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Sample records for holy basil ethanolic

  1. The Study on Diurnal Changes in Leaf Gas Exchange of Lemon Balm, Catnip, Holy Basil and Sweet basil in Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahmoodi Sourestani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mediterranean climate conditions induce several stresses that plants have to cope with, especially during summer months when high temperature and radiation levels along with low water availability in the soil prevail for long periods. Variation in physiological traits such as photosynthesis and plant water status and their association with morphological characters can play an important role in the adaptability of the species to environmental constraints. The previous studies show that scorching weather not only affects the rate of gas exchange, but also results in diurnal changes in activity. Thus, the impact of environmental stresses on plants growing in these conditions should be assessed by examining the evolution of their diurnal variations on leaf gas exchange. Aromatic plants represent a renewable source of valuable compounds that can be used in food, perfumery, and pharmaceutical industry. Among these plants, sweet basil (Ocimumbasilicum, holy basil (Ocimum sanctum, lemon balm (Melissa officinalisL. and catnip (Nepetacataria are very important for different industries. Studies on environmental physiology of medicinal plants are relatively scarce and very few information is available concerning the physiological basis of medicinal plant response to heat stress that is one of the most important factors limiting production of medicinal plants in Khuzestan province. Material and methods: In order to evaluate the diurnal fluctuation of gas exchange of mentioned plants, an experiment was carried out in 2013 at research farm of Horticultural Science, Shahid Chamran University (31°20'N latitude and 48°40'E longitude and 22.5m mean sea level, Ahvaz (Iran, a site characterized by a semidry and scorching weather during late spring and summer. The experiment was arranged based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications and 4×8 factorial scheme (Four plants including lemon balm, catnip, holy basil and basil; and

  2. Effects of a wax organogel and alginate gel complex on holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, James R; Rogers, Michael A; Cant, John P; McBride, Brian W; Osborne, Vern R

    2018-02-20

    The objectives of this study were to: (a) select an ideal organogel for the oil phase of a novel gel encapsulation technology, (b) optimize the formulation of an organogel and sodium alginate-based gel complex, and (c) examine the rumen protective ability of the gel by measuring 48-h in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production from encapsulated dried and ground holy basil leaves. A rice-bran wax and canola oil organogel was selected for the oil phase of the gel complex as this combination had a 48-h dry matter disappearance of 6%, the lowest of all organogels analyzed. The gel complex was formulated by homogenizing the organogel with a sodium alginate solution to create a low-viscosity oil-in-water emulsion. Average dry matter disappearance of gel-encapsulated holy basil was 19%, compared to 42% for the free, unprotected holy basil. However, gel encapsulation of holy basil stimulated gas production. Specifically, gas production of encapsulated holy basil was four times higher than the treatment with holy basil added on top of the gel prior to incubation rather than encapsulated within the gel. Although the gel itself was highly degradable, it is speculated encapsulation thwarted holy basil's antimicrobial activity. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Study on Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Stem Alkaloid Extract of Different Varieties of Holy Basil on Aluminium in HCl Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpawat, Nutan; Chaturvedi, Alok; Upadhyay, R. K. [Synthetic and Surface Science Laboratory, Ajmer (India)

    2012-08-15

    Corrosion inhibition efficiencies of holy basil on Al in HCl solution were studied by weight loss and thermometric methods in presence and in absence of stem extract of three different varieties of holy basil viz. ocimum basilicum (E{sub B}), ocimum canum (E{sub C}) and ocimum sanctum (E{sub S}). Inhibition efficiency increases with the increasing concentration of stem extract and decreases with increases in acid strength. Results show that all varieties under study are good corrosion inhibitors, among which, E{sub B} is most effective. Maximum inhibition efficiency was found 97.09% in 0.5N HCl solution with 0.6% stem extract. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm indicates that surface coverage also increases with increasing in the concentration of extract of stem in HCl solution.

  4. Study on Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Stem Alkaloid Extract of Different Varieties of Holy Basil on Aluminium in HCl Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpawat, Nutan; Chaturvedi, Alok; Upadhyay, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion inhibition efficiencies of holy basil on Al in HCl solution were studied by weight loss and thermometric methods in presence and in absence of stem extract of three different varieties of holy basil viz. ocimum basilicum (E B ), ocimum canum (E C ) and ocimum sanctum (E S ). Inhibition efficiency increases with the increasing concentration of stem extract and decreases with increases in acid strength. Results show that all varieties under study are good corrosion inhibitors, among which, E B is most effective. Maximum inhibition efficiency was found 97.09% in 0.5N HCl solution with 0.6% stem extract. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm indicates that surface coverage also increases with increasing in the concentration of extract of stem in HCl solution

  5. Unravelling the genome of Holy basil: an "incomparable" "elixir of life" of traditional Indian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Shubhra; Kalra, Alok; Gupta, Vikrant; Khan, Feroz; Lal, Raj Kishori; Tripathi, Anil Kumar; Parameswaran, Sriram; Gopalakrishnan, Chellappa; Ramaswamy, Gopalakrishna; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2015-05-28

    Ocimum sanctum L. (O. tenuiflorum) family-Lamiaceae is an important component of Indian tradition of medicine as well as culture around the world, and hence is known as "Holy basil" in India. This plant is mentioned in the ancient texts of Ayurveda as an "elixir of life" (life saving) herb and worshipped for over 3000 years due to its healing properties. Although used in various ailments, validation of molecules for differential activities is yet to be fully analyzed, as about 80 % of the patents on this plant are on extracts or the plant parts, and mainly focussed on essential oil components. With a view to understand the full metabolic potential of this plant whole nuclear and chloroplast genomes were sequenced for the first time combining the sequence data from 4 libraries and three NGS platforms. The saturated draft assembly of the genome was about 386 Mb, along with the plastid genome of 142,245 bp, turning out to be the smallest in Lamiaceae. In addition to SSR markers, 136 proteins were identified as homologous to five important plant genomes. Pathway analysis indicated an abundance of phenylpropanoids in O. sanctum. Phylogenetic analysis for chloroplast proteome placed Salvia miltiorrhiza as the nearest neighbor. Comparison of the chemical compounds and genes availability in O. sanctum and S. miltiorrhiza indicated the potential for the discovery of new active molecules. The genome sequence and annotation of O. sanctum provides new insights into the function of genes and the medicinal nature of the metabolites synthesized in this plant. This information is highly beneficial for mining biosynthetic pathways for important metabolites in related species.

  6. Fibroblast and keratinocyte gene expression following exposure to the extracts of holy basil plant (Ocimum tenuiflorum, malabar nut plant (Justicia adhatoda, and emblic myrobalan plant (Phyllanthus emblica

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    Takao Someya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This data article provides gene expression profiles, determined by using real-time PCR, of fibroblasts and keratinocytes treated with 0.01% and 0.001% extracts of holy basil plant (Ocimum tenuiflorum, sri lankan local name “maduruthala”, 0.1% and 0.01% extracts of malabar nut plant (Justicia adhatoda, sri lankan local name “adayhoda” and 0.003% and 0.001% extracts of emblic myrobalan plant (Phyllanthus emblica, sri lankan local name “nelli”, harvested in Sri Lanka. For fibroblasts, the dataset includes expression profiles for genes encoding hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2, hyaluronidase-1 (HYAL1, hyaluronidase-2 (HYAL2, versican, aggrecan, CD44, collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1, collagen, type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1, collagen, type VII, alpha 1 (COL7A1, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1, acid ceramidase, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF7, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α, cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β, and aquaporin 3 (AQP3. For keratinocytes, the expression profiles are for genes encoding HAS1, HAS2, HYAL1, HYAL2, versican, CD44, IL-1α, cox2, TGF-β, AQP3, Laminin5, collagen, type XVII, alpha 1 (COL17A1, integrin alpha-6 (ITGA6, ceramide synthase 3 (CERS3, elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 1 (ELOVL1, elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 4 (ELOVL4, filaggrin (FLG, transglutaminase 1 (TGM1, and keratin 1 (KRT1. The expression profiles are provided as bar graphs. Keywords: Real-time PCR, Gene expression profile, Fibroblast, Keratinocyte, Holy basil extract, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Maduruthala, Malabar nut plant extract, Justicia adhatoda, Adayhoda, Emblic myrobalan extract, Phyllanthus emblica, Nelli

  7. Effects of Foliar Application of Nano Zinc Chelate and Zinc Sulfate on Zinc Content, Pigments and Photosynthetic Indices of Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum(

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    Zohreh Moghimi pour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Holy basil is a perennial plant belongs to Lamiaceae family. The plant is a perennial and thrives well in the hot and humid climate. Its aerial parts have been in use for food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and perfumery industries. Leaves contain 0.5-1.5% essential oil and main oil components are eugenol, methyl eugenol, carvacrol, methyl chavicol and1,8-cineole. A balanced fertilization program with macro and micronutrients is very important in producing high quality yield. Zinc is involved in IAA production, chlorophyll biosynthesis, carbon assimilation, saccharids accumulation, reactive oxygen radicals scavenging and finally carbon utilization in volatile oil biosynthesis. Material and methods: In order to evaluate the effect on zinc foliar application on zinc content of leaves, photosynthetic indices and pigments of holy basil, an experiment was carried out in 2013 at a research farm of Horticultural Science, Shahid Chamran University (31°20'N latitude and 48°40'E longitude and 22.5 m mean sea level, Ahvaz (Iran, a region characterized by semi-dry climate. The experiment was arranged based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with six treatments and three replications. The treatments were nano zinc chelate (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g.l-1 and zinc sulfate (1 and 1.5 g.l-1 fertilizers. Land preparation includes disking and the formation of raising beds (15cm high and 45cm wide across the top using a press-pan-type bed shaper. Holy basil seeds were sown on two rows on each bed, with 15 cm in-row and 40 cm between-row spacing. The plants were irrigated weekly as needed. Foliar application of zinc fertilizers was done at six-eight leaf stage and were repeated with interval 15 days until full bloom stage. Zinc content, stomata conductance (gs, CO2 under stomata (Ci, transpiration rate (E, net photosynthesis (Pn, light use efficiency (LUE, water use efficiency (WUE and also chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b and carotenoid

  8. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) by DPPH radical scavenging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsi; Sholichah, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    Basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) contains various compounds such as flavonoid, alkaloid, phenol and essential oil, so it needs to be fractionated to find out the flavonoid compound with the greatest potential as an antioxidant. This research was aimed to know the chemical compound, antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf. The basil leaf was extracted by maceration using ethanol 70 %. The crude extract was fractionated with ethyl acetate. The ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were screened of phytochemical content including identification of flavonoids, alkaloids and polyphenolics. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were tested qualitatively with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and phosphomolybdate. Its antioxidant activity was determined quantitatively using DPPH radical scavenging method. Phytochemical screening test showed that ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf contain flavonoids, polyphenolics, and alkaloids. The qualitative analysis of antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf showed an antioxidant activity. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction and quercetin were 1,374.00±6.20 389.00±1.00 2.10±0.01μg/mL, respectively. The research showed that antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate fraction more potential than the ethanol extract of the basil leaf, but less than quercetin.

  9. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) protect against sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

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    Gbadegesin, M A; Odunola, O A

    2010-11-25

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and serum γ-Glutamyl transferase (γGT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities when compared with the group administered the toxin alone. In addition, treatments of the animals with aqueous or ethanolic extract of O. basilicum before the administration of sodium arsenite resulted in the attenuation of the sodium arsenite-induced aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities: ALT (from 282.6% to 167.7% and 157.8%), AST (from 325.1% to 173.5% and 164.2%) for the group administered sodium arsenite alone, the aqueous extracts plus sodium arsenite, and ethanolic extracts plus sodium arsenite respectively, expressed as percentage of the negative control. These findings support the presence of hepatoprotective activity in the O.basilicum extracts.

  10. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cardioprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study The objectives of the present study were phytochemical screening and study of the effects of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (basil) on cardiac functions and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI). Methods The leaves of the plant were extracted with ethanol by maceration and subjected to colorimetry to determine flavonoids and phenolic compounds. High-performance TLC analysis and subsequent CAMAG's TLC scanning were performed to quantify rosmarinic acid content. Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of normal control, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of the extract two times per day concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day) for 2 consecutive days was used to induce MI. Results Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (5.36%) and flavonoids (1.86%). Rosmarinic acid was the principal phenolic compound with a 15.74% existence. The ST-segment elevation induced by isoproterenol was significantly suppressed by all doses of the extract. A severe myocardial necrosis and fibrosis with a sharp reduction in left ventricular contractility and a marked increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were seen in the isoproterenol group, all of which were significantly improved by the extract treatment. In addition to in-vitro antioxidant activity, the extract significantly suppressed the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in the serum and the myocardium. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate that Ocimum basilicum strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidative activities. PMID:23351503

  11. Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Cardioprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Ocimum Basilicum L. (Basil Against Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats

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    Hamid Soraya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: The objectives of the present study were phytochemical screening and study of the effects of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (basil on cardiac functions and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI.Methods: The leaves of the plant were extracted with ethanol by maceration and subjected to colorimetry to determine flavonoids and phenolic compounds. High-performance TLC analysis and subsequent CAMAG's TLC scanning were performed to quantify rosmarinic acid content. Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of normalcontrol, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of the extract two times per day concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day for 2 consecutive days was used to induce MI.Results: Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (5.36% and flavonoids (1.86%.Rosmarinic acid was the principal phenolic compound with a 15.74% existence. The ST-segment elevation induced by isoproterenol was significantly suppressed by all doses of the extract. A severe myocardial necrosis and fibrosis with a sharp reduction in left ventricular contractility and a marked increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were seen in the isoproterenol group, all of which were significantly improved by the extract treatment. In addition to in-vitro antioxidant activity, the extract significantly suppressed the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both inthe serum and the myocardium.Conclusion: The results of the study demonstrate that Ocimum basilicum strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidative activities.

  12. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cardioprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

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    Fathiazad Fatemeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study The objectives of the present study were phytochemical screening and study of the effects of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (basil on cardiac functions and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI. Methods The leaves of the plant were extracted with ethanol by maceration and subjected to colorimetry to determine flavonoids and phenolic compounds. High-performance TLC analysis and subsequent CAMAG's TLC scanning were performed to quantify rosmarinic acid content. Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of normal control, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of the extract two times per day concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day for 2 consecutive days was used to induce MI. Results Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (5.36% and flavonoids (1.86%. Rosmarinic acid was the principal phenolic compound with a 15.74% existence. The ST-segment elevation induced by isoproterenol was significantly suppressed by all doses of the extract. A severe myocardial necrosis and fibrosis with a sharp reduction in left ventricular contractility and a marked increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were seen in the isoproterenol group, all of which were significantly improved by the extract treatment. In addition to in-vitro antioxidant activity, the extract significantly suppressed the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in the serum and the myocardium. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate that Ocimum basilicum strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidative activities.

  13. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from purple basil

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    Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Şit, Latifşah

    2012-09-01

    Water, ethanol and acetone extracts from leaves and flowers of purple basil, one of the most popular spices consumed in the Thrace region of Turkey, were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids, to scavenge DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to chelate Fe(II) ions. The results showed that purple basil contained naturally occurring antioxidant components and possessed antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its lipid peroxidation inhibitory, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. It was concluded that purple basil might be a potential source of antioxidants.

  14. Holiness and humour

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    Anita Houck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although Christian spirituality includes a long tradition of suspicion of humour, humour can express and further holiness in several ways. Humour serves holiness in religious satire; it can also communicate the self-transcendent perspective of holy women and men. Humour and holiness can also illuminate each other because both are inherently relational. Christian holiness consists primarily in right relationship to the Holy One and, thus, to others. Humour’s complex relational nature is examined with the help of Ted Cohen’s analysis of joke-telling and evolutionary and cognitive research. Humour and its primary expression, laughter, are inherently ambiguous, capable of expressing and creating a range of attitudes and relationships; consequently, they can both conduce to and hinder holiness. Finally, humour can contribute to the religious imagination, and thus to holiness, by challenging established images of the holy, inviting fresh theological reflection, and inspiring ethical action. Both holiness and humour require openness to that which is beyond us and agility in responding to the other.

  15. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is one of the most popular and healthy culinary herbs in the world. Essential oil derived from basil (basil oil) through steam distillation has traditionally been used for a wide range of applications such as cooking spices, aromatherapy, perfumery, medicinal treatments, pes...

  16. Methaemoglobinaemia during Holi festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, S A; Jadhav, A; Chandane, P

    2009-09-01

    We report eight children who developed methaemoglobinaemia after exposure to contaminated colours used during Holi, a traditional festival celebrated in India. Methaemoglobinaemia can be life-threatening, but outcome is good if treated in time with intravenous methylene blue. Physicians might encounter such cases after exposure to Holi colours and hence should be aware of this life-threatening but easily treatable complication.

  17. Anderson, Prof. Basil Williams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1964 Honorary. Anderson, Prof. Basil Williams. Date of birth: 3 July 1901. Date of death: 24 February 1984. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting of the Academy will be held ...

  18. The Holy See.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Focus in this discussion of the Holy See is on geography, the people, history, government and institutions, foreign relations, and relations with the US and the Holy See. Vatican City occupies 0.439 square kilometers (109 acres). Some 1000 individuals live within the Vatican's walls, most of whom are Italian or Swiss by nationality. Vatican citizenship usually is accorded only to those who reside in Vatican City by reason of office or employment and, with certain restrictions, to their families. The Pope delegates the internal administration of Vatican City to the Pontifical Commission for the State of the Vatican City, headed by the Cardinal Secretary of State. The legal system is based on canon law or the laws of the city of Rome. On February 11, 1929, the Holy See and the Italian government signed 3 agreements regulating a dispute since 1871 about the Law of Guarantees, law which sought to assure the Pope's spiritual freedom, an income, and special status for the Vatican area. The agreements include: a treaty recognizing the independence and sovereignty of the Holy See and creating the State of the Vatican City; a concordat fixing the relations between the government and the church within Italy; and a financial convention providing the Holy See with compensation for its losses in 1870. The Pope, at this time John Paul II, exercises supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power over the Holy See and within the State of the Vatican City. The Pope rules the Holy See through the Roman Curia and Papal Civil Service, which staffs it. The Holy See, which carries on an active diplomacy of considerable scope and variety, is particularly active diplomatically in international organizations. The US maintained consular relations with the Papal States from 1797-1870 and diplomatic relations with the Pope in his capacity as head of the Papal States. These relations lapsed with the final loss of all papal territories in 1870. In 1984, the US and the Holy See announced the

  19. On the Asceticism of Holy Fools (from the History of Hagiographic Topoi)

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana R. Rudi

    2015-01-01

    The present research is based on material from Old Russian lives of holy fools: Isaacius of the Cave Monastery, Procopius and John of Ustyug, Basil the Blessed, John Bolshoy Kolpak (Big Cap), Simon of Yuryevets, John Vlasaty (the Hairy), Maximus of Totma, Procopius of Vyatka, John Samsonovich of Solvychegodsk, Artemius Tretyak, and others. The main ascetic motifs that determine this type of hagiographic texts are examined in the context of hagiographic topoi. Many ascetic motifs of the li...

  20. America's Holy War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, John

    2006-01-01

    .... He also contends that the Global War On Terrorism (GWOT) is intrinsically a strategy to combat a "tactic" used by Islamic Extremists versus focusing on the true enemy, the Muslim people who support this Holy War in the name of Islam...

  1. The Holy See accedes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    On 25 February the Holy See became the sixty-third non-nuclear weapon State to accede to or ratify the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, when its representatives deposited instruments of accession in Moscow, London and Washington, the capitals of the three Depositary Governments for the Treaty. (author)

  2. The sacrament of Holy Baptism

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    Ks. Doroteusz Sawicki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Holy Baptism, in the Orthodox Church, along with Chrismation, the Holy Eucharist, Priesthood, Marriage, Holy Unction and Confession is one of the seven sacraments. It is one of the Mysteries established by God himself, during which His grace descends on humanity. It is an action, which unites people with their Creator by grace and leads us to the Kingdom of Heaven.In Holy Baptism, we are immersed into water three times (or HolyWater is poured three times, but never sprinkled in the Name of theHoly Trinity and die to his earthly life and sin. At the same time, weare reborn to eternal and heavenly life. We are cleansed from all sinscommitted voluntary or involuntary. Our weaknesses and propensityto sin is healed. We become a pure being and heir of the Kingdomof Heaven. We also become and enemy of Satan and all evil powers.The Orthodox Church usually chrismates immediately after baptism,especially in the case of small children, so that we would not loose in thisfight, loose our purity and more easily reach perfection. Both sacramentsare administered on the basis of the faith of the godparents.The liturgical celebration of Baptism and Chrismation begins withprayers and the naming of the child. The prayers of exorcism follow,in which the candidate for baptism (either personally or godparentson his behalf rejects Satan, unites himself to Christ and recites theSymbol of Faith. Baptism consists of the blessing of water and anointingwith oil. The main senses of the child are anointed with Holy Oil: theforehead – mind, breast – feelings, ears – contact with the surroundingworld, hands – actions, feet – Endeavour. A moment later, the child isimmersed into the water three times – Holy Baptism. Prayers are then read calling the Holy Spirit to be present during Chrismation. Holy Chrism (myrrh, which is consecrated by the laying on of hand of the Bishop, is then used to anoint the forehead, eyes, nostrils, mouth, ears, breast, hands and feet of

  3. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  4. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    basilicum (sweet basil) protect against sodium ... arsenite alone, the aqueous extracts plus sodium arsenite, and ethanolic extracts plus sodium ... properties and effects (Aruna and Sivaramakrishnan. 1992 ..... Biotransformation of the pesticide.

  5. Holy Grandeur Enough for All

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    Novriana Gloria Hutagalung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural degradation is not merely a competition between ecology and economy. The destruction of nature is closely related to religiosity and human relationships to fellow human beings, the environment, and God. Ecotheology becomes a self-criticism of the classical doctrines of Christianity, which are considered to exalt humankind as the "crown of creation" and marginalize non-human creatures as commodities of economic value for human interests. Ecotheology seems to have talked too often about damaged nature, or even extinct plants or animals, and forgetting the other side of the bountiful biodiversities, which is the holy beauty of nature. Ecotheology needs to ponder that God, the Holy Grandeur, who manifests the cosmic wisdom in the beauty of all creation, is enough for all.

  6. LAND MEASUREMENT IN HOLY BOOKS

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    Ion Nelu Leu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Data and facts presented here will show measurement methods for time, land, buildings and first map designs of Israel County used during time. There are also described the instruments and measurement units used to perform these types of measurements, like the plot of land, the cubit, the mason string, the cane and the pole. Like any scientific approach, the land measurement domain begins with training specialists to elaborate all projects needed. This can be done “with the help of the Holy Ghost that gives us wisdom, skills and patience”, like those that made the Tent of God, the Temple of God and the surroundings, House of Solomon and others. All measurement methods are presented and supported with quotations from the Holy Book. In the end there are presented the modern equivalents for these antique measure units for weight, length, capacity and coins mentioned in the Old and New Testament.

  7. SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY BASIL PLANTS (OCINUM BASILICUM L.

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    N. A. Golubkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium accumulation level in basil plants is investigated. A direct correlation between selenium concentration and essential oil content is demonstrated for basil and other aroma plants. No correlation is found between selenium and flavonoids.

  8. Holy See participation in the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The Holy See has participated in every General Conference of the IAEA and has made a special contribution in Vienna to international co-operation and the development of the peaceful atom. On August 20, 1957 the Holy See became a full member of the Agency. (author)

  9. Astronomical Knowledge in Holy Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate religious myths related to astronomy from different cultures in an attempt to identify common subjects and characteristics. The paper focuses on astronomy in religion. The initial review covers records from Holy books about sky related superstitious beliefs and cosmological understanding. The purpose of this study is to introduce sky related religious and national traditions (particularly based on different calendars; Solar or Lunar). We carried out a comparative study of astronomical issues contained in a number of Holy books: Ancient Egyptian Religion (Pyramid Texts), Zoroastrianism (Avesta), Hinduism (Vedas), Buddhism (Tipitaka), Confucianism (Five Classics), Sikhism (Guru Granth Sahib), Christianity (Bible), Islam (Quran), Druidism (Mabinogion) and Maya Religion (Popol Vuh). These books include various information on the creation of the Universe, Sun and Moon, the age of the Universe, Cosmic sizes, understanding about the planets, stars, Milky Way and description of the Heavens in different religions. We come to the conclusion that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture, and from religion to religion and preastronomical views had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on religious diversities. We prove that Astronomy is the basis of cultures, and that national identity and mythology and religion were formed due to the special understanding of celestial objects.

  10. Re-Reading and Rehabilitating Basil Bernstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolander, Brook; Watts, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This article constitutes a re-reading of and an attempt to rehabilitate Basil Bernstein, both of which are important in light of the interpretation of Bernstein as a proponent of the verbal deficit view, and the general discrediting of his work on social class differences in the British educational system, as related to what he later called…

  11. Medicinal Fruits in Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farhangi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are one of the oldest forms of food known to man. There are many references to fruits in ancient literature. According to Quran, the fruits like grape, date, fig, olive and pomegranate are gifts and heavenly fruits of God.  Fresh and dry fruits are the natural staple food of man. They contain substantial quantities of essential nutrients in a rational proportion. Persons subsisting on this natural diet will always enjoy good health. Moreover, fresh and dry fruits are thus not only a good food but also a good medicine. Holy Quran is one of the reference books describing the importance of plants used for different ailments in various verses. There are several verses in Quran talking about the fruits in Paradise, including; date, olive, pomegranate, grape, banana and fig. What has been mentioned in the Quran is what scientists have achieved over the time, since the Quran is governed by logic. Although we do not know the reasons for many things in the Quran, we consider it as the foundation.

  12. Transfer of Downy Mildew Resistance from Wild Basil (Ocimum americanum) to Sweet Basil (O. basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Yariv; Falach, Lidan; Cohen, Yigal

    2018-01-01

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is susceptible to downy mildew caused by the oomycete foliar pathogen Peronospora belbahrii. No resistant varieties of sweet basil are commercially available. Here, we report on the transfer of resistance gene Pb1 from the highly resistant tetraploid wild basil O. americanum var. americanum (PI 500945, 2n = 4x = 48) to the tetraploid susceptible O. basilicum 'Sweet basil' (2n = 4x = 48). F1 progeny plants derived from the interspecific hybridization PI 500945 × Sweet basil were resistant, indicating that the gene controlling resistance (Pb1) is dominant, but sterile due to the genetic distance between the parents. Despite their sterility, F1 plants were pollinated with the susceptible parent and 115 first backcross generation to the susceptible parent (BCs1) embryos were rescued in vitro. The emerging BCs1 plants segregated, upon inoculation, 5:1 resistant/susceptible, suggesting that resistance in F1 was controlled by a pair of dominant genes (Pb1A and Pb1A'). Thirty-one partially fertile BCs1 plants were self-pollinated to obtain BCs1-F2 or were backcrossed to Sweet basil to obtain the second backcross generation to the susceptible parent (BCs2). In total, 1 BCs1-F2 and 22 BCs2 progenies were obtained. The BCs1-F2 progeny segregated 35:1 resistant/susceptible, as expected from a tetraploid parent with two dominant resistant genes. The 22 BCs2 progenies segregated 1:1 resistant/susceptible (for a BCs1 parent that carried one dominant gene for resistance) or 5:1 (for a BCs1 parent that carried two dominant genes for resistance) at a ratio of 4:1. The data suggest that a pair of dominant genes (Pb1A and Pb1A') residing on a two homeologous chromosomes is responsible for resistance of PI 500945 against P. belbahrii.

  13. Acquired Methemoglobinemia - A Sporadic Holi Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masavkar, Sanjeevani Satish; Mauskar, Anupama; Patwardhan, Gaurav; Bhat, Vasudeva; Manglani, Mamta V

    2017-06-15

    To study clinical profile and outcome in patients with methemoglobinemia following exposure to toxic colors during Holi festival. This retrospective study included 112 children (5 to 12 years) admitted with methemoglobinemia after playing Holi. Clinical and treatment details were reviewed. The common symptoms were giddiness, vomiting and headache. Treatment included thorough skin wash, intravenous fluid and methylene blue in 111 children. Age 7-9 and > 11 years, vomiting, giddiness, cyanosis, PaO2 < 80 mm Hg and oxygen saturation < 95% were associated with higher need for methylene blue. All children had a good outcome. Timely diagnosis and management of acquired methemoglobinemia can save lives.

  14. Survival of pathogenic Escherichia coli on basil, lettuce, and spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contamination of lettuce, spinach and basil with pathogenic E. coli has caused numerous illnesses over the past decade. E. coli O157:H7, E. coli O104:H4 and avian pathogenic E. coli (APECstx- and APECstx+) were inoculated on basil plants and in promix soiless substrate using drip and overhead ir...

  15. Herb yield and chemical composition of basil ( Ocimum basilicum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ocimum basilicum L., commonly known as sweet basil, is an important aromatic plant cultivated in many parts of the world for its essential oil. Basil does not show natural distribution in Turkey but they are cultivated as medicinal, seasoning or oil plants especially in the western and southern Anatolia.

  16. The Holy See and the NPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The agreement between the Holy See and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was signed in Vienna on 26 June 1972. The preamble to the agreement states that the Holy See 'enjoys exclusive sovereignty and jurisdiction over the Vatican City State, of which the Roman Pontiff is the sovereign'. The Vatican City State, which covers a very small area, is itself 'ever and in all cases a neutral and inviolable territory', and since 18 June 1960 the whole of the Vatican City has been included in the Register of Cultural Property under Special Protection in the Event of Armed Conflict, which is deposited with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and it has the rights and obligations which follow from its relations with third States. The Vatican City State is thus strictly adhering to the spirit of neutrality which characterizes the policy and action of the Holy See in the international community. Nevertheless, as pointed out by Monseigneur Oriano Quilici, Resident Representative of the Holy See to the Agency, 'this by no means implies that the Vatican City State cannot accept the controls and safeguards provided for under Article III of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in respect of all contracting parties'. (author)

  17. In search of the Holy grail

    CERN Multimedia

    Grant, Eric

    2008-01-01

    "Our knowledge of the universe has evolved considerably over the pas ten years - and perhaps it might do so even more dramatically when CERN, the European organization for nuclear research located in Geneva, inaugurates its new particle accelerator this summer: the tool for discovery of the "God Particle" and a step towards the holy grail of science." (4 pages + photos)

  18. "??sa ??? ? ????s?? ?? ?µ??? ??et?? ?st?? ?pa????": Greek Poetry and "Paideia" in the Homiletic Tradition of Basil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitenic Wear, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Based on a reading of Basil's "Ad Adulescentes" and the epistles, it is clear that Basil finds moral value in Homer and Hesiod. The trickier issue is to what extent Basil uses Homer and Hesiod in his homilies. It seems that Basil does not abandon his respect for the utility of Hellenic "paideia" for the Christian in his…

  19. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and serum ...

  20. Basil, tea tree and clove essential oils as analgesics and anaesthetics in Amphiprion clarkii (Bennett, 1830

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Correia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study were evaluated the anaesthesia and analgesic effects of clove Eugenia caryophyllata, tea tree Melaleuca alternifolia and basil Ocimum basilicum essential oils (EO during handling of yellowtail clownfish Amphiprion clarkii. Juveniles (3.70 ± 0.75 cm and 1.03 ± 0.50 g; mean ± standard deviation were submitted to concentrations of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 µl L-1 of clove, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 µl L-1 of basil and 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 µl L-1 of tea tree oils (n=10/concentration, previously defined in pilot tests. Individually and only once, fish from each treatment were placed in a glass recipient containing 1 L of seawater at a temperature of 25 °C, salinity of 35 g L-1 and the specific concentration of diluted EO (stock solution. Control (only seawater and blank (seawater and ethanol at the highest concentration used to dilute the oils treatments were also conducted. After reaching the stage of surgical anaesthesia, fish were submitted to biometry and a sensibility test. After that, they were transferred to clean seawater for anaesthesia recovery. The times of induction needed to reach each anaesthesia stage and anaesthesia recovery were recorded. Animals were observed for 72 hours after the procedures. All the EO provoked anaesthesia and analgesic effects in A. clarkii, but basil oil is not recommended because it caused involuntary muscle contractions and mortality in 100% and 12% of fish, respectively. The lower concentrations that promote suitable induction and recovery times are 50 µl L-1 of clove oil and 500 µl L-1 of tea tree oil. However, due to its complementary high analgesic efficiency, clove oil is recommended as the ideal anaesthetic for A. clarkii.

  1. Holiness as friendship with Christ: Teresa of Avila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara K. Soughers

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Teresa of Avila, writing in the 16th century when ideas of holiness often excluded women and lay people, developed a radically inclusive understanding of holiness as friendship with Christ. Her idea also allowed for degrees of holiness, from those who completed only the necessary church requirements of confession and absolution all the way up to those who had a friendship that was modelled upon the relationship in the Song of Songs. It was a definition of holiness applicable to men and women, clergy, members of religious orders, and lay people. In addition, her understanding of holiness did not distinguish the holiness of ordinary lay people from that of the great saints of previous generations, for friendship with Christ was open to all.

  2. A Brief Description of Ceremony Mangongkal Holi in Toba Batak

    OpenAIRE

    Pardosi, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Judul kertas karya ini adalah A Brief Description of Ceremony of Mangongkal Holi in Toba Batak. Mangongkal holi adalah suatu upacara yang dilakukan oleh orang batak terutama suku Batak Toba dengan mengali kembali kuburan nenek moyangnya dan kemudian mengumpulkan seluruh tulang-tulangnya dan kemudian dipindahkan ketempat yang baru atau disebut dengan tugu. Kertas karya ini menjelaskan tentang pengertian dari mangongkal holi serta tata cara jalannya upacara tersebut. Selain itu juga, dalam kert...

  3. Pilgrimages of Teachers and Students of Ecclesiastical Academies to the Holy Land and the Holy Mt. Athos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhova Nataliia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with pilgrim trips to the Holy Places — the Holy Land and the Holy Mt. Athos, — which were undertaken by teachers and students of Russian orthodox ecclesiastical academies in 1870-1910. The article covers the cases of these pilgrim trips. The author analyzes the motivation of concrete pilgrims and the significance of trips for a Russian ecclesiastical school. Besides, the author pays attention to efforts of spiritually-educational community to find the importance of the Holy Places for theological and ecclesiastical-historical sciences.

  4. THE IDEA OF GOD’S PROVIDENCE AND THE INFLUENCE OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURE AS REFLECTED IN PORPHYROGENITUS’ VITA BASILII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Serreqi Jurić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Christian idea of Providence is quite conventional in Byzantine literature and it is not surprising that it is present in Vita Bas., the biography of Emperor Basil I, Porphyrogenitus’ grandfather, in which we also find a strong influence of the Holy Scripture. Taking into account the author’s frequent references to the mentioned idea, in this paper we aim to examine the relationship between the emphasis of the idea of Providence and the influence of the Holy Scripture, as well as to answer the question of why Porphyrogenitus constantly stresses the importance of divine providence throughout Basil’s life if the Byzantines perceived emperors as appointed by God himself. Our research has shown that the author, wishing to support the idea that God’s will played a key role in every aspect of Basil’s life, used the Holy Scripture as a source from which he extracted quotes or lexical and phraseological parallels and incorporated them into the descriptions of important moments in Basil’s life in order to present his grandfather as a pious man, obedient to God’s will, which consequently led him to the throne. Additionally, he aimed to describe Basil’s personal traits, more precisely, justice, piety and mercy, as Christian virtues which marked his politics, as well as to highlight his sobriety and prudence in the face of most difficult family circumstances, one of which was surely the death of his son Constantine. With the same intention the author used the exempla when comparing Basil to the biblical figures of Samson, Abraham and the father from the Parable of the prodigal son, or biblical metaphors of the storm and the shepherd and his flock, when illustrating the dangers of war and depicting Basil as a ruler. Although the use of quotes and stylistic devices usually follows the rhetorical conventions of a given period of time and genre standards, and in this case the genre we are dealing with is an encomium written in honour of a

  5. The Holy Name of Jesus in Venetian-Ruled Crete

    OpenAIRE

    Bacci, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on Andreas Ritzos' icon with the monogram IHS in Athens, this article offers insights about the role played by the monogram on Crete and points out that the particular solution shown in Ritzos' image is not in keeping with St. Bernardine's "icon" of the Holy Name of Jesus and indicates an association with the symbolism of the holy host.

  6. Chemical composition of the essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jelačić Slavica Ć.; Beatović Damir V.; Prodanović Slaven A.; Tasić Slavoljub R.; Moravčević Đorđe Ž.; Vujošević Ana M.; Vučković Savo M.

    2011-01-01

    In Serbia basil has been grown traditionally as a decorative, medicinal, seasoning and ritual herb, and there is a variety of different populations of basil. Basil is considered to have been brought to Serbia in the 12th century by monks returning from their pilgrimages. Essential oils isolated from herb of ten basil populations traditionally grown on the territory of the Republic of Serbia have been analyzed. The selected populations have been designated under codes from T-1 to T-10 an...

  7. Chemical Diversity in Basil (Ocimum sp.) Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; de Carvalho Filho, José Luiz Sandes; de Santana, Aléa Dayane Dantas; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to chemically characterize 31 accessions and seven cultivars of basil. The percentage composition of the essential oils of the accessions and cultivars was based on the 14 most abundant constituents: 1,8-cineole, linalool, methyl chavicol, neral, nerol, geraniol, geranial, methyl cinnamate, β-bourbonene, methyl eugenol, α-trans-bergamotene, germacrene-D, epi-α-cadinol, and δ-cadinene. The genetic materials were classified into eight clusters according to the chemical composition of the essential oils: Cluster 1—mostly linalool and 1,8-cineole; Cluster 2—mostly linalool, geraniol, and α-trans-bergamotene; Cluster 3—mostly linalool, methyl chavicol, methyl cinnamate, and β-bourbonene; Cluster 4—mostly linalool, methyl chavicol, epi-α-cadinol, and α-trans-bergamotene; Cluster 5—mainly linalool, methyl eugenol, α-trans-bergamotene, and epi-α-cadinol; Cluster 6—mainly linalool, geraniol, and epi-α-cadinol; Cluster 7—mostly linalool and methyl chavicol; Cluster 8—mainly geranial and neral. PMID:25629084

  8. Chemical Diversity in Basil (Ocimum sp. Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Santos da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to chemically characterize 31 accessions and seven cultivars of basil. The percentage composition of the essential oils of the accessions and cultivars was based on the 14 most abundant constituents: 1,8-cineole, linalool, methyl chavicol, neral, nerol, geraniol, geranial, methyl cinnamate, β-bourbonene, methyl eugenol, α-trans-bergamotene, germacrene-D, epi-α-cadinol, and δ-cadinene. The genetic materials were classified into eight clusters according to the chemical composition of the essential oils: Cluster 1—mostly linalool and 1,8-cineole; Cluster 2—mostly linalool, geraniol, and α-trans-bergamotene; Cluster 3—mostly linalool, methyl chavicol, methyl cinnamate, and β-bourbonene; Cluster 4—mostly linalool, methyl chavicol, epi-α-cadinol, and α-trans-bergamotene; Cluster 5—mainly linalool, methyl eugenol, α-trans-bergamotene, and epi-α-cadinol; Cluster 6—mainly linalool, geraniol, and epi-α-cadinol; Cluster 7—mostly linalool and methyl chavicol; Cluster 8—mainly geranial and neral.

  9. Utilization of Basil Extract as a Radioprotector in Male Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, M. F.S. [Food Irradiation Research Dep. National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-01-15

    Man is exposed to natural radiations from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore, it is well known that the gamma irradiation-induced biochemical alteration depends mostly on oxidative stress. Basil or sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is known to have numerous pharmacological activities. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the radioprotective activity of basil in albino rats. The effect of basil aqueous extract (BAE) was evaluated on hepatic marker enzymes, sex hormones, lipid profile and antioxidant status. The results showed that - rays caused a significant increase in serum level of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (ALT, AST, ALP and GT), cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and VLDL-C) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). A significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in serum was observed, compared with control group. Moreover, - rays induced a significant drop in the serum sex hormones levels testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The BAE administered orally to rats has significantly modulated all the radiation-induced biochemical alterations. These findings showed that basil would exert a radioprotective properties.

  10. Utilization of Basil Extract as a Radioprotector in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Man is exposed to natural radiations from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore, it is well known that the gamma irradiation-induced biochemical alteration depends mostly on oxidative stress. Basil or sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is known to have numerous pharmacological activities. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the radioprotective activity of basil in albino rats. The effect of basil aqueous extract (BAE) was evaluated on hepatic marker enzymes, sex hormones, lipid profile and antioxidant status. The results showed that - rays caused a significant increase in serum level of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (ALT, AST, ALP and GT), cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and VLDL-C) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). A significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in serum was observed, compared with control group. Moreover, - rays induced a significant drop in the serum sex hormones levels testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The BAE administered orally to rats has significantly modulated all the radiation-induced biochemical alterations. These findings showed that basil would exert a radioprotective properties.

  11. Quality of four basil types after storage at 3 to 10 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) has global culinary use as a fresh herb. Basil can also be dried and extracted for its essential oils and grows extremely well in the warm climate of Oklahoma. Several cultivars of sweet basil are known to be chill sensitive when stored below 7 C. In this study, fou...

  12. Characterization of Peronospora belbahrii on basil under light and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil (Ocimum spp.) downy mildew caused by Peronsoora belbahrii is a major yield-limiting disease of sweet basil (O. basilicum) production worldwide. In this study, sweet basil was grown in a soilless potting mix in plant growth chambers and inoculated with sporangia of P. belbahrii harvested from p...

  13. The Rule of Saint Basil the Great

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Pietrow

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The rules of monasticism were collected and published in a single work entitled Asketikon by Saint Basil the Great. It is arranged in the form of questions and answers to create one coherent work. It has two different publications.The first publication named The Small Asketikon dates to 370-370. It is the fruit of the Saint’s work among Pontic communities and consists of 203 questions and answers. The orignial Greek manuscript has not survived and it is available only in two translations: the Latin Rufin and fragments in Syrian language. The second publication named The Great Asketikon appeard in about 377 and presents the most mature step of cenobitic monasticismin Basil’s elaboration. The Great Asketikon was created by adding new questions to The Small Asketikon and consists of two parts called the The Longer Rules and The Shorter Rules. The Longer Rules are primarily a set of questions and answers. It includes a wide range of rules and norms of the overall life in community. It refers to the fundamental rules of spirituality, such as love, sacrifice, obedience and rudimental problems connected withcommunity organization, cenobitic monasticism and the role of the superior, work and prayer. The second part of The Great Asketikon consists of shorter rules. Two publications are known: the first one originated in Pont andincludes 286 questions and answers and second arose in Cezarei and includes 318 questions and answers. In this work, the Hierarch explains in detail issues regarding community life and solves difficult problems connected with conscience. He writes about behavior towards brothers and explains the significance of weaknesses and virtues.

  14. A holy Quran ontology construction with semiautomatic population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The major contribution of this approach is to harness the benefits of learning methods, conjoined with statistical ... Keywords: Ontology; Holy Quran; named entity; machine learning ...

  15. Review Article: Holy Terrors: Thinking about Religion after September 11

    OpenAIRE

    Campo, Juan E.

    2003-01-01

    The following is a review article by Juan E. Campo, Religious Studies Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara, on Bruce Lincoln's Holy Terrors: Thinking about Religion after September 11. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003, Pp. 142.

  16. Towards Inculcating Morality among the Youths in Nigeria: The Holy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards Inculcating Morality among the Youths in Nigeria: The Holy Family ... to acquaint youths with the basic veritable norms, values, social consciousness and ... The paper concludes that the family, church and the state as agents of moral ...

  17. A Modified Technique of Basilic Vein Transposition for Haemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, F. A.; Parvez, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To modify the technique of basilic vein transposition for vascular accesss for haemodialysis aiming at better maturation rate, longer survival of fistula and lesser complications. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Shaikh Zayed Hospital and Omer Hospital, Lahore, from February 2008 to July 2011. Methodology: Patients referred for basilic vein transposition for haemodialysis vascular access were prospectively enrolled. The surgical technique included small tracking incisions, an extra 3 - 4 cm of vein length harvesting to avoid tension in the vein in its new course, an oval arteriotomy and a smooth curved pathway, away from vein harvesting incision to avoid entrapment of vein in the scar. Maturation rate, fistula survival and other complications were noted. Results: There was no immediate failure in 51 patients. The complications during follow-up period were infection and thrombosis, bleeding and non-development of basilic vein in 2 patients each; and false aneurysm formation in one. Four patients died during follow-up period. The maturation time was 4.9 A +- 1.1 weeks. The early patency rate was 92.2%, same at 6 months and 90.7% at 12 months. Conclusion: Arteriovenous fistula constructed with modified technique of basilic vein transposition is an acceptable and valid option of vascular access for haemodialysis. (author)

  18. Essential oil from Ocimum basilicum (Omani Basil): a desert crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maskri, Ahmed Yahya; Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Al-Maskari, Masoud Yahya; Abraham, Alfie Susan; Al-sabahi, Jamal Nasser; Al-Mantheri, Omar

    2011-10-01

    The focus of the present study was on the influence of season on yield, chemical composition, antioxidant and antifungal activities of Omani basil (Ocimum basilicum) oil. The present study involved only one of the eight Omani basil varieties. The hydro-distilled essential oil yields were computed to be 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.1% in the winter, spring and summer seasons, respectively. The major components identified were L- linalool (26.5-56.3%), geraniol (12.1-16.5%), 1,8-cineole (2.5-15.1%), p-allylanisole (0.2-13.8%) and DL-limonene (0.2-10.4%). A noteworthy extra component was beta- farnesene, which was exclusively detected in the oil extracted during winter and spring at 6.3% and 5.8%, respectively. The essential oil composition over the different seasons was quite idiosyncratic, in which the principal components of one season were either trivial or totally absent in another. The essential oil extracted in spring exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (except DPPH scavenging ability) in comparison with the oils from other seasons. The basil oil was tested against pathogenic fungi viz. Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Penicillium italicum and Rhizopus stolonifer using a disc diffusion method, and by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration. Surprisingly high antifungal values were found highlighting the potential of Omani basil as a preservative in the food and medical industries.

  19. Basil Willey, Sixty Years after (October 22, 2007)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    2008-01-01

    On the occasion of the sixtieth anniversary of the foundation of the Danish Association of English Teachers' newsletter, Anglo Files, the essay reconsiders the contents of the first issue from December 1947, Cambridge professor Basil Willey's address to the Association on October 22, 1947, 'Poetr...... and Life', and puts Willey's life and text into historical context....

  20. Hepatoprotective effect of basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) on CCl 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatoprotective effect of basil (Ocimum basilicum) extract against liver fibrosis-induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was studied in rats. Rats were allocated into five groups: Group I (control group); Group II [CCl4 group; rats were injected subcutaneously with CCl4 (1 ml/kg b.w.) twice weekly for 4 weeks ...

  1. Antifungal activities of basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and 29.27%, respectively) whereas other investigated Fusarium species exhibited much lower sensitivity. The basil extract completely inhibited the growth of investigated Fusarium spp. at the concentration of 1.50% (v/v). Higher concentrations (0.35 and 0.70% (v/v)) reduced growth of aerial mycelium in all tested species.

  2. Resistance Against Basil Downy Mildew in Ocimum Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Yariv; Falach, Lidan; Cohen, Yigal

    2015-06-01

    Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii, is a devastating disease of sweet basil. In this study, 113 accessions of Ocimum species (83 Plant Introduction entries and 30 commercial entries) were tested for resistance against downy mildew at the seedling stage in growth chambers, and during three seasons, in the field. Most entries belonging to O. basilicum were highly susceptible whereas most entries belonging to O. americanum, O. kilimanadascharicum, O. gratissimum, O. campechianum, or O. tenuiflorum were highly resistant at both the seedling stage and the field. Twenty-seven highly resistant individual plants were each crossed with the susceptible sweet basil 'Peri', and the F1 progeny plants were examined for disease resistance. The F1 plants of two crosses were highly resistant, F1 plants of 24 crosses were moderately resistant, and F1 plants of one cross were susceptible, suggesting full, partial, or no dominance of the resistance gene(s), respectively. These data confirm the feasibility of producing downy mildew-resistant cultivars of sweet basil by crossing with wild Ocimum species.

  3. Typology of Interpretive Narratives of the followers of the Companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Shariati

    2013-01-01

    A large quantity of narratives in interpretation of the Holy Quran is related to the followers of the Companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) s of companions of the Prophet Muhammad ( PBUH) .Investigating those narratives we see a kind of variation in His interpretations of the verses of the Holy Quran . Some narratives investigate the lexicology of the Holy Quran denotatively. They have also mentioned the reasons for the fall of the verses, the news of the nations and past events, the definiti...

  4. Holi colours contain PM10 and can induce pro-inflammatory responses

    OpenAIRE

    Bossmann, Katrin; Bach, Sabine; H?flich, Conny; Valtanen, Kerttu; Heinze, Rita; Neumann, Anett; Straff, Wolfgang; S?ring, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Background At Holi festivals, originally celebrated in India but more recently all over the world, people throw coloured powder (Holi powder, Holi colour, Gulal powder) at each other. Adverse health effects, i.e. skin and ocular irritations as well as respiratory problems may be the consequences. The aim of this study was to uncover some of the underlying mechanisms. Methods We analysed four different Holi colours regarding particle size using an Electric field cell counting system. In additi...

  5. The Ceremony of Mangongkal holi in Batak Toba society, Samosir : Lontung

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, Rani Monika

    2017-01-01

    142202014 Kertas karya ini berjudul ?The Ceremony of Mangongkal holi in Batak Toba society, Samosir : Lontung?. Mangongkal holi merupakan salah satu kebiasaan masyarakat Batak Toba, kebiasaan ini dianggap juga sebagai suatu acara adat yang ingin mengangkat tulang belulang leluhur ketempat yang lebih baik. Mangongkal holi dianggap sebagi tanda penghormatan kepada keluarga yang telah meninggal. Acara adat mangongkal holi mencerminkan keyakinan bahwa seseorang akan mendapat hidup yang lebih b...

  6. Women's royal holiness as the church-historical phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efimov Vladimir Fedorovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article under the topic of the Royal Holiness examines its specific subtype, the righteousness of the Royal women. Among the saint queens, empresses and princesses the authors distinguish the independent rulers, the widows, and wives of monarchs. The Holy Byzantine Empress and canonized European Queen, the Queen of the Georgian and the Russian Princess defended the Christian statehood brightened by feats of patience, mercy, by building the temples. In the conclusion of the article briefly tells about the Royal martyrs and Confessors of the 20th century.

  7. Selective extraction of high-value phenolic compounds from distillation wastewater of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Imma; Sánchez-Camargo, Andrea Del Pilar; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Campone, Luca; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Rastrelli, Luca; Ibañez, Elena

    2018-01-31

    During the essential oil steam distillation from aromatic herbs, huge amounts of distillation wastewaters (DWWs) are generated. These by-products represent an exceptionally rich source of phenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA). Herein, the alternative use of dried basil DWWs (dDWWs) to perform a selective extraction of RA and CA by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) employing bio-based solvent was studied. To select the most suitable solvent for PLE, the theoretical modelling of Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) was carried out. This approach allows reducing the list of candidate to two solvents: ethanol and ethyl lactate. Due to the composition of the sample, mixtures of water with those solvents were also tested. An enriched PLE extract in RA (23.90 ± 2.06 mg/g extract) with an extraction efficiency of 75.89 ± 16.03% employing a water-ethanol mixture 25:75 (% v/v) at 50°C was obtained. In the case of CA, a PLE extract with 2.42 ± 0.04 mg/g extract, having an extraction efficiency of 13.86 ± 4.96% using ethanol absolute at 50°C was achieved. DWWs are proposed as new promising sources of natural additives and/or functional ingredients for cosmetic, nutraceutical, and food applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Radiosensitization of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum using basil essential oil and ionizing radiation for food decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of basil oil, was determined for two pathogenic fungi of rice, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. The antifungal activity of the basil oil in combination with ionising radiation was then investigated to determine if basil oil caused radiosensit...

  9. Basil oil fumigation increases radiation sensitivity in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biological activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oil was tested against the stored product pest rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae(L.). Adult weevils were exposed to seven different concentrations of basil oil ranging from 0.12 µl/ml-0.60 µl/ml in Petri dishes and mortality was assessed at 3,4 and...

  10. The Holy Logos in the Writings of Philo of Alexandria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoblík, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2014), s. 248-266 ISSN 0010-3713 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP401/12/G168 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Philo of Alexandria * Ancient Jewish philosophy * Logos * holiness Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  11. Holiness in Victorian and Edwardian England: Some ecclesial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to the 'sensibility' and 'sentiment' that characterised society, notions of holiness were shaped by, and developed in reaction to, dominant philosophical movements; notably, the Enlightenment and Romanticism. It then considers how these notions found varying religious expression in four Protestant traditions ...

  12. Compatibility of the holy Qur'an with sciences: anthropological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract - In holy Qur'an countless verses are related to topics on the nature and the ... concepts compatible with the most recent scientific conclusions as that relating to our ... In fact these concepts are often more and less masked within.

  13. Bingo! Holy play in experience-oriented society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Kees

    2017-01-01

    What place is there for holy play in experience-oriented society? Is it possible and useful to make analytic distinctions between the liturgical quality of events? I explored these questions by doing research on the boundaries between the religious field and the field of leisure. Fifty site visits

  14. Neonatal pain management: Still in search of the Holy Grail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Allegaert (Karel); J.N. van den Anker (John)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractInadequate pain management but also inappropriate use of analgesics in early infancy has negative effects on neuro-developmental outcome. As a consequence, neonatal pain management is still in search for the Holy Grail. At best, effective pain management is based on prevention,

  15. The Holy as an Epistemic Category and a Political Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2008-01-01

    and as an artificial weapon in the service of modern politics. Cassirer's concept of myth is analyzed regarding a primary source of inspiration from the German theologian Rudolf Otto. It is shown how Cassirer can make use of Otto's phenomenological description of the transcendent experience of the holy....

  16. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  17. Sclerotinia Rot on Basil Caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Sang Hahm

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During growing season of 2011 to 2013, Sclerotinia rot symptoms consistently have been observed on basil in Yesan-gun, Chungcheongnam-do in Korea. The typical symptom formed initially brownish spot on leaf and stem, and then advancing margins, wilting the whole plant and blighting, eventually died. On the surface of diseased lesions was observed cottony, white, dense mat of mycelial growth, and sclerotia (30–100 µm diameter formed on stem and leaf. Morphological and cultural characteristic on potato dextrose agar, color of colony was white and colorless chocolate, sclerotium of irregular shape of the oval was black and 5–50 µm diameter in size. In pathogenicity test, necrosis and wilt of the inoculated stem were observed in all plants and the pathogen was reisolated from stems. On the basis of mycological characteristics, pathogenicity, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence analysis, this fungus was identified as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This is the first report of Sclerotinia rot on basil caused by S. sclerotiorum in Korea.

  18. Effects of biocides on chlorophyll contents of detached basil leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titima Arunrangsi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides and insecticides have been widely and intensively used in agricultural areas worldwide to enhance crop yield. However, many biocides cause serious environmental problems. In addition, the biocides may also have some effects on the treated agricultural crops. To study effects of biocides on chlorophyll content in detached basil leaves, 2,4-D dimethylamine salt (2,4 D-Amine, paraquat, carbosulfan, and azadirachtin, were chosen as representatives of biocide. After applying the chemicals to detached basil leaves overnight in darkness, chlorophyll contents were determined. Only treatment with 2,4 D-Amine resulted in reduction of chlorophyll contents significantly compared to treatment with deionized (DI water. In the case of paraquat and carbosulfan, chlorophyll contents were not significantly changed, while slightly higher chlorophyll contents, compared to DI water, after the treatment with azadirachtin, were observed. The results indicated that 2,4 D-Amine shows an ability to accelerate chlorophyll degradation, but azadirachtin helps to retard chlorophyll degradation, when each biocide is used at the concentration recommended by the manufacturer.

  19. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong M; Niemeyer, Emily D

    2008-09-24

    Many herbs and spices have been shown to contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds with potent antioxidant properties. In the present study, we explore how nutrient availability, specifically nitrogen fertilization, affects the production of polyphenolic compounds in three cultivars (Dark Opal, Genovese, and Sweet Thai) of the culinary herb, basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.). Nitrogen fertilization was found to have a significant effect on total phenolic levels in Dark Opal ( p basil with statistically higher phenolic contents observed when nutrient availability was limited at the lowest (0.1 mM) applied nitrogen treatment. Similarly, basil treated at the lowest nitrogen fertilization level generally contained significantly higher rosmarinic ( p = 0.001) and caffeic ( p = 0.001) acid concentrations than basil treated at other nitrogen levels. Nitrogen fertilization also affected antioxidant activity ( p = 0.002) with basil treated at the highest applied nitrogen level, 5.0 mM, exhibiting lower antioxidant activity than all other nitrogen treatments. The anthocyanin content of Dark Opal basil was not affected by applied nitrogen level, but anthocyanin concentrations were significantly impacted by growing season ( p = 0.001). Basil cultivar was also determined to have a statistically significant effect on total phenolic levels, rosmarinic and caffeic acid concentrations, and antioxidant activities.

  20. Effect of Irrigation Intervals on Some Morphophysiological Traits of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Goldani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of different irrigation intervals on some morphophysiological traits of basil (Ocimum basilicum L., an experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications under greenhouse conditions during 2010. Treatments included five irrigation intervals with 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 days intervals and two ecotypes of basil (green and purple. The results showed that by increasing irrigation interval plant height, spike number, spike weight and shoot dry weight between irrigation intervals decreased. Purple basil was more tolerant than basil green ecotype to drought stress. Interaction between irrigation intervals and ecotypes showed that the best treatment related to four days irrigation interval and purple basil ecotype. The effect of irrigation intervals on root area, root diameter mean, total length, root volume and dry weight of root was significant. In all irrigation intervals, purple basil had better performance compared to green ecotype. The results showed that by increasing in irrigation interval decreased root surface area, but increased total root length. It was concluded that increasing irrigation interval up to 12 days decreased shoot and root surface areas. Increasing irrigation interval decreased chlorophyll- a, b and increased prolin amino acid content of basil leaf.

  1. The Desecration of "the Most Holy Temple of All the World" in the "Holy Land" : Early Jewish and Early Christian Recollections of Antiochus’ "Abomination of Desolation"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, G.H.; van Ruiten, J.T.A.G.M.; de Vos, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    George H. van Kooten, “The Desecration of ‘the Most Holy Temple of All the World’ in the ‘Holy Land’: Early Jewish and Early Christian Recollections of Antiochus’ ‘Abomination of Desolation,’” in The Land of Israel in Bible, History, and Theology: Studies in Honour of Ed Noort (ed. Jacques van

  2. Holy sci-fi! where science fiction and religion intersect

    CERN Document Server

    Nahin, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Can a computer have a soul? Are religion and science mutually exclusive? Is there really such a thing as free will? If you could time travel to visit Jesus, would you (and should you)? For hundreds of years, philosophers, scientists, and science fiction writers have pondered these questions and many more. In Holy Sci-Fi!, popular writer Paul Nahin explores the fertile and sometimes uneasy relationship between science fiction and religion. With a scope spanning the history of religion, philosophy, and literature, Nahin follows religious themes in science fiction from Feynman to Foucault, and from Asimov to Aristotle. An intriguing journey through popular and well-loved books and stories, Holy Sci-Fi! shows how sci-fi has informed humanity's attitudes towards our faiths, our future, and ourselves.

  3. Bingo! Holy play in experience-oriented society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, Kees

    2017-06-01

    What place is there for holy play in experience-oriented society? Is it possible and useful to make analytic distinctions between the liturgical quality of events? I explored these questions by doing research on the boundaries between the religious field and the field of leisure. Fifty site visits to public events in the Netherlands (2006-2014) resulted in a collection of ethnographic data. I used the concept of play as introduced by the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga and the tools of ritual studies to explore whether these could help to produce an account of the liturgical quality of ritualized meetings. Holy play might be found in unexpected places, such as in a bingo hall. Huizinga's broad diagnosis of modernity may be outdated, but the tools he introduced remain useful to distinguish the elements that constitute late-modern meetings as more or less playful - even when this involves combinations that seem contradictory from Huizinga's own point of view.

  4. Flora of the Holy Bible part I - fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, G V R

    2002-01-01

    Holy Bible described several plants and the authentication of certain Biblical flora is still in debate. In this present paper, attempts are being made to workout the correct botanical identity of certain plants based on the description mentioned in the Bible. Bible is a genuinely documented book everything mentioned in the Bible has a great significance. Present study is undertaken with a view to evaluate the biblical flora in correlation with the present day knowledge especially with the Ayurvedic system of medicine.

  5. Bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis following exposure to Holi colors: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Deepender; Arora, Ritu; Das, Sima; Shroff, Daraius; Narula, Ritesh

    2007-01-01

    Holi festival is celebrated in India traditionally by applying colors on one another. Various ocular adverse effects of these colors have been reported including conjunctivitis and corneal abrasion. We report a case of bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis, following exposure to Holi colors. General physicians might encounter more such cases after exposure to Holi colors. In India, these colors are prepared on a small scale and lack any quality checks. Use of such toxic colors should be...

  6. Supercritical CO2 Extracts and Volatile Oil of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Comparison with Conventional Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Coelho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in new products from aromatic plants as medical and nutritional compounds is increasing. The aim of this work was to apply different extraction methods, including the use of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, and to test the antioxidant activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. extracts. In vitro efficacy assessments were performed using enzymatic assays. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation and volatile oil obtained from supercritical fluid extraction were analyzed by gas chromatography to quantify components. The total phenolic content in the extracts ranged from 35.5 ± 2.9 to 85.3 ± 8.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents and the total flavonoid content ranged from 35.5 ± 2.9 to 93.3 ± 3.9 micromole catechin equivalents per gram of dry weight of extract. All the extracts showed an antioxidant activity with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, and the reducing power test. Extracts obtained from methanol had a higher antioxidant capacity per the DPPH test results (IC50 = 3.05 ± 0.36 mg/mL and the reducing power test assay 306.8 ± 21.8 μmol of trolox equivalents per gram of extract (TE/g compared with ethanolic or supercritical fluid extracts. However, using the ABTS assay, the extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction had a higher antioxidant capacity with an IC50 of 1.74 ± 0.05 mg/mL. Finally, the examined extracts showed practically no acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory capacity and a slight inhibitory activity against tyrosinase.

  7. A teoria de Basil Bernstein: alguns aspectos fundamentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Morais

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with a reference to the pieces of work that Basil Bernstein considered to have been the landmarks of the evolution of his thought. This is followed by a detailed description of the two models that contain the main concepts of his theory – Model of Cultural Reproduction and Transformation and Model of Pedagogic Discourse – where the theoretical meaning of these models and concepts is explained and where are given some examples of how to put them into practice at the level of pedagogic texts and contexts. The article also includes the most recent developments of Bernstein’s thought by explaining his ideas about the forms discourses can take – Vertical and Horizontal Discourses. Finally, Bernstein’s theory is approached within the framework of the empirical research, highlighting his epistemological positioning and explicating the methodological model that he suggested should be the driving force of any theory.

  8. The relationship between growth stages and aroma composition of lemon basil Ocimum citriodorum Vis

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kateb, H.; DONALD, M.

    2014-01-01

    Plants produce volatiles depending on the season, growth cycle and time of year. Lemon basil “Ocmium basilicum var.citrodorum” possesses three growth stages; pre-flowering, full flowering and post-flowering. The volatiles of lemon basil infusions either increased or decreased throughout the growth cycle. Oxygenated compounds were the predominant class detected. Volatiles such as citral (neral+geranial), eucalyptol and estragole contribute to the flavor profile and may contribute in the plant ...

  9. Yield and oil composition of 38 basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) accessions grown in Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Callahan, Amber; Cantrell, Charles L

    2008-01-09

    A field experiment was conducted to assess yield, oil content, and composition of 38 genotypes of sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.). Overall, biomass yields were high and comparable to those reported in the literature. However, basil genotypes differed significantly with respect to oil content and composition. Oil content of the tested accessions varied from 0.07% to 1.92% in dry herbage. On the basis of the oil composition, basil accessions were divided into seven groups: (1) high-linalool chemotype [19-73% (-)-linalool], (2) linalool-eugenol chemotype [six chemotypes with 28-66% (-)-linalool and 5-29% eugenol], (3) methyl chavicol chemotype [six accessions with 20-72% methyl chavicol and no (-)-linalool], (4) methyl chavicol-linalool chemotype [six accessions with 8-29% methyl chavicol and 8-53% (-)-linalool], (5) methyl eugenol-linalool chemotype [two accessions with 37% and 91% methyl eugenol and 60% and 15% (-)-linalool], (6) methyl cinnamate-linalool chemotype [one accession with 9.7% methyl cinnamate and 31% (-)-linalool], and (7) bergamotene chemotype [one accession with bergamotene as major constituent, 5% eucalyptol, and basil could be a viable essential oil crop in Mississippi. The availability of various chemotypes offers the opportunity for production of basil to meet the market requirements of specific basil oils or individual compounds such as (-)-linalool, eugenol, methyl chavicol, methyl cinnamate, or methyl eugenol.

  10. Effect of methyl jasmonate on secondary metabolites of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Feng; Wang, Xi; Rajapakse, Nihal C

    2006-03-22

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in terms of its induction of inherent bioactive chemicals in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) was evaluated after MeJA was sprayed on healthy basil plants. The total phenolic content of the sweet basil significantly increased after 0.1 and 0.5 mM MeJA treatments compared with the control not subjected to MeJA. Two phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA), were identified as strong antioxidant constituents of the sweet basil. Their amounts also significantly increased after the MeJA treatment. In addition, eugenol and linalool increased 56 and 43%, respectively, by the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment. Due to the accumulation of RA, CA, and eugenol, which possess strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) free radical scavenging activities, the antioxidant activity of the sweet basil extract was 2.3-fold greater than that of the control after the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment. In the DPPH* assay, the EC50 values of RA, CA, and eugenol were determined as 23, 46, and 59 microM, respectively, which indicated they were 6-, 3-, and 2.4-fold more efficient than BHT (140 microM). Besides, an unidentified HPLC peak in the methanolic extract of the sweet basil was 4.3-fold higher than that of the control after the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment.

  11. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of traditional green and purple "Napoletano" basil cultivars (Ocimum basilicum L.) from Campania region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Ciampaglia, Roberto; Izzo, Luana; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-09-01

    The present study is the first effort to a comprehensive evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of 'Napoletano' green and purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) varieties. The results obtained revealed that the basil sample extracts were characterised by a generally higher polyphenolic concentration than those reported elsewhere for other more conventional and geographically different basil varieties. Napoletano purple basil revealed higher radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing capacities than the green one probably due to its relevant anthocyanin content. As regards the antimicrobial properties, both basil varieties exhibited activity against a broad spectrum of food-borne and human pathogenic micro-organisms, revealing not only a moderate to high natural preserving capacity, but also potentially beneficial influence on human health. Results indicated Napoletano green and purple basils as a good source of antioxidants of potential nutraceutical interest.

  12. Holi colours contain PM10 and can induce pro-inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossmann, Katrin; Bach, Sabine; Höflich, Conny; Valtanen, Kerttu; Heinze, Rita; Neumann, Anett; Straff, Wolfgang; Süring, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    At Holi festivals, originally celebrated in India but more recently all over the world, people throw coloured powder (Holi powder, Holi colour, Gulal powder) at each other. Adverse health effects, i.e. skin and ocular irritations as well as respiratory problems may be the consequences. The aim of this study was to uncover some of the underlying mechanisms. We analysed four different Holi colours regarding particle size using an Electric field cell counting system. In addition, we incubated native human cells with different Holi colours and determined their potential to induce a pro-inflammatory response by quantifying the resulting cytokine production by means of ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and the resulting leukocyte oxidative burst by flow cytometric analysis. Moreover, we performed the XTT (2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) and Propidium iodide cytotoxicity tests and we measured the endotoxin content of the Holi colour samples by means of the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test (LAL test). We show here that all tested Holi colours consist to more than 40 % of particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, so called PM10 particles (PM, particulate matter). Two of the analysed Holi powders contained even more than 75 % of PM10 particles. Furthermore we demonstrate in cell culture experiments that Holi colours can induce the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (Tumor necrosis factor-α), IL-6 (Interleukine-6) and IL-1β (Interleukine-1β). Three out of the four analysed colours induced a significantly higher cytokine response in human PBMCs (Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells) and whole blood than corn starch, which is often used as carrier substance for Holi colours. Moreover we show that corn starch and two Holi colours contain endotoxin and that certain Holi colours display concentration dependent cytotoxic effects in higher concentration. Furthermore we reveal that in principle Holi

  13. Mistranslations of the Prophets' Names in the Holy Quran: A Critical Evaluation of Two Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Izzeddin M. I.

    2017-01-01

    This study is devoted to discuss the renditions of the prophets' names in the Holy Quran due to the authority of the religious text where they reappear, the significance of the figures who carry them, the fact that they exist in many languages, and the fact that the Holy Quran addresses all mankind. The data are drawn from two translations of the…

  14. The Contribution of the Society of the Holy Child Jesus to Catholic Education in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Philomena

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the extent to which the charism and the philosophy of education of Venerable Cornelia Connelly founder of the Society of the Holy Child Jesus are being maintained in the twenty-first century in West Africa (Nigeria and Ghana). Using data gathered from Sisters and former students of Holy Child schools as evidence it seeks to…

  15. "Holy Rus": The Geopolitical Imagination in the Contemporary Russian Orthodox Church

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suslov, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    The author analyzes the geographical and geopolitical ideas inherent in the concept of "Holy Rus" as used by Patriarch Kirill and other hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church.......The author analyzes the geographical and geopolitical ideas inherent in the concept of "Holy Rus" as used by Patriarch Kirill and other hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church....

  16. A Content Analysis on the Recognition of the Educational Ministry of the Holy Spirit in Christian Education Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Larry A., II

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate goal of Christian education is spiritual formation, which requires transforming the minds of believers. However, since man's mind is impacted by sin, the work of the Holy Spirit is necessary to transform those minds. Since the Holy Spirit and Christian educators are striving for the same goal, one can state that the Holy Spirit has an…

  17. Starch accumulation during hydroponic growth of spinach and basil plants under carbon dioxide enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbrook, G P; Hansen, J; Wallick, K; Zinnen, T M [North Illinois University, de Kalb, IL (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1993-04-01

    The effects of CO[sub 2] enrichment, photoperiod duration, and inorganic phosphate levels on growth and starch accumulaton by spinach and basil plants were studied in a commercial hydroponic facility. During a 3-week growth period, both species exhibited increased whole-plant fresh weight as a result of an increase in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration from 400 to 1500 mul/1. However, basil leaves exhibited a 1.5- to 2-fold greater increase in specific leaf weight (SLW), and accumulated starch to much greater levels than did leaves of spinach. At 1500 mul CO[sub 2]/1, starch accounted for up to 38% of SLW with basil compared to [lt] 10% of SLW with spinach. The maximum ratio of starch/chlorophyll was 55.0 in basil leaves vs 8.0 in spinach leaves. High ratio values were associated with the appearance of chlorotic symptoms in leaves of basil grown under CO[sub 2] enrichment, whereas spinach did not exhibit chlorosis. Increasing inorganic phosphate concentrations from 0.7 to 1.8 mM in the hydroponic medium did not appreciably affect leaf starch accumulation in either species. Starch accumulation in basil leaves was not consistently related to the duration of the photoperiod. However, photoperiod-induced changes in leaf starch levels were much greater in basil than spinach. The results clearly indicate that different horticultural crops can show diverse responses to CO[sub 2] enrichment, and thus highlight the need to develop individual growth strategies to optimize production quality of each species.

  18. The response of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. to the application of growth stimulators and forecrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing sweet basil was carried out in the period 2008-2010 in Fajsławice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. The study evaluated the biometric traits of the plants, yield, the qualitative parameters of herbal raw material and weed infestation of the crop in dependence on growth simulators (Asahi SL, Bio-algeen, Titanit and the forecrop (winter wheat or spring barley + white mustard cover crop. Plots without foliar application of the growth stimulators were the control treatment. Tillage, mineral NPK fertilization as well as mechanical and chemical weed control were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for herbal plant protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of growth stimulators would have a positive effect on basil productivity, raw material quality and weed infestation of the basil crop. It was also assumed that the phytosanitary and fertilizing effects of the cover crop would result in higher and qualitatively better yield compared to the cereal forecrop alone (winter wheat. The best quantitative parameters of sweet basil raw material and the highest reduction in air-dry weight of weeds in the crop were observed after the application of the growth stimulators. The forecrop - spring barley + a white mustard cover crop that is ploughed in - also had a beneficial effect on yield and weed infestation of the plant in question. The traditional crop protection method used in the basil crop, without the application of the growth stimulators, resulted in a lower plant height and a smaller number of shoots per plant. This caused higher weed infestation of the crop and a decrease in yield. The positive side of the non-application of growth stimulators was a better chemical composition of basil raw material. Asahi SL and Tytanit yielded the best growth and productivity of the basil plants.

  19. The Pilgrimage to the Holy Face of Lucca in 1896: Documents and News from the Archive of the Congregation of the Holy Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Maria Rossi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 100 records and many other documentary testimonies regarding the Congregation of the Holy Face of Lucca are stored within the funds of the Historical Diocesan Archive of Lucca. The Chapters of the Society of the Holy Face are present within the same Archive; this document is dated back to 1306-1308 and it is brought up together with the minutes of the meetings in a paper register of 16th-17th century, the only one remained concerning the renewed Society of the Holy Sacrament and the Holy Face. The brotherhood recovered importance during the 19th century mostly thanks to some priests of Lucca, including the Abbot Pietro Pera (the future Archbishop between 1845 and 1846. Specifically, two important moments regarding the renewed interest for the relics of Lucca can be registered after the Napoleonic Era. First, a competition for the construction of a golden lamp for the chapel of the Holy Face was carried out between 1835 and 1836, and Abbot Pera was charged to supervise the enterprise. Related documentaries as well as the various drawings presented for the competition are stored in the Archives of the Congregation of the Holy Face. Moreover, a pilgrimage to the simulacrum of Lucca took place during 1896. This event was very successful: the City and the entire Diocese accurately organized the arrival of about 132,000 pilgrims by controlling pilgrims’ overnighting and daily meals, and developing a visiting route concerning the shrines of the City.

  20. Effect of the Holy Month of Ramadan on Coping Strategies

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    S Akuchekian

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress is one of the risk factors for the development of so many physical and especially psychological disorders. Now, the impression is focused on coping strategies versus previous emphasis on nature and severity of stress. The present study was performed to evaluate if fasting, not only as a religious behavior but also as a coping strategy can influence the way of coping with stress in humans. Methods: In a pre-test / post-test survey, 100 medical students were evaluated for stress coping strategies before and after the holy month of Ramadan using CS-R scale. Results: The results revealed that the use of ineffective coping strategies was significantly decreased after the holy month with no alterations in other strategies. In details, uses of superstitiousness, wishful thinking and self-medication coping strategies were statistically lower after Ramadan compared to values before it (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The present study showed that Ramadan fasting (a religious behavior or belief as a coping strategy has beneficial effect on the way of coping with stress in humans. Keywords: Stress, Coping Strategies, Religion, Ramadan, Medical Student

  1. Human embryology and the holy quran: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Sabiha

    2009-01-01

    Man's quest to know about his origin has led him to search his roots and the best source for him has been religious scriptures. The greatest miracle is the Holy Quraan. There is an elegant description of origin, development and step by step developmental stages of intra-uterine life in Quraan. Muslims had this knowledge in 7th century and the Prophet Muhammad's Ahadeeth (sayings, deeds, approvals narrated by authentic narrators) had explained almost everything about natal and even postnatal events. These findings once presented to experts in the field of Anatomy and Embryology surprised them and they believed that the knowledge given to the Prophet Muhammad was indeed divine. Who else would provide this knowledge to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) except the Creator Himself.Modern embryology is a fairly recent development which has its beginning with the invention of microscope in the 17th century. However the concept of the human being developing in stages was not recognised until much later. But the scientists then and most Muslim and non-Muslim scholars do not even know that the holy Quran and Sunnah [words, deeds, approvals of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) collected by authentic narrators] had provided a detailed description of the significant events in human development from the stages of gametes and conception until the full term pregnancy and delivery or even post partum. Actually information in the Quran and Hadith corrected many superstitious and vague ideas about human development that were prevalent before.

  2. Biblical basics of the Holy Family’s dimension of Christian spirituality according to the teaching of God’s Servant Jean Berthier, founder of the Congregation Missionaries of the Holy Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Józef Sobczyk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the biblical basics of the Holy Family’s dimension of Christian spirituality drawn by Jean Berthier shows his impressive knowledge of the Holy Bible. God’ Servant uses many quotations to show biblical grounds for Christ’s imitation according to the pattern of the Holy Family. There are a few virtues of the Holy Family which deserve to be highlighted: trust and obedience to God’s Will, love to God and to neighbor, humility and mortification. Berthier not only enumerates those virtues but also encourages everyone to realize them in everyday life, such as the Holy Family did it.

  3. Extraction of basil leaves (ocimum canum) oleoresin with ethyl acetate solvent by using soxhletation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambun, R.; Purba, R. R. H.; Ginting, H. K.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this research is to produce oleoresin from basil leaves (Ocimum canum) by using soxhletation method and ethyl acetate as solvent. Basil commonly used in culinary as fresh vegetables. Basil contains essential oils and oleoresin that are used as flavouring agent in food, in cosmetic and ingredient in traditional medicine. The extraction method commonly used to obtain oleoresin is maceration. The problem of this method is many solvents necessary and need time to extract the raw material. To resolve the problem and to produce more oleoresin, we use soxhletation method with a combination of extraction time and ratio from the material with a solvent. The analysis consists of yield, density, refractive index, and essential oil content. The best treatment of basil leaves oleoresin extraction is at ratio of material and solvent 1:6 (w / v) for 6 hours extraction time. In this condition, the yield of basil oleoresin is 20.152%, 0.9688 g/cm3 of density, 1.502 of refractive index, 15.77% of essential oil content, and the colour of oleoresin product is dark-green.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum) oil against Salmonella enteritidis in vitro and in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2010-01-01

    Nine essential oils were examined for antimicrobial activity against reference and clinical strains of Salmonella Enteritidis. Based on the size of the inhibition zone and the minimal inhibitory concentration, basil oil had the strongest antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria, and S. Enteritidis SE3 was the most sensitive strain to all the tested oils. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the major constituents of the oil were linalool (64.35%), 1,8-cineole (12.28%), eugenol (3.21%), germacrene D (2.07%), alpha-terpineol (1.64%), and rho-cymene (1.03%). When applied in nham, a fermented pork sausage, experimentally inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE3 and stored at 4 degrees C, basil oil inhibited the bacterium in a dose-dependent fashion. Basil oil at a concentration of 50 ppm reduced the number of bacteria in the food from 5 to 2log cfu/g after storage for 3 d. An unmeasurable level of the bacterium in the food was observed at days 2 and 3 of storage when 100 and 150 ppm of basil oil was used, respectively. Sensory evaluation suggested that the addition of 100 but not of 150 ppm to nham would be acceptable to consumers. The results from this study confirm the potential use of basil oil as an antimicrobial agent to control S. Enteritidis in food.

  5. Matrix-derived combination effect and risk assessment for estragole from basil-containing plant food supplements (PFS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.J.P.L.; Klaus, V.; Alhusainy, W.; Rietjens, I.

    2013-01-01

    Basil-containing plant food supplements (PFS) can contain estragole which can be metabolised into a genotoxic and carcinogenic 1'-sulfoxymetabolite. This study describes the inhibition of sulfotransferase (SULT)-mediated bioactivation of estragole by compounds present in basil-containing PFS.

  6. Formulation and Evaluation of Edible Film from Basil Leaves Extract (Ocimum americanum L. as Mouth Freshener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifi Harmely

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A research on formulation of edible film from basil leaves extract as mouth freshener has been done. The extract of basil leaves were used in various concentrations which are 2.5%, 5% and 7.5%. The products were evaluated for some parameters such as organoleptic, friability, drying shrinkage, pH, thickness, flavonoid contents and respondents preference. The results of evaluation showed that edible filmsfrom basil leaves extract meet requirements as required by Standard Nasional Indonesia (SNI and have such quality as product in the market. Statistical analysis using Kruskal Wallis test showed that respondents preferred for the F0 formulation in term of their appearance and taste while as mouth freshener, respondents preferred the F3 formulation.

  7. Marine environmental radioactivity survey of Holy Loch 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.; Cowling, G.; Manson, R.

    1993-11-01

    This report presents results of a marine environmental radioactivity monitoring survey of intertidal and underwater areas around the former United States Naval Base at Holy Loch, carried out jointly by DRPS and U.S. Navy staff in March 1992 following the departure of U.S. Navy submarine support facilities. Results are reported for in-situ measurements and subsequent laboratory analysis of over 460 samples covering over 150 separate locations. Included is a report by the U.S. Navy summarising their results for the survey. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples from the intertidal zone and in all underwater sediment samples, but concentrations were low. The calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the public due to cobalt-60 is 1 μSv. (Author)

  8. Chemical composition of the essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelačić Slavica Ć.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Serbia basil has been grown traditionally as a decorative, medicinal, seasoning and ritual herb, and there is a variety of different populations of basil. Basil is considered to have been brought to Serbia in the 12th century by monks returning from their pilgrimages. Essential oils isolated from herb of ten basil populations traditionally grown on the territory of the Republic of Serbia have been analyzed. The selected populations have been designated under codes from T-1 to T-10 and deposited in the Plant Genes Bank at Serbia and at the Institute for Crop Sciences of the Faculty of Agriculture in Belgrade. Essential oils of all tested basil populations were light yellow and had a specific aromatic scent. The composition of essential oil in the dry herb of the tested populations ranged from 0.87 to 1.84%. The results of gas chromatographic analysis of essential oils in tested basil populations pointed to their complex chemical composition and to the fact that they belong to the most appreciated European chemotype. In total thirty three components have been identified in the essential oils. The most common fraction of components in all tested oils was terpenoides. The predominant component in all essential oils is monoterpen linalol, ranging from 51.52 to 74.73%. Phenylpropranoid methylchavicol ranged from 2.49 to 18.97%. Essential oils of populations T-6, T-7, T-8 and T-10 were characterized by elevated 1.8-cineol (4.44, 3.70, 4.01 and 3.43%, respectively. Populations T-3 and T-4 in essential oil contained higher percent of geraniol (4.27 and 3.31%, respectively. In all ten essential oils sesquiterpen fraction consisted of greater number of components, with germacrene having special significance as it was found in high percentage in all populations. The highest content of germacrene was registered in population T-9 (4.30%, T-10 (4.18%, while in others it ranged from 2.17 to 3.69%. Basil populations traditionally grown in Serbia have

  9. Telling the Holy Sepulchre. “Mises en scène” and textual representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Middle Ages, places and holy objects were concrete in their materiality and especially in their geographical location. However they could also proliferate in other places, in a real “multiplication of presence”. Indeed, texts and maps informed the reader and the spectator, but also put him in touch with the sphere of the holiness. The idea of the omnipresence of the salvation facilitated a relocation of the poles of worship, which was nevertheless based on material contacts. This contrast between dematerialization and attachment to things maintained a play of opposites between absence and presence. The material or textual reproduction of objects and holy places made sure they became accessible for all those who would not or could not travel to them. This contribution offers an analysis of maps and various stories of medieval authors which make a symbolic approach to the holy places in Jerusalem accessible to many believers.

  10. Bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis following exposure to Holi colors: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Deepender

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Holi festival is celebrated in India traditionally by applying colors on one another. Various ocular adverse effects of these colors have been reported including conjunctivitis and corneal abrasion. We report a case of bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis, following exposure to Holi colors. General physicians might encounter more such cases after exposure to Holi colors. In India, these colors are prepared on a small scale and lack any quality checks. Use of such toxic colors should be discouraged, and all doctors should caution people against using synthetic dyes. This case report highlights the need to put manufacturing of Holi colors under guidelines of the Food and Drug Cosmetic Act and the Bureau of Indian Standards.

  11. Bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis following exposure to Holi colors: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Deepender; Arora, Ritu; Das, Sima; Shroff, Daraius; Narula, Ritesh

    2007-01-01

    Holi festival is celebrated in India traditionally by applying colors on one another. Various ocular adverse effects of these colors have been reported including conjunctivitis and corneal abrasion. We report a case of bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis, following exposure to Holi colors. General physicians might encounter more such cases after exposure to Holi colors. In India, these colors are prepared on a small scale and lack any quality checks. Use of such toxic colors should be discouraged, and all doctors should caution people against using synthetic dyes. This case report highlights the need to put manufacturing of Holi colors under guidelines of the Food and Drug Cosmetic Act and the Bureau of Indian Standards.

  12. Nutritional Concepts and Frequency of Foodstuffs Mentioned in the Holy Quran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarighat-Esfanjani, Ali; Namazi, Nazli

    2016-06-01

    The Holy Quran is a religious book of Muslims. In many verses of Quran, various foods are discussed. It seems that limited studies were performed on identification the nutritional verses and their frequencies in the Holy Quran. Therefore, the aims of present study were to establish a numerical model system for studying nutritional verses of Quran, determination of verses with nutritional concepts and frequency of foodstuffs in the Holy Quran. In this descriptive analytical study, "Ghamoos e Quran" and "Vazheyab" online softwares were used to determine the nutritional keywords in Quran. For searching, translating, and interpretation of verses, "Noor-e-Jami Tafasir version 2.1"; "Zekr" and "Pars Quran"softwares were applied. Sixty-four nutritional keywords and 257 nutritional verses were identified. Findings indicated that aliment/foods, eating, water/drinking words, and their derivatives are repeated 171, 109, and 131 times in the Holy Quran, respectively. According to the Holy Quran, except Haram foods (pork meat, wine, carrion meat, blood, and meat of animals not slaughtered properly in the Islamic manner), all foods are tayyeb (lawful). The Holy Quran contains many foodstuffs and verses with nutritional concepts and it recommends eating varied and balanced diet.

  13. Diversity in chemical composition and yield of essential oil from two Iranian landraces of sweet basil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum L. belongs to the family Lamiaceae is an herb that is extensively cultivated in some countries. Areal parts, especially leaves of sweet basil are widely used to enhance the flavour of foods such as salads, pasta, tomato products, vegetables, pizza, meat, soups, marine foods, confectioneries and other products. Essential oil yield and chemical components of two Iranian landraces of sweet basil including “Purple” and “Green” grown south-central of Iran (Isfahan province were investigated. The hydro-distillated oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The oil yields were obtained from the aerial of Purple with 0.56 ml/100 g dry matter and the aerial of Green with 0.48 ml/100 g dry matter. Results indicated significant differences (p < 0.01 among the aerial for the main constituents in the essential oil from two Iranian landraces of sweet basil. The major constituents of the essential oil from the aerial of Purple landrace were methyl chavicol or estragol (63.32% and linalool (7.96%. The main compositions of the essential oil from the aerial of Green landrace were methyl chavicol (31.82%, geranial (24.60% and neral (22.65%. Genarlly, a comparison of our results with the previous reports suggests differences in the essential oil compositions and oil yield of the plant material could be attributed to genetic diversity in two Iranian landraces of sweet basil.

  14. High pressure-temperature processing as an alternative for preserving basil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebbers, B.; Matser, A.; Koets, M.; Bartels, P.; Berg, van den R.

    2002-01-01

    In this study the effect of sterilisation by high pressure (HP) on the quality of basil was compared to conventional processing techniques. By means of freezing, or blanching followed by drying, microbial reduction of spores was maximal one-log. Pulsed HP-temperature treatment yielded a reduction of

  15. Daytime Solar Heating Controls Downy Mildew Peronospora belbahrii in Sweet Basil.

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    Yigal Cohen

    Full Text Available The biotrophic oomycete Peronospora belbahrii causes a devastating downy mildew disease in sweet basil. Due to the lack of resistant cultivars current control measures rely heavily on fungicides. However, resistance to fungicides and strict regulation on their deployment greatly restrict their use. Here we report on a 'green' method to control this disease. Growth chamber studies showed that P. belbahrii could hardly withstand exposure to high temperatures; exposure of spores, infected leaves, or infected plants to 35-45 °C for 6-9 hours suppressed its survival. Therefore, daytime solar heating was employed in the field to control the downy mildew disease it causes in basil. Covering growth houses of sweet basil already infected with downy mildew with transparent infra-red-impermeable, transparent polyethylene sheets raised the daily maximal temperature during sunny hours by 11-22 °C reaching 40-58 °C (greenhouse effect. Such coverage, applied for a few hours during 1-3 consecutive days, had a detrimental effect on the survival of P. belbahrii: killing the pathogen and/or suppressing disease progress while enhancing growth of the host basil plants.

  16. Oxygen amendment on growth and nitrogen-use efficiency of flooded Italian Basil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flooding is a frequent and often unavoidable cause of stress, in vegetable production in Florida. Flooding results in hypoxia i.e., oxygen deficiency. This study was conducted with traditional Italian basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), cv. Genovese OG, treated with either a fast- or slow-release solid oxy...

  17. Authentication of organically and conventionally grown basils by gas chromatograpy/mass spectrometry chemical profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil plants cultivated by organic and conventional farming practices were differentiated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and chemometric methods. The two-way GC/MS data sets were baseline-corrected and retention time-aligned prior to data processing. Two self-devised fuzzy clas...

  18. Basil Bernstein's Theory of the Pedagogic Device and Formal Music Schooling: Putting the Theory into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ruth; Froehlich, Hildegard

    2012-01-01

    This article describes Basil Bernstein's theory of the pedagogic device as applied to school music instruction. Showing that educational practices are not personal choices alone, but the result of socio-political mandates, the article traces how education functions as a vehicle for social reproduction. Bernstein called this process the…

  19. Essential-Oil Variability in a Collection of Ocimum basilicum L. (Basil) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Antonella; Roscigno, Graziana; Bruno, Maurizio; De Falco, Enrica; Senatore, Felice

    2016-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic plant of great tradition in the Mediterranean area. Its economic importance is growing up determining an expansion of cultivation. This paper evaluated the morphological traits, the chemical profiles, and antibacterial activity of 21 cultivars of basil belonging to 'Genovese', 'Napoletano', and 'Purple basil' types. The cultivars were characterized by different growth rate and morphological traits. The chemical composition of the oils analyzed by GC and GC/MS analysis, supported by the PCA analysis, underlined the strong influence of chemotype. It is noteworthy that estragole, never present in Genovese and purple basil types, occurred in Napoletano type. The high presence of eugenol, methyl eugenol, and linalool in the majority of cultivars, belonging both to Genovese and to Napoletano types was registered. Of great interest resulted the composition of the purple basil 'Opal'. All the samples tested exhibited similar antibiotic profiles with moderate antibacterial activity. The results enhanced the importance of determination of essential-oil profile in the selection of cultivars characterized by diverse morphological traits and are useful for different purposes. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  20. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus infecting basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants collected from a field in Imperial County, CA in May, 2011 were found to exhibit yellowing, chlorotic sectors and spots on leaves, resulting in plants being unmarketable. Total nucleic acid was extracted from plants and tested by RT-PCR for the presence of Alfalfa...

  1. Organic versus conventional fertilization effects on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) growth in a greenhouse system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is an essential oil producing crop used in culinary and fragrance applications. The objective of this controlled environment study was to evaluate the effects of organic and conventional fertilization, (applied at two nitrogen rates, 150 and 250 kg N/ha), on plant g...

  2. Basil Bernstein and Emile Durkheim: Two Theories of Change in Educational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, Mohamed

    1977-01-01

    Attempts to draw out parallels and differences between Emile Durkheim's and Basil Bernstein's theories of educational systems and highlights Bernstein's reformulation of certain features of Durkheim's thought. Focuses on the role of the school, curriculum change, and social conflict. (Author/RK)

  3. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil and extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeković Zoran P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracts obtained from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE were qualitative and quantitative analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Essential oil (EO content of basil sample, determined by an official method, was 0.565% (V/w. The yields of basil obtained by SFE were from 0.719 to 1.483% (w/w, depending on the supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide density (from 0.378 to 0.929 g mL-1. The dominant compounds detected in all investigated samples (EO obtained by hydrodistillation and different SFE extracts were: linalool, as the major compound of basil EO (content from 10.14 to 49.79%, w/w, eugenol (from 3.74 to 9.78% and ä-cardinene (from 3.94 to 8.07%. The quantitative results of GC-MS from peak areas and by GC-FID using external standard method involving main standards, were compared and discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31013

  4. Seed Germination and Early Growth Responses of Hyssop, Sweet Basil and Oregano to Temperature Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad MIJANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this survey were to determine the effect of temperature on germination and seedling growth of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L., Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and Oregano (Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae family as well as comparing species regarding germination behavior and growth characteristics. Seeds were germinated on a temperature-gradient bar varying between 5 and 40 °C (with 5 °C intervals. Results indicated that the highest germination percentage of hyssop (92-98%, sweet basil (86-90% and oregano (74-77% occurred at 20-30 °C, 25-30 °C and 20-30 °C, respectively; therefore, moderate and warm temperatures are proper for germination of all species. In all species the maximum germination rate obtained at 30 °C. Among all species, Day 10 % of Sweet basil Germination had the lowest value, which indicates faster germination. The cardinal temperatures (base, optimum and ceiling or maximum were estimated by the segmented model. Base temperature (Tb was calculated for hyssop, sweet basil and oregano as 3.42, 5.70 and 5.46 °C, respectively. Optimal temperature (To calculated for all species was approximately 30°C, So warmer temperatures are much more proper for them. The species showed different maximum temperatures (Tm from 42.91 (Oregano to 48.05 °C (Hyssop. In Hyssop and Sweet basil optimum growth of seedlings were observed at 30°C while Oregano reached its best growth at 25°C. The difference between maximum and minimum temperatures of germination knowing as temperature range (TR index could show adaptation capability to broad sites for planting and domestication. Regarding this index Hyssop stood in the first place.

  5. Growth, yield, plant quality and nutrition of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. under soilless agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhrajit Saha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agricultural systems are challenged by globally declining resources resulting from climate change and growing population. Alternative agricultural practices such as aquaponics (includes crop plant and aquatic species and hydroponics (includes crop plant only have the potential to generate high yield per unit area using limited land, water, and no soil. A soilless agricultural study was conducted at the Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA from August to November, 2015. The growth, yield, quality, and nutrition of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cultivar Aroma 2, were compared between aquaponic and hydroponic systems using crayfish (Procambarus spp. as the aquatic species. Non-circulating floating raft systems were designed using 95 L polyethylene tanks. Equal amounts of start-up fertilizer dose were applied to both systems. The objective was to understand how the additional nutritional dynamics associated with crayfish influence the basil crop. Both fresh and dry basil plant weights were collected after harvest, followed by leaf nutrient analysis. Leaf chlorophyll content, water pH, nitrogen and temperature were measured periodically. Aquaponic basil (AqB showed 14%, 56%, and 65% more height, fresh weight, and dry weight, respectively, compared to hydroponic basil (HyB. It is logical to assume that crayfish waste (excreta and unconsumed feed has supplied the additional nutrients to AqB, resulting in greater growth and yield. The chlorophyll content (plant quality or leaf nutrients, however, did not differ between AqB and HyB. Further research is needed to investigate aquaponic crayfish yield, overall nutritional dynamics, cost-benefit ratio, and other plant characteristics under soilless systems.

  6. Microbiological Status and Food Safety Compliance of Commercial Basil Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Willeke; Otto, Denise; Korsten, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Basil has been implicated in a number of microbe-associated foodborne illnesses across the world, and the source of contamination has often been traced back to the production and/or processing stages of the supply chain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of fresh basil from the point of production to the retail outlet in the Gauteng and Northwest Provinces of South Africa. A total of 463 samples were collected over a 3-month period from two large-scale commercial herb producing and processing companies and three retail outlets. The microbiological quality of the samples was assessed based on the presence or absence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium and the levels of the indicator bacteria E. coli and total coliforms. Salmonella Typhimurium was detected on four basil samples (0.9%) arriving at the processing facility and at dispatch, but no E. coli O157:H7 was detected throughout the study. Total coliform counts were 0.4 to 4.1 CFU/g for basil, 1.9 to 3.4 log CFU/ml for water, and 0.2 to 1.7 log CFU/cm(2) for contact surfaces, whereas E. coli was detected in the water samples and only once on basil. The Colilert-18 and membrane filter methods were used to analyze water samples, and a comparison of results revealed that the Colilert-18 method was more sensitive. Strong evidence suggests that high numbers of coliforms do not necessarily indicate the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium. The study results highlight the importance of effective implementation of food safety management systems in the fresh produce industry.

  7. Ethanol dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Uyazán; Iván Dario Gil; J L Aguilar; Gerardo Rodríguez Niño; Luis Alfonso Caicedo

    2004-01-01

    This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the op...

  8. Ethanol dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Uyazán

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the operational, energy consumption and industrial services points of view.

  9. The continuing quest for the 'Holy Braille' of tactile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Noel H.; Blazie, Deane B.

    2011-10-01

    The Boston-based National Braille Press has established a Center for Braille Innovation (CBI), whose mission is to research and develop affordable braille literacy products. The primary focus has been to facilitate the development of dramatically lower cost electronic braille display devices, and the much-sought-after "Holy Braille" of a full-page electronic braille display. Developing affordable new braille technologies is crucial to improving the extremely low braille literacy rate (around 12%) of blind students. Our CBI team is working to aid developers of braille technology by focusing attention and resources on the development of the underlying braille actuator technologies. We are also developing braille-related information resources to aid braille display developers. The CBI braille requirements summary (available through the NBP website (http://www.nbp.org) is one of these resources. The braille specifications include braille dot dimensions, spacing, displacement, lifting force, and response time requirements. In addition, mentoring, helping to evaluate new braille display ideas, and openly sharing braille display technology are all part of the activities of the NBP braille innovation team. NBP has expanded the CBI project with domestic and international partners including the China Braille Press, World Braille Foundation, National Federation of the Blind, American Printing House for the Blind, American Foundation for the Blind, and many university and research partners.

  10. Viewpoints in the Translation of the Holy QURAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gumaa Siddiek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is too much literature about the untranslatability of the Quran from its Arabic text into another language. Most Muslims: Arab and Non-Arab, and almost everyone with Arabic language background, will not find any difficulty to prove the untranslatability of the Holy Quran into another language. The Quran is the Word of Allah Almighty to his messenger Mohammed (PBUH in Arabic. It was intentionally revealed in Arabic to serve specific purpose: To defy the Arabs in their own trade and craftsmanship of producing highly rhetorical and poetic composition in their literature.  Although all the scientific, geographical and historical facts mentioned in the Quran have been found true, nevertheless, the Quran remains a book of miracles, but its miraculous ability is in its inimitability (as no one has made similar sura the like of it since its revelation and untranslatability into another form  of reproduction in other languages (as  hundreds of translations were made and are still made, but would not come to the absolute final perfect  form of translation. These translations are incomplete, as they are mere human efforts. This paper aims to shed some light on the opinions of some Islamic scholars on this issue, as well as to suggest some strategies to help in coming out with some sound translations to help Non-Arab Muslims and other Non-Arabic speakers to understand the truth about the Quran as a true WORD from Allah to all human beings on Earth.

  11. A Finnic holy word and its subsequent history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauno Koski

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concentrates on a specific ancient holy word in Finnish and its subsequent development, hiisi. In the Finnish language region hiisi appears as an element in place names in over 230 villages established by the end of the thirteenth century, and at least a majority of these must have existed since prehistoric times. In Finland as well as in Estonia it is possible to demonstrate an earlier sacral function in places which contain hiisi as a component of their name, partly with the help of archeological discoveries, and partly with the help of oral folk tradition. It is particularly among the earliest settlement areas of Southwest Finland, Satakunta and Häme that hiisi features in the names of sacrificial sites or trees, in other words in the same areas where it features in the names of burial grounds. Names in which the hiisi element precedes a word meaning a lake, pond, or other water formation, occur particularly in the eastern Finnish dialect regions, as well as in the regions of Karelian, Olonets, Lydian, and Vepsian. In addition to its factual meaning of cult place, the Finnish word hiisi has come to denote a supernatural entity both in terms of its reference to a place and in terms of its reference to a being.

  12. Divine empowerment: The Holy Spirit and church revitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. DeVries

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available How do principles of church revitalisation correlate with the divine work of the Holy Spirit? This article argues that the Spirit is the primary agent of church revitalisation, and churchleaders should cooperate with the Spirit as he works for revitalisation. Thus the Spirit empowers church leaders who are used by him to revive, renew, and revitalise a church community. After briefly defining the Spirit’s empowerment with biblical examples, this article examines the underlying principles of empowerment for church leaders, followed by briefly considering methodology for church revitalisation. The author concludes by suggesting several signs of biblical empowerment in a local church community. Goddelike bemagtiging: Die Heilige Gees en kerkherstel. Watter plek beklee die goddelike werking van die Heilige Gees in die beginsels van kerkherstel? Hierdie artikel poneer dat die Heilige Gees die primêre agent is om nuwe lewe in die kerk te bring en kerkleiers behoort onder leiding van die Heilige Gees hulle hiervoor te beywer. Die Heilige Gees bemagtig dus die kerkleiers wat Hy gebruik om ’n kerklike gemeenskap te laat herleef, te vernuwe en hulle te besiel met lewenskragtigheid. Die Gees se bemagtiging word kortliks aan die hand van bybelse voorbeelde gedefineer, waarna die grondliggende beginsels vir die bemagtiging van die kerkleiers ondersoek word. Daarna word die metodologie om nuwe lewenskrag in die kerk te bring kortliks oorweeg. Die outeur sluit af deur verskeie tekens uit te lig wat op skriftuurlike bemagtiging van die Heilige Gees in die plaaslike kerkgemeenskap dui.

  13. Towards Maturity in 1 Peter: Freedom, Holiness, Immortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Decock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth towards maturity is dependent on the presence of freedom, holiness and immortality. These are presented as divine qualities that are utterly lacking in human beings. However, while human beings are ignorant and weak, sinful and mortal the addressees of 1 Peter1 are reminded that they have also been begotten anew by the imperishable seed of God’s Word, the Good News of Jesus Christ in order to share immortal life. This article looks first at human beings who as God’s creatures are ‘flesh’, but are also enabled to acknowledge their ‘fleshly’ state, to appreciate (‘desire’ and ‘taste’ (2:2–3 the Gospel and to submit to God. The second part considers the saving role of Christ as the powerful yet rejected ‘stone’ placed and offered by God as the model and means to transcend the ‘flesh’ in the flesh (4:1–2. A final part focuses on the new birth and the growth process in which the fleshly desires and ways of living give way to a manner of life, which is a witness to God’s saving power.

  14. The natural basil flavonoid nevadensin protects against induction of markers of hepatocarcinogenicity by methyleugenol in male F344 rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alhusainy, W.; Williams, G.; Jeffrey, A.M.; Iatropoulos, M.J.; Taylor, S.; Adams, T.B.; Rietjens, I.

    2014-01-01

    The alkenylbenzene methyleugenol occurs naturally in a variety of spices and herbs, including basil, and their essential oils. At high dose levels methyleugenol induces hepatocarcinogenicity in rodents following bioactivation to 1'-sulfooxymethyleugenol which forms DNA adducts. This study

  15. Determining the Threshold Value of Basil Yield Reduction and Evaluation of Water Uptake Models under Salinity Stress Condition

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sarai Tabrizi; H. Babazadeh; M. Homaee; F. Kaveh Kaveh; M. Parsinejad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several mathematical models are being used for assessing the plant response to the salinity of the root zone. The salinity of the soil and water resources is a major challenge for agricultural sector in Iran. Several mathematical models have been developed for plant responses to the salinity stress. However, these models are often applicable in particular conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the threshold value of Basil yield reduction, modeling Basil respon...

  16. Characterization of the Bacterial Community Naturally Present on Commercially Grown Basil Leaves: Evaluation of Sample Preparation Prior to Culture-Independent Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siele Ceuppens

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fresh herbs such as basil constitute an important food commodity worldwide. Basil provides considerable culinary and health benefits, but has also been implicated in foodborne illnesses. The naturally occurring bacterial community on basil leaves is currently unknown, so the epiphytic bacterial community was investigated using the culture-independent techniques denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and next-generation sequencing (NGS. Sample preparation had a major influence on the results from DGGE and NGS: Novosphingobium was the dominant genus for three different basil batches obtained by maceration of basil leaves, while washing of the leaves yielded lower numbers but more variable dominant bacterial genera including Klebsiella, Pantoea, Flavobacterium, Sphingobacterium and Pseudomonas. During storage of basil, bacterial growth and shifts in the bacterial community were observed with DGGE and NGS. Spoilage was not associated with specific bacterial groups and presumably caused by physiological tissue deterioration and visual defects, rather than by bacterial growth.

  17. Characterization of organic and conventional sweet basil leaves using chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints combined with principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjian; Gao, Boyan; Chen, Pei; Charles, Denys; Yu, Liangli (Lucy)

    2014-01-01

    Sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum., is one of the most important and wildly used spices and has been shown to have antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-diarrheal activities. In this study, high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting techniques were used to differentiate organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the fingerprints indicated that both HPLC and FIMS fingerprints could effectively detect the chemical differences in the organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples. This study suggested that the organic basil sample contained greater concentrations of almost all the major compounds than its conventional counterpart on a per same botanical weight basis. The FIMS method was able to rapidly differentiate the organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples (1 min analysis time), whereas the HPLC fingerprints provided more information about the chemical composition of the basil samples with a longer analytical time. PMID:24518341

  18. Preparation of basil seed mucilage aerogels loaded with paclitaxel nanoparticles by the combination of phase inversion technique and gas antisolvent process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ghoreishi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(S: In this work, paclitaxel (PX, a promising anticancer drug, was loaded in the basil seed mucilage (BSM aerogels by implementation of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 technology. Then, the effects of operating conditions were studied on the PX mean particle size (MPS, particle size distribution (PSD and drug loading efficiency (DLE. Methods: The employed SC-CO2 process in this research is the combination of phase inversion technique and gas antisolvent (GAS process. The effect of DMSO/water ratio (4 and 6 (v/v, pressure (10-20 MPa, CO2 addition rate (1–3 mL/min and ethanol concentration (5-10% were studied on MPS, PSD and DLE. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Zetasizer were used for particle analysis. DLE was investigated by utilizing the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results: Nanoparticles of paclitaxel (MPS of 82–131 nm depending on process variables with narrow PSD were successfully loaded in BSM aerogel with DLE of 28–52%. Experimental results indicated that higher DMSO/water ratio, ethanol concentration, pressure and CO2 addition rate reduced MPS and DLE. Conclusions: A modified semi batch SC-CO2 process based on the combination of gas antisolvent process and phase inversion methods using DMSO as co-solvent and ethanol as a secondary solvent was developed for the loading of an anticancer drug, PX, in ocimum basilicum mucilage aerogel. The experimental results determined that the mean particle size, particle size distribution, and drug loading efficiency be controlled with operating conditions.

  19. Ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolleurp, F; Daugulis, A J

    1985-05-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce the effect of end-product inhibition through the use of a water-immiscible phase which removes fermentation products in situ. This has the beneficial effect of not only removing inhibitory products as they are formed (thus keeping reaction rates high) but also has the potential for reducing product recovery costs. We have chosen to examine the ethanol fermentation as a model system for end product inhibition and extractive fermentation, and have developed a computer model predicting the productivity enhancement possible with this technique. The model predicts an ethanol productivity of 82.6 g/L-h if a glucose feed of 750 g/L is fermented with a solvent having a distribution coefficient of 0.5 at a dilution rate of 5.0 h . This is more than 10 times higher than for a conventional chemostat fermentation of a 250 g/L glucose feed. In light of this, a systematic approach to extractive fermentation has been undertaken involving the screening of more than 1,000 solvents for their extractive properties. UNIFAC and UNIQUAC estimates of distribution coefficients and selectivities were compiled and ranked in a database, together with other important physical properties, such as density, surface tension and viscosity. Preliminary shake-flask and chemostat biocompatibility studies on the most promising solvents have been undertaken. The previous predictive, data base and experimental results are discussed.

  20. Sustainable urban development in Brisbane City--the Holy Grail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K; Weber, T

    2003-01-01

    Impacts from urban stormwater runoff on receiving environments have been well documented, particularly through specific regional scientific studies. Using various local government planning and management elements, urban developments in Brisbane City are now able to address stormwater management in an increasingly holistic context. One key initiative includes facilitating Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) components within an Integrated Water Management Strategy that looks at policy formation, planning strategies, design option, community marketing and acceptance, maintenance programs and finally evaluation of various WSUD approaches. These can include the use of Natural Channel Designs, grassed swales, bio-filtration systems, porous pavements and roofwater tanks in several economic combinations. By linking with the Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology, Brisbane City Council has influenced the design of WSUD planning tools and benefited the city with academic inputs into extensive evaluation programs. As well, it has also contributed to the Cooperative Research Centre's research outcomes. These evaluation programs are increasingly providing better understanding of various stormwater quality best management practices throughout Australia. As part of the overall implementation process, active involvement by a range of stakeholders has been crucial. These stakeholders have included internal planning, development assessment and design staff, external consultants, developers, and other local and state government agencies. The latter two groups are assisting in the important task of "regionalisation" of Brisbane City Council's policies and guidelines. Implementation of WSUD initiatives and stormwater re-use strategies under Council's new "Integrated Water Management" agenda are showing some excellent results, suggesting that sustainable urban development is no longer like the search for the Holy Grail.

  1. Divineness regarding the words of the Holy Qur'an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheibani Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the many questions concerning the words of the Holy Qur'an is whether their content and meaning were truly a divine revelation or they were revealed to the Prophet from God and then transferred into the form of words. In this regard, there are two perspectives. First, as all Muslims believe, the words of the Qur'an are the result of a divine revelation, where­as the second viewpoint is that the words of the Qur'an are written by a human and not God. According to this latter perspective, the words of the Qur'an are sayings of the Prophet of which only the contents are based on a divine revelation. The theory of the words of the Qur'an not being a divine revelation has been an abandoned and rejected one throughout the Islamic history. This is the reason it has not been the subject of any pertinent discussions. How can the words of the Qur'an be created by Muhammad or Gabriel even though it is believed that the Qur'an is a miracle? This article first defines the concept of revelation and then analyzes various viewpoints and opinions regarding this topic in order to conclude (with evidence that the Qur'an is the word of God and not the word of the Prophet. If he had composed the words of the Qur'an and expressed the meaning of the revelation in his own words, then the Qur'an would not be the word of God. In this case, the term 'word of God' indicates that the concept of the 'word' should be considered. Thus, it is clear that the words of the Qur'an are divine and they can be referred and attributed to God.

  2. Utilization of heavy metal-rich tannery sludge for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Shweta; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Patra, D D

    2015-05-01

    Unlike food crops, essential oil-bearing crops in which the oil is extracted through hydro-distillation can be a suitable crop to be grown in heavy metal-polluted soils as the oil does not carry any heavy metal. In a field experiment conducted at CIMAP, Lucknow, India during 2011 and 2012, influence of six doses of tannery sludge viz 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 t ha(-1) were tested, taking sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) as the test crop. Maximum herb yield was obtained with the application of sludge at 20 t ha(-1). While in root, accumulation of Cd and Pb increased significantly up to 20 t ha(-1), Cr accumulation increased with increasing the dose of tannery sludge reaching maximum at 50 t ha(-1). Essential oil yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum) was significantly affected due to sludge application. Quality of essential oil, in term of chemical constituents, however, was marginally influenced due to tannery sludge application.

  3. Minimally invasive basilic vein transposition in the arm or forearm for autogenous haemodialysis access: A less morbid alternative to the conventional technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Jairath

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Minimally invasive dissection of the basilic vein for vascular access transposition is a safe, reliable procedure with patency and functional outcomes comparable with those of conventional BVT.

  4. Response of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. to Type and Amount of Organic Fertilizer Applications in Intercropping with Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaleh Mottaghian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of organic fertilizer applications on yield and competition indices of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. in different combinations of intercropping with sesame (Sesamum indicum L., an experiment was carried out in split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replicates in 2011. The main plots were six fertilizer treatments consisted of 20 and 40 Mg ha-1 of vermicompost and sewage sludge plus 50% recommended chemical fertilizer, chemical fertilizer alone (100 kg ha-1 of urea, triple super phosphate and potassium sulfate and control (no fertilizer application. Subplots were different planting ratios (sole cropping of basil and sesame, 75% + 25%, 50% + 50 %, 25% + 75% of basil+sesame. In this experiment, the 25% basil+75% sesame and 50% basil + 50%sesame under40 Mg. ha-1 of enriched sewage sludge application had the highest economical yield (up to 3097.47 kg ha-1 with a land equivalent ratio (up to 1.24. According to the aggressivity coefficient estimates of two plant species basil incombination of 25% basil + 75% sesame and sesame in 50% basil + 50% sesame and 75% basil + 25% sesame under organic fertilizer application would be dominant species competitave in ranges of 0.12 to 0.30 and 0.11 to 0.57, respectively.

  5. Agronomic and physiological impacts of irrigation frequency on green basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Peng; Dodd, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is a major factor restricting agricultural production and irrigation globally, with sustainable agricultural development calling for less irrigation water use and more production per unit of water applied. Improved understanding of plant physiological responses to water stress, and the effect of irrigation frequency on plant biomass production and quality, may help to optimize irrigation scheduling. Glasshouse-grown basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) received three different irrigatio...

  6. Analysis of the enzymatic formation of citral in the glands of sweet basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yoko; Wang, Guodong; Fridman, Eyal; Pichersky, Eran

    2006-04-15

    Basil glands of the Sweet Dani cultivar contain high levels of citral, a mixture of geranial and its cis-isomer neral, as well as low levels of geraniol and nerol. We have previously reported the identification of a cDNA from Sweet Dani that encodes an enzyme responsible for the formation of geraniol from geranyl diphosphate in the glands, and that these glands cannot synthesize nerol directly from geranyl diphosphate. Here, we report the identification of two basil cDNAs encoding NADP+-dependent dehydrogenases that can use geraniol as the substrate. One cDNA, designated CAD1, represents a gene whose expression is highly specific to gland cells of all three basil cultivars examined, regardless of their citral content, and encodes an enzyme with high sequence similarity to known cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs). The enzyme encoded by CAD1 reversibly oxidizes geraniol to produce geranial (which reversibly isomerizes to neral via keto-enol tautomerization) at half the efficiency compared with its activity with cinnamyl alcohol. CAD1 does not use nerol and neral as substrates. A second cDNA, designated GEDH1, encodes an enzyme with sequence similarity to CAD1 that is capable of reversibly oxidizing geraniol and nerol in equal efficiency, and prolonged incubation of geraniol with GEDH1 in vitro produces not only geranial and neral, but also nerol. GEDH1 is also active, although at a lower efficiency, with cinnamyl alcohol. However, GEDH1 is expressed at low levels in glands of all cultivars compared with its expression in leaves. These and additional data presented indicate that basil glands may contain additional dehydrogenases capable of oxidizing geraniol.

  7. Custodians of Sacred Space : Constructing the Franciscan Holy Land through texts and sacri monti (ca. 1480-1650)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema van Eck, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the construction of the Franciscan Holy Land as an ideological construct during the late medieval and early modern period. Based on an extensive corpus of texts, defined as Franciscan Holy Land writing, and a (re-)consideration of the sacri monti of Varallo and La

  8. Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

  9. Cellulosic ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Bruun, Sander; Jørgensen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield) from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.......5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw) and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could...... be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher...

  10. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Schwieterman, Michael L; Abrahan, Carolina E; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Folta, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv "Ceasar") grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be a useful tool in improving commercial production.

  11. Photoprotection by foliar anthocyanins mitigates effects of boron toxicity in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Guidi, Lucia; Pardossi, Alberto; Tattini, Massimiliano; Gould, Kevin S

    2014-11-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is an important agricultural problem in arid environments. Excess edaphic B compromises photosynthetic efficiency, limits growth and reduces crop yield. However, some purple-leafed cultivars of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) exhibit greater tolerance to high B concentrations than do green-leafed cultivars. We hypothesised that foliar anthocyanins protect basil leaf mesophyll from photo-oxidative stress when chloroplast function is compromised by B toxicity. Purple-leafed 'Red Rubin' and green-leafed 'Tigullio' cultivars, grown with high or negligible edaphic B, were given a photoinhibitory light treatment. Possible effects of photoabatement by anthocyanins were simulated by superimposing a purple polycarbonate filter on the green leaves. An ameliorative effect of light filtering on photosynthetic quantum yield and on photo-oxidative load was observed in B-stressed plants. In addition, when green protoplasts from both cultivars were treated with B and illuminated through a screen of anthocyanic protoplasts or a polycarbonate film which approximated cyanidin-3-O-glucoside optical properties, the degree of photoinhibition, hydrogen peroxide production, and malondialdehyde content were reduced. The data provide evidence that anthocyanins exert a photoprotective role in purple-leafed basil mesophyll cells, thereby contributing to improved tolerance to high B concentrations.

  12. Biodiesel production by lipase-catalyzed transesterification of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Zeynab; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Harrison, Mark D.; Kusumo, Fitranto; Mazaheri, Hoora; Ilham, Zul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Need for alternative energy has led to explore new feedstock. • Ocimum basilicum seeds oil was used as biodiesel feedstock. • Biodiesel was produced via lipase-catalyzed transesterification by Novozym. • Artificial neural network with genetic algorithm modelling was employed. - Abstract: The increasing global demand for fuel, limited fossil fuel resources, and increasing concern about the upturn in gaseous CO_2 emissions are the key drivers of research and development into sources of renewable liquid transport fuels, such as biodiesel. In the present work, we demonstrate biodiesel production from Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) seed oil by lipase-catalyzed transesterification. Sweet basil seeds contain 22% oil on a dry weight basis. Artificial neural network with genetic algorithm modelling was used to optimize reaction. Temperature, catalyst concentration, time, and methanol to oil molar ratio were the input factors in the optimization study, while fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was the key model output. FAME composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The optimized transesterification process resulted in a 94.58% FAME yield after reaction at 47 °C for 68 h in the presence of 6% w/w catalyst and a methanol to oil ratio of 10:1. The viscosity, density, calorific value, pour point, and cloud point of the biodiesel derived from sweet basil seed oil conformed to the EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standard specifications. The antioxidant stability of the biodiesel did not meet these specifications but could be improved via the addition of antioxidant.

  13. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in leaves and glandular trichomes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Cícero; Simon, James E

    2010-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil phenylpropenes are synthesized and accumulate in peltate glandular trichomes and their content and composition depend on plant developmental stage. Studies on gene expression and enzymatic activity indicate that the phenylpropene biosynthetic genes are developmentally regulated. In this study, the methylchavicol accumulation in basil leaves and the enzyme activities and gene expression of both chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) were investigated in all leaves at four plant developmental stages. Methylchavicol accumulation decreased over time as leaves matured. There was a significant correlation between methylchavicol accumulation and CVOMT (r(2) = 0.88) enzyme activity, suggesting that the levels of biosynthetic enzymes control the essential oil content. CVOMT and EOMT transcript expression levels, which decreased with leaf age, followed the same pattern in both whole leaves and isolated glandular trichomes, providing evidence that CVOMT transcript levels are developmentally regulated in basil glandular trichomes themselves and that differences in CVOMT expression observed in whole leaves are not solely the result of differences in glandular trichome density.

  14. Different species of basil need different ammonium to nitrate ratio in hydroponics' system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SAADATIAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Basil is a very important medicinal plant and culinary spice, and is marketed fresh, dried or frozen. In crop nutrition, nitrogen is essential for plant growth and as a macro-element, is part of the proteins’ structure and participates in the metabolic processes involved in the synthesis and energy transfer. It has been shown that a balance between ammonium and nitrate favors plant growth and that the degree of benefit varies among crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth of two varieties of basil in function of four nutrient solutions containing different NH4+/NO3- ratios. Results showed that different variety response differently to nutrient solution. Although the highest yield in both varieties (sweet and purple was obtained when fed by nutrient solution without ammonium but their response on quality indices were different due to nitrate ammonium ratio in nutrient solutions. The highest total phenol content of sweet and purple basil was 92 and 100 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight respectively, while the highest antioxidant capacity was obtained in purple variety grown in nutrient solution 2 (NH4+:1/NO3:4 and the lowest value were related to sweet variety with the same nutrient solution. Moderate content of total nitrogen can be suitable for sweet variety while for purple variety nutrient solution with low amount of ammonium can be more suitable.

  15. Hepatoprotective effects of parsley, basil, and chicory aqueous extracts against dexamethasone-induced in experimental rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hanan A.; El-Desouky, Mohamed A.; Hozayen, Walaa G.; Ahmed, Rasha R.; Khaliefa, Amal K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of parsley, basil, and chicory whole plant in normal and dexamethasone (Dex) rats. Materials and Methods: 50 female albino rats were used in this study and divided into 5 groups (for each 10). Group (1) fed basal diet and maintained as negative control group. Group (2) received Dex in a dose of (0.1 mg/kg b. wt.). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with Dex along with three different plant extracts of parsley, basil, and chicory (2 g/kg b. wt.), (400 mg/kg b. wt.), and (100 mg/kg b. wt.), respectively. Results: All these groups were treated given three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Dex-induced alterations in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and cardiovascular indices and serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, liver thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) levels increased, while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and liver glutathione (GSH) levels decreased. On the other hand, plant extracts succeeded to modulate these observed abnormalities resulting from Dex as indicated by the reduction of glucose, cholesterol, TBARS, and the pronounced improvement of the investigated biochemical and antioxidant parameters. Conclusions: It was concluded that probably, due to its antioxidant property, parsley, basil, and chicory extracts have hepatoprotective effects in Dex-induced in rats. PMID:27069727

  16. “Speaking in the Unknown Tongue, Holiness Church, Jackson, 1939”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Almeida

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available “Speaking in the Unknown Tongue, Holiness Church, Jackson, 1939, ” Photographs, p. 104, with the gracious permission of the Eudora Welty FoundationDear Welty,Writing by the fireplace, I see you standing with the camerathe eye of the eye of the eyein awe and wonder,a guest in Holiness Churchwatching: the painted horse “The Lord on the Cloud” in the centera white mass moving through mountainslines upon valleys, there goes the Lord ridingoh yes, rise your heart to God in praise, sisterspeaking i...

  17. Keeping Sunday holy by sharing in the Eucharist (historical view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław A. Superson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the heritage of Christianity, we see that since the very beginning, Sunday, the first day of the week, has always been the day of common Church gathering to celebrate the Eucharist. In the very beginning, as pointed by Tertullian, the celebration took place at night because of the precessions. Night or dawn gave more privacy and security. After the Edict of Milan it became a custom that a Mass should be celebrated after three o’clock, or at night, if they fell around so-called Quattro Tempora. In the middle ages it was believed that any time of the day is good to celebrate the Eucharist, but missa conventualis et sollemnis in hora Tertia. After the Council of Trent the time of the main Sunday Eucharist – summa – was determined by the bishop and in Poland it was at 10.00 AM. Often before this Mass was a Mass primaria celebrated. In the beginning of XX century the Code of Canon Law of 1917 stated that it was not allowed to celebrate a private Mass earlier than an hour before dawn or an hour after noon. For the solemnities that had its own vigil, the celebrations of the Eucharist took place in the evening. The purpose of that practice was to prepare for the celebration of the solemnity of the next day. Along with industrialization, introduction of different work shifts, persecution of the Church and other specific circumstances, it was allowed to celebrate Mass in the evening. This rule was especially visible during the Second World War and shortly after when the Sunday evening Mass was celebrated for the prisoners of war, those who were detained and foreigners. After the Church adapted the rule that the canonical hour for the Vespers would be called Vespers I, a discussion on the celebration of the Mass on Saturday evening started among the moral theologians. Participation in the Saturday evening Mass was supposed to satisfy the obligation of participation in the Sunday Mass and the holy days de praecepto. The Church

  18. MERGING GEOMETRIC DOCUMENTATION WITH MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE HISTORY OF THE HOLY AEDICULE IN THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE IN JERUSALEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Georgopoulos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The National Technical University of Athens undertook the compilation of an "Integrated Diagnostic Research Project and Strategic Planning for Materials, Interventions Conservation and Rehabilitation of the Holy Aedicule of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem". This paper focuses on the work merging the geometric documentation with the characterization of materials, the identification of building phases and the diagnosis of decay and pathology through the use of analytical and non-destructive techniques. Through this integrated approach, i.e. through the documentation and characterization of the building materials, through the diagnosis of decay and pathology, through the accurate geometric documentation of the building and through the non-destructive prospection of its internal structure, it was feasible to identify the construction phases of the Holy Aedicule, identifying the remnants of the preserved earlier constructions and the original monolithic Tomb. This work, thus, demonstrates that the adoption of an interdisciplinary approach for integrated documentation is a powerful tool for a better understanding of monuments, both in terms of its structural integrity, as well as in terms of its state of preservation, both prerequisites for effective rehabilitation.

  19. Merging Geometric Documentation with Materials Characterization and Analysis of the History of the Holy Aedicule in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, A.; Lambrou, E.; Pantazis, G.; Agrafiotis, P.; Papadaki, A.; Kotoula, L.; Lampropoulos, K.; Delegou, E.; Apostolopoulou, M.; Alexakis, M.; Moropoulou, A.

    2017-05-01

    The National Technical University of Athens undertook the compilation of an "Integrated Diagnostic Research Project and Strategic Planning for Materials, Interventions Conservation and Rehabilitation of the Holy Aedicule of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem". This paper focuses on the work merging the geometric documentation with the characterization of materials, the identification of building phases and the diagnosis of decay and pathology through the use of analytical and non-destructive techniques. Through this integrated approach, i.e. through the documentation and characterization of the building materials, through the diagnosis of decay and pathology, through the accurate geometric documentation of the building and through the non-destructive prospection of its internal structure, it was feasible to identify the construction phases of the Holy Aedicule, identifying the remnants of the preserved earlier constructions and the original monolithic Tomb. This work, thus, demonstrates that the adoption of an interdisciplinary approach for integrated documentation is a powerful tool for a better understanding of monuments, both in terms of its structural integrity, as well as in terms of its state of preservation, both prerequisites for effective rehabilitation.

  20. Comparison ofYield of TwelveBasilCultivarsinTwo Provinces:Isfahan and Mazandaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Amoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basil(Ocimumbasilicum L.is a diploid plant with48chromosomes. Basil isthe aromatic annual herbofthe Lamiaceae familyofleafy vegetablesandhas mentionedand originated inIndiaandIran. Basilhasiron, calcium, magnesium, potassiumandvitamins Aand B. More than 60 varietiesof basilhave been identifiedthathavegreenleavesandredto purple.The performance of15varietiesof basilin Mazandaran province were studied, genotypescollected fromSari(darkgreen withthe23.63 tha-1(fresh weight had thehighestyield. In comparison, 38the massbasil, withtwocultivars(Opal andKashkanyLulu, localpopulationsofmanyof the traits(e.g.,length and width ofleavesandfresh and dry weight showed superiority than cultivars. Incomparing the performance of38varietiesof basilinItaly, drymatter yieldper hectarerangedfrom1812 to6165kg ha-1thatthis wasmore attributestobegenetic aspects. Landraces ofbasilhavevaluabletraitssuch asdrought resistance, saltresistance, resistancetodisease, resistancetocoldandheat. In order to achieveoptimalpopulationpurple basil with high-performance inIsfahan andMazandaran, the present studywas conducted usingsomeof the populationinthese two provinces. Materials and Methods: The number of populations of purple basil wasstudied toselect superior genotypes according to the yield and adaptation to climatic conditions in two provinces at Agricultural Research Station Gharahil of Mazandaran and Kabootarabad of Isfahan. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications with seeds collected from two areas of the province (a total of 12 varieties of basil during one year. Land preparationwas consisted ofplowanddiscperpendicular to each other(for crushinghunk and thenlevelingandplotsofland. Inprovinces, nitrogen, phosphorusandpotassiumfertilizerwas used based on soiltest.In this experiment,harvest time was4st. for every two region. Duringthe growing seasonweed controlwascarried outmechanically. Result and Discussions: In

  1. Evaluation of replacement intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. under weed infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bagheri Shirvan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. JK with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. with weed interference, an experiment was performed in randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications at a field located 10 km of Shirvan during year of 2011. The treatments were included 75% soybean: 25%sweet basil, 50%soybean: 50% sweet basil, 25% soybean: 75% sweet basil, 75% soybean: 25% borage, 50% soybean: 50% borage and 25% soybean: 75% borage under weed infestation, in addition sole cropping of plants under weed control and weed interference. Intercropped plants had more success in reduction of weed density and biomass compared to monoculture. Soybean50: sweet basil50, reduced the weed density by 47.95% and 52.9%, and reduced the weed biomass by 68.91% and 61.87% more than sweet basil and soybean pure stand, respectively. Investigation of dry matter accumulation showed that increasing of plant proportion in intercropping caused increasing of plant dry matter. The height of soybean and borage was increased in intercropping and weed interference, while the highest height of sweet basil was observed in monoculture at second harvest. Biological and economical yield of soybean in intercropping with sweet basil was higher than intercropping with borage. The highest harvest index was related to 50:50 soybean: sweet basil ratio. In this ratio, the harvest index increased 4.9% compared to soybean monoculture. Yield of sweet basil and borage decreased with increasing of soybean rows in intercropping. Based on area-time equivalent ratio, soybean 75% with sweet basil and borage 25% (based on borage seed yield had 3% and 4% advantage compared to monoculture.

  2. Ecologically acceptable usage of derivatives of essential oil of sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, as antifeedants against larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Zorica; Kostić, Miroslav; Stanković, Sladjan; Milanović, Slobodan; Sivčev, Ivan; Kostić, Igor; Kljajić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1-F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2(nd) instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves.

  3. On Beauty, Usefulness, and Holiness: Attitudes towards Languages in the Habad Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Michal; Cohen, Hagit

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies one ultra-Orthodox group--Habad community, exploring its members' attitudes towards four languages: Hebrew, Loshen Koydesh (LK), English, and Yiddish, and focusing on usage, affection for the language, ascribed importance, and holiness. Research questions were: (1) What are the attitudes of Habad members towards these languages?…

  4. Effects of listening to Holy Qur'an recitation and physical training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty-three male haemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group (listening to Holy Qur'an recitation in combination with endurance–resistance training, n = 28) or a control group (endurance–resistance training only, n = 25). Functional capacity was assessed using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) ...

  5. Holiness in Victorian and Edwardian England: Some ecclesial patterns and theological requisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Goroncy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay begins by offering some observations about how holiness was comprehended andexpressed in Victorian and Edwardian England. In addition to the ‘sensibility’ and ‘sentiment’that characterised society, notions of holiness were shaped by, and developed in reaction to, dominant philosophical movements; notably, the Enlightenment and Romanticism. It thenconsiders how these notions found varying religious expression in four Protestant traditions – he Oxford Movement, Calvinism, Wesleyanism, and the Early Keswick movement. Injuxtaposition to what was most often considered to be a negative expression of holinessassociated primarily with anthropocentric and anthroposocial behaviour as evidenced in thesetraditions, the essay concludes by examining one – namely, P.T. Forsyth – whose voice calledfrom within the ecclesial community for a radical requisition of holiness language as afundamentally positive reality describing the divine life and divine activity. The relevance of astudy of the Church’s understanding of holiness and how it sought to develop its doctrinewhile engaging with larger social and philosophical shifts endure with us still.

  6. 'Do not quench the Spirit!' The discourse of the Holy Spirit in earliest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Trinitarian discourse of the 4th and 5th centuries grew out of earlier developments, whilst at the same time reflecting a renewal over against the language of the earliest Christian sources. This article reflects on the way in which early Christianity thought about the Holy Spirit and developed a new discourse on the basis ...

  7. E-Halagat: An E-Learning System for Teaching the Holy Quran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhadj, Yahya O. Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great interest in Islamic software that try to harness computer to serve the religion. This brought about some applications and programs for the Holy Quran and its sciences, Hadith "[image omitted]" (Prophet's Tradition) and its methodology, Fiqh "[image omitted]" (Islamic jurisdiction), and Islamic law in general.…

  8. Linguistic Precautions That to Be Considered When Translating the Holy Quran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiek, Ahmed Gumaa

    2017-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to raise some points that should be considered when translating the Quranic Text into English. We have looked into some samples of translations, selected from well known English translations of the Holy Quran and critically examined them. There were some errors in those translations, due to linguistic factors, owing…

  9. The Cry in the Holy Quran and the Effect on the Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Domi, Mohammad Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    This study aims that cry is the ideal way to release the negative emotions distress, sorrow, and sadness. Which sometimes is also a way to express situations of joy and pleasure of humans. The Almighty Allah also said about cry in The Holy Quran. The prophet pbuh also cry for the expressions of reverence and fear of Allah in perhaps the sort of…

  10. Laugh and Smile upon the Holy Quran: The Study of Analytical Objectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Domi, Mohammad Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the positive impact of The Holy Quran based on the laugh and smile. This kind of derivatives in which context of praise, expression the feeling of happiness and joyful in the positive senses. Everyone needs to relieve his heart so that happiness and joy on their faces can be seen. Laughter also are some of attribute…

  11. The 'holi' dermatoses: annual spate of skin diseases following the spring festival in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Chatterjee, Gobinda; Saha, Debabrata

    2009-07-01

    'Holi' is an annual spring festival celebrated all over India. The central ritual of Holi involves throwing of colors on one another. Playing with toxic industrial dyes often results in various dermatological complaints in a significant number of people immediately following the celebration. To describe patterns of various skin manifestations directly or indirectly related to the use of different colors in the celebration of Holi. Observational clinical study on consecutive patients presenting to a teaching hospital in Kolkata, India. Forty-two patients with a mean age of 24.2 years were studied. Itching was the commonest symptom (25, 59.5%), followed by burning sensation, pain, oozing, and scaling. Eleven patients' symptoms were attributed to activities related to preparation of colors and the removal of colors from the skin surface. Eczematous lesions were the most common pattern (24, 57.1%) followed by erosions, xerosis and scaling, erythema, urticaria, acute nail-fold inflammation, and abrasions. Thirteen (30.9%) patients reported aggravation of preexisting dermatoses (acne, eczema, and paronychia). Secondary pyoderma occurred in 3 (7.1%). Face was the commonest site affected (24, 57.1%), followed by dorsum of the hands, scalp, forearm, palms, arms, and trunk. Ocular complaints in the form of redness, watering, and grittiness occurred in 7 (16.7%) patients. Various forms of cutaneous manifestations, often associated with ocular complaints, occur commonly due to Holi colors. Public awareness and regulatory actions are needed to avoid these preventable conditions.

  12. MicroMasters: the pursuit of the Holy Grail in online learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa de Almeida Cabral, P.M.; Ribeiro Jorge, N.; van Valkenburg, W.F.; Ubachs, George; Konings, Lizzie

    2017-01-01

    In the MOOC world new concepts hatch every month, trying to find the Holy Grail of online learning. Last year edX adopted the new MIT concept of a MicroMasters credential: a series of graduate level courses offered by top universities to advance their career. The credential is credit-eligible and

  13. The Holy Trinity of Modernity : Leisure, Suburbia and the Shopping Centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosseye, J.

    2014-01-01

    Writing about leisure in suburbia would be neigh impossible without including shopping centres. Leisure, suburbia and shopping centres might well embody the holy trinity of capitalist modernity. It was the consolidation of capitalism that established our modern sense of work, free time and leisure,

  14. Holy Koran\\\\\\'s Pattern in the Cultural Communication of Islam and Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Arzani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Holy Koran, the last scared scripture sent by Allah, recommends, based on the verses frequency, seven methods to communicate with the Christians. The important point about these seven models that may be considered interesting is their sequence as they may be applied one after another in the following order: 1-        Affirmation of some of the Christianity foundations (the Holy Bible, Jesus Christ, Saint Mary and the  Apostles 2-        Invitation to unity 3-        Annunciation of blessing for the true Christians 4-        Warning and threats to the Christians 5-        Invitation to consider the truth by the Christians 6-        Explanation of the infidel Christians and their damnation  7-        Order to mubahala (debate and mutual cursing and wage war against the Christians. These are the seven methods, based on Holy Koran, which are considered to be used in communicating with the Christians:   1-         The background for an efficient dialog is firstly based by affirmation of some of the Christianity foundations such as the Holy Bible, Jesus Christ, Saint Mary and the Apostles. The existence of a constructive and unifying dialog can have a vital role to directly eliminate the world problems; but this needs some suitable backgrounds. One of these backgrounds is the dialog based on the common matters. Relying on lots of common positive issues such as beliefs, ideas, aspirations, pains and common feelings, the humankind can establish such a dialog. 2-        In the second phase, the Holy Koran, accepting some beliefs of the Christians, invites them to unite with Muslims based on the monotheism and rejection of idolatry and idolatrous in order to reach a common understanding in communicating with each other. 3-        After a Christian receives confirmations about his/her religious ideals by Islam and is ready to unite with Muslims  based on the Monotheism, there is

  15. Holy Koran's Pattern in the Cultural Communication of Islam and Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ehtemam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Holy Koran, the last scared scripture sent by Allah, recommends, based on the verses frequency, seven methods to communicate with the Christians. The important point about these seven models that may be considered interesting is their sequence as they may be applied one after another in the following order: 1-        Affirmation of some of the Christianity foundations (the Holy Bible, Jesus Christ, Saint Mary and the  Apostles 2-        Invitation to unity 3-        Annunciation of blessing for the true Christians 4-        Warning and threats to the Christians 5-        Invitation to consider the truth by the Christians 6-        Explanation of the infidel Christians and their damnation  7-        Order to mubahala (debate and mutual cursing and wage war against the Christians. These are the seven methods, based on Holy Koran, which are considered to be used in communicating with the Christians:   1-         The background for an efficient dialog is firstly based by affirmation of some of the Christianity foundations such as the Holy Bible, Jesus Christ, Saint Mary and the Apostles. The existence of a constructive and unifying dialog can have a vital role to directly eliminate the world problems; but this needs some suitable backgrounds. One of these backgrounds is the dialog based on the common matters. Relying on lots of common positive issues such as beliefs, ideas, aspirations, pains and common feelings, the humankind can establish such a dialog. 2-        In the second phase, the Holy Koran, accepting some beliefs of the Christians, invites them to unite with Muslims based on the monotheism and rejection of idolatry and idolatrous in order to reach a common understanding in communicating with each other. 3-        After a Christian receives confirmations about his/her religious ideals by Islam and is ready to unite with Muslims  based on the Monotheism, there is

  16. Antifungal activity of the basil (Ocimmum basilicum L. extract on Penicillium aurantiogriseum, P. glabrum, P. chrysogenum, and P. brevicompactum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the antifungal potential of basil (Ocimmum basilicum L. extract against toxin-producing Penicillium spp. (P. aurantiogriseum, P. glabrum, P. chrysogenum, and P. brevicompactum isolated from food. The basil extract composition was determined by the GC-MS method. The major component identified in the extract was estragole (86.72%. The determination of the antifungal activity of basil extract on Penicillium spp. was performed using the agar plate method. Basil extract reduced the growth of Penicillium spp. at all applied concentration levels (0.16, 0.35, 0.70, and 1.50 mL/100mL with the colony growth inhibition from 3.6 (for P. glabrum to 100% (for P. chrysogenum. The highest sensitivity showed P. chrysogenum, where the growth was completely inhibited at the basil extract concentration of 1.50 mL/100mL. The growth of other Penicillium spp. was partially inhibited with the colony growth inhibition of 63.4 % (P. brevicompactum, 67.5% (P. aurantiogriseum, and 71.7% (P. glabrum. Higher concentrations (0.70 and 1.50 mL/100mL reduced the growth of the aerial mycelium of all tested Penicillium species. In addition, at the same extract concentrations, the examination of microscopic preparation showed the deformation of hyphae with the frequent occurrence of fragmentations and thickenings, occurrence of irregular vesicle, frequently without metulae and phialides, enlarged metulae. The results obtained in this investigation point to the possibility of using basil extract for the antifungal food protection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31017

  17. Enrichment, development, and assessment of Indian basil oil based antiseptic cream formulation utilizing hydrophilic-lipophilic balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Meher, Jaya Gopal; Pandey, Neelam; Luqman, Suaib; Yadav, Kuldeep Singh; Chanda, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    The present work was aimed to develop an antiseptic cream formulation of Indian basil oil utilizing hydrophilic-lipophilic balance approach. In order to determine the required-hydrophilic lipophilic balance (rHLB) of basil oil, emulsions of basil oil were prepared by phase inversion temperature technique using water, Tween 80, and Span 80. Formulated emulsions were assessed for creaming (BE9; 9.8, BE10; 10.2), droplet size (BE18; 3.22 ± 0.09 μ m), and turbidity (BE18; 86.12 ± 2.1%). To ensure correctness of the applied methodology, rHLB of light liquid paraffin was also determined. After rHLB determination, basil oil creams were prepared with two different combinations of surfactants, namely, GMS : Tween 80 (1 : 3.45) and SLS : GMS (1 : 3.68), and evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity, skin irritation test, viscosity and consistency. The rHLB of basil oil and light liquid paraffin were found to be 13.36 ± 0.36 and 11.5 ± 0.35, respectively. Viscosity, and consistency parameters of cream was found to be consistent over 90 days. Cream formulations showed net zone of growth inhibition in the range of 5.0-11.3 mm against bacteria and 4.3-7.6 mm against fungi. Primary irritation index was found to be between 0.38 and1.05. Conclusively stable, consistent, non-irritant, enriched antiseptic basil oil cream formulations were developed utilizing HLB approach.

  18. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  19. ‘Norine’, a cinnamon-linalool hybrid cultivar of basil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Fitzgerald Blank

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 'Norine’ is a hybrid cultivar of basil, adapted to the Northeastern Brazil, which is derived from the cultivars ‘Cinnamon’ and ‘Maria Bonita’. It has essential oil content of 2.91% and yield of 2.37 mL plant-1. The main chemical compounds of the essential oil are (E-methyl cinnamate (41.93 % and linalool (34.92 %. ‘Norine’ is characterized by presenting upright growth habit, rounded crown, mean height of 55 cm, mean crown diameter of 59 cm, mean leaf length of 8.4 cm, and mean leaf width of 4.5 cm.

  20. [Recontextualization of nursing clinical simulation based on Basil Bernstein: semiology of pedagogical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Mateus Casanova; Leite, Maria Cecília Lorea; Heck, Rita Maria

    2010-12-01

    This is an investigative case study with descriptive and participative character, based on an educational experience with the Simulation in Nursing learning trigger. It was carried out during the second semester of the first cycle of Faculdade de Enfermagem (FEN), Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel). The aim is to study the recontextualization of pedagogic practice of simulation-based theories developed by Basil Bernstein, an education sociologist, and to contribute with the improvement process of education planning, and especially the evaluation of learning trigger. The research shows that Bernstein's theory is a powerful tool semiotic pedagogical of practices which contributes to the planning and analysis of curricular educational device.

  1. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  2. The Repercussion of Grammatical and Cultural Culpability of the Holy Qur'an Translation to Religious Harmony in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Muta'ali, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Arguably, among the sources of Islamic radicalization in Indonesia is the interpretation of certain terminology in the holy Qur’an. In a relatively long period, religious understanding of Indonesian society is shaped by the official Translation of the Holy Qur’an by Ministry of Religious Affairs. However, this translation contains several mistakes, including mistakes in translating key terms relating to the issue of warfare, non-Muslims and killing. This eventually contributes to radicalizati...

  3. HYDROPONIC AND AQUAPONIC PRODUCTION OF SWEET BASIL (Ocimum basilicum AND GIANT RIVER PRAWN (Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Ronzón Ortega

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote sustainable aquaculture in production units and to take care of the water resource is needed to integrate biotechnology tools to the activity, as is the aquaponics. In the present study we evaluated the production efficiency of a crop of basil (Ocimum basilicum in a hydroponic system (SH vs. acuaponic system (SA associated with the semi-intensive culture of Malaysian prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The production of basil was conducted in two geomembrane plastic rectangular tanks (4.0 m long x 0.80 m wide and 0.30 m high, divided into two sections: in the first section setting of the seedlings were done in a substrate of silica sand and volcanic rock , whereas in the second were seeded into plastic containers using the same substrate. SH plants got their nutrients from the metabolites derived from the cultivation of 800 postlarval shrimp in two circular tanks of 25 m3 (16 organisms m-2 (Pond 1: initial weight 0.13 g, Pond 2: 2.19 g; while in the SH was used a commercial nutrient solution (1.5 g L. The results indicate that SH plants initially had higher survival (90%, height and number of leaves per plant (p

  4. Adopting adequate leaching requirement for practical response models of basil to salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazadeh, Hossein; Tabrizi, Mahdi Sarai; Darvishi, Hossein Hassanpour

    2016-07-01

    Several mathematical models are being used for assessing plant response to salinity of the root zone. Objectives of this study included quantifying the yield salinity threshold value of basil plants to irrigation water salinity and investigating the possibilities of using irrigation water salinity instead of saturated extract salinity in the available mathematical models for estimating yield. To achieve the above objectives, an extensive greenhouse experiment was conducted with 13 irrigation water salinity levels, namely 1.175 dS m-1 (control treatment) and 1.8 to 10 dS m-1. The result indicated that, among these models, the modified discount model (one of the most famous root water uptake model which is based on statistics) produced more accurate results in simulating the basil yield reduction function using irrigation water salinities. Overall the statistical model of Steppuhn et al. on the modified discount model and the math-empirical model of van Genuchten and Hoffman provided the best results. In general, all of the statistical models produced very similar results and their results were better than math-empirical models. It was also concluded that if enough leaching was present, there was no significant difference between the soil salinity saturated extract models and the models using irrigation water salinity.

  5. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Enhance Basil Tolerance to Salt Stress through Improved Physiological and Nutritional Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salwa, A.; Abeer, H.; Alqarawi, A. A.; Abdullah, E.F.; Egamberdieva, D.

    2016-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of salinity on some physio-biochemical traits in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars with contrasting salt stress tolerance and to determine the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in ameliorating the salt stress in plant. Salt stress (250 mM NaCl) reduced the colonization potential of AMF and inhibited photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll and carotenoids in plant tissue. AMF inoculated plants contained higher level of chlorophyll pigments. Salt stressed plants showed increased lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities like superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD). Plants inoculated with AMF showed lower lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, the content of lipids, proline, and soluble sugars in basil plants was improved with AMF inoculation. AMF inoculation reduced accumulation of Na+ and improved nutrient acquisition. In conclusion, AMF were capable to reduce oxidative stress via supporting of the antioxidant system. Salt tolerant cultivar showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and accumulation of osmolytes. (author)

  6. The Effectiveness of Extracts Basil Leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) against Saprolegnia sp. by in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarno; Luthfi Hakim, Muhammad; Kusdarwati, Rahayu

    2017-02-01

    Saprolegnia SP. is a fungi which is opportunistic and generally as a secondary pathogen on fish. Saprolegnia sp. infects epidermis tissue that begins at the head or fins and can spread over the entire surface of the body. The result of the using of chemicals to control infections of Saprolegnia spp. can cause pollution of the environment and harm the consumer. The purpose of this research was to determine the potential and the minimum concentration of extracts basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) as antifungi against the growth of Saprolegnia sp. by vitro. The research was held in Fish Quarantine Kelas I Juanda Suarabaya in January 2015. A positive result was obtained in the test of the effectiveness of basil leaves in inhibiting the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. Concentration of the extract given to treatment 90% and 100% was able to inhibit the growth of Saprolegnia sp., indicated by the formation of the inhibitory zones at a concentration of treatment, and had the best results on the concentration of 100%.

  7. Effect of silica Nanoparticles on Basil (Ocimum basilicum Under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Kalteh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of nanofertilizers is one of the promising methods for increasing resources use efficiency and reducing environmental pollutions. Uncontrolled application of chemical fertilizer and pesticides has caused many problems to human health and domestic animals. Nanofertilizers application could be a suitable way to reduce these problems. Accordingly, in order to assess the silicon nanoparticles effect on some vegetative features of basil under salinity stress, a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in greenhouse condition. Treatments included different levels of silicon fertilizer (without silicon, normal silicon fertilizer and silicon nanoparticles and salinity stress (1, 3 and 6 ds/m. Physiological traits (chlorophyll and proline content of leaves and morphological traits (shoot fresh weight and dry weight were investigated in this study. Results showed a significant reduction in growth and development indices due to the salinity stress.  Leaf dry and fresh weight reduced by increment in NaCl concentration while significantly (P≤0.01 increased with silicon nanoparticles application. The chlorophyll content reduced in salinity stress, but increased by silicon nanoparticles treatment. Proline content increased under salinity stress which was a response to stress. Moreover, proline increased by silicon nanoparticles which was due to tolerance induction in plant. Silicon nanoparticles application reduced the pollution effects originated from salinity in Basil.

  8. Silence in liturgy as the space for the Holy Ghost’s activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelajda Sielepin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to clarify the essential and often neglected function of liturgical silence. In practice silence is usually intended to prepare the participants for listening or reflecting upon the word, especially when proclaimed by the minister. Whereas it is vital to know that silence constitutes a creative element of the liturgy, because the involvement of the Holy Spirit. In His action and cooperation with the participants He enables them to get into communion with Christ the Word and the Person and eventually to join effectively His mission. In that sense silence helps the Holy Ghost to fulfill His function in continuing the dialogue between God and man as well as in enhancing one’s spiritual skills for the fruitful participation in the Mystery of Christ and the Church.

  9. GENDER COGNITION IN RELIGIOUS DISCOURSE: A STUDY OF FRAMING IN THEMATIC HOLY KORAN INTERPRETATION

    OpenAIRE

    Dadang S. Anshori

    2016-01-01

    The study is aimed at describing gender cognition phenomenon in religious discourse in thematic interpretation (tafsir) of the Holy Koran published by the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. Each interpretation book as a written discourse is different from each other due to author’s cognition frame. This study employs a constructive qualitative approach with technical framing analysis. The data are language data (religious text) that are obtainable from thematic interp...

  10. [Observations on the identification of Holy Emmeram at St. Emmeram's Church in Regensburg. Critical comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrer-Ertl, O

    1981-09-01

    The report deals with an attempt to identify individuals found in Saint Emmeram Church, Regensburg, Whether one or the other could be considered identical with Holy Emmeram. The data regarding the historical person of Holy Emmeram, his life and death, were taken from the Via written by the Bishop of Freising, Arbeo, in 780 A. D. Individual I showed a good correlation with measurements of medieval and modern persons for the area of Pouitou and Southwest France. In this area mainly individuals of medium stature, stocky build and cromagniform appearance are found. The majority of individuals in the area today are brachycranial; however, Individual I - although mesocranial - is also a type occurring in the area. Especially the structure of the nose is more common to the Pouitou area than to the area of Bavaria where Individual I was interred. Additional characteristics indicate that Individual I was a member of a nobel family rather than a commoner. It would also seem that Individual I can be regarded as a man of books and a cleric. Specific bone fractures of the left ulna and the maxilla are similar to those related to the injuries sustained by Holy Emmeram related to the Vita. Measurements carried out on Individual II would indicate that this person is not identical with Emmeram. The grave of Individual II - regarded up to now as a sepulcher - should probably be considered as a secondary interment of later date. The author's opinion is that Individual I is identical with Holy Emmeram, martyred in the 7th century A. D.

  11. The Slovenian Lands as the Armed Frontier of the Holy Roman Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Tomaž

    2017-01-01

    In the late Middle Ages, the Slovenian lands formed a major bulwark defending the south-eastern borders of the Holy Roman Empire. Relatively little is known of the military organisation in this strategically significant region due to the absence of sufficiently detailed primary sources. However, the recent discovery of an important and thus far unpublished document from the Bavarian State Library provides excellent insight into the structure and strength of the defensive network established b...

  12. Antibacterial Activities of Green Basil (Ocimum Violaceum Essential Oil and Derivatives By MAOS (Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis Against Staphyllococus Aureus and Escherichia Coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwiarso Rubiyanto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Green basil (Ocimum violaceum , Linn. plantis part of the varieties of basil (Ocimum basilicum, Linn.. Green basil essential oil (GBEO contain chemical compounds that have an anti- bacterial activities . Methyl eugenol and methyl chavikol are in green basil oil has the potential to be used as a material which is biologically active. Conversion reaction of the compounds in GBEO with MAOS methods (microwave assisted organic synthesis aims to obtain properties of the main chemical component in a wider sweet basil oil, and are also useful in an attempt to gain more valuable compounds for commercial and higher. The results showed that the optimum reaction conditions on the conversion reaction of compounds in GBEO with MAOS method with ethylene glycol as a solvent is 10 % KF/Al2O3as catalyst and reaction time 3 minutes , while the solvent is glycerol 10 % KF/Al2O3as catalyst and reaction time 2 minutes . Comparison of anti-bacterial activity resulting from this research are : the inhibitory activity to the growth of S. aureus bacteria have the following order : GBEO > green basilEG10-3 > green basil G10-2> amoxicillin with each inhibition zone diameter amounted to 30.7 mm, 21.1 mm, 18.2 mm and 13.4 mm. While the inhibitory activity to the growth of E.coli bacteria are : GBEO> green basil G10-2 >green basil EG10-3 > amoxicillin with each inhibition zone diameter of 21.1 mm, 15.6 mm , 15.2 mm and 7.9 mm . GBEO and its derivatives have minimal inhibitory concentrations below 1.25 %. From the results of the study found that the main derivates obtained are p-methoxy anisaldehyde , caryophyllene oxide , 3-methoxy cinnamaldehyde , humulena oxide and delta cadinol

  13. Effects of antibiotic growth promoter, probiotic and basil essential oil supplementation on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYYED REZA RIYAZI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the probiotic ‘Protexin', basil essential oil and the antibiotic growth promoter ‘Avilamycin' were studied on the ileum microbial flora of broilers when these substances are used as broiler feed additives. A total of six hundred Arian broilers were divided into 6 treatment groups, with 4 replicates of 25 birds. Treatments have been performed with a plant essential oil at 3 levels (200, 400 and 600 ppm, the probiotic ‘Protexin' (150 ppm, the antibiotic ‘Avilamycin' (150 ppm and a control group with no additives. Birds in different treatments received the same diets during the experimental period. The results showed that the probiotic treatment significantly decreased the total bacteria counts (P0.05. The lowest and highest lactic acid bacteria in ileum were obtained in the control group and in birds receiving 400 ppm basil essential oil, respectively. Moreover, addition of 600 ppm of basil essential oil into diet decreased the number of E. coli colonies as compared to other treatments (P< 0.05. It could be speculated that the basil essential oil and ‘Protexin' could replace the antibiotics, which have been banned to use as growth promoter in animal feeds.

  14. The impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in mitigating salt-induced adverse effects in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhindi, Khalid M; El-Din, Ahmed Sharaf; Elgorban, Abdallah M

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is one of the serious abiotic stresses adversely affecting the majority of arable lands worldwide, limiting the crop productivity of most of the economically important crops. Sweet basil ( Osmium basilicum ) plants were grown in a non-saline soil (EC = 0.64 dS m -1 ), in low saline soil (EC = 5 dS m -1 ), and in a high saline soil (EC = 10 dS m -1 ). There were differences between arbuscular mycorrhizal ( Glomus deserticola ) colonized plants (+AMF) and non-colonized plants (-AMF). Mycorrhiza mitigated the reduction of K, P and Ca uptake due to salinity. The balance between K/Na and between Ca/Na was improved in +AMF plants. Growth enhancement by mycorrhiza was independent from plant phosphorus content under high salinity levels. Different growth parameters, salt stress tolerance and accumulation of proline content were investigated, these results showed that the use of mycorrhizal inoculum (AMF) was able to enhance the productivity of sweet basil plants under salinity conditions. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased chlorophyll content and water use efficiency under salinity stress. The sweet basil plants appeared to have high dependency on AMF which improved plant growth, photosynthetic efficiency, gas exchange and water use efficiency under salinity stress. In this study, there was evidence that colonization with AMF can alleviate the detrimental salinity stress influence on the growth and productivity of sweet basil plants.

  15. Determination and risk assessment of naturally occurring genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in basil-containing sauce of pesto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Malahmeh, Amer J.; Al-Ajlouni, Abdalmajeed M.; Wesseling, Sebas; Vervoort, Jacques; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    A risk assessment of basil-based pesto sauces containing methyleugenol and related alkenylbenzenes was performed based on their levels detected in a series of pesto sauces available on the Dutch market. The estimated daily intake (EDI) values of alkenylbenzenes as a result of consumption of the

  16. Phenolic composition of basil plants is differentially altered by plant nutrient status and inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four cultivars of basil (Ocimum basilicum ‘Cinnamon’, ‘Siam Queen’, ‘Sweet Dani’, and ‘Red Rubin’) were inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Rhizophagus intraradices, and grown with a fertilizer containing either 64 mg/l P (low-P) or 128 mg/l P (high-P) to assess whether (...

  17. First report of tomato chlorotic spot virus in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and purslane (Portulaca oleracea) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) has been recently detected in tomato, pepper, hoya and vinca in Florida. Observations of additional crops in 2016 and 2017 revealed TCSV-like symptoms. Testing of these symptomatic plants identified three new hosts of TCSV in Florida: sweet basil (Ocimum basilicu...

  18. α-Linalool - a marker compound of forged/synthetic sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Blagojević, Polina D; Miltojević, Ana B

    2013-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is known to occur as several chemotypes or cultivars that differ in their essential oil composition. The surprising discovery of 3,7-dimethylocta-1,7-dien-3-ol, the rare α isomer of the well-known monoterpene alcohol β-linalool (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol), in samples of Serbian basil oil provoked an investigation of the origin of α-linalool in these samples. Three scenarios were considered, namely (a) the existence of a new natural chemotype, (b) an artefactual formation during the isolation procedure and (c) the case of a synthetic/forged oil. Noteworthy amounts (15.1-16.9%) of pure α-linalool were isolated from a commercial sample of basil oil, and detailed spectral analyses (MS, IR, (1) H and (13) C NMR) unequivocally confirmed its identity. The analysis by GC and GC/MS of an additional 20 samples of different O. basilicum oils commercially available on the Serbian market or isolated from plant material cultivated in Serbia resulted in the identification of 149 compounds. The obtained compositional data were compared using multivariate statistical analysis to reveal the possible existence of a new basil chemotype. The results of the chemical and statistical analyses give more pro arguments for the synthetic/forged oil hypothesis and suggest that α-linalool could be used as a marker compound of such O. basilicum oils. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Modeling of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum l.) as affected by process variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Tadayyon, Ali; Arabameri, Fatemeh

    2015-08-01

    Basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) has practical amounts of gum with good functional properties. In this work, extraction of gum from Basil seed was studied. Effect of pH, temperature and water/seed ratio on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters; entropy, enthalpy and free energy of extraction were investigated. The maximum gum yield was 17.95 % at 50 °C for pH=7 and water/seed ratio 30:1. In this study, the experimental data were fitted to a mathematical model of mass transfer and equations constants were obtained. The kinetic of Basil seed gum extraction was found to be a first order mass transfer model. Statistical results indicated that the model used in this study will be able to predict the gum extraction from Basil seed adequately. It also found that ΔH and ΔS were positive and ΔG was negative indicating that the extraction process was spontaneous, irreversible and endothermic. The ΔH, ΔS and ΔG values were 0.26-7.87 kJ/mol, 8.12-33.2 J/mol K and 1.62-4.42 kJ/mol, respectively.

  20. The impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in mitigating salt-induced adverse effects in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Elhindi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the serious abiotic stresses adversely affecting the majority of arable lands worldwide, limiting the crop productivity of most of the economically important crops. Sweet basil (Osmium basilicum plants were grown in a non-saline soil (EC = 0.64 dS m−1, in low saline soil (EC = 5 dS m−1, and in a high saline soil (EC = 10 dS m−1. There were differences between arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus deserticola colonized plants (+AMF and non-colonized plants (−AMF. Mycorrhiza mitigated the reduction of K, P and Ca uptake due to salinity. The balance between K/Na and between Ca/Na was improved in +AMF plants. Growth enhancement by mycorrhiza was independent from plant phosphorus content under high salinity levels. Different growth parameters, salt stress tolerance and accumulation of proline content were investigated, these results showed that the use of mycorrhizal inoculum (AMF was able to enhance the productivity of sweet basil plants under salinity conditions. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased chlorophyll content and water use efficiency under salinity stress. The sweet basil plants appeared to have high dependency on AMF which improved plant growth, photosynthetic efficiency, gas exchange and water use efficiency under salinity stress. In this study, there was evidence that colonization with AMF can alleviate the detrimental salinity stress influence on the growth and productivity of sweet basil plants.

  1. The Holy See on sexual and reproductive health rights: conservative in position, dynamic in response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Amy L; Hill, Peter S; Rushton, Simon; Balen, Julie

    2014-11-01

    The Holy See has engaged extensively in United Nations negotiations on issues concerning sexual and reproductive health rights as they have emerged and evolved in a dynamic global agenda over the past two decades. A meta-narrative review of the mission's official statements was conducted to examine the positions, discourses and tensions across the broad range of agendas. The Holy See represents a fundamentally conservative and stable position on a range of sexual and reproductive health rights concerns. However, the mission has been dynamic in the ways in which it has forwarded its arguments, increasingly relying upon secularised technical claims and empirical evidence; strategically interpreting human rights norms in ways consistent with its own position; and framing sexuality and reproduction in the context of "the family". Seen in the broader context of a "religious resurgence" in international relations, and in light of the fact that the Holy See has frequently sought to form alliances with conservative State and non-State actors, these findings make an important contribution to understanding the slow progress as well as the potential obstacles that lie ahead in the battle to realise sexual and reproductive health rights in a changing global political environment. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diverse Geological Applications For Basil: A 2d Finite-deformation Computational Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, Gregory A.; Barr, Terence D.; Evans, Lynn

    Geological processes are often characterised by large finite-deformation continuum strains, on the order of 100% or greater. Microstructural processes cause deformation that may be represented by a viscous constitutive mechanism, with viscosity that may depend on temperature, pressure, or strain-rate. We have developed an effective com- putational algorithm for the evaluation of 2D deformation fields produced by Newto- nian or non-Newtonian viscous flow. With the implementation of this algorithm as a computer program, Basil, we have applied it to a range of diverse applications in Earth Sciences. Viscous flow fields in 2D may be defined for the thin-sheet case or, using a velocity-pressure formulation, for the plane-strain case. Flow fields are represented using 2D triangular elements with quadratic interpolation for velocity components and linear for pressure. The main matrix equation is solved by an efficient and compact conjugate gradient algorithm with iteration for non-Newtonian viscosity. Regular grids may be used, or grids based on a random distribution of points. Definition of the prob- lem requires that velocities, tractions, or some combination of the two, are specified on all external boundary nodes. Compliant boundaries may also be defined, based on the idea that traction is opposed to and proportional to boundary displacement rate. In- ternal boundary segments, allowing fault-like displacements within a viscous medium have also been developed, and we find that the computed displacement field around the fault tip is accurately represented for Newtonian and non-Newtonian viscosities, in spite of the stress singularity at the fault tip. Basil has been applied by us and colleagues to problems that include: thin sheet calculations of continental collision, Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the continental mantle lithosphere, deformation fields around fault terminations at the outcrop scale, stress and deformation fields in and around porphyroblasts, and

  3. Deserts and holy mountains of medieval Serbia: Written sources, spatial patterns, architectural designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Danica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential concepts in Christian thought and practice, the desert and holy mountain denote a particular kind of monastic and sacral space. They are secluded from the world, intended for asceticism, and ambivalent in nature they are inhospitable and menacing zones populated with demons, but also a monastic paradise, places for spiritual conversion and encounter with the divine. From earliest times, deserts and holy mountains had a few distinguishing characteristics. All forms of monastic life, from communal to solitary, were practiced side by side there. Monks of a special make-up and distinction known as holy men who were also often founders of illustrious communities, future saints and miracle-workers acted there. Furthermore these locales were important spiritual and bookmaking centre's, and therefore, strongholds of Orthodoxy. When trying to research Serbian material on this topic, we face a specific situation: few surviving sources on the one hand, and devastated monuments on the other. The ultimate consequence is that the entire subject has been neglected. Therefore the study of the Serbian deserts and holy mountains requires a very complex interdisciplinary approach with systematic field work as its essential part. It should address the following issues: corroboration, on the basis of written sources, of the reception of the concept of the monastic desert and holy mountain in a particular, regional, context; the distinct means and mechanisms employed in their physical realization; interpretation of their function; the recognition of patterns preserved in the surviving physical structures. Even the results obtained so far appear to be relevant enough to become included in the sacral topography of the Christian world. The author of this study gives particular attention to the detailed analysis of written sources of various genres - diplomatic sources, hagiographic material, liturgical texts, observation notes - in order to establish the

  4. Ethanol Transportation Backgrounder

    OpenAIRE

    Denicoff, Marina R.

    2007-01-01

    For the first 6 months of 2007, U.S. ethanol production totaled nearly 3 billion gallons—32 percent higher than the same period last year. As of August 29, there were 128 ethanol plants with annual production capacity totaling 6.78 billion gallons, and an additional 85 plants were under construction. U.S. ethanol production capacity is expanding rapidly and is currently expected to exceed 13 billion gallons per year by early 2009, if not sooner. Ethanol demand has increased corn prices and le...

  5. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of different basil essential oils chemotypes from Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Koba

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts essential oils of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae from Togo were steam-distilled and investigated for their percentage composition (GC and GC/MS and in vitro antimicrobial activities. Five oil chemotypes were identified and classified as follows in line with their principal components: estragole type; linalool/estragole type; methyleugenol type; methyleugenol/t-anethole type; t-anethole type. The in vitro microbiological experiments revealed that only the methyleugenol and methyleugenol/t-anethole chemotypes were active against tested fungi and bacteria. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC ranged from 80 to 150 µl.l-1 and from 200 to 500 µl.l-1 respectively. Likewise, on tested bacteria the MIC varied from 200 µl.l-1 to 400 µl.l-1 and from 250 to 500 µl.l-1 respectively. These findings are supportive of the potential of both basil oil chemotypes for use as active ingredients in natural antibiotic drugs.

  6. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of different basil essential oils chemotypes from Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Koba

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts essential oils of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae from Togo were steam-distilled and investigated for their percentage composition (GC and GC/MS and in vitro antimicrobial activities. Five oil chemotypes were identified and classified as follows in line with their principal components: estragole type; linalool/estragole type; methyleugenol type; methyleugenol/t-anethole type; t-anethole type. The in vitro microbiological experiments revealed that only the methyleugenol and methyleugenol/t-anethole chemotypes were active against tested fungi and bacteria. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC ranged from 80 to 150 µl.l-1 and from 200 to 500 µl.l-1 respectively. Likewise, on tested bacteria the MIC varied from 200 µl.l-1 to 400 µl.l-1 and from 250 to 500 µl.l-1 respectively. These findings are supportive of the potential of both basil oil chemotypes for use as active ingredients in natural antibiotic drugs.

  7. Effects of various organic and chemical fertilizers on growth indices of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.K. Tahami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop the high intensive agriculture, more chemical fertilizers are applied to the soil that resulting in soil degradation and environment deterioration. Application of organic manure is an important approach for maintaining and improving the soil fertility and increasing fertilizer use efficiency. Therefore, in order to evaluate the effect of organic manures and chemical fertilizer on growth indices and biological yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum L., an experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2008-2009. A complete randomized block design with six treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were: cow manure, sheep manure, chicken manure, vermicompost, chemical NPK fertilizers and control (no fertilizer. The results showed that the use of organic fertilizers significantly increased seed and biological yield of basil compared with chemical fertilizer and control. The maximum and the minimum dry weights were observed at 105 days after planting, in sheep and cow manures, respectively. Gradually during the period of plant growth and development to reproduction phase percent of stem decreased and dry weight of inflorescence increased. The highest and the lowest leaf area index were observed at 90 days after planting, in cow manure and control, respectively, and then decreased in all treatments. The maximum crop growth rate in most of treatments at 90 days after planting was obtained, except the control which plant growth rate was lowest. Net assimilation rate (NAR in most treatments increased until 75 days after planting and then declined. While the highest and the lowest NAR were observed at 75 days after planting in chicken manure and chemical treatment, respectively.

  8. Motifs et manifestations de l’amour de l’homme pour Dieu et l’amour du prochain selon Saint Basile le Grand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Janczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of the motivation of the fundamental order of love for God and the neighbour which Saint Basil the Great used in his doctrine. Based on an analysis of the texts of Saint Basil, this article demonstrates the intimate relationship that should exist between the love for God and the love for man. The ideal of this relationship is represented, according to the analysis, by Jesus Christ, the only Saviour of the world.

  9. Dermatoses among Children from Celebration of "Holi," the Spring Festival, in India: A Cross-sectional Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Agarwal, Megha; Rudra, Olympia

    2016-01-01

    "Holi" is a spring festival celebrated primarily in the Indian subcontinent and also abroad by expatriate Indians. It is a festival of colors, traditionally celebrated by mutual application of colors in different forms on a particular day of the year. These colors frequently comprise a range of synthetic dyes which have harmful effects on the skin and mucosae. Children take part in this colorful festival with much enthusiasm and vigor, making them prone to develop different "Holi"-related dermatoses. Our objective was to find out the different patterns of "Holi"-related dermatoses in a group of pediatric patients. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out over a period of 6 years (2010-2015). Consecutive patients of pediatric age group who attended dermatology outpatient department (OPD) with different dermatoses following application of "Holi" color were included in this study. A total of 63 patients (mean age 11 years; range 1-16 years) were evaluated with a female to male ratio of 1.3:1. Itching is the predominant presenting symptom followed by burning sensation, dryness, scaling, oozing, and loss of hair. Examination revealed that eczematous lesion was the most common (69.8%) reaction pattern followed by xerosis, desquamation, excoriation, erythema, morbilliform eruption, erosion, alopecia, ulceration, acute paronychia, and hyperpigmentation. The face was the most common (76.4%) site of affection. A sizable number of patients of pediatric age group may be affected by "Holi"-related dermatoses necessitating precautionary measures.

  10. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  11. Canadian ethanol retailers' directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This listing is a directory of all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listing includes the name and address of the retailer. Bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels are also included, but in a separate listing

  12. Canada's ethanol retail directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A directory was published listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer. A list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels is also included

  13. EAP actuators aid the quest for the 'Holy Braille' of tactile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Noel; Blazie, Deane

    2010-04-01

    The authors present the worldwide need for electronic Braille displays to promote literacy among the blind. The use of of EAP's to produce Braille displays is encouraged and detailed descriptions of the technology of Braille are presented. Prior art is covered since the early 1950's through present day displays based mostly on piezoelectric technologies. EAP's offer the promise of the "Holy Braille", the ability to display a full page of Braille electronically. Details on "how not to make a Braille display" are covered in prior art.

  14. Lichens of the Holy Hill orthodox sanctuary in Grabarka (NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matwiejuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Holy Hill Grabarka is one of the most important orthodox sanctuaries in Poland. The sanctuary is situated in Podlasie region between Bug and Narew rivers. It grew in the shade of well developing (in the first centuries of the second millennium towns Mielnik and Drohiczyn. The most striking thing is that the church is surrounded by a forest of thousands of crosses brought by pilgrims. The study present 64 species of epiphytic, epixylic, epilythic and epigeic lichens. Among 64 lichen species 11 are considered to be threatened in Poland.

  15. John Punch, Scotist Holy War, and the Irish Catholic Revolutionary Tradition in the Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian W

    2016-07-01

    During the 1640s, the Irish Franciscan theologian John Punch taught his theology students in Rome that war against Protestants was made just by their religion alone. Jesuits like Luis de Molina identified the holy war tradition in which Punch stood as a Scotist one, and insisted that the Scotists had confused the natural and supernatural spheres. Among Irishmen, Punch was unusual. The main Irish Catholic revolutionary tradition employed Jesuit and Thomist theory. They argued that the Stuarts had lost the right to rule Ireland for natural reasons, not supernatural ones; because the Stuarts were tyrants, not because they were Protestants.

  16. On the Asceticism of Holy Fools (from the History of Hagiographic Topoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana R. Rudi

    2015-08-01

    A focus on examples, which is one of the essential elements of the structure of hagiographic texts generally and of the lives of holy fools in particular, reflects a historical continuity of the extreme feat as such. The explanation of this cultural phenomenon could lie in the fact that Old Russian hagiographers, as well as their heroes, followed the most important ethical and aesthetic guideline of their time—the principle of imitatio, which to a great extent determined literary and behavioral strategies of the Middle Ages.

  17. The Roles of a Flavone-6-Hydroxylase and 7-O-Demethylation in the Flavone Biosynthetic Network of Sweet Basil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Anna; Gang, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Lipophilic flavonoids found in the Lamiaceae exhibit unusual 6- and 8-hydroxylations whose enzymatic basis is unknown. We show that crude protein extracts from peltate trichomes of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars readily hydroxylate position 6 of 7-O-methylated apigenin but not apigenin itself. The responsible protein was identified as a P450 monooxygenase from the CYP82 family, a family not previously reported to be involved in flavonoid metabolism. This enzyme prefers flavones but also accepts flavanones in vitro and requires a 5-hydroxyl in addition to a 7-methoxyl residue on the substrate. A peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) homolog displayed identical substrate requirements, suggesting that early 7-O-methylation of flavones might be common in the Lamiaceae. This hypothesis is further substantiated by the pioneering discovery of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent flavone demethylase activity in basil, which explains the accumulation of 7-O-demethylated flavone nevadensin. PMID:23184958

  18. Effect of Salt Stress and Irrigation Water on Growth and Development of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caliskan Omer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the influence of different salinity and irrigation water treatments on the growth and development of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.. Five salinity levels (0.4, 1.00, 2.50, 4.00 and 8.00 dSm-1 and three different irrigation water regimes (80, 100, 120% of full irrigation were applied in a factorial design with three replications. Dry root weight, aerial part dry weight and aerial part/root ratio were determined and evaluated as experimental parameters at the end of growing period. Results revealed significant decreases in yields with increasing salinity levels. However, basil managed to survive high salt stress. With increasing salinity levels, decreases in growth were higher in roots than in leaves. Changes in the amount of irrigation water also significantly affected the evaluated parameters.

  19. Lipid and protein oxidation in the internal part of italian type salami containing basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre José Cichoski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations of basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L. (0.19; 0.38; 0.75; 1.87; 3.75 and 6.00 mg.g-1 were evaluated in relation to their antioxidant activity using the DPPH● radical methodology. From the IC50 obtained data, the concentrations of 0.19; 0.38; 0.75; 1.87; 3.75; 6.00 and 12.00 mg.mL-1 were applied directly to the product and these were sensorially evaluated by the test of control difference. The concentrations related to the highest acceptability (0.19; 0.38 and 0.75 mg.g-1 were tested for antioxidant activity in the internal part of Italian type salami - during the processing and after 30 days of storage, in terms of lipid and protein oxidation. The oxidation of lipids was determined using the method of TBARS. The method of carbonyl compounds was employed for proteins oxidation. Five different formulations of salami were elaborated: blank (without the use of antioxidant; control (using sodium eritorbate as antioxidant; and adding 0.19; 0.38 and 0.75 mg.g-1 of basil essential oil. The product was kept between 25 ºC and 18 ºC and UR between 95% and 70%, for 28 days. Analyses were carried out on the processing day and after 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, and also following 30 days of storage. The basil essential oil in vitro presented an antioxidant activity of IC50 12 mg.mL-1. In the internal part of the Italian type salami the commercial antioxidant (control and the formulation containing 0.75 mg.g-1 of basil essential oil presented antioxidant activity in relation to the lipids, but not to the proteins - during processing and storage.

  20. The Impact of Location and Growing Medium on Harvest Yield and Flavor of Basil and Squash Microgreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, J.; Ventura, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to discover the most efficient, feasible way to produce a high yield of flavorful microgreens within the best growing medium and building location at the Stanford Educational Farm. In recent years, microgreens, young, small edible greens utilized as flavor garnishes for fine dining, have evolved into an immensely profitable market that will continue to expand and prosper. To capitalize on such opportunities, the primary metrics focused upon are harvest yield and flavor of basil and squash microgreens, as they develop in different concentrations of quick root and compost while located in either a greenhouse or lath house. It was hypothesized that if basil and squash microgreens were grown in a mixture of 50% compost and 50% quick root in the greenhouse, then they would produce the greatest harvest yield and maximum amount of flavor. The general experimental protocol includes monitoring the growth of the microgreens, then harvesting directly after the first true leaves begin to emerge. Upon harvest, each set of microgreens are separated into different clear glass jars to place on a small scale for weighing to determine the yield and tasting the leaves to analyze the flavor content. The highest yield of basil (63 grams) developed in a tray of 100% quick root in the lath house, while the greatest yield of squash (51 grams) succeeded in 100% quick root in the greenhouse. Overall however, the basil grew fastest in the greenhouse but tasted stronger in the lath house. Additionally, because the harvest yield and flavor results were so poor in all other locations and growing mediums for squash during the first trial, it cannot be considered a viable microgreen. In the future, more trials should be conducted for greater numbers of trays of microgreens to collect more data. The nutritional value of microgreens should also be explored further to obtain a holistic approach to the value of these plants from seed to harvest to consumption.

  1. Methyl Jasmonate-Elicited Transcriptional Responses and Pentacyclic Triterpene Biosynthesis in Sweet Basil1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Maiti, Protiti; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Shanker, Karuna; Ghosh, Sumit

    2014-01-01

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is well known for its diverse pharmacological properties and has been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. Although a variety of secondary metabolites with potent biological activities are identified, our understanding of the biosynthetic pathways that produce them has remained largely incomplete. We studied transcriptional changes in sweet basil after methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment, which is considered an elicitor of secondary metabolites, and identified 388 candidate MeJA-responsive unique transcripts. Transcript analysis suggests that in addition to controlling its own biosynthesis and stress responses, MeJA up-regulates transcripts of the various secondary metabolic pathways, including terpenoids and phenylpropanoids/flavonoids. Furthermore, combined transcript and metabolite analysis revealed MeJA-induced biosynthesis of the medicinally important ursane-type and oleanane-type pentacyclic triterpenes. Two MeJA-responsive oxidosqualene cyclases (ObAS1 and ObAS2) that encode for 761- and 765-amino acid proteins, respectively, were identified and characterized. Functional expressions of ObAS1 and ObAS2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae led to the production of β-amyrin and α-amyrin, the direct precursors of oleanane-type and ursane-type pentacyclic triterpenes, respectively. ObAS1 was identified as a β-amyrin synthase, whereas ObAS2 was a mixed amyrin synthase that produced both α-amyrin and β-amyrin but had a product preference for α-amyrin. Moreover, transcript and metabolite analysis shed light on the spatiotemporal regulation of pentacyclic triterpene biosynthesis in sweet basil. Taken together, these results will be helpful in elucidating the secondary metabolic pathways of sweet basil and developing metabolic engineering strategies for enhanced production of pentacyclic triterpenes. PMID:24367017

  2. Thyme and basil essential oils included in edible coatings as a natural preserving method of oilseed kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Cecilia G; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2016-01-15

    Sunflower seeds are susceptible to developing rancidity and off-flavours through lipid oxidation. Edible coatings and essential oils have proven antioxidant properties in different food products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of using an edible coating and thyme and basil essential oils to preserve the chemical and sensory quality parameters of roasted sunflower seeds during storage. 50% DPPH inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.278 and 0.0997 µg mL(-1) were observed for thyme and basil, respectively. On storage day 40, peroxide values were 80.68, 70.28, 68.43, 49.31 and 33.87 mEq O2 kg(-1) in roasted sunflower seeds (RS), roasted sunflower seeds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (RS-CMC), roasted sunflower seeds coated with CMC added with basil (RS-CMC-A), thyme (RS-CMC-T) and butylated hydroxytoluene (RS-CMC-BHT), respectively. RS-CMC-T and RS-CMC-BHT presented the lowest peroxide values, conjugated dienes and p-anisidine values during storage. RS-CMC-BHT, RS-CMC-T, and RS-CMC-A showed the lowest oxidized and cardboard flavour intensity ratings. On storage day 40, roasted sunflower flavour intensity ratings were higher in RS-CMC-T and RS-CMC-A. Thyme and basil essential oils added to the CMC coating improved the sensory stability of this product during storage, but only thyme essential oil increased their chemical stability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Radon Gas Concentration Measurement In Soil For Some Holy Positions In Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf Governorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, K.H.; Hussain, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this search we measurement Radon gas concentration in the soil of holy positions in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf city.We choice it for honorable position in all the world and, because millions of peoples and religious sciences students visit it.we selected 23 positions .By using a short-term way in modern technology its (RAD7) to measured concentration for depths (10,30,50,70)cm in all the holy positions.All the concentration in position studies within the range allowed of the global

  4. Investigating the effect of aqueous extracts of basil and savory on antioxidant activity, microbial and sensory properties of probiotic yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosiyani, Zohreh Ghaleh; Pourahmad, Rezvan; Eshaghi, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    The low viability of probiotics causes the short shelf life of fermented products. Therefore compounds which prolong the viability of probiotic bacteria can increase or at least maintain the health- benefiting properties of these products. On the other hand, the addition of antioxidants is one of the methods to increase the shelf life of food products which has recently become more prevalent. In this respect, herbal extracts which are a good source of antioxidants can be appropriate alternative. The aim of this study was  to evaluate the effect of adding basil and savory extracts on antioxidant activity, and on the microbial and organoleptic characteristics of probiotic yogurt. The effect of adding basil extract (8% and 10%) and savory extract (6% and 8%) separately to low fat yogurt (1.5% fat) containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei was investigated. The samples were stored at 4°C. The viability of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, antioxidant activ- ity and sensory properties of probiotic yogurt were evaluated on the 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st days. Basil and savory extracts significantly increased the viability of probiotic bacteria (p 0.05). During storage, there was no significant difference between the organoleptic scores of the samples (p > 0.05), but the taste score did increase significantly (p yogurt.

  5. Small-scale cyclic deposition in the Frasnian (Upper Devonian) of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierek, Aleksandra

    2014-12-01

    In sections exposing Frasnian limestones at five outcrops in the Holy Cross Mountains, five lithofacies (L1 to L5) that represent upper slope to basinal environments are identified. These lithofacies are characterised by dark-coloured micritic limestones-marly shale couplets with many light-coloured intercalations of fine- to coarse-grained limestones (= event beds). This lithofacies pattern characterises mostly low-energy domains punctuated by storm episodes. In addition, these upper-slope to basinal lithofacies are arranged into small-scale, coarsening-upward beds and cycles. The cycles are locally composed of fining/thinning-upward beds. The small-scale cycles have a calculated duration of 19 to 42 kyr. The differential thickness of beds and cycles within and between sections was probably caused by differential subsidence and local tectonics. Possible evidence of tectonic activity is also related to a difference in number of cycles recorded in the time-equivalent sections. The recognised cyclicity shows sea-level fluctuations and a few deepening episodes. Some of them are correlated with the Timan global eustatic events. However, local tectonics and episodic subsidence may have played a significant role in recording brief deepening pulses. Thus, low-amplitude sea-level changes were major factors in platform generation and evolution in the Frasnian of the Holy Cross Mountains modified by local, block-related subsidence.

  6. Small-scale cyclic deposition in the Frasnian (Upper Devonian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vierek Aleksandra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In sections exposing Frasnian limestones at five outcrops in the Holy Cross Mountains, five lithofacies (L1 to L5 that represent upper slope to basinal environments are identified. These lithofacies are characterised by dark-coloured micritic limestones-marly shale couplets with many light-coloured intercalations of fine- to coarse-grained limestones (= event beds. This lithofacies pattern characterises mostly low-energy domains punctuated by storm episodes. In addition, these upper-slope to basinal lithofacies are arranged into small-scale, coarsening-upward beds and cycles. The cycles are locally composed of fining/thinning-upward beds. The small-scale cycles have a calculated duration of 19 to 42 kyr. The differential thickness of beds and cycles within and between sections was probably caused by differential subsidence and local tectonics. Possible evidence of tectonic activity is also related to a difference in number of cycles recorded in the time-equivalent sections. The recognised cyclicity shows sea-level fluctuations and a few deepening episodes. Some of them are correlated with the Timan global eustatic events. However, local tectonics and episodic subsidence may have played a significant role in recording brief deepening pulses. Thus, low-amplitude sea-level changes were major factors in platform generation and evolution in the Frasnian of the Holy Cross Mountains modified by local, block-related subsidence.

  7. GENDER COGNITION IN RELIGIOUS DISCOURSE: A STUDY OF FRAMING IN THEMATIC HOLY KORAN INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang S. Anshori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at describing gender cognition phenomenon in religious discourse in thematic interpretation (tafsir of the Holy Koran published by the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. Each interpretation book as a written discourse is different from each other due to author’s cognition frame. This study employs a constructive qualitative approach with technical framing analysis. The data are language data (religious text that are obtainable from thematic interpretation of the Koran of the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. Data analysis was performed on the following topics: the origins of the creation of men and women, women's leadership, women and inheritance rights, women and ownership, and women's testimony. The research findings show: (1 The lingual and religious discourse containing gender cognition are present in the forms of words, phrases, and sentences. The lingual form of religious discourse is related to the meaning of technical vocabulary that contains appropriate understanding of the discourse topic. (2 Discourse representing gender cognition is found on three topics: women leadership (nation leadership, waris (inheritance, and women’s testimony. In terms of inheritance and women’s testimony, this interpretation refers to conditions that are explicitly stated in the Holy Koran. Meanwhile, this interpretation views leadership of the nation as more worthy to be given to men than women. book looks is more worthy of leadership in the countries was given to men than women.

  8. Bindings and covers of Cyrillic old printed editions of Holy Dormition Pochayiv Lavra publishing house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheleznyak O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article observes bindings and covers of Holy Dormition Pochayiv monastery publishing house editions. On the basis of copies from V. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine fonds the covering material and decoration (centerpieces, ornaments, corner pieces of Pochayiv editions covers are analyzed. Besides that, distinctive features of Pochaiv publishing house bindings and covers are defined and described. Description of bindings enabled us to find bookbinder’s chiches, which had often been put on bottom endleafs. Special attention in the article is paid to highly artistic decoration of Pochayiv publishing house bindings of Altar Gospels. In the eighties of 18th century Pochayiv publishing house printed books, ordered by Old Believers. As a rule Old Believers editions derive all their compositional elements from books of 17th century, published before the reform. Bindings of Pochayiv Old Believers editions, distinctive for its modest decoration, are not exception of this rule. Besides that, Pochayiv old printed books were sometimes binded in covers made by Kyiv Pechersk Lavra craftsmen. Centerpieces of these covers sometimes contain the image of Kyiv Holy Dormition cathedral.

  9. Characterization of Essential Oil Composition in Different Basil Species and Pot Cultures by a GC-MS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Muráriková

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Basil (Ocimum L. species are used as medicinal plants due to their essential oils exhibiting specific biological activity. The present work demonstrated that both the variety and season/conditions of cultivation had a significant effect on (i the produced amount (extraction yield, (ii qualitative, as well as (iii quantitative profile of basil essential oil. Among studied basil varieties, a new variety, ‘Mánes’, was characterized for the first time. Based on our quantitative evaluation of GC-MS profiles, the following chemotypes and average concentrations of a main component were detected in the studied basil varieties: ‘Ohře’, ‘Lettuce Leaf’, ‘Purple Opaal’, ‘Dark Green’ (linalool, 5.99, 2.49, 2.34, 2.01 mg/mL, respectively, and ‘Mammolo Genovese’, ‘Mánes’, ‘Red Rubin’ (eucalyptol, 1.34, 0.96, 0.76 mg/mL, respectively. At the same time, when considering other compounds identified in GC-MS profiles, all the studied varieties, except from ‘Lettuce Leaf’, were methyl eugenol-rich with a strong dependence of the eugenol:methyl eugenol ratio on the seasonal changes (mainly solar irradiation, but also temperature and relative humidity. More complex and/or variable (depending on the season and cultivation chemotypes were observed with ‘Lettuce Leaf’ (plus estragole, 2.27 mg/mL, ‘Dark Green’ (plus eucalyptol, 1.36 mg/mL, ‘Mammolo Genovese’ (plus eugenol, 1.19 mg/mL, ‘Red Rubin’ (plus linalool and eugenol, 0.46 and 0.56 mg/mL, respectively, and ‘Mánes’ (plus linalool and eugenol, 0.58 and 0.40 mg/mL, respectively. When considering superior extraction yield (ca. 17 mL·kg−1, i.e., two to five times higher than other examined varieties and consistent amounts (yields of essential oil when comparing inter-seasonal or inter-year data (RSD and inter-year difference in mean yield values ˂2.5%, this new basil variety is very promising for use in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries.

  10. Effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Borivoj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments showing the effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water productivity of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. were conducted at the experimental field of the Alternative Crops Department, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad. Irrigation was scheduled on the basis of the water balance method. Daily evapotranspiration (ETd was computed from the reference evapotranspiration (ETo and crop coefficient (kc in May, June, July and August of 0.5, 0.6, 1.1 and 1.0, respectively. ETo was calculated using Hargreaves equation. The irrigation depth was restricted to the soil depth of 0.3 m. In other words, irrigation started when readily available water in the soil layer of 0.3 m was completely depleted by plants. The irrigation rate was 30 mm (30 l m-2 while the amount of water added by irrigation during the season was 140 mm. Basil sensitivity to water stress was determined using a yield response factor (Ky. According to the results, the yield of fresh herb of basil under irrigation (32.015 t ha-1 was higher by 9% compared to non-irrigated, control variant (29.364 t ha-1. Worthy of note, basil essential oil yield was significantly affected by irrigation (35.329/28.766 kg ha-1. The content of essential oil was significantly higher in irrigated (6.45 g kg-1 than in non-irrigated variant (5.33 g kg-1 in the first harvest, while no significant difference between irrigated and non-irrigated variants was obtained in the second harvest (6.83 and 6.62 g kg-1 , respectively. Water used on evapotranspiration in irrigation conditions (ETm was 431 mm and 270 mm in non-irrigated, control variant (ETa. The values of irrigation water use efficiency (Iwue and evapotranspiration water use efficiency (ETwue were 1.89 kg m-3 and 1.65 kg m-3 respectively. Ky value (0.22 exhibits all essential characteristics of climate conditions of 2016 rainy year. These preliminary results could be used as a good platform for basil growers in the

  11. Speichim cuts ethanol energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-08

    France's Speichim has reported low-pressure steam consumption of only 0.7kg/l in the production of industrial-grade ethanol. Mechanical compression of distillation vapours can reduce this energy demand even more.

  12. Holy Smoke!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2011-01-01

    On 27 September WADA announced that nicotine has been added to the monitoring program. "It is NOT WADA’s intention to target smokers, rather to monitor the effects nicotine can have on performance when taken in oral tobacco products such as snus". This means that snus will not be on the prohibited...... list, but the effect of the nicotine in snus on performance will be monitored. With respect to snus, such monitoring is a surprising move, and one that raises some questions: "Why snus? How can a potential effect be monitored? Is it possible to create a test that can distinguish between smokers...... and snus users? The editorial discusses theses questions and concludes with a challenging hypothesis on the motives for WADA's initiative....

  13. Holy Mackerel

    OpenAIRE

    Carrigy, Aoife

    2014-01-01

    Hi folks. My name is Aoife Carrigy and I’m a freelance food, wine and travel writer based in Dublin, Ireland. Having spent many happy years working front-of-house in restaurants – combined with dallies in book publishing, stints of teaching English and journalism, posts as restaurant reviewer for various free-sheets, and adventures in travel including a job as a cook on a 4WD tour of Australia’s north-west outback – I was lucky enough to work full-time as Deputy Editor of Ireland’s FOOD&WI...

  14. Environmental benefits of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The environmental benefits of ethanol blended fuels in helping to reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuels such as ethanol is one way of addressing air pollution concerns such as ozone formation. The state of California has legislated stringent automobile emissions standards in an effort to reduce emissions that contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. Several Canadian cities also record similar hazardous exposures to carbon monoxide, particularly in fall and winter. Using oxygenated fuels such as ethanol, is one way of addressing the issue of air pollution. The net effect of ethanol use is an overall decrease in ozone formation. For example, use of a 10 per cent ethanol blend results in a 25-30 per cent reduction in carbon monoxide emissions by promoting a more complete combustion of the fuel. It also results in a 6-10 per cent reduction of carbon dioxide, and a seven per cent overall decrease in exhaust VOCs (volatile organic compounds). The environmental implications of feedstock production associated with the production of ethanol for fuel was also discussed. One of the Canadian government's initiatives to address the climate change challenge is its FleetWise initiative, in which it has agreed to a phased-in acquisition of alternative fuel vehicles by the year 2005. 9 refs

  15. The Contribution of the Holy Ghost Congregation to the Educational Development of Nigeria: Historical and Contemporary Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadi, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historical narrative about the contribution the Holy Ghost Congregation made in the educational development of Nigeria. It is narrative because it highlights the events and the work of the early Spiritan missionaries that brought education and its benefits to Nigerians. It is pedagogic because it describes the methods these Holy…

  16. The Attitudes of the Holy Land Institute for the Deaf-Salt, Jordan towards Deaf Socially and Educationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadat, Ayed H.; Atiyat, Fatima A.

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to recognize the attitudes of the Holy Land Institute for the Deaf-Salt, Jordan towards Deaf Socially and Educationally in the academic year 2016-2017, which consists of instructional and vocational staff towards deaf socially and educationally according to some variables (gender, age, the level of education). The sample of the…

  17. The Holy Office Against Fascism: Book Censorship and the Political Independence of the Church (1928–1931)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brera, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Studies into the activity of the Congregation of the Index and of the Holy Office have examined extensively the history of Vatican’s practices of book censorship. While up until the sixteenth century the Church imposed substantial modifications to literary texts, mainly in order to moralise them, in

  18. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crago, Christine L.; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO 2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  19. Extraction optimization of mucilage from Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Sadaf; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Aqueous extraction of basil seed mucilage was optimized using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) for modeling of three independent variables: temperature (40-91 °C); extraction time (1.6-3.3 h) and water/seed ratio (18:1-77:1) was used to study the response for yield. Experimental values for extraction yield ranged from 7.86 to 20.5 g/100 g. Extraction yield was significantly ( P  < 0.05) affected by all the variables. Temperature and water/seed ratio were found to have pronounced effect while the extraction time was found to have minor possible effects. Graphical optimization determined the optimal conditions for the extraction of mucilage. The optimal condition predicted an extraction yield of 20.49 g/100 g at 56.7 °C, 1.6 h, and a water/seed ratio of 66.84:1. Optimal conditions were determined to obtain highest extraction yield. Results indicated that water/seed ratio was the most significant parameter, followed by temperature and time.

  20. Characterization of new biodegradable edible film made from basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Naimeh; Esmaiili, Mohsen; Djomeh, Zahra Emam; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Jouki, Mohammad

    2014-02-15

    It is well known that the market for edible films is experiencing remarkable growth and expected to continue. This study investigated the using of basil seed gum (BSG) as a new film-forming material under the influence of addition of glycerol (GLY) as plasticizer. Edible films based on BSG and three different concentrations of GLY (25%, 35%, and 50% w/w BSG) were developed, and their water vapor permeability (WVP), as well as physical, thermal and mechanical properties were measured. The addition of glycerol significantly increased water vapor permeability and solubility of the film (p<0.05). As expected, the increase in GLY concentration from 25% to 50% (w/w) increased the extensibility, but decreased tensile strength. This suggests weaker mechanical strength and higher mobility of polymer chains by plasticizing effect of GLY. The color measurement values showed that increasing the glycerol concentration in polymer matrix caused the b and L values increased while ΔE value decreased. The electron scanning micrograph showed plasticized films as smooth, and uniform which lacked pores or cracks compared with those were not plasticized. This study revealed that the BSG had a good potential to be used in producing edible films for various food applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparing the Effects of Benzyladenine and meta-Topolin on Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum Micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szidónia KŐSZEGHI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation of aromatic plants reveals an effective way of obtaining high volume, virus-free plant material of uniform quality. The application of meta-Topolin (mT (N6-(2-hydroxybenzyl adenine-9-riboside and aromatic cytokinin as Benzyladenine (BAP in the micro propagation of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. was tested for the first time and plant growth parameters assessed to determine the optimum level of these cytokinins. Additionally, the rate of root-growth inhibition due to these two cytokinins was also assessed. Our results show that 1 mg/l (4.43 mM BAP and 0.5 mg/l (2.07 mMmT produced the most favourable effects on new shoot developments. Meta-Topolin was shown to increase the quality of the plants and in comparison with BAP fewer distortions were observed. No significant differences in root-growth inhibition between the mT and BAP were detected.  

  2. Effect of Vocalization of the Holy Quran With and Without Translation on Pregnancy Outcomes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Sehhati Shafaie, Fahimeh; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Jabbari, Batoul

    2016-09-01

    During recent decades, research in Iran in the area of the Quran and medical science has been seriously engaged in. With respect to the tendency toward spirituality and alternative medicine, we tried to find other aspects of the influence of the Quran. This study aimed to determine the effect of vocalizations of the Holy Quran with and without translation on the consequences of pregnancy (the prevalence of preterm delivery, caesarean delivery, and neonatal anthropometric indices) in women admitted to health care centers in Urmia, Iran. This was a three-armed parallel-group randomized clinical trial in which 168 pregnant women (25-28 weeks) in their first and second pregnancies were divided into three groups of 56 (Holy Quran with translation, Holy Quran without translation, and control group) by randomized blocking. The intervention was implemented once a week for three weeks in the health center, and on other days of the week, the participants listened at home to a CD they were given. The intervention and the control groups all received routine pregnancy care once a week. These mothers were tracked during their labor. Outcomes including gestational age at delivery, delivery type, and neonatal anthropometric indices were recorded based on the mother's records. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of demographic and obstetric characteristics before the intervention. In comparison with the control group, the probability of preterm delivery was lower in the Holy Quran with translation group (odds ratio: 0.3, CI 95%: 0.1-1.2) and in the Holy Quran without translation group (0.6, 0.2-1.9) as compared to the control group. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Similarly, the probability of caesarean delivery was lower in the Holy Quran with translation group (0.6, 0.3-1.4) and the Holy Quran without translation group (0.5, 0.2-1.2) as compared to the control group. Based on one-way ANOVA, there was no

  3. The cosmic statements in the Holy Quran as introduction to the public understanding of space science in the Islamic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M. A.

    The Holy Quran contains more than 800 cosmic statements speak about: sun, moon, planets, stars, Sirius, zodiac, day, night, twilights, position of stars, navigation, blue sky, night sky, dawn, noon, sunrise and sunset, eclipses, lunar months, release to the sky, landing to the earth, and so on. Due to the new discoveries in the 19th and 20th centuries in astronomy and space sciences, some of the Arabian-Islamic scientists and astronomers wished to find the significance of the cosmic statements in the Holy Quran on the light of these new discoveries. This current started at the end of the 19th century, and was growing through the 20th century. Hundreds of the articles published in the Daily news, and in the Weekly, Monthly, Quarterly, Annually Journals. Also, tens of the books published for different authors, from different Arabian and Islamic countries about the significance of the cosmic statements in the Holy Quran on the light of modern astronomy and Space sciences. Also, Radio and TV play an important role in this field, specially after the releasing of the Human kind to the space in the second half of the 20th century. This activity led to construct the International Commission on Scientific Signs in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah, which follow to the Muslim World League in Makkah Al-Mukarramah in Saudi Arabia. Where, there is a Quarterly Journal for this purpose, and periodic International conference for the same purpose, the seventh conference was held in February 2004. This paper speak about the activity of the different Arabian-Islamic Scientists and Astronomers in the field of interpretations of the cosmic statements in the Holy Quran on the light of modern astronomy and space science, and their role of increasing the public understanding of space science in the Arabian and Islamic countries.

  4. Basil extract inhibits the sulfotransferase mediated formation of DNA adducts of the procarcinogen 1′-hydroxyestragole by rat and human liver S9 homogenates and in HepG2 human hepatoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Punt, A.; Delatour, T.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a basil extract on the sulfation and concomitant DNA adduct formation of the proximate carcinogen 1′-hydroxyestragole were studied using rat and human liver S9 homogenates and the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Basil was chosen since it contains the procarcinogen estragole that can

  5. Basil extract inhibits the sulfotransferase mediated formation of DNA adducts of the procarcinogen 1'-hydroxyestragole by rat and human liver S9 homogenates and in HepG2 human hepatoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Punt, A.; Delatour, T.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a basil extract on the sulfation and concomitant DNA adduct formation of the proximate carcinogen 1¿-hydroxyestragole were studied using rat and human liver S9 homogenates and the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Basil was chosen since it contains the procarcinogen estragole that can

  6. Determining the Threshold Value of Basil Yield Reduction and Evaluation of Water Uptake Models under Salinity Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarai Tabrizi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several mathematical models are being used for assessing the plant response to the salinity of the root zone. The salinity of the soil and water resources is a major challenge for agricultural sector in Iran. Several mathematical models have been developed for plant responses to the salinity stress. However, these models are often applicable in particular conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the threshold value of Basil yield reduction, modeling Basil response to salinity and to evaluate the effectiveness of available mathematical models for the yield estimation of the Basil . Materials and Methods: The extensive experiments were conducted with 13 natural saline water treatments including 1.2, 1.8, 2, 2.2, 2.5, 2.8, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 dSm-1. Water salinity treatments were prepared by mixing Shoor River water with fresh water. In order to quantify the salinity effect on Basil yield, seven mathematical models including Maas and Hoffman (1977, van Genuchten and Hoffman (1984, Dirksen and Augustijn (1988, and Homaee et al., (2002 were used. One of the relatively recent methods for soil water content measurements is theta probes instrument. Theta probes instrument consists of four probes with 60 mm long and 3 mm diameter, a water proof container (probe structure, and a cable that links input and output signals to the data logger display. The advantages that have been attributed to this method are high precision and direct and rapid measurements in the field and greenhouse. The range of measurements is not limited like tensiometer and is from saturation to wilting point. In this study, Theta probes instrument was calibrated by weighing method for exact irrigation scheduling. Relative transpiration was calculated using daily soil water content changes. A coarse sand layer with 2 centimeters thick was used to decrease evaporation from the surface soil of the pots. Quantity comparison of the used models was done

  7. [Religion and healing in the XIII century: some considerations about therapy and holy medical observations in Iacopo da Varagine's Cronica Civitatis Ianuensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggia, Carlo

    2004-01-01

    The article is dedicated to recovery and holy therapy in Medieval society. In the XIII century Roman Church define the religious observations of physical and spiritual healing: the intervention of Saints and their holy miracles is very important for a perfect recovery. The article analyse the holy therapy through the study of the Cronica Civitatis Ianuensis read by the Dominican friar Iacopo da Varagine, at the end of the XIII century. This work represents one of the most important literary and hagiographic instrument to comprehend medical medieval imaginary.

  8. Linguistic Precautions that to be Considered when Translating the Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gumaa Siddiek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to raise some points that should be considered when translating the Quranic Text into English. We have looked into some samples of translations, selected from well known English translations of the Holy Quran and critically examined them. There were some errors in those translations, due to linguistic factors, owing to the differences between the Arabic and the English Language systems. Some errors were due to the cultural background of the translator which intentionally or unintentionally has affected the translation. Many samples were discussed and suggestions for corrections were made. Then further recommendations were given to be used as guidelines for similar future attempts. We concluded that the simulation of old words in drafting a translation does not fit with the English language as a target language. As this use of archaic stylistics would lead to further complications, which makes the language of translation look strange and complicated

  9. Variation of Zipf's exponent in one hundred live languages: A study of the Holy Bible translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Ali; Jamaati, Maryam

    2017-08-01

    Zipf's law, as a power-law regularity, confirms long-range correlations between the elements in natural and artificial systems. In this article, this law is evaluated for one hundred live languages. We calculate Zipf's exponent for translations of the holy Bible to several languages, for this purpose. The results show that, the average of Zipf's exponent in studied texts is slightly above unity. All studied languages in some families have Zipf's exponent lower/higher than unity. It seems that geographical distribution impresses the communication between speakers of different languages in a language family, and affect similarity between their Zipf's exponent. The Bible has unique concept regardless of its language, but the discrepancy in grammatical rules and syntactic regularities in applying stop words to make sentences and imply a certain concept, lead to difference in Zipf's exponent for various languages.

  10. The icon of the Holy Virgin Vatopedini with a portrait of Voevoda Ioan Radul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašnić Mirjana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author discusses iconography and stylistic characteristic of the icon featuring the Virgin Vatopedini with the Hungarian-Wallachian Voevoda loan Radul. The icon is treasured in the cathedral church of the Holy martyr Demetrios in Bitola. In more recent times, a new layer was painted over the icon, but not so long ago the icon was restored to its original condition. The inscriptions on the icon reveal that the Voevoda was a "new ktetor" of Vatopedi and also testify the painting was completed on November 28, 1502. The representation of the enthroned Virgin with the infant Christ sitting in her lap, flanked by St John Prodromes and the founder, belongs to the iconography of Deesis. Its stylistic features indicate that in most probability it was the work by a Cretan painter from the Ritzos family.

  11. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  12. Ambient PM2.5 exposure and premature mortality burden in the holy city Varanasi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Vaishali; Dey, Sagnik; Chowdhury, Sourangsu

    2017-01-01

    More than 3 million population residing in the holy city Varanasi and sub-urban areas is exposed to very high level of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) from various sources. Continuous monitoring by Central Pollution Control Board started only in 2015; therefore what was the pollution level in the past and how it has changed over the years are not known. We use MODIS aerosol products to infer PM 2.5 and examine 15-year climatology. Data shows a rapid (1.5–3% per year) increase in PM 2.5 in the last 15 years and high (87% days in a year) persistence of PM 2.5 above the national air quality standard. It translates to a burden of 5700 (2800–7500) annual premature deaths (0.16% of the population), of which 29%, 18%, 33%, 19% and remaining 1% are attributed to ischemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute lower respiratory infection and lung cancer respectively. If the region achieves the Indian (WHO) air quality standard, 1900 (3800) premature deaths can be avoided every year. - Highlights: • MODIS AOD data are used to infer surface PM 2.5 in the holy city Varanasi, India. • PM 2.5 increases rapidly (1.5–3% per year) in the last 15 years. • 87% days in a year, daily PM 2.5 exceeds national standard. • 5700 annual premature death is estimated, of which 1900 can be saved if Indian standard is met. • COPD has the largest share in the burden. - This study presents 15-year ambient PM 2.5 statistics in Varanasi using satellite data (in absence of long-term in-situ data) and the associated premature mortality burden.

  13. Raman spectroscopy for the evaluation of the effects of different concentrations of Copper on the chemical composition and biological activity of basil essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Ayub, Muhammad Adnan; Ishtiaq, Faiqa; Kanwal, Nazish; Rashid, Nosheen; Saleem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2017-10-01

    The present study is performed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of Cu as fertilizer on the chemical composition of basil essential oil and its biological activity including antioxidant and antifungal activities by employing Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the effect of Cu is also determined on the vegetative growth and essential oil yield. Both, antifungal and antioxidant activities were found to be maximum with essential oils obtained at 0.04 mg/l concentration of Cu fertilizer. The results of the GC-MS and Raman spectroscopy have revealed that the linalool and estragole are found to be as a major chemical compound in basil essential oil. The Raman spectral changes associated with these biological components lead to the conclusion that estragole seems to have dominating effect in the biological activities of the basil essential oil as compared to linalool although the latter is observed in greater concentration.

  14. Brachial artery repair using the basilic vein as a reliable conduit in a 3-year-old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunyoung G. Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A supracondylar fracture of the humerus is the most common upper extremity fracture in children with concurrent neurovascular complications. However, bypass grafting in the management of a pediatric open elbow dislocation with an arterial injury has rarely been reported in the literature. Hence, an adequate conduit for a vessel graft interposition remains questionable when a primary anastomosis is limited in an arterial reconstruction. The purpose of this study is to present a brachial artery reconstruction in a 3-year-old patient with an open supracondylar fracture of the humerus. In the clinical and surgical examination of the patient, an open wound in the left antecubital fossa presented with accompanying brachial artery injury. To repair the artery, a reverse end-to-end anastomosis was conducted using basilic vein graft from the ipsilateral arm under general anesthesia. The patient had palpable radial pulses in the postoperative clinical examination and was discharged without complications. The great saphenous vein (GSV has proven to be the most common and the best conduit for arterial reconstruction of the upper extremity in the adult patients. However, the GSV graft is known to have the propensity for becoming aneurysmal in pediatric patients. Some studies have demonstrated the basilic vein as a suitable conduit in pediatric patients, in that it has durable patency, fewer branches, size compatibility for anastomosis, and proximity to the brachial artery. Our case confirms the safety of using this autogenous vein from within the zone of injury for arterial reconstruction, after a supracondylar humeral fracture. The management of pediatric elbow fractures accompanying vascular injuries can be technically demanding due to relatively small, delicate structures and concurrent neurovascular network. Nonetheless, a vascular injury should be treated with high level of suspicion and immediate intervention to avoid any limb ischemia or loss. In

  15. Effect of different concentrations of cadmium growth and morphological changes in basil (ocimum basilicum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarian, M.; Amouzgar, D.; Sedghianzadeh, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted on four treatments (0, 3, 5 and 10 milligrams per liter of cadmium nitrate solution) and three replications in a completely randomized design. The morphological characteristics including fresh weight, dry weight, stem length, root length, leaf weight ratio, measuring index of the imposed stress, specific leaf area and water availability per unit leaf area, and the amount of cadmium in stems and roots were measured. By increasing cadmium treatment at 10 ppm concentration, the root growth varied between 3.47 and 1.93 cm and the lowest root growth belonged to the treatment at 10 ppm concentration measured 1.93 ± 0.4 cm. The rising stem growth was also indicated. Fresh and dry weight analysis indicates their descending growth. The growth reduction was observed by increasing cadmium treatment at 10 ppm concentration in the study of the trait of weight and specific leaf area. Relative water content (RWC) of the leaves varies between 81 to 89 percent which represents the greatest amount of stress in the treatment at 10 ppm concentration. A notable decline in transport from the root to stem and a significant reduction in plant tolerance index were observed through the analysis of transfer factor and tolerance index in plants. The process of reducing metal transition from the root to stem has become slower by increasing the substance concentration. Basil can absorb and accumulate cadmium and its root is able to accumulate more quantity of the metal than its stem. The morphological signs of cadmium toxicity are remarkable through discolored roots, shortening the distance between nodes, creating an amorphous spots on the leaves, reducing the leaves extent and a slight pallor of the leaves. (author)

  16. Antibacterial properties of essential oils and methanol extracts of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum occurring in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M Amzad; Kabir, M J; Salehuddin, S M; Rahman, S M Mizanur; Das, A K; Singha, Sandip Kumar; Alam, Md Khorshed; Rahman, Atiqur

    2010-05-01

    The antibacterial potential of essential oils and methanol extracts of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) was evaluated for controlling the growth range of food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves and stems were analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty-seven compounds representing 94.9 and 96.1% of the total leaf and stem oils, respectively, were identified, of which methyl chavicol (36.7 and 29.9%), gitoxigenin (9.3 and 10.2%), trimethoquinol (10.3 and 8.4%), beta-guaiene (3.7 and 4.1%), aciphyllene (3.4 and 3.0%), alizarin (3.2 and 4.4%), naphthaline (2.2 and 3.8%), (-)-caryophyllene (2.0 and 1.9%), and mequinol (1.6 and 1.8%) were the major compounds. The essential oils (10 microL/disc of 1:5, v/v dilution with methanol) and methanol extracts (300 microg/disc) of O. basilicum displayed a great potential of antibacterial activity against Bacillius cereus, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, and Salmonella typhi with their respective zones of inhibition of 11.2-21.1 mm and MIC values of 62.5-500 microg/mL. The results of this study suggest that the natural products derived from O. basilicum may have potential use in the food and/or pharmaceutical industries as antimicrobial agents.

  17. Implications of increased ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

  18. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...

  19. Ethanol Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Paul J; Doroudgar, Shadi; Van Dyke, Priscilla

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol abuse can lead to negative consequences that oftentimes result in criminal charges and civil lawsuits. When an individual is suspected of driving under the influence, law enforcement agents can determine the extent of intoxication by measuring the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and performing a standardized field sobriety test. The BAC is dependent on rates of absorption, distribution, and elimination, which are influenced mostly by the dose of ethanol ingested and rate of consumption. Other factors contributing to BAC are gender, body mass and composition, food effects, type of alcohol, and chronic alcohol exposure. Because of individual variability in ethanol pharmacology and toxicology, careful extrapolation and interpretation of the BAC is needed, to justify an arrest and assignment of criminal liability. This review provides a summary of the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol and the clinical effects of acute intoxication as they relate to common forensic questions. Concerns regarding the extrapolation of BAC and the implications of impaired memory caused by alcohol-induced blackouts are discussed. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  20. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , there is not enough biomass for 'everyone', not physically and not in terms of money to promote its use. This leads to the conclusion that any use of biomass for energy purposes will have to compare to the lost opportunity of using it for something else. In this perspective, the choice to use biomass for bio......-ethanol production will not lead to reduction but to increase in CO2 emission and fossil fuel dependency. Both first and second generation bio-ethanol suffer from a biomass-to-ethanol energy conversion efficiency as low as 30-40 %, and moreover external fossil fuels are used to run the conversion. There is only......, but they do not improve the energy balance enough for bio-ethanol to compete with alternative uses of the biomass. When using biomass to substitute fossil fuels in heat & power production, a close to 100% substitution efficiency is achieved. The best alternative for CO2 reduction and oil saving is, therefore...

  1. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Research and Extension Center; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Process and Analytical Engineering Group

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  2. Stomatal density and metabolic determinants mediate salt stress adaptation and water use efficiency in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Giancarlo; Vallone, Simona; Orsini, Francesco; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Maggio, Albino

    2012-11-15

    Increasing salinity tolerance and water-use efficiency in crop plants are two major challenges that agriculture must face in the next decades. Many physiological mechanisms and molecular components mediating crop response to environmental stresses have been identified. However, the functional inter-links between stress adaptation responses have not been completely understood. Using two basil cultivars (Napoletano and Genovese) with contrasting ability to respond to salt stress, here we demonstrate that reduced stomatal density, high ascorbate level and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity coordinately contribute to improve basil adaptation and water use efficiency (WUE) in saline environment. The constitutively reduced stomatal density was associated with a "delayed" accumulation of stress molecules (and growth inhibiting signals) such as abscisic acid (ABA) and proline, in the more tolerant Genovese. Leaf volatile profiling also revealed cultivar-specific patterns, which may suggest a role for the volatile phenylpropanoid eugenol and monoterpenes in conferring stress tolerance via antioxidant and signalling functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of cultivar on phenolic levels, anthocyanin composition, and antioxidant properties in purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Patrick M; Niemeyer, Emily D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we determined the effect of cultivar on total and individual anthocyanin concentrations and phenolic acid levels in eight purple basil varieties and examined the relationship between anthocyanin content, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant properties. Cultivar had a significant influence on total anthocyanin concentrations as well as individual anthocyanin composition. The four major basil anthocyanins (labelled A-D) were quantified and cultivar had a statistically significant effect on anthocyanins B (p<0.01), C (p<0.01), and D (p<0.01), but not on anthocyanin A (p=0.94). Cultivar did not have a significant effect on total phenolic levels, although it did influence the concentration of some individual phenolic acids, including caftaric (p=0.03) and chicoric (p=0.04) acids. Although total phenolic and anthocyanin levels correlated with measured FRAP antioxidant capacities, for some cultivars the individual phenolic acid and anthocyanin composition was also an important factor affecting the antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxygen introduction during extraction and the improvement of antioxidant activity of essential oils of basil, lemon and lemongrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Freitas Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Essential oil extraction is commonly carried out by using the hydrodistillation method, which is described in official compendia of food quality control and medicinal plants. Despite the widespread use of this method, few studies have evaluated the effect of the atmosphere change during extraction on the composition and antioxidant activity of essentials oils. Therefore, a study of oxygen introduction influence during the extraction of essential oils from basil, lemongrass and lemon by hydrodistillation was performed. Total amount of oxygenated compounds (e.g., linalool, camphor, α-terpineol, neral, geranial, eugenol and α-muurolol increased for all essential oils extracted under oxygen flow. Antioxidant activity evaluated by using the ORAC method significantly increased (P<0.0001 with oxygen from 618 to 906, 355 to 613 and 72 to 262µmol Trolox g-1 oil for basil, lemongrass and lemon, respectively. Therefore, the simple modification proposed could be considered a suitable alternative to obtain essential oils with higher antioxidant activity.

  5. Coleoptera: Bostrichidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ASSUMING-BREMPONG

    castaneum is worldwide stored product pest ... oil, roots, etc. ... these with similar properties are the Ocimum gratissum (basil), and Ocimum sanctum (holy basil). It is used as an insect repellent during storage. It also works as a mosquito ...

  6. Kundalini Yoga, Yogi Tee und das Wassermannzeitalter: Bibliografische Einblicke in die Healthy, Happy, Holy Organization (3HO) des Yogi Bhajan

    OpenAIRE

    Laue, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Obwohl seit 40 Jahren im Westen aktiv, ist die Healthy, Happy, Holy Organization (3HO) des Yogi Bhajan (1929-2004) von der deutschen wie internationalen Forschung weitestgehend übersehen worden. Um dieser Forschungslücke entgegenzuwirken, verfasste ich 2003 meine religionswissenschaftlich begründete Magisterarbeit Darstellung und Quellen der 3HO Deutschland e.V. Aus dem Darstellungsteil entstand die 2007 im Münsteraner LIT-Verlag publizierte Monographie Kundalini Yoga, Yogi Tee und das Wasser...

  7. BLENDED LEARNING METHOD BASED ON LOCAL WISDOM AS A SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE HOLY TRINITY COMMUNITY IN DISTRICT BENGKAYANG

    OpenAIRE

    Priska Vasantan

    2016-01-01

    Bengkayang is one of the districts the outermost in Indonesia. The district has limitations and underdevelopment in various fields, one of which is in the field of education. Writing this article aims to show that blended learning based on local wisdom is very helpful coaching Holy Trinity Community (HTC) in the district Bengkayang. It has been proven from previous studies, suggesting that coaching HTC with blended learning to be more flexible, effective and efficient . Blended learning has b...

  8. The Holy Office Against Fascism: Book Censorship and the Political Independence of the Church (1928–1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Brera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies into the activity of the Congregation of the Index and of the Holy Office have examined extensively the history of Vatican’s practices of book censorship. While up until the sixteenth century the Church imposed substantial modifications to literary texts, mainly in order to moralise them, in the seventeenth and eighteenth century it used book censorship to preserve ecclesiastical doctrine and its own power. In the nineteenth century the Roman Inquisition aimed to discredit noxious literature – and the dangerous ideas it contained – through its inclusion in the Index of Prohibited Books. In the twentieth century, when the Church’s secular power was fading, the Holy Office reacted against modernism thus intensifying its campaign against pernicious literature, seen as the main medium through which modernist ideas could infiltrate public opinion. During the papacy of Pius XI, in particular, the policies of the Holy Office mainly aimed to support the interventionism of the Holy See and its attempts to ‘catholicise’ public opinion and society. The Italian case renders a clear picture of a transformed Roman Inquisition: analysing the proceedings against Gabriele d’Annunzio (Opera omnia, 1928 and Mario Missiroli (Date a Cesare, 1929 this paper will demonstrate how the Roman Index and literary censorship stood out as the core of the Church’s relentless attempt to forge a ‘catholicised’ society between the two wars and to regain – through the forbiddance of authors and books closely linked to fascism – the political and social influence that Mussolini threatened to take-over before and in the aftermath of the Concordate of 1929.

  9. The Significant Role of the Intellect in Confronting Contemporary Global Challenges: The Taught of the Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Naghipour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Islamic world is confronting constant challenges in terms of physical and spiritual, as a whole. Living in such challenging atmosphere persuades Muslims to develop proper strategies for handling ongoing crises in a way arguably compatible with the Islamic codes and practices, as well as the fast growing universal demands. This paper, based on the taught of the Holy Quran, aimed to finding out a modest approach to handling the contemporary challenges. The Islamic approach towards the historical challenges, such as the way in dealing with unbelievers and intellectuals of other religions, was of special interest in this paper. Deep analysis of selected verses of the Holy Quran reveals that paying full attention to the special requirements for every time and place and having precise understanding of different nations’ haracteristics; their values and way of thinking are among the most important factors of tackling challenges in every time. The Holy Quran teaches us that having rational and intellectual exchanges even with unbelievers are among the most important tools for the Muslims to overcome their challenges. In conclusion, Islam appreciates the role of the intellect and chooses a reasonable and convincing manner in confronting important challenges all over the time.

  10. The effect of different solvents and number of extraction steps on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Złotek, Urszula; Mikulska, Sylwia; Nagajek, Małgorzata; Świeca, Michał

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine best conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from fresh, frozen and lyophilized basil leaves. The acetone mixtures with the highest addition of acetic acid extracted most of the phenolic compounds when fresh and freeze-dried material have been used. The three times procedure was more effective than once shaking procedure in most of the extracts obtained from fresh basil leaves - unlike the extracts derived from frozen material. Surprisingly, there were not any significant differences in the content of phenolics between the two used procedures in the case of lyophilized basil leaves used for extraction. Additionally, the positive correlation between the phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of the studied extracts has been noted. It is concluded that the acetone mixtures were more effective than the methanol ones for polyphenol extraction. The number of extraction steps in most of the cases was also a statistically significant factor affecting the yield of phenolic extraction as well as antioxidant potential of basil leaf extracts.

  11. Identification and quantification of a major anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory phenolic compound found in basil, lemon, thyme, mint, oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, lemon thyme, mint, oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme are in the mint family of plants that are used as culinary herbs world-wide. These herbs contain phenolic compounds that are believed to have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, the major phenolic compounds fr...

  12. Salt exclusion and mycorrhizal symbiosis increase tolerance to NaCl and CaCl2 salinity in ‘Siam Queen’ basil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on growth and nutrient uptake in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Plants were fertilized with a complete nutrient solution and exposed to no, low, or moderate levels of salinity from NaCl or CaCl2. Plants in the control and moderate salinity tre...

  13. Effect of jasmonic acid elicitation on the yield, chemical composition, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oil of lettuce leaf basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Złotek, Urszula; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Szymanowska, Urszula

    2016-12-15

    The effect of elicitation with jasmonic acid (JA) on the plant yield, the production and composition of essential oils of lettuce leaf basil was evaluated. JA-elicitation slightly affected the yield of plants and significantly increased the amount of essential oils produced by basil - the highest oil yield (0.78±0.005mL/100gdw) was achieved in plants elicited with 100μM JA. The application of the tested elicitor also influenced the chemical composition of basil essential oils - 100μM JA increased the linalool, eugenol, and limonene levels, while 1μM JA caused the highest increase in the methyl eugenol content. Essential oils from JA-elicited basil (especially 1μM and 100μM) exhibited more effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential; therefore, this inducer may be a very useful biochemical tool for improving production and composition of herbal essential oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Basil A. Pruitt Jr. MD and the US Army Institute for Surgical Research: Five Decades of Science, Clinical Care, Mentorship, and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ronald M

    2017-08-24

    Over the past half century Dr. Basil A. Pruitt, Jr., a great citizen, surgeon, innovator, mentor and leader, transformed our world through his dogged commitment to science and service to humanity. Dr. Pruitt's contribution lives on in the work of the US Army Institute of Surgical Research and the surgeons, physicians and scientists he shaped and inspired.

  15. TL glow curve analysis of UV, beta and gamma induced limestone collected from Amarnath holy cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Dubey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports themoluminescence glow curve analysis of UV (ultraviolet, β (beta and γ (gamma induced limestone collected from Amarnath holy cave. The collected natural sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD technique and crystallite size calculated by Scherer's formula. Surface morphology and particle size was calculated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM study. Effect of annealing temperature on collected lime stone examined by TL glow curve study. The limestone was irradiated by UV radiation (254 nm source and the TL glow curve recorded for different UV exposure time. For beta irradiation Sr90 source was used and is shows intense peak at 256 °C with a shoulder peak at higher temperature range. For gamma radiation Co60 source and TL glow curve recorded for different doses of gamma. The kinetic parameters calculation was performed for different glow curve by computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD technique. The chemical composition of natural limestone was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS.

  16. Erosion protection Phytoreinforcement of SCARP steep slopes of the holy virgin’s DITCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darchiya Valentina Ivanovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Erosion protection landscaping embedment of steep subsoil slopes is a time-sensitive issue of road construction and planning of recreational area that are often fit on a challenging picturesque terrain unsuitable for site development. The article provides the results of a 4-year experiment on landscaping and plant fixing of up to 4.5 m soil slopes with 1:1 and 2:1 grades; the experiment was carried out by the MGSU on the territory of a convent in the south of the Nizhniy Novgorod region. The site has slopes oriented towards all cardinals. At some places the slopes are bedimmed by trees. All these factors create a wide range of geo-ecological conditions for lawns. All the slopes are fixed with geo-fibrefill grids; slopes with 2:1 grade are strengthened by auxiliary grids made of reinforced metal bars, anchors and braces on the bottom of the Holy Moat. The paper recommends composition of grass plants as well as techniques to build up lawns suitable for various micro-climate conditions. It also advises the structure of multi-tier plant entity. The suggested methods are tested during a 3-year maintenance of slopes built for constant use.

  17. Holy Terror, Batman! Frank Miller’s Dark Knight and the Superhero as Hardboiled Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Croci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Conceived in the late thirties as “bold humanist response to Depression-era fears of runaway scientific advance and soulless industrialism” (Morrison 2012, 6, the superhero has flourished as one of the most resilient archetypes of American popular culture. This essay analyses the literary and cultural contaminations that have engendered an unprecedented revision of the paradigm since the 1980s. In particular, it will take into account three graphic novels by American cartoonist Frank Miller (1957 - , one of leading figures of the mainstream comics renaissance, whose ideas have indelibly influenced the artistic development of both medium and genre. The Dark Knight Returns (1986, The Dark Knight Strikes Again (2002 and Holy Terror (2011 constitute an ideal Batman trilogy that charts the character’s evolution as political counterpoint to the perceived crisis of American identity. In this regard, Reaganism and 9/11 are polarized as historical discontinuities triggering the need for a new kind of a criminal (superhero. It will be in fact demonstrated how the novels hybridise the latent generic links to hardboiled pulp novels (R. Chandler, D. Hammet with narrative and aesthetics elements appropriated from the culturally-received concepts of terrorism and terrorists. This fruitful contamination on the one hand “play[s] with reader assumptions about genre” (Baetens and Frey 2015, 46, while on the other hand deconstructs the ideological underpinnings of the archetype, as the moral dichotomy and the alienation of justice from the law.

  18. Revisiting the Holy Grail: using plant functional traits to understand ecological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Larson, Julie E; Ames, Gregory M; Butterfield, Bradley J; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Firn, Jennifer; Laughlin, Daniel C; Sutton-Grier, Ariana E; Williams, Laura; Wright, Justin

    2017-05-01

    One of ecology's grand challenges is developing general rules to explain and predict highly complex systems. Understanding and predicting ecological processes from species' traits has been considered a 'Holy Grail' in ecology. Plant functional traits are increasingly being used to develop mechanistic models that can predict how ecological communities will respond to abiotic and biotic perturbations and how species will affect ecosystem function and services in a rapidly changing world; however, significant challenges remain. In this review, we highlight recent work and outstanding questions in three areas: (i) selecting relevant traits; (ii) describing intraspecific trait variation and incorporating this variation into models; and (iii) scaling trait data to community- and ecosystem-level processes. Over the past decade, there have been significant advances in the characterization of plant strategies based on traits and trait relationships, and the integration of traits into multivariate indices and models of community and ecosystem function. However, the utility of trait-based approaches in ecology will benefit from efforts that demonstrate how these traits and indices influence organismal, community, and ecosystem processes across vegetation types, which may be achieved through meta-analysis and enhancement of trait databases. Additionally, intraspecific trait variation and species interactions need to be incorporated into predictive models using tools such as Bayesian hierarchical modelling. Finally, existing models linking traits to community and ecosystem processes need to be empirically tested for their applicability to be realized. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  19. Grid parity. Holy Grail or hype? Photovoltaic solar electricity on its way to competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    2009-05-01

    Solar energy has a huge global and European potential for sustainable generation of electricity, heat and fuels. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) are the two options for electricity generation. In the longer term they may also be used to generate sustainable fuel, especially hydrogen, if that would turn out to be useful in the total energy mix. Because of the different nature of the PV and CSP conversion processes and the related distinctive features, they can be considered largely complementary Clearly, the combination of the two absolutely makes a winning team and may form (or even has to form) the basis of our future sustainable energy system. Grid parity is a rather simplified indicator of the competitiveness of PV. It is nevertheless very useful since it assumes the viewpoint of a potential investor in a PV system and has thus helped to define potential markets. Moreover the concept does roughly illustrate how long it takes PV to reach competitiveness in different segments of the electricity market. It may not be the Holy Grail but it is certainly no hype either. When used with care it is one key to the success of PV.

  20. Loyalty and Disavowal in Holy Qur’an Descriptive linguistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Kanani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to clarify the meaning of loyalty and disavowal from linguistic point of view, between the views of linguists, and the exegetes in the Lexicons and exegeses with analysis and debate. First of all, the researcher Indicates definition of loyalty as stated in the dictionaries, with bringing the examples from the Holy Qur’an and the views of the commentators about this issue, then analysis and discussion. Second, he defines Disavowal in the language, with a point of view from linguists, and interpreters, by analyzing and discussion the examples from the Noble Qur’an. Finally, it illustrates the application of the legal and practical concept of loyalty and disavowal, to enhance the significance of language. The importance of the current study is- according to researcher’s information- due to its doctrinal and sociological matter and nobody precede such a linguistic study of Loyalty. This research approaches the issue, using the method of descriptive and analytical, based on the description and analysis of the phenomenon.

  1. Biosynthesis of estragole and methyl-eugenol in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L). Developmental and chemotypic association of allylphenol O-methyltransferase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, E; Ziv-Raz, I; Dudai, N; Tadmor, Y; Lastochkin, E; Larkov, O; Chaimovitsh, D; Ravid, U; Putievsky, E; Pichersky, E; Shoham, Y

    2000-12-07

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., Lamiaceae) is a common herb, used for culinary and medicinal purposes. The essential oils of different sweet basil chemotypes contain various proportions of the allyl phenol derivatives estragole (methyl chavicol), eugenol, and methyl eugenol, as well as the monoterpene alcohol linalool. To monitor the developmental regulation of estragole biosynthesis in sweet basil, an enzymatic assay for S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM):chavicol O-methyltransferase activity was developed. Young leaves display high levels of chavicol O-methyltransferase activity, but the activity was negligible in older leaves, indicating that the O-methylation of chavicol primarily occurs early during leaf development. The O-methyltransferase activities detected in different sweet basil genotypes differed in their substrate specificities towards the methyl acceptor substrate. In the high-estragole-containing chemotype R3, the O-methyltransferase activity was highly specific for chavicol, while eugenol was virtually not O-methylated. In contrast, chemotype 147/97, that contains equal levels of estragole and methyl eugenol, displayed O-methyltransferase activities that accepted both chavicol and eugenol as substrates, generating estragole and methyl eugenol, respectively. Chemotype SW that contains high levels of eugenol, but lacks both estragole and methyl eugenol, had apparently no allylphenol dependent O-methyltransferase activities. These results indicate the presence of at least two types of allylphenol-specific O-methyltransferase activities in sweet basil chemotypes, one highly specific for chavicol; and a different one that can accept eugenol as a substrate. The relative availability and substrate specificities of these O-methyltransferase activities biochemically rationalizes the variation in the composition of the essential oils of these chemotypes.

  2. Operant ethanol self-administration in ethanol dependent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C

    2014-05-01

    While rats have been predominantly used to study operant ethanol self-administration behavior in the context of dependence, several studies have employed operant conditioning procedures to examine changes in ethanol self-administration behavior as a function of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal experience in mice. This review highlights some of the advantages of using operant conditioning procedures for examining the motivational effects of ethanol in animals with a history of dependence. As reported in rats, studies using various operant conditioning procedures in mice have demonstrated significant escalation of ethanol self-administration behavior in mice rendered dependent via forced chronic ethanol exposure in comparison to nondependent mice. This paper also presents a summary of these findings, as well as suggestions for future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-10

    Ethanol is produced by fermentation with a photohardening resin-immobilized yeast preparation. The ethanol producing yeast may be selected from Saccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, or Schizosaccharomyces. The photohardening resin for yeast immobilization is a hydrophilic unsaturated compound, especially polyurethane acrylate, with an average molecular weight of 300-80,000 and containing at least 2 photopolymerizable ethylene groups. The immobilized yeast preparation is prepared by irradiating an aqueous suspension of yeast and a photohardening resin with UV light; the average size of the immobilized yeast is 0.1-3.0 mm and with various shapes. Thus, an aqueous suspension containing Saccharomyces formosensis cells (5 parts), a poly(ethylene glycol)isopharone diisocyanate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer (50 parts), and benzoin ethyl ether (0.5 parts) was homogenized, spread on a polypropylene tray (1.0 mm depth), and irradiated with a 3600 A Hg lamp for 5-10 minutes to form a yeast-containing polyurethane acrylate sheet (1.0 mm thickness), which was then sliced into bits of approximately 1.0 mm. When a molasses substrate solution (pH 4.5-5.0) was passed through a column (200 x 20 mm) packed with the polyurethane acrylate-immobilized yeast preparation, eluates containing 7% (weight/volume) ethanol were produced for >3000 hours.

  4. Innovative inexpensive ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackek, S.

    1991-01-01

    New Energy Company of Indiana which produces 70 million gallons of ethanol per year, avoids the headaches often associated with organic by-products by creating an efficient and profitable sideline business. This paper reports that stretching across 55 acres in South Bend, Ind., New Energy's plant is the largest in the U.S. built specifically for fuel alcohol. The $186-million complex is a dramatic advance in the art of producing ethanol and its co-products. As the demand grows in the coming years for fuel alcohol-proven as an octane booster and a clean-burning alternative fuel. New Energy looks forward to increase production and profits. At the company's six-year-old plant, fuel alcohol is made from 26 million bushels a year of No. 2 yellow dent corn. Left at the bottom of the first column, after the alcohol has been boiled off, is stillage that contains more than 90% of the corn's protein and fat content, and virtually all of its vitamins and minerals, along with the yeast used to make the ethanol. While technically a waste product of the fuel alcohol process, this material's quantity and organic content not only make it difficult and costly to dispose, but its nutritional quality makes it an excellent candidate to be further processed into animal feed

  5. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  6. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  7. Canada's directory of ethanol retailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This document is a directory listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer by province from west to east. Appendices providing a list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels was also included, as well as a list of ethanol-blended gasoline retailers

  8. Investigation the Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L., Borage (Borago officinalis L. and Cover Crops in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zeinab shirzadi margavi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Distribution of leaf area and dry matter are the effective factors that influence on absorption the radiation, evaporation and transpiration of canopy and eventually dry matter accumulation and grain yield in plants. Plant canopy is the spatial arrangement of shoots in a plant population. In plant canopy, leaves are responsible for radiation absorption and gas exchange with the outside. Stem and branches arrange photosynthetic organs somehow, which gas exchange and light distribution best done. The effect of canopy structure on gas exchange and absorption of radiation in plant communities caused detailed study of the canopy structure to be more important. Materials and methods In order to investigate the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of borage and sweet basil in competition with weeds by cover crops treatments, a field experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with 8 treatments and 3 replications in Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Sari in 2013. Treatments were cover crops mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L. in the rows between the sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L.. Moreover, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of cover crops to control weeds, pure stand of sweet basil and borage in terms of weeding and no weed controls per replicates were used. Each plot was included 5 rows of medicinal plants. Cover crop inter-seeded simultaneously in the main crop. Estimation of leaf area and dry matter of each plant in different canopy layers (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 80.100, 100-120 and 120-140 cm were done after 75 planting days, with 1 m × 1 m quadrate per plot. For this purpose a vertical card board frame marked in 20-cm increments was used in the field as a guide to cut standing plants (crops, cover crops and weeds into 20-cm strata increments (Mosier & Oliver, 1995. All samples were transferred to the

  9. Comparative effectiveness of one-stage versus two-stage basilic vein transposition arteriovenous fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Amir A; Griffin, Claire L; Kraiss, Larry W; Sarfati, Mark R; Brooke, Benjamin S

    2018-02-01

    Basilic vein transposition (BVT) fistulas may be performed as either a one-stage or two-stage operation, although there is debate as to which technique is superior. This study was designed to evaluate the comparative clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of one-stage vs two-stage BVT. We identified all patients at a single large academic hospital who had undergone creation of either a one-stage or two-stage BVT between January 2007 and January 2015. Data evaluated included patient demographics, comorbidities, medication use, reasons for abandonment, and interventions performed to maintain patency. Costs were derived from the literature, and effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). We analyzed primary and secondary functional patency outcomes as well as survival during follow-up between one-stage and two-stage BVT procedures using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank tests. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was used to determine cost savings. We identified 131 patients in whom 57 (44%) one-stage BVT and 74 (56%) two-stage BVT fistulas were created among 8 different vascular surgeons during the study period that each performed both procedures. There was no significant difference in the mean age, male gender, white race, diabetes, coronary disease, or medication profile among patients undergoing one- vs two-stage BVT. After fistula transposition, the median follow-up time was 8.3 months (interquartile range, 3-21 months). Primary patency rates of one-stage BVT were 56% at 12-month follow-up, whereas primary patency rates of two-stage BVT were 72% at 12-month follow-up. Patients undergoing two-stage BVT also had significantly higher rates of secondary functional patency at 12 months (57% for one-stage BVT vs 80% for two-stage BVT) and 24 months (44% for one-stage BVT vs 73% for two-stage BVT) of follow-up (P < .001 using log-rank test). However, there was no significant difference

  10. The Effect of Static Magnetic Forces on Water Contents and Photosynthetic Pigments in Sweet Basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taia, Wafaa K; Kotbi, Abeer M [Alexandria Univ., Faculty of Science, Botany Dept., Alexandria (Egypt); AlZahrani, Hassan S [Faculty of Science, King AbdulAziz Univ., Biology Dept., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-07-01

    Three different magnetic regimes; aerial, surface and buried; each with three different forces, have been used to investigate their effects on the water contents and photosynthetic pigments of sweet basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.). Two groups of sweet basil seeds, Ocimum basilicum L. have been cultivated, one under normal conditions and the second has been subdivided into three portion (aerial, surface and buried) to examine the effect of different magnetic forces coming from the three directions on the resulted plants. At all directions of magnets, water contents have been significantly affected by the magnetic forces. Chlorophyll A and carotene contents have been affected, as well, according to the three magnetic forces coming from soil surface regime only. Chlorophyll B did not significantly affected by differences magnetic forces in the three regimes, but it is affected by magnetism wherever its direction or force. But all the photosynthetic pigments contents (Chlorophyll A, B and Carotenes) decreased significantly than the control in the three magnetic regimes., but without any effect according to differences in the magnetic force in the aerial and burried regimes of magnetism. It was concluded that magnetism affects both water absorption and retention , the most influenced regime was the aerial magnets followed by the surface and buried ones. This result can be interpreted by the ionization of water which makes water ions respond to magnetic forces. Photosynthetic pigments have been decreased significantly by the exposure to magnetic fields, irrespective to its direction or force and this may be due to the effect of magnetic fields on the reduction in plastids inside the cells. (author)

  11. Surface coating changes the physiological and biochemical impacts of nano-TiO2 in basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenjuan; Du, Wenchao; Barrios, Ana C; Armendariz, Raul; Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Zink, Jeffrey I; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the effects of surface coating on the interaction of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with plants. In this study, basil (Ocimum basilicum) was cultivated for 65 days in soil amended with unmodified, hydrophobic (coated with aluminum oxide and dimethicone), and hydrophilic (coated with aluminum oxide and glycerol) titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) at 125, 250, 500, and 750 mg nano-TiO 2 kg -1 soil. ICP-OES/MS, SPAD meter, and UV/Vis spectrometry were used to determine Ti and essential elements in tissues, relative chlorophyll content, carbohydrates, and antioxidant response, respectively. Compared with control, hydrophobic and hydrophilic nano-TiO 2 significantly reduced seed germination by 41% and 59%, respectively, while unmodified and hydrophobic nano-TiO 2 significantly decreased shoot biomass by 31% and 37%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05). Roots exposed to hydrophobic particles at 750 mg kg -1 had 87% and 40% more Ti than the pristine and hydrophilic nano-TiO 2 ; however, no differences were found in shoots. The three types of particles affected the homeostasis of essential elements: at 500 mg kg - 1 , unmodified particles increased Cu (104%) and Fe (90%); hydrophilic increased Fe (90%); while hydrophobic increased Mn (339%) but reduced Ca (71%), Cu (58%), and P (40%). However, only hydrophobic particles significantly reduced root elongation by 53%. Unmodified, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic particles significantly reduced total sugar by 39%, 38%, and 66%, respectively, compared with control. Moreover, unmodified particles significantly decreased reducing sugar (34%), while hydrophobic particles significantly reduced starch (35%). Although the three particles affected basil plants, coated particles impacted the most its nutritional quality, since they altered more essential elements, starch, and reducing sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Salinity Stress Does Not Affect Root Uptake, Dissemination and Persistence of Salmonella in Sweet-basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Nirit; Sela Saldinger, Shlomo; Dudai, Nativ; Gorbatsevich, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Crop produce can be contaminated in the field during cultivation by bacterial human pathogens originating from contaminated soil or irrigation water. The bacterial pathogens interact with the plant, can penetrate the plant via the root system and translocate and survive in above-ground tissues. The present study is first to investigate effects of an abiotic stress, salinity, on the interaction of plants with a bacterial human pathogen. The main sources of human bacterial contamination of plants are manures and marginal irrigation waters such as treated or un-treated wastewater. These are often saline and induce morphological, chemical and physiological changes in plants that might affect the interaction between the pathogens and the plant and thereby the potential for plant contamination. This research studied effects of salinity on the internalization of the bacterial human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Newport via the root system of sweet-basil plants, dissemination of the bacteria in the plant, and kinetics of survival in planta . Irrigation with 30 mM NaCl-salinity induced typical salt-stress effects on the plant: growth was reduced, Na and Cl concentrations increased, K and Ca concentrations reduced, osmotic potential and anti-oxidative activity were increased by 30%, stomatal conductance was reduced, and concentrations of essential-oils in the plants increased by 26%. Despite these physical, chemical and morphological changes in the plants, root internalization of the bacteria and its translocation to the shoot were not affected, and neither was the die-off rate of Salmonella in planta . The results demonstrate that the salinity-induced changes in the sweet-basil plants did not affect the interaction between Salmonella and the plant and thereby the potential for crop contamination.

  13. The Influence of Cultivars and Phenological Phases on the Accumulation of Nevadensin and Salvigenin in Basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Botond; Bernáth, Jenő; Gere, Attila; Kókai, Zoltán; Komáromi, Bonifác; Tavaszi-Sárosi, Szilvia; Varga, László; Sipos, László; Szabó, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    According to the earlier literature the optimum harvest time for basil is at the full flowering stage if accumulation of essential oil is taken into account. In this research we have investigated our gene-bank stored basil accessions to determine whether the harvest timing is variety specific or not considering their flavonoid accumulation pattern. In our work we have determined by HPLC the content of two main flavonoid compounds, salvigenin and nevadensin, of eight different gene bank accessions from 2013 of Ocimum basilicum L. Data were analysed with the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Multiple pairwise comparisons were made using the Conover-Iman procedure where the significance level was 5%. We have observed that the optimum harvest time is at the full flowering stage in the case of accessions 'Genovese' and 'Piros', but this was not verified for the others. The result of our experiment has shown that the maximum salvigenin and nevadensin content was detected both at the full- and early flowering period. Almost in all phenological phases the accession 'M. Grünes' accumulated the highest level of nevadensin, while accession 'Lengyel' produced the lowest results in all phenological phases. Generally it could be observed that compared with nevadensin more salvigenin is accumulated, and it is independent of the phenological phases. In the case of salvigenin, 'M. Grünes' accession produced the largest quantity and accession 'Dark Opal' showed the lowest values. Our analyses demonstrated that harvest at different phenological phases may result in different amounts of active agents according to the cultivar.

  14. The Effect of Static Magnetic Forces on Water Contents and Photosynthetic Pigments in Sweet Basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taia, Wafaa K; Kotbi, Abeer M; AlZahrani, Hassan S

    2007-01-01

    Three different magnetic regimes; aerial, surface and buried; each with three different forces, have been used to investigate their effects on the water contents and photosynthetic pigments of sweet basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.). Two groups of sweet basil seeds, Ocimum basilicum L. have been cultivated, one under normal conditions and the second has been subdivided into three portion (aerial, surface and buried) to examine the effect of different magnetic forces coming from the three directions on the resulted plants. At all directions of magnets, water contents have been significantly affected by the magnetic forces. Chlorophyll A and carotene contents have been affected, as well, according to the three magnetic forces coming from soil surface regime only. Chlorophyll B did not significantly affected by differences magnetic forces in the three regimes, but it is affected by magnetism wherever its direction or force. But all the photosynthetic pigments contents (Chlorophyll A, B and Carotenes) decreased significantly than the control in the three magnetic regimes., but without any effect according to differences in the magnetic force in the aerial and burried regimes of magnetism. It was concluded that magnetism affects both water absorption and retention , the most influenced regime was the aerial magnets followed by the surface and buried ones. This result can be interpreted by the ionization of water which makes water ions respond to magnetic forces. Photosynthetic pigments have been decreased significantly by the exposure to magnetic fields, irrespective to its direction or force and this may be due to the effect of magnetic fields on the reduction in plastids inside the cells. (author)

  15. Stavropigiyskiy Institute and the Society of St. Basil the Great: the history of the establishment, activities, relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Svitlyk

    2017-06-01

    New materials concerning cultural cooperation problems of mentioned societies have been introduced into the scientific circulation in this publication. First of all, it is related to the signed agreement between Stavropigiyskiy Institute and the Society of St. Basil the Great, which is dedicated to sales process of church and secular literature. Epistolary communication between superiors of the societies has also been analyzed. Private letters is an important source for researchers. They have great scientific value. They are especially valuable for studying the heritage of famous historical figures, as in such letters different thoughts, which sometimes were not embodied in the scientific works, were often described. A description of correspondence between scientists, its subjects, importance for the implementation of private co-operation and cultural development has been offered by the author of the essay. The archives are the subject of the special scientific value. The authors of the studied letters discussed extremely important issues, such as magyarization of the intelligentsia of Transcarpathia, the influence of polonization on public life in Galicia and, as the consequence, the rapid spread of russophile sentiments there. In the analyzed letters a lot of information has been found, which proves the existence of close contacts on both sides of the Carpathians. The correspondence between people of Transcarpathia and Galicia to certain extent revived culture and education in the Region. Based on the processed material, conclusions of the study about the role of Stavropigiysky Institute in Lviv and the Society of St. Basil in Uzhgorod on the cultural development of Ukrainian lands in general have been made, and also about the importance of their mutual cooperation for inter-regional unity of Ukrainian lands. This fact is especially important in modern situation in Ukraine.

  16. "Holy anorexia"-relevant or relic? Religiosity and anorexia nervosa among Finnish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipilä, Pyry; Harrasova, Gulnara; Mustelin, Linda; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Since medieval times, an association between religiosity and anorexia nervosa has been suggested, but few systematic studies exist. This study examines in a nationwide setting whether personal or family religiosity is associated with lifetime anorexia nervosa among women in adolescence and early adulthood. Women (N = 2,825) from the 1975 to 1979 birth cohorts of Finnish twins were screened for lifetime DSM-5 anorexia nervosa (N = 92). Parental religiosity was assessed by self-report when the women were aged 16 years. The women self-reported their religiosity at ages 16 and 22 to 27 years. Parental religiosity did not increase the risk of lifetime anorexia nervosa, and neither did religiosity of the women themselves in adolescence. In early adulthood, a J-shaped curve was compatible with the data, indicating increased risk both at low and high levels of religiosity, but this result was statistically non-significant. Religiosity was weakly negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction. There was some suggestive evidence for socioregional variation in the association of religiosity with lifetime anorexia nervosa. In this first population study to directly address religiosity and anorexia nervosa, no evidence was found for a significant association of religiosity with anorexia nervosa either at the personal or family level. Some regional differences are possible. A modest protective association of religiosity with body dissatisfaction is also possible. Despite compelling case descriptions of "holy anorexia," religiosity does not appear to be a central factor in the development of anorexia nervosa in Finland, a highly secularized Christian country. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Dust in the wind: Soiling of solar devices : Is there a Holy Grail solution? (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence; Costa, Suellen C.; Machado, Marcelo; Diniz, Antonia Sonia A. C.

    2016-09-01

    Soiling, the sedimentation of particulate matter (on the size scale of 1/10 the diameter of a human hair) on the exposed surfaces of solar collectors, is a growing area of concern for solar-system performance, reliability, maintenance, and cost. In the case of photovoltaics (PV), the condition of this first-surface of interaction of the incident photons is critical for ensuring that the maximum-possible light reaches the conversion devices. This paper begins with a more than seven-decade historical look at the research invested into this problem, highlighting the motivation and milestones; the researchers and the progress. The current growing terrestrial markets for solar have brought a new focus on soiling and dust issues. That is because many of these new markets in the solar-rich geographic regions of our world are ironically also in the most dust-rich and soiling-prone ones as well. This paper continues to provide an overview of the status of current research efforts toward understanding the basic soiling mechanisms, the relationships to the PV technology approaches, the geographical differences (highlighting Brasil, India, and the MENA region) in the severity of the problem, the dust physics and chemistry—all relating to the current and future mitigation approaches. Included are some fundamental microscale through nanoscale examinations at how individual dust particles adhere to module glass surfaces—as well as how the particles might stick to each other under certain environmental conditions. These observations are used to show how fundamental science may lead to the macroscale engineering solutions of these soiling problems. This presentation is designed to both overview the soiling area and highlight some of the current and future research directions, speculate on short-term approaches preventing solar showstoppers, and speculate on some "holy-grail" schemes that might lead to the final solutions.

  18. Ceramics Praises the Psalms.”The Holy Trinity” Church from Siret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ”The Holy Trinity” (”Sfânta Treime” church from Siret by tradition, should be the oldest monument in the form a clover of the religious architecture of Moldavia. By its architectural and decorative elements, the exterior of this church entirely foreshadows the artistic virtues of monuments from the time of Petru I Muşat. Therefore, the apses have a series of niches elongated at their edges with semicircular arches and decorated in tambourines with bricks. Values are plan and decoration items speaking about relations with the Byzantine-Balkan world. The outside consisting of rough gray-green stone of the monument is refreshed by a bright and harmonious scenery of ceramic ornaments made out of bricks, leg discs in the form of mushrooms and cruciform colored flowers. At the top of the monument, about two thirds of the height of the walls (from the pedestal upwards, there can be seen a frieze consisting of two rows of discs alternating with cruciform flowers. They range from the apses (the south side as well all the way up to the window of the narthex. The semicircular arches of brick niches are also sharpened by a row of discs alternating with cruciform flowers. The windows with the exception of the one of the northern apse are decorated at the top with one rectangular frame consisting of two rows of glazed discs and three cruciform flowers, all framed by glazed bricks (either plain or coloured. The same decoration can also be seen at the niche above the entrance door destined for the church icon. Above this frame, there can be seen a cornice made out of bricks arranged in a zig zag pattern. The continuous development and enrichment of the ceramic façade during the next century will lead to the finishing touches, in the reign of Stefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great, of a harmonious and original decorative.

  19. Bio-Ethanol Production from Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    ethanol. Fuel ethanol is known as bio-ethanol, since it is produced from plant materials by biological processes. Bioethanol is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar containing crops like corn, maize, wheat, sugar cane, sugar beet, potatoes, ...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure fueling stations by location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about ethanol fueling infrastructure; codes, standards, and safety; and ethanol equipment options. Maps & Data E85 Fueling Station

  1. Will the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (Act No 22, 2007 challenge the holy grails of South African medical doctors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The South African healthcare establishment is primarily managed and overseen by medical doctors. This powerbase was established over many years, especially after the early 1930s. World War II gave doctors the final approval to take this supervisory and sole decision-making role regarding healthcare training, practice models and other health workers in South Africa. This phenomenon led initially to doctors having a certain jurisdiction to set the pace and to make the rules. This jurisdiction became more comprehensive and extent with time in South Africa to include a collection of unique medical traditions, customs, privileges, habits, healthcare rights and empowerment as well as exclusive medical training and practice models to become known as the holy grails of the South African medical doctors. The power of these holy grails has become untouchable to anyone outside the medical domain. Since the 1980s, some powers vested in these holy grails have been lost to the allied health professions and to other insiders of the HPCSA brotherhood itself. The recognition of traditional healers by means of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (Act No 22, 2007 seems to challenge these holy grails of medical doctors. This may also create internal conflict in the South African medical brotherhood that can cost medical doctors more ground. Aims The study aimed to determine if the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007 challenges the holy grails of South African medical doctors, subsequently affecting the long-established management and guardian system of the medical field within South Africa or the practice rights of medical doctors. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study that makes use of an historical approach by means of investigation and a literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers as primary sources to reflect on the possible effect of the Traditional Health

  2. Studies on production techniques of some herb plants: I Effect of Agryl P17 mulching on herb yield and volatile oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and marjoram (Origanum majorana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hälvä

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Agryl P17 fiber-mulching of cold-sensitive herbal plants, basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and marjoram (Origanum majorana L., were studied at three locations in Finland (1984—1985. The growing sites were Helsinki (60° 14' N, Sahalahti (61° 28' N, and Inari (69° 04' N for both species in 1984, and Helsinki for marjoram in 1985. Agryl P17 mulching increased basil yield at all locations. The uncovered basil yielded approximately 54 kg/100 m2 and when grown under the mulch, more than three fold, 191 kg/ 100m2. In the north (Inari, however, basil and marjoram did not give practically any yield. Marjoram did not benefit from mulching either in the south: the yield was 96 kg without and 80 kg/100m2 with mulching. The vegetation under the mulch was severely affected by fungus diseases. The volatile oil content in the dried basil herb ranged from 0.46 to 0.93 %. There were no significant differences in the total oil content whether basil was grown with or without Agryl P17. The oil content in marjoram ranged from 1.94 to 2.55 % the total content being significantly higher when grown under the cover.

  3. The Adaption of the Idea of Divine Message in Both Old and New Testamnets and the Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delara Nemati Pirali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available   The way by which god communicates with human is considered as one of the most importatnt issues in the theological discussions of Abrahamic religions. According to the old testament teachings, the purpose of the inculcation of divine message is to notify god religion to B'nai Israel (children of Isreal through the chosen god servants and to establish a divine orders obliged based monotheistic society in the holy land. On the other hand, due to its specific understanding of human and divine message , the Christianity offers different concepts, ways and objectives. In this construe, the concept of divine message has been digressioned from its original definition and has been changed to the visualization of Allah (God within the shape of human aiming at complete exploration of divine attributes through making god to be attended among his servants and relasing them from the bound of god orders as well as purification them form inherent sins. In this idea, human is unable to promote himself without visualizing god. The holy Quran Kareem, determines divine message through methods similar to and adopted from those of old testament. The only difference is that in this definition the addressees of the divine message are not given groups of human and its purpose is to promote human being up to "god servant" level as well as to manifest divine attributes inside people by making them to be obliged to religion requirements and to be submit to the will of god. According to the teachings of these religions, the holy text of each of them has been guaranteed by god and their texts are reliable and are considered as complete proof.

  4. Ocular hazards of the colors used during the festival-of-colors (Holi) in India--malachite green toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpandian, T; Saha, K; Ravi, A K; Kumari, S S; Biswas, N R; Ghose, S

    2007-01-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nature of the colors used and their toxicity to the eye upon exposure to them during celebration of Holi (our festival-of-colors). Color powders and formulations were procured at random in and around Delhi during the festival. The green/bluish-green colors reported with the higher incidence of ocular toxicity were subjected for further evaluation. Eyewash fluid collected from the patients exposed to the colors was also subjected for analysis. This study was further extended to evaluate the corneal penetration of malachite green using goat cornea in perfusion chamber. In 16/18 color samples collected, malachite green or 4-[(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-phenyl-methyl]-N,N-dimethyl-aniline was detected at different concentrations. In the eyewash fluid of four patients, HPLC estimation confirmed the presence of malachite green at concentrations of 1.3, 0.18, 3.5 and 5.4 microg in 250 ml which was responsible for its reported toxicity. The in vitrotrans-corneal penetration studies did not show any detectable amount of malachite green in effluent fluid-in vitro tissue retention studies revealed that increasing the contact time increases tissue concentration. After 2 min of exposure, the tissue concentration was significantly higher. To conclude, malachite green was extensively used in our festival of Holi and has caused severe ocular irritation with epithelial defect upon exposure, though it did not penetrate through the cornea-further in vitro and in vivo studies are required on colors used in Holi.

  5. Effects of Recitation of Holy Quran on Anxiety of Women before Cesarean Section: A Randomize Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjbar N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Anxiety is a kind of agitation and concern stemming from the feeling of threat or hazard in human. It can decrease or increase the understanding ability of individuals. Most clinical patients have anxiety in confronting a new and unknown environment such as hospitals. A non-pharmacological method such as pleasant sound of Holy Quran recitation can be used as a useful and effective procedure to decrease the anxiety. The aim of this research was to study the recitation effects of Holy Quran on anxiety of woman before cesarean.Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 80 women expecting cesarean section were randomly selected regarding their characteristics and divided into two groups: control group (30 members and experimental group (50 members. Data collection instrument was a two-part questionnaire including demographic characteristics, and Spilburge’s state-trait anxiety inventory. The degree of anxiety for the two groups was evaluated before cesarean, then before innate cesarean, the Holy Quran recitation was played for experimental group for 20 minutes by the sound of famous recite, Abdol Basset. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square, single sample & paired T-test, and a Pvalue of 0<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Results: The results showed that the degree of anxiety decreased in experimental group after intervention (P=0.0001, but not in the control group.(P=0.98 Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference after intervention (P=0.002.Conclusion: According to the results of this research and because of the agreeable rhythmic intonation of the Quran as gnostic music and its miracle aspect, we can use its tone as a non medicinal method for reducing anxiety before cesarean women.

  6. Brazilian third world ethanol pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P

    1981-01-01

    A financial cost model has been developed in Brazil, under contract from th United Nations Industrial Development Organization, for fermentation ethanol production based on sugar cane molasses, sugar cane juice and cassava. The model is designed to help in analysing the feasibility and implementation of ethanol programs in developing countries.

  7. Ethanol from mixed waste paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstetter, J.D.; Lyons, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    The technology, markets, and economics for converting mixed waste paper to ethanol in Washington were assessed. The status of enzymatic and acid hydrolysis projects were reviewed. The market for ethanol blended fuels in Washington shows room for expansion. The economics for a hypothetical plant using enzymatic hydrolysis were shown to be profitable

  8. Reactions of ethanol on Ru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Liu, Feng; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption and reactions of ethanol on Ru(0001) were studied with temperatureprogrammed desorption (TPD) and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Ethanol was found to adsorb intact onto Ru(0001) below 100 K. Heating to 250 K resulted in formation of ethoxy groups, which undergo

  9. Prediction: The Modern-Day Sport-Science and Sports-Medicine "Quest for the Holy Grail".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Alan; Fanchini, Maurizio; Coutts, Aaron J

    2017-05-01

    In high-performance sport, science and medicine practitioners employ a variety of physical and psychological tests, training and match monitoring, and injury-screening tools for a variety of reasons, mainly to predict performance, identify talented individuals, and flag when an injury will occur. The ability to "predict" outcomes such as performance, talent, or injury is arguably sport science and medicine's modern-day equivalent of the "Quest for the Holy Grail." The purpose of this invited commentary is to highlight the common misinterpretation of studies investigating association to those actually analyzing prediction and to provide practitioners with simple recommendations to quickly distinguish between methods pertaining to association and those of prediction.

  10. The effect of essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) on UV-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanojević, Jasna; Berić, Tanja; Opačić, Biljana; Vuković-Gačić, Branka; Simić, Draga; Knežević-Vukčević, Jelena [Institute of Botany, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2008-07-01

    The antimutagenic potential of essential oil (EO) of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and its major constituent linalool were studied with the E. coli K12 and S. cerevisiae D7 assays. In the E. coli assay, EO and linalool inhibited UV-induced mutagenesis in a repair-proficient strain, but had no effect on spontaneous mutagenesis in repair-proficient, nucleotide excision repair-deficient, and mismatch-deficient strains. By testing participation of different mechanisms involved in antimutagenesis, it was concluded that the antimutagenic effect against UV-induced mutagenesis involved decrease of protein synthesis and cell proliferation which led to increased efficiency of nucleotide excision repair. An antimutagenic effect of basil derivatives in S. cerevisiae was not detected. (author)

  11. The effect of essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) on UV-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanojević, Jasna; Berić, Tanja; Opačić, Biljana; Vuković-Gačić, Branka; Simić, Draga; Knežević-Vukčević, Jelena

    2008-01-01

    The antimutagenic potential of essential oil (EO) of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and its major constituent linalool were studied with the E. coli K12 and S. cerevisiae D7 assays. In the E. coli assay, EO and linalool inhibited UV-induced mutagenesis in a repair-proficient strain, but had no effect on spontaneous mutagenesis in repair-proficient, nucleotide excision repair-deficient, and mismatch-deficient strains. By testing participation of different mechanisms involved in antimutagenesis, it was concluded that the antimutagenic effect against UV-induced mutagenesis involved decrease of protein synthesis and cell proliferation which led to increased efficiency of nucleotide excision repair. An antimutagenic effect of basil derivatives in S. cerevisiae was not detected. (author)

  12. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, M; Steenfeldt, S

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and β-carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

  13. Formulation and in Vivo Evaluation for Anti-Aging Effects of an Emulsion Containing Basil Extract Using non- Invasive Biophysical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Akhtar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of study: Skin aging is a complex process induced by constant exposure to ultraviolet (UV irradiation and damages human skin. UV generates reactive oxygen species leading to collagen deficiency and eventually skin wrinkling. Basil contains a number of phenolics and favonoids which possess antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to formulate and investigate the antiaging potential of a cream containing Basil extract. Methods: A single blinded study was conducted using non-invasive methods. Formulation containing 3% of the concentrated extract of Basil was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of w/o emulsion and base contained no extract. Both creams were stored at different storage conditions of 8°C, 25°C, 40°C and 40°C+ 75% relative humidity to predict their stabilities. The formulation and base were evaluated for their effects on various skin parameters i.e., moisture and trans epidermal water loss (TEWL, volume, energy and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS. Results: Significant effects (p≤0.05 were observed for both creams in the case of TEWL. The base showed insignificant (p≤0.05 while formulation showed significant effects on skin moisture. Volume, SELS SEr (skin roughness, SEsc (skin scaliness, SEsm (skin smoothness, SEw (skin wrinkles parameter showed significant decline while texture parameter of ‘Energy' showed significant increase. Conclusion: The results statistically indicated that the active formulation containg extract of Basil exert antiaging effects when applied topically.

  14. Effects on humans elicited by inhaling the fragrance of essential oils: sensory test, multi-channel thermometric study and forehead surface potential wave measurement on basil and peppermint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Tomoko; Sugawara, Yoshiaki

    2003-01-01

    The effects on humans inhaling the fragrance of essential oils were examined in terms of a sensory test, a multi-channel skin thermometer study and a portable forehead surface electroencephalographic (IBVA-EEG) measurement. The essential oils examined in this study were those of basil and peppermint, because our previous sensory test had indicated an opposite effect of these essential oils when mental work was undertaken; the inhalation of basil produced a more favorable impression after work than before work, whereas peppermint produced an unfavorable impression under these circumstances. For subjects administered basil or peppermint before and after mental work using an inhalator, a series of multi-channel skin thermometer studies and IBVA-EEG measurements were conducted. Using such paired odorants, our results showed that when compared between before and after mental work assigned to subjects: (1) the inhalation of basil, in which a favorable impression was predominant on the whole in terms of the sensory evaluation spectrum, was shown to be associated upward tendency in finger-tip skin temperature; (2) whereas these situations were opposite in the case of peppermint, in which the reversed (unfavorable) feature in sensory profiling was accompanied by a decrease in the magnitude of beta waves and a decrease in the finger-tip skin temperature both based on Welch's method, even at p < 0.01, implying a decreasing propensity of the aroused state and of the arousal response. The elucidation of such sensory and physiological endpoints of paired odorants would be of primary importance for human chemoreception science, because these are only rarely recorded during the same experiments, and this paradigm is highly informative about non-verbal responses to odorants.

  15. A Shigella sonnei outbreak traced to imported basil--the importance of good typing tools and produce traceability systems, Norway, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Herrador, B R; Nilsen, E; Cudjoe, K S; Jensvoll, L; Kvamme, J M; Lindegård Aanstad, A; Lindstedt, B A; Nygård, K; Severinsen, G; Werner-Johansen, Ø; Wester, A L; Wiklund, M; Vold, L

    2013-12-05

    On 9 October 2011, the University Hospital of North Norway alerted the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH) about an increase in Shigella sonnei infections in Tromsø. The isolates had an identical ‘multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis’ (MLVA) profile. Most cases had consumed food provided by delicatessen X. On 14 October, new S. sonnei cases with the same MLVA-profile were reported from Sarpsborg, south-eastern Norway. An outbreak investigation was started to identify the source and prevent further cases. All laboratory-confirmed cases from both clusters were attempted to be interviewed. In addition, a cohort study was performed among the attendees of a banquet in Tromsø where food from delicatessen X had been served and where some people had reported being ill. A trace-back investigation was initiated. In total, 46 cases were confirmed (Tromsø= 42; Sarpsborg= 4). Having eaten basil pesto sauce or fish soup at the banquet in Tromsø were independent risk factors for disease. Basil pesto was the only common food item that had been consumed by confirmed cases occurring in Tromsø and Sarpsborg. The basil had been imported and delivered to both municipalities by the same supplier. No basil from the specific batch was left on the Norwegian market when it was identified as the likely source. As a result of the multidisciplinary investigation, which helped to identify the source, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority, together with NIPH, planned to develop recommendations for food providers on how to handle fresh plant produce prior to consumption.

  16. Changes in yogurt fermentation characteristics, and antioxidant potential and in vitro inhibition of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme upon the inclusion of peppermint, dill and basil

    OpenAIRE

    Amirdivani, Shabboo

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita), dill (Anethum graveolens) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) on yogurt formation, proteolysis and inhibition of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE). Herbal-yogurts had faster rates of pH reduction than plain-yogurt. All herbal-yogurts had higher (p < 0.05) antioxidant activities than plain-yogurt, both at the end of fermentation and throughout the storage period. The o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) peptides in herbal-yogurts in...

  17. An Assessment of Air Quality in the Surrounding Holy Places of Mecca, Saudi Arabia during Hajj

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, H. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Hussain, M. M.; Khatib, F.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The associations of exposure to air pollution and adverse human health effects have been demonstrated in many epidemiologic studies. Hajj, an annual pilgrimage of Islam, draws millions of pilgrims from more than 200 countries for religious rituals in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The city is surrounded by mountains with a population of 1.7 million, which gets doubles or even more during Hajj. The city centers on the Grand Mosque (Masjid Al-haram), connected with the network of tunnels. Main Hajj pilgrimage route for five days extends 20 km to the east and includes "Mina", "Arafat", and "Muzdalifah". A detailed study was conducted in Mecca, its tunnels, and surrounding holy places during Hajj (October 13-17, 2013). Spatial and temporal variations in total suspended particulate (TSP), PM10 , PM7 , PM2.5 , PM1 , ozone (O3), and black carbon (BC) levels along the route were recorded using portable monitors and GPS to assess the status of air quality. This is the first study to elucidate the exposure to air pollutants among pilgrims. Extremely high levels of all pollutants were observed during the intensive measuring periods. For example, the PM7 , PM2.5 , O3, and BC concentrations of up to 9,433 µg/m3, 484 µg/m3, 444 ppb, and 468 µg/m3, respectively, were observed. Results of this investigation revealed that most routes had on average exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for PM10 and PM2.5 . The reasons for the high air pollutants concentrations are most probably high volume of traffic, construction work, re-suspension of particles, and geographical conditions (arid regions). The pilgrim's longer trip duration lead to their highest whole trip exposure to air pollutants, which indicate that they are possibly subject to higher health risk. Better understanding of air pollution exposure and their determinants in the environments will contribute to the development of more appropriate exposure reductive strategies and have significant public health meanings.

  18. Changes in the content of total nitrogen and mineral nitrogen in the basil herb depending on the cultivar and nitrogen nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dzida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Among fundamental nutrients, nitrogen fertilization is considered one of the most effective factors affecting both the yield and the quality of plant material. Nitrogen form used for fertilizing is also of great importance. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of nitrogen nutrition (calcium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, and urea as well as (green, purple, and‘Fino Verde’ on the chemical composition and yielding of basil (Ocimum basilicumL.. After drying the plant material at a temperature of 60°C and milling, total nitrogen was determined by means of Kjeldahl method, while mineral nitrogen content (N-NH 4, N-NO 3 was analyzed in 2% acetic acid extract. Yield of fresh basil matter depended significantly on the variety grown. The highest yields were obtained from a cultivar of ‘Fino Verde’ fertilized with ammonium nitrate. The purple variety plants fertilized with urea were characterized by a largest amount of total nitrogen. The‘Fino Verde’cultivar fertilized with urea accumulated the least quantities of nitrates in the basil herb.

  19. Essential oil composition of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in symbiotic relationship with Piriformospora indica and paclobutrazol application under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramati, Sara; Pirdashti, Hemmatollah; Babaeizad, Valliollah; Dehestani, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Essential oil content and oil composition of paclobutrazol treated sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plant inoculated with Piriformospora indica under salt stress were investigated by GC-MS. The results show a slight increase in essential oil content when basil plants subjected to moderate salinity stress (3 dS m -1 of NaCl). It decreased signifiicantly with increasing salinity level to 9 dS m -1 . The findings revealed that leaf area, above ground and leaf dry weights, essential oil content and yield were significantly affected by P. indica inoculation, however paclobutrazol application significantly influenced essential oil yield but not content. Fungal symbiosis as well as paclobutrazol application ameliorated the negative effects of salinity on dry matter and essential oil yield. The main constituents found in the volatile oil of O. basilicum in control treatment were Geranial (26.03%), Neral (24.88%) and Estragole (24.78%). The compounds concentrations showed some differences in P. indica and paclobutrazol treatments. The results demonstrate that micorrhiza-like fungi concomitantly increase essential oil production and biomass in sweet basil, a medicinal herb rich in commercially valuable essential oils.

  20. Tabulate Corals after the Frasnian/Famennian Crisis: A Unique Fauna from the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapalski, Mikołaj K; Berkowski, Błażej; Wrzołek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Famennian tabulate corals were very rare worldwide, and their biodiversity was relatively low. Here we report a unique tabulate fauna from the mid- and late Famennian of the western part of the Holy Cross Mountains (Kowala and Ostrówka), Poland. We describe eight species (four of them new, namely ?Michelinia vinni sp. nov., Thamnoptychia mistiaeni sp. nov., Syringopora kowalensis sp. nov. and Syringopora hilarowiczi sp. nov.); the whole fauna consists of ten species (two others described in previous papers). These corals form two assemblages-the lower, mid-Famennian with Thamnoptychia and the upper, late Famennian with representatives of genera ?Michelinia, Favosites, Syringopora and ?Yavorskia. The Famennian tabulates from Kowala represent the richest Famennian assemblage appearing after the F/F crisis (these faunas appear some 10 Ma after the extinction event). Corals described here most probably inhabited deeper water settings, near the limit between euphotic and disphotic zones or slightly above. At generic level, these faunas show similarities to other Devonian and Carboniferous faunas, which might suggest their ancestry to at least several Carboniferous lineages. Tabulate faunas described here represent new recruits (the basin of the Holy Cross mountains was not a refuge during the F/F crisis) and have no direct evolutionary linkage to Frasnian faunas from Kowala. The colonization of the seafloor took place in two separate steps: first was monospecific assemblage of Thamnoptychia, and later came the diversified Favosites-Syringopora-Michelinia fauna.

  1. Compatibility of Education and Training in the Light of The Seerah of the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Khadija Aziz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Humankind has been granted a special status due to its being vicegerent of Allah on earth for he has been entrusted with the responsibility to keep order in the world according to the directives of its Creator. Humans are guided by Prophets in history. Some of these Prophets have got greater value, sphere and depth of influence on humanity due to different factors. Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him is the last Prophet of Allah, for the eternity and whole humanity. After him, Islam is completed for all times to come. Islam is a complete code of life; education and training constituting its crux. Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him was greatly concerned and cognizant of education and training of his followers which is evident from multifarious events of his life. Major emphasis was laid on training coupled with education and both are, thus, inevitably interlocked with each other. It is clear that education was considered an assimilation of knowledge and training was taken as its reflection in daily life. The verses of the Holy Quran and sayings of the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him bear a perfect testimony to this aspect of foremost significance. The earlier people in the fold of Islam were much concerned about training and nurturing, hence they avoided mere memorization of facts. The present paper is an attempt to discover the compatibility between education and training in the light of the paradigm of secret of the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him of Islam.

  2. Different pollinator assemblages ensure reproductive success of Cleisostoma linearilobatum (Orchidaceae) in fragmented holy hill forest and traditional tea garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qiang; Han, Jessie Yc; Gao, JiangYun

    2016-02-24

    Orchids are generally recognized to have specialist pollination systems and low fruit set is often thought to be characteristic of the family. In this study, we investigated the reproductive ecology of Cleisostoma linearilobatum, an epiphytic tropical orchid, in a holy hill forest fragment and a traditional tea garden in SW China using comparable methods. C. linearilobatum is self-compatible and dependent on insects for pollination. Fruit production in natural conditions was both pollinator- and resource-limited. However, the natural fruit set remained stable over multiple years at both sites. Pollination observations showed that C. linearilobatum has a generalized pollination system and seven insect species were observed as legitimate pollinators. Although the visit frequencies of different pollinators were different in the two sites, the pollinator assemblages ensured reproductive success of C. linearilobatum in both study sites over multiple years. The results partly explain why C. linearilobatum is so successful in the area, and also suggest that holy hill forest fragments and traditional tea gardens in Xishuangbanna are important in preserving orchids, especially those with generalist pollination.

  3. Queering the cosmology of the vikings: a queer analysis of the cult of Odin and "holy white stones".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Brit

    2008-01-01

    Ideas concerning Eros, honor and death were central to the Norse perception of the world. Odin is the greatest war god, and associated with manliness. However, Odin is also the most powerful master of seid (sorcery), an activity associated with women. Seid may be interpreted as a form of shamanism. If a man performed seid he could be accused of ergi, that is, unmanliness. Therefore it could be said that Odin exercised an activity considered unmanly. How could Odin perform seid without losing his position as the god of war and warriors? This paradox is discussed from a queer theoretical perspective. On this basis a new interpretation of the so-called "holy white" phallic stones in western Norway is suggested. Most of these stones are associated with burials from the later part of the Scandinavian Early Iron Age. The temporal distribution of the white phallic stones correlates well with the increasing importance of the cult of Odin. There may be a cultic association between the cult of Odin and the burial practices involving white holy phallic stones.

  4. Tabulate Corals after the Frasnian/Famennian Crisis: A Unique Fauna from the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj K Zapalski

    Full Text Available Famennian tabulate corals were very rare worldwide, and their biodiversity was relatively low. Here we report a unique tabulate fauna from the mid- and late Famennian of the western part of the Holy Cross Mountains (Kowala and Ostrówka, Poland. We describe eight species (four of them new, namely ?Michelinia vinni sp. nov., Thamnoptychia mistiaeni sp. nov., Syringopora kowalensis sp. nov. and Syringopora hilarowiczi sp. nov.; the whole fauna consists of ten species (two others described in previous papers. These corals form two assemblages-the lower, mid-Famennian with Thamnoptychia and the upper, late Famennian with representatives of genera ?Michelinia, Favosites, Syringopora and ?Yavorskia. The Famennian tabulates from Kowala represent the richest Famennian assemblage appearing after the F/F crisis (these faunas appear some 10 Ma after the extinction event. Corals described here most probably inhabited deeper water settings, near the limit between euphotic and disphotic zones or slightly above. At generic level, these faunas show similarities to other Devonian and Carboniferous faunas, which might suggest their ancestry to at least several Carboniferous lineages. Tabulate faunas described here represent new recruits (the basin of the Holy Cross mountains was not a refuge during the F/F crisis and have no direct evolutionary linkage to Frasnian faunas from Kowala. The colonization of the seafloor took place in two separate steps: first was monospecific assemblage of Thamnoptychia, and later came the diversified Favosites-Syringopora-Michelinia fauna.

  5. Efficiency of n-octyl-acetate, 2-heptanone and citronellal in repelling bees from basil (Ocimum sellowii - Labiatae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darclet Teresinha Malerbo-Souza

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test repellent substances for honey bees, Apis mellifera, for basil, Ocimum sellowii, and to study the most frequent insects in this crop as well as its behaviors. The frequency of honey bees did not decrease with the application of n.octyl.acetate, citronellal and 2.heptanone, used as repellents, in the concentrations 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% diluted in water. However, when the products (20% were diluted in water (75% and glycerine (5% were effective in repelling those bees of the basil flowers for a period of 20 minutes. The flower lasted, on average, 30 h from the bud phase until the flower withered. The flowers number opened by inflorescence was, on average, 5.65 flowers, and the inflorescence presented, on average, 160 flowers-buds. The basil was visited mainly for the honey bee (98.0%, followed by Augochloropsis electra bee - Halictidae (2.0% and visits sporadics of Diptera and Lepidoptera, collected only nectar. The honey bee frequency increased during the day to 14:00, decreasing soon after, accompanying the curve of the temperature sets registered in the experiment days.O objetivo do experimento foi estudar a polinização em manjericão (Ocimum sellowii, a fim de verificar sua atratividade para as abelhas Apis mellifera, os insetos mais freqüentes, bem como seus comportamentos e testar substâncias repelentes para as abelhas A. mellifera. A flor durou, em média, 30 horas, desde sua abertura até o murchamento. O número de flores abertas por inflorescência foi, em média, 5,65 flores, sendo que a inflorescência possuía, em média, 160 botões florais. O manjericão foi visitado quase que exclusivamente pela abelha A. mellifera africanizada (98,0%, seguida pela abelha Augochloropsis electra-Halictidae (2,0% e visitas esporádicas de dípteros e lepidópteros, sendo que todos coletavam apenas néctar. A freqüência da abelha africanizada aumentou no decorrer do dia até às 14 horas, diminuindo em

  6. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  7. ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL CHARACTERISTICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL-DIESEL MIX FOR AUTOMOTIVE. DIESEL ... diesel engine and the engine speed, torque, power and specific fuel consumption (sfc) were determine .... heated on an electric stove and stirred continuously.

  8. Establishing an ethanol production business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Many Saskatchewan communities are interested in the potential benefits of establishing an ethanol production facility. A guide is presented to outline areas that communities should consider when contemplating the development of an ethanol production facility. Political issues affecting the ethanol industry are discussed including environmental impacts, United States legislation, Canadian legislation, and government incentives. Key success factors in starting a business, project management, marketing, financing, production, physical requirements, and licensing and regulation are considered. Factors which must be taken into consideration by the project manager and team include markets for ethanol and co-products, competent business management staff, equity partners for financing, production and co-product utilization technologies, integration with another facility such as a feedlot or gluten plant, use of outside consultants, and feedstock, water, energy, labour, environmental and site size requirements. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Production of ethanol from cellulose (sawdust)

    OpenAIRE

    Otulugbu, Kingsley

    2012-01-01

    The production of ethanol from food such as corn, cassava etc. is the most predominate way of producing ethanol. This has led to a shortage in food, inbalance in food chain, increased food price and indirect land use. This thesis thus explores using another feed for the production of ethanol- hence ethanol from cellulose. Sawdust was used to carry out the experiment from the production of ethanol and two methods were considered: SHF (Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation) and SSF (Simultaneous...

  10. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  11. Complications of Translating the Meanings of the Holy Qur'an at Word Level in the English Language in Relation to Frame Semantic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Asjad Ahmed Saeed; Siddiek, Ahmed Gumaa

    2017-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the problems resulting from the lexical choice in the translation of the Holy Qur'an to emphasize the importance of the theory of "Frame Semantics" in the translation process. It has been conducted with the aim of measuring the difference in concept between the two languages Arabic and…

  12. Water column anoxia, enhanced productivity, and concomitant changes in δ13C and δ34S across the Frasnian-Famennian boundary (Kowala - Holy Cross Mountains/Poland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Joachimski, M.M.; Ostertag-Henning, C.; Pancost, R.D.; Strauss, H.; Freeman, K.; Littke, R.; Racki, G.

    2001-01-01

    The investigation of the trace element and organic geochemistry of the Frasnian Famennian boundary section at Kowala (Holy Cross Mountains/Poland) shows that the lower water column was oxygen-deficient during late Frasnian and early Famennian times. The abundance and carbon isotopic composition of

  13. The Utopia of ‘Holy Russia’ in Today’s Geopolitical Imagination of the Russian Orthodox Church: a Case Study of Patriarch Kirill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Suslov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the myth of ‘Holy Russia,’ as restored and promoted by the Russian Orthodox Church under Patriarch Kirill (Gundiaev, and explores the new imagining identities and spatial configurations generated by this myth. While before ‘Holy Russia’ was a metaphor, associated with relics, deposited in Russian monasteries and churches, Kirill ‘geo-politicized’ it, informing it with practical political meaning, and as such it is viewed as including Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and on many occasions Moldova, and less often – Kazakhstan. The paper discusses the metaphor of ‘Holy Russia’ as a geopolitical utopia, as a postcolonial invention, and as a method of mental mapping. It uncovers Kirill’s modernist philosophy of history, based on Messianic meta-narrations of enslavement and subsequent liberation. As such, ‘Holy Russia’ does not stop colonial practices, but perpetuates them in many aspects. It continues the ‘internal re-colonization’ of the Russian population by ‘re-churchizing’ it, and by claiming to be the cultural center of the Western civilization.

  14. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, E.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G.; Cuna, D.

    2001-01-01

    In this report are presented results achieved on the process optimisation of bioethanol production from wheat straw, carried out within the ENEA's project of biomass exploitation for renewable energy. The process consists of three main steps: 1) biomass pretreatment by means of steam explosion; 2) enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction; 3) fermentation of glucose. To perform the hydrolysis step, two commercial enzymatic mixtures have been employed, mainly composed by β-glucosidase (cellobiase), endo-glucanase and exo-glucanase. The ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to ferment the glucose in he hydrolyzates. Hydrolysis yield of 97% has been obtained with steam exploded wheat straw treated at 220 0 C for 3 minutes and an enzyme to substrate ratio of 4%. It has been pointed out the necessity of washing with water the pretreated what straw, in order to remove the biomass degradation products, which have shown an inhibition effect on the yeast. At the best process conditions, a fermentation yield of 95% has been achieved. In the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process, a global conversion of 92% has been obtained, which corresponds to the production of about 170 grams of ethanol per kilogram of exploded straw [it

  15. Effects of Recitation of Holy Quran on Anxiety of Women before Cesarean Section: A Randomize Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mir Bagher AjorPaz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Anxiety is a kind of agitation and concern stemming from the feeling of threat or hazard in human. It can decrease or increase the understanding ability of individuals. Most clinical patients have anxiety in confronting a new and unknown environment such as hospitals. A non-pharmacological method such as pleasant sound of Holy Quran recitation can be used as a useful and effective procedure to decrease the anxiety. The aim of this research was to study the recitation effects of Holy Quran on anxiety of woman before cesarean.

    Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 80 women expecting cesarean section were randomly selected regarding their characteristics and divided into two groups: control group (30 members and experimental group (50 members. Data collection instrument was a two-part questionnaire including demographic characteristics, and Spilburge’s state-trait anxiety inventory. The degree of anxiety for the two groups was evaluated before cesarean, then before innate cesarean, the Holy Quran recitation was played for experimental group for 20 minutes by the sound of famous recite, Abdol Basset. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square, single sample & paired T-test, and a Pvalue of 0<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

    Results: The results showed that the degree of anxiety decreased in experimental group after intervention (P=0.0001, but not in the control group.(P=0.98 Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference after intervention (P=0.002.

    Conclusion: According to the results of this research and because of the agreeable rhythmic intonation of the Quran as gnostic music and its miracle aspect, we can use its tone as a non medicinal method for reducing anxiety before cesarean women.

  16. From Ethanol to Salsolinol: Role of Ethanol Metabolites in the Effects of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra T. Peana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the global reputation of ethanol as the psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, the neurobiological basis of the central effects of ethanol still presents some dark sides due to a number of unanswered questions related to both its precise mechanism of action and its metabolism. Accordingly, ethanol represents the interesting example of a compound whose actions cannot be explained as simply due to the involvement of a single receptor/neurotransmitter, a scenario further complicated by the robust evidence that two main metabolites, acetaldehyde and salsolinol, exert many effects similar to those of their parent compound. The present review recapitulates, in a perspective manner, the major and most recent advances that in the last decades boosted a significant growth in the understanding on the role of ethanol metabolism, in particular, in the neurobiological basis of its central effects.

  17. Foliar Exposure of Cu(OH)2 Nanopesticide to Basil ( Ocimum basilicum): Variety-Dependent Copper Translocation and Biochemical Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenjuan; Gao, Qin; Deng, Chaoyi; Wang, Yi; Lee, Wen-Yee; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2018-04-04

    In this study, low and high anthocyanin basil ( Ocimum basilicum) varieties (LAV and HAV) were sprayed with 4.8 mg Cu/per pot from Cu(OH) 2 nanowires, Cu(OH) 2 bulk (CuPro), or CuSO 4 and cultivated for 45 days. In both varieties, significantly higher Cu was determined in leaves of CuSO 4 exposed plants (691 and 672.6 mg/kg for LAV and HAV, respectively); however, only in roots of HAV, Cu was higher, compared to control ( p ≤ 0.05). Nanowires increased n-decanoic, dodecanoic, octanoic, and nonanoic acids in LAV, but reduced n-decanoic, dodecanoic, octanoic, and tetradecanoic acids in HAV, compared with control. In HAV, all compounds reduced eugenol (87%), 2-methylundecanal (71%), and anthocyanin (3%) ( p ≤ 0.05). In addition, in all plant tissues, of both varieties, nanowires and CuSO 4 reduced Mn, while CuPro increased chlorophyll contents, compared with controls ( p ≤ 0.05). Results suggest that the effects of Cu(OH) 2 pesticides are variety- and compound-dependent.

  18. UV‐B is Required for Normal Development of Oil Glands in Ocimum basilicum L. (Sweet Basil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    IOANNIDIS, DAPHNE; BONNER, LYNDA; JOHNSON, CHRISTOPHER B.

    2002-01-01

    Plants of Ocimum basilicum L. grown under glass were exposed to short treatments with supplementary UV‐B. The effect of UV‐B on volatile essential oil content was analysed and compared with morphological effects on the peltate and capitate glandular trichomes. In the absence of UV‐B, both peltate and capitate glands were incompletely developed in both mature and developing leaves, the oil sacs being wrinkled and only partially filled. UV‐B was found to have two main effects on the glandular trichomes. During the first 4 d of treatment, both peltate and capitate glands filled and their morphology reflected their ‘normal’ mature development as reported in the literature. During the following days there was a large increase in the number of broken oil sacs among the peltate glands as the mature glands broke open, releasing volatiles. Neither the number of glands nor the qualitative or quantitative composition of the volatiles was affected by UV‐B. There seems to be a requirement for UV‐B for the filling of the glandular trichomes of basil. PMID:12324268

  19. Characterization of turbulent processes by the Raman lidar system BASIL during the HD(CP)2 observational prototype experiment - HOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Summa, Donato; Stelitano, Dario; Cacciani, Marco; Scoccione, Andrea; Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2017-02-01

    Measurements carried out by the Raman lidar system BASIL are reported to demonstrate the capability of this instrument to characterize turbulent processes within the Convective Boundary Layer (CBL). In order to resolve the vertical profiles of turbulent variables, high resolution water vapour and temperature measurements, with a temporal resolution of 10 sec and a vertical resolution of 90 and 30 m, respectively, are considered. Measurements of higher-order moments of the turbulent fluctuations of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature are obtained based on the application of spectral and auto-covariance analyses to the water vapour mixing ratio and temperature time series. The algorithms are applied to a case study (IOP 5, 20 April 2013) from the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), held in Central Germany in the spring 2013. The noise errors are demonstrated to be small enough to allow the derivation of up to fourth-order moments for both water vapour mixing ratio and temperature fluctuations with sufficient accuracy.

  20. Correlated accumulation of anthocyanins and rosmarinic acid in mechanically stressed red cell suspensions of basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazzer, Pamela; Guzzo, Flavia; Levi, Marisa

    2011-02-15

    A red basil cell line (T2b) rich in rosmarinic acid (RA) was selected for the stable production of anthocyanins (ACs) in the dark. Cell suspension cultures were subjected to mechanical stress through increased agitation (switch from 90 to 150 rpm) to determine the relationship between AC and RA accumulation. Cell extracts were analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS, and the resulting data were processed with multivariate statistical analysis. MS and MS/MS spectra facilitated the putative annotation of several complex cyanidin-based ACs, which were esterified with coumaric acid and, in some cases, also with malonic acid. It was also possible to identify various RA-related molecules, some caffeic and coumaric acid derivatives and some flavanones. Mechanical stress increased the total AC and RA contents, but reduced biomass accumulation. Many metabolites were induced by mechanical stress, including RA and some of its derivatives, most ACs, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids, whereas the abundance of some RA dimers was reduced. Although AC and RA share a common early biosynthetic pathway (from phenylalanine to 4-coumaroyl-CoA) and could have similar or overlapping functions providing antioxidant activity against stress-generated reactive oxygen species, there appeared to be no competition between their individual pathways. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Undergraduate Sustainable Learning: Effects of Sustainable Soilless Media on Production and Sensory Evaluation of Cucumbers, Basil, Parsley, and Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Russell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern greenhouse production has been ~100% reliant on fossil fuels for all inputs (glazing, heating, fertilization, lighting, post-harvest. Recent innovations may reduce fossil fuel dependence but their effectiveness may not be thoroughly tested. To promote education in sustainable production, undergraduate students in Greenhouse Management class (Hort 3002W; University of Minnesota tested the effectiveness of two organic or ‘sustainable’ soilless media (Sunshine Natural and Organic Growing Mix, Sungro Metro-Mix Special Blend with a control (Sunshine LC8 Professional for crop production (height, leaf/flower number, yield and sensory evaluations (appearance, texture, taste, purchase of cucumbers (‘Big Burpless Hybrid’, ‘Sweet Burpless Hybrid’, basil (‘Opal Purple’, ‘Redleaf’, parsley (‘Green River’, ‘Extra Curled Dwarf’, ‘Hamburg’, and lettuce (Flying Saucer ‘Green’, ‘Red’. Significant differences between sustainable vs. control soils occurred for plant growth, depending on vegetative or reproductive traits, crops, and cultivars. These differences occasionally disappeared for sensory evaluation of edible components. In most crops, however, cultivars were highly significant factors. Undergraduate research can be used to provide directionality for future vegetable and herb plant breeding to focus on creating cultivars with increased yield and high consumer acceptance when grown in sustainable greenhouse soilless mixes.

  2. Comparison the effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and essential oil percentage of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.K. Tahami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to have a sustainable agriculture it is necessary to use environmental friendly inputs to improve ecological aspects of environment. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is a medicinal and vegetable crop which is cultivated in different parts of the world. An experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in year 2009. A complete randomized block design with six treatments, and three replications was used. The treatments were: control (no fertilizer, cow manure, sheep manure, hen manure, vermin-compost and NPK fertilizers. Results showed that all studied organic manures were high in measured characters in compare with chemical fertilizer. The highest plant height, leaf yield, fresh and dry matter were obtained at vermicompost. Treatments have no significant affect on Essential oil percentage. The highest essential oil yield was obtained in cow manure treatments. Third cut and the first cut had the maximum and the minimum of leaf yield, fresh and dry shoot yield, respectively. Essential oil percentage in the first cut was significantly more than other cuts, but essential oil yield, were the highest in third cut because this cut produced highest leaf yield. There was no significant difference between chemical fertilizers and control treatment in all characters except green area index and fresh and dry leaf weight in a plant.

  3. Social opportunity and ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Burger, Kelly M; Di Poce, Jason; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-11-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of pairings of ethanol sipper conditioned stimulus (CS) with social opportunity unconditioned stimulus (US) on ethanol sipper CS-directed drinking in rats. In both experiments, rats were deprived of neither food nor water, and initiation of drinking of unsweetened 3% ethanol was evaluated, as were the effects of increasing the concentration of unsweetened ethanol (3-10%) across sessions. In Experiment 1, Group Paired (n=8) received 35 trials per session wherein the ethanol sipper CS was presented for 10 s immediately prior to 15 s of social opportunity US. All rats initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol. Increasing the concentration of ethanol in the sipper CS [(3%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% (vol./vol.)] across sessions induced escalation of daily g/kg ethanol intake. To evaluate the hypothesis that the drinking in Group Paired was due to autoshaping, Experiment 2 included a pseudoconditioning control that received sipper CS and social opportunity US randomly with respect to one another. All rats in Group Paired (n=6) and in Group Random (n=6) initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol and daily mean g/kg ethanol intake in the two groups was comparable. Also comparable was daily g/kg ethanol intake, which increased for both groups with the availability of higher concentrations of ethanol in the sipper CS, up to a maximum of approximately 0.8 g/kg ethanol intake of 10% ethanol. Results indicate that random presentations of ethanol sipper CS and social opportunity US induced reliable initiation and escalation of ethanol intake, and close temporally contiguous presentations of CS and US did not induce still additional ethanol intake. This may indicate that autoshaping CR performance is not induced by these procedures, or that high levels of ethanol intake induced by factors related to pseudoconditioning produces a ceiling effect. Implications for ethanol drinking in humans are discussed.

  4. Biomedical analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples: The Holy Grail for molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donczo, Boglarka; Guttman, Andras

    2018-06-05

    More than a century ago in 1893, a revolutionary idea about fixing biological tissue specimens was introduced by Ferdinand Blum, a German physician. Since then, a plethora of fixation methods have been investigated and used. Formalin fixation with paraffin embedment became the most widely used types of fixation and preservation method, due to its proper architectural conservation of tissue structures and cellular shape. The huge collection of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sample archives worldwide holds a large amount of unearthed information about diseases that could be the Holy Grail in contemporary biomarker research utilizing analytical omics based molecular diagnostics. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the omics options for FFPE tissue sample analysis in the molecular diagnostics field. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The Hispanic Monarchy in the Era of the Holy Spirit: the Atrium of Valadés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Serés

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The autghor of this article analyse the influence of the work of the Millenarian Joaquin Da Fiore, Ramon Llull and Arias Montano on the composition of Christian Rhetoric by Diego Valadés. From the first of these writers, the author takes the notion of the era of the Holy Spirit; from the second, the concept of the Earthly City, for conquering the Indians; from the third, an idea for an engraving of significance in Valadés’ book, namely, the convent atrium. Additionally, he also take into account the idea of restitutio and reductio ad unum, with which both the mission of his Franciscan order and that of the Spanish monarchy are justified.

  6. BLENDED LEARNING METHOD BASED ON LOCAL WISDOM AS A SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE HOLY TRINITY COMMUNITY IN DISTRICT BENGKAYANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska Vasantan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bengkayang is one of the districts the outermost in Indonesia. The district has limitations and underdevelopment in various fields, one of which is in the field of education. Writing this article aims to show that blended learning based on local wisdom is very helpful coaching Holy Trinity Community (HTC in the district Bengkayang. It has been proven from previous studies, suggesting that coaching HTC with blended learning to be more flexible, effective and efficient . Blended learning has been applied HTC with a combination of conventional learning and e-learning in most areas in Indonesia. With the blended learning, the process of spiritual guidance becomes more flexible, effective and efficient so as to improve student in district Bengkayang.

  7. Historic Church of the Holy Cross in Kielce - Valuable Substance and Cultural Heritage in the Space of the Modern City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Mastalerczyk, Joanna

    2017-10-01

    In the frequently modified city fabrics, sacral architecture still plays an important role defining aspects of spatial forms and their compositional relations to the surroundings. The historic church of the Holy Cross in Kielce (1903-1939) has been a characteristic sight, a landmark and a contributing factor to the structure of the modern city. Large dimensions and dominant vertical shapes give a sturdy, recognizable form to the church architecture. The body of this Neogothic church, original and distinguishable from its surroundings, has been highly appreciated by the community members. The church provides an example of the aesthetics of the time in which it was built, it also documents changes in the people’s lives and attitudes. It shows Poland’s economic, legal and social transformation. The church has gained a status of one of the symbols of the city.

  8. The religious and social principles of patients' rights in holy books (Avesta, Torah, Bible, and Quran) and in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, Hossein; Hatami, Maryam; Hatami, Neda

    2013-03-01

    Health protection and promotion in healthy people and restoring patients' health have been the most important themes in medicine and health throughout our history. Therefore, discussion of different aspects of patients' rights includes implementation of these objectives by the medical community, including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, etc., and the people in charge of health affairs. The principal objective of our research is the study of medical ideology and the approaches of our ancestors in relation to different aspects of patients' rights. To study the different ideologies of traditional medicine in relation to patients' rights, appropriate data were extracted from the original resources of traditional medicine and from religious books. By means of library research we studied these resources in addition to electronic versions of the Alhavi book (by Rhazes), the Kamel-al-Sanaah (by Ahvazi), the Canon of Medicine (by Avicenna), the Zakhireye Khawrazmshahi (by Jorjani), the Avesta, the Torah, the Bible, the Quran, and many other resources, and, finally, after searching, gathering, and encoding the findings, analyzed them qualitatively for thematic content. The holy Avesta book clearly insists on the competence of physicians and setting the appointment fee in accordance with peoples' income. The Old Testament (holy Torah) warned government officials who did not observe patients' rights. In the four gospels (holy Bible) the importance of treatment and taking care of the patient is stressed. After the emergence of Islam, medical students, before beginning the principal courses, had to study Islamic jurisprudence, ethics, logic sciences, natural sciences, geometry, astrology, calculus, and similar courses so that after purifying their soul they could enter the saintly profession of physicians. The holy Quran refers to saving the life of a human irrespective of social class, race, and religion, and insists on exemption of patients from physical activity, including

  9. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  10. A first linkage map and downy mildew resistance QTL discovery for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) facilitated by double digestion restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Robert; Honig, Josh; Vaiciunas, Jennifer; Koroch, Adolfina; Wyenandt, Christian; Bonos, Stacy; Simon, James

    2017-01-01

    Limited understanding of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) genetics and genome structure has reduced efficiency of breeding strategies. This is evidenced by the rapid, worldwide dissemination of basil downy mildew (Peronospora belbahrii) in the absence of resistant cultivars. In an effort to improve available genetic resources, expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed and used to genotype the MRI x SB22 F2 mapping population, which segregates for response to downy mildew. SNP markers were generated from genomic sequences derived from double digestion restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq). Disomic segregation was observed in both SNP and EST-SSR markers providing evidence of an O. basilicum allotetraploid genome structure and allowing for subsequent analysis of the mapping population as a diploid intercross. A dense linkage map was constructed using 42 EST-SSR and 1,847 SNP markers spanning 3,030.9 cM. Multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) model (MQM) analysis identified three QTL that explained 37-55% of phenotypic variance associated with downy mildew response across three environments. A single major QTL, dm11.1 explained 21-28% of phenotypic variance and demonstrated dominant gene action. Two minor QTL dm9.1 and dm14.1 explained 5-16% and 4-18% of phenotypic variance, respectively. Evidence is provided for an additive effect between the two minor QTL and the major QTL dm11.1 increasing downy mildew susceptibility. Results indicate that ddRADseq-facilitated SNP and SSR marker genotyping is an effective approach for mapping the sweet basil genome.

  11. Fermentation of hexoses to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Lena [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology]|[Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Chemical Reaction Engineering

    2000-06-01

    The Goals of the project has been: to increase the ethanol yield by reducing the by-product formation, primarily biomass and glycerol, and to prevent stuck fermentations, i.e. to maintain a high ethanol production rate simultaneously with a high ethanol yield. The studies have been performed both in defined laboratory media and in a mixture of wood- and wheat hydrolysates. The yeast strains used have been both industrial strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and haploid laboratory strains. The Relevance of these studies with respect to production of ethanol to be used as fuel is explained by: With the traditional process design used today, it is very difficult to reach a yield of more than 90 % of the theoretical maximal value of ethanol based on fermented hexose. During 'normal' growth and fermentation conditions in either anaerobic batch or chemostat cultures, substrate is lost as biomass and glycerol in the range of 8 to 11 % and 6 to 11 % of the substrate consumed (kg/kg). It is essential to reduce these by-products. Traditional processes are mostly batch processes, in which there is a risk that the biocatalyst, i.e. the yeast, may become inactivated. If for example yeast biomass production is avoided by use of non-growing systems, the ethanol production rate is instantaneously reduced by at least 50%. Unfortunately, even if yeast biomass production is not avoided on purpose, it is well known that stuck fermentations caused by cell death is a problem in large scale yeast processes. The main reason for stuck fermentations is nutrient imbalances. For a good process economy, it is necessary to ensure process accessibility, i.e. to maintain a high and reproducible production rate. This will both considerably reduce the necessary total volume of the fermentors (and thereby the investment costs), and moreover minimize undesirable product fall-out.

  12. Ethanol fuel gets the hangover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Corn, wheat, sugar cane.. The multiplication of biofuel refineries has led to a rise of the prices of agriculture products. The question is: do we need ethanol? The US situation gives an answer: the offer exceeds the demand and ethanol prices have dropped down. Other environmental and socio-economical consequences of biofuels development are put forward by the UNO, the IMF and by non-governmental organizations who foresee a dramatic rise of food products prices and an aggravation of starvation in developing countries. (J.S.)

  13. Phase equilibrium in systems with ionic liquids: An example for the downstream process of the Biphasic Acid Scavenging utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL) process. Part I: Experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahandzhieva, Katya; Maurer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase equilibrium for a downstream process in sustainable chemical technology. ► Biphasic Acid Scavenging Utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL) Process. ► SLE, LLE, and SLLE of (NaCl + water + 1-propanol + 1-MIM) and its ternary subsystems. ► Experimental phase equilibrium data at temperatures between 298 K and 333 K. - Abstract: Experimental results are presented for the (liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid) and (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibria occurring in the downstream process of a typical example for the Biphasic Acid Scavenging Utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL)-processes. In a BASIL process an organic base is used to catalyze a chemical reaction and, at the same time, to scavenge an acid that is an undesired side product of that reaction. The particular example of a BASIL process treated here is the reaction of 1-butanol and acetylchloride to butylacetate and hydrochloric acid, where the acid is scavenged by the organic base 1-methyl imidazole (1-MIM) resulting in the ionic liquid 1-methyl imidazolium chloride. The reaction results in a two-phase system as butylacetate and the ionic liquid reveal a large liquid–liquid miscibility gap. The organic base has to be recovered. This is commonly achieved by treating the ionic liquid–rich liquid phase with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (i.e., converting the ionic liquid to the organic base) and extracting the organic base by an appropriate organic solvent (e.g., 1-propanol). The work presented here deals in experimental work with the (liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid) and (solid + liquid + liquid) phase equilibria that are encountered in such extraction processes. Experimental results are reported for temperatures between about 298 K and 333 K: for the solubility of NaCl in several solvents (1-propanol, 1-MIM), (water + 1-MIM), (1-propanol + 1-MIM), (water + 1-propanol), and (water + 1-propanol + 1-MIM) and for the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium as well as for the (solid + liquid

  14. Improvement in Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids Production and Pharmaceutical Quality of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by Ultraviolet-B Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Ashkani, Sadegh; Baghdadi, Ali; Pazoki, Alireza; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-09-09

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus) is aromatic herb that has been utilized in traditional medicine. To improve the phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil leaves, ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation at different intensities (2.30, 3.60, and 4.80 W/m²) and durations (4, 6, 8, and 10-h) was applied at the post-harvest stage. Total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were measured using spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. As a key enzyme for the metabolism of flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of extracts against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays, respectively. UV-B irradiation at an intensity of 3.60 W/m² increased TFC approximately 0.85-fold and also increased quercetin (0.41-fold), catechin (0.85-fold), kaempferol (0.65-fold) rutin (0.68-fold) and luteolin (1.00-fold) content. The highest TPC and individual phenolic acid (gallic acid, cinnamic acid and ferulic acid) was observed in the 3.60 W/m² of UV-B treatment. Cinnamic acid and luteolin were not detected in the control plants, production being induced by UV-B irradiation. Production of these secondary metabolites was also significantly influenced by the duration of UV-B irradiation. Irradiation for 8-h led to higher TFC, TPC and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids than for the other durations (4, 8, and 10-h) except for cinnamic acid, which was detected at higher concentration when irradiated for 6-h. Irradiation for 10-h significantly decreased the secondary metabolite production in sweet basil leaves. CHS activity was induced by UV-B irradiation and highest activity was observed at 3.60 W/m² of UV-B irradiation. UV

  15. Improvement in Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids Production and Pharmaceutical Quality of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. by Ultraviolet-B Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus is aromatic herb that has been utilized in traditional medicine. To improve the phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil leaves, ultraviolet (UV-B irradiation at different intensities (2.30, 3.60, and 4.80 W/m2 and durations (4, 6, 8, and 10-h was applied at the post-harvest stage. Total flavonoid content (TFC and total phenolic content (TPC were measured using spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. As a key enzyme for the metabolism of flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS activity, was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of extracts against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, respectively. UV-B irradiation at an intensity of 3.60 W/m2 increased TFC approximately 0.85-fold and also increased quercetin (0.41-fold, catechin (0.85-fold, kaempferol (0.65-fold rutin (0.68-fold and luteolin (1.00-fold content. The highest TPC and individual phenolic acid (gallic acid, cinnamic acid and ferulic acid was observed in the 3.60 W/m2 of UV-B treatment. Cinnamic acid and luteolin were not detected in the control plants, production being induced by UV-B irradiation. Production of these secondary metabolites was also significantly influenced by the duration of UV-B irradiation. Irradiation for 8-h led to higher TFC, TPC and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids than for the other durations (4, 8, and 10-h except for cinnamic acid, which was detected at higher concentration when irradiated for 6-h. Irradiation for 10-h significantly decreased the secondary metabolite production in sweet basil leaves. CHS activity was induced by UV-B irradiation and highest activity was observed at 3.60 W/m2 of UV-B irradiation. UV

  16. 23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

  17. Reduction of microbial contamination and improvement of germination of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds via surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrico, Paolo F.; Šimek, Milan; Morano, Massimo; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M.; Minafra, Angelantonio; Trotti, Pasquale; Ambrico, Marianna; Prukner, Václav; Faretra, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Naturally contaminated basil seeds were treated by a surface dielectric barrier discharge driven in the humid air by an amplitude modulated AC high voltage to avoid heat shock. In order to avoid direct contact of seeds with microdischarge filaments, the seeds to be treated were placed at sufficient distance from the surface discharge. After treatment, the seeds were analyzed in comparison with control samples for their microbial contamination as well as for the capability of germination and seedling growth. Moreover, chemical modification of seed surface was observed through the elemental energy dispersive x-ray analysis and wettability tests. We found that treatment applied at 20% duty cycle (effective discharge duration up to 20 s) significantly decreases microbial load without reducing the viability of the seeds. On the other side, seedling growth was considerably accelerated after the treatment, and biometric growth parameters of seedlings (total length, weight, leaf extension) considerably increased compared to the controls. Interestingly, scanning electron microscopy images taken for the different duration of treatment revealed that seed radicle micropylar regions underwent significant morphological changes while the coat was substantially undamaged. Inside the seed, the embryo seemed to be well preserved while the endosperm body was detached from the epithelial tegument. A total of 9 different genera of fungi were recovered from the analyzed seeds. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that conidia were localized especially in the micropylar region, and after plasma treatment, most of them showed substantial damages. Therefore, the overall effect of the treatment of naturally contaminated seeds by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by plasma and the consequent changes in surface chemistry and microbial load can significantly improve seed vigor.

  18. Effects of the exposure of TiO2 nanoparticles on basil (Ocimum basilicum) for two generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenjuan; Du, Wenchao; Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony J; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Ye, Yuqing; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2018-09-15

    There is a lack of information about the transgenerational effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) in plants. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of successive exposure of nano-TiO 2 with different surface properties to basil (Ocimum basilicum). Seeds from plants exposed or re-exposed to pristine, hydrophobic, or hydrophilic nano-TiO 2 were cultivated for 65 days in soil unamended or amended with 750 mg·kg -1 of the respective particles. Plant growth, concentration of titanium and essential elements, as well as content of carbohydrates and chlorophyll were evaluated. There were no differences on Ti concentration in roots of plants sequentially exposed to pristine or hydrophobic nano-TiO 2 , or in roots of plants exposed to the corresponding particle, only in the second cycle. However, sequential exposure to hydrophilic particles resulted in 65.2% less Ti in roots, compared to roots of plants exposed the same particles, only in the second cycle. The Ti concentrations in shoots were similar in all treatments. On the other hand, pristine and hydrophilic particles reduced Mg in root by 115% and 81%, respectively, while pristine and hydrophobic particles reduced Ni in shoot by 84% and 75%, respectively, compared to unexposed plants in both cycles. Sequential exposure to pristine nano-TiO 2 increased stomatal conductance (214%, p ≤ 0.10), compared to plants that were never exposed. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic nano-TiO 2 reduced chlorophyll b (52%) and total chlorophyll (30%) but increased total sugar (186%) and reducing sugar (145%), compared to unexposed plants in both cycles. Sequential exposure to hydrophobic or hydrophilic nano-TiO 2 resulted in more adverse effects on photosynthesis but in positive effects on plant growth, compared to pristine nano-TiO 2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduction of microbial contamination and improvement of germination of sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds via surface dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrico, Paolo F; Ambrico, Marianna; Šimek, Milan; Prukner, Václav; Morano, Massimo; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M; Trotti, Pasquale; Faretra, Francesco; Minafra, Angelantonio

    2017-01-01

    Naturally contaminated basil seeds were treated by a surface dielectric barrier discharge driven in the humid air by an amplitude modulated AC high voltage to avoid heat shock. In order to avoid direct contact of seeds with microdischarge filaments, the seeds to be treated were placed at sufficient distance from the surface discharge. After treatment, the seeds were analyzed in comparison with control samples for their microbial contamination as well as for the capability of germination and seedling growth. Moreover, chemical modification of seed surface was observed through the elemental energy dispersive x-ray analysis and wettability tests. We found that treatment applied at 20% duty cycle (effective discharge duration up to 20 s) significantly decreases microbial load without reducing the viability of the seeds. On the other side, seedling growth was considerably accelerated after the treatment, and biometric growth parameters of seedlings (total length, weight, leaf extension) considerably increased compared to the controls. Interestingly, scanning electron microscopy images taken for the different duration of treatment revealed that seed radicle micropylar regions underwent significant morphological changes while the coat was substantially undamaged. Inside the seed, the embryo seemed to be well preserved while the endosperm body was detached from the epithelial tegument. A total of 9 different genera of fungi were recovered from the analyzed seeds. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that conidia were localized especially in the micropylar region, and after plasma treatment, most of them showed substantial damages. Therefore, the overall effect of the treatment of naturally contaminated seeds by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by plasma and the consequent changes in surface chemistry and microbial load can significantly improve seed vigor. (paper)

  20. A Quantitative Gas Chromatographic Ethanol Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a gas chromatographic experiment for the quantitative determination of volume percent ethanol in water ethanol solutions. Background information, procedures, and typical results are included. Accuracy and precision of results are both on the order of two percent. (JN)

  1. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  2. Loyalty and Disavowal in Holy Qur’an Descriptive linguistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Kanani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to clarify the meaning of loyalty and disavowal from linguistic point of view, between the views of linguists, and the exegetes in the Lexicons and exegeses with analysis and debate. First of all, the researcher Indicates definition of loyalty as stated in the dictionaries, with bringing the examples from the Holy Qur’an and the views of the commentators about this issue, then analysis and discussion. Second, he defines Disavowal in the language, with a point of view from linguists, and interpreters, by analyzing and discussion the examples from the Noble Qur’an. Finally, it illustrates the application of the legal and practical concept of loyalty and disavowal, to enhance the significance of language. The importance of the current study is- according to researcher’s information- due to its doctrinal and sociological matter and nobody precede such a linguistic study of Loyalty. This research approaches the issue, using the method of descriptive and analytical, based on the description and analysis of the phenomenon. يهدف هذا البحث إلى بيان معنى الولاء والبراء من الناحية اللغوية عند علماء اللغة والتفسير في كتبهم المشهورة، ويناقشها مبيّناً الراجحً منها؛ فيتناول اولاً مفهوم الولاء كما ورد في كتب اللغة والمعاجم، و يستدل بالشواهد القرآنية في ذلك ويعرض آراء المفسرين، ثم يقوم بالتحليل والمناقشة الموضوعية، ثمّ يتناول ثانياً: مفهوم البراء في اللغة، ويورد آراء اللغويين والمفسرين ويعرضهابالتحليل والمناقشة مع ذكر الشواهد من القرآن الكريم. وكما وتبين الدراسة التطبيق الشرعي والعملي لمفهوم الولاء والبراء، تعزيزاً

  3. Big increase in US ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-10

    US ethanol capacity is expected to reach 600 million US gal/year by the end of 1982, according to a report from the AIChE. Although this is a six-fold increase over capacity installed in 1979 it is still less than 1% of US domestic motor fuel supply.

  4. Philippines sugar cane ethanol plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-06

    The Philippines' National Alcohol Commission has called for international tenders for the construction of ethanol from sugar cane plants. Interested companies have been asked to quote for capacities of 60,000, 120,000 and 180,000 litre per day. The initial tender calls for three plants but the figure could rise to ten which would then be worth about $20 million.

  5. Heat integrated ethanol dehydration flowsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutahaean, L.S.; Shen, W.H.; Brunt, V. Van [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1995-04-01

    zA theoretical evaluation of heat-integrated heterogeneous-azeotropic ethanol-water distillation flowsheets is presented. Simulations of two column flowsheets using several different hydrocarbon entrainers reveal a region of potential heat integration and substantial reduction in operating energy. In this paper, methods for comparing hydrocarbon entrainers are shown. Two aspects of entrainers are related to operating and capital costs. The binary azeotropic composition of the entrainer-ethanol mixture is related to the energy requirements of the flowsheet. A temperature difference in the azeotrophic column is related to the size of the column and overall process staging requirements. Although the hydrophobicity of an entrainer is essential for specification of staging in the dehydration column, no substantial increase in operating energy results from an entrainer that has a higher water content. Likewise, liquid-liquid equilibria between several entrainer-ethanol-water mixtures have no substantial effect on either staging or operation. Rather, increasing the alcohol content of the entrainer-ethanol azeotrope limits its recovery in the dehydration column, and increases the recycle and reflux streams. These effects both contribute to increasing the separation energy requirements and reducing the region of potential heat integration. A cost comparison with a multieffect extractive distillation flowsheet reveals that the costs are comparable; however, the extractive distillation flowsheet is more cost effective as operating costs increase.

  6. The ontogeny of ethanol aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2016-03-15

    Recent work has suggested separate developmental periods within the broader framework of adolescence, with data suggesting distinct alterations and vulnerabilities within these intervals. While previous research has suggested reduced sensitivity to the aversive effects of alcohol in adolescence relative to adults, a more detailed ontogeny of this effect has yet to be conducted. The adolescent brain undergoes significant transitions throughout adolescence, including in regions linked with drug reward and aversion. The current study aimed to determine the ontogeny of ethanol aversion by utilizing a conditioned taste aversion procedure at six different ages to test the hypothesis that the transitions into, through, and out of adolescence are associated with ontogenetic alterations in sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol. Non-deprived animals given Boost® as the conditioned stimulus (CS) were used in Experiment 1, whereas Experiment 2 used water-restricted animals provided with a saccharin/sucrose solution as the CS. In both experiments, an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol was evident in adolescents compared to adults, although more age differences were apparent in water deprived animals than when a highly palatable CS was given to ad libitum animals. Overall, the data suggest an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol that is most pronounced during pre- and early adolescence, declining thereafter to reach the enhanced aversive sensitivity of adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Agreement between the Holy See and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Holy See to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Holy See and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [fr

  8. Agreement between the Holy See and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Holy See to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Holy See and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [es

  9. Agreement between the Holy See and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Holy See to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Holy See and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [ru

  10. Agreement between the Holy See and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Holy See to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Holy See and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  11. The Effects of Educational Multimedia for Scientific Signs in the Holy Quran in Improving the Creative Thinking Skills for Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusaleh, Sumaya; Abdelfattah, Eman; Alabadi, Zain; Sharieh, Ahmad

    This paper investigates the role of the scientific signs in the holy Quran in improving the creative thinking skills for the deaf children using multimedia. The paper investigates if the performance made by the experimental group's individuals is statistically significant compared with the performance made by the control group's individuals on Torrance Test for creative thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality and the total degree) in two cases:

  12. Pengaruh Peran Ganda, Fleksibilitas Jam Kerja dan Upah Teradap Produktivitas Kerja pada PT. Holi Karya Sakti Semarang (Studi Kasus pada Buruh Perempuan Bagian Produksi)

    OpenAIRE

    Antiqka, Oktya Deffi; Pradhanawati, Ari

    2017-01-01

    Labor productivity is an important thing that must be considered and often used to measure the extent to which workers can reach the target set company .Labor productivity can be influenced by several factors among them are the dual role , flexibility of working hours , and wages . PT .Holi Karya Sakti Semarang is the company garment that develops with the production and export gloves golf and sky .The purpose of this research is to know the influence of the dual role , flexibility of working...

  13. Effects of water stress and inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on antioxidant status and photosynthetic pigments in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of water stress and inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on antioxidant activity and photosynthetic pigments were studied in basil plants. A field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol in Iran during 2010 growing season. The experiment laid out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Three levels of water stress W1 = 80 (control, W2 = 60 and W3 = 40% of the field capacity (FC as main plots and four levels of bacterial species consisting of S1 = Pseudomonades sp., S2 = Bacillus lentus, S3 = Azospirillum brasilens, S4 = combination of three bacterial species and S5 = control (without use of bacterial as sub plots. The results revealed that water stress caused a significant change in the antioxidant activity. The highest concentration CAT and GPX activity were in W3 treatments. By increasing water stress from control to W3, chlorophyll content in leaves was increased but Fv/Fm and APX activity decreased. Application of rhizobacteria under water stress improved the antioxidant and photosynthetic pigments in basil plants. S1 = Pseudomonades sp. under water stress, significantly increased the CAT enzyme activity, but the highest GPX and APX activity and chlorophyll content in leaves under water stress were in S4 = combination of three bacterial species.

  14. ESR-based Identification of Radiation-Induced Free Radicals in Gamma-Irradiated Basil and Clove Using Different Sample Pre-Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, J.Y.; Ahn, J.J.; Kashif Akram; Kwon, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    An improved detection of radiation-induced paramagnetic faults was developed to identify the irradiation status of basil and clove. The effectiveness of different sample pretreatments, including freeze-drying (FD), oven-drying (OD), alcoholic-extraction (AE), and water-washing and alcoholic-extraction (WAE), were examined. All non-irradiated samples showed a single central signal (g 0 = 2.006), whereas radicals representing two additional side peaks (g 1 = 2.023 and g 2 = 1.986) with a mutual distance of 6 mT were detected in the irradiated samples. AE and WAE produced the best results for irradiated clove in terms of intensities of radiation-specific ESR signals and their ratios to the central signal. However, FD provided the highest intensities of radiation-specific ESR signals for basil, whereas their ratios to the major signal were better in the cases of AE and WAE. Signal noise, particularly due to Mn 2+ signals, was observed, whereas it decreased in AE and WAE pretreatments. Based on our results, AE and WAE can improve the detection conditions for radiation-specific ESR signals in irradiated samples. (author)

  15. Application of response surface methodology to optimize pressurized liquid extraction of antioxidant compounds from sage (Salvia officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M B; Brunton, N P; Martin-Diana, A B; Barry-Ryan, C

    2010-12-01

    The present study optimized pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) conditions using Dionex ASE® 200, USA to maximize the antioxidant activity [Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP)] and total polyphenol content (TP) of the extracts from three spices of Lamiaceae family (sage, basil and thyme). Optimal conditions with regard to extraction temperature (66-129 °C) and solvent concentration (32-88% methanol) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM). For all three spices, results showed that 129 °C was the optimum temperature with regard to antioxidant activity. Optimal methanol concentrations with respect to the antioxidant activity of sage and basil extracts were 58% and 60% respectively. Thyme showed a different trend with regard to methanol concentration and was optimally extracted at 33%. Antioxidant activity yields of the optimal PLE were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than solid/liquid extracts. Predicted models were highly significant (p < 0.05) for both total phenol (TP) and FRAP values in all the spices with high regression coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.651 to 0.999.

  16. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K. M.; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M.; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-05-01

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25 °C to 200 °C while the time in the range from 30 to 200 minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R = 0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76 mg/100 g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08 mg/100 g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379 mg/100 g and 220.54 mg/100 g respectively.

  17. Extraction of bioactive compounds and free radical scavenging activity of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaf extracts as affected by temperature and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Alessandra C; Moreira, Fernanda; Granato, Daniel; Rosso, Neiva D

    2016-05-13

    In the current study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to assess the effects of extraction time and temperature on the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of purple basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) extracts. The stability of anthocyanins in relation to temperature, light and copigmentation was also studied. The highest anthocyanin content was 67.40 mg/100 g extracted at 30 °C and 60 min. The degradation of anthocyanins with varying temperatures and in the presence of light followed a first-order kinetics and the activation energy was 44.95 kJ/mol. All the extracts exposed to light showed similar half-lives. The extracts protected from light, in the presence of copigments, showed an increase in half-life from 152.67 h for the control to 856.49 and 923.17 h for extract in the presence of gallic acid and phytic acid, respectively. These results clearly indicate that purple basil is a potential source of stable bioactive compounds.

  18. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K M; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-05-05

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25°C to 200°C while the time in the range from 30 to 200minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R=0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76mg/100g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08mg/100g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379mg/100g and 220.54mg/100g respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Brachiopods and stratigraphy of the Upper Devonian (Frasnian) succession of the Radlin Syncline (Holy Cross Mountains, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliński, Andrzej; Racki, Grzegorz; Halamski, Adam T.

    2016-06-01

    The lower part of the Frasnian succession in the Radlin Syncline (Kielce-Łagów Synclinorium, southern region of the Holy Cross Mountains), in the two studied successions: Józefka at Górno and (for the first time) Radlin, consists of the rhythmic marly Szydłówek Beds, the fossil-rich limestones of the Wietrznia Beds (locally) and the atypically developed, calcareous Kostomłoty Beds. The carbon isotope chemostratigraphic pattern overall corresponds well to the global Early-Middle Frasnian biogeochemical perturbation, even if the major punctata positive excursion is only fragmentarily recorded in the Kostomłoty intrashelf basin. Two brachiopod assemblages are abundantly represented in both sections: the Phlogoiderhynchus polonicus Assemblage, typical of the Szydłówek Beds, and the Biernatella lentiformis Assemblage, limited to the middle part of the Wietrznia Beds. Both are highly dominated by the index species. Twenty nine lower Frasnian brachiopod species (Craniida - 1 species, Strophomenida - 1, Productida - 2, Protorthida - 1, Orthida - 5, Pentamerida - 1, Rhynchonellida - 4, Atrypida - 4, Athyridida - 3, Spiriferida - 4, Spiriferinida - 3) are described from the Szydłówek and Wietrznia Beds. Seven new species are introduced: Skenidioides cretus Halamski sp. nov., Biernatium minus Baliński sp. nov., Monelasmina montisjosephi Baliński sp. nov., Atryparia (Costatrypa) agricolae Halamski and Baliński sp. nov., Davidsonia enmerkaris Halamski sp. nov., Leptathyris gornensis Baliński sp. nov., and Echinocoelia parva Baliński sp. nov. Davidsonia enmerkaris Halamski sp. nov. is intermediate between Davidsonia Bouchard-Chantereaux, 1849 and Rugodavidsonia Copper, 1996 and is the youngest known representative of the suborder Davidsonioidea Copper, 1996. Skenidioides cretus Halamski sp. nov. is the last representative of the genus. Statistical investigation of a large sample of Spinatrypina (Exatrypa) explanata did not confirm the existence of two dimorphic

  20. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE LEADS TO GREATER ETHANOL-INDUCED APPETITIVE REINFORCEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M.; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol’s reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol’s aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30–45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance. PMID:22698870

  1. Renewable corn-ethanol and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaves, James

    2007-01-01

    Though corn-ethanol is promoted as renewable, models of the production process assume fossil fuel inputs. Moreover, ethanol is promoted as a means of increasing energy security, but there is little discussion of the dependability of its supply. This study investigates the sensibility of promoting corn-ethanol as an automobile fuel, assuming a fully renewable production process. We then use historical data to estimate the supply risk of ethanol relative to imported petroleum. We find that devoting 100% of US corn to ethanol would displace 3.5% of gasoline consumption and the annual supply of the ethanol would be inherently more risky than that of imported oil. Finally, because large temperature increases can simultaneously increase fuel demand and the cost of growing corn, the supply responses of ethanol producers to temperature-induced demand shocks would likely be weaker than those of gasoline producers. (author)

  2. High ethanol tolerance of the thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producer Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The low ethanol tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria, generally less than 2% (v/v) ethanol, is one of the main limiting factors for their potential use for second generation fuel ethanol production. In this work, the tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG 1L1...... to exogenously added ethanol was studied in a continuous immobilized reactor system at a growth temperature of 70 degrees C. Ethanol tolerance was evaluated based on inhibition of fermentative performance e.g.. inhibition of substrate conversion. At the highest ethanol concentration tested (8.3% v/v), the strain...... was able to convert 42% of the xylose initially present, indicating that this ethanol concentration is not the upper limit tolerated by the strain. Long-term strain adaptation to high ethanol concentrations (6 - 8.3%) resulted in an improvement of xylose conversion by 25% at an ethanol concentration of 5...

  3. Delta receptor antagonism, ethanol taste reactivity, and ethanol consumption in outbred male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Amanda E; Kiefer, Stephen W

    2006-11-01

    Naltrexone, a nonspecific opioid antagonist, produces significant changes in ethanol responsivity in rats by rendering the taste of ethanol aversive as well as producing a decrease in voluntary ethanol consumption. The present study investigated the effect of naltrindole, a specific antagonist of delta opioid receptors, on ethanol taste reactivity and ethanol consumption in outbred rats. In the first experiment, rats received acute treatment of naltrexone, naltrindole, or saline followed by the measurement of ethanol consumption in a short-term access period. The second experiment involved the same treatments and investigated ethanol palatability (using the taste-reactivity test) as well as ethanol consumption. Results indicated that treatment with 3 mg/kg naltrexone significantly affected palatability (rendered ethanol more aversive, Experiment 2) and decreased voluntary ethanol consumption (Experiments 1 and 2). The effects of naltrindole were inconsistent. In Experiment 1, 8 mg/kg naltrindole significantly decreased voluntary ethanol consumption but this was not replicated in Experiment 2. The 8 mg/kg dose produced a significant increase in aversive responding (Experiment 2) but did not affect ingestive responding. Lower doses of naltrindole (2 and 4 mg/kg) were ineffective in altering rats' taste-reactivity response to and consumption of ethanol. While these data suggest that delta receptors are involved in rats' taste-reactivity response to ethanol and rats' ethanol consumption, it is likely that multiple opioid receptors mediate both behavioral responses.

  4. Ichnological record of the Frasnian-Famennian boundary interval: two examples from the Holy Cross Mts (Central Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachacz, Michał; Uchman, Alfred; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    The Frasnian-Famennian (Late Devonian) boundary interval within the carbonate-siliciclastic series in the Kowala and Płucki sections (Holy Cross Mts, Central Poland) has been analysed to evaluate the influence of the Kellwasser event on the macrobenthic tracemaker community. The Upper Kellwasser event has a lithologically variable record, as horizons of flints (Kowala) and as a bed of bituminous, black, cephalopod limestone (Płucki). Both sections show mostly laminated, unbioturbated beds of marlstones or shales just above the Frasnian-Famennian boundary, which point to events of anoxia on the sea floor. However, the first anoxic horizon occurs below the Frasnian-Famennian boundary. The trace fossils and bioturbational structures are uncommon and poorly diversified. Trichichnus and Multina are the only frequent trace fossils in some beds. Moreover, one horizon above the Frasnian-Famennian boundary contains numerous Multina and a single ? Planolites. Such poorly diversified trace fossil assemblage suggests an unfavourable environment for most of burrowing organisms and fluctuations in oxygenation from anoxic, to dysoxic conditions. The occurrence of the trace fossils and bioturbational structures as spotted and mottled ichnofabrics from the 1.3 m above the Frasnian-Famennian boundary is interpreted as an improvement in bottom water oxygen conditions after the Upper Kellwasser event.

  5. Effects of fasting in the holy month of Ramadan on the uric acid, urea, and creatinine levels: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Alireza Mirsane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasting during the month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. During this holy month, healthy Muslims abstain from eating, drinking, and smoking from dawn to dusk. Although fasting is obligatory for every adult Muslim, if it has hazardous effects on the body, it is prohibited. Due to some Islamic principles, patients are exempted from fasting; however, due to the willingness of some individuals to fast, there are concerns about its effects on urea, uric acid, and creatine levels. Atypical levels of these compounds can cause serious disorders or indicate abnormal renal function. The present narrative review is aimed to investigate the effect of abnormally high levels of urea, uric acid, and creatinine on one’s health and effects of fasting during Ramadan on these indicators. Articles were searched from PubMed, Elsevier and Google Scholar and then they were evaluated. It can be concluded that fasting does not have any adverse effects on the urea, uric acid, and creatinine levels according to the above-mentioned studies.

  6. Modifications in adrenal hormones response to ethanol by prior ethanol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaza, C; Borrell, S

    1985-03-01

    Ethanol was administered to rats by means of a liquid diet for 16 days; after an ethanol-free interval of four weeks, animals received a test (IP) dose of ethanol (2 g/kg), and the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary responses were evaluated. Chronically ethanol-exposed animals showed tolerance to the stimulatory effect of ethanol in the pituitary-adrenal axis. Likewise, previously dependent rats showed tolerance to the increase in the activity of the adrenomedullary function induced by acute administration of the drug. Our results indicate that chronic ethanol ingestion can induce persistent changes after complete alcohol abstinence.

  7. Ethanol annual report FY 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Texeira, R.H.; Goodman, B.J. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the research progress and accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Ethanol from Biomass Program, field managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute, during FY 1990. The report includes an overview of the entire program and summaries of individual research projects. These projects are grouped into the following subject areas: technoeconomic analysis; pretreatment; cellulose conversion; xylose fermentation; and lignin conversion. Individual papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  8. Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

  9. Anhydrous ethanol: A renewable source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Neetu; Prasad, Ram [Department of Chemical Engineering, H. B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Anhydrous ethanol is one of the biofuels produced today and it is a subset of renewable energy. It is considered to be an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to gasoline. Anhydrous ethanol is commercially produced by either catalytic hydration of ethylene or fermentation of biomass. Any biological material that has sugar, starch or cellulose can be used as biomass for producing anhydrous ethanol. Since ethanol-water solution forms a minimum-boiling azeotrope of composition of 89.4 mol% ethanol and 10.6 mol% water at 78.2 C and standard atmospheric pressure, the dilute ethanol-water solutions produced by fermentation process can be continuously rectified to give at best solutions containing 89.4 mol% ethanol at standard atmospheric pressure. Therefore, special process for removal of the remaining water is required for manufacture of anhydrous ethanol. Various processes for producing anhydrous ethanol have been used/suggested. These include: (i) chemical dehydration process, (ii) dehydration by vacuum distillation process, (iii) azeotropic distillation process, (iv) extractive distillation processes, (v) membrane processes, (vi) adsorption processes and (vii) diffusion distillation process. These processes of manufacturing anhydrous ethanol have been improved continuously due to the increasingly strict requirements for quantity and quality of this product. The literature available on these processes is reviewed. These processes are also compared on the basis of energy requirements. (author)

  10. Microbiological analysis of pre-packed sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) leaves for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbeke, Stefanie; Ceuppens, Siele; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-09-02

    Enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and pathogenic Escherichia coli, have been detected and associated with food borne outbreaks from (imported) fresh leafy herbs. Screening on imported herbs from South East Asian countries has been described. However, limited information on prevalence of these pathogens is available from other sourcing regions. Therefore, fresh pre-packed basil and coriander leaves from a Belgian trading company were investigated for the presence of Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), generic E. coli and coliforms. In total 592 samples were collected originating from Belgium, Israel and Cyprus during 2013-2014. Multiplex PCR followed by further culture confirmation was used for the detection of Salmonella spp. and STEC, whereas the Petrifilm Select E. coli and VRBL-agar were used, respectively, for the enumeration of E. coli and coliforms. Salmonella was detected in 10 out of 592 samples (25g) (1.7%; 5 from basil and 5 from coriander), of which two samples were sourced from Israel and eight from Cyprus. The presence of STEC was suspected in 11 out of 592 samples (25g) (1.9%; 3 basil and 8 coriander), due to the detection of stx and eae genes, of which one sample originated from Belgium, four from Israel and six from Cyprus. No STEC was isolated by culture techniques, but in three samples a serotype (O26, O103 or O111) with its most likely associated eae-variant (β or θ) was detected by PCR. Generic E. coli was enumerated in 108 out of 592 samples, whereby 55, 32 and 13 samples respectively between 10-100, 100-1000 and 1000-10,000cfu/g and 8 samples exceeding 10,000cfu/g. Coliforms were enumerated in all herb samples at variable levels ranging from 1.6 to 7.5logcfu/g. Further statistics indicate that the E. coli class (categorized by level) was significantly correlated with the presence of Salmonella (pbasil and coriander sourced from different cultivation regions, may contain enteric pathogens and potentially pose a

  11. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  12. The Role of Cellulosic Ethanol in Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Neilson, Jr.

    2007-10-01

    Petroleum provides essentially all of the energy used today in the transportation sector. To reduce this dependence on fossil energy, other fuels are beginning to be used, notably ethanol and biodiesel. Almost all fuel ethanol is produced by the conversion of corn grain to starch with subsequent fermentation to ethanol. In 2006, almost 5 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced, which used 17% of domestic corn production. The DOE has a goal to displace 30% of motor gasoline demand or 60 billion gallons per year by 2030. To achieve this goal, production of ethanol from lignocellulosic sources (e.g., agricultural residues, forest residues, and dedicated energy crops) is needed. This paper will describe the production of cellulosic ethanol as well as the issues and benefits associated with its production.

  13. Electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasevich, M. R.; Korchagin, O. V.; Kuzov, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    The results of fundamental and applied studies in the field of electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol in fuel cells are considered. Features of the mechanism of ethanol electrooxidation are discussed as well as the structure and electrochemical properties of the most widely used catalysts of this process. The prospects of further studies of direct ethanol fuel cells with alkaline and acidic electrolytes are outlined. The bibliography includes 166 references.

  14. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de; Kaneko, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: → Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. → It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. → Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. → Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  15. Electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasevich, M R; Korchagin, O V; Kuzov, A V

    2013-01-01

    The results of fundamental and applied studies in the field of electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol in fuel cells are considered. Features of the mechanism of ethanol electrooxidation are discussed as well as the structure and electrochemical properties of the most widely used catalysts of this process. The prospects of further studies of direct ethanol fuel cells with alkaline and acidic electrolytes are outlined. The bibliography includes 166 references

  16. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de, E-mail: lucianofreitas@hiroshima-u.ac.j [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan); Kaneko, Shinji [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: {yields} Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. {yields} It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. {yields} Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. {yields} Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  17. Autoshaping of ethanol drinking in rats: effects of ethanol concentration and trial spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Wong, Karlvin; Apor, Khristine; Patterson-Buckendahl, Patricia; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2003-11-01

    In two studies, we evaluated the effects of ethanol concentration and trial spacing on Pavlovian autoshaping of ethanol drinking in rats. In these studies, the brief insertion of an ethanol sipper conditioned stimulus (CS) was followed by the response-independent presentation of food unconditioned stimulus (US), inducing sipper CS-directed drinking conditioned responses (CRs) in all rats. In Experiment 1, the ethanol concentration in the sipper CS [0%-16% volume/volume (vol./vol.), in increments of 1%] was systematically increased within subjects across autoshaping sessions. Groups of rats received sipper CS-food US pairings (Paired/Ethanol), a CS-US random procedure (Random/Ethanol), or water sipper CS paired with food US (Paired/Water). In Experiment 2, saccharin-fading procedures were used to initiate, in the Ethanol group, drinking of 6% (vol./vol.) ethanol in 0.1% saccharin or, in the Water group, drinking of tap water in 0.1% saccharin. After elimination of saccharin, and across days, the duration of access to the sipper CS during each autoshaping trial was increased (5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 s), and subsequently, across days, the duration of the mean intertrial interval (ITI) was increased (60, 90, 120, and 150 s). In Experiment 1, Paired/Ethanol and Random/Ethanol groups showed higher intake of ethanol, in terms of grams per kilogram of body weight, at higher ethanol concentrations, with more ethanol intake recorded in the Paired/Ethanol group. In Experiment 2, the Ethanol group drank more than was consumed by the Water group, and, for both groups, fluid intake increased with longer ITIs. Results support the suggestion that autoshaping contributes to sipper CS-directed ethanol drinking.

  18. Ethanol-Induced Upregulation of 10-Formyltetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase Helps Relieve Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Tsun-Hsien; Lin, Chia-Jen; Chung, Yi-Shao; Lee, Gang-Hui; Kao, Tseng-Ting; Chang, Wen-Ni; Chen, Bing-Hung; Hung, Jan-Jong; Fu, Tzu-Fun

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism induces folate deficiency and increases the risk for embryonic anomalies. However, the interplay between ethanol exposure and embryonic folate status remains unclear. To investigate how ethanol exposure affects embryonic folate status and one-carbon homeostasis, we incubated zebrafish embryos in ethanol and analyzed embryonic folate content and folate enzyme expression. Exposure to 2% ethanol did not change embryonic total folate content but increased the tetrahydrofolate level app...

  19. Free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extracts from herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from 23 different dried herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil were investigated for their free radical scavenging properties using the stable free radicals 2,2'-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, and Trolox as reference (TEAC for both radicals. The kinetic curves for both radicals showed to follow the first order kinetics model and the decay rate constant (k obs was calculated. For all the samples, the two methods showed a good linear TEAC correlation, indicating that the average reactivity of the compounds present in the ethanolic extracts was similar. Sage and rosemary extracts showed the highest free radical scavenging capacities, while onion showed negligible activity and colorifico, one of the most consumed spices in Brazil, showed low ABTS•+ scavenging activity. Three distinct situations were found for the extracts concerning the DPPH• scavenging capacities: (1 extracts, like rosemary and laurel, that presented the same efficient concentrations (EC50 but differed in the TEAC values and velocities of action (k obs, (2 extracts, such as garlic and basil, that showed similar EC50 and TEAC values, but different k obs values and (3 extracts that reacted at the same velocities but completely differed in the free radical scavenging capacities, like black pepper, savory, nutmeg, rosemary and sage. Similar considerations could be done for the ABTS•+ results. For the first time the ABTS•+ scavenging activity for allspice, basil, cardamom, chives, colorifico, cumin, dill, laurel, marjoram, parsley and tarragon was reported.Extratos etanólicos de 23 ervas e condimentos desidratados comercializados no Brasil foram analisados quanto as suas propriedades antioxidantes utilizando os radicais 2,2'-difenil-β-picrilhidrazil (DPPH• e ácido 2,2'-azino-bis(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico (ABTS•+, Trolox foi usado como referência para ambos radicais

  20. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  1. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  2. Compound list: ethanol [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethanol ETN 00137 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_v...itro/ethanol.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/et...hanol.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single.../ethanol.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/ethanol.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  3. Characterization of wine yeasts for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Benitez, T.

    1986-11-01

    Selected wine yeasts were tested for their ethanol and sugar tolerance, and for their fermentative capacity. Growth (..mu..) and fermentation rates (..nu..) were increasingly inhibited by increasing ethanol and glucose concentrations, ''flor'' yeasts being the least inhibited. Except in the latter strains, the ethanol production rate was accelerated by adding the glucose stepwise. The best fermenting strains selected in laboratory medium were also the best at fermenting molasses. Invertase activity was not a limiting step in ethanol production, ..nu.. being accelerated by supplementing molasses with ammonia and biotine, and by cell recycle.

  4. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  5. [Species composition and diversity of soil mesofauna in the 'Holy Hills' fragmentary tropical rain forest of Xishuangbanna, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Sha, L

    2001-04-01

    The species composition and diversity of soil mesofauna were examined in fragmented dry tropical seasonal rainforest of tow 'Holy Hills' of Dai nationality, compared with the continuous moist tropical seasonal rain forest of Nature Reserve in Xishuangbanna area. 5 sample quadrats were selected along the diagonal of 20 m x 20 m sampling plot, and the samples of litterfall and 0-3 cm soil were collected from each 50 cm x 10 cm sample quadrat. Animals in soil sample were collected by using dry-funnel(Tullgren's), were identified to their groups according to the order. The H' index, D.G index and the pattern of relative abundance of species were used to compare the diversity of soil mesofauna. The results showed that the disturbance of vegetation and soil resulted by tropical rainforest fragmentation was the major factor affecting the diversity of soil mesofauna. Because the fragmented forest was intruded by some pioneer tree species and the "dry and warm" effect operated, this forest had more litterfall on the floor and more humus in the soil than the continuous moist rain forest. The soil condition with more soil organic matter, total N and P, higher pH value and lower soil bulk density became more favorable to the soil mesofauna. Therefore, the species richness, abundance and diversity of soil mesofauna in fragmented forests were higher than those in continuous forest, but the similarity of species composition in fragmented forest to the continuous forest was minimal. Soil mesofauna diversity in fragmented forests did not change with decreasing fragmented area, indicating that there was no species-area effect operation in this forest. The pattern of relative abundance of species in these forest soils was logarithmic series distribution.

  6. Hypoglycemic effect of basil (Ocimum basilicum) aqueous extract is mediated through inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beshbishy, Ha; Bahashwan, Sa

    2012-02-01

    The present study investigated the in vitro hypoglycemic activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum) aqueous extract. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. The total polyphenols content (TPC), flavonoids content (FC), percentage diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH( · )) radical inhibition and total antioxidant status (TAS) were estimated. The FC was 41 ± 2.2 rutin/g dry extract, the TPC was 146 ± 5.26 mg catechin/g dry extract and the TAS was 5.12 ± 0.7 mmol/L. The %DPPH( · ) free radical inhibition was 60%, 54%, 49% and 43%, respectively, for different extract concentrations; 20, 18.2, 16.3 and 14.5 mg/ml, respectively. The extract elicited significant dose-dependent pattern against rat intestinal sucrase (RIS; IC(50) = 36.72 mg/ml), rat intestinal maltase (RIM; IC(50) = 21.31 mg/ml) and porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA; IC(50) = 42.50 mg/ml) inhibitory activities. The inhibition was greater against maltase compared with sucrase. These effects may be attributed to the high TPC and FC levels. The linear regression analysis revealed strong significant positive correlations between %DPPH( · ) radical inhibition and each of %RIS, %RIM and %PPA inhibiting activity. Also, strong significant positive correlations between %RIS and either %RIM or %PPA inhibition activity were observed. We concluded therefore that basil aqueous extract via antioxidant and possibly α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibiting activities, offered positive benefits to control diabetes.

  7. Elevated CO2 induces a global metabolic change in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and improves their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jaouni, Soad; Saleh, Ahmed M; Wadaan, Mohammed A M; Hozzein, Wael N; Selim, Samy; AbdElgawad, Hamada

    Many studies have discussed the influence of elevated carbon dioxide (eCO 2 ) on modeling and crop plants. However, much less effort has been dedicated to herbal plants. In this study, a robust monitoring for the levels of 94 primary and secondary metabolites and minerals in two medicinal herbs, basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), grwon under both ambient (aCO 2 , 360 ppm) and eCO 2 (620 ppm) was performed. We also assessed how the changes in herbal tissue chemistry affected their biological activity. Elevated CO 2 significantly increased herbal biomass, improved the rates of photosynthesis and dark respiration, and altered the tissue chemistry. Principal Component Analysis of the full data set revealed that eCO 2 induced a global change in the metabolomes of the two plants. Moreover, Hierarchical Clustering Analyses showed quantitative differences in the metabolic profiles of the two plants and in their responsiveness to eCO 2 . Out of 94 metabolites, 38 and 31 significantly increased in basil and peppermint, respectively, as affected by eCO 2 . Regardless of the plant species, the levels of non-structural carbohydrates, fumarate, glutamine, glutathione, ascorbate, phylloquinone (vitamin K1), anthocyanins and a majority of flavonoids and minerals were significantly improved by eCO 2 . However, some metabolites tended to show species specificity. Interestingly, eCO 2 caused enhancement in antioxidant, antiprotozoal, anti-bacterial and anticancer (against urinary bladder carcinoma; T24P) activities in both plants, which was consequent with improvement in the levels of antioxidant metabolites such as glutathione, ascorbate and flavonoids. Therefore, this study suggests that the metabolic changes triggered by eCO 2 in the target herbal plants improved their biological activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Merci esotiche che viaggiano verso occidente: la cornice e la figura del narratore popolare a partire da una lettura del Cunto de li cunti di Basile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Massi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most precious goods we have gained from the East is the literary frame. Certain of its functions are observable from its early history, in the Middle Ages. In Eastern countries, ”the frame” was a communicative tool to express judgement and opinions in public according to different social conditions. In Western countries, it is still used as an   to express judgement, but only in the literary world. Eric Auerbach in Zur Technik der Fruhrenaissancenovelle in Italien und Frankreich says that from Dante to Boccaccio, the literary frame becomes the story's atmosphere and its barycentre because it offers writers the possibility to organize the relationship between text and context. In my hypothesis, Auerbach's words can work to introduce a narratological function to the literary frame. We notice other two functions: an anthropological one explained by Tzvetan Todorov in La conquête de l'Amérique and a psychological one showed by Andrè Jolles in De Decameron van Boccaccio. According to Tzvetan Todorov, in the seventeenth century, missionaries used literary frames to communicate with native Americans: in Historia general de las cosas de la Nueva España by Bernardino de Sahagún, a literary frame is used to organize different cultural knowledges. Andrè Jolles metaphorically says that thanks to literary frames, we are still able to listen to the voices of popular narrators because the literary frame reproduces cognitive structures typical of children. I propose to show these functions in the Cunto de li cunti by Basile. In this way, we can observe the modernity of Basile. The Neapolitan author not only founded the fairytale genre in Europe. He also contributed to spread a universal communicative form we can observe from three points of view: narratological, anthropological, and psychological.

  9. Dissecting molecular and physiological response mechanisms to high solar radiation in cyanic and acyanic leaves: a case study on red and green basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattini, Massimiliano; Sebastiani, Federico; Brunetti, Cecilia; Fini, Alessio; Torre, Sara; Gori, Antonella; Centritto, Mauro; Ferrini, Francesco; Landi, Marco; Guidi, Lucia

    2017-04-01

    Photosynthetic performance and the expression of genes involved in light signaling and the biosynthesis of isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids were analysed in green ('Tigullio', TIG) and red ('Red Rubin', RR) basil. The aim was to detect the physiological and molecular response mechanisms to high sunlight. The attenuation of blue-green light by epidermal anthocyanins was shown to evoke shade-avoidance responses with consequential effects on leaf morpho-anatomical traits and gas exchange performance. Red basil had a lower mesophyll conductance, partially compensated by the less effective control of stomatal movements, in comparison with TIG. Photosynthesis decreased more in TIG than in RR in high sunlight, because of larger stomatal limitations and the transient impairment of PSII photochemistry. The methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway promoted above all the synthesis and de-epoxidation of violaxanthin-cycle pigments in TIG and of neoxanthin and lutein in RR. This enabled the green leaves to process the excess radiant energy effectively, and the red leaves to optimize light harvesting and photoprotection. The greater stomatal closure observed in TIG than in RR was due to enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) glucose ester deglucosylation and reduced ABA oxidation, rather than to superior de novo ABA synthesis. This study shows a strong competition between anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis, which occurs at the level of genes regulating the oxidation of the C2-C3 bond in the dihydro-flavonoid skeleton. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Microbial community profiling of fresh basil and pitfalls in taxonomic assignment of enterobacterial pathogenic species based upon 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Siele; De Coninck, Dieter; Bottledoorn, Nadine; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2017-09-18

    Application of 16S rRNA (gene) amplicon sequencing on food samples is increasingly applied for assessing microbial diversity but may as unintended advantage also enable simultaneous detection of any human pathogens without a priori definition. In the present study high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the V1-V2-V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene was applied to identify the bacteria present on fresh basil leaves. However, results were strongly impacted by variations in the bioinformatics analysis pipelines (MEGAN, SILVAngs, QIIME and MG-RAST), including the database choice (Greengenes, RDP and M5RNA) and the annotation algorithm (best hit, representative hit and lowest common ancestor). The use of pipelines with default parameters will lead to discrepancies. The estimate of microbial diversity of fresh basil using 16S rRNA (gene) amplicon sequencing is thus indicative but subject to biases. Salmonella enterica was detected at low frequencies, between 0.1% and 0.4% of bacterial sequences, corresponding with 37 to 166 reads. However, this result was dependent upon the pipeline used: Salmonella was detected by MEGAN, SILVAngs and MG-RAST, but not by QIIME. Confirmation of Salmonella sequences by real-time PCR was unsuccessful. It was shown that taxonomic resolution obtained from the short (500bp) sequence reads of the 16S rRNA gene containing the hypervariable regions V1-V3 cannot allow distinction of Salmonella with closely related enterobacterial species. In conclusion 16S amplicon sequencing, getting the status of standard method in microbial ecology studies of foods, needs expertise on both bioinformatics and microbiology for analysis of results. It is a powerful tool to estimate bacterial diversity but amenable to biases. Limitations concerning taxonomic resolution for some bacterial species or its inability to detect sub-dominant (pathogenic) species should be acknowledged in order to avoid overinterpretation of results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  11. Biofilm reactors for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, J L; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-07-01

    Whole cell immobilization has been studied in the laboratory during the last few years as a method to improve the performance and economics of most fermentation processes. Among the various techniques available for cell immobilization, methods that provide generation of a biofilm offer reduced diffusional resistance, high productivities, and simple operation. This paper reviews some of the important aspects of biofilm reactors for ethanol production, including reactor start-up, steady state behavior, process stability, and mathematical modeling. Special emphasis is placed on covalently bonded Saccharomyces cerevisiae in packed bed reactors.

  12. Archbishop Danilo I: The donor of the frescoes in the prothesis of the Church of the Holy Apostles in Peć

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Sreten

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The frescoes in the prothesis of the Church of the Holy Apostles in the Patriarchate of Peć in Kosovo, date from around 1260. They are in poor condition and little has been written about them. Only the portraits of the Serbian hierarchs and saints in the apsis, Sava and Arsenije, have drawn attention, chiefly because the image of the second Serbian archbishop Arsenije - is believed to have been painted during his lifetime. The scenes of the prophet Daniel and the composition The Penitence of King David, are considered to have been painted for their symbolic meaning, primarily regarding to the Holy Communion. Among the compositions, one can see that besides The David rebuked by Nathan, all of them are linked with the life and visions of the prophet Daniel [Daniel in the Lions' Den, The Prophet's Vision of the Kingdom of Heaven (Daniel 7, 1-28. The Archangel Gabriel Foretells Future Events to the Prophet Daniel (Daniel 8, 3; 8, 16-27 and perhaps, The Three Youths in the Fiery Furnace. The small, painted area in the interior (2 *3.70 meters, mostly with scenes devoted to the prophet Daniel, clearly indicates that the prothesis was dedicated to this Old Testament character. In Byzantine churches, the lateral sections of the altar area, the prothesis and the diakonikon - like the parecclesion - were dedicated to the Mother of God and the saints, in most cases, St. Nikolas and St. John the Forerunner. The choice of the prophet Daniel, as the patron of the Peć prothesis was quite unusual. This was obviously done according to the wishes of the Serbian archbishop, Danilo, who thereby wished to pay tribute to his Old Testament namesake. There are several instances in medieval times when Serbian donors dedicated churches to the saints, who were their namesakes. The donor ship of archbishop Danilo 1 also determines mi-date when the frescoes in the prothesis came into being. As he administered the Serbian church for a brief period of less than two years

  13. Modified SPEEK membranes for direct ethanol fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2010-01-01

    /PI homogeneous blends. The membranes were characterized concerning their water and ethanol solution uptake, water and ethanol permeability in pervaporation experiments and their performance in DEFC tests. The ethanol permeabilities for the CMS-coated (180 nm

  14. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  15. Water-induced ethanol dewetting transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiuping; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Chunlei

    2012-07-14

    The dewetting transitions of two hydrophobic plates immersed in pure water, aqueous ethanol solutions with concentrations from 25% to 90%, and pure ethanol were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations, where the dewetting transition was analogous to a first-order phase transition from liquid to vapor. It was found that the dewetting transitions occurred except that in the pure ethanol system. Although the ethanol molecules prefer to locate in the vicinity of the two plates, the inter-plate region is unfavorable for water molecules, due to losing more than one hydrogen bond. Moreover, each inter-plate water molecule forms hydrogen bonds on average with about two ethanol molecules. These intermolecular hydrogen bonds cause water and ethanol to cooperatively fill or exit the inter-plate region. Thus, water molecules play a more important role in the inter-plate filling/empty process, and induce the ethanol dewetting transition. Our results provide insight into the effect of water on the ethanol dewetting phenomena.

  16. Characterization of ethanol concentrations at ultraviolet wavelength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the measurement of optical absorption spectrum for different concentrations of ethanol at ultraviolet wavelength. Ethanol absorption spectrum was measured using portable spectroscopy setup from Avantes. It consists of Balanced Deuterium Halogen light source and spectrometer. The light source can ...

  17. Beyond commonplace biofuels: Social aspects of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Barbara Esteves

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels policies and projects may lead to environmental, economic and social impacts. A number of studies point out the need to deliver comprehensive sustainability assessments regarding biofuels, with some presenting analytical frameworks that claim to be exhaustive. However, what is often found in the literature is an overexploitation of environmental and economic concerns, by contrast to a limited appraisal of the social aspects of biofuels. Building on a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature, this paper discusses the social constraints and strengths of ethanol, with regard to the product's lifecycle stages and the actors involved. Its objective is to contribute to the development of social frameworks to be used in assessing the impact of ethanol. Main findings indicate that ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability, although there is little evidence in the literature regarding the positive and negative social impacts of 1st-generation ethanol and potential impacts of cellulosic ethanol. Further work is needed on the formulation of social criteria and indicators for a comprehensive sustainability assessment of this biofuel. Policy makers need to internalise the social dimension of ethanol in decision-making to prevent public opposition and irreversible social costs in the future. - Highlights: ► The literature lacks evidence on the social impacts of ethanol. ► Further work is needed on social criteria and indicators for assessment. ► Ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability. ► Decision-making should internalise the social dimension of biofuels sustainability

  18. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15% ethanol tolerance. High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application in ethanologenic fermentations. Data presented in this study revealed that Orc 6 yeast isolate tolerated osmotic stress above 12% (w/v) sorbitol and 15% (w/v) sucrose equivalent of osmotic pressure ...

  19. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juliana

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... The use of vegetable biomass as substrate for ethanol production could reduce the ... Fermentation was performed in a laboratory scale using the J10 and FT858 ... Key words: Hydrolysis of sugarcane straw and pointers, sugarcane juice, ..... Ethanol: An Overview about Composition, Pretreatment Methods,.

  20. Pavlovian conditioning with ethanol: sign-tracking (autoshaping), conditioned incentive, and ethanol self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krank, Marvin D

    2003-10-01

    Conditioned incentive theories of addictive behavior propose that cues signaling a drug's reinforcing effects activate a central motivational state. Incentive motivation enhances drug-taking and drug-seeking behavior. We investigated the behavioral response to cues associated with ethanol and their interaction with operant self-administration of ethanol. In two experiments, rats received operant training to press a lever for a sweetened ethanol solution. After operant training, the animals were given Pavlovian pairings of a brief and localized cue light with the sweetened ethanol solution (no lever present). Lever pressing for ethanol was then re-established, and the behavioral effects of the cue light were tested during an ethanol self-administration session. The conditioned responses resulting from pairing cue lights with the opportunity to ingest ethanol had three main effects: (1) induction of operant behavior reinforced by ethanol, (2) stimulation of ethanol-seeking behavior (magazine entries), and (3) signal-directed behavior (i.e., autoshaping, or sign-tracking). Signal-directed behavior interacted with the other two effects in a manner predicted by the location of the cue light. These conditioned responses interact with operant responding for ethanol reinforcement. These findings demonstrate the importance of Pavlovian conditioning effects on ethanol self-administration and are consistent with conditioned incentive theories of addictive behavior.

  1. Acute effects of ethanol and ethanol plus furosemide on pancreatic capillary blood flow in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, J A; Cooper-Vastola, S A; Meirelles, R F; Bagchi, S; Caboclo, J L; Holm, C; Eisenberg, M M

    1993-07-01

    The effects of intravenous ethanol and ethanol plus furosemide on pancreatic capillary blood flow (PCBF) were investigated using a laser-Doppler flowmeter. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 4 groups: (1) control, (2) 80% ethanol, (3) 80% ethanol plus furosemide, and (4) furosemide. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored. Levels of serum amylase, calcium, electrolytes, ethanol, and furosemide (groups 3 and 4) were measured, and samples of pancreatic tissue were obtained. The ethanol and furosemide levels were statistically different (p 0.05) between groups 1 and 4. Histopathologic analysis revealed swollen acini in group 2 and sparse focal necrosis without acinar swelling in group 3. The depressant effect of ethanol on PCBF may be the result of its direct action on pancreatic cells causing edema and capillary compression rather than on primary vascular control mechanisms that adjust blood flow. Furosemide counters this effect.

  2. The ethanol pathway from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum improves ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Shuen; Olson, Daniel G; Holwerda, Evert K; Lanahan, Anthony A; Murphy, Sean J L; Maloney, Marybeth I; Zheng, Tianyong; Papanek, Beth; Guss, Adam M; Lynd, Lee R

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ferments cellulose, is a promising candidate for ethanol production from cellulosic biomass, and has been the focus of studies aimed at improving ethanol yield. Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum ferments hemicellulose, but not cellulose, and has been engineered to produce ethanol at high yield and titer. Recent research has led to the identification of four genes in T. saccharolyticum involved in ethanol production: adhE, nfnA, nfnB and adhA. We introduced these genes into C. thermocellum and observed significant improvements to ethanol yield, titer, and productivity. The four genes alone, however, were insufficient to achieve in C. thermocellum the ethanol yields and titers observed in engineered T. saccharolyticum strains, even when combined with gene deletions targeting hydrogen production. This suggests that other parts of T. saccharolyticum metabolism may also be necessary to reproduce the high ethanol yield and titer phenotype in C. thermocellum. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Robert E. [Downstream Alternatives, Inc., South Bend, IN (United States)

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  4. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  5. African perspective on cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Kemausuor, Francis; Miezah, Kodwo

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge to commercial production of cellulosic ethanol pertains to the cost-effective breakdown of the complex and recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose into its components via pretreatment, the cost of enzymes for hydrolysis and fermentation, and the conversion rate of C5 sugars...... to ethanol, among others. While the industrialized and some emerging countries are gradually breaking grounds in cellulosic ethanol, most African countries have made little effort in research and development even though the continent is rich in lignocellulosic biomass. The paper estimates residues from...... widely available crops and municipal waste and determines their respective theoretical ethanol potential (around 22 billion litres annually). It further reviews stages involved in the production of cellulosic ethanol, focussing on processing methods that can be adapted to current situation in most...

  6. Rewiring Lactococcus lactis for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Dehli, Tore Ibsen; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2013-01-01

    to redirect the metabolism of LAB model organism Lactococcus lactis toward ethanol production. Codon-optimized Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) was introduced and expressed from synthetic promoters in different strain backgrounds. In the wild-type L. lactis strain MG1363 growing on glucose, only...... small amounts of ethanol were obtained after introducing PDC, probably due to a low native alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When the same strains were grown on maltose, ethanol was the major product and lesser amounts of lactate, formate, and acetate were formed. Inactivating the lactate dehydrogenase...... genes ldhX, ldhB, and ldh and introducing codon-optimized Z. mobilis alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHB) in addition to PDC resulted in high-yield ethanol formation when strains were grown on glucose, with only minor amounts of by-products formed. Finally, a strain with ethanol as the sole observed...

  7. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-30

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs.

  8. Policy Uncertainty and the US Ethanol Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. H. Jones

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2, as implemented, has introduced uncertainty into US ethanol producers and the supporting commodity market. First, the fixed mandate for what is mainly cornstarch-based ethanol has increased feedstock price volatility and exerts a general effect across the agricultural sector. Second, the large discrepancy between the original Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA intentions and the actual RFS2 implementation for some fuel classes has increased the investment uncertainty facing investors in biofuel production, distribution, and consumption. Here we discuss and analyze the sources of uncertainty and evaluate the effect of potential RFS2 adjustments as they influence these uncertainties. This includes the use of a flexible, production dependent mandate on corn starch ethanol. We find that a flexible mandate on cornstarch ethanol relaxed during drought could significantly reduce commodity price spikes and alleviate the decline of livestock production in cases of feedstock production shortfalls, but it would increase the risk for ethanol investors.

  9. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs

  10. Perspectives on fuel ethanol consumption and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Arnaldo; Dolzan, Paulo; Piacente, Erik; Borges da Cunha, Kamyla; Rosillo-Calle, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Since the year 2000 or so there has been a rapid growth on fuel ethanol production and consumption, particularly in US and Brazil. Ethanol trade represented about 10% of world consumption in 2005, Brazil being the main exporter. The most important consumer markets - US and European Union (EU) - have trade regimes that constrained the comparative advantages of the most efficient producers, such as Brazil. This paper evaluates the fuel ethanol market up to 2030 together with the potential for international biotrade. Based on forecasts of gasoline consumption and on targets and mandates of fuel ethanol use, it is estimated that demand could reach 272 Gl in 2030, displacing 10% of the estimated demand of gasoline (Scenario 1), or even 566 Gl in the same year, displacing about 20% of the gasoline demand (Scenario 2). The analysis considers fuel ethanol consumption and production in US, EU-25, Japan, China, Brazil and the rest of the world (ROW-BR). Without significant production of ethanol from cellulosic materials in this period, displacing 10% of the gasoline demand in 2030, at reasonable cost, can only be accomplished by fostering fuel ethanol production in developing countries and enhancing ethanol trade. If the US and EU-25 reach their full production potential (based on conventional routes), the minimum amount that could be traded in 2030 would be about 34 Gl. Displacing 20% of the gasoline demand by 2030 will require the combined development of second-generation technologies and large-scale international trade in ethanol fuel. Without second-generation technologies, Scenario 2 could become a reality only with large-scale production of ethanol from sugarcane in developing countries, e.g., Brazil and ROW-BR could be able to export at least 14.5 Gl in 2010, 73.9 Gl in 2020 and 71.8 Gl in 2030. (author)

  11. Autoshaping induces ethanol drinking in nondeprived rats: evidence of long-term retention but no induction of ethanol preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Kuo, Teresa; Apor, Khristine R; Salomon, Kimberly E; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-04-01

    The effects of autoshaping procedures (paired vs. random) and sipper fluid (ethanol vs. water) on sipper-directed drinking were evaluated in male Long-Evans rats maintained with free access to food and water. For the paired/ethanol group (n=16), autoshaping procedures consisted of presenting the ethanol sipper (containing 0% to 28% unsweetened ethanol) conditioned stimulus (CS) followed by the response-independent presentation of food unconditioned stimulus (US). The random/ethanol group (n=8) received the sipper CS and food US randomly with respect to one another. The paired/water group (n=8) received only water in the sipper CS. The paired/ethanol group showed higher grams per kilogram ethanol intake than the random/ethanol group did at ethanol concentrations of 8% to 28%. The paired/ethanol group showed higher sipper CS-directed milliliter fluid consumption than the paired/water group did at ethanol concentrations of 1% to 6%, and 15%, 16%, 18%, and 20%. Following a 42-day retention interval, the paired/ethanol group showed superior retention of CS-directed drinking of 18% ethanol, relative to the random/ethanol group, and superior retention of CS-directed milliliter fluid drinking relative to the paired/water group. When tested for home cage ethanol preference using limited access two-bottle (28% ethanol vs. water) procedures, the paired/ethanol and random/ethanol groups did not differ on any drinking measures.

  12. Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp-2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathirvel, Poonkodi; Ravi, Subban

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC-MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), β-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The results revealed that this plant may belong to the methyl cinnamate and linalool chemotype. A methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay was used for in vitro cytotoxicity screening against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cell line (HEp-2) and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The IC(50) values obtained were 90.5 and 96.3 µg mL(-1), respectively, and the results revealed that basil oil has potent cytotoxicity.

  13. Understanding Jerusalem and its Cross-Cultural Dilemmas in Guy Delisle’s Jerusalem: Chronicles From the Holy City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilă Ana-Maria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Guy Delisle’s Jerusalem: Chronicles from the Holy City (2011 is a nonfictional graphic novel which narrates the experiences during a year that the Canadian artist and his family spent living far from home, in the occasionally dangerous and perilous city of the ancient Middle East. Part humorous memoir filled with “the logistics of everyday life,” part an inquisitive and sharp-eyed travelogue, Jerusalem is interspersed with enthralling lessons on the history of the region, together with vignettes of brief strips of Delisle’s encounters with expatriates and locals, with Jewish, Muslim, and Christian communities in and around the city, with Bedouins, Israeli and Palestinians. Since the comic strip is considered amongst the privileged genres able to disseminate stereotypes, Jerusalem tackles cultural as well as physical barriers, delimiting between domestic and foreign space, while revealing the historical context of the Israeli-Palestinian present conflict. Using this idea as a point of departure, I employ an imagological method of interpretation to address cross-cultural confusions in analysing the cartoonist’s travelogue as discourse of representation and ways of understanding cultural transmission, paying attention to the genre’s convention, where Delisle’s drawing style fits nicely the narrative techniques employed. Through an imagological perspective, I will also pay attention to the interaction between cultures and the dynamics between the images which characterise the Other (the nationalities represented or the spected and those which characterise - not without a sense of irony - his own identity (self-portraits or auto-images. I shall take into account throughout my analysis that the source of this graphic memoir is inevitably a subjective one: even though Delisle professes an unbiased mind-set from the very beginning, the comic is at times coloured by his secular views. Delisle’s book is a dark, yet gentle comedy, and his

  14. Microbialites in the shallow-water marine environments of the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland) in the aftermath of the Frasnian-Famennian biotic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakociński, Michał; Racki, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Microbial carbonates, consisting of abundant girvanellid oncoids, are described from cephalopod-crinoid and crinoid-brachiopod coquinas (rudstones) occurring in the lowermost Famennian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. A Girvanella-bearing horizon (consist with numerous girvanellid oncoids) has been recognised at the Psie Górki section, and represents the northern slope succession of the drowned Dyminy Reef. This occurrence of microbialites in the aftermath of the Frasnian-Famennian event is interpreted as the result of opportunistic cyanobacteria blooms, which, as 'disaster forms', colonised empty shallow-water ecological niches during the survival phase following the Frasnian metazoan reef collapse, due to collapsed activity of epifaunal, grazing, and/or burrowing animals. The anachronistic lithofacies at Psie Górki is linked with catastrophic mass mortality of the cephalopod and crinoid-brachiopod communities during the heavy storm events. This mass occurrence of girvanellid oncoids, along with Frutexites-like microbial shrubs and, at least partly, common micritisation of some skeletal grains, records an overall increase in microbial activity in eutrophic normal marine environments. Microbial communities in the Holy Cross Mountains are not very diverse, being mainly represented by girvanellid oncoids, and stand in contrast to the very rich microbial communities known from the Guilin area (China), Canning Basin (Australia) and the Timan-northern Ural area (Russia). The association from Poland is similar to more diverse microbial communities represented by oncoids, trombolites and stromatolites, well known from the Canadian Alberta basin.

  15. Restudy of Conception of “House” in Islam: An Approach to Describe Functional Aspects of House According to Verses of Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Azemati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Islam specified some rules for supplying real needs of human communities so that the human beings may live together with upmost security and health far from the concerns and problems by observing such principles, and one of the most important endowments pointed by the Quran is human’s place of residence. Conception of house in Islam is a subject studied in this paper. House, in fact, is one of the most important human requirements, and Muslims shall live under conditions and based on the religious values that they may worship God and provide the immortal life. The religious teachings in human life -lead the men to have a special imagination- based on the functional and aesthetic values are defined. Architecture and house construction are a field for the creation and description of human religious beliefs, and also a criterion for evaluation of meeting the said values. The purpose of this paper is to express necessary recognition of the principles and philosophy of verses of Holy Quran in terms of the house and shelter, and also its compliance with the social, cultural and functional structure in designing architectural buildings. Therefore, the verses of the Holy Quran are used in this research as the source of the principles and fundamentals of Islamic thinking and ontology in explaining the functional dimensions of house by enjoying the analytical-descriptive methodology.

  16. Investigating the condition of medical counseling and some of clinical aspects for fasting in holy month of Ramadan from the perspective of diabetic and hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mahmoudian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although fasting has many benefits for health, it can be dangerous for patients. So it is necessary that physicians have adequate information about clinical aspects of fasting and they should advice patients. Therefore in this study we analyses the condition of physicians counseling about fasting from the perspective of patients. Methods:In this descriptive analytical cross-sectional study, patients with diabetes and hypertension who were going to doctors in Isfahan in holy month of Ramadan of 2012 and 2013 completed the questionnaires. A valid self-regulation questionnaire including patient`s satisfaction from the quality of physicians counseling about fasting (In the area of education, evaluation of the patient condition, communication /relationship with patients, caring for diseases in holy Ramadan and the incidence of symptoms in fasting had been used with  = 0.76. The patients completed the questionnaire after visit. The data was analyzed by Independent t-test, chi-square, Regression, one-way ANOVA in the19 spss software. Results: 285 patients, 199(69.8% female and 86(30.2% male, were selected. The mean satisfaction score of counseling was 70.50 ±13.23. The highest score (75.36±14.16 was referred to counseling of physician, and the least score (66.09±18.84 to patient assessment by physician. Mean score of Patients' satisfaction of specialists was higher than of general practitioner (p-value

  17. Cellulosic ethanol: status and innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynd, Lee R.; Liang, Xiaoyu; Biddy, Mary J.; Allee, Andrew; Cai, Hao; Foust, Thomas; Himmel, Michael E.; Laser, Mark S.; Wang, Michael; Wyman, Charles E.

    2017-06-01

    Although the purchase price of cellulosic feedstocks is competitive with petroleum on an energy basis, the cost of lignocellulose conversion to ethanol using today’s technology is high. Cost reductions can be pursued via either in-paradigm or new-paradigm innovation. As an example of new-paradigm innovation, consolidated bioprocessing using thermophilic bacteria combined with milling during fermentation (cotreatment) is analyzed. Acknowledging the nascent state of this approach, our analysis indicates potential for radically improved cost competitiveness and feasibility at smaller scale compared to current technology, arising from (a) R&D-driven advances (consolidated bioprocessing with cotreatment in lieu of thermochemical pretreatment and added fungal cellulase), and (b) configurational changes (fuel pellet coproduction instead of electricity, gas boiler(s) in lieu of a solid fuel boiler).

  18. Repeated episodes of chronic intermittent ethanol promote insensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing effect of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M F; Becker, H C; Chandler, L J

    2014-11-01

    Studies in animal models have shown that repeated episodes of alcohol dependence and withdrawal promote escalation of drinking that is presumably associated with alterations in the addiction neurocircuitry. Using a lithium chloride-ethanol pairing procedure to devalue the reinforcing properties of ethanol, the present study determined whether multiple cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor inhalation also alters the sensitivity of drinking behavior to the devaluation of ethanol's reinforcing effects. The effect of devaluation on operant ethanol self-administration and extinction was examined in mice prior to initiation of CIE (short drinking history) and after repeated cycles of CIE or air control exposure (long drinking history). Devaluation significantly attenuated the recovery of baseline ethanol self-administration when tested either prior to CIE or in the air-exposed controls that had experienced repeated bouts of drinking but no CIE. In contrast, in mice that had undergone repeated cycles of CIE exposure that promoted escalation of ethanol drinking, self-administration was completely resistant to the effect of devaluation. Devaluation had no effect on the time course of extinction training in either pre-CIE or post-CIE mice. Taken together, these results are consistent with the suggestion that repeated cycles of ethanol dependence and withdrawal produce escalation of ethanol self-administration that is associated with a change in sensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B; Mandenius, C F; Mattiasson, B; Nilsson, B; Axelsson, J P; Hagander, P

    1985-06-20

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam pretreated sallow gives highest yields of soluble sugars when hemicellulose is degraded already in the pretreatment step. The steam pretreatment equipment is rebuilt so that 75 g (dry matter) material instead of 7 g can be treated each time. The cellulose production has been increased 123% by the utilization of aqueous two-phase systems as compared to regular growth medium. The cellulase activity per gram of cellulose has been increased from 42 FPU in regular growth medium to 156 FPU in aqueous two-phase systems. Crude dextran can be used for enzyme production. Enzyme recovery up to 75% has been achieved by combining aqueous two-phase technique with membrane technique. Using the enzyme glucose isomerase in combination with S. cerevisiae theoretical yields in pentose fermentations have been achieved, with a product concentration of 60 g/L and a productivity of 2 g/L x h. Yeast and enzyme can be recirculated using membrane technique. Computer simulation shows that the rate equation for enzymatic hydrolysis with respect to inhibiting sugar concentrations can be used to interpolate with respect to sugar concentrations. Computer simulations show that hydrolysis experiments should focus on high substrate concentrations (>10%) using fed-batch technique and enzyme concentrations in the range of 2-8% in relation to substrate dry matter. The combined 'flow injection analysis', FIA, and enzyme reactor probe has been adapted to enzymatic saccarifications of sodium hydroxide pretreated sallow. The gas membrane sensor for ethanol has been utilized in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sodium hydroxide pretreated sallow. A literature study concerning pervaporation for ethanol up-grading has been made.(Author).

  20. Recontextualização da simulação clínica em enfermagem baseada em Basil Bernstein: semiologia da prática pedagógica Recontextualización de la simulación de enfermería clínica basada en Basil Bernstein: la semiología de la práctica pedagógica Recontextualization of Nursing clinical simulation based on Basil Bernstein: semiology of pedagogical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Casanova dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é um estudo de caso investigativo de caráter participante e descritivo, a partir da vivência pedagógica no disparador de aprendizagem Simulação em Enfermagem, do segundo semestre do primeiro ciclo da graduação da Faculdade de Enfermagem (FEn da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel, onde se desenvolve a simulação clínica de semiologia e semiotécnica em Enfermagem. O objetivo é estudar a recontextualização da prática pedagógica da Simulação com base em teorizações do sociólogo da educação Basil Bernstein, contribuindo para o processo de aperfeiçoamento do planejamento de ensino e, especialmente, da avaliação deste disparador de aprendizagem. A partir das reflexões deste estudo, observa-se a teorização de Bernstein como uma potente ferramenta semiológica das práticas pedagógicas, a qual contribui para o planejamento e análise do dispositivo pedagógico curricular.Este artículo es un caso de estudio de carácter descriptivo y de investigación participante, desde la experiencia educativa de aprendizaje en el gatillo Simulación en Enfermería, de la segunda mitad del primer ciclo de la Escuela Enfermería (FEN de la Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel donde se desarrolla la simulación de la semiología clínica y la semiótica en Enfermería. El objetivo es estudiar la recontextualización de la práctica pedagógica de teorías basadas en la simulación del sociólogo de la educación Basil Bernstein, contribuyendo al proceso de mejora de la educación, planificación y aprendizaje, especialmente la evaluación de gatillo. De las reflexiones de este estudio, existe la teoría de Bernstein como una poderosa herramienta de semiótica prácticas pedagógicas, lo que contribuye a la planificación y el análisis de dispositivos educativos curriculares.This article is a case study of investigative and descriptive participant character, from the educational experience of learning in the trigger

  1. Sustainably produced ethanol. A premium fuel component; Nachhaltig produziertes Ethanol. Eine Premium Kraftstoffkomponente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Joerg [Suedzucker AG, Obrigheim/Pfalz (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Ethanol is the most used biofuel in the world. It is part of the European biofuel strategy, which is intended to preserve finite fossil resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and strengthen European agriculture. In addition to its traditional use in E5 fuel, ethanol most recently features in new fuels for petrol engines in Europe: as E10 as an expansion of the already existing concept of ethanol blends, such as in E5, or as ethanol fuel E85, a blend made up primarily of ethanol. There is already extensive international experience for both types of fuel for example in the USA or Brazil. The use of ethanol as a biofuel is linked to sustainability criteria in Europe which must be proven through a certification scheme. In addition to ethanol, the integrated production process also provides vegetable protein which is used in food as well as in animal feed and therefore provides the quality products of processed plants used for sustainable energy and in animal and human food. Ethanol has an effect on the vapour pressure, boiling behaviour and octane number of the fuel blend. Adjusting the blend stock petrol to fulfil the quality requirements of the final fuel is therefore necessary. Increasing the antiknock properties, increasing the heat of evaporation of the fuel using ethanol and the positive effects this has on the combustion efficiency of the petrol engine are particularly important. Investigations on cars or engines that were specifically designed for fuel with a higher ethanol content show significant improvements in using the energy from the fuel and the potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions if fuels containing ethanol are used. The perspective based purely on an energy equivalent replacement of fossil fuels with ethanol is therefore misleading. Ethanol can also contribute to increasing the energy efficiency of petrol engines as well as being a replacement source of energy. (orig.)

  2. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Luo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  3. Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Yang Xianlin; Yao Weiguo; Lee Weihua

    2006-01-01

    Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3β, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3β (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3β inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits

  4. A New Formula to Estimate the Length of Right Upper Extremity Vein from Elbow Crease to Carina Calculated by Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Insertion through Right Basilic Vein Puncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Hwan; Jeon, Eui Yong; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Hyun; Koh, Sung Hye; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Kwan Seop; Yoon, Dae Young; Im, Hyoung June

    2012-01-01

    To measure the length of the upper extremity vein between the elbow crease and the carina (elbow crease to carina length, ECL), to facilitate the appropriate positioning of the tip of the peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). A total of 124 patients (64 men and 60 women; mean age 65.2 ± 15.4 years; range, 21-90 years) inserted with PICC through the right basilic vein under fluoroscopy were included in this retrospective study. The ECL was determined as follows: ECL = (distance from elbow crease to puncture site) + (the catheter length of PICC) - (distance from carina to catheter tip on post-procedural chest radiograph). We analyzed the relationship between ECL and patient height. The mean ECL through right basilic vein was 42.07 ±4.03 cm (27.5 to 52.2 cm). ECL was found to be significantly correlated with patient height: ECL (cm) = 0.24 X patient height (cm) + 3.75. The formula developed in our study would be helpful for predicting the optimal catheter length during a blind bedside procedure of PICC via the right basilic vein.

  5. Molecular pathways underpinning ethanol-induced neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eGoldowitz*

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While genetics impacts the type and severity of damage following developmental ethanol exposure, little is currently known about the molecular pathways that mediate these effects. Traditionally, research in this area has used a candidate gene approach and evaluated effects on a gene-by-gene basis. Recent studies, however, have begun to use unbiased approaches and genetic reference populations to evaluate the roles of genotype and epigenetic modifications in phenotypic changes following developmental ethanol exposure, similar to studies that evaluated numerous alcohol-related phenotypes in adults. Here, we present work assessing the role of genetics and chromatin-based alterations in mediating ethanol-induced apoptosis in the developing nervous system. Utilizing the expanded family of BXD recombinant inbred mice, animals were exposed to ethanol at postnatal day 7 via subcutaneous injection (5.0 g/kg in 2 doses. Tissue was collected 7 hours after the initial ethanol treatment and analyzed by activated caspase-3 immunostaining to visualize dying cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In parallel, the levels of two histone modifications relevant to apoptosis, γH2AX and H3K14 acetylation, were examined in the cerebral cortex using protein blot analysis. Activated caspase-3 staining identified marked differences in cell death across brain regions between different mouse strains. Genetic analysis of ethanol susceptibility in the hippocampus led to the identification of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 12, which mediates, at least in part, strain-specific differential vulnerability to ethanol-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, analysis of chromatin modifications in the cerebral cortex revealed a global increase in γH2AX levels following ethanol exposure, but did not show any change in H3K14 acetylation levels. Together, these findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms and genetic contributions underlying ethanol

  6. Ethanol production using nuclear petite yeast mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, A.; Oliver, S.G. [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Two respiratory-deficient nuclear petites, FY23{Delta}pet191 and FY23{Delta}cox5a, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were generated using polymerase-chain-reaction-mediated gene disruption, and their respective ethanol tolerance and productivity assessed and compared to those of the parental grande, FY23WT, and a mitochondrial petite, FY23{rho}{sup 0}. Batch culture studies demonstrated that the parental strain was the most tolerant to exogenously added ethanol with an inhibition constant. K{sub i}, of 2.3% (w/v) and a specific rate of ethanol production, q{sub p}, of 0.90 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. FY23{rho}{sup 0} was the most sensitive to ethanol, exhibiting a K{sub i} of 1.71% (w/v) and q{sub p} of 0.87 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Analyses of the ethanol tolerance of the nuclear petites demonstrate that functional mitochondria are essential for maintaining tolerance to the toxin with the 100% respiratory-deficient nuclear petite, FY23{Delta}pet191, having a K{sub i} of 2.14% (w/v) and the 85% respiratory-deficient FY23{Delta}cox5a, having a K{sub i} of 1.94% (w/v). The retention of ethanol tolerance in the nuclear petites as compared to that of FY23{rho}{sup 0} is mirrored by the ethanol productivities of these nuclear mutants, being respectively 43% and 30% higher than that of the respiratory-sufficient parent strain. This demonstrates that, because of their respiratory deficiency, the nuclear petites are not subject of the Pasteur effect and so exhibit higher rates of fermentation. (orig.)

  7. The role of ethanol in heroin deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, B; Green, D; Smialek, J E

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of ethanol in deaths due to heroin intoxication. Over a 12 month period, all cases investigated by the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, State of Maryland where a blood screen by Roche Abuscreen radioimmunoassay (RIA) was positive at a cutoff of 100 ng/mL were included in the study. Free morphine was quantitated using the Coat-A-Count RIA and ethanol was quantitated by head space gas chromatography. All presumptive morphine positive cases were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Seventy of the 119 cases where death was attributed to narcotic or alcohol and narcotic intoxication had blood ethanol concentrations (BAC) greater than or equal to 0.02 g/dL; 48 had BAC > or = 0.10 g/dL. Only 3 of 45 cases where morphine was identified but was unrelated to death had BAC > or = 0.02 g/dL. At all ranges of free morphine concentrations, there was a greater percentage of narcotic deaths when ethanol was present. From the data, we conclude that 1) the use of even small amounts of ethanol with heroin is clearly a risk factor in deaths due to heroin, 2) there are some heroin deaths where no free morphine is identified in the blood. In these deaths, ethanol is unlikely to be present, 3) at blood ethanol concentrations between 0.20 and 0.29 g/dL, the morphine concentrations in heroin deaths increased significantly, 4) at blood ethanol concentrations greater than 0.30 g/dL, morphine became less of a factor than the ethanol in causing death.

  8. Greenprint on ethanol production in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Investment in Saskatchewan's ethanol industry is being actively promoted by the provincial government. This document represents the provincial strategy in support of the ethanol industry, which will result in significant environmental benefits for the province and the residents through the increased use of ethanol as an additive to conventional gasoline. The big advantage offered by ethanol is a more complete fuel combustion, thereby reducing emissions of greenhouse gases by as much as 30 per cent. The production costs of ethanol have decreased in the last twenty years by 50 per cent. The competitiveness of ethanol should increase due to ongoing research and development progress being made. The agricultural sector should benefit through the creation of meaningful jobs in the sector, as well as offering new marketing opportunities to the grain producers of the province and the wood-product companies. A renewable resource, ethanol reduces carbon dioxide exhaust emissions bu up to 20 per cent, reduces the smog-creating compounds up to 15 per cent, and achieves a net reduction of up to 10 per cent in carbon dioxide emissions. The abundance of raw materials and resources required for the production of ethanol, Saskatchewan possesses an obvious advantage for becoming a world leader in the field. The government of Saskatchewan has developed its strategy, outlined in this document. It calls for tax incentives, the mandating of ethanol blend, opening up markets, working with communities. The industry size, economic impact, export potential, and future opportunities were briefly discussed in the last section of the document. 1 tab., 3 figs

  9. Sweet future? Brazil's ethanol fuel programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle, F.R.

    1999-01-01

    This article traces the history of Brazil's ethanol fuel programme from 1975 to the present, and considers Brazil's energy policy, and the implications of price liberalisation and privatisation aimed at reducing prices to control inflation. The achievements of ProAlcool which was established in 1975 with the aim of replacing petrol with ethanol, costs and investment in ProAlcool, environmental implications, and policy initiatives to boost ProAlcool are examined. Details of typical emissions from a 6-year old car in Brazil are tabulated illustrating the reduced emissions due to ethanol fuels

  10. Ethanol dehydration on doped cadmium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Salaam, K.M.

    1975-01-01

    The vapour phase catalytic dehydration of ethanol over Fe impregnated cadmium oxide was investigated between 200-450 0 C in atmospheric pressure. Electron transfer mechanisms involved in adsorption and catalytic dehydration reaction were investigated. The change in electrical conductivity of the catalyst resulting from calcination, adsorption and surface reaction processes were studied. Adsorption conductivity at low temperature ( 0 C) indicates that ethanol adsorbs as an electron donor. A mechanism of creation of interstitial Cd atoms responsible for the catalytic dehydration of ethanol on the catalyst surface was suggested. (orig.) [de

  11. Ethanol as radon storage: applications for measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, I.; Philipsborn, H. von

    1997-01-01

    Ethanol as Radon Storage: Applications for Measurement Ethanol has a solubility for radon of 6 Bq/l per kBq/m 3 air, 24 times higher than water. On filtration of ethanol, radon decay products are completely adsorbed on glass fiber filters, as previously reported for water. Hence: 1. A new simple method for measuring radon in soil air, without expensive equipment. 2. The production of mailable radon calibration sources ('radonol') with 50-100 kBq/l in PET-bottles with 3.8 days half-life, using uraniferous rocks as primary source. (orig.) [de

  12. Comportamento fenotípico e genotípico de populações de manjericão Phenotypic and genotypic behavior of basil populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie F Blank

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Genótipos de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. apresentam diferentes teores, rendimentos e composições químicas de óleos essenciais. Fatores influenciam na produção do óleo essencial de manjericão, como a cultivar plantada e o método de cultivo. O estudo dos parâmetros genéticos tem sido ferramenta útil na identificação de genótipos superiores. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de estimar alguns parâmetros genéticos associados ao comportamento produtivo de seis populações de manjericão nos anos agrícola 2004/05 e 2005/06. As características massa seca de folha + inflorescência e rendimento de óleo essencial apresentaram grande variabilidade por forte influência dos anos estudados. Já o teor de linalol manteve sua produtividade estável ao longo dos dois anos. Teor e rendimento de óleo essencial e teor de linalol no óleo essencial apresentaram herdabilidades altas na análise conjunta, indicando controle genético e grande possibilidade de serem transmitidas para as gerações futuras. Na análise conjunta as populações PI 197442-S3-bulk 3, PI 197442-S3-bulk 5 e PI 197442-S3-bulk 8 apresentaram os maiores teores e rendimentos de óleo essencial. Quanto ao constituinte químico majoritário do óleo essencial, o linalol, todas as populações apresentaram teores semelhantes, diferindo apenas na presença de alguns constituintes químicos minoritários.Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. genotypes present different contents, yields and chemical constituents in its essential oils. Factors influence the essential oil production of basil, such as cultivar and cultivation method. The study of genetic parameters is a useful tool to identify superior genotypes. In this work we estimated some genetic parameters associated to the production behavior of six basil populations cultivated in 2004/05 and 2005/06. The variables dry weight of leaves + inflorescences and essential oil yield presented high variability because of strong influence of

  13. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON PHASE STABILITY OF ETHANOL-GASOLINE MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerian Cerempei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates phase stability of ethanol-gasoline mixtures depending on their composition, water concentration in ethanol and ethanol-gasoline mixture and temperature. There have been determined the perfect functioning conditions of spark ignition engines fueled with ethanol-gasoline mixtures.

  14. Membrane fluidity adjustments in ethanol-stressed Oenococcus oeni cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silveira, da M.G.; Golovina, E.A.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on the cytoplasmic membrane of Oenococcus oeni cells and the role of membrane changes in the acquired tolerance to ethanol were investigated. Membrane tolerance to ethanol was defined as the resistance to ethanol-induced leakage of preloaded carboxyfluorescein (cF) from cells.

  15. On the Use of Potential Denaturing Agents for Ethanol in Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Domnik Bayer; Florina Jung; Birgit Kintzel; Martin Joos; Carsten Cremers; Dierk Martin; Jörg Bernard; Jens Tübke

    2011-01-01

    Acidic or alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) can be a sustainable alternative for power generation if they are fuelled with bio-ethanol. However, in order to keep the fuel cheap, ethanol has to be exempted from tax on spirits by denaturing. In this investigation the potential denaturing agents fusel oil, tert-butyl ethyl ether, and Bitrex were tested with regard to their compatibility with fuel cells. Experiments were carried out both in sulphuric acid and potassium hydroxide solution...

  16. Examination of Ethanol Marketing and Input Procurement Practices of the U.S. Ethanol Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Spaulding, Aslihan D.; Schmidgall, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Growing concerns about the dependence on foreign oil and high prices of gasoline have led to rapid growth in ethanol production in the past decade. Unlike earlier development of the ethanol industry which was highly concentrated in a few large corporations, recent ownership of the ethanol plants has been by farmer-owned cooperatives. Not much is known about the marketing and purchasing practices and plants’ flexibility with respect to adapting new technologies. The purpose of this research is...

  17. Holy Nations. Global Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and historical insight of historians, political scientists and social scientists on the question of nationalism and globalisation with the methodological knowledge of religion presented by sociologists of religion. The book brings genuine theoretical explorations and original case studies on civil religion...

  18. Holy graal of physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Bührke, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    With the biggest "catapult" for elementar particles, the physicists want to explain why there is actually matter. Like in the USA some years ago, big accelerator started to find that black light would perhaps exist. (1 page)

  19. Background: Energy's holy grail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a brief history of the pursuit and development of fusion as a power source. Starting with the 1950s through the present, the research efforts of the US and other countries is highlighted, including a chronology of hey developments. Other topics discussed include cold fusion and magnetic versus inertial fusion issues

  20. Incense and holy bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Lei; Galal, Lise Paulsen

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how two Middle Eastern Christian churches in Denmark are constructed as particular sensorial spaces that invite attendees to participate in and identify with specific times and spaces. As with other Christian groups, rituals of the Sunday mass constitute a highlight of t...

  1. Incense and Holy Bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen; Sparre, Sara Lei

    In Denmark, Christian immigrants from the Middle East encounter a Christian church very different from the churches to which they belong. After the first relief having arrived in a Christian country, Middle Eastern congregations are on a very practical level confronted with their differences vis-...

  2. Holy Wars in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, James C.

    1989-01-01

    According to Robert L. Simonds, president and founder of the National Association of Christian Educators, public education is a stronghold of the devil that promulgates atheism and immorality. The key to controlling education is to establish Christian Parents' Committees in all 15,700 school districts across the U.S. and elect members to local…

  3. 'Holy Grails' of Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TS in a reaction was first suggested in the context of explaining the temperature variation ... and creates no concrete impression about its nature and charac- teristics. .... the TS. For accurate calculation of rate constants, however, the choice of ...

  4. The effect of drought stress on the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids and essential oil components in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi Mandoulakani, Babak; Eyvazpour, Elham; Ghadimzadeh, Morteza

    2017-07-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), a medicinal plant of the Lamiaceae family, is used in traditional medicine; its essential oil is a rich source of phenylpropanoids. Methylchavicol and methyleugenol are the most important constituents of basil essential oil. Drought stress is proposed to enhance the essential oil composition and expression levels of the genes involved in its biosynthesis. In the current investigation, an experiment based on a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications was conducted in the greenhouse to study the effect of drought stress on the expression level of four genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway in O. basilicum c.v. Keshkeni luvelou. The genes studied were chavicol O-methyl transferase (CVOMT), eugenol O-methyl transferase (EOMT), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate coA ligase (4CL), and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). The effect of drought stress on the essential oil compounds and their relationship with the expression levels of the studied genes were also investigated. Plants were subjected to levels of 100%, 75%, and 50% of field capacity (FC) at the 6-8 leaf stage. Essential oil compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) at flowering stage and the levels of gene expression were determind by real time PCR in plant leaves at the same stage. Results showed that drought stress increased the amount of methylchavicol, methyleugenol, β-Myrcene and α-bergamotene. The maximum amount of these compounds was observed at 50% FC. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that severe drought stress (50% FC) increased the expression level of CVOMT and EOMT by about 6.46 and 46.33 times, respectively, whereas those of CAD relatively remained unchanged. The expression level of 4CL and C4H reduced under drought stress conditions. Our results also demonstrated that changes in the expression levels of CVOMT and EOMT are significantly correlated with methylchavicol (r = 0.94, P ≤ 0

  5. Report of the PRI biofuel-ethanol; Rapport du PRI biocarburant-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This evaluation report presents three research programs in the framework of the physiological behavior of the yeast ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', with high ethanol content. These studies should allowed to select an efficient yeast for the ethanol production. The first study concerns the development of an enzymatic process for the hydrolysis and the fermentation. The second study deals with the molecular and dynamical bases for the yeast metabolic engineering for the ethanol fuel production. The third research concerns the optimization of performance of microbial production processes of ethanol. (A.L.B.)

  6. Derived thermodynamic properties for the (ethanol + decane) and (carbon dioxide + ethanol + decane) systems at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora-López, Héctor S.; Galicia-Luna, Luis A.; Elizalde-Solis, Octavio; Hernández-Rosales, Irma P.; Méndez-Lango, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental density data are reported for (ethanol + decane) and (ethanol + decane + CO 2 ) mixtures. ► Compressed liquid densities were measured in a vibrating tube densimeter from (313 to 363) K. ► Excess molar volumes for (ethanol + decane) mixtures are positive. ► The presence of carbon dioxide in the (ethanol + decane) mixture causes negative excess molar volumes. - Abstract: Volumetric properties for the binary (ethanol + decane) and ternary (ethanol + decane + carbon dioxide) systems are reported from (313 to 363) K and pressures up to 20 MPa. Compressed liquid densities of both systems were measured in a vibrating tube densimeter at different compositions. Binary mixtures {x 1 ethanol + (1-x 1 ) decane} were prepared at x 1 = 0.0937, 0.1011, 0.2507, 0.4963, 0.7526, 0.9014. Compositions for the ternary system were prepared by varying the ethanol/decane relation and trying to keep constant the presence of carbon dioxide at about 0.2 mole fraction. These were {x 1 ethanol + x 2 decane + (1-x 1 -x 2 ) carbon dioxide} x 1 = 0.0657, 0.1986, 0.4087, 0.6042, 0.7109. Density results were correlated using an empirical model with five parameters. Deviations between experimental and calculated values agree and are within the experimental uncertainty. Isobaric expansivity, isothermal compressibility, thermal pressure coefficient, and internal pressure have been calculated for both binary and ternary systems using the empirical model.

  7. Report of the PRI biofuel-ethanol; Rapport du PRI biocarburant-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This evaluation report presents three research programs in the framework of the physiological behavior of the yeast ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', with high ethanol content. These studies should allowed to select an efficient yeast for the ethanol production. The first study concerns the development of an enzymatic process for the hydrolysis and the fermentation. The second study deals with the molecular and dynamical bases for the yeast metabolic engineering for the ethanol fuel production. The third research concerns the optimization of performance of microbial production processes of ethanol. (A.L.B.)

  8. Chronic ethanol consumption impairs learning and memory after cessation of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Susan A; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Banks, William A; Flood, James F; Morley, John E

    2005-06-01

    Acute consumption of ethanol results in reversible changes in learning and memory whereas chronic ethanol consumption of six or more months produces permanent deficits and neural damage in rodents. The goal of the current paper was determine whether shorter durations of chronic ethanol ingestion in mice would produce long-term deficits in learning and memory after the cessation of ethanol. We first examined the effects of four and eight weeks of 20% ethanol followed by a three week withdrawal period on learning and memory in mice. We determined that three weeks after eight, but not four, weeks of 20% ethanol consumption resulted in deficits in learning and long-term memory (seven days) in T-maze footshock avoidance and Greek Cross brightness discrimination, step-down passive avoidance and shuttlebox active avoidance. Short-term memory (1 hr) was not affected. The deficit was not related to changes in thiamine status, caloric intake, or nonmnemonic factors, such as, activity or footshock sensitivity. Lastly, we examined if the mice recovered after longer durations of withdrawal. After eight weeks of ethanol, we compared mice after three and 12 weeks of withdrawal. Mice that had been off ethanol for both three and 12 weeks were impaired in T-maze footshock avoidance compared to the controls. The current results indicate that a duration of ethanol consumption as short as eight weeks produces deficits in learning and memory that are present 12 weeks after withdrawal.

  9. The Text of the Agreement between the Holy See and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-06-06

    The text of the Agreement and of the Protocol thereto, between the Holy See and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  10. The Text of the Agreement between the Holy See and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement and of the Protocol thereto, between the Holy See and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  11. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T [Evergreen, CO; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie [Avondale, PA

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  12. Radiolytic decomposition of water-ethanol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquey, Charles

    1968-07-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the behaviour of binary mixtures submitted to ionizing radiations, and notably aims, by studying the case of water-ethanol mixtures, at verifying solutions proposed by previously published works on the origin of hydrogen atoms and of molecular hydrogen, on the intervention of excited atoms, and on the origin of products appearing under radiolysis. The experimental part of this work consists in the dosing of products formed in water-ethanol mixtures irradiated in presence or absence of nitrate, hydrogen, hydrocarbon, acetaldehyde, 2-3 butanediol and nitrite. Results are discussed and interpreted in terms of acetaldehyde efficiency, 2-3 butanediol efficiencies, and hydrocarbon efficiencies in pure ethanol, and in water-ethanol mixtures. The influence of the presence of nitrate ions in mixtures is also discussed

  13. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application ... sources include cashew, apple juice (Osho, 2005), palm ... choice for fermentation (Chandra and Panchal, 2003). Yeasts ...

  14. Northeastern California Ethanol Manufacturing Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-11-01

    This report is a compilation of work by several different organizations and includes the NREL researched report, 'Biomass to Ethanol, Facility Design, Cost Estimate, and Financial Evaluation' Volumes I and II.

  15. Aqueous ethanolic extract of Cochlospermum planchonii rhizome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. ABU

    2012-07-03

    Jul 3, 2012 ... This study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous ethanolic ... Key words: Cochlospermum planchonii, sperm characteristics, reproduction, Wistar rats. ... extract was stored in air-tight container at 4°C until needed.

  16. Remetabolism of transpired ethanol by Populus deltoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, R.C.; Kimmerer, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ethanol is present in the transpiration stream of flooded and unflooded trees in concentrations up to 0.5mM. Transpired ethanol does not evaporate but is remetabolized by foliage and upper stems in Populus deltoides. 14 C-ethanol was supplied in the transpiration stream to excised leaves and shoots; more than 98% was incorporated. Less than 1% was respired as CO 2 . Organic and amino acids were labelled initially, with eventual accumulations in water- and chloroform-soluble fractions and into protein. Much of the label was incorporated into stem tissue, with little reaching the lamina. These experiments suggest that ethanol is not lost transpirationally through the leaves, but is efficiently recycled in a manner resembling lactate recycling in mammals

  17. Effects of Vigabatrin, an Irreversible GABA Transaminase Inhibitor, on Ethanol Reinforcement and Ethanol Discriminative Stimuli in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, William C.; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Deleon, Christopher P.; Middaugh, Lawrence D.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor, γ-vinyl GABA (Vigabatrin; VGB) would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity and ethanol discrimination procedures, to examine comprehensively the effects of VGB on ethanol-supported behaviors. VGB dose-dependently reduced operant responding for ethanol as well as ethanol consumption for long periods of time. Importantly, a low dose (200 mg/kg) of VGB was selective for reducing ethanol responding without altering intake of food or water reinforcement. Higher VGB doses (>200 mg/kg) still reduced ethanol intake, but also significantly increased water consumption and, more modestly, increased food consumption. While not affecting locomotor activity on its own, VGB interacted with ethanol to reduce the stimulatory effects of ethanol on locomotion. Finally, VGB (200 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol as evidenced by significant left-ward and up-ward shifts in ethanol generalization curves. Interestingly, VGB treatment was associated with slight increases in blood ethanol concentrations. The reduction in ethanol intake by VGB appears to be related to the ability of VGB to potentiate the pharmacological effects of ethanol. PMID:22336593

  18. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa Pedretti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the Viticulture Research Centre (CRA-VIT Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. Life cycle assessment (LCA of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: i using the spreadsheet BioGrace, developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe program to support and to ease the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. These two tools gave very similar results. The overall emissions impact of ethanol production from grapes on average is about 33 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if prunings are used for steam production and 53 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if methane is used. The comparison with other bio-energy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy.

  19. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  20. Production of 16% ethanol from 35% sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breisha, Gaber Z.

    2010-01-01

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which showed marked fermentation activity, ethanol and temperature tolerance and good flocculation ability, was selected for ethanol production. A stuck fermentation occurred at sucrose concentration of 25%. Increasing the yeast inoculum volume from 3% to 6% showed positive effects on fermentation from 25% sucrose. The ratio of added nitrogen to sucrose, which gave the best results (for the selected yeast strain), was determined. It was concluded that this ratio (nitrogen as ammonium sulphate at a rate of 5 mg g -1 of consumed sucrose) is constant at various sugar concentrations. Addition of nitrogen at this ratio produced 11.55% ethanol with complete consumption of 25% sucrose after 48 h of fermentation. However fermentation of 30% sucrose at the above optimum conditions was not complete. Addition of yeast extract at a level of 6 g l -1 together with thiamine at a level of 0.2 g l -1 led to complete utilization of 30% sucrose with resultant 14% ethanol production. However the selected yeast strain was not able to ferment 35% sucrose at the same optimum conditions. Addition of air at a rate of 150 dm 3 min -1 m 3 of reactor volume during the first 12 h of fermentation led to complete consumption of 35% sucrose and 16% ethanol was produced. This was approximately the theoretical maximum for ethanol production.

  1. The expanding U. S. ethanol industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, B

    1991-01-01

    American experience in the ethanol industry is discussed. Archer Daniel Midlands Co. (ADM) is a large agri-processing company that is the largest processor of grains and oilseeds, and processes ca 400,000 bushels of corn per day at its Decateur facility. Waste water and heat from the plant is used to grow vegetables hydroponically, with carbon dioxide from distillation used to speed growing at night. About 40,000 heads of lettuce per day are harvested, with cucumbers and tomatoes grown as premium crops. The plant includes a state-of-the-art fluidized bed power plant that burns high sulfur coal without sulfur emission. Approval has recently been granted by the Environmental Protection Agency to burn used tires, and payback for the process is expected to take 3-4 years. Ethanol is produced by steeping corn and separating germ and starch, with the starch used to make corn sweeteners. As well as ethanol, byproducts include animal feed, hydroponics, oils and margarines. ADM is the largest barging company in the U.S., with 14,000 rail cars, 1,200 dedicated to fuel ethanol. The Clean Air Act will mandate a 2.7% oxygen gasoline, and 10% ethanol additive gives 3.3% oxygen. The high octane rating of ethanol-blend gasoline is a strong selling point, and is a good deal for refiners, especially at octane-poor refineries.

  2. Modeling bacterial contamination of fuel ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Kenneth M; Liu, Siqing; Leathers, Timothy D; Worthington, Ronald E; Rich, Joseph O

    2009-05-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria may limit the effectiveness of antibiotics to treat bacterial contamination in fuel ethanol plants, and therefore, new antibacterial intervention methods and tools to test their application are needed. Using shake-flask cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on saccharified corn mash and strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a dry-grind ethanol facility, a simple model to simulate bacterial contamination and infection was developed. Challenging the model with 10(8) CFU/mL Lactobacillus fermentum decreased ethanol yield by 27% and increased residual glucose from 6.2 to 45.5 g/L. The magnitude of the effect was proportional to the initial bacterial load, with 10(5) CFU/mL L. fermentum still producing an 8% decrease in ethanol and a 3.2-fold increase in residual glucose. Infection was also dependent on the bacterial species used to challenge the fermentation, as neither L. delbrueckii ATCC 4797 nor L. amylovorus 0315-7B produced a significant decrease in ethanol when inoculated at a density of 10(8) CFU/mL. In the shake-flask model, treatment with 2 microg/mL virginiamycin mitigated the infection when challenged with a susceptible strain of L. fermentum (MIC for virginiamycin model may find application in developing new antibacterial agents and management practices for use in controlling contamination in the fuel ethanol industry. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Production of 16% ethanol from 35% sucrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breisha, Gaber Z. [Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Minia (Egypt)

    2010-08-15

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which showed marked fermentation activity, ethanol and temperature tolerance and good flocculation ability, was selected for ethanol production. A stuck fermentation occurred at sucrose concentration of 25%. Increasing the yeast inoculum volume from 3% to 6% showed positive effects on fermentation from 25% sucrose. The ratio of added nitrogen to sucrose, which gave the best results (for the selected yeast strain), was determined. It was concluded that this ratio (nitrogen as ammonium sulphate at a rate of 5 mg g{sup -1} of consumed sucrose) is constant at various sugar concentrations. Addition of nitrogen at this ratio produced 11.55% ethanol with complete consumption of 25% sucrose after 48 h of fermentation. However fermentation of 30% sucrose at the above optimum conditions was not complete. Addition of yeast extract at a level of 6 g l{sup -1} together with thiamine at a level of 0.2 g l{sup -1} led to complete utilization of 30% sucrose with resultant 14% ethanol production. However the selected yeast strain was not able to ferment 35% sucrose at the same optimum conditions. Addition of air at a rate of 150 dm{sup 3} min{sup -1} m{sup 3} of reactor volume during the first 12 h of fermentation led to complete consumption of 35% sucrose and 16% ethanol was produced. This was approximately the theoretical maximum for ethanol production. (author)

  4. Carbon nanotube-based ethanol sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahim, Sean; Colbern, Steve; Gump, Robert; Moser, Alex; Grigorian, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    Sensors containing metal-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid materials as the active sensing layer were demonstrated for ethanol vapor detection at room temperature. The metal-CNT hybrid materials were synthesized by infiltrating single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with the transition metals Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Pd or Pt. Each sensor was prepared by drop-casting dilute dispersions of a metal-CNT hybrid onto quartz substrate electrodes and the impedimetric responses to varying ethanol concentration were recorded. Upon exposure to ethanol vapor, the ac impedance (Z') of the sensors was found to decrease to different extents. The sensor containing pristine CNT material was virtually non-responsive at low ethanol concentrations (<50 ppm). In contrast, all metal-CNT hybrid sensors showed extremely high sensitivity to trace ethanol levels with 100-fold or more gains in sensitivity relative to the starting SWNT sensor. All hybrid sensors, with the exception of Ni filled CNT, exhibited significantly larger sensor responses to ethanol vapor up to 250 ppm compared to the starting SWNT sensor.

  5. [Insights into engineering of cellulosic ethanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Guojun; Wu, Guoqing; Lin, Xin

    2014-06-01

    For energy security, air pollution concerns, coupled with the desire to sustain the agricultural sector and revitalize the rural economy, many countries have applied ethanol as oxygenate or fuel to supplement or replace gasoline in transportation sector. Because of abundant feedstock resources and effective reduction of green-house-gas emissions, the cellulosic ethanol has attracted great attention. With a couple of pioneers beginning to produce this biofuel from biomass in commercial quantities around the world, it is necessary to solve engineering problems and complete the economic assessment in 2015-2016, gradually enter the commercialization stage. To avoid "competing for food with humans and competing for land with food", the 1st generation fuel ethanol will gradually transit to the 2nd generation cellulosic ethanol. Based on the overview of cellulosic ethanol industrialization from domestic and abroad in recent years, the main engineering application problems encountered in pretreatment, enzymes and enzymatic hydrolysis, pentose/hexose co-fermentation strains and processes, equipment were discussed from chemical engineering and biotechnology perspective. The development direction of cellulosic ethanol technology in China was addressed.

  6. Sorption equilibria of ethanol on cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Karbowiak, Thomas; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-05

    We report here for the first time a thermodynamic study of gaseous ethanol sorption on raw cork powder and plate. Our study aims at a better understanding of the reactivity of this material when used as a stopper under enological conditions, thus in close contact with a hydroethanolic solution, wine. Sorption−desorption isotherms were accurately measured by thermogravimetry at 298 K in a large range of relative pressures. Sorption enthalpies were determined by calorimetry as a function of loading. Sorption−desorption isotherms exhibit a hysteresis loop probably due to the swelling of the material and the absorption of ethanol. Surprisingly, the sorption enthalpy of ethanol becomes lower than the liquefaction enthalpy as the filling increases. This result could be attributed to the swelling of the material, which would generate endothermic effects. Sorption of SO₂ on cork containing ethanol was also studied. When the ethanol content in cork is 2 wt %, the amount of SO₂ sorbed is divided by 2. Thus, ethanol does not enhance the sorption rate for SO₂ but, on the contrary, decreases the SO₂ sorption activity onto cork, probably because of competitive sorption mechanisms.

  7. Ethanol research with representatives of provincial/territorial governments and ethanol retailers : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This paper provided the results of a survey conducted to obtain feedback from retailers and provincial and territorial governments concerning the promotion of ethanol use. A key objective of the research was to determine whether local and provincial governments and retailers are interested in cooperating with the federal government in promoting ethanol use. Thirteen government representatives were interviewed as well as 11 retailers. Results of the study suggested that approaches to collaboration with the diverse stakeholders involved in the promotion of ethanol will require a tailored approach. The needs and interests of jurisdictions and provinces varied widely. Outlets selling ethanol-blended gasoline were concentrated in Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan. Retailers who embraced the alternative fuel tended to be well-established in the ethanol market, and did not require assistance from the Government of Canada. Retailers who were reluctant to embrace ethanol stated that they were only likely to enter the market when required to do so by law. Many stakeholders felt that consumers entertained common misperceptions concerning ethanol, and that consumers were unsure of the effect of ethanol on their vehicles. Many retailers had taken steps to communicate with consumers about the relative benefits of ethanol-blended gasoline. Results indicated that the federal government can assist provinces and retailers by providing promotional tools such as flyers, pamphlets and brochures. Interest among retailers in collaborating with the government was only moderate. It was recommended that retailers be provided with accurate information on ethanol. It was concluded that strategies should be developed by the federal government to increase public awareness of ethanol use.

  8. Ligno-ethanol in competition with food-based ethanol in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poganietz, Witold-Roger

    2012-01-01

    First-generation biofuels are often challenged over their potentially adverse impact on food prices. Biofuels that use nonfood biomass such as lignocellulose are being promoted to ease the conflict between fuels and food. However, their complex processes mean that the total costs of lignocellulosic ethanol may be high in comparison. This might undermine the economic soundness of plans for its use. Another potential advantage of lignocellulosic ethanol is seen in an enhanced contribution to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Yet the increasing attractiveness of lignocellulosic biofuels may also lead to changes in land use that induce additional carbon emissions. For this reason, the environmental impacts of such plans are not straightforward and depend on the affected category of land. The objective of this paper is to compare the economic perspectives and environmental impact of lignocellulosic ethanol with food-based ethanol taking into account market constraints and policy measures. The analysis of the environmental impact focuses on carbon dioxide emissions. In the medium run, i.e., by 2020, lignocellulosic ethanol could enter the gasoline market, crowding out inter alia food-based ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, lignocellulosic ethanol seems to be environmentally desirable in each of the analyzed cases. The findings depend crucially on the market conditions, which are influenced inter alia by crude oil, the exchange rate, and technology conditions. -- Highlights: ► Competition of ligno-ethanol with competing energy carriers is analyzed. ► In medium-term ligno-ethanol could crowd out food-based ethanol. ► In terms of CO 2 ligno-ethanol seems to be environmentally desirable. ► The environmental impacts include by land use change induced CO 2 emissions. ► The findings depend crucially on market conditions.

  9. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence: effects on social behavior and ethanol sensitivity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Truxell, Eric; Spear, Linda P

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed long-lasting consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during two different periods of adolescence on 1) baseline levels of social investigation, play fighting, and social preference and 2) sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol challenge. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were tested 25 days after repeated exposure to ethanol (3.5 g/kg intragastrically [i.g.], every other day for a total of 11 exposures) in a modified social interaction test. Early-mid adolescent intermittent exposure (e-AIE) occurred between postnatal days (P) 25 and 45, whereas late adolescent intermittent exposure (l-AIE) was conducted between P45 and P65. Significant decreases in social investigation and social preference were evident in adult male rats, but not their female counterparts following e-AIE, whereas neither males nor females demonstrated these alterations following l-AIE. In contrast, both e-AIE and l-AIE produced alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge in males tested 25 days after adolescent exposure. Ethanol-induced facilitation of social investigation and play fighting, reminiscent of that normally seen during adolescence, was evident in adult males after e-AIE, whereas control males showed an age-typical inhibition of social behavior. Males after l-AIE were found to be insensitive to the socially suppressing effects of acute ethanol challenge, suggesting the development of chronic tolerance in these animals. In contrast, females showed little evidence for alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge following either early or late AIE. The results of the present study demonstrate a particular vulnerability of young adolescent males to long-lasting detrimental effects of repeated ethanol. Retention of adolescent-typical sensitivity to the socially facilitating effects of ethanol could potentially make ethanol especially appealing to these males, therefore promoting relatively high levels of ethanol intake later

  10. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    G. Morais-Silva; J. Fernandes-Santos; D. Moreira-Silva; M.T. Marin

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol), but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex int...

  11. Characterization of Turbulent Processes by the Raman Lidar System Basil in the Frame of the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment - Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Summa, Donato; Stelitano, Dario; Cacciani, Marco; Scoccione, Andrea; Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2016-06-01

    Measurements carried out by the Raman lidar system BASIL are reported to demonstrate the capability of this instrument to characterize turbulent processes within the Convective Boundary Layer (CBL). In order to resolve the vertical profiles of turbulent variables, high resolution water vapour and temperature measurements, with a temporal resolution of 10 sec and a vertical resolution of 90 and 210 m, respectively, are considered. Measurements of higher-order moments of the turbulent fluctuations of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature are obtained based on the application of spectral and auto-covariance analyses to the water vapour mixing ratio and temperature time series. The algorithms are applied to a case study (IOP 5, 20 April 2013) from the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), held in Central Germany in the spring 2013. The noise errors are demonstrated to be small enough to allow the derivation of up to fourth-order moments for both water vapour mixing ratio and temperature fluctuations with sufficient accuracy.

  12. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Egyptian Basil Leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) Using Hydro-Distillation and Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenni, Mohammed; El Abed, Douniazad; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Fernandez, Xavier; Chemat, Farid

    2016-01-19

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and conventional hydro-distillation (HD) were used for the extraction of essential oils (EOs) from Egyptian sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves. The two resulting EOs were compared with regards to their chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. The EO analyzed by GC and GC-MS, presented 65 compounds constituting 99.3% and 99.0% of the total oils obtained by SFME and HD, respectively. The main components of both oils were linalool (43.5% SFME; 48.4% HD), followed by methyl chavicol (13.3% SFME; 14.3% HD) and 1,8-cineole (6.8% SFME; 7.3% HD). Their antioxidant activity were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging method. The heating conditions effect was evaluated by the determination of the Total Polar Materials (TPM) content. The antimicrobial activity was investigated against five microorganisms: two Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, two Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and one yeast, Candida albicans. Both EOs showed high antimicrobial, but weak antioxidant, activities. The results indicated that the SFME method may be a better alternative for the extraction of EO from O. basilicum since it could be considered as providing a richer source of natural antioxidants, as well as strong antimicrobial agents for food preservation.

  13. A Set of Regioselective O-Methyltransferases Gives Rise to the Complex Pattern of Methoxylated Flavones in Sweet Basil1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Anna; Hyatt, David C.; Gang, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Polymethoxylated flavonoids occur in a number of plant families, including the Lamiaceae. To date, the metabolic pathways giving rise to the diversity of these compounds have not been studied. Analysis of our expressed sequence tag database for four sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) lines afforded identification of candidate flavonoid O-methyltransferase genes. Recombinant proteins displayed distinct substrate preferences and product specificities that can account for all detected 7-/6-/4′-methylated, 8-unsubstituted flavones. Their biochemical specialization revealed only certain metabolic routes to be highly favorable and therefore likely in vivo. Flavonoid O-methyltransferases catalyzing 4′- and 6-O-methylations shared high identity (approximately 90%), indicating that subtle sequence changes led to functional differentiation. Structure homology modeling suggested the involvement of several amino acid residues in defining the proteins’ stringent regioselectivities. The roles of these individual residues were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis, revealing two discrete mechanisms as a basis for the switch between 6- and 4′-O-methylation of two different substrates. These findings delineate major pathways in a large segment of the flavone metabolic network and provide a foundation for its further elucidation. PMID:22923679

  14. Changes in visual quality, physiological and biochemical parameters assessed during the postharvest storage at chilling or non-chilling temperatures of three sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Florinda; Cefola, Maria; Pace, Bernardo; Cozzolino, Rosaria; De Giulio, Beatrice; Cozzolino, Autilia; d'Acierno, Antonio; Coppola, Raffaele; Logrieco, Antonio Francesco; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2017-08-15

    Leaves of three different sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars (Italico a foglia larga, Cammeo, and Italiano classico) packed in macro-perforated polyethylene bags were stored at chilling (4°C) or non-chilling temperature (12°C) for 9days. During storage, visual quality, physiological (respiration rate, ethylene production, ammonium content) and chemical (antioxidant activity, total polyphenols and polyphenol profile) parameters were measured. Detached leaves stored at chilling temperature showed visual symptoms related to chilling injury, while ethylene production and ammonium content resulted associated to cultivar sensibility to damage at low temperature. Storage at 4°C caused a depletion in polyphenols content and antioxidant capability, which was preserved at 12°C. Regarding the polyphenols profile, stressful storage conditions did not enhance the phenolic metabolism. However, leaves stored at 12°C did not loss a significant amount of metabolites respect to fresh leaves, suggesting the possibility to extend the storability after the expiration date, for a possible recovery of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparative study of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of herbal mouthrinse containing tea tree oil, clove, and basil with commercially available essential oil mouthrinse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila V. Kothiwale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relatively safe nature and cost-effectiveness of herbal extracts have led to a resurgent interest in their utility as therapeutic agents. Therefore, this prospective, double-blind, randomly controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of newly formulated mouthrinse containing tea tree oil (TTO, clove, and basil with those of commercially available essential oil (EO mouthrinse. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were selected for a 21-day study period and randomly divided into two groups. The test group patients were given newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and the control group patients were given commercially available EO mouthrinse. The Plaque Index (PI, Gingival Index (GI, and Papillary Marginal Attachment (PMA Index were recorded at baseline, 14 days, and 21 days. The microbial colony forming units (CFU were assessed at baseline and 21 days. Results: Test group patients using herbal mouthrinse showed significant improvement in GI (0.16, PI (0.57, and PMA (0.02 scores. These improvements were comparable to those achieved with commercially available EO mouthrinse. However, the aerobic and anaerobic CFU of microbiota were reduced with the herbal mouthrinse (P = 0.0000. Conclusion: The newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and commercially available mouthrinse were beneficial clinically as antiplaque and antigingivitis agents. Newly formulated mouthrinses showed significant reduction in microbial CFU at 21 days. So, our findings support the regular use of herbal mouthrinse as an antiplaque, antigingivitis, and antimicrobial rinse for better efficacy.

  16. Comprehensive Comparison of the Performance of Autogenous Brachial-Basilic Transposition Arteriovenous Fistula and Prosthetic Forearm Loop Arteriovenous Graft in a Multiethnic Asian Hemodialysis Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koy Min Chue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. For patients who have exhausted cephalic vein arteriovenous fistula (AVF options, controversy exists on whether brachial-basilic AVF with transposition (BBTAVF or a forearm arteriovenous graft (AVG should be the next vascular access of choice. This study compared the outcomes of these two modalities. Methods. A retrospective study of 122 Asian multiethnic patients who underwent either a BBTAVF (81 or an AVG (41. Maturation time and intervention rates were analyzed. Functional primary, secondary, and overall patency rates were evaluated. Results. The maturation time for BBTAVFs was significantly longer than AVGs. There was also a longer deliberation time before surgeons abandon a failing BBTAVF compared to an AVG. Both functional primary and secondary patency rates were significantly higher in the BBTAVF group at 1-year follow-up: 73.2% versus 34.1% (p<0.001 and 71.8% versus 54.3% (p=0.022, respectively. AVGs also required more interventions to maintain patency. When maturation rates were considered, the overall patency of AVGs was initially superior in the first 25 weeks after creation and then became inferior afterwards. Conclusion. BBTAVFs had superior primary and functional patency and required less salvage interventions. The forearm AVG might have a role in patients who require early vascular access due to complications from central venous catheters or with limited life expectancy.

  17. Evaluation of Some Morphological Characteristics, Water Use Efficiency and Essential Oil of Basil (Ocimum basilicum var. keshkeni luvelou under Application of Malva Leaves and Superabsorbent Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beigi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medicinal plants are rich in active substances and primarily have been used in the manufacture of many drugs. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is one of the important medicinal plants whichbelongs to the Lamiaceae family. Basil essential oil content (between 0.5 to 1.5 percent varies according to climatic conditions of habitat location. Basilneeds a lot of water during growth period and it is very sensitive to water stress and shows wilting symptoms very soon after water shortage. Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid region which has little precipitation that is not enough for crop water requirements. Nowadays, the use of superabsorbent polymers is one of the ways to create sustainable agriculture and increase irrigation efficiency. They can store high water or aqueous solutions in root zone of plants and to reduce negative effects of drought stress. So, improvement of plant growth, increasing of irrigation intervals, reducing water loss and costs of irrigation is due to the application of superabsorbent polymers. Mucilages are also the herbal polysaccharides, soluble in water, and commonly include carbohydrates and can be used as hydrophilic polymers. The aims of this investigation were to study the effects of hydrophilic polymers on water use efficiency, morphological characteristics (dry matter, leaf area, and leaf number, essential oil quantity and yield of basil to harden plant to drought stress and to evaluate its potential to cultivate in arid regions. In addition, taking steps forward towards sustainable agriculture, by reducing the cost of agricultural production, helps protecting the environment. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted as a pot experiment at the department of Horticultural Science‚ college of Agricultural‚ Ferdowsi University of Mashhad‚ Iran, during 2012-2013.The research was set out in a factorial experiment on the basis of completely randomized block design with three replications

  18. Comparing the Effects of Benzyladenine and meta-Topolin on Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum Micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szidónia KŐSZEGHI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation of aromatic plants reveals an effective way of obtaining high volume, virus-free plant material of uniform quality. The application of meta-Topolin (mT (N6-(2-hydroxybenzyl adenine-9-riboside and aromatic cytokinin as Benzyladenine (BAP in the micro propagation of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. was tested for the first time and plant growth parameters assessed to determine the optimum level of these cytokinins. Additionally, the rate of root-growth inhibition due to these two cytokinins was also assessed. Our results show that 1 mg/l (4.43 mM BAP and 0.5 mg/l (2.07 mMmT produced the most favourable effects on new shoot developments. Meta-Topolin was shown to increase the quality of the plants and in comparison with BAP fewer distortions were observed. No significant differences in root-growth inhibition between the mT and BAP were detected.

  19. A refreshing alternative to the pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre: the monumental burials of Christ in France (XVth-XVIth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Karsallah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1420’s in France some groups of sculptures appeared representing the life-size burial of Christ. These monumental “Entombments” experienced a strong expansion from the mid-15th century until approximately 1520, in France as well in bordering regions such as Belgium, Germany, Switzerland and Italy. From the end of the 19th century they were studied in a primarily stylistic perspective while the problem of their functions and uses have been addressed only very recently. The intent here is to appraise the hypothesis according to which they would have served as substitutes in a spiritual pilgrimage. First the study considers the situation of the pilgrimage in the Holy Land during the 15th century, then it analyzes the relationships between images and indulgences. Finally it ends with the examination of a number of burials accompanied by indulgences, that could be utilised as supports of a spiritual pilgrimage.

  20. Geometric and Static Analysis of the Historical Trusses in Roman Catholic Church of the Holy Kozma and Damian in the Abramová Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krušinský, Peter; Capková, Eva; Gocál, Jozef; Holešová, Michaela

    2015-12-01

    The truss of the Roman Catholic Church of the holy Kozma and Damian was managed to date to the year 1470/71d. It represents one of the few well-preserved medieval structures in this region. The form of roofs is a typical for rafter collar-beam construction without stiffening frame. The geometrical analysis of the main roofs trusses is based on logical dependencies and a description of a process in the truss design, pointing to evaluative relations resulting especially from the Pythagorean Geometry. Consequently, a spatial numerical model of the roof structure was developed in order to perform a static analysis of the roof structure in accordance with present standards. Due to the fact that during the diagnostic survey there were noted some missing structural elements in the roof construction (angle braces), in further analysis, an attention was paid to the importance of the selected structural elements and their role in the construction of the truss itself.