation.

  20. Cardiac arrhythmogenesis and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ujas; Bien, Harold; Entcheva, Emilia

    2006-01-01

    Fast processes in cardiac electrophysiology are often studied at temperatures lower than physiological. Extrapolation of values is based on widely accepted Q10 (Arrhenius) model of temperature dependence (ratio of kinetic properties for a 10 degrees C change in temperature). In this study, we set out to quantify the temperature dependence of essential parameters that define spatiotemporal behavior of cardiac excitation. Additionally, we examined temperature's effects on restitution dynamics. We employed fast fluorescence imaging with voltage-and calcium-sensitive dyes in neonatal rat cardiomyocyte sheets. Conduction velocity (CV), calcium transient duration (CTD), action potential duration (APD) and wavelength (W=CV*duration) change as functions of temperature were quantified. Using 24 degrees C as a reference point, we found a strong temperature-driven increase of CV (Q10=2.3) with smaller CTD and APD changes (Q10=1.33, 1.24, respectively). The spatial equivalents of voltage and calcium duration, wavelength, were slightly less sensitive to temperature with Q10=2.05 and 1.78, respectively, due to the opposing influences of decreasing duration with increased velocity. More importantly, we found that Q10 varies as a function of diastolic interval. Our results indicate the importance of examining temperature sensitivity across several frequencies. Armed with our results, experimentalists and modelers alike have a tool for reconciling different environmental conditions. In a broader sense, these data help better understand thermal influences on arrhythmia development or suppression such as during hibernation or cardiac surgery.

  1. Serological survey of selected canine viral pathogens and zoonoses in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) from Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Chappuis, G; Soulier, M; Kikuchi, Y

    1998-12-01

    Between 1988 and 1991, 644 serum samples were collected from 480 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and 40 black bears (Ursus americanus) from Alaska, United States of America, and were tested for selected canine viral infections and zoonoses. Antibody prevalence in grizzly bears was 0% for parvovirus, 8.3% (40/480) for distemper, 14% (68/480) for infectious hepatitis, 16.5% (79/480) for brucellosis, 19% (93/480) for tularaemia and 47% (225/478) for trichinellosis. In black bears, prevalence ranged from 0% for distemper and parvovirus to 27.5% for trichinellosis and 32% for tularaemia. Antibody prevalence for brucellosis (2.5%) and tularaemia (32%) were identical for grizzly bears and black bears from the geographical area of interior Alaska. Links between differences in prevalence and the origin of the grizzly bears were observed. Antibodies to canine distemper virus and infectious hepatitis virus were mainly detected in grizzly bears from Kodiak Island and the Alaskan Peninsula. Brucellosis antibodies were prevalent in grizzly bears from western and northern Alaska, whereas tularaemia antibodies were detected in grizzly bears from interior Alaska and the Arctic. There was a strong gradient for antibodies to Trichinella spp. from southern to northern Alaska. For most diseases, antibody prevalence increased with age. However, for several infections, no antibodies were detected in grizzly bears aged from 0 to 2 years, in contrast to the presence of those infections in black bears. Grizzly bears served as excellent sentinels for surveillance of zoonotic infections in wildlife in Alaska.

  2. Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Black Bears (Ursus americanus), Bobcats (Lynx rufus), and Feral Cats (Felis catus) from Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender P; Verma, Shiv K; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Cassinelli, Ana B; Kwok, Oliver C H; Van Why, Kyle; Su, Chunlei; Humphreys, Jan G

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. Recently, attention has been focused on the genetic diversity of the parasite to explain its pathogenicity in different hosts. It has been hypothesized that interaction between feral and domestic cycles of T. gondii may increase unusual genotypes in domestic cats and facilitate transmission of potentially more pathogenic genotypes to humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. In the present study, we tested black bear (Ursus americanus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and feral cat (Felis catus) from the state of Pennsylvania for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 32 (84.2%) of 38 bears, both bobcats, and 2 of 3 feral cats tested by the modified agglutination test (cut off titer 1:25). Hearts from seropositive animals were bioassayed in mice, and viable T. gondii was isolated from 3 of 32 bears, 2 of 2 bobcats, and 2 of 3 feral cats. DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these isolates was characterized using multilocus PCR-RFLP markers. Three genotypes were revealed, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1 or #3 (Type II, 1 isolate), #5 (Type 12, 3 isolates), and #216 (3 isolates), adding to the evidence of genetic diversity of T. gondii in wildlife in Pennsylvania. Pathogenicity of 3 T. gondii isolates (all #216, 1 from bear, and 2 from feral cat) was determined in outbred Swiss Webster mice; all three were virulent causing 100% mortality. Results indicated that highly mouse pathogenic strains of T. gondii are circulating in wildlife, and these strains may pose risk to infect human through consuming of game meat. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Six months of disuse during hibernation does not increase intracortical porosity or decrease cortical bone geometry, strength, or mineralization in black bear (Ursus americanus) femurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Bunnell, Kevin; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-07-22

    Disuse typically uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to bone loss which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases the risk of bone fracture. Previous studies suggest that bears can prevent bone loss during long periods of disuse (hibernation), but small sample sizes have limited the conclusions that can be drawn regarding the effects of hibernation on bone structure and strength in bears. Here we quantified the effects of hibernation on structural, mineral, and mechanical properties of black bear (Ursus americanus) cortical bone by studying femurs from large groups of male and female bears (with wide age ranges) killed during pre-hibernation (fall) and post-hibernation (spring) periods. Bone properties that are affected by body mass (e.g. bone geometrical properties) tended to be larger in male compared to female bears. There were no differences (p>0.226) in bone structure, mineral content, or mechanical properties between fall and spring bears. Bone geometrical properties differed by less than 5% and bone mechanical properties differed by less than 10% between fall and spring bears. Porosity (fall: 5.5+/-2.2%; spring: 4.8+/-1.6%) and ash fraction (fall: 0.694+/-0.011; spring: 0.696+/-0.010) also showed no change (p>0.304) between seasons. Statistical power was high (>72%) for these analyses. Furthermore, bone geometrical properties and ash fraction (a measure of mineral content) increased with age and porosity decreased with age. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse and age-related osteoporoses.

  4. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: II. Multiple pyrokinins exert similar effects in the lobster stomatogastric nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Patsy S.; Kurland, Sienna C.; Qu, Xuan; Parker, Brett O.; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A.; Williams, Alex H.; Ysasi, Alexandra B.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many neuropeptides are members of peptide families, with multiple structurally similar isoforms frequently found even within a single species. This raises the question of whether the individual peptides serve common or distinct functions. In the accompanying paper, we found high isoform specificity in the responses of the lobster (Homarus americanus) cardiac neuromuscular system to members of the pyrokinin peptide family: only one of five crustacean isoforms showed any bioactivity in the cardiac system. Because previous studies in other species had found little isoform specificity in pyrokinin actions, we examined the effects of the same five crustacean pyrokinins on the lobster stomatogastric nervous system (STNS). In contrast to our findings in the cardiac system, the effects of the five pyrokinin isoforms on the STNS were indistinguishable: they all activated or enhanced the gastric mill motor pattern, but did not alter the pyloric pattern. These results, in combination with those from the cardiac ganglion, suggest that members of a peptide family in the same species can be both isoform specific and highly promiscuous in their modulatory capacity. The mechanisms that underlie these differences in specificity have not yet been elucidated; one possible explanation, which has yet to be tested, is the presence and differential distribution of multiple receptors for members of this peptide family. PMID:26206359

  5. Continuous cardiac output measurement: arterial pressure analysis versus thermodilution technique during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorsomradee, S.; Lorsomradee, S. R.; Cromheecke, S.; de Hert, S. G.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared cardiac output measured with an arterial pressure-based cardiac output measurement system and a thermodilution cardiac output measurement system. We studied 36 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Simultaneous arterial pressure-based and thermodilution

  6. Condição reprodutiva da betara preta, Menticirrhus americanus (Teleostei, Sciaenidae, na pesca realizada no litoral norte de Santa Catarina, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.1230 Reproductive status of Menticirrhus americanus (Teleostei, Sciaenidae in fisheries performed on the Southern coast of Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.1230

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elneison da Rosa Muniz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available No litoral brasileiro, a legislação costuma regular as práticas pesqueiras segundo o ciclo de vida das espécies-alvo, mas o fato deste não ser coincidente entre as espécies dominantes nas capturas dificulta o manejo em pescarias multiespecíficas. No litoral de Santa Catarina, o defeso aplica-se apenas à pesca de arrasto, e para tal considera o período reprodutivo do camarão sete-barbas, Xyphopenaeus kroyeri. O presente trabalho investiga a incidência da atividade pesqueira sobre indivíduos em reprodução da betara preta, Menticirrhus americanus, espécie comercialmente apreciada e frequente nas pescarias. As amostragens ocorreram em 2006 e 2007, em desembarques do município de Itapoá, norte do Estado (26°00’S; 48°36’W. Calcularam-se os valores de proporção sexual, frequência de estádios de maturação, índice gonadossomático e tamanho de primeira maturação, e relacionou-se a captura de indivíduos em reprodução com a época do ano e a arte de pesca utilizada. Concluiu-se que a atividade pesqueira incide sobre uma parcela populacional que compreende indivíduos em atividade reprodutiva durante, ao menos, duas estações do ano. Há diferenças entre as artes de pesca: a de arrasto não atinge indivíduos em reprodução; a de caceio atua majoritariamente sobre jovens e em maturação; e a de fundeio, principalmente sobre indivíduos em atividade reprodutiva, sobretudo na primavera e no verão.Fisheries rules usually take into account the life cycle of target species. But as these species differ, multi-specific fisheries prove difficult to be managed. In the southern coast of Brazil (26°00’S, 48°36’W, an annual closed fishing season is exclusive to trawling only, which target species such as the shrimp Xyphopenaeus kroyeri . In this region, the consequences of trawling and gillnets on the life cycles of fish remain unknown. The present work has surveyed the incidence of small-scale fisheries on the reproductive

  7. Biosynthesis of cardiac natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac-derived peptide hormones were identified more than 25 years ago. An astonishing amount of clinical studies have established cardiac natriuretic peptides and their molecular precursors as useful markers of heart disease. In contrast to the clinical applications, the biogenesis of cardiac....... An inefficient post-translational prohormone maturation will also affect the biology of the cardiac natriuretic peptide system. This review aims at summarizing the myocardial synthesis of natriuretic peptides focusing on B-type natriuretic peptide, where new data has disclosed cardiac myocytes as highly...... competent endocrine cells. The structurally related atrial natriuretic peptide will be mentioned where appropriate, whereas C-type natriuretic peptide will not be considered as a cardiac peptide of relevance in mammalian physiology....

  8. Autonomic cardiac nerves: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuder, T; Nowak, E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to summarise the knowledge about the autonomic cardiac innervation. It is generally known, that the cardiac nervous system consists of nerve plexoganglionic structures located mostly around the strategic regions of the heart. They consist of two main types of components: parasympathetic neurons, which exert an inhibitory effect, and sympathetic postganglionic nerve fibres, which stimulate the cardiac conduction system, and myocardial cells. However, many authors describe that cardiac ganglia contain various populations of neurons. The largest group are classical cholinergic neurons. The second group of cardiac neurons are cells of dual, cholinergic-adrenergic character. There is also subpopulation of small intensely fluoroscent cells of typically adrenergic phenotype. Moreover, many authors indicated the presence of various neurotransmitters in various combinations. In this way, the neurons in cardiac ganglia are a neurochemical complex beyond the classical vision of parasympathetic ganglia.

  9. Identification of Nile perch (Lates niloticus), grouper (Epinephelus guaza), and wreck fish (Polyprion americanus) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of a 12S rRNA gene fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, L; González, I; Fernández, A; Céspedes, A; Hernández, P E; García, T; Martín, R

    2000-09-01

    Restriction site analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from a conserved region of the 12S rRNA gene has been used for the specific identification of Nile perch (Lates niloticus), grouper (Epinephelus guaza), and wreck fish (Polyprion americanus). Amplification of DNA isolated from muscle samples was carried out using a set of primers flanking a region of 436 bp from the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Digestions of the PCR products with RsaI and Sau96I endonucleases, followed by agarose gel electrophoresis of the digested PCR products, yielded specific profiles that enabled direct identification of each species analyzed.

  10. Registry of Unexplained Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-16

    Cardiac Arrest; Long QT Syndrome; Brugada Syndrome; Catecholaminergi Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia; Idiopathic VentricularFibrillation; Early Repolarization Syndrome; Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy

  11. Cardiac Dysautonomia in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildtrup, Mads; Shattock, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a fatal, hereditary, neurodegenerative disorder best known for its clinical triad of progressive motor impairment, cognitive deficits and psychiatric disturbances. Although a disease of the central nervous system, mortality surveys indicate that heart disease is a leading cause of death. The nature of such cardiac abnormalities remains unknown. Clinical findings indicate a high prevalence of autonomic nervous system dysfunction - dysautonomia - which may be a result of pathology of the central autonomic network. Dysautonomia can have profound effects on cardiac health, and pronounced autonomic dysfunction can be associated with neurogenic arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Significant advances in the knowledge of neural mechanisms in cardiac disease have recently been made which further aid our understanding of cardiac mortality in Huntington's disease. Even so, despite the evidence of aberrant autonomic activity the potential cardiac consequences of autonomic dysfunction have been somewhat ignored. In fact, underlying cardiac abnormalities such as arrhythmias have been part of the exclusion criteria in clinical autonomic Huntington's disease research. A comprehensive analysis of cardiac function in Huntington's disease patients is warranted. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to clarify how the autonomic nervous system is controlled and regulated in higher, central areas of the brain - and how these regions may be altered in neurological pathology, such as Huntington's disease. Ultimately, research will hopefully result in an improvement of management with the aim of preventing early death in Huntington's disease from cardiac causes.

  12. Blunt and Penetrating Cardiac Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellister, Seth A; Dennis, Bradley M; Guillamondegui, Oscar D

    2017-10-01

    Patients with traumatic cardiac injuries can present with wide variability in their severity of illness. The most severe will present in cardiac arrest, whereas the most benign may be altogether asymptomatic; most will fall somewhere in between. Management of cardiac injuries largely depends on mechanism of injury and patient physiology. Understanding the spectrum of injuries and their associated manifestations can help providers react more quickly and initiate potentially life-saving therapies more efficiently when time is critical. This article discusses the workup and management of both blunt and penetrating cardiac injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antifibrinolytics in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achal Dhir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery exerts a significant strain on the blood bank services and is a model example in which a multi-modal blood-conservation strategy is recommended. Significant bleeding during cardiac surgery, enough to cause re-exploration and/or blood transfusion, increases morbidity and mortality. Hyper-fibrinolysis is one of the important contributors to increased bleeding. This knowledge has led to the use of anti-fibrinolytic agents especially in procedures performed under cardiopulmonary bypass. Nothing has been more controversial in recent times than the aprotinin controversy. Since the withdrawal of aprotinin from the world market, the choice of antifibrinolytic agents has been limited to lysine analogues either tranexamic acid (TA or epsilon amino caproic acid (EACA. While proponents of aprotinin still argue against its non-availability. Health Canada has approved its use, albeit under very strict regulations. Antifibrinolytic agents are not without side effects and act like double-edged swords, the stronger the anti-fibrinolytic activity, the more serious the side effects. Aprotinin is the strongest in reducing blood loss, blood transfusion, and possibly, return to the operating room after cardiac surgery. EACA is the least effective, while TA is somewhere in between. Additionally, aprotinin has been implicated in increased mortality and maximum side effects. TA has been shown to increase seizure activity, whereas, EACA seems to have the least side effects. Apparently, these agents do not differentiate between pathological and physiological fibrinolysis and prevent all forms of fibrinolysis leading to possible thrombotic side effects. It would seem prudent to select the right agent knowing its risk-benefit profile for a given patient, under the given circumstances.

  14. Cardiac Screening for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Ozgur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As obesity and cardiovascular mortality has recently increased, sporting activities are recommended to people of all age groups more than past decades. Sudden cardiac death during sporting events resonate in a wide range of media and cause serious concern to the families. In order to reduce mortality, athlete screening has been raised. There is a disagreement about how to do the most effective and the least costly screening, also the necessity of screening. The American Heart Academy recommends screening with only history and physical examination, while European Society of Cardiology considers the inclusion of the electrocardiography. During sports activities, in response to the growing needs for the heart, a number of structural and electrical changes in the heart of athlete occur. This situation is briefly defined as the athlete heart. Although it is considered to be due to physiological changes in the athlete's heart, these changes are reflected in electrocardiography and they increase the number of false-positive cases. In 2010, European Society of Cardiology divided findings into two groups as physiological and pathological findings in order to prevent this confusion. With these criteria, it was aimed to increase the sensitivity of electrocardiography while reducing the false-positive rates. Despite all the precautions sudden cardiac death could not be completely precluded. Because of this, as well as the protective measures; cautions after the incident are also important. In the emergency plan, knowledgeable and experienced team of resuscitation and external cardiac defibrillator dissemination campaigns are the first things coming to mind. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 575-590

  15. [Cardiac rehabilitation in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannem, M; Ghannem, L; Lamouchi, S; Justin, K D; Meimoun, P; Ghannem, L

    2016-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) occurs later in life in women when compared to men (10 years later). The FAST-MI study has shown that the profile of women with CAD has changed in the past 15 years, they are younger, more obese, and usually smokers. Whatever the age at which CAD occurs in women, the prognosis tends to be worse than in men, despite a higher frequency of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with angiographically normal coronary arteries in women. In women without significant lesion at coronary angiography, the WISE study has shown abnormalities of the coronary vasomotricy. Despite its beneficial effect on morbidity and mortality, cardiac rehabilitation is underused particularly in women. Indeed, several factors do not encourage a woman to follow a cardiac rehabilitation program, even after an ACS. These factors may be cultural, domestic, familial, orthopedic, or even the fear of exercising. Therefore, physicians have to be particularly convincing in women, in order to have them participating in rehabilitation programs. Physical capacity is lower in women when compared to men. However, the weaker the physical capacity, the better the benefit of cardiac rehabilitation. Physical endurance training continuously or in interval, associated to muscle strengthening can improve the physical capacity in women. Vascular risk factors correction is also an important step for the management of women with CAD. Therapeutic education and several available workshops help women to better understand their disease and to improve their self-management when they return home. Anxiety, depression, and sexual dysfunction frequently deteriorate the quality of life of our patients. Therefore, psychological management is also essential in our departments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. CSI cardiac prevent 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The CSI Cardiac Prevent 2015 was held at Hotel Taj Palace, New Delhi, on September 25-27, 2015. The major challenge was to create interest among cardiologists and physicians on preventive cardiology, a neglected area. The theme of the conference was "Innovations in Heart Disease Prevention.′′ This conference included "CSI at WHF Roadmap Workshop, Inauguration Ceremony, scientific program, plenary sessions, Nursing/Dietician track, Industry Exhibition, Social Events," Great India blood pressure Survey, and CSI Smart Heart App. A total of 848 delegates/faculties attended this conference against a total of 1140 people registered for the meeting.

  17. Four Dimensional Cardiac Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. D. R.; Quarendon, P.

    1986-05-01

    A system for the production of a four dimensional (moving three dimensional) human epicardial left ventriculogram, modelled and highlighted to show regional wall motion changes, is described. The moving image is derived by fitting a surface to the three dimensional coordinates of coronary artery bifurcations. These are determined by analysis of digitised biplane coronary cineangiograms. This image system not only provides a unique 3-D view of left ventricular activity but might also provide measures of cardiac dynamics such as, stroke volume and velocity of wall movement. The system is not fully automated although operator interaction may be minimised. Further work on vessel tracking systems is required before full automation is possible.

  18. Cardiac manifestations of myotonic dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Helle; Vissing, John; Witting, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the degree of cardiac involvement regarding left ventricular ejection fraction, conduction abnormalities, arrhythmia, risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and the associations between cardiac involvement and cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG)-repeat, neuromuscular involvement, age and gender...

  19. Cardiac arrhythmias in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knotts, Robert J; Garan, Hasan

    2014-08-01

    As more women with repaired congenital heart disease survive to their reproductive years and many other women are delaying pregnancy until later in life, a rising concern is the risk of cardiac arrhythmias during pregnancy. Naturally occurring cardiovascular changes during pregnancy increase the likelihood that a recurrence of a previously experienced cardiac arrhythmia or a de novo arrhythmia will occur. Arrhythmias should be thoroughly investigated to determine if there is a reversible etiology, and risks/benefits of treatment options should be fully explored. We discuss the approach to working up and treating various arrhythmias during pregnancy with attention to fetal and maternal risks as well as treatment of fetal arrhythmias. Acute management in stable patients includes close monitoring and intravenous pharmacologic therapy, while DC cardioversion should be used to terminate arrhythmias in hemodynamically unstable patients. Long-term management may require continued oral antiarrhythmic therapy, with particular attention to fetal safety, to prevent complications associated with arrhythmias. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Leadership in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Christopher; Patel, Vanash; Ibrahim, Michael; Ahmed, Kamran; Wong, Kathie A; Darzi, Ara; von Segesser, Ludwig K; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2011-06-01

    Despite the efficacy of cardiac surgery, less invasive interventions with more uncertain long-term outcomes are increasingly challenging surgery as first-line treatment for several congenital, degenerative and ischemic cardiac diseases. The specialty must evolve if it is to ensure its future relevance. More importantly, it must evolve to ensure that future patients have access to treatments with proven long-term effectiveness. This cannot be achieved without dynamic leadership; however, our contention is that this is not enough. The demands of a modern surgical career and the importance of the task at hand are such that the serendipitous emergence of traditional charismatic leadership cannot be relied upon to deliver necessary change. We advocate systematic analysis and strategic leadership at a local, national and international level in four key areas: Clinical Care, Research, Education and Training, and Stakeholder Engagement. While we anticipate that exceptional individuals will continue to shape the future of our specialty, the creation of robust structures to deliver collective leadership in these key areas is of paramount importance. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypokalemia and sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Keld

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately three million people suffer sudden cardiac death annually. These deaths often emerge from a complex interplay of substrates and triggers. Disturbed potassium homeostasis among heart cells is an example of such a trigger. Thus, hypokalemia and, also, more transient...... of fatal arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death a patient is, the more attention should be given to the potassium homeostasis....

  2. Lentiginosis, Deafness and Cardiac Abnormalities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-06

    Jan 6, 1973 ... The familia:l form is milder. The cardiac lesion commonly consists of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy of either ventricle or abnor- malities of the ECG.' The obstructive lesion may be pro- gressive and cause cardiac failure. The ECG features include conduction abnormalities, such as left hemiblock,.

  3. Cardiac arrest – cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Lenjani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within 10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care (with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care the rate of survival is higher.

  4. X-ray structures of Na-GST-1 and Na-GST-2 two glutathione s-transferase from the human hookworm Necator americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deumic Vehid

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human hookworm infection is a major cause of anemia and malnutrition of adults and children in the developing world. As part of on-going efforts to control hookworm infection, The Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative has identified candidate vaccine antigens from the infective L3 larval stages and adult stages of the parasite. Adult stage antigens include the cytosolic glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs. Nematode GSTs facilitate the inactivation and degradation of a variety of electrophilic substrates (drugs via the nucleophilic addition of reduced glutathione. Parasite GSTs also play significant roles in multi-drug resistance and the modulation of host-immune defense mechanisms. Results The crystal structures of Na-GST-1 and Na-GST-2, two major GSTs from Necator americanus the main human hookworm parasite, have been solved at the resolution limits of 2.4 Å and 1.9 Å respectively. The structure of Na-GST-1 was refined to R-factor 18.9% (R-free 28.3% while that of Na-GST-2 was refined to R-factor 17.1% (R-free 21.7%. Glutathione usurped during the fermentation process in bound in the glutathione binding site (G-site of each monomer of Na-GST-2. Na-GST-1 is uncomplexed and its G-site is abrogated by Gln 50. These first structures of human hookworm parasite GSTs could aid the design of novel hookworm drugs. Conclusion The 3-dimensional structures of Na-GST-1 and Na-GST-2 show two views of human hookworm GSTs. While the GST-complex structure of Na-GST-2 reveals a typical GST G-site that of Na-GST-1 suggests that there is some conformational flexibility required in order to bind the substrate GST. In addition, the overall binding cavities for both are larger, more open, as well as more accessible to diverse ligands than those of GSTs from organisms that have other major detoxifying mechanisms. The results from this study could aid in the design of novel drugs and vaccine antigens.

  5. Who Is at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  6. How Can Death Due to Sudden Cardiac Arrest Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  7. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  8. Sudden Cardiac Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to describe the use of pharmacotherapy in a nationwide cohort of young patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD). Background Several drugs have been associated with an increased risk of SCD and sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). It remains unclear how...... pharmacotherapy may contribute to the overall burden of SCD in the general population. Methods This was a nationwide study that included all deaths that occurred between 2000 and 2009 and between 2007 and 2009 in people age 1 to 35 years and 36 to 49 years, respectively. Two physicians identified all SCDs through...... review of death certificates. Autopsy reports were collected. Pharmacotherapy prescribed within 90 days before SCD was identified in the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. Results We identified 1,363 SCDs; median age was 38 years (interquartile range: 29 to 45 years), and 72% (n = 975) were men...

  9. Hypertension and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Coca, Antonio; Kahan, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a common cardiovascular risk factor leading to heart failure (HF), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, peripheral artery disease and chronic renal failure. Hypertensive heart disease can manifest as many types of cardiac arrhythmias, most commonly being atrial fibrillation......, hypomagnesaemia), contributing further to arrhythmias, while effective Blood pressure control may prevent the development of the arrhythmias such as AF.In recognizing this close relationship between HTN and arrhythmias, the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC......) Council on Hypertension convened a Task Force, with representation from the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE), with the remit of comprehensively reviewing the available evidence...

  10. Hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Coca, Antonio; Kahan, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a common cardiovascular risk factor leading to heart failure (HF), coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease and chronic renal insufficiency. Hypertensive heart disease can manifest as many cardiac arrhythmias, most commonly being atrial fibrillation (AF). Both......, hypomagnesemia), further contributing to arrhythmias, whereas effective control of blood pressure may prevent the development of the arrhythmias such as AF. In recognizing this close relationship between hypertension and arrhythmias, the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and the European Society...... supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias may occur in hypertensive patients, especially in those with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or HF. Also, some of the antihypertensive drugs commonly used to reduce blood pressure, such as thiazide diuretics, may result in electrolyte abnormalities (e.g. hypokalaemia...

  11. Physics of Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karma, Alain

    2013-04-01

    A normal heartbeat is orchestrated by the stable propagation of an excitation wave that produces an orderly contraction. In contrast, wave turbulence in the ventricles, clinically known as ventricular fibrillation (VF), stops the heart from pumping and is lethal without prompt defibrillation. I review experimental, computational, and theoretical studies that have shed light on complex dynamical phenomena linked to the initiation, maintenance, and control of wave turbulence. I first discuss advances made to understand the precursor state to a reentrant arrhythmia where the refractory period of cardiac tissue becomes spatiotemporally disordered; this is known as an arrhythmogenic tissue substrate. I describe observed patterns of transmembrane voltage and intracellular calcium signaling that can contribute to this substrate, and symmetry breaking instabilities to explain their formation. I then survey mechanisms of wave turbulence and discuss novel methods that exploit electrical pacing stimuli to control precursor patterns and low-energy pulsed electric fields to control turbulence.

  12. Radionuclide cardiac ventriculogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, N.G.; Lindsay, J. Jr.

    1980-10-01

    Coronary artery disease represents one of the most prevalent and serious diseases in the western world. In consequence, there is considerable need for a reliable method for its diagnosis. Until now the best available laboratory methods were the EKG treadmill test and arteriography. The former suffers from the disadvantages of suboptimal sensitivity and specificity, while the latter is both expensive and invasive. The recent introduction of the nuclear cardiac ventriculogram offers new hope for the non-invasive diagnosis of this condition. Based on an experience of more than two thousand patient studies, we consider that this procedure represents a significant advance in the ability to distinguish between the normal and abnormal left ventricle.

  13. Mediastinitis after cardiac transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noedir A. G. Stolf

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assessment of incidence and behavior of mediastinitis after cardiac transplantation. METHODS: From 1985 to 1999, 214 cardiac transplantations were performed, 12 (5.6% of the transplanted patients developed confirmed mediastinitis. Patient's ages ranged from 42 to 66 years (mean of 52.3±10.0 years and 10 (83.3% patients were males. Seven (58.3% patients showed sternal stability on palpation, 4 (33.3% patients had pleural empyema, and 2 (16.7% patients did not show purulent secretion draining through the wound. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was the infectious agent identified in the wound secretion or in the mediastinum, or both, in 8 (66.7% patients. Staphylococcus epidermidis was identified in 2 (16.7% patients, Enterococcus faecalis in 1 (8.3% patient, and the cause of mediastinitis could not be determined in 1 (8.3% patient. Surgical treatment was performed on an emergency basis, and the extension of the débridement varied with local conditions. In 2 (16.7% patients, we chose to leave the surgical wound open and performed daily dressings with granulated sugar. Total sternal resection was performed in only 1 (8.3% patient. Out of this series, 5 (41.7% patients died, and the causes of death were related to the infection. Autopsy revealed persistence of mediastinitis in 1 (8.3% patient. CONCLUSION: Promptness in diagnosing mediastinitis and precocious surgical drainage have changed the natural evolution of this disease. Nevertheless, observance of the basic precepts of prophylaxis of infection is still the best way to treat mediastinitis.

  14. [Cardiac screening of young athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokstad, Magnus Thue; Berge, Hilde Moseby; Gjesdal, Knut

    2013-09-03

    Young athletes are at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death compared to others. Cardiac screening has been proposed to prevent deaths. We wished to review the evidence for cardiac screening of young athletes. We have conducted a literature search in PubMed on sudden cardiac death in young athletes, using a combination of search terms related to screening, incidence, cost efficiency and recommendations, supplemented by secondary references and articles from our own archive. Published studies utilise a variety of definitions of athlete and sudden death, and some studies also include cardiac arrest with subsequent successful resuscitation. Retrospective studies, often based on media searches, remain the most common form. The cause of death is not invariably determined by an autopsy. Recommendations in favour of screening are based on studies of limited quality and on the personal, often regional, experiences of experts. The differences in study methods result in uncertain incidence figures. The estimates of cost efficiency are therefore questionable. To improve the quality of knowledge, standardised methods need to be devised, ideally also including a register of cardiac arrest in children and young people. To date, we have insufficient knowledge to recommend mandatory cardiac screening with ECG in Norway. Should this be introduced, it should be differentiated according to gender, type of sport and competition level. Cost efficiency could probably be improved with the aid of standardised questionnaires and a standardised interpretation of ECG among athletes.

  15. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Sarma Mallela

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future.

  16. Metoclopramide-induced cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Rumore

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of cardiac arrest in a patient receiving intravenous (IV metoclopramide and review the pertinent literature. A 62-year-old morbidly obese female admitted for a gastric sleeve procedure, developed cardiac arrest within one minute of receiving metoclopramide 10 mg via slow intravenous (IV injection. Bradycardia at 4 beats/min immediately appeared, progressing rapidly to asystole. Chest compressions restored vital function. Electrocardiogram (ECG revealed ST depression indicative of myocardial injury. Following intubation, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. Various cardiac dysrrhythmias including supraventricular tachycardia (SVT associated with hypertension and atrial fibrillation occurred. Following IV esmolol and metoprolol, the patient reverted to normal sinus rhythm. Repeat ECGs revealed ST depression resolution without pre-admission changes. Metoclopramide is a non-specific dopamine receptor antagonist. Seven cases of cardiac arrest and one of sinus arrest with metoclopramide were found in the literature. The metoclopramide prescribing information does not list precautions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs related to cardiac arrest. The reaction is not dose related but may relate to the IV administration route. Coronary artery disease was the sole risk factor identified. According to Naranjo, the association was possible. Other reports of cardiac arrest, severe bradycardia, and SVT were reviewed. In one case, five separate IV doses of 10 mg metoclopramide were immediately followed by asystole repeatedly. The mechanism(s underlying metoclopramide’s cardiac arrest-inducing effects is unknown. Structural similarities to procainamide may play a role. In view of eight previous cases of cardiac arrest from metoclopramide having been reported, further elucidation of this ADR and patient monitoring is needed. Our report should alert clinicians to monitor patients and remain diligent in surveillance and

  17. Acupuncture therapy related cardiac injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-feng; Wang, Xian

    2013-12-01

    Cardiac injury is the most serious adverse event in acupuncture therapy. The causes include needling chest points near the heart, the cardiac enlargement and pericardial effusion that will enlarge the projected area on the body surface and make the proper depth of needling shorter, and the incorrect needling method of the points. Therefore, acupuncture practitioners must be familiar with the points of the heart projected area on the chest and the correct needling methods in order to reduce the risk of acupuncture therapy related cardiac injury.

  18. Understand Your Risk for Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understand Your Risk for Cardiac Arrest Updated:Mar 10,2017 Cardiac arrest may be ... arrest. This content was last reviewed March 2017. Cardiac Arrest • Home • About Cardiac Arrest • Understand Your Risk for ...

  19. Normal cardiac function in mice with supraphysiological cardiac creatine levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alejandro; Nienaber, Jeffrey; Mishra, Rajashree; Pinilla, Miguel; Burchette, James; Mao, Lan; Rockman, Howard A.; Jacobs, Danny O.

    2013-01-01

    Creatine and phosphocreatine levels are decreased in heart failure, and reductions in myocellular phosphocreatine levels predict the severity of the disease and portend adverse outcomes. Previous studies of transgenic mouse models with increased creatine content higher than two times baseline showed the development of heart failure and shortened lifespan. Given phosphocreatine's role in buffering ATP content, we tested the hypothesis whether elevated cardiac creatine content would alter cardiac function under normal physiological conditions. Here, we report the creation of transgenic mice that overexpress the human creatine transporter (CrT) in cardiac muscle under the control of the α-myosin heavy chain promoter. Cardiac transgene expression was quantified by qRT-PCR, and human CrT protein expression was documented on Western blots and immunohistochemistry using a specific anti-CrT antibody. High-energy phosphate metabolites and cardiac function were measured in transgenic animals and compared with age-matched, wild-type controls. Adult transgenic animals showed increases of 5.7- and 4.7-fold in the content of creatine and free ADP, respectively. Phosphocreatine and ATP levels were two times as high in young transgenic animals but declined to control levels by the time the animals reached 8 wk of age. Transgenic mice appeared to be healthy and had normal life spans. Cardiac morphometry, conscious echocardiography, and pressure-volume loop studies demonstrated mild hypertrophy but normal function. Based on our characterization of the human CrT protein expression, creatine and phosphocreatine content, and cardiac morphometry and function, these transgenic mice provide an in vivo model for examining the therapeutic value of elevated creatine content for cardiac pathologies. PMID:24271489

  20. Inverse Correlation Between Cardiac Injury and Cardiac Anxiety A Potential Role for Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Maria H. C. T.; Oude Voshaar, Richard; van Deelen, Femke M.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Pop, Gheorghe; Speckens, Anne E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: General anxiety in cardiac patients is associated with worsened cardiac course. An acute coronary syndrome (ACS) might evoke specific cardiac anxiety. We explored the characteristics associated with cardiac anxiety in ACS patients. Methods: We assessed cardiac anxiety in 237 patients

  1. Inverse correlation between cardiac injury and cardiac anxiety: a potential role for communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.H.C.T. van; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Deelen, F.M. van; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Pop, G.A.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: General anxiety in cardiac patients is associated with worsened cardiac course. An acute coronary syndrome (ACS) might evoke specific cardiac anxiety. We explored the characteristics associated with cardiac anxiety in ACS patients. METHODS: We assessed cardiac anxiety in 237 patients

  2. Inverse correlation between cardiac injury and cardiac anxiety: A potential role for communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, M.H.C.T.; Voshaar, R.C.O.; van Deelen, F.M.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Pop, G.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: General anxiety in cardiac patients is associated with worsened cardiac course. An acute coronary syndrome (ACS) might evoke specific cardiac anxiety. We explored the characteristics associated with cardiac anxiety in ACS patients. Methods: We assessed cardiac anxiety in 237 patients

  3. Selfcoelum lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae from the air sacs of the long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus (Scolopacidae, from the Galveston, Texas area, USA Selfcoelum lamothei, n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae de los sacos aéreos del playero de pico largo, Numenius americanus (Scolopacidae, del área del condado de Galveston, Texas, EUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles K. Blend

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen specimens of a new species of cyclocoelid, Selfcoelum lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae, from the air sacs of a long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus Bechstein (Scolopacidae, collected from the Galveston area, Galveston County, Texas, USA, were examined. The new species has an intertesticular ovary that forms a triangle with the testes, placing it in Cyclocoelinae Stossich, 1902. The new species is most similar to Selfcoelum capellum (Khan, 1935 n. comb., but differs from this species by lacking an oral sucker and by having a somewhat larger ovary, larger testes, a smaller posttesticular space, a larger cirrus sac, larger eggs, and the vitelline follicles of S. lamothei n. sp. are more bulky making the vitelline fields more laterally extensive, and more anteriorly distributed (reaching anteriorly to the level of the pharynx compared to the level of the cecal bifurcation than those of S. capellum. The new species can be distinguished from the 2 species currently assigned to Selfcoelum Dronen, Gardner and Jiménez, 2006, S. brasilianum (Stossich, 1902 and S. limnodromi Dronen, Gardner and Jiménez, 2006, by having an intercecal uterus rather than having uterine loops that overreach the ceca laterally. The genus Selfcoelum should be emended to include those species where the uterus is either intercecal or where the uterine loops overreach the ceca laterally and those species with or without an oral sucker.Se examinaron 14 ejemplares de una nueva especie de ciclocélido, Selfcoelum lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae que es parásito de los sacos aéreos del playero de pico largo, Numenius americanus Bechstein (Scolopacidae, recolectados en el condado de Galveston, Texas, EUA. La especie nueva se caracteriza por presentar el ovario en posición intertesticular, formando un triángulo con relación a los testículos. Este rasgo sitúa a la nueva especie entre los Cyclocoelinae Stossich, 1902

  4. Recent developments in cardiac pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, D J

    1995-10-01

    Indications for cardiac pacing continue to expand. Pacing to improve functional capacity, which is now common, relies on careful patient selection and technical improvements, such as complex software algorithms and diagnostic capabilities.

  5. Cardiac retransplantation: an ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Haissam

    2006-03-01

    The evolution of scientific advancements that paved the way for clinical cardiac transplantation spans the era of the 20 century, heart transplantation has revolutionized therapy for end-stage heart failure. Demand far exceeds supply, resulting in a long waiting period, and an increasing number of deaths while on a waiting list. The shortage of donors poses dilemmas for allocation of organs and managing the waiting list. The disparity between the demand and supply for donor hearts makes cardiac retransplantation an ethical issue with some patients being allowed a second transplant while some patients are dying on the waiting list before receiving their first transplant, especially with overall sub-optimal outcomes compared with primary transplantation. The cardiac transplant community is mandated to closely monitor the results of cardiac retransplantation to identify the appropriate candidate who should receive a retransplantation.

  6. An airline cardiac arrest program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, M F; Donaldson, E; Geddes, J S

    1997-01-01

    ...) available for use on airline passengers with cardiac arrest. AEDs were installed on international Qantas aircraft and at major terminals, selected crew were trained in their use, and all crew members were trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation...

  7. Haptoglobin Enhances Cardiac Transplant Rejection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Hua; Heuzey, Elizabeth; Mori, Daniel N; Wong, Christine K; Colangelo, Christopher M; Chung, Lisa M; Bruce, Can; Slizovskiy, Ilya B; Booth, Carmen J; Kreisel, Daniel; Goldstein, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    .... Unbiased mass spectrometric analysis of cardiac tissue before and ≤72 hours after transplantation revealed that 22 proteins including haptoglobin, a known antioxidant, are significantly upregulated in our grafts...

  8. Robotic Applications in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan P. Kypson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cardiac surgery has been performed through a median sternotomy, which allows the surgeon generous access to the heart and surrounding great vessels. As a paradigm shift in the size and location of incisions occurs in cardiac surgery, new methods have been developed to allow the surgeon the same amount of dexterity and accessibility to the heart in confined spaces and in a less invasive manner. Initially, long instruments without pivot points were used, however, more recent robotic telemanipulation systems have been applied that allow for improved dexterity, enabling the surgeon to perform cardiac surgery from a distance not previously possible. In this rapidly evolving field, we review the recent history and clinical results of using robotics in cardiac surgery.

  9. Understanding traumatic blunt cardiac injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Al Thani, Hassan; Zarour, Ahmad; Latifi, Rifat

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac injuries are classified as blunt and penetrating injuries. In both the injuries, the major issue is missing the diagnosis and high mortality. Blunt cardiac injuries (BCI) are much more common than penetrating injuries. Aiming at a better understanding of BCI, we searched the literature from January 1847 to January 2012 by using MEDLINE and EMBASE search engines. Using the key word "Blunt Cardiac Injury," we found 1814 articles; out of which 716 articles were relevant. Herein, we review the causes, diagnosis, and management of BCI. In conclusion, traumatic cardiac injury is a major challenge in critical trauma care, but the guidelines are lacking. A high index of suspicion, application of current diagnostic protocols, and prompt and appropriate management is mandatory.

  10. Understanding traumatic blunt cardiac injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman El-Menyar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac injuries are classified as blunt and penetrating injuries. In both the injuries, the major issue is missing the diagnosis and high mortality. Blunt cardiac injuries (BCI are much more common than penetrating injuries. Aiming at a better understanding of BCI, we searched the literature from January 1847 to January 2012 by using MEDLINE and EMBASE search engines. Using the key word "Blunt Cardiac Injury," we found 1814 articles; out of which 716 articles were relevant. Herein, we review the causes, diagnosis, and management of BCI. In conclusion, traumatic cardiac injury is a major challenge in critical trauma care, but the guidelines are lacking. A high index of suspicion, application of current diagnostic protocols, and prompt and appropriate management is mandatory.

  11. Robotic Applications in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan P. Kypson MD

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cardiac surgery has been performed through a median sternotomy, which allows the surgeon generous access to the heart and surrounding great vessels. As a paradigm shift in the size and location of incisions occurs in cardiac surgery, new methods have been developed to allow the surgeon the same amount of dexterity and accessibility to the heart in confined spaces and in a less invasive manner. Initially, long instruments without pivot points were used, however, more recent robotic telemanipulation systems have been applied that allow for improved dexterity, enabling the surgeon to perform cardiac surgery from a distance not previously possible. In this rapidly evolving field, we review the recent history and clinical results of using robotics in cardiac surgery.

  12. Robotic Applications in Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kypson, Alan P.; W. Randolph Chitwood Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, cardiac surgery has been performed through a median sternotomy, which allows the surgeon generous access to the heart and surrounding great vessels. As a paradigm shift in the size and location of incisions occurs in cardiac surgery, new methods have been developed to allow the surgeon the same amount of dexterity and accessibility to the heart in confined spaces and in a less invasive manner. Initially, long instruments without pivot points were use...

  13. Infrequent cardiac manifestations of sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Said; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Afonso, Luis

    Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is found in 2-7% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis (SS). Its diagnosis and treatment is challenging, notwithstanding the poor prognosis and treatment. Hereby, we present a case of systemic sarcoidosis with rare cardiac manifestations of severe mitral incompetence and large coronary aneurysm in a previously healthy woman. She underwent successful mitral valve replacement and coronary artery bypass surgery and was maintained on low dose glucocorticoid therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Imaging in cardiac mass lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundinger, A.; Gruber, H.P.; Dinkel, E.; Geibel, A.; Beck, A.; Wimmer, B.; Schlosser, V. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany))

    In 26 patients with cardiac mass lesions confirmed by surgery, diagnostic imaging was performed preoperatively by means of two-dimensional echocardiography (26 patients), angiography (12 patients), correlative computed tomography (CT, 8 patients), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 patients). Two-dimensional echocardiography correctly identified the cardiac masses in all patients. Angiography missed two of 12 cardiac masses; CT missed one of eight. MRI identified three of three cardiac masses. Although the sensitivity of two-dimensional echocardiography was high (100%), all methods lacked specificity. None of the methods allowed differentiation between myxoma (n=13) and thrombus (n=7). Malignancy of the lesions was successfully predicted by noninvasive imaging methods in all six patients. However, CT and MRI provided additional information concerning cardiac mural infiltration, pericardial involvement, and extracardiac tumor extension, and should be integrated within a preoperative imaging strategy. Thus two-dimensional echocardiography is the method of choice for primary assessment of patients with suspected cardiac masses. Further preoperative imaging by CT or MRI can be limited to patients with malignancies suspected on the grounds of pericardial effusion or other clinical results. (author).

  15. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ippei; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-08-01

    The heart must continuously pump blood to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients. To maintain the high energy consumption required by this role, the heart is equipped with multiple complex biological systems that allow adaptation to changes of systemic demand. The processes of growth (hypertrophy), angiogenesis, and metabolic plasticity are critically involved in maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Cardiac hypertrophy is classified as physiological when it is associated with normal cardiac function or as pathological when associated with cardiac dysfunction. Physiological hypertrophy of the heart occurs in response to normal growth of children or during pregnancy, as well as in athletes. In contrast, pathological hypertrophy is induced by factors such as prolonged and abnormal hemodynamic stress, due to hypertension, myocardial infarction etc. Pathological hypertrophy is associated with fibrosis, capillary rarefaction, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cellular dysfunction (impairment of signaling, suppression of autophagy, and abnormal cardiomyocyte/non-cardiomyocyte interactions), as well as undesirable epigenetic changes, with these complex responses leading to maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This review describes the key molecules and cellular responses involved in physiological/pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiac misconceptions in healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Neil; Patience, Fiona; Maclean, Elizabeth; Corrigall, Helen; Bradbury, Ian; Thompson, David R; Atherton, Iain; Leslie, Stephen J

    2012-12-01

    Cardiac misconceptions are common and may have a detrimental effect on patients. Such misconceptions may be introduced or reinforced by vague and inconsistent advice from healthcare staff and can adversely affect health outcomes. To assess whether level of cardiac misconceptions significantly differs between groups of healthcare staff based on occupation. The 22-item York cardiac beliefs questionnaire (YCBQ) was administered to a convenience sample of healthcare staff (n = 263) in direct contact with cardiac patients. Data was also collected on the occupation of healthcare staff and years worked. Medical staff had the lowest mean score (17.5, CI 15.6-19.4), indicating fewest misconceptions, and unqualified healthcare workers had the highest mean score (32.1, CI 28.4-35.7). Analysis by ANOVA indicated differences between staff groups to be statistically significant (F = 17.66, p misconception score (Pearson's r = - 0.243, p misconceptions in different groups of healthcare staff. Education to correct cardiac misconceptions should be particularly targeted at unqualified healthcare staff. The importance of maintaining appropriate ratios of qualified to unqualified healthcare staff in the care of cardiac patients is supported by this study.

  17. Recurrent late cardiac tamponade following cardiac surgery : a deceiving and potentially lethal complication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Meuzelaar, Jacobus J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Cardiac tamponade, characterized by inflow obstruction of the heart chambers by extracardiac compression, is a potentially lethal complication following cardiac surgery. Case report - We present a case of recurrent cardiac tamponade following valve surgery. At first presentation,

  18. Cardiac output during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.

    2015-01-01

    a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0......Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from...... the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2  = 12%). While all four methods reported...

  19. ECPR for Refractory Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-17

    Cardiac Arrest; Heart Arrest; Sudden Cardiac Arrest; Cardiopulmonary Arrest; Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; CPR; Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

  20. Distribution and quantification of Candidatus Liberibacter americanus, agent of huanglongbing disease of citrus in São Paulo State, Brasil, in leaves of an affected sweet orange tree as determined by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Diva C; Saillard, Colette; Couture, Carole; Martins, Elaine C; Wulff, Nelson A; Eveillard-Jagoueix, Sandrine; Yamamoto, Pedro T; Ayres, Antonio J; Bové, Joseph M

    2008-06-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), an insect-transmitted disease of citrus, known for many years in Asia and Africa, has appeared in the state of São Paulo State (SSP), Brazil, in 2004, and the state of Florida, USA, in 2005. HLB endangers the very existence of citrus, as trees infected with the bacterial pathogen, irrevocably decline. In the absence of curative procedures, control of HLB is difficult and only based on prevention. Even though not available in culture, the HLB bacterium could be shown to be Gram-negative and to represent a new candidate genus, Candidatus Liberibacter, in the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Three Candidatus (Ca.) L. species occur: Ca. L. africanus in Africa, Ca. L. asiaticus in Asia, SSP, and Florida, and Ca. L. americanus in SSP. The liberibacters occur exclusively in the phloem sieve tubes. On affected trees, HLB symptoms are often seen on certain branches only, suggesting an uneven distribution of the Liberibacter. Occurrence of Ca. L. americanus, the major HLB agent in SSP, has been examined in 822 leaf samples from an affected sweet orange tree by two conventional PCR techniques and a newly developed real time (RTi) PCR, also used for quantification of the Liberibacter in the leaves. Even though RTi-PCR was able to detect as few as 10 liberibacters per gram of leaf tissue (l/g), no liberibacters could be detected in any of the many leaf samples from a symptomless branch, while in blotchy mottle leaves from symptomatic branches of the same tree, the Liberibacter titer reached values as high as 10(7)l/g. These results demonstrate the uneven distribution of the Liberibacter in HLB-affected trees.

  1. Patch in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Alizadeh Ghavidel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Excessive bleeding presents a risk for the patient in cardiovascular surgery. Local haemostatic agents are of great value to reduce bleeding and related complications. TachoSil (Nycomed, Linz, Austria is a sterile, haemostatic agent that consists of an equine collagen patchcoated with human fibrinogen and thrombin. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of TachoSil compared to conventional technique.Methods: Forty-two patients scheduled for open heart surgeries, were entered to this study from August 2010 to May 2011. After primary haemostatic measures, patients divided in two groups based on surgeon’s judgment. Group A: 20 patients for whom TachoSil was applied and group B: 22 patients that conventional method using Surgicel (13 patients or wait and see method (9 cases, were performed in order to control the bleeding. In group A, 10 patients were male with mean age of 56.95±15.67 years and in group B, 9 cases were male with mean age of 49.95±14.41 years. In case group 70% (14/20 of the surgeries were redo surgeries versus 100% (22/22 in control group.Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. In TachoSil group 75% of patients required transfusion versus 90.90% in group B (P=0.03.Most transfusions consisted of packed red blood cell; 2±1.13 units in group A versus 3.11±1.44 in group B (P=0.01, however there were no significant differences between two groups regarding the mean total volume of intra and post-operative bleeding. Re-exploration was required in 10% in group A versus 13.63% in group B (P=0.67.Conclusion: TachoSil may act as a superior alternative in different types of cardiac surgery in order to control the bleeding and therefore reducing transfusion requirement.

  2. Cardiac rehabilitation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghei, Mahshid; Turk-Adawi, Karam; Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Oh, Paul; Chessex, Caroline; Grace, Sherry L

    2017-10-01

    Despite the clinical benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and its cost-effectiveness, it is not widely received. Arguably, capacity could be greatly increased if lower-cost models were implemented. The aims of this review were to describe: the costs associated with CR delivery, approaches to reduce these costs, and associated implications. Upon finalizing the PICO statement, information scientists were enlisted to develop the search strategy of MEDLINE, Embase, CDSR, Google Scholar and Scopus. Citations identified were considered for inclusion by the first author. Extracted cost data were summarized in tabular format and qualitatively synthesized. There is wide variability in the cost of CR delivery around the world, and patients pay out-of-pocket for some or all of services in 55% of countries. Supervised CR costs in high-income countries ranged from PPP$294 (Purchasing Power Parity; 2016 United States Dollars) in the United Kingdom to PPP$12,409 in Italy, and in middle-income countries ranged from PPP$146 in Venezuela to PPP$1095 in Brazil. Costs relate to facilities, personnel, and session dose. Delivering CR using information and communication technology (mean cost PPP$753/patient/program), lowering the dose and using lower-cost personnel and equipment are important strategies to consider in containing costs, however few explicitly low-cost models are available in the literature. More research is needed regarding the costs to deliver CR in community settings, the cost-effectiveness of CR in most countries, and the economic impact of return-to-work with CR participation. A low-cost model of CR should be standardized and tested for efficacy across multiple healthcare systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiac output monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Lailu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive and non-invasive methods of estimation of cardiac output (CO were developed to overcome the limitations of invasive nature of pulmonary artery catheterization (PAC and direct Fick method used for the measurement of stroke volume (SV. The important minimally invasive techniques available are: oesophageal Doppler monitoring (ODM, the derivative Fick method (using partial carbon dioxide (CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution, lithium indicator dilution, pulse contour and pulse power analysis. Impedance cardiography is probably the only non-invasive technique in true sense. It provides information about haemodynamic status without the risk, cost and skill associated with the other invasive or minimally invasive techniques. It is important to understand what is really being measured and what assumptions and calculations have been incorporated with respect to a monitoring device. Understanding the basic principles of the above techniques as well as their advantages and limitations may be useful. In addition, the clinical validation of new techniques is necessary to convince that these new tools provide reliable measurements. In this review the physics behind the working of ODM, partial CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution techniques are dealt with. The physical and the physiological aspects underlying the pulse contour and pulse power analyses, various pulse contour techniques, their development, advantages and limitations are also covered. The principle of thoracic bioimpedance along with computation of CO from changes in thoracic impedance is explained. The purpose of the review is to help us minimize the dogmatic nature of practice favouring one technique or the other.

  4. Animal models of cardiac cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Francesca; Malara, Natalia; Mollace, Vincenzo; Rosano, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Elisabetta

    2016-09-15

    Cachexia is the loss of body weight associated with several chronic diseases including chronic heart failure (CHF). The cachectic condition is mainly due to loss of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue depletion. The majority of experimental in vivo studies on cachexia rely on animal models of cancer cachexia while a reliable and appropriate model for cardiac cachexia has not yet been established. A critical issue in generating a cardiac cachexia model is that genetic modifications or pharmacological treatments impairing the heart functionality and used to obtain the heart failure model might likely impair the skeletal muscle, this also being a striated muscle and sharing with the myocardium several molecular and physiological mechanisms. On the other hand, often, the induction of heart damage in the several existing models of heart failure does not necessarily lead to skeletal muscle loss and cachexia. Here we describe the main features of cardiac cachexia and illustrate some animal models proposed for cardiac cachexia studies; they include the genetic calsequestrin and Dahl salt-sensitive models, the monocrotaline model and the surgical models obtained by left anterior descending (LAD) ligation, transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and ascending aortic banding. The availability of a specific animal model for cardiac cachexia is a crucial issue since, besides the common aspects of cachexia in the different syndromes, each disease has some peculiarities in its etiology and pathophysiology leading to cachexia. Such peculiarities need to be unraveled in order to find new targets for effective therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiac involvement in myotonic dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie; Diaz, Lars Jorge; Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm

    2014-01-01

    genetic testing for DM1. Information on incident cardiac diseases was obtained from the NPR. We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cardiac disease compared with the background population, overall and according to selected diagnostic subgroups (cardiomyopathy, heart failure, conduction...... belonging to the selected subgroups, the risk was particularly high in the first year after DM diagnosis [SIR 15.4 (95% CI: 10.9-21.3)] but remained significantly elevated in subsequent years [SIR 6.07 (95% CI: 5.11-7.16]). The risk was higher in young cohort members [e.g. 20-39 years: SIR 18.1 (95% CI: 12...... is pronounced in the young and remains elevated throughout life, stressing the importance of lifelong cardiac follow-up from time of DM diagnosis....

  6. Mechanical Regulation of Cardiac Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E Lindsey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical forces are an essential contributor to and unavoidable component of cardiac formation, both inducing and orchestrating local and global molecular and cellular changes. Experimental animal studies have contributed substantially to understanding the mechanobiology of heart development. More recent integration of high-resolution imaging modalities with computational modeling has greatly improved our quantitative understanding of hemodynamic flow in heart development. Merging these latest experimental technologies with molecular and genetic signaling analysis will accelerate our understanding of the relationships integrating mechanical and biological signaling for proper cardiac formation. These advances will likely be essential for clinically translatable guidance for targeted interventions to rescue malforming hearts and/or reconfigure malformed circulations for optimal performance. This review summarizes our current understanding on the levels of mechanical signaling in the heart and their roles in orchestrating cardiac development.

  7. Alcohol effects on cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jason D; Mouton, Alan J

    2015-04-01

    The consumption of ethanol can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the function of the heart and cardiovascular system, depending on the amount consumed. Low-to-moderate amounts of ethanol intake are associated with improvements in cardiac function and vascular health. On the other hand, ethanol chronically consumed in large amounts acts as a toxin to the heart and vasculature. The cardiac injury produced by chronic alcohol abuse can progress to heart failure and eventual death. Furthermore, alcohol abuse may exacerbate preexisting heart conditions, such as hypertension and cardiomyopathy. This article focuses on the molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology of both the beneficial and detrimental cardiac effects of alcohol. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  8. Cardiac dynamics: Alternans and arrhythmogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Tse, BA Hons MBBS MA PhD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pre-existing heterogeneities present in cardiac tissue are essential for maintaining the normal electrical and mechanical functions of the heart. Exacerbation of such heterogeneities or the emergence of dynamic factors can produce repolarization alternans, which are beat-to-beat alternations in the action potential time course. Traditionally, this was explained by restitution, but additional factors, such as cardiac memory, calcium handling dynamics, refractory period restitution, and mechano-electric feedback, are increasingly recognized as the underlying causes. The aim of this article is to review the mechanisms that generate cardiac repolarization alternans and convert spatially concordant alternans to the more arrhythmogenic spatially discordant alternans. This is followed by a discussion on how alternans generate arrhythmias in a number of clinical scenarios, and concluded by an outline of future therapeutic targets for anti-arrhythmic therapy.

  9. An airline cardiac arrest program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, M F; Donaldson, E; Geddes, J S

    1997-11-04

    As many as 1000 lives are lost annually from cardiac arrest in commercial aircraft. Ventricular fibrillation (VF), the most common mechanism, can be treated effectively only with prompt defibrillation, whereas the current policy of most airlines is to continue cardiopulmonary resuscitation pending aircraft diversion. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of making semiautomatic external defibrillators (AEDs) available for use on airline passengers with cardiac arrest. AEDs were installed on international Qantas aircraft and at major terminals, selected crew were trained in their use, and all crew members were trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Supervision was provided by medical volunteers or (remotely) by airline physicians. During a 64-month period, AEDs were used on 109 occasions: 63 times for monitoring an acutely ill passenger and 46 times for cardiac arrest. Twenty-seven episodes of cardiac arrest occurred in aircraft, often (11 of 27 [41%]) unwitnessed, and they were usually (21 of 27 [78%]) associated with asystole or pulseless idioventricular rhythm. All 19 arrests in terminals were witnessed; VF was present in 17 (89%). Overall, defibrillation was initially successful in 21 of 23 cases (91%). Long-term survival from VF was achieved in 26% (2 of 6 in aircraft and 4 of 17 in terminals). The ability to monitor cardiac rhythm aided decisions on diversion, which was avoided in most passengers with asystole or idioventricular rhythm. AEDs in aircraft and terminals, with appropriate crew training, are helpful in the management of cardiac emergencies. Survival from VF is practicable and is comparable with the most effective prehospital ambulance emergency services. Costly aircraft diversions can be avoided in clearly futile situations, enhancing the cost-effectiveness of the program.

  10. Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device implantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Rikke Esberg; Johansen, Jens Brock; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) treatment, including permanent pacemakers (PMs), cardiac resynchronization therapy devices with defibrillators (CRT-Ds) or without (CRT-Ps), and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), are associated with increased patient...

  11. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specialist Share Twitter Facebook SCA Risk Assessment Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs abruptly and without warning, and two- ... and health conditions. Start Risk Assessment The Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment Tool is supported in part ...

  12. An update on insertable cardiac monitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming J; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Krieger, Derk W

    2015-01-01

    Continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring has undergone compelling progress over the past decades. Cardiac monitoring has emerged from 12-lead electrocardiograms being performed at the discretion of the treating physician to in-hospital telemetry, Holter monitoring, prolonged external event monitoring...

  13. Cardiac Surgery: One year experience of cardiac surgery at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitral valve disease was the commonest cause of cardiac disease (58.1%). Prolonged duration of aortic cross-clamp and total operation time were associated with prolonged intensive care stay and poor patients' outcome respectively (p<0.05). While, ventricular dysfunction and total cardiopulmonary bypass time were not.

  14. Cardiac progenitor-cell derived exosomes as cell-free therapeutic for cardiac repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, E. A.; Goumans, Marie-Jose; Sluijter, J. P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have emerged as potential therapy to improve cardiac repair and prevent damage in cardiac diseases. CPCs are a promising cell source for cardiac therapy as they can generate all cardiovascular lineages in vitro and in vivo. Originating from the heart itself, CPCs may

  15. Mathematics and the Heart: Understanding Cardiac Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champanerkar, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates a biological application of the concepts of relative change and area under a curve, from mathematics. We study two biological measures "relative change in cardiac output" and "cardiac output", which are predictors of heart blockages and other related ailments. Cardiac output refers to the quantity of…

  16. Sudden cardiac arrest risk in young athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Underlying cardiac abnormalities are the main cause of unexpected death in athletes on field. These abnormalities have been associated with a previous history of syncope, a family history of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), cardiac murmur, a history of over-exhaustion post exercise and ventricular tachyarrhythmia during ...

  17. Optimal Technique in Cardiac Anesthesia Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svircevic, V.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate fast-track cardiac anesthesia techniques and investigate their impact on postoperative mortality, morbidity and quality of life. The following topics will be discussed in the thesis. (1.) Is fast track cardiac anesthesia a safe technique for cardiac surgery?

  18. Regulation of Cardiac Hypertrophy: the nuclear option

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.D. Kuster (Diederik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCardiac hypertrophy is the response of the heart to an increased workload. After myocardial infarction (MI) the surviving muscle tissue has to work harder to maintain cardiac output. This sustained increase in workload leads to cardiac hypertrophy. Despite its apparent appropriateness,

  19. Discovery and progress of direct cardiac reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hidenori; Ieda, Masaki

    2017-06-01

    Cardiac disease remains a major cause of death worldwide. Direct cardiac reprogramming has emerged as a promising approach for cardiac regenerative therapy. After the discovery of MyoD, a master regulator for skeletal muscle, other single cardiac reprogramming factors (master regulators) have been sought. Discovery of cardiac reprogramming factors was inspired by the finding that multiple, but not single, transcription factors were needed to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts. We first reported a combination of cardiac-specific transcription factors, Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT), that could convert mouse fibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells, which were designated as induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs). Following our first report of cardiac reprogramming, many researchers, including ourselves, demonstrated an improvement in cardiac reprogramming efficiency, in vivo direct cardiac reprogramming for heart regeneration, and cardiac reprogramming in human cells. However, cardiac reprogramming in human cells and adult fibroblasts remains inefficient, and further efforts are needed. We believe that future research elucidating epigenetic barriers and molecular mechanisms of direct cardiac reprogramming will improve the reprogramming efficiency, and that this new technology has great potential for clinical applications.

  20. Cardiac tumors: optimal cardiac MR sequences and spectrum of imaging appearances.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the optimal cardiac MRI sequences for and the spectrum of imaging appearances of cardiac tumors. CONCLUSION: Recent technologic advances in cardiac MRI have resulted in the rapid acquisition of images of the heart with high spatial and temporal resolution and excellent myocardial tissue characterization. Cardiac MRI provides optimal assessment of the location, functional characteristics, and soft-tissue features of cardiac tumors, allowing accurate differentiation of benign and malignant lesions.

  1. History of cardiac trauma surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is but what might reasonably be expected. For, if the primary or dominant part be diseased, there is nothing from which the other parts which depend upon it can derive sucour'.[10,11] Celsus. (1st century AD) recognised the clinical features of shock associated with a cardiac injury when he wrote in De Medicina that,.

  2. Multiple immunophenotypes of cardiac telocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuqiao; Li, Cixia; Lu, Zhaohui; Li, He; Guo, Zhikun

    2015-11-01

    Telocytes (TCs) form a 3-dimensional network in the myocardial interstitium, which most probably play important role(s) in heart development. However, the dynamics of their prolongations, continuous cell shape changes and adherence properties have not been well documented till recently. The aim of this study was to investigate dynamics of extension of prolongations (Telopods) and multiple phenotypes of cardiac TCs cultured in vitro. Cardiac TCs were isolated from neonatal rats by a combined enzyme digestion process and identified by light microscopy, immunofluorescence analysis and scanning using electron microscopy (SEM). Their continuous changes in shape were analyzed by a Live Cell Imaging System and multiple phenotypes were identified by immunofluorescence analysis using various markers, like vimentin, c-kit, CD34, nanog and sca-1. Cardiac TCs displayed piriform/spindle/triangular shapes with long and slender telopodes showing extremely long prolongations. The morphology of cell body was continuously changing while their prolongations were extending gradually. After adhering to the surface, TCs' movement and extension of their prolongations lasted for approximately 1.5h. Cardiac TCs expressed mesenchymal cell marker vimentin, hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34, embryonic stem cell-associated gene of Nanog, and myocardial stem cell markers sca-1 and c-kit. These findings indicate that cultured TCs in vitro have multiple phenotypes, which are most likely important for evaluating their functional roles in heart development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Current Perspectives in Cardiac Laterality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Campione

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first organ to break symmetry in the developing embryo and onset of dextral looping is the first indication of this event. Looping is a complex process that progresses concomitantly to cardiac chamber differentiation and ultimately leads to the alignment of the cardiac regions in their final topology. Generation of cardiac asymmetry is crucial to ensuring proper form and consequent functionality of the heart, and therefore it is a highly regulated process. It has long been known that molecular left/right signals originate far before morphological asymmetry and therefore can direct it. The use of several animal models has led to the characterization of a complex regulatory network, which invariably converges on the Tgf-β signaling molecule Nodal and its downstream target, the homeobox transcription factor Pitx2. Here, we review current data on the cellular and molecular bases of cardiac looping and laterality, and discuss the contribution of Nodal and Pitx2 to these processes. A special emphasis will be given to the morphogenetic role of Pitx2 and to its modulation of transcriptional and functional properties, which have also linked laterality to atrial fibrillation.

  4. Cardiac leiomyosarcoma, a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Kristensen, Bjarne W; Gill, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    In this case report we present the history of a patient admitted with recurrent pulmonary edema. Transesophageal chocardiography showed a tumour in the left atrium, occluding the ostium of the mitral valve and mimicking intermittent mitral stenosis. Cardiac surgery followed by pathological...

  5. Congenital cardiac disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, E; McCaw, D

    1984-09-01

    Aortic stenosis is a heritable cardiac anomaly most common in German Shepherds, Boxers and Newfoundlands, and less common in Pugs, English Bulldogs, Boston Terriers, Fox Terriers, Schnauzers and Bassets. Clinical signs are associated with secondary left-sided heart failure and include coughing, moist rales, exercise intolerance, arrhythmias and a weak femoral pulse. It causes an ejection-type crescendo-decrescendo, systolic murmur best heard on the left side near the elbow. The ECG may be normal or may show signs of left ventricular hypertrophy, including an axis of less than 40 degrees, a QRS complex of greater than 60 seconds in duration, R waves greater than 3 mv in amplitude, ST segment slurring or depression, or T waves of an amplitude greater than 25% of that of R waves. A LAT radiograph usually reveals an enlarged cardiac silhouette, loss of the cranial cardiac waist, and normal pulmonary vasculature, while DV projections show an elongated cardiac silhouette, rounding of the left ventricular border, and a normal descending aorta. Nonselective angiocardiography reveals poststenotic dilatation of the aorta. Treatment of severely affected dogs involves surgical correction.

  6. History of cardiac trauma surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6. History of cardiac trauma surgery scene of battle. Previously, casualties were considered to be a nuisance. He introduced a system of triage to manage patients according to the severity of their wounds and also successfully decompressed the pericardial sac of a patient by catheter drainage. The pericardiotomy that was.

  7. Response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Schiffer, Angélique A; Widdershoven, Jos W

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a promising treatment for a subgroup of patients with advanced congestive heart failure and a prolonged QRS interval. Despite the majority of patients benefiting from CRT, 10-40% of patients do not respond to this treatment and are labeled as nonresponders...

  8. The Johannesburg cardiac rehabilitation programme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-16

    Feb 16, 1991 ... Cardiac rehabilitation, including supervised exercise therapy, has become a generally accepted mode of ... the effects of a combined health education and exercise training programme on these patients' ..... when exercise training was combined with body weight loss. It has also recently been suggested ...

  9. Practolol in Hyperthyroid Cardiac Failure*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-07-24

    Jul 24, 1971 ... continuous bruit, hyperactivity, tremor, lid-lag, warm sweaty palms, and a proximal myopathy. In addition, signs of cardiac failure were found. notably ankle oedema, a raised jugular venous pressure. hepatomegaly and atrial fibrillation. Protein- bound iodine concentration was 12 .ug/100 ml and neck "'I.

  10. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery In Eritrea.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    age, gender, demography, type of heart defects and treatment offered with surgical outcomes was retrieved. Diagnosis was primarily made clinically based on ... 300. Most open cardiac operations were performed for patients with ventricular septal defects 74(25%) while the majority of closed heart operations were for patent.

  11. The cardiac patient in Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamsi-Pasha, Majed; Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Ramadan is one of the five fundamental pillars of Islam. During this month, the majority of the 1.6 billion Muslims worldwide observe an absolute fast from dawn to sunset without any drink or food. Our review shows that the impact of fasting during Ramadan on patients with stable cardiac disease is minimal and does not lead to any increase in acute events. Most patients with the stable cardiac disease can fast safely. Most of the drug doses and their regimen are easily manageable during this month and may need not to be changed. Ramadan fasting is a healthy nonpharmacological means for improving cardiovascular risk factors. Most of the Muslims, who suffer from chronic diseases, insist on fasting Ramadan despite being exempted by religion. The Holy Quran specifically exempts the sick from fasting. This is particularly relevant if fasting worsens one's illness or delays recovery. Patients with unstable angina, recent myocardial infarction, uncontrolled hypertension, decompensated heart failure, recent cardiac intervention or cardiac surgery or any debilitating diseases should avoid fasting.

  12. Ambulatory surveillance of patients referred for cardiac rehabilitation following cardiac hospitalization: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, David A; Habot, Juda; Grace, Sherry L; Fair, Terry; Kiernan, David; Clark, Wendy; Fell, David

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine the feasibility of implementing an ambulatory surveillance system for monitoring patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation following cardiac hospitalizations. This study consists of 1208 consecutive referrals to cardiac rehabilitation between October 2007 and April 2008. Patient attendance at cardiac rehabilitation, waiting times for cardiac rehabilitation, and adverse events while waiting for cardiac rehabilitation were tracked by telephone surveillance by a nurse. Among the 1208 consecutive patients referred, only 44.7% attended cardiac rehabilitation; 36.4% of referred patients were known not to have attended any cardiac rehabilitation, while an additional 18.9% of referred patients were lost to follow-up. Among the 456 referred patients who attended the cardiac rehabilitation program, 19 (4.2%) experienced an adverse event while in the queue (13 of which were for cardiovascular hospitalizations with no deaths), with mean waiting times of 20 days and 24 days among those without and with adverse events, respectively. Among the 440 referred patients who were known not to have attended any cardiac rehabilitation program, 114 (25.9%) had adverse clinical events while in the queue; 46 of these events required cardiac hospitalization and 8 patients died. Ambulatory surveillance for cardiac rehabilitation referrals is feasible. The high adverse event rates in the queue, particularly among patients who are referred but who do not attend cardiac rehabilitation programs, underscores the importance of ambulatory referral surveillance systems for cardiac rehabilitation following cardiac hospitalizations. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiac arrest: resuscitation and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Kaustubha D; Halperin, Henry R; Becker, Lance B

    2015-06-05

    The modern treatment of cardiac arrest is an increasingly complex medical procedure with a rapidly changing array of therapeutic approaches designed to restore life to victims of sudden death. The 2 primary goals of providing artificial circulation and defibrillation to halt ventricular fibrillation remain of paramount importance for saving lives. They have undergone significant improvements in technology and dissemination into the community subsequent to their establishment 60 years ago. The evolution of artificial circulation includes efforts to optimize manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation, external mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation devices designed to augment circulation, and may soon advance further into the rapid deployment of specially designed internal emergency cardiopulmonary bypass devices. The development of defibrillation technologies has progressed from bulky internal defibrillators paddles applied directly to the heart, to manually controlled external defibrillators, to automatic external defibrillators that can now be obtained over-the-counter for widespread use in the community or home. But the modern treatment of cardiac arrest now involves more than merely providing circulation and defibrillation. As suggested by a 3-phase model of treatment, newer approaches targeting patients who have had a more prolonged cardiac arrest include treatment of the metabolic phase of cardiac arrest with therapeutic hypothermia, agents to treat or prevent reperfusion injury, new strategies specifically focused on pulseless electric activity, which is the presenting rhythm in at least one third of cardiac arrests, and aggressive post resuscitation care. There are discoveries at the cellular and molecular level about ischemia and reperfusion pathobiology that may be translated into future new therapies. On the near horizon is the combination of advanced cardiopulmonary bypass plus a cocktail of multiple agents targeted at restoration of normal metabolism and

  14. Cardiac symptoms before sudden cardiac death caused by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Thomas Hadberg; Risgaard, Bjarke; Jabbari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a frequent cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among the young (SCDY). The aim of this study was to characterize symptoms before SCDY due to HCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Through review of all death certificates, we identified all SCDs in Danes aged 1-35 years...... in 2000-2009. Nationwide we included all deaths (n = 8756) and identified 431 autopsied SCDYs. All available records from hospitals and general practitioners were retrieved. To compare symptoms, we included a control groups consisting of traffic accident victims (n = 74). In the 10-year study period, 431...... autopsied SCDY cases were reviewed and 38 cases (9%) were included, of which 22 (58%) had morphologic findings diagnostic of HCM and 16 (42%) had findings suggestive, but not diagnostic, of HCM ('possible HCM'). Cardiac symptoms >1 h prior to death were reported in 21 (55%) of cases, and 16 (42%) sought...

  15. Boosters and barriers for direct cardiac reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkhabi, Mahmood; Zonooz, Elmira Rezaei; Baharvand, Hossein

    2017-06-01

    Heart disease is currently the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which accounts for approximately 33% of all deaths. Recently, a promising and alchemy-like strategy has been developed called direct cardiac reprogramming, which directly converts somatic cells such as fibroblasts to cardiac lineage cells such as cardiomyocytes (CMs), termed induced CMs or iCMs. The first in vitro cardiac reprogramming study, mediated by cardiac transcription factors (TFs)-Gata4, Tbx5 and Mef2C-, was not enough efficient to produce an adequate number of fully reprogrammed, functional iCMs. As a result, numerous combinations of cardiac TFs exist for direct cardiac reprogramming of mouse and human fibroblasts. However, the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming remains low. Recently, a number of cellular and molecular mechanisms have been identified to increase the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming and the quality of iCMs. For example, microgrooved substrate, cardiogenic growth factors [VEGF, FGF, BMP4 and Activin A], and an appropriate stoichiometry of TFs boost the direct cardiac reprogramming. On the other hand, serum, TGFβ signaling, activators of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and some epigenetic factors (Bmi1 and Ezh2) are barriers for direct cardiac reprogramming. Manipulating these mechanisms by the application of boosters and removing barriers can increase the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming and possibly make iCMs reliable for cell-based therapy or other potential applications. In this review, we summarize the latest trends in cardiac TF- or miRNA-based direct cardiac reprogramming and comprehensively discuses all molecular and cellular boosters and barriers affecting direct cardiac reprogramming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiac rehabilitation improves the blood plasma properties of cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwoździński, Krzysztof; Pieniążek, Anna; Czepas, Jan; Brzeszczyńska, Joanna; Jegier, Anna; Pawlicki, Lucjan

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves exercise tolerance and general function. However, its effects on blood plasma in cardiac patients remain uncertain. Our aim was to examine the effect of comprehensive CR on the oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant plasma status in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after cardiac interventions. Exercise-based rehabilitation was established as ergometer training, adjusted for individual patients' physical efficiency. Training was repeated three times a week for two months. The standard biochemical (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and metabolic parameters (peak oxygen uptake [VO2] and peak workload) were determined. We assessed plasma viscosity, lipid peroxidation, carbonyl compounds levels, glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (ASC) levels and the non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity of plasma in 12 patients with CAD before and after CR. Parameters were examined before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 1 h later. We also compared morphological and biochemical parameters of blood, as well as other parameters such as heart rate and blood pressure (resting and exercise), VO2max and peak workload (W) before and after CR. Before CR, a significant decrease in GSH concentration was observed 1 h after exercise. Conversely, after CR, GSH, and ASC levels remained unchanged immediately after exercise. However, ASC increased after CR after exercise and 1 h later in comparison to before CR. There was a significant increase in ferric reduction ability of plasma immediately after exercise after CR, when compared with before CR. CR improved several blood biochemical parameters, peak VO2, induced an increase in systolic blood pressure peak, and patients' peak workload. After CR, improvements were detected in oxidative stress parameters, except in the level of carbonyls. These changes may contribute to the increased functional heart capacity and better tolerance to exercise and

  17. Cardiac Mapping: Utility or Futility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Anoop Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac mapping is a broad term that covers several modes of mapping such as body surface,1 endocardial,2 and epicardial3 mapping. The recording and analysis of extracellular electrograms, reported as early as 1915, forms the basis for cardiac mapping.4 More commonly, cardiac mapping is performed with catheters that are introduced percutaneously into the heart chambers and sequentially record the endocardial electrograms with the purpose of correlating local electrogram to cardiac anatomy. These electrophysiological catheters are navigated and localized with the use of fluoroscopy. Nevertheless, the use of fluoroscopy for these purposes may be problematic for a number of reasons, including: 1 the inability to accurately associate intracardiac electrograms with their precise location within the heart; 2 the endocardial surface is invisible using fluoroscopy and the target sites can only be approximated by their relationship with nearby structures such as ribs, blood vessels, and the position of other catheters; 3 due to the limitations of two-dimensional fluoroscopy, navigation is not exact, time consuming, and requires multiple views to estimate the three-dimensional location of the catheter; 4 inability to accurately return the catheter precisely to a previously mapped site; and 5 exposure of the patient and medical team to radiation. Newer mapping systems have revolutionized the clinical electrophysiology laboratory in recent years and have offered new insights into arrhythmia mechanisms. They are aimed at improving the resolution, three-dimensional spatial localization, and/or rapidity of acquisition of cardiac activation maps. These systems use novel approaches to accurately determine the three-dimensional location of the mapping catheter and local electrograms are acquired using conventional, well-established methods. Recorded data of the catheter location and intracardiac electrogram at that location are used to reconstruct in real-time a

  18. An Unusual Cause of Cardiac Tamponade during Cardiac Catheterization Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanwita Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Catheter-based diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are rapidly advancing. However, catheter related complications sometimes become life threatening. Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious complication of this procedure. We have summarized one cardiac tamponade pejoration due to secondary coronary vessels laceration by the implanted pericardial drainage. Case report. A 4-year-old baby having Tetralogy of Fallot was posted for diagnostic catheterization study. Patient was induced with sevoflurane and spontaneous respiration was maintained. After catheter insertion to RV, dye was injected through the catheter which rapidly spread into the pericardial cavity indicating right ventricle perforation. Immediately, blood was aspirated under transthoracic echocardiographic guidance and hemodynamics started improving. For the provision of quick access to aspirate further collection, an intrapericardial sheath was inserted after multiple attempts. Patient’s condition started deteriorating again. TTE revealed again some collection and it was increasing gradually. On exploration, it was found that there was continuous bleeding from a lacerated epicardial vessel which contributed to the pericardial collection leading to further tamponade effect. This second iatrogenic injury complicated the management of the first iatrogenic cardiac perforation and, thereby, created a life-threatening situation which needed immediate surgical exploration. Discussion. Usual cause of tamponade after right ventricular perforation is bleeding from the RV, but in our case the second tamponade was not due to bleeding from the RV, but was rather from new laceration injury of epicardial vessels which was remained undiagnosed till exploration.

  19. Cardiac troponin: an emerging cardiac biomarker in animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal V. Undhad

    Full Text Available Analysis of cardiac troponin I (cTn I and T (cTnT are considered the “gold standard” for the non-invasive diagnosis of myocardial injury in human and animals. It has replaced traditionally used cardiac biomarkers such as myoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK and CK-MB due to its high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of myocardial injury. Cardiac troponins are proteins that control the calcium-mediated interaction between actin and myosin, allowing contraction at the sarcomere level. Concentration of the cTn can be correlated microscopic lesion and loss of immunolabeling in myocardium damage. Troponin concentration remains elevated in blood for 1-2wks so that wide window is available for diagnosis of myocardial damage. The cTn test has >95% specificity and sensitivity and test is less time consuming (10 to 15 minutes and less costly (INR 200 to INR 500. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 508-511

  20. Programmatic Life Cycle Environmental Assessment for Smoke/Obscurants. Volume 2. Red, White, and Plasticized White Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    for purposes of advertisement. Reproduction of this document in whole or in part is prohibited except with permission of the Commander, Chemical...harengus), Atlanta Salmon (Salmo Salar), Lobster (Homarus americanus), and Beach Flea ( Gammarus oceanAcus). 3. Fish. Res. Ed. Canada. 27, 21-29 (1970...25-37) Gammarus fasclatus > 420 < 560 250 (scud) (190-310) Aseilus militaris > 420 > 560 - (Sowbug) Chironomus tentans 260 140 (miae) (210-330) (110

  1. Systems biology and cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Andrew A; Roden, Dan M

    2012-10-27

    During the past few years, the development of effective, empirical technologies for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias has exceeded the pace at which detailed knowledge of the underlying biology has accumulated. As a result, although some clinical arrhythmias can be cured with techniques such as catheter ablation, drug treatment and prediction of the risk of sudden death remain fairly primitive. The identification of key candidate genes for monogenic arrhythmia syndromes shows that to bring basic biology to the clinic is a powerful approach. Increasingly sophisticated experimental models and methods of measurement, including stem cell-based models of human cardiac arrhythmias, are being deployed to study how perturbations in several biologic pathways can result in an arrhythmia-prone heart. The biology of arrhythmia is largely quantifiable, which allows for systematic analysis that could transform treatment strategies that are often still empirical into management based on molecular evidence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Cardiac arrhythmias: Diagnosis and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, V; Marijon, E

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias, with, on top of the list, atrial fibrillation, are frequent conditions and any physician might have to get involved at any stage of patient care (from diagnosis to treatment), without always having the opportunity to immediately refer to the cardiologist. The aim of this review is to present a summary of pathophysiology, clinical and electrocardiographic presentations, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the main cardiac arrhythmias. Supra-ventricular tachycardias (atrial fibrillation and flutter, atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardias) and ventricular tachycardias will be consecutively presented and discussed. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Sudden cardiac death in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Camilo Pellegrino dos Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The most accepted definition of sudden cardiac death nowadays is an unexplained death occurred suddenly within one hour of symptom onset. If it was not witnessed, individuals need to had been observed for at least 24 hours before the event and should be discarded the possibility of non cardiac causes of sudden death, pulmonary embolism or extensive malignancy. The term athlete refers to individuals of any age who participate in collective or individual regular physical activity, as well as physical training program for regular competitions. The sudden death of a young athlete, whether amateur or professional, especially during competitions, is always dramatic, with strong negative social impact and in the media. The fact that sports are recommended as a formula for longevity and quality of life makes these events a cause for concern in sports and society in general.

  4. Nutritional Status and Cardiac Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Ahn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is necessary for the degradation of long-lasting proteins and nonfunctional organelles, and is activated to promote cellular survival. However, overactivation of autophagy may deplete essential molecules and organelles responsible for cellular survival. Lifelong calorie restriction by 40% has been shown to increase the cardiac expression of autophagic markers, which suggests that it may have a cardioprotective effect by decreasing oxidative damage brought on by aging and cardiovascular diseases. Although cardiac autophagy is critical to regulating protein quality and maintaining cellular function and survival, increased or excessive autophagy may have deleterious effects on the heart under some circumstances, including pressure overload-induced heart failure. The importance of autophagy has been shown in nutrient supply and preservation of energy in times of limitation, such as ischemia. Some studies have suggested that a transition from obesity to metabolic syndrome may involve progressive changes in myocardial inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, fibrosis, apoptosis, and myocardial autophagy.

  5. Heart fields and cardiac morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Robert G; Buckingham, Margaret E; Moorman, Antoon F

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we focus on two important steps in the formation of the embryonic heart: (i) the progressive addition of late differentiating progenitor cells from the second heart field that drives heart tube extension during looping morphogenesis, and (ii) the emergence of patterned proliferation within the embryonic myocardium that generates distinct cardiac chambers. During the transition between these steps, the major site of proliferation switches from progenitor cells outside the early heart to proliferation within the embryonic myocardium. The second heart field and ballooning morphogenesis concepts have major repercussions on our understanding of human heart development and disease. In particular, they provide a framework to dissect the origin of congenital heart defects and the regulation of myocardial proliferation and differentiation of relevance for cardiac repair. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  6. [Cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannem, M; Ghannem, L; Ghannem, L

    2015-12-01

    Although the proofs of the benefits of cardiac rehabilitation accumulate, many patients are not sent to rehabilitation units, especially younger and very elderly patients. As the length of stay in acute care units decreases, rehabilitation offers more time to fully assess the patients' conditions and needs. Meta-analyses of randomised trials suggest that mortality can be improved by as much as 20-30%. In addition, rehabilitation helps managing risk factors, including hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking and sedentary behaviours. Physical training also helps improving exercise capacity. Because of all of these effects, cardiac rehabilitation for post-myocardial infarction patients has been given a class IA recommendation in current guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. [Ventricular tachycardia and cardiac hemochromatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis Moríñigo, J; Martín Luengo, C; Ledesma, C; Arribas, A; Nieto, A A; Rodríguez, J

    2001-11-01

    Hemochromatosis is characterized by an excessive iron deposit in different tissues. Cardiac involvement may be observed in one third of the patients due to hemochromatosis and occurs as a consequence of ferritin accumulation in the heart which on one hand induces alterations in systolic and diastolic ventricular function and on the other hand, an arrythmogenic substrate. The clinical manifestations can be indistinctly related to atrial tachyarrhythmia, ventricular tachyarrhythmia, atrio-ventricular blockade and congestive heart failure, with the first being the most frequent. We present the case of one patient with secondary hemochromatosis to repeated transfusions due to sideroblastic anemia with cardiac involvement, whose initial heart manifestations were recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmia and sustained ventricular tachycardia with syncope for which an automatic defibrillator was implanted.

  8. Cardiac Arrest in a Heart Transplant Patient Receiving Dexmedetomidine During Cardiac Catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lawrence Israel; Miyamoto, Shelley D; Stenquist, Scott; Twite, Mark David

    2016-06-01

    Dexmedetomidine is an α-2 agonist with a sedative and cardiopulmonary profile that makes it an attractive anesthetic in pediatric cardiac patients. Cardiac transplant patients may suffer from acute cellular rejection of the cardiac conduction system and, therefore, are at an increased risk of the electrophysiological effect of dexmedetomidine. We present such a patient who had a cardiac arrest while receiving dexmedetomidine during cardiac catheterization. Because acute cellular rejection of the cardiac conduction system is difficult to diagnose, dexmedetomidine should be used with caution in pediatric heart transplant patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Biosynthesis of cardiac natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    peptides has only been elucidated during the last decade. The cellular synthesis including amino acid modifications and proteolytic cleavages has proven considerably more complex than initially perceived. Consequently, the elimination phase of the peptide products in circulation is not yet well...... competent endocrine cells. The structurally related atrial natriuretic peptide will be mentioned where appropriate, whereas C-type natriuretic peptide will not be considered as a cardiac peptide of relevance in mammalian physiology....

  10. Cardiac metabolism in myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Fini, Massimo; Caminiti, Giuseppe; Barbaro, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia occurs for a mismatch between blood flow and metabolic requirements, when the rate of oxygen and metabolic substrates delivery to the myocardium is insufficient to meet the myocardial energy requirements for a given myocardial workload. During ischemia, substantial changes occur in cardiac energy metabolism, as a consequence of the reduced oxygen availability. Some of these metabolic changes are beneficial and may help the heart adapt to the ischemic condition. However, most of the changes are maladaptive and contribute to the severity of the ischemic injury leading stunned or hibernating myocardium, cell death and ultimately to contractile disfunction. Dramatic changes in cardiac metabolism and contractile function, also occur during myocardial reperfusion as a consequence of the generation of oxygen free radicals, loss of cation homeostasis, depletion of energy stores, and changes in subcellular activities. The reperfusion injury may cause in the death of cardiac myocytes that were still viable immediately before myocardial reperfusion. This form of myocardial injury, by itself can induce cardiomyocyte death and increase infarct size. During acute ischemia the relative substrate concentration is the prime factor defining preference and utilization rate. Allosteric enzyme regulation and protein phosphorylation cascades, partially controlled by hormones such as insulin, modulate the concentration effect; together they provide short-term adjustments of cardiac energy metabolism. The expression of metabolic genes is also dynamically regulated in response to developmental and (patho)physiological conditions, leading to long-term adjustments. Specific nuclear receptor transcription factors and co-activators regulate the expression of these genes. Understanding the functional role of these changes is critical for developing the concept of metabolic intervention for heart disease. The paper will review the alterations in energy metabolism that occur

  11. Heart Fields and Cardiac Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Robert G.; Buckingham, Margaret E.; Moorman, Antoon F.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we focus on two important steps in the formation of the embryonic heart: (i) the progressive addition of late differentiating progenitor cells from the second heart field that drives heart tube extension during looping morphogenesis, and (ii) the emergence of patterned proliferation within the embryonic myocardium that generates distinct cardiac chambers. During the transition between these steps, the major site of proliferation switches from progenitor cells outside the early...

  12. Pregnancy as a cardiac stress model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eunhee; Leinwand, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy occurs during pregnancy as a consequence of both volume overload and hormonal changes. Both pregnancy- and exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy are generally thought to be similar and physiological. Despite the fact that there are shared transcriptional responses in both forms of cardiac adaptation, pregnancy results in a distinct signature of gene expression in the heart. In some cases, however, pregnancy can induce adverse cardiac events in previously healthy women without any known cardiovascular disease. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of non-obstetric mortality during pregnancy. To understand how pregnancy can cause heart disease, it is first important to understand cardiac adaptation during normal pregnancy. This review provides an overview of the cardiac consequences of pregnancy, including haemodynamic, functional, structural, and morphological adaptations, as well as molecular phenotypes. In addition, this review describes the signalling pathways responsible for pregnancy-induced cardiac hypertrophy and angiogenesis. We also compare and contrast cardiac adaptation in response to disease, exercise, and pregnancy. The comparisons of these settings of cardiac hypertrophy provide insight into pregnancy-associated cardiac adaptation. PMID:24448313

  13. Calcium Signaling and Cardiac Arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstrom, Andrew P; Dobrev, Dobromir; Wehrens, Xander H T

    2017-06-09

    There has been a significant progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which calcium (Ca2+) ions mediate various types of cardiac arrhythmias. A growing list of inherited gene defects can cause potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia syndromes, including catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, congenital long QT syndrome, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In addition, acquired deficits of multiple Ca2+-handling proteins can contribute to the pathogenesis of arrhythmias in patients with various types of heart disease. In this review article, we will first review the key role of Ca2+ in normal cardiac function-in particular, excitation-contraction coupling and normal electric rhythms. The functional involvement of Ca2+ in distinct arrhythmia mechanisms will be discussed, followed by various inherited arrhythmia syndromes caused by mutations in Ca2+-handling proteins. Finally, we will discuss how changes in the expression of regulation of Ca2+ channels and transporters can cause acquired arrhythmias, and how these mechanisms might be targeted for therapeutic purposes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Cardiac MRI in restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Singh Gulati, G., E-mail: gulatigurpreet@rediffmail.com [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Seth, S. [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Sharma, S. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India)

    2012-02-15

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a specific group of heart muscle disorders characterized by inadequate ventricular relaxation during diastole. This leads to diastolic dysfunction with relative preservation of systolic function. Although short axis systolic function is usually preserved in RCM, the long axis systolic function may be severely impaired. Confirmation of diagnosis and information regarding aetiology, extent of myocardial damage, and response to treatment requires imaging. Importantly, differentiation from constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is needed, as only the latter is managed surgically. Echocardiography is the initial cardiac imaging technique but cannot reliably suggest a tissue diagnosis; although recent advances, especially tissue Doppler imaging and spectral tracking, have improved its ability to differentiate RCM from CCP. Cardiac catheterization is the reference standard, but is invasive, two-dimensional, and does not aid myocardial characterization. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile technique providing anatomical, morphological and functional information. In recent years, it has been shown to provide important information regarding disease mechanisms, and also been found useful to guide treatment, assess its outcome and predict patient prognosis. This review describes the CMR features of RCM, appearances in various diseases, its overall role in patient management, and how it compares with other imaging techniques.

  15. Risk factors and the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy on cardiac and non-cardiac mortality in MADIT-CRT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkiomaki, Juha S; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Kutyifa, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    .001). Ischaemic cardiomyopathy was associated only with non-cardiac death (HR 3.54, P = 0.001). CRT-D vs. an ICD-only was associated with a reduced risk for cardiac death in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) (HR 0.56, P = 0.029) but was associated with an increased risk for non-cardiac death in non...

  16. Sudden cardiac death in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, C; Borjesson, M

    2014-02-01

    A 'paradox of sport' is that in addition to the undisputed health benefits of physical activity, vigorous exertion may transiently increase the risk of acute cardiac events. In general, the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) approximately doubles during physical activity and is 2- to 3-fold higher in athletes compared to nonathletes. The incidence of SCD in young athletes is in fact very low, at around 1-3 per 100,000, but attracts much public attention. Variations in incidence figures may be explained by the methodology used for data collection and more importantly by differences between subpopulations of athletes. The incidence of SCD in older (≥ 35 years) athletes is higher and may be expected to rise, as more and older individuals take part in organized sports. SCD is often the first clinical manifestation of a potentially fatal underlying cardiovascular disorder and usually occurs in previously asymptomatic athletes. In the young (cardiac abnormalities, whilst coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause in older athletes. Cardiac screening including family/personal history, physical examination and resting electrocardiogram (ECG) may identify individuals at risk and has the potential to decrease the risk of SCD in young athletes. Screening including the ECG has a high sensitivity for underlying disease in young athletes, but the specificity needs to be improved, whereas the sensitivity of screening without the use of ECG is very low. The screening modality recommended for young athletes is of limited value in older athletes, who should receive individualized screening with cardiac stress testing for patients with high risk of underlying CAD. As cardiovascular screening will never be able to identify all athletes at risk, adequate preparedness is vital in case of a potentially fatal event at the sporting arena/facility. Firstly, we will review the magnitude of the problem of SCD in athletes of different ages, as well as the aetiology. Secondly, we

  17. Midlife risk factor exposure and incidence of cardiac arrest depending on cardiac or non-cardiac origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Marcus Andreas; Kennedy, Linn Maria Anna; Juhlin, Tord; Melander, Olle

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about midlife risk factors of future cardiac arrest. Our objective was to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors in midlife in relation to the risk of cardiac arrest (CA) of cardiac and non-cardiac origin later in life. We cross-matched individuals of the population based Malmö Diet and Cancer study (n=30,447) with the local CA registry of the city of Malmö. Baseline exposures were related to incident CA. During a mean follow-up of 17.6±4.6years, 378 CA occurred, of whom 17.2% survived to discharge. Independent midlife risk factors for CA of cardiac origin included coronary artery disease {HR 2.84 (1.86-4.34) (porigin. Independent midlife risk factors for CA of non-cardiac origin included obesity (BMI>30kg/m(2)) {HR 2.37 (1.51-3.71) (porigin. Whereas CA of cardiac origin is predicted by history of cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus, the main risk factors for CA of non-cardiac origin are obesity and hypertension. In addition to control of classical cardiovascular risk factors for prevention of CA, our results suggest that prevention of midlife obesity may reduce the risk of CA of non-cardiac origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mast Cells: Key Contributors to Cardiac Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Levick

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, increased numbers of mast cells have been associated with fibrosis in numerous cardiac pathologies, implicating mast cells in the development of cardiac fibrosis. Subsequently, several approaches have been utilised to demonstrate a causal role for mast cells in animal models of cardiac fibrosis including mast cell stabilising compounds, rodents deficient in mast cells, and inhibition of the actions of mast cell-specific proteases such as chymase and tryptase. Whilst most evidence supports a pro-fibrotic role for mast cells, there is evidence that in some settings these cells can oppose fibrosis. A major gap in our current understanding of cardiac mast cell function is identification of the stimuli that activate these cells causing them to promote a pro-fibrotic environment. This review will present the evidence linking mast cells to cardiac fibrosis, as well as discuss the major questions that remain in understanding how mast cells contribute to cardiac fibrosis.

  19. Mitochondria in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosca, Mariana G.; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) frequently is the unfavorable outcome of pathological heart hypertrophy. In contrast to physiological cardiac hypertrophy, which occurs in response to exercise and leads to full adaptation of contractility to the increased wall stress, pathological hypertrophy occurs in response to volume or pressure overload, ultimately leading to contractile dysfunction and HF. Because cardiac hypertrophy impairs the relationship between ATP demand and production, mitochondrial bioenergetics must keep up with the cardiac hypertrophic phenotype. We review data regarding the mitochondrial proteomic and energetic remodeling in cardiac hypertrophy, as well as the temporal and causal relationship between mitochondrial failure to match the increased energy demand and progression to cardiac decompensation. We suggest that the maladaptive effect of sustained neuroendocrine signals on mitochondria leads to bioenergetic fading which contributes to the progression from cardiac hypertrophy to failure. PMID:22982369

  20. Cardiac arrest without physical cardiac injury during Nuss repair of pectus excavatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jianyong; Luo, Canqiao; Liu, Zhenguo; Cheng, Chao

    2017-07-24

    Cardiac arrest is a lethal complication of Nuss repair of pectus excavatum which is strongly related to heart or big vessels injury. A rare case developed cardiac arrest without direct cardiac injury during Nuss procedure is presented in this article. In July 2015, a previously healthy 18-year-old man undergoing Nuss repair for pectus excavatum developed cardiac arrest while the Nuss bar was being inserted into the chest. After successful resuscitation and exclusion of direct cardiac injury, the Nuss procedure was continued. The patient suffered a second cardiac arrest during rotation of the Nuss bar. This time, the patient had poor initial response to resuscitation and defibrillation until the retrosternal bar was removed. He ultimately recovered well from the episodes of cardiac arrest, but was unable to receive surgical correction of his pectus excavatum deformity. The possible mechanisms of cardiac arrest and lessons we can learn from this complication are discussed.

  1. Cardiac-specific ablation of glutaredoxin 3 leads to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental and clinical investigations have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is increased during cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Excess ROS can directly impair cardiac contraction through modification of Ca2+ handling proteins or activate multiple effectors and sig...

  2. Prognostic association of cardiac anxiety with new cardiac events and mortality following myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Beek, Maria H. C. T.; Zuidersma, Marij; Lappenschaar, Martijn; Pop, Gheorghe; Roest, Annelieke M.; Van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Speckens, Anne E. M.; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Background General anxiety and depressive symptoms following a myocardial infarction are associated with a worse cardiac prognosis. However, the contribution of specific aspects of anxiety within this context remains unclear. Aims To evaluate the independent prognostic association of cardiac anxiety

  3. Cardiac tamponade: contrast reflux as an indicator of cardiac chamber equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauta Foeke Jacob

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic hemopericardium remains a rare entity; it does however commonly cause cardiac tamponade which remains a major cause of death in traumatic blunt cardiac injury. Objectives We present a case of blunt chest trauma complicated by cardiac tamponade causing cardiac chamber equalization revealed by reflux of contrast. Case report A 29-year-old unidentified male suffered blunt chest trauma in a motor vehicle collision. Computed tomography (CT demonstrated a periaortic hematoma and hemopericardium. Significant contrast reflux was seen in the inferior vena cava and hepatic veins suggesting a change in cardiac chamber pressures. After intensive treatment including cardiac massage this patient expired of cardiac arrest. Conclusion Reflux of contrast on CT imaging can be an indicator of traumatic cardiac tamponade.

  4. [Sudden cardiac death: Are women different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, N; Marijon, E; Bougouin, W; Spaulding, C; Jouven, X

    2016-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death is a major public health problem with around 40,000 cases per year in France. Epidemiological, clinical and prognostic differences according to gender have been described in most cardiovascular diseases, including sudden cardiac death. In this article, we will review gender differences in sudden cardiac death incidence, circumstance of occurrence, management, and prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiac Arrhythmias: Diagnosis, Symptoms, and Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Du-Guan

    2015-11-01

    The cardiac arrhythmia is characterized by irregular rhythm of heartbeat which could be either too slow (100 beats/min) and can happen at any age. The use of pacemaker and defibrillators devices has been suggested for heart arrhythmias patients. The antiarrhythmic medications have been reported for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias or irregular heartbeats. The diagnosis, symptoms, and treatments of cardiac arrhythmias as well as the radiofrequency ablation, tachycardia, Brugada syndrome, arterial fibrillation, and recent research on the genetics of cardiac arrhythmias have been described here.

  6. MicroRNAs in cardiac arrhythmia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula L; Carlsen, Anting L; Christiansen, Kasper M

    2014-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetic cardiac condition associated with prolonged ventricular repolarization, primarily a result of perturbations in cardiac ion channels, which predisposes individuals to life-threatening arrhythmias. Using DNA screening and sequencing methods, over 700 different...... cardiovascular diseases. MiR-1 and MiR-133A are the most abundant miRNAs in the heart and have both been reported to regulate cardiac ion channels. We hypothesized that, as a consequence of their role in regulating cardiac ion channels, genetic variation in the genes which encode MiR-1 and MiR-133A might explain...

  7. Cardiac Applications of PET/MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jeffrey M C; Laforest, Richard; Nensa, Felix; Zheng, Jie; Gropler, Robert J; Woodard, Pamela K

    2017-05-01

    Simultaneous acquisition PET/MR imaging combines the anatomic capabilities of cardiac MR imaging with quantitative capabilities of both PET and MR imaging. Cardiac PET/MR imaging has the potential not only to assess cardiac tumors but also to provide thorough assessment of myocardial ischemia, infarction, and function and specific characterization of cardiomyopathies, such as cardiac sarcoid. In this article, the authors start with a discussion of the technical challenges specific to cardiovascular PET/MR imaging followed by a discussion of the use of PET/MR imaging in various cardiovascular conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Myocardial Dysfunction and Shock after Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzer, Jacob C.; Chonde, Meshe D.; Dezfulian, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Postarrest myocardial dysfunction includes the development of low cardiac output or ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction after cardiac arrest. Impaired left ventricular systolic function is reported in nearly two-thirds of patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest. Hypotension and shock requiring vasopressor support are similarly common after cardiac arrest. Whereas shock requiring vasopressor support is consistently associated with an adverse outcome after cardiac arrest, the association between myocardial dysfunction and outcomes is less clear. Myocardial dysfunction and shock after cardiac arrest develop as the result of preexisting cardiac pathology with multiple superimposed insults from resuscitation. The pathophysiology involves cardiovascular ischemia/reperfusion injury and cardiovascular toxicity from excessive levels of inflammatory cytokine activation and catecholamines, among other contributing factors. Similar mechanisms occur in myocardial dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass, in sepsis, and in stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Hemodynamic stabilization after resuscitation from cardiac arrest involves restoration of preload, vasopressors to support arterial pressure, and inotropic support if needed to reverse the effects of myocardial dysfunction and improve systemic perfusion. Further research is needed to define the role of postarrest myocardial dysfunction on cardiac arrest outcomes and identify therapeutic strategies. PMID:26421284

  9. Contemporary Breast Radiotherapy and Cardiac Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboa, Debra Nana; Evans, Suzanne Buckley

    2016-01-01

    Long-term cardiac effects are an important component of survivorship after breast radiotherapy. The pathophysiology of cardiotoxicity, history of breast radiotherapy, current methods of cardiac avoidance, modern outcomes, context of historical outcomes, quantifying cardiac effects, and future directions are reviewed in this article. Radiation-induced oxidative stress induces proinflammatory cytokines and is a process that potentiates late effects of fibrosis and intimal proliferation in endothelial vasculature. Breast radiation therapy has changed substantially in recent decades. Several modern technologies exist to improve cardiac avoidance such as deep inspiration breath hold, gating, accelerated partial breast irradiation, and use of modern 3-dimensional planning. Modern outcomes may vary notably from historical long-term cardiac outcomes given the differences in cardiac dose with modern techniques. Methods of quantifying radiation-related cardiotoxicity that correlate with future cardiac risks are needed with current data exploring techniques such as measuring computed tomography coronary artery calcium score, single-photon emission computed tomography imaging, and biomarkers. Placing historical data, dosimetric correlations, and relative cardiac risk in context are key when weighing the benefits of radiotherapy in breast cancer control and survival. Estimating present day cardiac risk in the modern treatment era includes challenges in length of follow-up and the use of confounding cardiotoxic agents such as evolving systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapies. Future directions in both multidisciplinary management and advancing technology in radiation oncology may provide further improvements in patient risk reduction and breast cancer survivorship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preload Sensitivity in Cardiac Assist Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Shiose, Akira; Massiello, Alex; Horvath, David J.; Golding, Leonard A. R.; Lee, Sangjin; Starling, Randall C.

    2013-01-01

    With implantable cardiac assist devices increasingly proving their effectiveness as therapeutic options for end-stage heart failure, it is important for clinicians to understand the unique physiology of device-assisted circulation. Preload sensitivity as it relates to cardiac assist devices is derived from the Frank-Starling relationship between human ventricular filling pressures and ventricular stroke volume. In this review, we stratify the preload sensitivity of 17 implantable cardiac assist devices relative to the native heart and discuss the effect of preload sensitivity on left ventricular volume unloading, levels of cardiac support, and the future development of continuous-flow total artificial heart technology. PMID:23272869

  11. Anesthetic issues for robotic cardiac surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wendy Bernstein; Andrew Walker

    2015-01-01

      As innovative technology continues to be developed and is implemented into the realm of cardiac surgery, surgical teams, cardiothoracic anesthesiologists, and health centers are constantly looking...

  12. Management of cardiac emergencies in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrancesco, Teresa C

    2013-07-01

    Cardiac emergencies are life-threatening conditions that must be diagnosed quickly to avoid delays in therapy. A timely and accurate diagnosis leads to early relief of symptoms and improved survival. This article provides both a comprehensive review and updated management recommendations for common cardiac emergencies in dogs and cats. Specifically, the article confers updates for the efficient clinical recognition of decompensated cardiac patients, including focused echocardiography, cardiac biomarkers, and electrocardiogram interpretation. This article also reviews the latest recommendations for the treatment of heart failure (including the use of pimobendan) and the management of arrhythmias, pericardial effusion, and aortic thromboembolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of β3-adrenoceptor on cardiac fibrosis in rat cardiac fibroblast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of β3-adrenoceptors (β3-AR) up-regulation on fibrosis in cardiac fibroblast cells in rats and its potential mechanism. Methods: Cardiac fibroblast cells (CFB) were isolated and identified from rats' hearts. The β3-ARupregulated cardiac fibroblast cells were constructed by lentiviral transfection ...

  14. Hospital Variation in Mortality From Cardiac Arrest After Cardiac Surgery: An Opportunity for Improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPar, Damien J.; Ghanta, Ravi K.; Kern, John A.; Crosby, Ivan K.; Rich, Jeffrey B.; Speir, Alan M.; Kron, Irving L.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2016-01-01

    Background Among all postoperative complications, cardiac arrest after cardiac surgical operations has the greatest association with mortality. However, hospital variation in the ability to rescue after cardiac arrest is unknown. The purpose of this study was to characterize the impact of cardiac arrest on mortality and determine the relative impact of patient, operative, and hospital factors on failure to rescue (FTR) rates and surgical mortality after cardiac arrest. Methods A total of 79,582 patients underwent operations at 17 different hospitals (2001 through 2011), including 5.2% (n = 4,138) with postoperative cardiac arrest. Failure to rescue was defined as mortality after cardiac arrest. Patient risk, operative features, and outcomes were compared among hospitals. Results Overall FTR rate was 60% with significant variation among hospitals (range, 50% to 83%; p cardiac arrest, and FTR rates varied across hospitals and did not correlate. High-performing hospitals with lowest FTR rates accrued longer postoperative and intensive care unit stays after the index operation (2 to 3 days; p cardiac surgical mortality and FTR rates after cardiac arrest. Institutional factors appear to confer the strongest influence on the likelihood for mortality after cardiac arrest compared with patient and operative factors. Identifying best practice patterns at the highest performing centers may serve to improve surgical outcomes after cardiac arrest and improve patient quality. PMID:24820394

  15. the pattern of cardiac diseases at the cardiac clinic of jimma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the pattern of cardiac diseases among adult patients on follow-up at the cardiac follow-up clinic of. Jimma University ... version 12.0. RESULTS: Rheumatic heart disease was the diagnosis in 256 (32.8%) of the cardiac cases on follow-up followed by ..... The global burden of group A streptococcal diseases. Lancet Infect Dis ...

  16. Anesthetic preconditioning in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Gerasimenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of myocardial protection in cardiac surgery is a challenge due to an increased number of interventions and severity of their complications related to the patient's status, pathophysiology of the artificial circulation and the used techniques for replacement of vital functions. Oxidative stress and formation of active oxygen species, as a consequence of the above mentioned processes, may result in systemic injury, such as acute heart failure, central nervous system dysfunction and acute renal injury. Short ischemic episodes before prolonged hypoxia with subsequent reperfusion can decrease cardiomyocyte injury. This phenomenon has been referred to as ischemic preconditioning. A similar effect is caused by inhalation anesthetics. Experimental and clinical data on anesthetic preconditioning suggest that inhalation anesthesia with halogen-containing agents may be used as a method to protect the myocardium from damage by active oxygen species produced during the periods of oxidative stress in cardiac surgery. Studies analyzed in this review have shown benefits of inhalation anesthetics, compared to total intravenous anesthesia, such as effective cardiac protection and, what is most important, in potential reduction of mortality after coronary bypass grafting. The level of evidence for the effects of anesthetic preconditioning on long-term mortality in these studies was not high enough; therefore, a large multicenter randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm these results.

  17. Sudden cardiac death in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Bockeria O.L.; Ispir’yan A.Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Cases of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes during physical exercises are rare. According to the data of prospective population study performed in Veneto (Italy), incidence of SCD is 2.3 cases per year (2.6 among men and 1.1 among women) per 100,000 athletes aged 12 to 35 years for all reasons. Out of them 2.1 cases of SCD were caused by cardiovascular diseases. Coronary artery disease is the most frequent cause of SCD in athletes aged over 35 years. Also there are a number of other...

  18. [Acute cardiac failure in pheochromocytoma.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønler, Morten; Munk, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (P) is an endocrine catecholamine-secreting tumor. Classical symptoms like hypertension, attacks of sweating, palpitations, headache and palor are related to catecholamine discharge. We provide a case of P in a 71 year-old man presenting with acute cardiac failure, severe reduction...... in left ventricular function and elevated myocardial enzymes. No coronary stenoses were found. The myocardium regained nearly normal systolic function in one and a half month. A renal P was laparoscopicaly removed. We discuss the pathophysiology of catecholamine cardiomyopathy. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Jun-2...

  19. [Cardiac effects of radiation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohinen, Suvi; Turpeinen, Anu; Skyttä, Tanja; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Because of increased life-expentancy cancer patients having undergone radiation therapy nowadays live longer, and late-appearing adverse effects are therefore playing a more significant role. Radiation therapy given to the chest is known to approximately double the risk of heart disease, the cumulative total radiation dose being the most important risk-increasing factor. The most significant adverse effects appear only years after the treatment. The mortality from late manifestations reduces the total benefit of radiation therapy. Patients with radiation therapy due to a cancer of the left breast or Hodgkin's lymphoma are particularly susceptible to cardiac effects. A safe radiation dose is not known.

  20. CARDIAC OPERATIONS WITH EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jerome Harold; Anderson, Robert M.; Lewis, Reuben R.; Meihaus, John; Magidson, Oscar; Snyder, Edward N.; Bennett, Louis C.; Bernstein, Sol; Amsden, Neal

    1959-01-01

    In a series of 50 patients for whom a heart-lung machine was used for periods as long as 70 minutes during operations to correct structural defects of the heart, there were no deaths attributable to the machine. Seven patients died. Two of them had high pressure ventricular septal defects with bidirectional shunts; a third patient with the same lesion recovered after repair. One patient died of cardiac tamponade when a large blood clot formed about the entire heart in a loosely closed pericardial sac. Others died of various causes. The development of subacute bacterial endocarditis in one patient led to a change in sterilization of apparatus. PMID:13662856

  1. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4.......7) min(-1), P PET...

  2. Psychosocial aspects in cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogosova, Nana; Saner, Hugo; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2015-01-01

    questions, standardised questionnaires, or structured clinical interviews. Psychotherapy and medication can be considered to alleviate any PSRF-related symptoms and to enhance HRQoL, but the evidence for a definite beneficial effect on cardiac endpoints is inconclusive. A multimodal behavioural intervention......, the success of CR may critically depend on the interdependence of the body and mind and this interaction needs to be reflected through the assessment and management of PSRFs in line with robust scientific evidence, by trained staff, integrated within the core CR team....

  3. Modeling the cardiac surgery workforce in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderby, Sonia A; Carter, Michael W; Latham, Timothy; Ouzounian, Maral; Hassan, Ansar; Tang, Gilbert H; Teng, Carolyn J; Kingsbury, Kori; Feindel, Christopher M

    2010-08-01

    Limited employment opportunities for recently trained cardiac surgeons are deterring medical students from entering cardiac surgery residency programs. Given the lengthy training period and the aging of both the general population and currently practicing cardiac surgeons, this reduced enrollment raises concerns about the adequacy of the future cardiac surgery workforce. A workforce model was developed to explore the future need for cardiac surgeons in Canada. A novel system dynamics model was developed to simulate the supply and demand for cardiac surgery in Canada between 2008 and 2030 to identify whether an excess or shortage of surgeons would exist. Several different scenarios were examined, including varying surgeon productivity, revascularization rates, and residency enrollment rates. The simulation results of various scenarios are presented. In the base case, a surgeon shortage is expected to develop by 2025, although this depends on surgeons' response to demand-supply gap changes. An alternative scenario in which residency enrollment directly relates to the presence of unemployed surgeons also projects substantial shortages after 2021. The model results indicate that if residency enrollment rates remain at the 2009 level an alarming shortage may develop soon, possibly reaching almost 50% of the Canadian cardiac surgical workforce. These workforce model results project an eventual cardiac surgeon shortage in Canada. This study highlights the possibility of a crisis in cardiac surgery and emphasizes the urgency with which enrollment into cardiac surgery training programs and the employability of recently trained cardiac surgery graduates need to be addressed. Copyright 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Consensus Statement by the Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society: Milestones for the Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia Fellowship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Viviane G; Guzzetta, Nina A; Miller-Hance, Wanda C; Twite, Mark; Latham, Gregory J; Zabala, Luis; Nicolson, Susan C; Mossad, Emad B; DiNardo, James A

    2018-01-01

    Pediatric cardiac anesthesiology has evolved as a subspecialty of both pediatric and cardiac anesthesiology and is devoted to caring for individuals with congenital heart disease ranging in age from neonates to adults. Training in pediatric cardiac anesthesia is a second-year fellowship with variability in both training duration and content and is not accredited by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education. Consequently, in this article and based on the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education Milestones Model, an expert panel of the Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society, a section of the Society of Pediatric Anesthesiology, defines 18 milestones as competency-based developmental outcomes for training in the pediatric cardiac anesthesia fellowship.

  5. Cardiac angiosarcoma: an unexpected diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Roberto Furst Crenitte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac angiosarcoma is a rare entity. The incidence through autopsy findings ranges between 0.001% and 0.03%. The disease usually presents with non-specific symptoms, although asymptomatic cases are frequent; therefore, diagnosis is unexpected and consequently delayed. The authors report the case of a middle-aged man with a recent onset cough and dyspnea. He sought medical care several times without receiving a definite diagnosis until a plain chest radiography was taken showing a mediastinal enlargement, which was the reason why he was hospitalized for clinical investigation. During the diagnostic workup, an echodopplercardiogram and a thoracic computed tomography were performed, showing a heterogeneous soft-tissue mass infiltrating the pericardium and the anterior atrial wall. Multiple and scattered pulmonary nodules were also present. A pulmonary nodule was biopsied, which revealed an angiosarcoma. The clinical features added to the radiological and histological findings permitted the diagnosis of right atrial angiosarcoma. The authors highlight the unexpected pattern in the presentation of cardiac tumors.

  6. Hemodynamics driven cardiac valve morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Emily; Boselli, Francesco; Vermot, Julien

    2016-07-01

    Mechanical forces are instrumental to cardiovascular development and physiology. The heart beats approximately 2.6 billion times in a human lifetime and heart valves ensure that these contractions result in an efficient, unidirectional flow of the blood. Composed of endocardial cells (EdCs) and extracellular matrix (ECM), cardiac valves are among the most mechanically challenged structures of the body both during and after their development. Understanding how hemodynamic forces modulate cardiovascular function and morphogenesis is key to unraveling the relationship between normal and pathological cardiovascular development and physiology. Most valve diseases have their origins in embryogenesis, either as signs of abnormal developmental processes or the aberrant re-expression of fetal gene programs normally quiescent in adulthood. Here we review recent discoveries in the mechanobiology of cardiac valve development and introduce the latest technologies being developed in the zebrafish, including live cell imaging and optical technologies, as well as modeling approaches that are currently transforming this field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Cardiac cachexia: hic et nunc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncar, Goran; Springer, Jochen; Anker, Markus; Doehner, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac cachexia (CC) is the clinical entity at the end of the chronic natural course of heart failure (HF). Despite the efforts, even the most recent definition of cardiac cachexia has been challenged, more precisely, the addition of new criteria on top of obligatory weight loss. The pathophysiology of CC is complex and multifactorial. A better understanding of pathophysiological pathways in body wasting will contribute to establish potentially novel treatment strategies. The complex biochemical network related with CC and HF pathophysiology underlines that a single biomarker cannot reflect all of the features of the disease. Biomarkers that could pick up the changes in body composition before they convey into clinical manifestations of CC would be of great importance. The development of preventive and therapeutic strategies against cachexia, sarcopenia, and wasting disorders is perceived as an urgent need by healthcare professionals. The treatment of body wasting remains an unresolved challenge to this day. As CC is a multifactorial disorder, it is unlikely that any single agent will be completely effective in treating this condition. Among all investigated therapeutic strategies, aerobic exercise training in HF patients is the most proved to counteract skeletal muscle wasting and is recommended by treatment guidelines for HF. PMID:27386168

  8. Alteration of cardiac ACE2/Mas expression and cardiac remodelling in rats with aortic constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Li, Bing; Wang, Bingxiangi; Zhang, Jingjun; Wu, Junyan; Morgan, Trefor

    2014-12-31

    The recent discovery of the new components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) suggests the importance of the maintenance of cardiovascular structure and functions. To assess the role of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-Mas receptor axis in the regulation of cardiac structure and function, the present work investigated the expression of ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart in the cardiac remodeling that occurs in aortic constricted rats. Partial abdominal aortic ligation was carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Angiotensin AT1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibition were achieved by losartan and enalapril treatment, respectively. Results showed that aortic constriction increased left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma renin activity (PRA) and cardiac ACE levels, but decreased the expression of cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor. Losartan treatment significantly decreased MAP, left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH), fibrosis, and increased cardiac ACE2 and Mas expression. Enalapril also improved the cardiac parameters with a rise in cardiac ACE2, but did not change the Mas level. In conclusion, aortic constriction results in cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and a rise of cardiac ACE expression. Both AT1 receptor blocker and ACE inhibitor play a cardioprotective role in aortic constriction. However, AT1 receptor blocker particularly promotes cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. ACE inhibitor is associated with the inhibition of ACE and normalization of cardiac ACE2 activity.

  9. The Johannesburg cardiac rehabilitation programme | Digenio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiac rehabilitation has become a generally accepted mode of treatment for patients suffering from coronary artery disease. The Johannesburg cardiac rehabilitation programme has started in 1982 and has rapidly grown to become one of the largest programmes in southern Africa. This paper describes the 387 patients ...

  10. Acute cardiac failure in neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sparrow, Patrick

    2012-02-03

    We present a case of rapid onset acute cardiac failure developing as part of neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a 35-year-old woman following treatment with thioridazine and lithium. Post mortem histology of cardiac and skeletal muscle showed similar changes of focal cellular necrosis and vacuolation suggesting a common disease process.

  11. Ultrasound Imaging in Teaching Cardiac Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher D.; Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Quinn, Joe G.; Roe, Sean M.; Stewart, Michael T.; Tansey, Etain A.

    2016-01-01

    This laboratory session provides hands-on experience for students to visualize the beating human heart with ultrasound imaging. Simple views are obtained from which students can directly measure important cardiac dimensions in systole and diastole. This allows students to derive, from first principles, important measures of cardiac function, such…

  12. Drugs, QTc prolongation and sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J.M. Straus (Sabine)

    2005-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ The term sudden cardiac death pertains to an unexpected death from cardiac causes within a short time period and has been described throughout history. The ancient Egyptians inscribed on the tomb of a nobleman some 4500 years ago that he had died suddenly and without

  13. A case of nondigitalis cardiac glycoside toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Joshi, P; Jortani, S A; Valdes, R; Thorkelsson, T; Verjee, Z; Shemie, S

    1997-12-01

    A case is presented of cardiac glycoside poisoning in a 1-year-old patient from the plant Nerium oleander (common oleander). The patient had bradycardia, vomiting, altered level of consciousness, and no history of ingestion. Antibody-based digoxin assays may cross-react with other cardiac glycosides nonquantitatively. Chromatographic techniques can be used in the specific diagnosis.

  14. Tannin, oxalate, saponin, cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two species of cola, Cola nitida and Cola acuminate, were investigated for their possible relative contents of the secondary plant products:- tannin, oxalate, saponin, cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides. The two cola species gave low levels of tannin and oxalate but very high levels of cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides as ...

  15. Athletes at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…

  16. Sudden Cardiac Death in Children. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Pshenichnaya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the prevalence, terminology, classification of sudden cardiac death. A description of congenital structural heart diseases associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death is given. The issues of etiology and pathogenesis of life-threatening conditions are described in detail.

  17. Fetal Primary Cardiac Tumors During Perinatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetal primary cardiac tumors are rare, but they may cause complications, which are sometimes life threatening, including arrhythmias, hydrops fetalis, ventricular outflow/inflow obstruction, cardiac failure, and even sudden death. Among fetal primary cardiac tumors, rhabdomyomas are most common, followed by teratomas, fibromas, hemangiomas, and myxomas. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, has been reported to be an effective drug to cause tumor remission in three neonates with multiple cardiac rhabdomyomas. Neonatal cardiac surgery for the resection of primary cardiac tumors found by fetal echocardiography has been reported sporadically. However, open fetal surgery for pericardial teratoma resection, which was performed successfully via a fetal median sternotomy in one case report, could be a promising intervention to rescue these patients with large pericardial effusions. These recent achievements undoubtedly encourage further development in early management of fetal cardiac tumors. Owing to the rarity of fetal primary cardiac tumors, relevant information in terms of prenatal diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis remains to be clarified.

  18. Cardiac MRI of the athlete's heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, N.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The increase in pre-participation cardiovascular screening using the Lausanne protocol will ultimately lead to an increased use of cardiac MRI and MDCT in the cardiovascular work-up of athletes. The role of cardiac MRI is well established in the evaluation of cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, aortic

  19. Exercise training in adverse cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, Dirk J; van Deel, Elza D; de Waard, Monique C; de Boer, Martine; Merkus, Daphne; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2014-06-01

    Cardiac remodeling in response to a myocardial infarction or chronic pressure-overload is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure. In contrast, cardiac remodeling produced by regular physical exercise is associated with a decreased risk for heart failure. There is evidence that exercise training has a beneficial effect on disease progression and survival in patients with cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, but concern has also been expressed that exercise training may aggravate pathological remodeling and dysfunction. Here we present studies from our laboratory into the effects of exercise training on pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in mice. The results indicate that even in the presence of a large infarct, exercise training exerts beneficial effects on the heart. These effects were mimicked in part by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) overexpression and abrogated by eNOS deficiency, demonstrating the importance of nitric oxide signaling in mediating the cardiac effects of exercise. Exercise prior to a myocardial infarction was also cardioprotective. In contrast, exercise tended to aggravate pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in the setting of pressure-overload produced by an aortic stenosis. These observations emphasize the critical importance of the underlying pathological stimulus for cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, in determining the effects of exercise training. Future studies are needed to define the influence of exercise type, intensity and duration in different models and severities of pathological cardiac remodeling. Together such studies will aid in optimizing the therapy of exercise training in the setting of cardiovascular disease.

  20. The shortest path to cardiac activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, P.M. van

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of the shortest path algorithm in the simulation of cardiac activation. This method is both used in the forward simulation of an electrocardiogram (ECG) as well as in the non-invasive imaging of cardiac activation and recovery. Due to the immense number of

  1. Cardiac sarcoidosis. A case with unusual manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepin, D; McDonough, M; James, F

    1983-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman was hospitalized with new-onset congestive heart failure. M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography revealed abnormal motion involving the apex and posterolateral wall of the left ventricle. Cardiac catheterization was performed. The left ventriculogram demonstrated apical akinesis and an apical filling defect. The diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis was made from an open myocardial biopsy.

  2. Stem cell sources for cardiac regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roccio, M.; Goumans, M. J.; Sluijter, J. P. G.; Doevendans, P. A.

    Cell-based cardiac repair has the ambitious aim to replace the malfunctioning cardiac muscle developed after myocardial infarction, with new contractile cardiomyocytes and vessels. Different stem cell populations have been intensively studied in the last decade as a potential source of new

  3. Coagulopathy and hemostatic monitoring in cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Sølbeck, Sacha; Genet, Gustav

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) causes severe derangements in the hemostatic system, which in turn puts the patient at risks of microvascular bleeding. Excessive transfusion and surgical re-exploration after cardiac surgery are potentially associated with a number of adverse...

  4. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and cardiac ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Gredilla, Ricardo

    2018-02-02

    According with different international organizations, cardiovascular diseases are becoming the first cause of death in western countries. Although exposure to different risk factors, particularly those related to lifestyle, contribute to the etiopathogenesis of cardiac disorders, the increase in average lifespan and aging are considered major determinants of cardiac diseases events. Mitochondria and oxidative stress have been pointed out as relevant factors both in heart aging and in the development of cardiac diseases such as heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy and diabetic cardiomyopathy. During aging, cellular processes related with mitochondrial function, such as bioenergetics, apoptosis and inflammation are altered leading to cardiac dysfunction. Increasing our knowledge about the mitochondrial mechanisms related with the aging process, will provide new strategies in order to improve this process, particularly the cardiovascular ones. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, Kathrine B; Hansen, Steen Moller; Pallisgaard, Jannik L

    2018-01-01

    : We used data from the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry and the Danish AED Network to identify out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and route distances to nearest accessible registered AED during 2008-2013. The association between route distance and bystander defibrillation was described using...... restricted cubic spline logistic regression. RESULTS: We included 6,971 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases. The proportion of arrests according to distance in meters (≤100, 101-200, >200) to the nearest accessible AED was: 4.6% (n=320), 5.3% (n=370), and 90.1% (n=6,281), respectively. For cardiac arrests......meters route distance from cardiac arrest to nearest accessible AED whereas the probability of bystander defibrillation was low for all distances in residential areas....

  6. A neonatal blueprint for cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo R. Porrello

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult mammals undergo minimal regeneration following cardiac injury, which severely compromises cardiac function and contributes to the ongoing burden of heart failure. In contrast, the mammalian heart retains a transient capacity for cardiac regeneration during fetal and early neonatal life. Recent studies have established the importance of several evolutionarily conserved mechanisms for heart regeneration in lower vertebrates and neonatal mammals including induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation, epicardial cell activation, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix deposition and immune cell infiltration. In this review, we provide an up-to-date account of the molecular and cellular basis for cardiac regeneration in lower vertebrates and neonatal mammals. The historical context for these recent findings and their ramifications for the future development of cardiac regenerative therapies are also discussed.

  7. [Cardiac sarcoidosis - clinical manifestation and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaut-Jurkowska, Justyna; Podolec, Piotr; Olszowska, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease defined histologically by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. The etiology of sarcoidosis remains unknown. Heart involvement in the course of sarcoidosis concerns about 5% of patients. The most common manifestation of cardiac sarcoidosis are conduction abnormalities, arrhythmias and heart failure. The diagnostic algorithm includes performing a clinical history, a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and an echocardiogram. If any of the initial screening investigations yields an abnormality, diagnostics should be continue using advanced imaging techniques: cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) or fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Nowadays endomyocardial biopsy is not performed routinely.The clinical picture of cardiac sarcoidosis is highly variable. Screening for cardiac sarcoidosis should be performed in all patients diagnosed with extracardiac sarcoidosis. Cardiac sarcoidosis should also be suspected in young patients without a diagnosis of sarcoidosis who present with conduction abnormalities of unknown etiology, because cardiac sarcoidosis may be the first or the only manifestation of the disease. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  8. FET-biosensor for cardiac troponin biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Arshad Mohd Khairuddin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute myocardial infarction or myocardial infarction (MI is a major health problem, due to diminished flow of blood to the heart, leads to higher rates of mortality and morbidity. The most specific markers for cardiac injury are cardiac troponin I (cTnI and cardiac troponin T (cTnT which have been considered as ‘gold standard’. Due to higher specificity, determination of the level of cardiac troponins became a predominant indicator for MI. Currently, field-effect transistor (FET-based biosensors have been main interest to be implemented in portable sensors with the ultimate application in point-of-care testing (POCT. In this paper, we review on the FET-based biosensor based on its principle of operation, integration with nanomaterial, surface functionalization as well as immobilization, and the introduction of additional gate (for ambipolar conduction on the device architecture for the detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI biomarker.

  9. FET-biosensor for cardiac troponin biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Mohd Khairuddin Md; Faris Mohamad Fathil, Mohamad; Hashim, Uda

    2017-11-01

    Acute myocardial infarction or myocardial infarction (MI) is a major health problem, due to diminished flow of blood to the heart, leads to higher rates of mortality and morbidity. The most specific markers for cardiac injury are cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) which have been considered as `gold standard'. Due to higher specificity, determination of the level of cardiac troponins became a predominant indicator for MI. Currently, field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensors have been main interest to be implemented in portable sensors with the ultimate application in point-of-care testing (POCT). In this paper, we review on the FET-based biosensor based on its principle of operation, integration with nanomaterial, surface functionalization as well as immobilization, and the introduction of additional gate (for ambipolar conduction) on the device architecture for the detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) biomarker.

  10. Regulation of the cardiac sodium pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, W; Tulloch, L B; Shattock, M J; Calaghan, S C; Howie, J; Wypijewski, K J

    2013-04-01

    In cardiac muscle, the sarcolemmal sodium/potassium ATPase is the principal quantitative means of active transport at the myocyte cell surface, and its activity is essential for maintaining the trans-sarcolemmal sodium gradient that drives ion exchange and transport processes that are critical for cardiac function. The 72-residue phosphoprotein phospholemman regulates the sodium pump in the heart: unphosphorylated phospholemman inhibits the pump, and phospholemman phosphorylation increases pump activity. Phospholemman is subject to a remarkable plethora of post-translational modifications for such a small protein: the combination of three phosphorylation sites, two palmitoylation sites, and one glutathionylation site means that phospholemman integrates multiple signaling events to control the cardiac sodium pump. Since misregulation of cytosolic sodium contributes to contractile and metabolic dysfunction during cardiac failure, a complete understanding of the mechanisms that control the cardiac sodium pump is vital. This review explores our current understanding of these mechanisms.

  11. Cardiac anxiety after sudden cardiac arrest: Severity, predictors and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Lindsey; Whited, Amanda; Lampert, Rachel; Mosesso, Vincent N; Lawless, Christine; Sears, Samuel F

    2015-02-15

    Survival from cardiac arrest is a medical success but simultaneously produces psychological challenges related to perception of safety and threat. The current study evaluated symptoms of cardiac-specific anxiety in sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) survivors and examined predictors of cardiac anxiety secondary to cardiac arrest. A retrospective, cross-sectional study of 188 SCA survivors from the Sudden Cardiac Arrest Association patient registry completed an online questionnaire that included a measure of cardiac anxiety (CAQ) and sociodemographic, cardiac history, and psychosocial adjustment data. CAQ scores were compared to published means from implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), inherited long QT syndrome (LQTS), and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) samples and a hierarchical regression was performed. Clinically relevant cardiac anxiety and cardioprotective behaviors were frequently endorsed and 18% of survivors reported persistent worry about their heart even when presented with normal test results. Compared to all other samples, SCA survivors reported significantly higher levels of heart-focused attention (d=0.3-1.1) and greater cardiac fear and avoidance behaviors than LQTS patients. SCA patients endorsed less severe fear and avoidance symptoms than the HCM sample. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that younger age (p=0.02), heart murmur (p=0.02), history of ICD shock≥1 (p=0.01), and generalized anxiety (p=0.008) significantly predicted cardiac anxiety. The overall model explained 29.2% of the total variance. SCA survivors endorse high levels of cardiac-specific fear, avoidance and preoccupation with cardiac symptoms. Successful management of SCA patients requires attention to anxiety about cardiac functioning and security. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between dental caries and out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of cardiac origin in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Yasunori; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Zhang, Bo; Uehara, Yoshinari; Ogawa, Masahiro; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Nonogi, Hiroshi; Nagao, Ken; Kimura, Takeshi; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-04-01

    Oral infection contributes to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. We hypothesized that dental caries may be associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) of cardiac origin, but not non-cardiac origin. We compared the age-adjusted incidence of OHCA (785,591 cases of OHCA: 55.4% of cardiac origin and 44.6% of non-cardiac origin) to the age-adjusted prevalence of dental caries between 2005 and 2011 in the 47 prefectures of Japan. In both the total population and males over 65 years, the number of cases of dental caries was significantly associated with the number of OHCA of total and cardiac origin from 2005 to 2011, but not those of non-cardiac origin. In the total population, the age-adjusted prevalence of dental caries was not significantly associated with the age-adjusted incidence of OHCA (total OHCA: r correlation coefficient=0.22, p=0.14; OHCA of cardiac origin: r=0.25, p=0.09; OHCA of non-cardiac origin: r=-0.002, p=0.99). Among male patients over 65 years, the age-adjusted prevalence of dental caries was significantly associated with OHCA of total and cardiac origin, but not non-cardiac origin (total OHCA: r=0.47, p<0.001; OHCA of cardiac origin: r=0.37, p=0.01; OHCA of non-cardiac origin: r=0.28, p=0.054). While oral hygiene is important in all age groups, it may be particularly associated with OHCAs of cardiac origin in males over 65 years. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Multiscale habitat relationships of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) in the mixed conifer landscape of the Northern Rockies, USA: Cross-scale effects of horizontal cover with implications for forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Joseph D; Squires, John R; Olson, Lucretia E; Lawrence, Rick L; Savage, Shannon L

    2017-01-01

    Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are an ecologically important herbivore because they modify vegetation through browsing and serve as a prey resource for multiple predators. We implemented a multiscale approach to characterize habitat relationships for snowshoe hares across the mixed conifer landscape of the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Our objectives were to (1) assess the relationship between horizontal cover and snowshoe hares, (2) estimate how forest metrics vary across the gradient of snowshoe hare use and horizontal cover, and (3) model and map snowshoe hare occupancy and intensity of use. Results indicated that both occupancy and intensity of use by snowshoe hares increased with horizontal cover and that the effect became stronger as intensity of use increased. This underscores the importance of dense horizontal cover to achieve high use, and likely density, of snowshoe hares. Forest structure in areas with high snowshoe hare use and horizontal cover was characterized as multistoried with dense canopy cover and medium-sized trees (e.g., 12.7-24.4 cm). The abundance of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) was associated with snowshoe hare use within a mixed conifer context, and the only species to increase in abundance with horizontal cover was Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa). Our landscape-level modeling produced similar patterns in that we observed a positive effect of lodgepole pine and horizontal cover on both occupancy and use by snowshoe hares, but we also observed a positive yet parabolic effect of snow depth on snowshoe hare occupancy. This work is among the first to characterize the multiscale habitat relationships of snowshoe hares across a mixed conifer landscape as well as to map their occupancy and intensity of use. Moreover, our results provide stand- and landscape-level insights that directly relate to management agencies, which aids in conservation efforts of snowshoe hares and their associated

  14. Comparative Metagenomics of Cellulose- and Poplar Hydrolysate-Degrading Microcosms from Gut Microflora of the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis and North American Moose (Alces americanus after Long-Term Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel T. Wong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes that might be particularly relevant for wood fiber processing, we performed a comparative metagenomic analysis of digestive systems from Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis and North American moose (Alces americanus following 3 years of enrichment on either microcrystalline cellulose or poplar hydrolysate. In total, 9,386 genes encoding CAZymes and carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs were identified, with up to half predicted to originate from Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Proteobacteria phyla, and up to 17% from unknown phyla. Both PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis distinguished the annotated glycoside hydrolase (GH distributions identified herein, from those previously reported for grass-feeding mammals and herbivorous foragers. The CAZyme profile of moose rumen enrichments also differed from a recently reported moose rumen metagenome, most notably by the absence of GH13-appended dockerins. Consistent with substrate-driven convergence, CAZyme profiles from both poplar hydrolysate-fed cultures differed from cellulose-fed cultures, most notably by increased numbers of unique sequences belonging to families GH3, GH5, GH43, GH53, and CE1. Moreover, pairwise comparisons of moose rumen enrichments further revealed higher counts of GH127 and CE15 families in cultures fed with poplar hydrolysate. To expand our scope to lesser known carbohydrate-active proteins, we identified and compared multi-domain proteins comprising both a CBM and domain of unknown function (DUF as well as proteins with unknown function within the 416 predicted polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs. Interestingly, DUF362, identified in iron–sulfur proteins, was consistently appended to CBM9; on the other hand, proteins with unknown function from PULs shared little identity unless from identical PULs. Overall, this study sheds new light on the lignocellulose degrading capabilities of microbes originating from

  15. Mouse ES cell-derived cardiac precursor cells are multipotent and facilitate identification of novel cardiac genes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christoforou, Nicolas; Miller, Ronald A; Hill, Christine M; Jie, Chunfa C; McCallion, Andrew S; Gearhart, John D

    2008-01-01

    Although the differentiation of ES cells to cardiomyocytes has been firmly established, the extent to which corresponding cardiac precursor cells can contribute to other cardiac populations remains unclear...

  16. Cardiac Function Remains Impaired Despite Reversible Cardiac Remodeling after Acute Experimental Viral Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Moritz Becher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infection with Coxsackievirus B3 induces myocarditis. We aimed to compare the acute and chronic phases of viral myocarditis to identify the immediate effects of cardiac inflammation as well as the long-term effects after resolved inflammation on cardiac fibrosis and consequently on cardiac function. Material and Methods. We infected C57BL/6J mice with Coxsackievirus B3 and determined the hemodynamic function 7 as well as 28 days after infection. Subsequently, we analyzed viral burden and viral replication in the cardiac tissue as well as the expression of cytokines and matrix proteins. Furthermore, cardiac fibroblasts were infected with virus to investigate if viral infection alone induces profibrotic signaling. Results. Severe cardiac inflammation was determined and cardiac fibrosis was consistently colocalized with inflammation during the acute phase of myocarditis. Declined cardiac inflammation but no significantly improved hemodynamic function was observed 28 days after infection. Interestingly, cardiac fibrosis declined to basal levels as well. Both cardiac inflammation and fibrosis were reversible, whereas the hemodynamic function remains impaired after healed viral myocarditis in C57BL/6J mice.

  17. Negative predictive value of cardiac troponin for predicting adverse cardiac events following blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Cameron S; deShazo, Matthew; Geraci, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac-specific troponins (Tns) are sensitive and specific markers of myocardial injury that have been shown to be predictive of outcomes in many cardiac and noncardiac conditions. We sought to determine whether normal cardiac Tn concentrations obtained during the first 24 hours following blunt chest trauma would predict good cardiac outcomes. A PubMed/MEDLINE search was performed to identify prospective studies in patients with blunt chest trauma in which serial cardiac TnT or TnI values were measured within 24 hours of admission and clinical outcomes assessed. Ten studies qualified for review. Studies that used the lower reference limit of Tn as the cutoff for cardiac injury showed 100% negative predictive value (NPV) for developing cardiac complications, whereas studies using higher Tn cutoffs showed wider variation in NPV (50%-98%). Cardiac Tn measured within 24 hours using the lower reference limit (LRL) as the cutoff appears to have excellent NPV for clinically significant adverse cardiac events. This could allow for early discharge after a 24-hour observation period in otherwise uncomplicated blunt chest trauma patients and avoid the need for more expensive cardiac imaging and additional resource utilization.

  18. Cardiac transplantation and mechanical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandam, V

    1994-01-01

    The era of human heart transplantation began in 1967 by Dr. Christian Barnard in South Africa. Unfortunately, most patients died within the first year after transplantation from rejection or opportunistic infection, and the procedure was abandoned in all but a few centers. With the dedicated work of Dr. Norman Shumway from Stanford University, advances in immunosuppression and improved detection and management of rejection allowed heart transplantation to evolve from a laboratory curiosity into a clinical reality. Finally, with the introduction of the immunosuppressant, Cyclosporin A (CyA), in the 1980s the number of cardiac transplants being performed increased exponentially. Heart transplantation has entered the mainstream of surgical management of congestive heart failure and approximately 2000 procedures are performed annually in the United States and 3000 worldwide.

  19. Multiscale measurement of cardiac energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Soyeon; Pham, Toan; Han, Jun-Chiew; Nielsen, Poul; Taberner, Andrew; Hickey, Anthony; Loiselle, Denis

    2013-09-01

    Herein we describe our laboratories' experimental methods for interrogating cardiac energetics at the organ (whole heart), tissue (trabecula) and perforated fibre (mitochondrial) levels. In whole heart and trabecula experiments, we focus on measuring pressure-volume (force-length) work and oxygen consumption (heat production) from which mechanical efficiency is derived. In both preparations (i.e. across scales differing by three orders of magnitude) we find efficiency values of 10%-15%. Mitochondrial experiments invoke a trio of titration protocols to yield information on oxygen consumption, ATP flux, membrane potential, electron leak and reactive oxygen species production, the latter two of which index energy transfer inefficiencies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Gene Therapy in Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen S.V

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy has progressed from a dream to a bedside reality in quite a few human diseases. From its first application in adenosine deaminase deficiency, through the years, its application has evolved to vascular angiogenesis and cardiac arrhythmias. Gene based biological pacemakers using viral vectors or mesenchymal cells tested in animal models hold much promise. Induction of pacemaker activity within the left bundle branch can provide stable heart rates. Genetic modification of the AV node mimicking beta blockade can be therapeutic in the management of atrial fibrillation. G protein overexpression to modify the AV node also is experimental. Modification and expression of potassium channel genes altering the delayed rectifier potassium currents may permit better management of congenital long QT syndromes. Arrhythmias in a failing heart are due to abnormal calcium cycling. Potential targets for genetic modulation include the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump, calsequestrin and sodium calcium exchanger.Lastly the ethical concerns need to be addressed.

  1. Descartes, Cardiac Heat, and Alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitsch, Dorothea

    2016-11-01

    René Descartes (1596-1650) insisted on a heat and light theory to explain cardiac movement, and used concepts such as distillation of the vital spirits, fermentation in the digestive process, and fermentation in the circulation of the blood. I argue that his theory of the body as a heat-exchange system was based on alchemical and natural philosophical notions of fire and light expounded by precursors and contemporaries who included Jean D'Espagnet, Jean Fernel, Jan Baptist van Helmont, and Andreas Libavius. Descartes endeavoured to mechanise their approaches, creating a theory in which fire and heat, a legacy from thermal explanations of physiology, were transformed into alchemical fire, and then into mechanistic or physicalist heat.

  2. Goldenhar syndrome: Cardiac anesthesiologist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Minati; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra

    2017-01-01

    Goldenhar syndrome or oculo-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia was defined by Goldenhar in 1952 and redefined by Grolin et al. later. As the name denotes, children with this syndrome present with craniofacial and vertebral anomalies which increase the risk of airway compromise. Neonates and infants with this syndrome often have premature internal organs, low birth weight, and airway disorders. For this reason, safe anesthesia in such infants requires a complete knowledge regarding metabolism and side effects of the drugs. The association of cardiovascular abnormalities is not uncommon and possesses additional challenge for anesthetic management. The aim of this review is to draw attention to the various perioperative problems that can be faced in these infants when they undergo surgery or the correction of the underlying cardiac problem.

  3. Assessing quality in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer A.M. Nashef

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a the strong temporal, if not causal, link between the intervention and the outcome in cardiac surgery and therefore a link becomes established between operative mortality and the measurement of surgical performance. In Britain the law stipulates that data collected by any public body or using public funds must be made freely available. Tools and mechanisms we devise and develop are likely to form the models on which the quality of care is assessed in other surgical and perhaps medical specialties. Measuring professional performance should be done by the profession. To measure risk there are a number of scores as crude mortality is not enough. A very important benefit of assessing the risk of death is to use this knowledge in the determination of the indication to operate. The second benefit is in the assessment of the quality of care as risk prediction gives a standard against performance of hospitals and surgeons. Peer review and “naming and shaming” are two mechanisms to monitor quality. There are two potentially damaging outcomes from the publication of results in a league-table form: the first is the damage to the hospital; the second is to refuse to operate on high-risk patients. There is a real need for quality monitoring in medicine in general and in cardiac surgery in particular. Good quality surgical work requires robust knowledge of three crucial variables: activity, risk prediction and performance. In Europe, the three major specialist societies have agreed to establish the European Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery Institute of Accreditation (ECTSIA. Performance monitoring is soon to become imperative. If we surgeons are not on board, we shall have no control on its final destination, and the consequences may be equally damaging to us and to our patients.

  4. The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rossau, Henriette Knold; Nakano, Anne; Foghmar, Sussie; Eichhorst, Regina; Prescott, Eva; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Gislason, Gunnar H; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Gustafsson, Ida; Thomsen, Kristian K; Boye Hansen, Lene; Hammer, Signe; Viggers, Lone; Christensen, Bo; Kvist, Birgitte; Lindström Egholm, Cecilie; May, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database (DHRD) aims to improve the quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) to the benefit of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Study population Hospitalized patients with CHD with stenosis on coronary angiography treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, or medication alone. Reporting is mandatory for all hospitals in Denmark delivering CR. The database was initially implemented in 2013 and was fully running from August 14, 2015, thus comprising data at a patient level from the latter date onward. Main variables Patient-level data are registered by clinicians at the time of entry to CR directly into an online system with simultaneous linkage to other central patient registers. Follow-up data are entered after 6 months. The main variables collected are related to key outcome and performance indicators of CR: referral and adherence, lifestyle, patient-related outcome measures, risk factor control, and medication. Program-level online data are collected every third year. Descriptive data Based on administrative data, approximately 14,000 patients with CHD are hospitalized at 35 hospitals annually, with 75% receiving one or more outpatient rehabilitation services by 2015. The database has not yet been running for a full year, which explains the use of approximations. Conclusion The DHRD is an online, national quality improvement database on CR, aimed at patients with CHD. Mandatory registration of data at both patient level as well as program level is done on the database. DHRD aims to systematically monitor the quality of CR over time, in order to improve the quality of CR throughout Denmark to benefit patients. PMID:27822083

  5. The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rossau, Henriette Knold; Nakano, Anne; Foghmar, Sussie; Eichhorst, Regina; Prescott, Eva; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Gislason, Gunnar H; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Gustafsson, Ida; Thomsen, Kristian K; Boye Hansen, Lene; Hammer, Signe; Viggers, Lone; Christensen, Bo; Kvist, Birgitte; Lindström Egholm, Cecilie; May, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database (DHRD) aims to improve the quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) to the benefit of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Hospitalized patients with CHD with stenosis on coronary angiography treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, or medication alone. Reporting is mandatory for all hospitals in Denmark delivering CR. The database was initially implemented in 2013 and was fully running from August 14, 2015, thus comprising data at a patient level from the latter date onward. Patient-level data are registered by clinicians at the time of entry to CR directly into an online system with simultaneous linkage to other central patient registers. Follow-up data are entered after 6 months. The main variables collected are related to key outcome and performance indicators of CR: referral and adherence, lifestyle, patient-related outcome measures, risk factor control, and medication. Program-level online data are collected every third year. Based on administrative data, approximately 14,000 patients with CHD are hospitalized at 35 hospitals annually, with 75% receiving one or more outpatient rehabilitation services by 2015. The database has not yet been running for a full year, which explains the use of approximations. The DHRD is an online, national quality improvement database on CR, aimed at patients with CHD. Mandatory registration of data at both patient level as well as program level is done on the database. DHRD aims to systematically monitor the quality of CR over time, in order to improve the quality of CR throughout Denmark to benefit patients.

  6. ICD in cardiac resinhronization therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damijan Vokač

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with advanced heart failure bears bad prognosis, despite modern medical treatment year mortality rate spans from 30 up to 70%. Besides terminal heart failure the second most frequent cause is sudden death due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias as ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Ventricular fibrillation is very frequent cause of mortality of terminal heart failure especially in ischemic subgroup. Clinical studies have presented improvement of heart function by use of biventricular stimulation of patients with advanced heart failure and intraventricular conduction defects as left bundle branch block. Method very successfully improves acute hemodynamic parameters due to resynchronization of septal and lateral wall of left ventricle and improves economy of the heart contraction. Although these effects are present immediately after implantation they persist also through longer period. Method improves quality of life and also decreases mortality rate proved by clinical studies. Despite successful therapy mortality rate due to sudden death remains high. Implantable cardioverters defibrillators successfully prevent sudden cardiac death due to ventricular tachyarrhythmia. They are successful due to straightforward recognition of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation and immediate electrical schock delivery. Cardiovertes defibrillators are successful in prevention of sudden cardiac death but they do not improve quality of life of heart failure patients like resynchronization therapy. Thus, combined therapy resynchronization and cardioverter defibrillator as a single implantable device has been developed.Conclusions: Due to very successful combined therapy the application of biventricular cardioverters defibrillators into clinical practice has increased. Implantation of biventricular cardioverter defibrillator is complex but very successful procedure. It is economically acceptable when proper indication has been stated. Large

  7. Exercise-associated increases in cardiac biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharhag, Jürgen; George, Keith; Shave, Rob; Urhausen, Axel; Kindermann, Wilfried

    2008-08-01

    At present, the risk of myocardial damage by endurance exercise is under debate because of reports on exercise-associated increases in cardiac biomarkers troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP); these markers are typically elevated in patients with acute myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure, respectively. Exercise-associated elevations of cardiac biomarkers can be present in elite and in recreational athletes, especially after prolonged and strenuous endurance exercise bouts (e.g., marathon and ultratriathlon). However, in contrast to cardiac patients, it is still unclear if the exercise-associated appearance or increase in cardiac biomarkers in obviously healthy athletes represents clinically significant cardiac insult or is indeed part of the physiological response to endurance exercise. In addition, elevations in cardiac biomarkers in athletes after exercise may generate difficulties for clinicians in terms of differential diagnosis and may result in inappropriate consequences. Therefore, the aim of this article is to provide an overview of exercise-associated alterations of the cardiac biomarkers troponin T and I, ischemia-modified albumin, BNP, and its cleaved inactive fragment N-terminal pro BNP for the athlete, coach, scientist, and clinician.

  8. The role of autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanfang; Xu, Jin; He, Lu; Peng, Lijun; Zhong, Qiaoqing; Chen, Linxi; Jiang, Zhisheng

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is conserved in nature from lower eukaryotes to mammals and is an important self-cannibalizing, degradative process that contributes to the elimination of superfluous materials. Cardiac hypertrophy is primarily characterized by excess protein synthesis, increased cardiomyocyte size, and thickened ventricular walls and is a major risk factor that promotes arrhythmia and heart failure. In recent years, cardiomyocyte autophagy has been considered to play a role in controlling the hypertrophic response. However, the beneficial or aggravating role of cardiomyocyte autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy remains controversial. The exact mechanism of cardiomyocyte autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy requires further study. In this review, we summarize the controversies associated with autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy and provide insights into the role of autophagy in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. We conclude that future studies should emphasize the relationship between autophagy and the different stages of cardiac hypertrophy, as well as the autophagic flux and selective autophagy. Autophagy will be a potential therapeutic target for cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27084518

  9. The role of autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanfang; Xu, Jin; He, Lu; Peng, Lijun; Zhong, Qiaoqing; Chen, Linxi; Jiang, Zhisheng

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy is conserved in nature from lower eukaryotes to mammals and is an important self-cannibalizing, degradative process that contributes to the elimination of superfluous materials. Cardiac hypertrophy is primarily characterized by excess protein synthesis, increased cardiomyocyte size, and thickened ventricular walls and is a major risk factor that promotes arrhythmia and heart failure. In recent years, cardiomyocyte autophagy has been considered to play a role in controlling the hypertrophic response. However, the beneficial or aggravating role of cardiomyocyte autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy remains controversial. The exact mechanism of cardiomyocyte autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy requires further study. In this review, we summarize the controversies associated with autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy and provide insights into the role of autophagy in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. We conclude that future studies should emphasize the relationship between autophagy and the different stages of cardiac hypertrophy, as well as the autophagic flux and selective autophagy. Autophagy will be a potential therapeutic target for cardiac hypertrophy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Therapeutic Potential of Polyphenols in Cardiac Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac fibrosis, in response to injury and stress, is central to a broad constellation of cardiovascular diseases. Fibrosis decreases myocardial wall compliance due to extracellular matrix (ECM accumulation, leading to impaired systolic and diastolic function and causing arrhythmogenesis. Although some conventional drugs, such as β-blockers and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS inhibitors, have been shown to alleviate cardiac fibrosis in clinical trials, these traditional therapies do not tend to target all the fibrosis-associated mechanisms, and do not hamper the progression of cardiac fibrosis in patients with heart failure. Polyphenols are present in vegetables, fruits, and beverages and had been proposed as attenuators of cardiac fibrosis in different models of cardiovascular diseases. Together with results found in the literature, we can show that some polyphenols exert anti-fibrotic and myocardial protective effects by mediating inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrotic molecular signals. This review considers an overview of the mechanisms of cardiac fibrosis, illustrates their involvement in different animal models of cardiac fibrosis treated with some polyphenols and projects the future direction and therapeutic potential of polyphenols on cardiac fibrosis.

  11. Role of Cardiac PET in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salata, Brian M; Singh, Parmanand

    2017-11-09

    Early identification of atherosclerosis and at-risk lesions plays a critical role in reducing the burden of cardiovascular disease. While invasive coronary angiography serves as the gold standard for diagnosing coronary artery disease, non-invasive imaging techniques provide visualization of both anatomical and functional atherosclerotic processes prior to clinical presentation. The development of cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) has greatly enhanced our capability to diagnose and treat patients with early stages of atherosclerosis. Cardiac PET is a powerful, versatile non-invasive diagnostic tool with utility in the identification of high-risk plaques, myocardial perfusion defects, and viable myocardial tissue. Cardiac PET allows for comparisons of myocardial function both at time of rest and stress, providing accurate assessments of both myocardial perfusion and viability. Furthermore, novel PET techniques with unique radiotracers yield clinically relevant data on high-risk plaques in active progressive atherosclerosis. While PET exercise stress tests were previously difficult to perform given short radiotracer half-life, the development of the novel radiotracer Flurpiridaz F-18 provides a promising future for PET exercise stress imaging. In addition, hybrid imaging with computed tomography angiography (CTA) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) provides integration of cardiac function and structure. In this review article, we discuss the principles of cardiac PET, the clinical applications of PET in diagnosing and prognosticating patients at risk for future cardiovascular events, compare PET with other non-invasive cardiac imaging modalities, and discuss future applications of PET in CVD evaluation and management.

  12. Cardiac biology and disease in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David

    2009-01-01

    It may seem ridiculous to consider cardiac diseases in sub-vertebrate animals; when on earth is a tarantula, a butterfly or a snail going to be presented as a clinical case with heart failure or a congenital cardiac abnormality? This article examines the work of research groups investigating invertebrates as valuable models of heart disease in man. Examining invertebrates with gene defects similar to those in human patients with heart disease, congenital or acquired, allows us to probe deeply into the aetiopathogenesis of many cardiac conditions.

  13. The Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We......-CCTR, showed that coronary CT angiographies accounted for only 23% of all nonregistered cardiac CTs, indicating >90% completeness of coronary CT angiographies in the WDHR-CCTR. The completeness of individual variables varied substantially (range: 0%-100%), but was >85% for more than 70% of all variables. Using......, making it a valuable tool for clinical epidemiological research....

  14. Cardiac myxoma in pregnancy: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective:Cardiac myxoma in pregnancy is rare and the clinical characteristics of this entity have been insufficiently elucidated. This article aims to describe the treatment options and the risk factors responsible for the maternal and feto-neonatal prognoses.Methods:A comprehensive search of the literature of cardiac myxoma in pregnancy was conducted and 44 articles with 51 patients were included in the present review.Results:Transthoracic echocardiography was the most common diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of cardiac myxoma during pregnancy. Cardiac myxoma resection was performed in 95.9% (47/49; while no surgical resection was performed in 4.1% (2/49 patients (P=0.000. More patients had an isolated cardiac myxoma resection in comparison to those with a concurrent or staged additional cardiac operation [87.2% (41/47 vs. 12.8% (6/47, P=0.000]. A voluntary termination of the pregnancy was done in 7 (13.7% cases. In the remaining 31 (60.8% pregnant patients, cesarean section was the most common delivery mode representing 61.3% and vaginal delivery was more common accounting for 19.4%. Cardiac surgery was performed in the first, second and third trimester in 5 (13.9%, 14 (38.9% and 17 (47.2% patients, respectively. No patients died. In the delivery group, 20 (76.9% neonates were event-free survivals, 4 (15.4% were complicated and 2 (7.7% died. Neonatal prognoses did not differ between the delivery modes, treatment options, timing of cardiac surgery and sequence of cardiac myxoma resection in relation to delivery.Conclusion:The diagnosis of cardiac myxoma in pregnancy is important. Surgical treatment of cardiac myxoma in the pregnant patients has brought about favorable maternal and feto-neonatal outcomes in the delivery group, which might be attributable to the shorter operation duration and non-emergency nature of the surgical intervention. Proper timing of cardiac surgery and improved cardiopulmonary bypass conditions may result in

  15. Cardiac myxoma in pregnancy: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac myxoma in pregnancy is rare and the clinical characteristics of this entity have been insufficiently elucidated. This article aims to describe the treatment options and the risk factors responsible for the maternal and feto-neonatal prognoses. A comprehensive search of the literature of cardiac myxoma in pregnancy was conducted and 44 articles with 51 patients were included in the present review. Transthoracic echocardiography was the most common diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of cardiac myxoma during pregnancy. Cardiac myxoma resection was performed in 95.9% (47/49); while no surgical resection was performed in 4.1% (2/49) patients (P=0.000). More patients had an isolated cardiac myxoma resection in comparison to those with a concurrent or staged additional cardiac operation [87.2% (41/47) vs. 12.8% (6/47), P=0.000]. A voluntary termination of the pregnancy was done in 7 (13.7%) cases. In the remaining 31 (60.8%) pregnant patients, cesarean section was the most common delivery mode representing 61.3% and vaginal delivery was more common accounting for 19.4%. Cardiac surgery was performed in the first, second and third trimester in 5 (13.9%), 14 (38.9%) and 17 (47.2%) patients, respectively. No patients died. In the delivery group, 20 (76.9%) neonates were event-free survivals, 4 (15.4%) were complicated and 2 (7.7%) died. Neonatal prognoses did not differ between the delivery modes, treatment options, timing of cardiac surgery and sequence of cardiac myxoma resection in relation to delivery. The diagnosis of cardiac myxoma in pregnancy is important. Surgical treatment of cardiac myxoma in the pregnant patients has brought about favorable maternal and feto-neonatal outcomes in the delivery group, which might be attributable to the shorter operation duration and non-emergency nature of the surgical intervention. Proper timing of cardiac surgery and improved cardiopulmonary bypass conditions may result in even better maternal and feto-neonatal survivals.

  16. Predictors for outcome among cardiac arrest patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibrandt-Johansen, Ida Maria; Norsted, Kristine; Schmidt, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundIn the past decade, early treatment of cardiac arrest (CA) victims has been improved in several ways, leading to more optimistic over all prognoses. However, the global survival rate after out-of-hospital CA (OHCA) is still not more than 5-10%. With a better knowledge of the predictors...... circulation (ROSC).ResultsThe overall mortality was 44% and a favorable neurological outcome was seen among 52%. Strong predictors for survival and favorable neurological outcome were ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) as initial rhythm, cardiac etiology and time to ROSC¿... rhythm of VT/VF and a cardiac etiology were the strongest....

  17. Nonlinear dynamics of paced cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Yohannes; Qu, Zhilin; Garfinkel, Alan; Karma, Alain; Weiss, James N

    2006-10-01

    When a cardiac cell is rapidly paced it can exhibit a beat-to-beat alternation in the action potential duration (APD) and the intracellular calcium transient. This dynamical instability at the cellular level has been shown to correlate with the genesis of cardiac arrhythmias and has motivated the application of nonlinear dynamics in cardiology. In this article, we review mathematical approaches to describe the underlying mechanisms for alternans using beat-to-beat iterated maps. We explain the development and properties of these maps, and show that they provide a fruitful framework to understand dynamical instabilities of voltage and calcium in paced cardiac cells.

  18. Cardiac Electrophysiology: Normal and Ischemic Ionic Currents and the ECG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klabunde, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    Basic cardiac electrophysiology is foundational to understanding normal cardiac function in terms of rate and rhythm and initiation of cardiac muscle contraction. The primary clinical tool for assessing cardiac electrical events is the electrocardiogram (ECG), which provides global and regional information on rate, rhythm, and electrical…

  19. Cardiac carcinoid: tricuspid delayed hyperenhancement on cardiac 64-slice multidetector CT and magnetic resonance imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martos, R

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carcinoid heart disease is a rare condition in adults. Its diagnosis can be easily missed in a patient presenting to a primary care setting. We revised the advantages of using coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing this condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied a 65-year-old patient with carcinoid heart disease and right heart failure using transthoracic Doppler-echocardiogram, cardiac MDCT and MRI. Cardiac echocardiogram revealed marked thickening and retraction of the tricuspid leaflets with dilated right atrium and ventricle. Cardiac MDCT and MRI demonstrated fixation and retraction of the tricuspid leaflets with delayed contrast hyperenhancement of the tricuspid annulus. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates fascinating imaging findings of cardiac carcinoid disease and highlights the increasing utility of contrast-enhanced MRI and cardiac MDCT in the diagnosis of this interesting condition.

  20. Angiogenesis and cardiac hypertrophy: maintenance of cardiac function and causative roles in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Toru; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Atsuhiko T; Komuro, Issei

    2014-01-31

    Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive response to physiological and pathological overload. In response to the overload, individual cardiac myocytes become mechanically stretched and activate intracellular hypertrophic signaling pathways to re-use embryonic transcription factors and to increase the synthesis of various proteins, such as structural and contractile proteins. These hypertrophic responses increase oxygen demand and promote myocardial angiogenesis to dissolve the hypoxic situation and to maintain cardiac contractile function; thus, these responses suggest crosstalk between cardiac myocytes and microvasculature. However, sustained pathological overload induces maladaptation and cardiac remodeling, resulting in heart failure. In recent years, specific understanding has increased with regard to the molecular processes and cell-cell interactions that coordinate myocardial growth and angiogenesis. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the regulatory mechanisms of coordinated myocardial growth and angiogenesis in the pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.

  1. [Experimental therapy of cardiac remodeling with quercetin-containing drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, M A; Pavlyuchenko, V B; Tumanovskaya, L V; Dosenko, V E; Moybenko, A A

    2013-01-01

    It was shown that continuous beta-adrenergic hyperstimulation resulted in cardiac function disturbances and fibrosis of cardiac tissue. Treatment with quercetin-containing drugs, particularly, water-soluble corvitin and tableted quertin exerted favourable effect on cardiac hemodynamics, normalized systolic and diastolic function in cardiac remodeling, induced by sustained beta-adrenergic stimulation. It was estimated that conducted experimental therapy limited cardiac fibrosis area almost three-fold, that could be associated with first and foremost improved cardiac distensibility, characteristics of diastolic and also pump function in cardiac remodeling.

  2. Cardiac-generated prostanoids mediate cardiac myocyte apoptosis after myocardial ischaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Liu, Jun-Yan; Wei, Dongguang; Li, Ning; Yamoah, Ebenezer N.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2012-01-01

    Aims The objective of the present study is to elucidate the pathogenic role of eicosanoids in myocardial infarction (MI). The accumulation of eicosanoid metabolites in ischaemic myocardium has been demonstrated in animal models and patients with MI, and it occurs in parallel with the development of irreversible cardiac damage. However, the key question that remains unanswered is whether cardiac-generated eicosanoids are the cause or the consequence of cardiac cell damage in MI. Methods and results We used a clinically relevant animal model of MI and metabolic profiling to monitor the eicosanoid profile in ischaemic myocardium. We demonstrate that ischaemia induces the generation of prostanoids mainly through the cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 pathway in the myocardium. Cardiac-generated prostanoids, particularly prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), can directly induce apoptosis in cardiac myocytes. This effect involves the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic gene, Fas ligand (FasL), in a D-type prostanoid receptor-independent manner. The treatment of the MI mice with low-dose aspirin effectively inhibits the ischaemia-induced prostanoid generation and FasL expression in the myocardium, leading to the reduction in cardiac apoptosis following cardiac ischaemia. Conclusions Cardiac ischaemia results in COX-1-mediated generation of prostanoids, which by inducing cardiac myocyte apoptosis, contribute to the cardiac cell loss following MI. The benefits of low-dose aspirin treatment in MI may be attributable, in part, to the inhibition of cardiac prostanoid generation and attenuation of apoptosis. Further understanding of the mechanisms underlying prostanoid-induced cardiac apoptosis may be of significant value in designing new therapeutic strategies to prevent aberrant cell loss following MI and subsequent progression to heart failure. PMID:22707158

  3. Epidemiology and Outcomes After In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Punkaj; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Pasquali, Sara K.; Hill, Kevin D.; Gaynor, J. William; O’Brien, Sean M.; He, Max; Sheng, Shubin; Schexnayder, Stephen M.; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Imamura, Michiaki; Jacobs, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multicenter data regarding cardiac arrest in children undergoing heart operations are limited. We describe epidemiology and outcomes associated with postoperative cardiac arrest in a large multiinstitutional cohort. Methods Patients younger than 18 years in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (2007 through 2012) were included. Patient factors, operative characteristics, and outcomes were described for patients with and without postoperative cardiac arrest. Multivariable models were used to evaluate the association of center volume with cardiac arrest rate and mortality after cardiac arrest, adjusting for patient and procedural factors. Results Of 70,270 patients (97 centers), 1,843 (2.6%) had postoperative cardiac arrest. Younger age, lower weight, and presence of preoperative morbidities (all p cardiac arrest. Arrest rate increased with procedural complexity across common benchmark operations, ranging from 0.7% (ventricular septal defect repair) to 12.7% (Norwood operation). Cardiac arrest was associated with significant mortality risk across procedures, ranging from 15.4% to 62.3% (all p arrest rate was not associated with center volume (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 1.57 in low- versus high-volume centers). However, mortality after cardiac arrest was higher in low-volume centers (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 2.63). This association was present for both high- and low-complexity operations. Conclusions Cardiac arrest carries a significant mortality risk across the stratum of procedural complexity. Although arrest rates are not associated with center volume, lower-volume centers have increased mortality after cardiac arrest. Further study of mechanisms to prevent cardiac arrest and to reduce mortality in those with an arrest is warranted. PMID:25443018

  4. Cardiac arrhythmias in stroke unit patients. Evaluation of the cardiac monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Menéndez, S; García-Santiago, R; Vega-Primo, A; González Nafría, N; Lara-Lezama, L B; Redondo-Robles, L; Montes-Montes, M; Riveira-Rodríguez, M C; Tejada-García, J

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are frequent in acute stroke. Stroke units are widely equipped with cardiac monitoring systems. Pre-existing heart diseases and heart-brain interactions may be implicated in causing cardiac arrhythmias in acute stroke. This article analyses cardiac arrhythmias detected in patients hospitalised in a stroke unit. Prospective observational study of consecutive patients admitted to a stroke unit with cardiac monitoring. We collected clinical data from patients and the characteristics of their cardiac arrhythmias over a 1-year period (2013). Time of arrhythmia onset, associated predisposing factors, and the therapeutic decisions made after detection of arrhythmia were examined. All patients underwent continuous cardiac monitoring during no less than 48hours. Of a total of 332 patients admitted, significant cardiac arrhythmias occurred in 98 patients (29.5%) during their stay in the stroke unit. Tachyarrhythmia (ventricular tachyarrhythmias, supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, complex ventricular ectopy) was present in 90 patients (27.1%); bradyarrhythmia was present in 13 patients (3.91%). Arrhythmias were independently associated with larger size of brain lesion and older age. In 10% of the patient total, therapeutic actions were taken after detection of significant cardiac arrhythmias. Most events occurred within the first 48hours after stroke unit admission. Systematic cardiac monitoring in patients with acute stroke is useful for detecting clinically relevant cardiac arrhythmias. Incidence of arrhythmia is higher in the first 48hours after stroke unit admission. Age and lesion size were predicted appearance of arrhythmias. Detection of cardiac arrhythmias in a stroke unit has important implications for treatment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiac Physiology for Radiologists: Review of Relevant Physiology for Interpretation of Cardiac MR Imaging and CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Pooja J; Danton, Gary H; Siegel, Yoel; Kardon, Richard E; Infante, Juan C; Ghersin, Eduard; Fishman, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provide clinicians with important insights into cardiac physiology and pathology. However, not all radiologists understand the language and concepts of cardiac physiology that are used daily by cardiologists. This review article covers basic cardiac physiology as it relates to cardiac CT and MR imaging. Topics include a review of the cardiac cycle and left ventricular pressure-volume loops as they relate to different pathologic states, evaluation of cardiac function, and calculation of key parameters such as left ventricular volumes and the ejection fraction. The hemodynamics of cardiac shunts are covered, with an emphasis on factors important to cardiologists, including the ratio of pulmonary flow to systemic flow. Additionally, valvular physiologic function is reexamined, with a focus on understanding pressure gradients within the heart and also the changes associated with valvular pathologic conditions, including measurement of regurgitant fractions in patients with valvular insufficiency. Understanding these basic concepts will help radiologists tailor the reporting of cardiac studies to clinically relevant information. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  6. Cardiac biomarkers in acute myocardial infarction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldous, Sally J

    2013-01-01

    ... (established and novel) assays. Cardiac troponin, our current "gold standard" biomarker criterion for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction has high sensitivity and specificity for this diagnosis and therapies instituted...

  7. National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database supports the Eastern Pacemaker Surveillance Center (EPSC) staff in its function of monitoring some 11,000...

  8. Targeting sodium channels in cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for proper electrical conduction in the heart. During acquired pathological conditions and inherited sodium channelopathies, altered sodium channel function causes conduction disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias. Although the clinical,

  9. Incidental Cardiac Findings on Thoracic Imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kok, Hong Kuan

    2013-02-07

    The cardiac structures are well seen on nongated thoracic computed tomography studies in the investigation and follow-up of cardiopulmonary disease. A wide variety of findings can be incidentally picked up on careful evaluation of the pericardium, cardiac chambers, valves, and great vessels. Some of these findings may represent benign variants, whereas others may have more profound clinical importance. Furthermore, the expansion of interventional and surgical practice has led to the development and placement of new cardiac stents, implantable pacemaker devices, and prosthetic valves with which the practicing radiologist should be familiar. We present a collection of common incidental cardiac findings that can be readily identified on thoracic computed tomography studies and briefly discuss their clinical relevance.

  10. Pathophysiology and prevention of sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vineet; Jassal, Davinder S; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2016-03-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is known to occur in individuals with diverse diseases. Each disease state has a specific etiology and pathophysiology, and is diagnosed and treated differently. Etiologies for SCD include cardiac arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, congenital coronary artery anomalies, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, dilated cardiomyopathy, and aortic valve stenosis. A potential unifying mechanism of SCD in these diseases involves a massive stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system's stress response and the subsequent elevation of circulating catecholamines. The diagnosis of cardiac diseases that contribute to an increased risk for SCD is accomplished by a combination of different techniques including electrocardiography, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and invasive cardiac catheterization. Several therapies including anti-arrhythmic drugs, β-blockers, and antiplatelet agents may be used as medical treatment in patients for the prevention of SCD. Invasive therapies including percutaneous angioplasty, coronary artery bypass surgery, and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators are also used in the clinical management of SCD.

  11. Depression After a Cardiac Event or Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Depression After A Cardiac Event or Diagnosis Updated:Jan 8,2018 Cardiovascular disease can trigger depression; counseling and medication can help beat it. When ...

  12. Clinical aspects of cardiac resynchronization therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sant, J. van 't

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses clinical aspects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Prediction and assessment of (volumetric) response were investigated as well as clinical outcome. We analyzed the additional value of echocardiographic parameters of mechanical dyssynchrony as predictors of CRT

  13. Complicated Electrical Activities in Cardiac Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Yuo-Hsien; Hsueh, Ming-Pin; Hseu, Shu-Shya; Yien, Huey-Wen

    It has become widely accepted that ventricular fibrillation, the most dangerous cardiac arrhythmias, is a major cause of death in the industrialized world. Alternans and conduction block have recently been related to the progression from ventricular tachycardia to ventricular fibrillation. From the point of view in cellular electrophysiology, ventricular tachycardia is the formation of reentrant wave in cardiac tissue. And ventricular fibrillation arises from subsequent breakdown of reentrant wave into multiple drifting and meandering spiral waves. In this paper, we numerically study pulse and vortex dynamics in cardiac tissue. Our numerical results include 1:1 normal sinus rhythm, 2:1 conduction block, complete conduction block, spiral wave, and spiral breakup. All of our numerical findings can be corresponding to clinical measurements in electrocardiogram. Various electrical activities in cardiac tissue will be discussed in detail in the present manuscript.

  14. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal imaging using PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautamaeki, Riikka; Tipre, Dnyanesh [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bengel, Frank M. [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Balance of the autonomic nervous system is essential for adequate cardiac performance, and alterations seem to play a key role in the development and progression of various cardiac diseases. PET imaging of the cardiac autonomic nervous system has advanced extensively in recent years, and multiple pre- and postsynaptic tracers have been introduced. The high spatial and temporal resolution of PET enables noninvasive quantification of neurophysiologic processes at the tissue level. Ligands for catecholamine receptors, along with radiolabeled catecholamines and catecholamine analogs, have been applied to determine involvement of sympathetic dysinnervation at different stages of heart diseases such as ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmia. This review summarizes the recent findings in neurocardiological PET imaging. Experimental studies with several radioligands and clinical findings in cardiac dysautonomias are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Nanomaterials for Cardiac Myocyte Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Amezcua

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since their synthesizing introduction to the research community, nanomaterials have infiltrated almost every corner of science and engineering. Over the last decade, one such field has begun to look at using nanomaterials for beneficial applications in tissue engineering, specifically, cardiac tissue engineering. During a myocardial infarction, part of the cardiac muscle, or myocardium, is deprived of blood. Therefore, the lack of oxygen destroys cardiomyocytes, leaving dead tissue and possibly resulting in the development of arrhythmia, ventricular remodeling, and eventual heart failure. Scarred cardiac muscle results in heart failure for millions of heart attack survivors worldwide. Modern cardiac tissue engineering research has developed nanomaterial applications to combat heart failure, preserve normal heart tissue, and grow healthy myocardium around the infarcted area. This review will discuss the recent progress of nanomaterials for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications through three main nanomaterial approaches: scaffold designs, patches, and injectable materials.

  16. Nanomaterials for Cardiac Myocyte Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua, Rodolfo; Shirolkar, Ajay; Fraze, Carolyn; Stout, David A

    2016-07-19

    Since their synthesizing introduction to the research community, nanomaterials have infiltrated almost every corner of science and engineering. Over the last decade, one such field has begun to look at using nanomaterials for beneficial applications in tissue engineering, specifically, cardiac tissue engineering. During a myocardial infarction, part of the cardiac muscle, or myocardium, is deprived of blood. Therefore, the lack of oxygen destroys cardiomyocytes, leaving dead tissue and possibly resulting in the development of arrhythmia, ventricular remodeling, and eventual heart failure. Scarred cardiac muscle results in heart failure for millions of heart attack survivors worldwide. Modern cardiac tissue engineering research has developed nanomaterial applications to combat heart failure, preserve normal heart tissue, and grow healthy myocardium around the infarcted area. This review will discuss the recent progress of nanomaterials for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications through three main nanomaterial approaches: scaffold designs, patches, and injectable materials.

  17. Automated Segmentation of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Nilsson, Jens Chr.; Grønning, Bjørn A.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be an accurate and precise technique to assess cardiac volumes and function in a non-invasive manner and is generally considered to be the current gold-standard for cardiac imaging [1]. Measurement of ventricular volumes, muscle mass and function...... is based on determination of the left-ventricular endocardial and epicardial borders. Since manual border detection is laborious, automated segmentation is highly desirable as a fast, objective and reproducible alternative. Automated segmentation will thus enhance comparability between and within cardiac...... studies and increase accuracy by allowing acquisition of thinner MRI-slices. This abstract demonstrates that statistical models of shape and appearance, namely the deformable models: Active Appearance Models, can successfully segment cardiac MRIs....

  18. Investigating patients' preferences for cardiac rehabilitation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Trine; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Willaing, Ingrid

    2006-01-01

    the preferences for the offer of participation in various cardiac rehabilitation program activities: smoking cessation course, physical exercise program, personal meetings with cardiac nurse, group meetings managed by cardiac nurses, and nutritional counseling guidance. The questionnaire was sent to 742 former......OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to analyze preferences for activities comprised in comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation programs among former cardiac patients from three different hospitals in Copenhagen County, Denmark. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was applied to elicit...

  19. Meaningful Outcome Measures in Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Myles, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    The most common cardiac surgical procedures are coronary artery bypass graft surgery and aortic or mitral valve repair or replacement. Underlying conditions include coronary artery disease and heart failure, manifesting as exertional angina, dyspnea, and poor exercise tolerance. The major goals of surgery are to alleviate symptoms and improve patient survival. These, therefore, should inform the choice of primary outcome measures in clinical studies enrolling patients undergoing cardiac surge...

  20. Acute leukaemoid reaction following cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webb Stephen T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia is an atypical myeloproliferative disorder with a natural history of progression to acute myeloid leukaemia, a complex and poorly understood response by the bone marrow to stress. Cardiac surgery activates many inflammatory cascades and may precipitate a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We present a case of undiagnosed chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia who developed rapidly fatal multi-organ dysfunction following cardiac surgery due to an acute leukaemoid reaction.

  1. Blunt cardiac rupture in a toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peep Talving

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Blunt cardiac rupture is typically a fatal injury with overall mortality exceeding 90%. Most of the patients never reach the hospital alive. In pediatric patients, only 0.03% of cases following blunt trauma admissions have a cardiac injury. This report presents a rare survivor of 16-months old toddler injured in a domestic accident suffering a right atrial rupture repaired through a median sternotomy. To the best of our knowledge this is the youngest case reported in the literature.

  2. Expression patterns of cardiac aging in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Leah; Zambon, Alexander C; Cammarato, Anthony; Zhang, Zhi; Vogler, Georg; Munoz, Matthew; Taylor, Erika; Cartry, Jérôme; Bernstein, Sanford I; Melov, Simon; Bodmer, Rolf

    2017-02-01

    Aging causes cardiac dysfunction, often leading to heart failure and death. The molecular basis of age-associated changes in cardiac structure and function is largely unknown. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is well-suited to investigate the genetics of cardiac aging. Flies age rapidly over the course of weeks, benefit from many tools to easily manipulate their genome, and their heart has significant genetic and phenotypic similarities to the human heart. Here, we performed a cardiac-specific gene expression study on aging Drosophila and carried out a comparative meta-analysis with published rodent data. Pathway level transcriptome comparisons suggest that age-related, extra-cellular matrix remodeling and alterations in mitochondrial metabolism, protein handling, and contractile functions are conserved between Drosophila and rodent hearts. However, expression of only a few individual genes similarly changed over time between and even within species. We also examined gene expression in single fly hearts and found significant variability as has been reported in rodents. We propose that individuals may arrive at similar cardiac aging phenotypes via dissimilar transcriptional changes, including those in transcription factors and micro-RNAs. Finally, our data suggest the transcription factor Odd-skipped, which is essential for normal heart development, is also a crucial regulator of cardiac aging. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Diabetic cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Parasympathetic versus sympathetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Akihiko; Kurata, Chinori; Sugi, Toshihiko; Mikami, Tadashi; Shouda, Sakae [Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    Diabetic cardiac autonomic dysfunction often causes lethal arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. {sup 123}I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) can evaluate cardiac sympathetic dysfunction, and analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) can reflect cardiac parasympathetic activity. We examined whether cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction assessed by HRV may correlate with sympathetic dysfunction assessed by MIBG in diabetic patients. In 24-hour electrocardiography, we analyzed 4 HRV parameters: high-frequency power (HF), HF in the early morning (EMHF), rMSSD and pNN50. MIBG planar images and SPECT were obtained 15 minutes (early) and 150 minutes (late) after injection and the heart washout rate was calculated. The defect score in 9 left ventricular regions was scored on a 4 point scale (0=normal - 3=severe defect). In 20 selected diabetic patients without congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease and renal failure, parasympathetic HRV parameters had a negative correlation with the sum of defect scores (DS) in the late images (R=-0.47 to -0.59, p<0.05) and some parameters had a negative correlation with the washout rate (R=-0.50 to -0.55, p<0.05). In a total of 64 diabetic patients also, these parameters had a negative correlation with late DS (R=-0.28 to -0.35, p<0.05) and early DS (R=-0.27 to -0.32, p<0.05). The progress of diabetic cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction may parallel the sympathetic one. (author)

  4. Tripartite motif 32 prevents pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijuan; Huang, Jia; Ji, Yanxiao; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wang, Pixiao; Deng, Keqiong; Jiang, Xi; Ma, Genshan; Li, Hongliang

    2016-05-01

    TRIM32 (tripartite motif 32) is widely accepted to be an E3 ligase that interacts with and eventually ubiquitylates multiple substrates. TRIM32 mutants have been associated with LGMD-2H (limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2H). However, whether TRIM32 is involved in cardiac hypertrophy induced by biomechanical stresses and neurohumoral mediators remains unclear. We generated mice and isolated NRCMs (neonatal rat cardiomyocytes) that overexpressed or were deficient in TRIM32 to investigate the effect of TRIM32 on AB (aortic banding) or AngII (angiotensin II)-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiography and both pathological and molecular analyses were used to determine the extent of cardiac hypertrophy and subsequent fibrosis. Our results showed that overexpression of TRIM32 in the heart significantly alleviated the hypertrophic response induced by pressure overload, whereas TRIM32 deficiency dramatically aggravated pathological cardiac remodelling. Similar results were also found in cultured NRCMs incubated with AngII. Mechanistically, the present study suggests that TRIM32 exerts cardioprotective action by interruption of Akt- but not MAPK (mitogen-dependent protein kinase)-dependent signalling pathways. Additionally, inactivation of Akt by LY294002 offset the exacerbated hypertrophic response induced by AB in TRIM32-deficient mice. In conclusion, the present study indicates that TRIM32 plays a protective role in AB-induced pathological cardiac remodelling by blocking Akt-dependent signalling. Therefore TRIM32 could be a novel therapeutic target for the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Cardiac MRI for myocardial ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Proper assessment of the physiologic impact of coronary artery stenosis on the LV myocardium can affect patient prognosis and treatment decisions. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) assesses myocardial perfusion by imaging the myocardium during a first-pass transit of an intravenous gadolinium bolus, with spatial and temporal resolution substantially higher than nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging. Coupled with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging for infarction during the same imaging session, CMR with vasodilating stress perfusion imaging can qualitatively and quantitatively assess the myocardial extent of hypoperfusion from coronary stenosis independent of infarcted myocardium. This approach has been validated experimentally, and multiple clinical trials have established its diagnostic robustness when compared to stress single-photon emission computed tomography. In specialized centers, dobutamine stress CMR has been shown to have incremental diagnostic value above stress echocardiography due to its high imaging quality and ability to image the heart with no restriction of imaging window. This paper reviews the technical aspects, diagnostic utility, prognostic values, challenges to clinical adaptation, and future developments of stress CMR imaging.

  6. Cardiac transplant experience with cyclosporine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J K; Kobashigawa, J A

    2004-03-01

    The advent of cyclosporine 20 years ago was a major advance in the field of solid organ transplantation. Its use enabled directed immunosuppression with a consequent decrease in the incidence of graft failure, acute rejection, and systemic infection. The early oil-based preparation, however, was difficult to administer and had limited bioavailability and unpredictable pharmacokinetics. The drug also has a fairly narrow therapeutic window with major long-term side effects, which include nephrotoxicity, malignancy, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. The introduction of a microemulsion preparation (Neoral) with improved bioavailability has been associated with lower rates of rejection and comparable tolerability, therefore allowing the use of lower doses. Traditionally cyclosporine toxicity has been minimized by monitoring trough levels. Monitoring of levels 2 hours after dosing may provide a more accurate determination of cyclosporine exposure. The next phase in cardiac transplantation immunosuppression will most likely see a significantly diminished role for cyclosporine with the introduction of newer, more potent immunosuppressive agents with more favorable side-effect profiles. These agents, which include mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, and everolimus, also hold the promise of having a major impact on the development of transplant vasculopathy, which up to now has been an important determinant of limiting long-term allograft survival.

  7. Spatiotemporal control of cardiac alternans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echebarria, Blas; Karma, Alain

    2002-09-01

    Electrical alternans are believed to be linked to the onset of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Recent studies have shown that alternans can be suppressed temporally by dynamic feedback control of the pacing interval. Here we investigate theoretically whether control can suppress alternans both temporally and spatially in homogeneous tissue paced at a single site. We first carry out ionic model simulations in a one-dimensional cable geometry which show that control is only effective up to a maximum cable length that decreases sharply away from the alternans bifurcation point. We then explain this finding by a linear stability analysis of an amplitude equation that describes the spatiotemporal evolution of alternans. This analysis reveals that control failure above a critical cable length is caused by the formation of standing wave patterns of alternans that are eigenfunctions of a forced Helmholtz equation, and therefore remarkably analogous to sound harmonics in an open pipe. We discuss the implications of these results for using control to suppress alternans in the human ventricles as well as to probe fundamental aspects of alternans morphogenesis.

  8. Microwave Treatment for Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Moya, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    NASA seeks to transfer the NASA developed microwave ablation technology, designed for the treatment of ventricular tachycardia (irregular heart beat), to industry. After a heart attack, many cells surrounding the resulting scar continue to live but are abnormal electrically; they may conduct impulses unusually slowly or fire when they would typically be silent. These diseased areas might disturb smooth signaling by forming a reentrant circuit in the muscle. The objective of microwave ablation is to heat and kill these diseased cells to restore appropriate electrical activity in the heart. This technology is a method and apparatus that provides for propagating microwave energy into heart tissues to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally ablating arrhythmogenic cardiac tissue while preventing excessive heating of surrounding tissues, organs, and blood. A wide bandwidth double-disk antenna is effective for this purpose over a bandwidth of about six gigahertz. A computer simulation provides initial screening capabilities for an antenna such as antenna, frequency, power level, and power application duration. The simulation also allows optimization of techniques for specific patients or conditions. In comparison with other methods that involve direct-current pulses or radio frequencies below 1 GHz, this method may prove more effective in treating ventricular tachycardia. This is because the present method provides for greater control of the location, cross-sectional area, and depth of a lesion via selection of the location and design of the antenna and the choice of microwave power and frequency.

  9. Cardiac differentiation of cardiosphere-derived cells in scaffolds mimicking morphology of the cardiac extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanyi; Patnaik, Sourav; Guo, Xiaolei; Li, Zhenqing; Lo, Wilson; Butler, Ryan; Claude, Andrew; Liu, Zhenguo; Zhang, Ge; Liao, Jun; Anderson, Peter M; Guan, Jianjun

    2014-08-01

    Stem cell therapy has the potential to regenerate heart tissue after myocardial infarction (MI). The regeneration is dependent upon cardiac differentiation of the delivered stem cells. We hypothesized that timing of the stem cell delivery determines the extent of cardiac differentiation as cell differentiation is dependent on matrix properties such as biomechanics, structure and morphology, and these properties in cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) continuously vary with time after MI. In order to elucidate the relationship between ECM properties and cardiac differentiation, we created an in vitro model based on ECM-mimicking fibers and a type of cardiac progenitor cell, cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs). A simultaneous fiber electrospinning and cell electrospraying technique was utilized to fabricate constructs. By blending a highly soft hydrogel with a relatively stiff polyurethane and modulating fabrication parameters, tissue constructs with similar cell adhesion property but different global modulus, single fiber modulus, fiber density and fiber alignment were achieved. The CDCs remained alive within the constructs during a 1week culture period. CDC cardiac differentiation was dependent on the scaffold modulus, fiber volume fraction and fiber alignment. Two constructs with relatively low scaffold modulus, ∼50-60kPa, most significantly directed the CDC differentiation into mature cardiomyocytes as evidenced by gene expressions of cardiac troponin T (cTnT), calcium channel (CACNA1c) and cardiac myosin heavy chain (MYH6), and protein expressions of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and connexin 43 (CX43). Of these two low-modulus constructs, the extent of differentiation was greater for lower fiber alignment and higher fiber volume fraction. These results suggest that cardiac ECM properties may have an effect on cardiac differentiation of delivered stem cells. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Polymer microfiber meshes facilitate cardiac differentiation of c-kit{sup +} human cardiac stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Lijuan [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Thayer, Patrick [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Fan, Huimin [Research Institute of Heart Failure, Shanghai East Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Ledford, Benjamin; Chen, Miao [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Goldstein, Aaron [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Cao, Guohua [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); He, Jia-Qiang, E-mail: jiahe@vt.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2016-09-10

    Electrospun microfiber meshes have been shown to support the proliferation and differentiation of many types of stem cells, but the phenotypic fate of c-kit{sup +} human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs) have not been explored. To this end, we utilized thin (~5 µm) elastomeric meshes consisting of aligned 1.7 µm diameter poly (ester-urethane urea) microfibers as substrates to examine their effect on hCSC viability, morphology, proliferation, and differentiation relative to cells cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). The results showed that cells on microfiber meshes displayed an elongated morphology aligned in the direction of fiber orientation, lower proliferation rates, but increased expressions of genes and proteins majorly associated with cardiomyocyte phenotype. The early (NK2 homeobox 5, Nkx2.5) and late (cardiac troponin I, cTnI) cardiomyocyte genes were significantly increased on meshes (Nkx=2.5 56.2±13.0, cTnl=2.9±0.56,) over TCPS (Nkx2.5=4.2±0.9, cTnl=1.6±0.5, n=9, p<0.05 for both groups) after differentiation. In contrast, expressions of smooth muscle markers, Gata6 and myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC), were decreased on meshes. Immunocytochemical analysis with cardiac antibody exhibited the similar pattern of above cardiac differentiation. We conclude that aligned microfiber meshes are suitable for guiding cardiac differentiation of hCSCs and may facilitate stem cell-based therapies for treatment of cardiac diseases. - Highlights: • First study to characterize c-kit{sup +} human cardiac stem cells on microfiber meshes. • Microfiber meshes seem reducing cell proliferation, but no effect on cell viability. • Microfiber meshes facilitate the elongation of human cardiac stem cells in culture. • Cardiac but not smooth muscle differentiation were enhanced on microfiber meshes. • Microfiber meshes may be used as cardiac patches in cell-based cardiac therapy.

  11. Non-cardiac QTc-prolonging drugs and the risk of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straus, SMJM; Sturkenboom, MCJM; Bleumink, GS; van der Lei, J; de Graeff, PA; Kingma, JH; Stricker, BHC

    2005-01-01

    Aims To assess the association between the use of non-cardiac QTc-prolonging drugs and the risk of sudden cardiac death. Methods and results A population-based case-control study was performed in the Integrated Primary Care Information (IPCI) project, a longitudinal observational database with

  12. the pattern of cardiac diseases at the cardiac clinic of jimma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease is the commonest cardiac disease in most sub-Saharan. African countries, followed by hypertensive heart disease which is rising along with the other non- communicable diseases. However the pattern in our setting is not known. This study aimed to determine the pattern of cardiac ...

  13. Cardiac function and cognition in older community-dwelling cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Laura H P; Aly, Mohamed F A; Vuijk, Pieter J; de Boer, Karin; Kamp, Otto; van Rossum, Albert C; Scherder, Erik J A

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive deficits have been reported in older cardiac patients. An underlying mechanism for these findings may be reduced cardiac function. The relationship between cardiac function as represented by different echocardiographic measures and different cognitive function domains in older cardiac patients remains unknown. An older (≥70 years) heterogeneous group of 117 community-dwelling cardiac patients under medical supervision by a cardiologist underwent thorough echocardiographic assessment including left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac index, left atrial volume index, left ventricular mass index, left ventricular diastolic function, and valvular calcification. During a home visit, a neuropsychological assessment was performed within 7.1 ± 3.8 months after echocardiographic assessment; the neuropsychological assessment included three subtests of a word-learning test (encoding, recall, recognition) to examine one memory function domain and three executive function tests, including digit span backwards, Trail Making Test B minus A, and the Stroop colour-word test. Regression analyses showed no significant linear or quadratic associations between any of the echocardiographic functions and the cognitive function measures. None of the echocardiographic measures as representative of cardiac function was correlated with memory or executive function in this group of community-dwelling older cardiac patients. These findings contrast with those of previous studies. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  14. Relevance of mouse models of cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in cardiac research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Vikrant; Sharma, Poonam; Agrawal, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Heart disease causing cardiac cell death due to ischemia–reperfusion injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Coronary heart disease and cardiomyopathies are the major cause for congestive heart failure, and thrombosis of the coronary arteries is the most common cause of myocardial infarction. Cardiac injury is followed by post-injury cardiac remodeling or fibrosis. Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by net accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the cardiac inter-stitium and results in both systolic and diastolic dysfunctions. It has been suggested by both experimental and clinical evidence that fibrotic changes in the heart are reversible. Hence, it is vital to understand the mechanism involved in the initiation, progression, and resolution of cardiac fibrosis to design anti-fibrotic treatment modalities. Animal models are of great importance for cardiovascular research studies. With the developing research field, the choice of selecting an animal model for the proposed research study is crucial for its outcome and translational purpose. Compared to large animal models for cardiac research, the mouse model is preferred by many investigators because of genetic manipulations and easier handling. This critical review is focused to provide insight to young researchers about the various mouse models, advantages and disadvantages, and their use in research pertaining to cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy. PMID:27766529

  15. Occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias in Standardbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J; Boston, R C; Soma, L R; Reef, V B

    2015-07-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are a recognised but poorly characterised problem in the Standardbred racehorse. Frequency data could aid the development of cardiac arrhythmia screening programmes. To characterise the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias in Standardbreds prior to racing and in the late post race period using a handheld, noncontinuous recording device. Prospective, observational study, convenience sampling. Noncontinuous electrocardiographic recordings were obtained over a 12 week period from Standardbred horses competing at a single racetrack. Electrocardiograms were obtained before racing and between 6 and 29 min after the race using a handheld recording device. Prevalence of arrhythmias was calculated for all horses and overall frequency of arrhythmias was calculated for race starts and poor performers. Univariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for cardiac arrhythmias. A total of 8657 electrocardiogram recordings were obtained from 1816 horses. Six horses had atrial fibrillation after racing (prevalence = 0.11%, frequency = 0.14%), one horse had supraventricular tachycardia before racing (prevalence = 0.06%, frequency = 0.02%), and 2 horses had ventricular tachyarrhythmias after racing (prevalence = 0.06%, frequency = 0.05%). The frequency of atrial fibrillation among race starts with poor performance was 1.3-2.0%. Increasing age was a significant risk factor for the presence of atrial premature contractions before racing and atrial fibrillation and ventricular ectopy after racing. Both physiological and pathological cardiac arrhythmias can be detected in apparently healthy Standardbred horses in the prerace and late post race period using noncontinuous recording methods. Future studies should examine cumulative training or racing hours as a risk factor for cardiac arrhythmia. The prevalence and frequency information may be useful for track veterinarians and regulatory personnel following trends in cardiac arrhythmias. © 2014

  16. Cardiac mitochondria exhibit dynamic functional clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Tobias Kurz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-oscillatory behavior of mitochondrial inner membrane potential ΔΨm in self-organized cardiac mitochondrial networks can be triggered by metabolic or oxidative stress. Spatio-temporal analyses of cardiac mitochondrial networks have shown that mitochondria are heterogeneously organized in synchronously oscillating clusters in which the mean cluster frequency and size are inversely correlated, thus suggesting a modulation of cluster frequency through local inter-mitochondrial coupling. In this study, we propose a method to examine the mitochondrial network's topology through quantification of its dynamic local clustering coefficients. Individual mitochondrial ΔΨm oscillation signals were identified for each cardiac myocyte and cross-correlated with all network mitochondria using previously described methods (Kurz et al., 2010. Time-varying inter-mitochondrial connectivity, defined for mitochondria in the whole network whose signals are at least 90% correlated at any given time point, allowed considering functional local clustering coefficients. It is shown that mitochondrial clustering in isolated cardiac myocytes changes dynamically and is significantly higher than for random mitochondrial networks that are constructed using the Erdös-Rényi model based on the same sets of vertices. The network's time-averaged clustering coefficient for cardiac myocytes was found to be 0.500 ± 0.051 (N=9 versus 0.061 ± 0.020 for random networks, respectively. Our results demonstrate that cardiac mitochondria constitute a network with dynamically connected constituents whose topological organization is prone to clustering. Cluster partitioning in networks of coupled oscillators has been observed in scale-free and chaotic systems and is therefore in good agreement with previous models of cardiac mitochondrial networks (Aon et al., 2008.

  17. Robust temporal alignment of multimodal cardiac sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, Andrea; Queirós, Sandro; Morais, Pedro; Baptista, Maria J.; Monaghan, Mark; Rodrigues, Nuno F.; D'hooge, Jan; Vilaça, João. L.; Barbosa, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Given the dynamic nature of cardiac function, correct temporal alignment of pre-operative models and intraoperative images is crucial for augmented reality in cardiac image-guided interventions. As such, the current study focuses on the development of an image-based strategy for temporal alignment of multimodal cardiac imaging sequences, such as cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or 3D Ultrasound (US). First, we derive a robust, modality-independent signal from the image sequences, estimated by computing the normalized cross-correlation between each frame in the temporal sequence and the end-diastolic frame. This signal is a resembler for the left-ventricle (LV) volume curve over time, whose variation indicates different temporal landmarks of the cardiac cycle. We then perform the temporal alignment of these surrogate signals derived from MRI and US sequences of the same patient through Dynamic Time Warping (DTW), allowing to synchronize both sequences. The proposed framework was evaluated in 98 patients, which have undergone both 3D+t MRI and US scans. The end-systolic frame could be accurately estimated as the minimum of the image-derived surrogate signal, presenting a relative error of 1.6 +/- 1.9% and 4.0 +/- 4.2% for the MRI and US sequences, respectively, thus supporting its association with key temporal instants of the cardiac cycle. The use of DTW reduces the desynchronization of the cardiac events in MRI and US sequences, allowing to temporally align multimodal cardiac imaging sequences. Overall, a generic, fast and accurate method for temporal synchronization of MRI and US sequences of the same patient was introduced. This approach could be straightforwardly used for the correct temporal alignment of pre-operative MRI information and intra-operative US images.

  18. Biomimetic material strategies for cardiac tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Molamma P., E-mail: nnimpp@nus.edu.sg [Health Care and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Venugopal, J. [Health Care and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kai, Dan [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Health Care and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2011-04-08

    Cardiovascular disease precedes many serious complications including myocardial infarction (MI) and it remains a major problem for the global community. Adult mammalian heart has limited ability to regenerate and compensate for the loss of cardiomyocytes. Restoration of cardiac function by replacement of diseased myocardium with functional cardiomyocytes is an intriguing strategy because it offers a potential cure for MI. Biomaterials are fabricated in nanometer scale dimensions by combining the chemical, biological, mechanical and electrical aspects of material for potential tissue engineering (TE) applications. Synthetic polymers offer advantageous in their ability to tailor the mechanical properties, and natural polymers offer cell recognition sites necessary for cell, adhesion and proliferation. Cardiac tissue engineering (TE) aim for the development of a bioengineered construct that can provide physical support to the damaged cardiac tissue by replacing certain functions of the damaged extracellular matrix and prevent adverse cardiac remodeling and dysfunction after MI. Electrospun nanofibers are applied as heart muscle patches, while hydrogels serve as a platform for controlled delivery of growth factors, prevent mechanical complications and assist in cell recruitment. This article reviews the applications of different natural and synthetic polymeric materials utilized as cardiac patches, injectables or 3D constructs for cardiac TE. Smart organization of nanoscale assemblies with synergistic approaches of utilizing nanofibers and hydrogels could further advance the field of cardiac tissue engineering. Rapid innovations in biomedical engineering and cell biology will bring about new insights in the development of optimal scaffolds and methods to create tissue constructs with relevant contractile properties and electrical integration to replace or substitute the diseased myocardium.

  19. Preconception Counseling for Women With Cardiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Mark A; Bernstein, Sarah N

    2017-09-01

    All providers who care for reproductive-aged women with cardiac disease should assess these patients' desires and plans for pregnancy at every encounter. For those considering pregnancy, preconception counseling, often performed by a maternal-fetal medicine specialist, can help patients understand the potential implications of pregnancy on their health and estimate the risks of an adverse cardiac event prior to conceiving. There are cardiac conditions, such as pulmonary hypertension and aortic stenosis, in which pregnancy may be contraindicated given the high morbidity and mortality; there are tools available to help quantify a patient's risk. Furthermore, some cardiac lesions may be inherited, which may warrant parental testing or a discussion of strategies to reduce the risk of an affected child, such as the use of assisted reproductive technologies. Preconception counseling is also important to identify other maternal risk factors, such as obesity, hypertension, and tobacco use, which are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and develop a strategy to mitigate their potential risks, ideally before pregnancy. For women on medications for their heart disease or other comorbidities, a thorough review of these medications can potentially avoid an exposure to a teratogen during conception and pregnancy. Once pregnant, a patient's obstetrical provider and cardiologist should work together to outline a plan to monitor a patient's cardiac status as the normal physiologic changes of pregnancy, such as increased blood volume and cardiac output, may challenge a patient's functional status and increase the risk for an adverse outcome. Labor and delivery planning are essential to ensure patients with cardiac disease deliver at the appropriate hospital, equipped with the staff and resources to care for women with complex conditions. In summary, preconception counseling aims to stratify a patient's risk in pregnancy, inform patients of possible complications, and discuss

  20. SYNTHETIC STRANDS OF CARDIAC MUSCLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Joyce E.; Lieberman, Melvyn; Roggeveen, Anne E.; Kirk, R. Gary

    1972-01-01

    Spontaneously active bundles of cardiac muscle (synthetic strands) were prepared from isolated cells of 11–13-day old embryonic chick hearts which were disaggregated with trypsin. Linear orientation of the cells was obtained by plating them on agar-coated culture dishes in which either grooves were cut in the agar film or a thin line of palladium was deposited over the agar. The influence of cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate interactions was observed with time lapse cinematography and the formation of the synthetic strand was shown to involve both random and guided cell movements, enlargement of aggregates by accretion and coalescence, and the compact linear arrangement of cells along paths of preferential adhesion. Electron microscope investigations of these strands showed that a dispersed population of heart cells organized into an inner core of muscle cells and an outer sheath of fibroblast-like cells. The muscle cells contained well-developed, but widely spaced myofibrils, a developing sarcoplasmic reticulum associated in part with the myofibrils and in part with the sarcolemma, an abundance of nonmembrane bound ribosomes and glycogen, and a prominent Golgi complex. Numerous specialized contacts were observed between the muscle cells in the strand, e.g., fasciae adherentes, desmosomes, and nexuses. A distinct type of muscle cell characterized by its pale appearance was regularly observed in the strand and was noted to be similar to Purkinje cells described in the adult avian conduction system and in developing chick myocardium. The present findings were compared with other observations of the developing myocardium, in situ, and it was concluded that, by a number or criteria, the muscle cells of the strand were differentiating normally and suitably organized for electrophysiological studies. PMID:4656702