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Sample records for holstein beef production

  1. A comparison of purebred Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × beef breed bulls for beef production and carcass traits

    Arto Kalevi Huuskonen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine beef production traits of purebred Holstein-Friesian (Hol and Hol×beef breed crossbred bulls. The data collected from slaughterhouses included observations of 87323 purebred Hol, 783 Hol×Aberdeen angus (Hol×Ab, 621 Hol×Blonde d’Aquitaine (Hol×Ba, 562 Hol×Charolais (Hol×Ch, 349 Hol×Hereford (Hol×Hf, 1691 Hol×Limousin (Hol×Li and 570 Hol×Simmental (Hol×Si bulls. For estimating valuable cuttings also a separate dataset was collected and included observations of 8806 purebred Hol, 57 Hol×Ab, 29 Hol×Ba, 22 Hol×Ch, 15 Hol×Hf, 111 Hol×Li and 58 Hol×Si bulls. Crossbreeding Hol cows with late maturing breeds (Ba, Ch, Li, Si had favorable effects on carcass gain, conformation and proportion of high value joints of the progeny when compared to purebred Hol bulls. No advantages in proportion of valuable cuttings seemed to be obtained by crossbreeding with Ab or Hf breeds, while the improvements in gain and conformation were intermediate compared to the late maturing crossbreds.

  2. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  3. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  4. A model for 'sustainable' US beef production.

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Shaket, Taga; Cotler, Brett D; Gilutz, Stav; Giddings, Daniel; Raymo, Maureen E; Milo, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Food production dominates land, water and fertilizer use and is a greenhouse gas source. In the United States, beef production is the main agricultural resource user overall, as well as per kcal or g of protein. Here, we offer a possible, non-unique, definition of 'sustainable' beef as that subsisting exclusively on grass and by-products, and quantify its expected US production as a function of pastureland use. Assuming today's pastureland characteristics, all of the pastureland that US beef currently use can sustainably deliver ≈45% of current production. Rewilding this pastureland's less productive half (≈135 million ha) can still deliver ≈43% of current beef production. In all considered scenarios, the ≈32 million ha of high-quality cropland that beef currently use are reallocated for plant-based food production. These plant items deliver 2- to 20-fold more calories and protein than the replaced beef and increase the delivery of protective nutrients, but deliver no B 12 . Increased deployment of rapid rotational grazing or grassland multi-purposing may increase beef production capacity.

  5. MOET Utility in Beef Production Strategies

    Marcel Theodor Paraschivescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the reason of beef production for human food security and the necessity of special dairy and beefbreeds in order to balance the milk and the meat production in cattle farming. That is a difficult target for manycountries since they don’t dispose of large natural pastures to extensively feed the beef cattle herds. At the same timemany European countries breed only dual purpose cattle breeds. So the idea of intensive farming with beef breeds orcrosses is developed. To speed up this kind of programs Open MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Farmtechnology is proposed and it is completed with the needed facilities for production and preservation of embryos.Concerning the MOET Farm which confers directly pure bred beef calves, emphases is put on veterinary quarantineand heifer receptors conditioning. Concerning embryo conservation the direct transfer (DT technique isrecommended. Modalities of integrating dairy farms and beef cattle farms are finally discussed as recommendedstrategy for Romanian Agriculture.

  6. Geographical influence of heat stress on milk production of Holstein ...

    To model the influence of heat stress on milk production of Holstein dairy herds on pasture in South Africa, the maximum entropy (Maxent) modelling technique was used in a novel approach to model and map optimal milk-producing areas. Geographical locations of farms with top milk-producing Holstein herds on pasture ...

  7. Beef cow-calf production.

    Feuz, Dillon M; Umberger, Wendy J

    2003-07-01

    Cow-calf production occurs in all 50 states over varied resource bases and under vastly different environmental conditions. Multiple breeds exist and management styles and objectives are as numerous as the number of cow-calf producers. There is not one area of the country, one breed of cattle, or one management style that is most profitable for producing cows and calves. There are, however, some common strategies that can be employed by cow-calf producers to enhance profitability. Costs need to be controlled without jeopardizing cow herd productivity or net returns. It appears that the cost associated with purchased and harvested feeds varies considerably across operations. Understanding cyclic and seasonal price patterns, weight-price slides, cattle shrink, and other marketing costs can help producers enhance their profit by marketing (and not by just selling) their cattle. Producers with superior cattle genetics can become part of a specific alliance or, at a minimum, document the performance of their cattle so that they can get paid for the superior genetics. The beef industry is changing and will likely continue to change. Cow-calf producers will need to examine their own management practices to determine whether they are optimal for the current industry. Those producers who are most adept at matching their management abilities to their cattle type, their resource base, and the appropriate market outlet will be the most successful in the future.

  8. Antimicrobial usage and resistance in beef production

    Cameron, Andrew; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials are critical to contemporary high-intensity beef production. Many different antimicrobials are approved for beef cattle, and are used judiciously for animal welfare, and controversially, to promote growth and feed efficiency. Antimicrobial administration provides a powerful selective pressure that acts on the microbial community, selecting for resistance gene determinants and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria resident in the bovine flora. The bovine microbiota includes many harm...

  9. Hedonic Retail Beef and Pork Product Prices

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-level hedonic models are estimated to determine factors affecting retail pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premium and discount varies across private, national, and store brands and that brand premium varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Product size discounts are linear for beef and nonlinear for pork, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically will not garner higher prices than supermarket/grocer...

  10. Environmental impacts of beef production

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive

  11. Crossbreds of Jersey x Holstein compared with pure Holsteins for production, fertility, and body and udder measurements during first lactation.

    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; Seykora, A J; Johnson, D G; Linn, J G; Romano, J E; Hazel, A R

    2008-03-01

    Jersey x Holstein crossbreds (JxH; n = 76) were compared with pure Holsteins (n = 73) for 305-d milk, fat, and protein production; conception rate; days open; proportion of cows pregnant within fixed intervals postpartum; and body and udder measurements during first lactation. Cows were housed at 2 research locations of the University of Minnesota and calved from September 2003 to May 2005. The JxH were mated to Montbeliarde sires, and Holstein cows were mated to Holstein sires. Best Prediction was used to determine actual production (milk, fat, and protein) for 305-d lactations with adjustment for age at calving, and records less than 305 d were projected to 305 d. The JxH (274 kg) and pure Holsteins (277 kg) were not significantly different for fat production, but JxH had significantly less milk (7,147 vs. 7,705 kg) and protein (223 vs. 238 kg) production than pure Holsteins. The JxH had significantly fewer days open than pure Holsteins (127 vs. 150 d). Also, a significantly greater proportion of JxH were pregnant at 150 and 180 d postpartum than pure Holsteins (75 vs. 59% and 77 vs. 61%, respectively). The JxH had significantly less body weight (60 kg) at calving, but significantly greater body condition (2.80 vs. 2.71). Furthermore, JxH had significantly less udder clearance from the ground to the bottom of the udder than pure Holsteins (47.7 vs. 54.6 cm), and greater distance between front teats (15.8 vs. 14.0 cm) than pure Holsteins during first lactation.

  12. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality......, whereas low-familiarity consumers tend to believe that the brand is the most valid cue for assessing beef quality. However, due to the lack of consistency in sensory beef quality, high-familiarity consumers’ ability to form quality expectations that are predictive of their quality experience is no better...

  13. Feeding of Total Mixed Ration on the Productivity of Friesian Holstein Cross-Grade Cattle

    Sunarso; Christiyanto, M.; Nuswantara, L. K.

    2018-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate feeding of total mixed ration (TMR) on the productivity of Friesian Holstein (FH) male cross-grade cattle at Semarang Municipality. TMR was a ration formulated with agricultural and agro-industrial by-product (no grass and/or green forage were used) to fulfilled the nutrient requirement of beef cattle. Total mixed ration were formulated on iso-energy of 66% of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and different level of crude protein (CP) content of 11%, 12%, 13%, and 14%. Twenty (20) heads of FH male cross-grade cattle with initial body weight of 292.40+33.06 kg were used in this experiment, and were arranged into 5 treatments T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4), and 4 replications. Data collected were analysed statistically using analyses of variance (Anova) based on the completely randomized design (CRD), then followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) for different among treatments. Results of the experiment showed significantly different effect (P0.05) on feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed efficiency. Others parameter showed that there were no significantly different (P>0.05) effect on the dry matter and organic matter digestibility in vitro, rumen ammonia concentration, and volatile fatty acid’s rumen concentration. It was concluded that feeding TMR was potentially prospected for fattening of beef cattle, particularly as feeding strategy when there was no grass and/or green forage anymore.

  14. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  15. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  16. Survival, lifetime production, and profitability of Normande × Holstein, Montbéliarde × Holstein, and Scandinavian Red × Holstein crossbreds versus pure Holsteins.

    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; De Vries, A

    2012-02-01

    Pure Holstein (HO) cows (n=416) were compared with Normande (NO) × HO (n=251), Montbéliarde (MO) × HO (n=503), and Scandinavian Red (SR) × HO (n=321) crossbred cows for survival, lifetime production, and profitability in 6 commercial herds in California. The SR crossbred cows were sired by both Swedish Red and Norwegian Red bulls. Cows calved from June 2002 to January 2009. For analysis of survival to subsequent calvings, lifetime production, and profitability, data were restricted to 3 of 6 herds because they had at least 20 cows in each of the breed groups. All cows had the opportunity to calve at least 4 times. Best prediction, which is used by USDA for national genetic evaluations in the United States, was used to determine lifetime production to 4 yr (1,461 d) in the herd after first calving from test-day observations. Production and survival were estimated after 4 yr to calculate lifetime profit. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for milk, fat, protein, and other solids production; somatic cell count; reproduction; feed intake; calf value; salvage value; dead cow disposal; and fixed cost. The NO × HO (1.2%), MO × HO (2.0%), and SR × HO cows (1.6%) had significantly fewer deaths than did pure HO cows (5.3%) during the first 305 d of first lactation. All crossbred groups had significantly more cows that calved a second, third, and fourth time, and had mean survival that was 300 to 400 d longer than did pure HO cows. The NO × HO, MO × HO, and SR × HO cows had significantly higher lifetime fat plus protein production than did pure HO cows up to 1,461 d after first calving. For profitability (ignoring possible differences in health costs), NO × HO cows had 26% greater projected lifetime profit per cow, but 6.7% less profit per cow-day, than did pure HO cows. On the other hand, MO × HO and SR × HO cows had 50 to 44%, respectively, more projected lifetime profit per cow and 5.3 to 3.6%, respectively, more projected profit

  17. Productive performance of Holstein calves finished in feedlot or pasture

    ANA MARIA O. DIAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of animals from dairy farms is an alternative to meat production since it provides an increment of total income for farmers. This study aims to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves finished in two feeding systems (feedlot or pasture. Forty-three animals with 58 days old and 57 kg were divided in two treatments: 23 animals finished in feedlot with corn silage plus concentrate based on corn and soybean meal (40:60; 20 animals kept in cultivated pastures according to the period of the year: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum with supplementation with the same feedlot-concentrate at 1% body weight. Animals were slaughtered with 200 kg. Dry matter and nutrient intake were determined, with the use of chromium oxide for estimating pasture intake. Feedlot animals had greater total intake and total digestible nutrients, resulting in higher average daily gain (0.949 vs 0.694 kg day-1. Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber and feed conversion did not show significant differences. Holstein calves have improved performance when finished in feedlot.

  18. Current situation and future prospects for beef production in Europe.

    Hocquette, Jean-Francois; Ellies-Oury, Marie-Pierre; Lherm, Michel; Pineau, Christele; Deblitz, Claus; Farmer, Linda

    2018-05-24

    The European Union (EU) is the world's third largest producer of beef. This contributes to the economy, rural development, social life, culture and gastronomy of Europe. The diversity of breeds, animal types (cows, bulls, steers, heifers) and farming systems (intensive, extensive on permanent or temporary pastures, mixed, breeders, feeders, etc) is a strength, and a weakness as the industry is often fragmented and poorly connected. There are also societal concerns regarding animal welfare and environmental issues, despite some positive environmental impacts of farming systems. The EU is amongst the most efficient for beef production as demonstrated by a relative low production of greenhouse gases. Due to regional differences in terms of climate, pasture availability, livestock practices and farms characteristics, productivity and incomes of beef producers vary widely across regions, being among the lowest of the agricultural systems. The beef industry is facing unprecedented challenges related to animal welfare, environmental impact, origin, authenticity, nutritional benefits and eating quality of beef. These may affect the whole industry, especially its farmers. It is therefore essential to bring the beef industry together to spread best practice and better exploit research in order to maintain and develop an economically viable and sustainable beef industry. Meeting consumers' expectations may be achieved by a better prediction of beef palatability using a modelling approach, such as in Australia. There is a need for accurate information and dissemination on the benefits and issues of beef for human health and for environmental impact. A better objective description of goods and services derived from livestock farming is also required. Putting into practice "agroecology" and organic farming principles are other potential avenues for the future. Different future scenarios can be written depending on the major driving forces, notably meat consumption, climate

  19. Embryo-transfer twinning and performance efficiency in beef production.

    Guerra-Martinez, P; Dickerson, G E; Anderson, G B; Green, R D

    1990-12-01

    Effects of twinning on efficiency of beef production were estimated from results of bilateral transfer of two Angus x Hereford (AxH) embryos into each of 241 heifers and 84 cows (H, A, HxA or Holstein x H) over 4 yr. Calves were weaned at 180 d and fed either 220 d in a feedlot (1977) or 170 d on forage and 140 d in a feedlot (1978 to 1980). Effects of parity, twinning and sex of calf were estimated as covariates within year-breed of dam. Pregnancy at 45 to 60 d of gestation was 68% in heifers (H) and 74% in cows (C), with 40% single (S) and 60% twin (T) births. Dystocia was 28% in H vs 10% in C (P less than .05), and tended to be less (P greater than .05) for T than S in H. More placentas were retained (P less than .05) for T than for S in both H (35 vs 12%) and C (24 vs 4%). Twin gestations averaged 3 d shorter and subsequent calving intervals 13 d longer (P less than .05), but total calf mortality was slightly higher (P greater than .05). Abortions were 4% in H only. Twinning females lost maternal weight during late gestation (P less than .05) when crowding limited voluntary feed intake, while fetal requirements were 60% higher (P less than .01). Twins increased milk output 25% (P less than .05), but 11% higher feed intake maintained cow weight during lactation. Twinning reduced birth weight 13% and weaning weight 17% (P less than .05), but 400-d feedlot weight only 9% because of compensating feedlot gain. Twins gained 18% faster than S during postweaning 170-d forage feeding, but 5% slower in feedlot to 8% lighter 490-d weight (P less than .05). Assuming 40% higher veterinary and labor costs for twins, estimated integrated herd costs per unit of age-constant output value would be lower for T than for S production by about 24% for marketing either at weaning or at 400 d.

  20. Twinning in Iranian Holstein Dairy Cattle: A Study of Risk Factors and Production and Reproduction Consequences

    abolfazl mahnani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cattle are a monotocous species meaning that, under most circumstances, a successful pregnancy results in the birth of one calf. Twinning rate has been reported in dairy cows from 3 to 5 percent, which can be influenced by maternal age.The birth of twins is detrimental to the majority of beef and dairy cattle producer. Financial loss arising from any of twinning has been reported in Europe between 109 to 201 dollars in recent years. Because it is associated with undesirable consequences such as reduced survival, calf, cow increased removal rate and poor performance. This also reduces pregnancy rates and profitability herds. One of the effects of twinning severe is reduction of the number of calves for replacement fertility in dairy cows. This is a loss arising from an increase in infant mortality and a gender bias in bull calves homo zygote.Twinning rate increases significantly the incidence of reproductive abnormalities, including the retained placenta, dystocia, stillbirth and abortion. Many studies have been done on the effect of multiple pregnancies in cattle production and reproduction. Higher milk production for cows twin issue is controversial as some studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between the rate of twinning in dairy cattle and milk production. But in the next lactation, production for cows that have been the twin of the infected cow metabolic disease in the previous period was lower. In a study reported that cows spend fewer days in the twin peak production. The results of the study on the effect of twinning on reproductive traits of Holstein cows-Farzin showed that only half of the twin cows are prone to reproduce in the next period. It is also reported a greater number of insemination per conception in twin compared to single cows. In addition, it has been reported that the twin was more than 15 days from calving to first services. Average twin cows experiencing 1.7 times more death and removal

  1. Assessing impacts of organic production on pork and beef quality

    Sundrum, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Organic livestock farming is based on a low input production method, aiming to provide products of a high product and process quality rather than maximizing production. The production of a high meat quality corresponds to the expectations of consumers who are both seeking a premium product and who are willing to pay premium prices. This review focuses on the question of whether organic pork and beef production currently meet consumer demands, and it elaborates the potentials and limitations f...

  2. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental consequences of beef meat production in the EU, using a life cycle approach. Four beef production systems were studied - three from intensively reared dairy calves and one from suckler herds. According to the results of the analysis......, the contributions from the production of 1 kg beef meat (slaughter weight) to global warming, acidification, eutrophication, land use and non-renewable energy use were lower for beef from dairy calves than from suckler herds (16.0-19.9 versus 27.3 kg CO2e, 101-173 versus 210 g SO2e, 622-1140 versus 1651 g NO3e, 16.......5-22.7 versus 42.9 m2year, and 41.3-48.2 versus 59.2 MJ, respectively). The breakdown analysis helped identify the key areas in the "cradle to farm gate" beef production system where sustainable management strategies are needed to improve environmental performance. The study also included a sensitivity analysis...

  3. Management characteristics of beef cattle production in Hawaii

    A comprehensive life cycle assessment of the United States’ beef value chain requires the collection of region-specific data for accurate characterization of the country’s diverse production practices. Cattle production in Hawaii is very different from the rest of the country due to its unique ecosy...

  4. Crossbreeding to increase beef production: additive and non ...

    GScholtz

    2013-06-06

    Jun 6, 2013 ... Crossbreeding to increase beef production: additive and non-additive effects on weight traits ... total weight of weaned calves. ... Weight traits are not all equally important to efficiency ... values to model total herd productivity. ..... The maintenance requirement of a cow is affected by her weight: the larger the.

  5. Beef Production on Rotationally Grazed F1 Pennisetum Hybrid and ...

    Comparative studies of elephant grass and the F1 hybrids between the 'maiwa' cultivar of millet (Pennisetum americanum) and elephant grass (P. purpureum) indicated a superiority in quality of the hybrids. To ascertain this potential superiority animal performance was measured by estimating beef production on F1 ...

  6. Crossbreeding to increase beef production: Additive and non ...

    Fitness is of paramount importance to efficient and profitable beef production. Thus, the objective of this study was to estimate genetic components of fitness traits measured in Afrikaner (A), Brahman (B), Charolais (C), Hereford (H) and Simmentaler (S). For this study, the fitness traits recorded were percentage of cows ...

  7. Beef Cattle Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Metzger, Bruce; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The unit on beef cattle production is designed primarily for the adult farmer program in Kentucky as an aid to making the beef enterprise more profitable. It is aimed primarily at the commercial producer. The lessons center on some of the more important economic points in beef cattle production. Ten lessons comprise the unit, which can be adapted…

  8. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    2010-01-01

    ..., the amount of such cheek meat shall be limited to 25 percent; and if in excess of natural proportions..., binders, or extenders. Beef cheek meat (trimmed beef cheeks) may be used in the preparation of hamburger... levels of up to 65 ppm may be used as a binder. Beef cheek meat (trimmed beef cheeks) may be used in the...

  9. Alteration of fasting heat production during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers

    This study was designed to examine alteration of fasting heat production (FHP) during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW=348 ±13 kg) were weight-matched into pairs and utilized in a two period crossover design experiment. Each period consisted of two temperature segments,...

  10. Comparison of holstein and jersey milk production with a new stochastic animal reproduction model

    Holsteins and Jerseys are the most popular breeds in the US dairy industry. We built a stochastic, Monte Carlo life events simulation model in Python to test if Jersey cattle’s higher conception rate offsets their lower milk production. The model simulates individual cows and their life events such ...

  11. Effect of monensin on milk production by Holstein and Jersey cows

    Werf, van der J.H.J.; Jonker, L.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of the administration of monensin via concentrates to dairy cows were studied in two trials. In one trial, 64 Holstein cows were assigned to four groups that received 0, 150, 300, or 450 mg/d of monensin from 5 to 24 wk postpartum. Milk production tended to increase (4.0, 3.3, and 5.4%,

  12. The Economic Effects of New-Product Beef Promotion in Guatemala

    Leister, Amanda M.; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Rosson, C. Parr, III

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of the Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) has expanded trade opportunities for U.S. agricultural producers. U.S. beef is an important product affected by the agreement, and the United States Meat Export Federation (USMEF) invested in a new product promotion program to increase exports of U.S. beef to Guatemala. Consumer responsiveness and the effectiveness of the U.S. branded beef promotion program are analyzed in this study. Demand responses...

  13. Improvement of beef cattle genetics provided increasing sustainability of beef cattle production and protein consumption in Thailand

    Boonyanuwat, K. [Beef Cattle Research and Development Group, Division of Animal Husbandry, Department of Livestock Development, Bangkok (Thailand)], E-mail: kalayabo@yahoo.com; Sirisom, P [Tak Livestock Breeding and Research Center, Meung (Thailand); Putharatanung, A [Nongkwang Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Photharam (Thailand)

    2009-07-01

    The rural innovation research and development (R and D) in beef cattle genetics, biotechnology, climate science and production systems, supported profitable and sustainable beef cattle production in Thailand. Department of Livestock Development (DLD) undertakes R and D to achieve continuous improvement in genetics, production technologies to improve productivity, profitability and sustainability of beef cattle production and quality of products. Efficiencies were achieved through improvements in genetics, nutrition and grazing management, use of information, meat science, and reduction in ruminant methane production. This function was essential to maintain long-term production competitiveness and achieve sustained economic growth in rural Thailand, where the beef cattle production was the important livestock production, accounting for 36.99% of the value of livestock production in Thailand. Molecular, quantitative genetics, and biotechnology tool were being combined in the development of genetic improvement. In 2006, beef meat was imported 1,842.53 thousand tons (0.41% of all consumption, 120.84 baht/kg). For the big size cattle, such as Tak cattle, Kabinburi cattle (Thai synthetic breeds by DLD, Tak = 62.5 Charoles-Brahman, Kabinburi = 50 Simental- Brahman), and cross breed cattle, they were in fattening period for 6-12 month. Fattening group, they were raised for restaurant, hotel, super market, and steak house. Data were collected from 2 parts: 1) 354 cattle of experimental trial in DLD part, and 2) 492 fattening cattle of small holders in Tak province and Nakorn Pathom province during October 2004-September 2007. Data collecting was separated into 2 parts (performance data and reference). Data were adjusted by group location month and year to analyze for growth, carcass performance and economic performances). There were 5 breeds of fattening beef cattle: 1) Thai Native, 2) Thai Brahman, 3) Kabinburi, 4) Tak, and 5) Tajima-Native. The first group was around 41

  14. The Food Safety of Livestock Products (Meatball, Corned Beef, Beef Burger and Sausage Studied from Heavy Metal Residues Contamination

    E Harlia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of animal husbandry improvements are to increase both the quality and the quantity of livestock production and to ensure the safety of the product. It is necessarry for consumers to pay attention to the food safety of livestock product because it is related to human's health. The research was conducted to determine the food safety of livestock product condition by detecting heavy metal residues on several food products from livestock like meatball, corned beef, burger’s beef, and sausages. This research was explored by using survey's method and purposive technique sampling, then the resulted data were descriptively analyzed. The observed variables were heavy metal contents such as Plumbum (Pb and Cadmium (Cd in which being measured by using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometri . The result showed that in general, heavy metal residue of Pb from several livestock products (meatball, corned beef, beef burger, and sausages were smaller than Maximum Residue Limit (MRL, while the Cd’s residue was partly over the MRL concentration, therefore further action has to be taken as it affects the human's health. (Animal Production 12(1: 50-54 (2010 Key words : food safety, MRL, heavy metal Pb, Cd.

  15. Derivation of economic values for veal, beef and milk production traits using profit equations.

    Bekman, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In this study profit equations for milk, veal and beef bull production were developed to obtain economic values for different traits. Veal and beef production were described in terms of fat and protein daily gain. For categorical traits, dystocia and carcass quality traits, economic values were

  16. Application of Technology on Improving Beef Cattle Productivity in East Nusa Tenggara

    Wirdahayati R B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT had been one of the major beef cattle suppliers under traditional management system in Indonesia. The beef cattle farming that based on grazing native pasture and the introduction of shrub legumes (Leucaena leucocephala may contribute to around 15 – 50% of the farmers’ household income. In the last few years, supply of beef cattle tended to decline due to the decrease in cattle population in NTT. Some basic improvements in management and feeding toward increasing beef cattle productivities had been carried out in Nusa Tenggara, such as a baseline survey on Cattle Health and Productivity Survey (CHAPS conducted in 1990 – 1992. The objective of the program was to identify the existing beef cattle productivity and health condition throughout Nusa Tenggara. A collaborative research with the Ministry of Research and Technology (Integrated Prime Research had also been carried out and the result showed that early weaning in Bali calves that can be practised as early as 3 – 6 months to prevent calves losses during the dry season. A program of the Assessment on Beef Cattle Base Farming Activities had also been conducted to improve fattening and breeding practices through the improvement in beef cattle management and feeding systems. At the latest development, fattening scheme has been introduced under a partnership approach involving private sectors and cooperatives. This needs to be facilitated by the government to accelerate the program such as access to capital and intensive extension services to build farmers awareness toward profit oriented beef cattle farming. Optimalization of the available potential resources and technology in NTT, will be an opportunity to enhance beef cattle production and gains back the reputation as one of the major producing beef cattle in the past. This will also support the national livestock program nowadays, called Beef Cattle Self Sufficiency Program 2014.

  17. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    2010-01-01

    ... Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY... OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.17 Requirements for the... must include a cooking step. Controlled intermediate step(s) applied to raw product may form part of...

  18. Impact of "raised without antibiotics" beef cattle production practices on occurrences of antimicrobial resistance

    The specific antimicrobial resistance (AMR) decreases that can be expected from reducing antimicrobial (AM) use in U.S. beef production have not been defined. To address this data gap, feces were recovered from 36 lots of “raised without antibiotics” (RWA) and 36 lots of “conventional” (CONV) beef c...

  19. Associations between variants of the HAL gene and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    Wang, Haifei; Jiang, Li; Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Shengli; Yin, Zongjun; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2014-11-25

    The histidine ammonia-lyse gene (HAL) encodes the histidine ammonia-lyase, which catalyzes the first reaction of histidine catabolism. In our previous genome-wide association study in Chinese Holstein cows to identify genetic variants affecting milk production traits, a SNP (rs41647754) located 357 bp upstream of HAL, was found to be significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein yield. In addition, the HAL gene resides within the reported QTLs for milk production traits. The aims of this study were to identify genetic variants in HAL and to test the association between these variants and milk production traits. Fifteen SNPs were identified within the regions under study of the HAL gene, including three coding mutations, seven intronic mutations, one promoter region mutation, and four 3'UTR mutations. Nine of these identified SNPs were chosen for subsequent genotyping and association analyses. Our results showed that five SNP markers (ss974768522, ss974768525, ss974768531, ss974768533 and ss974768534) were significantly associated with one or more milk production traits. Haplotype analysis showed that two haplotype blocks were significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein yield, providing additional support for the association between HAL variants and milk production traits in dairy cows (P HAL gene and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows, indicating the potential role of HAL variants in these traits. These identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers used in genomic selection schemes to accelerate the genetic gains of milk production traits in dairy cattle.

  20. Index selection of beef cattle for growth and milk production using ...

    Index selection of beef cattle for growth and milk production using computer simulation modelling. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... into the model allowed for the introduction of variation between individuals and generations.

  1. MODEL SYSTEM EVALUATIONS OF MEAT EMULSIONS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT EDIBLE BEEF BY PRODUCTS AND FATS AND OIL

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the second best results. Beef head-meat gave the most stable emulsion with all fats, but the emulsions prepared with heart and liver were generally unstable.

  2. Effect of calf sex on some productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows

    Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.

    2015-01-01

    Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)

  3. Effect of calf sex on some productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows

    Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.

    2015-07-01

    Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)

  4. A Contribution of Beef to Human Health: A Review of the Role of the Animal Production Systems

    Dario Pighin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meat and meat products constitute important source of protein, fat, and several functional compounds. Although beef consumption may implicate possible negative impacts on human health, its consumption can also contribute to human health. Quality traits of beef, as well as its nutritional properties, depend on animal genetics, feeding, livestock practices, and post mortem procedures. Available data show that emerging beef production systems are able to improve both, quality and nutritional traits of beef in a sustainable way. In this context, Argentina’s actions are aimed at maximising beef beneficial effects and minimising its negative impact on human health, in a way of contributing to global food security.

  5. Finding horse meat in beef products--a global problem.

    O'Mahony, P J

    2013-06-01

    The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) oversees the implementation of food safety controls in Ireland which are set out in EU and Irish law. The FSAI, a science-based consumer protection organization, has nurtured a close relationship with the scientific community allowing it to utilize the best scientific advice available to underpin risk assessments. In early 2013, a 2-month long investigation in to the authenticity of beef products culminated in the publication of results that demonstrated the presence of horse meat in a frozen burger produced in Ireland. The events that followed revealed a pan-European food fraud which will likely result in significant changes in the way this small section of the meat industry will be regulated in the future in the EU. Although revelations of implicated products and food businesses have relented, the EU-wide investigation is continuing in an effort to determine how a food fraud of this scale could have occurred in such a highly regulated industry and who was involved. The FSAI initially received some criticism after publication of the results, but was also commended for its scientific approach as well as its openness and transparency. The end result of this incident is likely to be that the complexity of the food chain will be addressed again and DNA-based or similar methods will become a regular feature in verifying the authenticity of meat-based foods.

  6. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... suya (105 and 105/g and beef suya (102/g) before and after heating the following ... treatments in a completely randomized design of collected samples ... bacillus to differentiate between lactose and non-lactose fermenting.

  7. The profitability of beef production under semi-extensive conditions

    used and discussed included nett farm income per R100 capital investment and .... Although depreciation of fixed improvements and on equip- ment was calculated ..... Furthermore, another practice commonly found· amongst beef producers.

  8. Value-added beef products (Productos Carnicos con Valor Agregado)

    Mac Donaldson; Will Holder; Jan Holder

    2006-01-01

    I'm speaking for Will and Jan Holder, who couldn't be here. I happen to be familiar with Will and Jan's company, Ervin's Natural Beef, and its program because I've sold them cattle. Will and Jan's value-added beef program is based on their family ranch in the area known as The Blue, in the mountains of eastern Arizona.

  9. Productivity and technical efficiency of suckler beef production systems: trends for the period 1990 to 2012.

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Roulenc, M; Troquier, C; Bébin, D

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 23 years (1990 to 2012), French beef cattle farms have expanded in size and increased labour productivity by over 60%, chiefly, though not exclusively, through capital intensification (labour-capital substitution) and simplifying herd feeding practices (more concentrates used). The technical efficiency of beef sector production systems, as measured by the ratio of the volume value (in constant euros) of farm output excluding aids to volume of intermediate consumption, has fallen by nearly 20% while income per worker has held stable thanks to subsidies and the labour productivity gains made. This aggregate technical efficiency of beef cattle systems is positively correlated to feed self-sufficiency, which is in turn negatively correlated to farm and herd size. While volume of farm output per hectare of agricultural area has not changed, forage feed self-sufficiency decreased by 6 percentage points. The continual increase in farm size and labour productivity has come at a cost of lower production-system efficiency - a loss of technical efficiency that 20 years of genetic, technical, technological and knowledge-driven progress has barely managed to offset.

  10. Returns on investment in wild dog management-beef production in the South Australian Arid Lands

    Wicks, Santhi; Allen, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Beef cattle producers in Australia have reported an increase in calf losses as a result of wild dog attacks in recent years. However, while control measures may reduce calf losses from wild dog attacks, they may also reduce attacks on kangaroos. Thus, wild dog control measures may inadvertently increase kangaroo competition with cattle for grazing vegetation, which is potentially costly for graziers. In this study the net returns to beef production from investments in wild dog controls in a c...

  11. The production performance of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle in West Java

    P Mahyudin

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The production performance of Holstein-Friesian cows in West Java was evaluated in two areas, Cisarua district (Bogor and Tanjungsari district (Sumedang. In Cisarua the evaluation was made on 175 cows with different stage of lactation (2 - 11 months. Feed offered, both forage and concentrate, milk production and chess girth were measured from each animal for 24 h only. Date of calving, date of service and stage of pregnancy were recorded by interviewing the farmers . In Tanjungsari the study was conducted on 102 postpartum cows . Milk production and chess girth were measured at the beginning of the study and then once a month (morning and afternoon milking for 3 months. Milk production was 3,700 1 and 3,400 1 per lactation with declining rate of 0 .03 and 0 .05 1/d for Cisarua and Tanjungsari area respectively. The ratio of concentrate : forage consumption was 1 and 1 .4 in Cisarua and in Tanjungsari respectively, and the ratio was reduced as milk production declined . The efficiency of conversion of feed ME to milk yield was approximately the same (0.12 1/MJ in both location . The proportion of cows lost weight in Cisarua during the first three months was lower (46 % as compared to that in Sumedang (77 %. Approximately 68 % of the population have conception rate (CR > 50 % , the remaining should be culled, 24 % have low CR and 8 % have days open > 150 days . From 61 cows observed, 71 % and 21% have a projected calving interval of 12 months and 13 - 14 months respectively . It can be concluded that milk production and reproduction efficiency of Holstein'cows in West Java are considered low.

  12. Heifer fertility and carry over consequences for life time production in dairy and beef cattle.

    Wathes, D C; Pollott, G E; Johnson, K F; Richardson, H; Cooke, J S

    2014-05-01

    The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as

  13. Impacts of glutathione Maillard reaction products on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup.

    Hong, J H; Jung, D W; Kim, Y S; Lee, S M; Kim, K O

    2010-10-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) were investigated to examine the effects of the GMRPs on beef-soup flavor compared to soups made with glutathione (GSH) and monosodium glutamate (MSG), a control (CON), or a control soup made with 150% beef content (CON150). The sensory characteristics of the beef soups were examined by descriptive analysis. The overall acceptabilities of the beef soups were rated by consumers. Principal component analysis was performed on descriptive data as explanatory variables with overall acceptability as a supplementary variable to observe the relationships between the descriptive data and consumer acceptability, as well as the relationships between the beef-soup samples and their sensory attributes. The samples containing GMRPs had "beef flavor" that was stronger than the CON and MSG samples, and comparable to that of the GSH sample and CON150. The GMRP samples had stronger "green onion flavor,"garlic flavor," and "boiled egg white flavor" than the other samples. The beef soup containing MSG was preferred to CON, CON150, and GSH. The samples with GMRPs were least favored because of their pronounced metallic and astringent notes. The results of this study imply the feasibility of GMRPs as a flavor enhancer since the soups containing these compounds showed more complex flavor profiles than GSH. However, future studies are required to optimize the MR conditions that produce GMRPs without undesirable characteristics. Practical Application: This study examined the practicability of the Maillard reaction products between glutathione (GSH) and glucose (GP) or fructose (FP) as a flavor enhancer by investigating the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability evoked by them in a beef-soup system. This study helps flavor and food industry to develop a new flavor enhancer by providing practical information, such as beef flavor-enhancing effect of FP and

  14. Increasing beef production could lower greenhouse gas emissions in Brazil if decoupled from deforestation

    de Oliveira Silva, R.; Barioni, L. G.; Hall, J. A. J.; Folegatti Matsuura, M.; Zanett Albertini, T.; Fernandes, F. A.; Moran, D.

    2016-05-01

    Recent debate about agricultural greenhouse gas emissions mitigation highlights trade-offs inherent in the way we produce and consume food, with increasing scrutiny on emissions-intensive livestock products. Although most research has focused on mitigation through improved productivity, systemic interactions resulting from reduced beef production at the regional level are still unexplored. A detailed optimization model of beef production encompassing pasture degradation and recovery processes, animal and deforestation emissions, soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and upstream life-cycle inventory was developed and parameterized for the Brazilian Cerrado. Economic return was maximized considering two alternative scenarios: decoupled livestock-deforestation (DLD), assuming baseline deforestation rates controlled by effective policy; and coupled livestock-deforestation (CLD), where shifting beef demand alters deforestation rates. In DLD, reduced consumption actually leads to less productive beef systems, associated with higher emissions intensities and total emissions, whereas increased production leads to more efficient systems with boosted SOC stocks, reducing both per kilogram and total emissions. Under CLD, increased production leads to 60% higher emissions than in DLD. The results indicate the extent to which deforestation control contributes to sustainable intensification in Cerrado beef systems, and how alternative life-cycle analytical approaches result in significantly different emission estimates.

  15. Milk production and composition in Danish Holstein, Danish Red, and Danish Jersey cows supplemented with saturated or unsaturated fat

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the response in milk production and composition of substituting barley with either saturated or unsaturated fat in mixed rations (MR) for dairy cows. The experiment included 35 Danish Holstein (DH), 39 Danish Red (DR), and 31 Danish Jersey (DJ) cows from...

  16. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FSHR POLYMORPHISM WITH PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN ANTIOQUIA HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Stephania Madrid Gaviria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because FSH and its receptor play a fundamental role in reproduction, the objective of this research was determining the effect of the A-320T polymorphism in productive and reproductive traits in Antioquia Holstein cows. The PCR-RFLP was used to amplify a segment of 970 bp of the bovine follicle stimulating hormone receptor gene (FSHR which was digested with the restriction enzyme TaqI. The effect of the FSHR genotypes on productive and reproductive traits was determinate by a Mixed Linear Model and Tukey Test was used to establish significant differences between means for the three genotypes. The effect of allelic substitution was studied through a linear regression model where the genotypes AA, AT and TT were transformed into a quantitative scale of 0, 1 and 2, respectively according to the number of possessed T alleles. In Antioquia Holstein cattle the most common genotype was the AT (0.485 followed by TT (0.417 and AA (0.096 genotypes. Allele frequencies were 0.339 for A and 0.660 for T, respectively. The FSHR genotypes did not exert a significant effect on the principal productive parameters, except for fat percentage (P<0.01 where the TT individuals presented the highest percent. Results showed that T allele seems to improve the solids in milk while A allele improves dairy yield. The reproductive parameters were not affected by this SNP but AT animals showed a higher number of services per conception. Further studies are required to determine whether this SNP may be used as a molecular marker

  17. Classification and characterization of Japanese consumers' beef preferences by external preference mapping.

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Ooi, Motoki; Nagura, Naoto; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru; Muroya, Susumu; Hayashi, Takeshi; Akama, Kyoko; Fujikawa, Akira; Hokiyama, Hironao; Kobayashi, Kuniyuki; Nishimura, Takanori

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few decades, beef producers in Japan have improved marbling in their beef products. It was recently reported that marbling is not well correlated with palatability as rated by Japanese consumers. This study sought to identify the consumer segments in Japan that prefer sensory characteristics of beef other than high marbling. Three Wagyu beef, one Holstein beef and two lean imported beef longissimus samples were subjected to a descriptive sensory test, physicochemical analysis and a consumer (n = 307) preference test. According to consumer classification and external preference mapping, four consumer segments were identified as 'gradual high-fat likers', 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers', 'Wagyu likers' and 'distinctive texture likers'. Although the major trend of Japanese consumers' beef preference was 'marbling liking', 16.9% of the consumers preferred beef samples that had moderate marbling and distinctive taste. The consumers' attitudes expressed in a questionnaire survey were in good agreement with the preference for marbling among the 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers'. These results indicate that moderately marbled beef is a potent category in the Japanese beef market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Resistome diversity in cattle and the environment decreases during beef production.

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Dettenwanger, Adam; Cook, Shaun; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale E; Gow, Sheryl P; McAllister, Tim A; Yang, Hua; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; Morley, Paul S; Belk, Keith E

    2016-03-08

    Antimicrobial resistant determinants (ARDs) can be transmitted from livestock systems through meat products or environmental effluents. The public health risk posed by these two routes is not well understood, particularly in non-pathogenic bacteria. We collected pooled samples from 8 groups of 1741 commercial cattle as they moved through the process of beef production from feedlot entry through slaughter. We recorded antimicrobial drug exposures and interrogated the resistome at points in production when management procedures could potentially influence ARD abundance and/or transmission. Over 300 unique ARDs were identified. Resistome diversity decreased while cattle were in the feedlot, indicating selective pressure. ARDs were not identified in beef products, suggesting that slaughter interventions may reduce the risk of transmission of ARDs to beef consumers. This report highlights the utility and limitations of metagenomics for assessing public health risks regarding antimicrobial resistance, and demonstrates that environmental pathways may represent a greater risk than the food supply.

  19. Effects of heat stress on production, somatic cell score and conception rate in Holsteins.

    Hagiya, Koichi; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Shirai, Tatsuo; Osawa, Takefumi; Terawaki, Yoshinori; Nagamine, Yoshitaka; Masuda, Yutaka; Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effects of heat stress (HS) on production traits, somatic cell score (SCS) and conception rate at first insemination (CR) in Holsteins in Japan. We used a total of 228 242 records of milk, fat and protein yields, and SCS for the first three lactations, as well as of CR in heifers and in first- and second-lactation cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2012. Records from 47 prefectural weather stations throughout Japan were used to calculate the temperature-humidity index (THI); areas were categorized into three regional groups: no HS (THI cows, CR was affected by the interaction between HS group and insemination month: with summer and early autumn insemination, there was a reduction in CR, and it was much larger in the mild- and moderate-HS groups than in the no-HS group. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya ...

    leftover, heated, spiced and roasted suya of the following day, were collected from three locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial count at each stage of handling from the raw state to marketing and consumption. The plate count ...

  1. Effect of mating between the donor cow and bull (Holstein versus Gyr on the in vitro production of bovine embryos

    Ana Paula Toledo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the breed of the oocyte donor cow and bull (Holstein versus Gyr on in vitro production (IVP parameters of bovine embryos comparing the mean number of recovered oocytes and oocytes suitable for culture, the rate of suitable oocytes, and cleavage and blastocyst rates. Data from 1,000 follicular aspiration sessions (OPU, including 500 in donor cows of the Holstein breed and 500 of the Gyr breed, were collected. The results were analyzed by the unpaired Student t-test and chi-square test, adopting a level of significance of 5%. The mean number and standard deviation of recovered oocytes and oocytes suitable for culture were 15.1±13.0 and 8.7±7.6 for the Holstein breed and 15.5±11.9 and 9.1±7.9 for the Gyr breed. The rates of suitable oocytes were 57.7% and 58.5% for Holstein and Gyr breeds, respectively. A significant difference between breeds was observed for the number of oocytes suitable for culture (P<0.05, but not for the number of recovered oocytes or rates of suitable oocytes (P>0.05. Similarly, the breed of the oocyte donor cow and bull influenced cleavage and blastocyst rates (P<0.05. The cleavage rates were 65.7, 60.3, 59.6 and 56.5% for the combinations (donor breed x bull breed Holstein x Holstein (G1, Holstein x Gyr (G2, Gyr x Holstein (G3 and Gyr x Gyr (G4, respectively, with G1>G2, G1>G3, G1>G4, G2=G3, G2>G4, and G3>G4. The blastocyst rates were 28.1, 33.3, 26.8 and 31.0%, respectively, with G1>G2, G1=G3, G1

  2. Short communication. Behavioural activities of two dairy cow genotypes (Holstein-Friesian vs. Jersey x Holstein-Friesian in two milk production systems (grazing vs. confinement

    A. I. Roca-Fernández

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the behavioural activities of two cow genotypes, Holstein-Friesian (HF vs. Jersey × Holstein-Friesian (Jx, when managed within two production systems, a low inputs grazing (G system vs. a high inputs confinement (C system. Eighty spring calving cows (HF, n=40 and Jx, n=40, from AFBI Hillsborough (Northern Ireland experimental dairy cattle, were randomly assigned to one of two production systems (G, n=40 and C, n=40 in a block design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of four treatments (HF-G, HF-C, Jx-G and Jx-C. Cow behavioural activities (feeding, lying, standing and ruminating were registered on three periods at 20-min intervals, between 16.00-22.00 h and 07.00-14.00 h. Average milk yields (kg cow-1 day-1 were higher (p<0.001 in the C system (27.0 than in the G system (20.1, with differences (p<0.001 between the two cow genotypes (HF, 25.1 vs. Jx, 22.0 kg cow-1 day-1. Milk production system showed an effect on cow behavioural activities. Animals on the G system spent more time (p<0.001 grazing (522 min than those on the C system spent feeding (173 min. Cows on the C system spent more time (p<0.001 lying (C, 411 vs. G, 212 min, standing (C, 236 vs. G, 85 min and ruminating (C, 244 vs. G, 141 min than those on the G system. There were differences between periods for time spent lying (p<0.001, feeding (p<0.05 and ruminating (p<0.001, while time spent standing did not differ between periods. Cow genotype had no effect on any of the behavioural activities.

  3. Effect of castration and carcass suspension method on the quality and fatty acid profile of beef from male dairy cattle.

    Nian, Yingqun; Allen, Paul; Harrison, Sabine M; Kerry, Joseph P

    2018-02-12

    The use of bulls rather than steers for beef production offers some considerable advantages; however, the eating quality of bull beef is an issue of marketing concern. This study assessed the physicochemical characteristics of young Holstein-Friesian (HF) bull and steer beef. Steer carcasses were suspended by the Achilles tendon (AS) and by pelvic suspension (PS). HF steer beef had higher redness, yellowness and chroma values, whereas bulls had higher ultimate pH and darker muscle. Warner-Bratzler shear force, cook loss at different ageing times, moisture, and insoluble and total collagen were higher for HF bull beef, whereas intramuscular fat, soluble collagen and collagen solubility were higher for steer beef. HF steer beef had a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whereas bull beef had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. In comparison to AS, PS increased redness and chroma after 24 h blooming; PS improved tenderness up to 7 days of ageing and accelerated the ageing process. For young dairy cattle, steer beef would likely have superior eating quality but a relatively less favourable nutritional fatty acid profile to bull beef. Suspension method affected the tenderness and colour intensity of dairy steer beef at different ageing times. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Development of breeding strategy based on body coloration and phenotype in Holstein Friesian crossbreds for sustainable milk production

    Md. Shahjahan

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Holstein Friesian crossbreds were categorized based on white coloring in different body parts, hump status, and known generations derived from controlled breeding and recording. The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of morphological features on milk production; grading of Holstein Friesian crossbreds and implement a sustainable breeding strategy based on phenotypic grading. Data of peak milk production and morphological characteristics were collected on 51 Holstein Friesian crossbred cows after primary sorting from three districts (Sirajganj, Chittagong and Mymensingh of Bangladesh. The data analyses were conducted following one-way ANOVA with descriptive statistics. The animals were graded according to the white coloring pattern (absent or present in horn, eyelid and eyelash, muzzle, hoof, tail switch, and the presence of a hump. It was observed that the presence of white color (18.86±1.01 to 22.00±1.57 liters in different body parts of Holstein Friesian crossbreds were significantly (p [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(2.000: 498-504

  5. Impacts of reproductive technologies on beef production in the United States.

    Dahlen, Carl; Larson, Jamie; Lamb, G Cliff

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009). Beef will be a primary protein source that will assist in meeting the requirements for a portion of the protein in diets of this expanding global populace. Beef is a high-quality protein that contains all essential amino acids for the human body and also contains additional essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, B vitamins, riboflavin, selenium, choline, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Adopting reproductive technologies at greater rates than currently used is a viable method to dramatically enhance production efficiency of beef cattle enterprises.Artificial insemination (AI), estrous synchronization and fixed-time AI (TAI), semen and embryo cryopreservation, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, and nuclear transfer are technologies that are used to enhance the production efficiency of beef operations. In many cases, the development of these technologies is responsible for significant changes to traditional livestock production practices. However, adoption of these technologies appears to has not grown at the same rate in the United States as other formidable beef producing nations. For example, sales of beef semen for AI increased from 3.3 to 11.9 million units between 1993 and 2011 in Brazil, whereas that in the United States has increased from 2.9 to 3.8 million units during the same period. The significant increases in adoption of reproductive technologies in developing countries is likely as a result of the development of practical estrous synchronization and TAI systems that have allowed beef producers the opportunity to eliminate detection of estrus in their

  6. RESEARCH OF MICROWAVE'S INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF DELICIOUS PRODUCTS FROM BEEF

    T. Kozlova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of time of microwave fluctuations on organoleptic indicators, chemical composition, exit and periods of storage of a meat product is investigated. It is established that the use of microwave technology in the beef delicacy reduces the salting by 3 times, and baking by 1,2 times. The yield of finished products increased by 2 times.

  7. Bioclimatic influence of extension of white and black coat color on Holstein cows production in a hot tropical climate

    Manrique P, Luis Phanor

    1999-01-01

    Was determined the influence of the white and black hair coat percentage in Holstein cows managed under hot climate condition at the San Jose del Hato farm, located in Palmira, Cauca Valley, Colombia. Three categories or classes of hair score were established, according to the white color distribution and with three observers it was determined the relative frequency of cows within each color category; the productive data were studied through an Anova using the least squares means method and Ducan test for means separation. The results were in agreement with the effect of color categories in the 305 days of milk production and in the total milk production (p < 0.05), being the best producer the cows group with 40 - 60 % white hair coats. These results showed the influence of the hair coat surface over the productive capability of Holstein cattle for selection programs in tropical conditions of hot climates

  8. Environmental impacts of beef production: Review of challenges and perspectives for durability.

    Gerber, Pierre J; Mottet, Anne; Opio, Carolyn I; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-11-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive contribution to food balances. This contribution is of particular importance in marginal areas, where agro-ecological conditions and weak infrastructures do not offer much alternative. It is also valuable where cattle convert crop residues and by-products into edible products and where they contribute to soil fertility through their impact on nutrients and organic matter cycles. At the same time, environmental sustainability issues are acute. They chiefly relate to the low efficiency of beef cattle in converting natural resources into edible products. Water use, land use, biomass appropriation and greenhouse gas emissions are for example typically higher per unit of edible product in beef systems than in any other livestock systems, even when corrected for nutritional quality. This particularly causes environmental pressure when production systems are specialized towards the delivery of edible products, in large volumes. The paper discusses environmental challenges at global level, recognizing the large diversity of systems. Beef production is faced with a range of additional sustainability challenges, such as changing consumer perceptions, resilience to climate change, animal health and inequities in access to land and water resources. Entry-points for environmental sustainability improvement are discussed within this broader development context. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. De relatieve duurzaamheid van de Nederlandse roodvleessector: een kwalitatieve vergelijking = A comparative study on the sustainability of the Dutch beef cattle production sector

    Bos, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the sustainability of Dutch specialized beef production is compared qualitatively with two other Dutch animal production systems (porc and broilers), and with beef production in Ireland and Brazil, the most prominent exporters of beef to the Dutch market with which the Dutch sector

  10. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    Judith L. Capper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

  11. Public opinion towards castration without anaesthesia and lack of access to pasture in beef cattle production.

    Lemos Teixeira, Dayane; Larraín, Rafael; Melo, Oscar; Hötzel, María José

    2018-01-01

    Recent publications have shown that citizens in developing nations are gaining interest in farm animal welfare. The aims of this study were to assess the opinion of Chilean citizens about surgical castration without anaesthesia and lack of access to pasture in beef cattle production, to investigate how involvement in livestock production influences opinions, and to evaluate if different types of information would affect their opinion towards these management practices. The study was carried out in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, and consisted of two surveys with 400 participants in each study. The first one used an online, self-administered questionnaire and the second one used a face to face questionnaire. The second questionnaire had four information treatments assigned randomly to survey participants (no information; negative information; negative and positive information; positive information). Most participants were aware that the two management practices are common in beef production systems and were opposed to them. Involvement in animal production was associated with greater acceptance of both management practices and participants that had visited a beef production farm before the study were more likely to support castration without anaesthesia in Survey 1. Belonging to any socioeconomic group and providing negative or positive information had no impact on participants' opinion. The results show a disconnection between the views of participants recruited for this study and beef production systems that do not provide pain control for male cattle surgical castration or provide little or no access to pasture.

  12. Replacement of raw soybean with roasted soybean increased milk production in Holstein cows

    Gilson Sebastião Dias Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of total replacement of raw whole soybean (RAW for roastedwhole soybean (ROS on the production performance of Holstein cows. Two experiments were carried out usinga simple reversal design where RAW has been completely replaced by ROS. In experiment 1, 22 cows (175±60 days in milkwere used, and the dietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 3.7% of dry matter (DM. In experiment 2, 16 cows (130±50 days in milkwere used, and thedietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 11% of DM. In both experiments, ROS increased milk production by 1.1kgday-1 without changing fat and protein production. Dry matter intake or milk urea nitrogenwere not affected by dietary soy source. In experiment 2, plasma glucose concentration was decreased, and allantoin/creatinine ratio in urine tended to decreasein ROS. Experiment 2 also evaluated the nutrient digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein in two soybean sources. Roasting had no effect on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber. Roasted whole soybean hadgreater fraction B and lower protein degradation rate than did RAW; this showed that heat treatment was effective in increasing therumen undegradable amino acid flowto the animal, which suggesteda potential mechanism of action for improved performance observed in ROS.

  13. The environmental and economic impact of removing growth-enhancing technologies from U.S. beef production.

    Capper, J L; Hayes, D J

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the environmental and economic impact of withdrawing growth-enhancing technologies (GET) from the U.S. beef production system. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 454 × 10(6) kg of beef. Two production systems were compared: one using GET (steroid implants, in-feed ionophores, in-feed hormones, and beta-adrenergic agonists) where approved by FDA at current adoption rates and the other without GET use. Both systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics, and production data from U.S. beef systems. The economic impact and global trade and carbon implications of GET withdrawal were calculated based on feed savings. Withdrawing GET from U.S. beef production reduced productivity (growth rate and slaughter weight) and increased the population size required to produce 454 × 10(6) kg beef by 385 × 10(3) animals. Feedstuff and land use were increased by 2,830 × 10(3) t and 265 × 10(3) ha, respectively, by GET withdrawal, with 20,139 × 10(6) more liters of water being required to maintain beef production. Manure output increased by 1,799 × 10(3) t as a result of GET withdrawal, with an increase in carbon emissions of 714,515 t/454 × 10(6) kg beef. The projected increased costs of U.S. beef produced without GET resulted in the effective implementation of an 8.2% tax on beef production, leading to reduced global trade and competitiveness. To compensate for the increase in U.S. beef prices and maintain beef supply, it would be necessary to increase beef production in other global regions, with a projected increase in carbon emissions from deforestation, particularly in Brazil. Withdrawing GET from U.S. beef production would reduce both the economic and environmental sustainability of the industry.

  14. Evaluation of bovine coronavirus antibody levels, virus shedding, and respiratory disease incidence throughout the beef cattle production cycle

    Objective- Determine how levels of serum antibody to bovine coronavirus (BCV) are related to virus shedding patterns and respiratory disease incidence in beef calves at various production stages. Animals- 890 crossbred beef calves from four separately managed herds at the U.S. Meat Animal Research C...

  15. Occurrence of Salmonella in retail beef and related meat products in Zaria, Nigeria

    Tafida, S.Y.; Kabir, J.; Kwaga, J.K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most important food borne pathogens worldwide contaminating a wide range of animal products including meat products. Human illnesses due to this pathogen are attributed to poor biosecurity in production, improper processing and handling of meat and meat products....... This is more likely where surveillance and regulatory control is weak. There is however limited information on the occurrence of these pathogens in foods in Nigeria. The extent of contamination of retail-beef and related meat products with Salmonellae in Zaria was evaluated. A total of 435 retailed beef...... and related meat products consisting of muscle meat, offal and processed meat products were tested for the presence of Salmonella species. Sample types included raw meat, ‘suya’ (roasted meat), ‘balangu’ (barbequed meat), ‘Kilishi’ (spiced sun dried meat) and ‘dambu’ (shredded fried meat). Samples were...

  16. Determination of optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef products

    Rodas?Gonz?lez, Argenis; Larsen, Ivy L.; Uttaro, Bethany; Ju?rez, Manuel; Parslow, Joyce; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In order to determine optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef, the effects of searing at 232 or 260?C for 0, 10, 20 or 30?min, and roasting at 160 or 135?C on semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles were evaluated. In addition, the optimum determined cooking method (oven?seared for 10?min at 232?C and roasted at 135?C) was applied to SM roasts varying in weight from 0.5 to 2.5?kg. Mainly, SM muscles seared for 0 or 10?min at 232?C followed by roast at 135?C h...

  17. Expected and experienced quality as predictors of intention to purchase four new processsed beef products

    Saeed, Faiza; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores consumers‟ perception of quality of new processed beef products and the role of expected and experienced quality in the formation of consumer‟s purchase intentions. Based on the Total Food Quality Model, a conceptual framework is developed that relates cue evaluation, expected...

  18. Will intensification of beef production deliver conservation outcomes in the Brazilian Amazon?

    Frank Merry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of beef production has become a conservation target based on the idea of land sparing and the assumption that in order to contain deforestation and meet increasing beef demand we must increase productivity. There is also increasing attention and conservation credit being given to supply chain management in beef production. Based on a historical comparison between the US, a fully intensive system, and Brazil, one moving in that direction, we suggest that cattle ranching will intensify as a result of conservation investments (reductions in capital and land subsidies rather than intensifying in order to produce conservation results. If the comparison holds, the new intensive system, however, will continue to require large natural resource inputs, government subsidies, and be plagued by social and conservation problems. It will also be held in thrall by a few large processing companies, which exert undue influence over both producers and consumers. Therefore, we suggest that closer attention be paid to attribution in the claim of conservation outcomes from intensive beef production.

  19. Unitary input DEA model to identify beef cattle production systems typologies

    Eliane Gonçalves Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cow-calf beef production sector in Brazil has a wide variety of operating systems. This suggests the identification and the characterization of homogeneous regions of production, with consequent implementation of actions to achieve its sustainability. In this paper we attempted to measure the performance of 21 livestock modal production systems, in their cow-calf phase. We measured the performance of these systems, considering husbandry and production variables. The proposed approach is based on data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used unitary input DEA model, with apparent input orientation, together with the efficiency measurements generated by the inverted DEA frontier. We identified five modal production systems typologies, using the isoefficiency layers approach. The results showed that the knowledge and the processes management are the most important factors for improving the efficiency of beef cattle production systems.

  20. Dissection of additive, dominance, and imprinting effects for production and reproduction traits in Holstein cattle.

    Jiang, Jicai; Shen, Botong; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; VanRaden, Paul M; Cole, John B; Ma, Li

    2017-05-30

    Although genome-wide association and genomic selection studies have primarily focused on additive effects, dominance and imprinting effects play an important role in mammalian biology and development. The degree to which these non-additive genetic effects contribute to phenotypic variation and whether QTL acting in a non-additive manner can be detected in genetic association studies remain controversial. To empirically answer these questions, we analyzed a large cattle dataset that consisted of 42,701 genotyped Holstein cows with genotyped parents and phenotypic records for eight production and reproduction traits. SNP genotypes were phased in pedigree to determine the parent-of-origin of alleles, and a three-component GREML was applied to obtain variance decomposition for additive, dominance, and imprinting effects. The results showed a significant non-zero contribution from dominance to production traits but not to reproduction traits. Imprinting effects significantly contributed to both production and reproduction traits. Interestingly, imprinting effects contributed more to reproduction traits than to production traits. Using GWAS and imputation-based fine-mapping analyses, we identified and validated a dominance association signal with milk yield near RUNX2, a candidate gene that has been associated with milk production in mice. When adding non-additive effects into the prediction models, however, we observed little or no increase in prediction accuracy for the eight traits analyzed. Collectively, our results suggested that non-additive effects contributed a non-negligible amount (more for reproduction traits) to the total genetic variance of complex traits in cattle, and detection of QTLs with non-additive effect is possible in GWAS using a large dataset.

  1. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Transportation in Beef Cattle Production

    Narayanan Kannan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accounting for transportation is an important part of the life cycle analysis (LCA of beef cattle production because it is associated with energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper describes the development and application of a model that estimates energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of transport in beef cattle production. The animal transport model is based on the weight and number of animals in each weight category, type of trailer, vehicle, and fuel used. The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission estimates of animal feed transportation are based on the weight of a truckload and the number of truckloads of feed transported. Our results indicate that a truckload is travelling approximately 326 km in connection with beef cattle production in the study region. The fuel consumption amounts to 24 L of fossil fuel per 1000 kg of boneless beef. The corresponding greenhouse gas emission is 83 kg. It appears from our results that the majority of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are associated with sending the finished cattle to slaughterhouses and bringing feeder cattle to feedlots. Our results point out appreciable reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by changing from conventional fuel to bio-fuel.

  2. Detection and quantification of beef and pork materials in meat products by duplex droplet digital PCR

    Cai, Yicun; He, Yuping; Lv, Rong; Chen, Hongchao; Wang, Qiang; Pan, Liangwen

    2017-01-01

    Meat products often consist of meat from multiple animal species, and inaccurate food product adulteration and mislabeling can negatively affect consumers. Therefore, a cost-effective and reliable method for identification and quantification of animal species in meat products is required. In this study, we developed a duplex droplet digital PCR (dddPCR) detection and quantification system to simultaneously identify and quantify the source of meat in samples containing a mixture of beef (Bos t...

  3. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J; Carriquiry, Miguel; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto F; Dong, Fengxia; Du Xiaodong; Martin, Pamela A; Mulik, Kranti

    2012-01-01

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO 2 -equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally. (letter)

  4. Efecto del sistema silvopatoril en el comportamiento productivo de vacas Holstein Effect of the silvopastoral system on the productive performance of Holstein cows

    L Lamela

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento productivo de vacas Holstein en sistemas asociados de Leucaena leucocephala y Cynodon nlemfuensis, sin la aplicación de fertilizante químico, se realizó el presente trabajo en dos vaquerías: las unidades 98 y 100 de la Empresa Genética de Matanzas, Cuba, las cuales tenían un área de pastos de 35,5 ha y 3 ha para la producción de forraje de caña de azúcar. Se determinó la producción de leche por vaca en ordeño y la producción por vaca total, así como la influencia del bimestre de producción, la época del año y el año en el comportamiento productivo. La leucaena tuvo valores de PB superiores al 20% y la gramínea entre 7,4-9,5%; la disponibilidad de MS fue de 3,4 y 2,5 t/ha/rotación para el período lluvioso y el poco lluvioso, respectivamente. Se encontraron diferencias significativas dentro de cada vaquería para el efecto bimestre de producción. A su vez, el 86 y 65% de las vacas tuvieron una condición corporal (CC entre 3,0 y 3,5 para el período lluvioso y el poco lluvioso, respectivamente. La producción de leche promedio de las vacas, para la CC de 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 y 4,0 fue de 6,5; 8,0; 7,7 y 6,0 kg/vaca/día, respectivamente. Se concluye que el sistema presentó una aceptable disponibilidad de MS (3 t/ha/rotación y los animales mantuvieron una condición corporal favorable para la producción de leche, con valores de 6,8-8,8 kg/vaca/día.With the objective of evaluating the productive performance of Holstein cows in associated systems of Leucaena leucocephala and Cynodon nlemfuensis, without applying chemical fertilizers, this work was carried out in two dairy units: 98 and 100 of the Livestock Production Genetic Enterprise of Matanzas, Cuba, which had an area for pastures of 35,5 ha and 3 ha for producing sugarcane forage. The milk production per milking cow and total production per cow were determined, as well as the influence of the two-month period of production, season

  5. Determination of optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef products.

    Rodas-González, Argenis; Larsen, Ivy L; Uttaro, Bethany; Juárez, Manuel; Parslow, Joyce; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    In order to determine optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef, the effects of searing at 232 or 260°C for 0, 10, 20 or 30 min, and roasting at 160 or 135°C on semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles were evaluated. In addition, the optimum determined cooking method (oven-seared for 10 min at 232°C and roasted at 135°C) was applied to SM roasts varying in weight from 0.5 to 2.5 kg. Mainly, SM muscles seared for 0 or 10 min at 232°C followed by roast at 135°C had lower cooking loss, higher external browning color, more uniform internal color, and were more tender and flavorful (P searing is the recommended oven cooking procedure; with best response from muscle roast weight ≥1 kg.

  6. Genetic correlations between methane production and fertility, health, and body type traits in Danish Holstein cows.

    Zetouni, L; Kargo, M; Norberg, E; Lassen, J

    2018-03-01

    Our aim was to investigate the genetic correlations between CH 4 production and body conformation, fertility, and health traits in dairy cows. Data were collected from 10 commercial Holstein herds in Denmark, including 5,758 cows with records for body conformation traits, 7,390 for fertility traits, 7,439 for health traits, and 1,397 with individual CH 4 measurements. Methane production was measured during milking in automatic milking systems, using a sniffer approach. Correlations between CH 4 and several different traits were estimated. These traits were interval between calving and first insemination, interval between first and last insemination, number of inseminations, udder diseases, other diseases, height, body depth, chest width, dairy character, top line, and body condition score. Bivariate linear models were used to estimate the genetic parameters within and between CH 4 and the other traits. In general, the genetic correlations between CH 4 and the traits investigated were low. The heritability of CH 4 was 0.25, and ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 for fertility and health traits, and from 0.17 to 0.74 for body conformation traits. Further research with a larger data set should be performed to more accurately establish how CH 4 relates to fertility, health, and body conformation traits in dairy cattle. This will be useful in the design of future breeding goals that consider the production of CH 4 . The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  7. A simulation-based approach for evaluating and comparing the environmental footprints of beef production systems.

    Rotz, C A; Isenberg, B J; Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Pollak, E J

    2013-11-01

    A methodology was developed and used to determine environmental footprints of beef cattle produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, NE, with the goal of quantifying improvements achieved over the past 40 yr. Information for MARC operations was gathered and used to establish parameters representing their production system with the Integrated Farm System Model. The MARC farm, cow-calf, and feedlot operations were each simulated over recent historical weather to evaluate performance, environmental impact, and economics. The current farm operation included 841 ha of alfalfa and 1,160 ha of corn to produce feed predominately for the beef herd of 5,500 cows, 1,180 replacement cattle, and 3,724 cattle finished per year. Spring and fall cow-calf herds were fed on 9,713 ha of pastureland supplemented through the winter with hay and silage produced by the farm operation. Feedlot cattle were backgrounded for 3 mo on hay and silage with some grain and finished over 7 mo on a diet high in corn and wet distillers grain. For weather year 2011, simulated feed production and use, energy use, and production costs were within 1% of actual records. A 25-yr simulation of their current production system gave an average annual carbon footprint of 10.9±0.6 kg of CO2 equivalent units per kg BW sold, and the energy required to produce that beef (energy footprint) was 26.5±4.5 MJ/kg BW. The annual water required (water footprint) was 21,300±5,600 L/kg BW sold, and the water footprint excluding precipitation was 2,790±910 L/kg BW. The simulated annual cost of producing their beef was US$2.11±0.05/kg BW. Simulation of the production practices of 2005 indicated that the inclusion of distillers grain in animal diets has had a relatively small effect on environmental footprints except that reactive nitrogen loss has increased 10%. Compared to 1970, the carbon footprint of the beef produced has decreased 6% with no change in the energy footprint, a 3% reduction

  8. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork, and poultry products during chilling.

    Juneja, Vijay K; Baker, David A; Thippareddi, H; Snyder, O Peter; Mohr, Tim B

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Clostridium perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in 10 commercially prepared acidified beef, pork, and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted with organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commercial products ranged from 4.74 to 6.35. Products were inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of C. perfringens spores to achieve ca. 2-log (low) or 4-log (high) inoculum levels, vacuum packaged, and cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 21 h to simulate abusive cooling; the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) recommends a cooling time of 6.5 h. Total germinated C. perfringens populations were determined after plating on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar and incubating the plates anaerobically at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, C. perfringens growth from spores was assessed at an isothermal temperature of 44°C. Growth from spores was inhibited in ground beef with a pH of 5.5 or below, even during extended cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 21 h. In ground beef with a pH of 5.6, the growth was >1 log after 18 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. However, 15 h of cooling controlled the growth to product with a pH ranging from 4.74 to 5.17, both during exponential abusive cooling periods of up to 21 h and during storage for 21 h at 44°C. While product cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 15 h or less, the pH 6.35 product supported growth, even after 6 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. These challenge tests demonstrate that adjustment of ground beef to pH of 5.5 or less and of barbeque products to pH of 5.63 or less inhibits C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth during extended cooling periods from 54.4 to 7.2°C up to 15 h. Therefore, safe cooling periods for products with homogeneous, lower pHs can be substantially longer.

  9. Tetraplex PCR assay involving double gene-sites discriminates beef and buffalo in Malaysian meat curry and burger products.

    Hossain, M A Motalib; Ali, Md Eaqub; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, S M Azad; Asing; Nizar, Nina Naquiah Ahmad; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Ali, Lokman; Asaduzzaman, Md; Akanda, Md Jahurul Haque

    2017-06-01

    Replacement of beef by buffalo and vice versa is frequent in global markets, but their authentication is challenging in processed foods due to the fragmentation of most biomarkers including DNA. The shortening of target sequences through use of two target sites might ameliorate assay reliability because it is highly unlikely that both targets will be lost during food processing. For the first time, we report a tetraplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting two different DNA regions in beef (106 and 120-bp) and buffalo (90 and 138-bp) mitochondrial genes to discriminate beef and buffalo in processed foods. All targets were stable under boiling, autoclaving and microwave cooking conditions. A survey in Malaysian markets revealed 71% beef curries contained buffalo but there was no buffalo in beef burgers. The assay detected down to 0.01ng DNA and 1% meat in admixed and burger products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of the resistome in manure, soil and wastewater from dairy and beef production systems

    Noelle R. Noyes; Xiang Yang; Lyndsey M. Linke; Roberta J. Magnuson; Shaun R. Cook; Rahat Zaheer; Hua Yang; Dale R. Woerner; Ifigenia Geornaras; Jessica A. McArt; Sheryl P. Gow; Jaime Ruiz; Kenneth L. Jones; Christina A. Boucher; Tim A. McAllister

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that livestock production effluents such as wastewater, airborne dust and manure increase the density of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and genes in the environment. The public health risk posed by this proposed outcome has been difficult to quantify using traditional microbiological approaches. We utilized shotgun metagenomics to provide a first description of the resistome of North American dairy and beef production effluents, and identify factors that significantly i...

  11. Production and calving traits of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-05-01

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds. All cows were either 2-breed crossbred or pure HO cows that calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Best Prediction was used to calculate 305-d milk, fat, and protein production, as well as somatic cell score, and 513 MO × HO, 540 VR × HO, and 978 HO cows were analyzed for production in first lactation. Calving difficulty was scored from 1 (no assistance) to 5 (extreme difficulty). The analysis of calving traits included 493 MO × HO, 504 VR × HO, and 971 HO cows at first calving. Age at first calving was similar for breed groups, and the herds calved both crossbred (23.8 mo) and HO (23.9 mo) cows at young ages. The MO × HO crossbred cows had +3% higher production of 305-d fat plus protein production (actual basis, not mature equivalent) than the HO cows, and the VR × HO were similar to the HO cows for fat plus protein production. Breed groups did not differ for SCS during first lactation. The VR-sired 3-breed crossbred calves (from MO × HO dams) were similar to pure HO calves for calving difficulty; however, MO-sired male calves born to VR × HO dams had a mean score that was +0.5 points higher for calving difficulty than pure HO male calves. The 3-breed crossbred calves from both MO × HO (4%) and VR × HO (5%) first-lactation dams had a much lower stillbirth rate compared with pure HO calves (9%) from first-lactation dams. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental sustainability of beef

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Beef Cattle Production in the Southern Great Plains

    Kannan, N.; Niraula, R.; Saleh, A.; Osei, E.; Cole, A.; Todd, R.; Waldrip, H.; Aljoe, H.

    2017-12-01

    A five-year USDA-funded study titled "Resilience and vulnerability of beef cattle production in the Southern Great Plains under changing climate, land use, and markets" was initiated as a multi-institutional collaboration involving Texas Institute for Applied Environmental Research (TIAER)—Tarleton State University, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)—Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in El Reno, Oklahoma, USDA—ARS in Bushland, Texas, Kansas State University, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma, and the Noble Research Institute in Ardmore, Oklahoma. The project goal is to safeguard and promote regional beef production while mitigating its environmental footprint. Conducting a full Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is one of the major objectives of the study, in addition to field experiments, extension, outreach, and education. Estimation of all the resource use and greenhouse gas emissions are parts of the LCA. A computer model titled Animal Production Life Cycle Analysis Tool (APLCAT) is developed and applied to conduct the LCA on beef cattle production in the study region. The model estimates water use, energy requirements, and emissions of enteric methane, manure methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide. Also included in the LCA analysis are land-atmospheric exchanges of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and the global warming potential. Our study is focused on the cow-calf and stocker phases of beef cattle production. The animal production system in the study region is predominantly forage based with protein and energy supplements when needed. Spring calving typical to the study region. In the cow-calf phase animals typically graze native prairie although introduced pasture grazing is also prevalent. Stockers use winter pasture as the major feed. The results of greenhouse gas emissions summarized per kg of hot carcass weight or animal fed will be presented.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility and internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in vacuum-tumbled marinated beef products.

    Pokharel, S; Brooks, J C; Martin, J N; Brashears, M M

    2016-12-01

    As the incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is increasing, data regarding the antimicrobial interventions and pathogen internalization in marinated meat products are important. This study evaluated the antimicrobial intervention and internalization of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated beef sirloin steaks. Beef bottom sirloin flaps (IMPS #185A; USDA Select) inoculated (10 8  log 10  CFU ml -1 ) with Salm. Typhimurium were sprayed (lactic acid (4%) and buffered vinegar (2%)) prior to vacuum-tumbled marination (0·35% sodium chloride and 0·45% sodium tripolyphosphate) for 30 min. Pathogen presence after antimicrobial spray, vacuum-tumbled marination, and translocation was determined by direct plating on Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) agar with tryptic soy agar (TSA) overlay. The data imply varied internalization and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated meat. Lactic acid (4%) spray (P internalization and potential survival of Salmonella spp. in marinated beef products is a major concern. These results highlight the internalization of pathogens in vacuum-tumbled meat products and emphasize the importance of considering these products as nonintact. Similarly, these data confirm the efficacy and utility of interventions prior to vacuum-tumbled marination. Further research is needed to identify additional strategies to mitigate internalization and translocation of pathogens into vacuum-marinated meat products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Overlapping chromosomal regions for fertility traits and production traits in the Danish Holstein population

    Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Buitenhuis, A J; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2009-01-01

    , it is of interest to validate which of the subtraits are affected by the QTL. Phenotypic and marker data were collected from 34 grandsire families from the Danish Holstein population. First, the trait data for "fertility treatments" were separated into their underlying subtraits: uterine infections, antibiotics...

  16. European consumers and beef safety

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  17. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  18. Meat quality and health implications of organic and conventional beef production.

    Kamihiro, S; Stergiadis, S; Leifert, C; Eyre, M D; Butler, G

    2015-02-01

    Recommendation to reduce fat consumption from ruminant meat does not consider the contribution of nutritionally beneficial fatty acids in lean beef. Here we report effects of production system (organic vs conventional) and finishing season on meat and fat quality of sirloin steaks from retail outlets and simulated fatty acid intakes by consumers. There was little difference in meat quality (pH, shear force and colour), but the fat profiles varied considerably between production systems and season. Meat fat from organic and summer finished cattle contained higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, its precursor vaccenic acid and individual omega-3 fatty acids and had a lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids compared with non-organic and winter finished cattle respectively. The fat profile from summer finished organic beef aligns better to recommended dietary guideline including those for long chain omega-3 fatty acids compared with that from winter finished, non-organic steak.

  19. Short communication: Effect of the feed presentation form on the intake pattern, productive traits and rumen pH of beef cattle fed high concentrate diets

    Antonio Gimeno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional disorders like ruminal acidosis are common in Spanish beef production system, in which animals are fed diets with a high content in starch. This experiment studied the effect of feed presentation form (concentrate and straw offered separately, CD, or mixed in form of briquettes, BR on the pattern of intake, growth and rumen pH of beef cattle fed high concentrate diets. The experiment was performed with 40 Holstein male calves, 32 of them for determining feed intake pattern and productive rates, and the remaining 8, which were previously provided with a ruminal cannula, to monitor rumen pH in two 21-day consecutive periods following a change-over design. Animals fed BR reduced feed intake rate during the first hour after feeding (18.6 vs. 24.0% of daily intake p<0.001, but this diet promoted a lower rumen pH at all sampling times compared with CD (daily average of 5.98 vs. 6.33; p<0.001 and tended to promote a lower total feed intake (7.08 vs. 9.77 kg DM/d; p<0.001 and daily weight gain (1.43 vs. 1.76 kg/d; p=0.056. Offering the concentrate and the straw mixed in form of briquettes is not useful to prevent ruminal acidosis and improve growth, probably due to both a reduced particle size of straw and avoided self-regulation of straw intake along the day.

  20. Effect of Age and Bulls on Fresh Semen Quality and Frozen Semen Production of Holstein Bulls in Indonesia

    Argiris, A.; Ondho, Y. S.; Santoso, S. I.; Kurnianto, E.

    2018-02-01

    Artificial Insemination is a compatible method of reproduction in an effort to increase dairy productivity. Artificial Insemination Center as a producer of frozen semen was required to maximize bulls in producing high quality frozen semen optimally. The purpose of this research was to determine effect of age and bulls on fresh semen quality and frozen semen production of Holstein bulls in Indonesia. The research was conducted at Lembang and Singosari AI Centers. The material used were 24.634 data of qualified fresh semen and frozen semen production from 81 Holstein Bulls aged 1-9 years that used as frozen semen producer in period of 2008 to 2016. The variables observed in this research were data of age of bulls, fresh semen volume (mL); sperm motility (%); mass movement; concentrations (million/mL) and frozen semen doses at each production at age of bulls. Nested design was applied to obtain and analyze data. Results showed that Age and bulls have significant effect (PAI Centre might adapt management of AI bulls to improve semen production.

  1. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. 319.313 Section 319.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and “Gravy...

  2. Prospects of the "VT-Pro" series beef protein using in the sausages products technology

    O. P. Dvoryaninova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the negative attitude of consumers towards soy protein has been formed. Therefore, to increase the mass fraction of protein in the finished product, it is advisable to use animal proteins, the main advantage of which is multipurpose designation, easy use and the ability to ensure an increase in the finished products yield and high production profitability due to their use . The application of beef proteins from collagen-containing raw materials makes it possible to enrich meat products with dietary fiber, to improve the rheological properties of food products significantly, especially their consistency. High functional properties of animal proteins are manifested in their water-retaining capacity. The company "TRUMP Food Technologies" introduced several new positions into its assortment - beef proteins of the "VT-Pro" trade mark (fibrillar fraction collagen, the manufacturer of which is JSC "Verkhnevolzhsky tannery" (Tver region. Proteins of the "VT-Pro" trademark are unique in their characteristics and are natural, environmentally friendly products. Beef protein "VT-Pro" is suitable for the production of cooked sausage and ham products, semi-smoked and boiled-smoked sausages, canned goods, chopped semi-finished products and other meat products. It is used as a full-fledged stabilizing additive for the preparation of meat products with a specified yield and certain organoleptic characteristics (hydration 1: 10-15. It is determined that it is possible to use this protein in dry form, as a protein-fat emulsion, in the form of gel and granules. According to the pilot-industrial approbation under the conditions of AIC "PROMAGRO" LLC, it is possible to underline a number of advantages of beef protein "VT-Pro" using: it possesses high water-retaining and emulsifying ability; allows to process low-grade and fired raw materials and to replace expensive meat raw materials; it reduces the risk of broth-fat swelling; it improves the structure of

  3. Transforming beef by-products into valuable ingredients: which spell/recipe to use?

    Maeve Mary Henchion

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Satisfying the increasing global demand for protein results in challenges from a supply perspective. Increased use of animal proteins, through greater use of meat by-products, could form part of the solution, subject to consumer acceptance. This research investigates consumer evaluations of food products that incorporate ingredients derived from offals that have been produced through a range of food processing technologies. Using focus groups incorporating product stimuli representing various combinations of offals, processing and carrier products, the research finds that the physical state and perceived naturalness of the ingredients influences acceptance. It also highlights the impact of life experiences, linked to demographic characteristics, on interpretations and evaluations of products and processes. Ideational influences, i.e. knowledge of the nature or origin of the substance, are reasons for rejecting some concepts, with misalignment between nature of processing and the product resulting in rejection of others. Lack of perceived necessity also results in rejection. Alignment of ingredients with existing culinary practices and routines, communication of potential sensory or other benefits as well as naturalness are factors likely to promote acceptance, and generate repeat purchase, in some consumer segments. Trust in oversight that the products are safe is a prerequisite for acceptance in all cases. These findings have implications for pathways to increase sustainability of beef production and consumption through increased use of beef by-products.

  4. Effect of Milking Frequency in Early Lactation on Milk Production, some Blood Metabolites and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cow

    Abolfazl Kiani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different milking frequencies in the first 6 weeks of lactation on milk production and milk constituents, blood metabolic profiles and reproductive performance of fresh dairy cows. The milking frequencies imposed were three times daily milking for 42 days (3X, six times daily milking for the first 21 days of lactation and three times daily subsequently (6X-3X and six times daily milking for 42 days. For this purpose 21 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated to three groups based on BCS, parity, and body weight. Results showed that the mean of milk and FCM production was significantly higher for 6X than 3X cows in first and second 21 days and in the entire period. Among milk constituent only fat production was affected by milking frequencies. The milking frequency had no effect on mean DMI. Weight loss of the cows was higher for 6X cows (-32 kg than those the 6X-3X (-29 kg and 3X (-29.1 kg. Blood concentration of NEFA was affected by milking frequencies and it was significantly higher for 6X compared to 3X. The mean concentration of blood progesterone and reproductive parameters was not affected by milking frequencies. It was concluded that 6 time milking per day in a short term period may inrease Holstein dairy cows’ performance without any adverse effect on their reproductive parameters.

  5. Data to calculate emissions intensity for individual beef cattle reared on pasture-based production systems

    G.A. McAuliffe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concern about environmental burdens originating from livestock production, the importance of farming system evaluation has never been greater. In order to form a basis for trade-off analysis of pasture-based cattle production systems, liveweight data from 90 Charolais × Hereford-Friesian calves were collected at a high temporal resolution at the North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP in Devon, UK. These data were then applied to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC modelling framework to estimate on-farm methane emissions under three different pasture management strategies, completing a foreground dataset required to calculate emissions intensity of individual beef cattle.

  6. Genome-wide associations for milk production and somatic cell score in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Ireland

    Meredith Brian K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contemporary dairy breeding goals have broadened to include, along with milk production traits, a number of non-production-related traits in an effort to improve the overall functionality of the dairy cow. Increased indirect selection for resistance to mastitis, one of the most important production-related diseases in the dairy sector, via selection for reduced somatic cell count has been part of these broadened goals. A number of genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with milk production traits and mastitis resistance, however the majority of these studies have been based on animals which were predominantly kept in confinement and fed a concentrate-based diet (i.e. high-input production systems. This genome-wide association study aims to detect associations using genotypic and phenotypic data from Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle fed predominantly grazed grass in a pasture-based production system (low-input. Results Significant associations were detected for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage and somatic cell score using separate single-locus, frequentist and multi-locus, Bayesian approaches. These associations were detected using two separate populations of Holstein-Friesian sires and cows. In total, 1,529 and 37 associations were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression and a Bayesian method, respectively. There were 103 associations in common between the sires and cows across all the traits. As well as detecting associations within known QTL regions, a number of novel associations were detected; the most notable of these was a region of chromosome 13 associated with milk yield in the population of Holstein-Friesian sires. Conclusions A total of 276 of novel SNPs were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression approach. Although obvious candidate genes may not be initially forthcoming, this study provides a preliminary framework

  7. Genome-wide associations for milk production and somatic cell score in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Ireland

    2012-01-01

    Background Contemporary dairy breeding goals have broadened to include, along with milk production traits, a number of non-production-related traits in an effort to improve the overall functionality of the dairy cow. Increased indirect selection for resistance to mastitis, one of the most important production-related diseases in the dairy sector, via selection for reduced somatic cell count has been part of these broadened goals. A number of genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with milk production traits and mastitis resistance, however the majority of these studies have been based on animals which were predominantly kept in confinement and fed a concentrate-based diet (i.e. high-input production systems). This genome-wide association study aims to detect associations using genotypic and phenotypic data from Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle fed predominantly grazed grass in a pasture-based production system (low-input). Results Significant associations were detected for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage and somatic cell score using separate single-locus, frequentist and multi-locus, Bayesian approaches. These associations were detected using two separate populations of Holstein-Friesian sires and cows. In total, 1,529 and 37 associations were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression and a Bayesian method, respectively. There were 103 associations in common between the sires and cows across all the traits. As well as detecting associations within known QTL regions, a number of novel associations were detected; the most notable of these was a region of chromosome 13 associated with milk yield in the population of Holstein-Friesian sires. Conclusions A total of 276 of novel SNPs were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression approach. Although obvious candidate genes may not be initially forthcoming, this study provides a preliminary framework upon which to identify the

  8. Carbon footprint of conventional and organic beef production systems: An Italian case study.

    Buratti, C; Fantozzi, F; Barbanera, M; Lascaro, E; Chiorri, M; Cecchini, L

    2017-01-15

    Beef cattle production is a widespread activity in Italy in the agricultural field and determines an important impact on environment and resources consumption. Carbon footprint evaluation is thus necessary to evaluate the contributions of the different stages and the possible improvements of the production chain. In this study, two typical Italian beef production systems, a conventional and an organic one are investigated in order to evaluate the greenhouse gas emissions from "cradle to gate farm" by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach; the carbon footprint (CF) per 1kg of live weight meat is calculated. The contributions from feed production, enteric fermentation, and manure management are taken into account, in order to compare the life cycle of the two productions; also the carbon balance in soil is evaluated, in order to verify the impact in a life cycle perspective. The results of CF calculation of the two farms show that organic system (24.62kgCO 2eq /kg live weight) produce more GHG emissions than the conventional one (18.21kgCO 2eq /kg live weight) and that the enteric fermentation is the more heavy contribution, with a range of 50-54% of the global CF value. Improvements of the production chain could be realized by accurate feeding strategies, in order to obtain reduction of methane emissions from enteric digestion of cattles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Crossbreeding to increase beef production: additive and non ...

    GScholtz

    2013-06-06

    Jun 6, 2013 ... indicus x taurus direct heterosis effects on all weight traits were greater than .... An important advantage of partitioning breed effects as described above is .... value-unit of products under varying management and marketing ...

  10. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production and Composition during Multiple Lactations.

    Britni M Brown

    Full Text Available Heat stress at the time of conception affects the subsequent milk production of primiparous Holstein cows; however, it is unknown whether these effects are maintained across multiple lactations. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and measurements of milk production and composition in cows retained within a herd for multiple lactations. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included milk production data and milk composition data from over 75,000 and 44,000 Holstein cows, respectively, born between 2000 and 2010 in Florida, Georgia, and Texas. Conception dates were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress conceived (HSC cows; cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral conceived (TNC contemporaries. Adjusted 305-d mature equivalent milk, protein percent and fat percent were evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS. Milk production was significantly affected by periconceptional heat stress. When a significant difference or tendency for a difference was detected between the HSC and TNC cows, the TNC produced more milk in all but one comparison. The advantage in milk production for the TNC cows over the HSC cows ranged from 82 ± 42 to 399 ± 61 kg per lactation. Alterations in fat and protein percentage were variable and most often detected in first lactations (first > second or third. Overall, the most striking result of this study is the consistency of the relationship between HSC and milk production. The nature of this relationship suggests that heat stress at or around the time of conception impairs cow milk yield throughout her lifetime.

  11. Knowledge and tools to enhance resilience of beef grazing systems for sustainable animal protein production.

    Steiner, Jean L; Engle, David M; Xiao, Xiangming; Saleh, Ali; Tomlinson, Peter; Rice, Charles W; Cole, N Andy; Coleman, Samuel W; Osei, Edward; Basara, Jeffrey; Middendorf, Gerad; Gowda, Prasanna; Todd, Richard; Moffet, Corey; Anandhi, Aavudai; Starks, Patrick J; Ocshner, Tyson; Reuter, Ryan; Devlin, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Ruminant livestock provides meat and dairy products that sustain health and livelihood for much of the world's population. Grazing lands that support ruminant livestock provide numerous ecosystem services, including provision of food, water, and genetic resources; climate and water regulation; support of soil formation; nutrient cycling; and cultural services. In the U.S. southern Great Plains, beef production on pastures, rangelands, and hay is a major economic activity. The region's climate is characterized by extremes of heat and cold and extremes of drought and flooding. Grazing lands occupy a large portion of the region's land, significantly affecting carbon, nitrogen, and water budgets. To understand vulnerabilities and enhance resilience of beef production, a multi-institutional Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP), the "grazing CAP," was established. Integrative research and extension spanning biophysical, socioeconomic, and agricultural disciplines address management effects on productivity and environmental footprints of production systems. Knowledge and tools being developed will allow farmers and ranchers to evaluate risks and increase resilience to dynamic conditions. The knowledge and tools developed will also have relevance to grazing lands in semiarid and subhumid regions of the world. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Feed intake and production efficiency of beef cows

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between DMI and growth as heifers and cows and calves weaned, weight of calf weaned, and milk production. Cows born in 1999-2001and sired by industry AI bulls (Angus, Hereford, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Red Angus) an...

  13. Performance of Boran and Crossbred Cattle for Beef Production ...

    lDE~partment of Animal Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box. 3004~ Morogor.o. ... dissected into lean, fat and bone, and each fraction weighed. Various ..... I(this is applied to the bone mass of the whole carcass,.

  14. Influence of a Saccharomyces cerevisia fermentation product on the pathophysiological response to a combined intranasal bovine herpesvirus-1 and intratracheal Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in Holstein steers

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product prototype (Prototype) on the pathophysiological response during a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge. Holstein steer calves (126.5±6.11kg; N=16) were completely rando...

  15. Restricting access time at pasture and time of grazing allocation for Holstein dairy cows: Ingestive behaviour, dry matter intake and milk production

    Mattiauda, D.A.; Tamminga, S.; Gibb, M.J.; Soca, P.; Bentancur, O.; Chilibroste, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of restricting access time to pasture and time of grazing allocation on grazing behaviour, daily dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation, milk production and composition in dairy cows. Twenty-one autumn-calving Holstein cows were assigned to

  16. Identifying consumer preferences for specific beef flavor characteristics in relation to cattle production and postmortem processing parameters.

    O'Quinn, T G; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Chapman, P L; Legako, J F; Brooks, J C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D

    2016-02-01

    Sensory analysis of ground LL samples representing 12 beef product categories was conducted in 3 different regions of the U.S. to identify flavor preferences of beef consumers. Treatments characterized production-related flavor differences associated with USDA grade, cattle type, finishing diet, growth enhancement, and postmortem aging method. Consumers (N=307) rated cooked samples for 12 flavors and overall flavor desirability. Samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid content. Volatile compounds produced by cooking were extracted and quantified. Overall, consumers preferred beef that rated high for beefy/brothy, buttery/beef fat, and sweet flavors and disliked beef with fishy, livery, gamey, and sour flavors. Flavor attributes of samples higher in intramuscular fat with greater amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and lesser proportions of saturated, odd-chain, omega-3, and trans fatty acids were preferred by consumers. Of the volatiles identified, diacetyl and acetoin were most closely correlated with desirable ratings for overall flavor and dimethyl sulfide was associated with an undesirable sour flavor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Feeding Frequency Effects in Early Lactation on Productive Efficiency of Holstein Cows

    S.M. Karimzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to determine the effects of feeding frequency (FF on dairy cow performance fed a total mixed ration (TMR based on chopped alfalfa hay. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows were housed in the individual boxes (4 × 3 m and fed either once a day (1x at 0700 h or 4 times a day (4x at 0100, 0700, 1300 and 1900 h with TMR. The experiment was done as a 2 × 2 crossover design with two 20-d periods. When FF changed from 4x to 1x, dry matter intake (21.1 vs. 20.0 kg/d and NEL intake (36.4 vs. 34.3 Mcal/d increased (P

  18. Bayesian modeling of Clostridium perfringens growth in beef-in-sauce products.

    Jaloustre, S; Cornu, M; Morelli, E; Noël, V; Delignette-Muller, M L

    2011-04-01

    Models on Clostridium perfringens growth which have been published to date have all been deterministic. A probabilistic model describing growth under non-isothermal conditions was thus proposed for predicting C. perfringens growth in beef-in-sauce products cooked and distributed in a French hospital. Model parameters were estimated from different types of data from various studies. A Bayesian approach was proposed to model the overall uncertainty regarding parameters and potential variability on the 'work to be done' (h(0)) during the germination, outgrowth and lag phase. Three models which differed according to their description of this parameter h(0) were tested. The model with inter-curve variability on h(0) was found to be the best one, on the basis of goodness-of-fit assessment and validation with literature data on results obtained under non-isothermal conditions. This model was used in two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations to predict C. perfringens growth throughout the preparation of beef-in-sauce products, using temperature profiles recorded in a hospital kitchen. The median predicted growth was 7.8×10(-2) log(10) cfu·g(-1) (95% credibility interval [2.4×10(-2), 0.8]) despite the fact that for more than 50% of the registered temperature profiles cooling steps were longer than those required by French regulations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustainability Initiatives Driving Supply Chain: Climate Governance on Beef Production System

    Ieda Kanashiro Makiya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two conceptual frameworks have been analytically dominant in researching innovation dynamics in sustainability transition processes, namely technological innovation systems (TIS and the multi-level perspective (MLP. The innovation systems has been principally concerned with emerging new technologies and their potential contribution to future sustainability, whereas MLP has been more strongly oriented toward reconstructing historical processes of sectorial change. In this perspective, this study aims to analyses how global climate change and environmental pressures impact on the governance of supply chain and the ripple effects on natural resource-intensive economies. Some initiatives are taken to address regulatory issues and reconcile decision-making tools on quality assurance program on value chains. This includes a multi-level perspective (MLP as Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP and technological innovation systems (TIS as Geographic Information System (GIS used as a tracking system for monitoring sustainable practices. The paper discuss the drivers of sustainable beef production system, mainly in Legal Amazon, Brazil, and requirements from a largest retailer aligned to Brazilian public policies. This study presents three distinct strategies: (1 government and public policies to control deforestation related to beef cattle production system, (2 economic approach related to transnational supermarket chain and sustainability initiatives, (3 collective action for decision-making by multiple drivers

  20. Repeatability and genotypic correlations of reproductive and productive traits of crossbred beef cattle dams.

    Silva, L N; Gasparino, E; Torres Júnior, R A A; Euclides Filho, K; Silva, L O C; Alencar, M M; Souza Júnior, M D; Battistelli, J V F; Silva, S C C

    2015-05-22

    Beef cattle production requires reproductive efficiency. However, measures of reproductive traits are not usually collected; consequently, correlated traits that could be used as indicators would be useful. We examined associations between measures of reproductive and productive efficiency that could be used as selection indicators. Data from 194 dams of the genetic groups Angus x Nelore, Caracu x Nelore, and Valdostana x Nelore collected over 4 years were used. The reproductive traits analyzed were days to heat (DH), calving interval (CI), days to calving (DC), and pregnancy rate (PR). The productive traits were dam weight (DW), body condition score (BCS), calf weight (CW), and weaning rate (WR). The effects on the model were: year, genetic group, reproductive status (RS), age, reproductive rest, and breed of bull (CW and WR). Multivariate analyses were performed, using the Bayesian approach via Gibbs sampling. We conclude that the reproductive measures are ineffective as selection indicators, whereas using dam weight may be a good alternative.

  1. Effects of supplemental protein type on productivity of primiparous beef cows.

    Alderton, B W; Hixon, D L; Hess, B W; Woodard, L F; Hallford, D M; Moss, G E

    2000-12-01

    Effects of supplemental degradable (DIP) and undegradable (UIP) intake protein on forage intake, BW change, body condition score (BCS), postpartum interval to first estrus, conception rate, milk production and composition, serum metabolites and metabolic hormones, and calf gain were determined using 36 primiparous Gelbvieh x Angus rotationally crossed beef cows. On d 3 postpartum, cows (average initial BW = 495 +/- 10 kg and BCS = 5.5 +/- 0.1) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary supplements (12 cows/treatment). Date of parturition was evenly distributed across treatment (average span of calving date among treatments = 2.4 +/- 2.5 d). Individually fed (d 3 through 120 postpartum) dietary supplements were 0.82 kg of corn and 0.23 kg of soybean meal per day (DIP), the DIP + 0.12 kg of blood meal and 0.13 kg of corn gluten meal per day (DIP + UIP), and 0.82 kg of corn, 0.07 kg of blood meal, and 0.08 kg of corn gluten meal per day in an isonitrogenous replacement of soybean meal (UIP IsoN). Cows had ad libitum access to native grass hay (8.5% CP) and trace-mineralized salt. Total OM intake was greater (P = 0.06) for DIP + UIP than UIP IsoN cows. At 30 d postpartum, DIP + UIP cows produced more milk than UIP IsoN, with DIP being intermediate; however, at 60 d postpartum, DIP + UIP and DIP cows were not different, but both had greater milk production than UIP IsoN (treatment x day interaction; P = 0.08). A treatment x day interaction (P = 0.06) for BCS resulted from DIP + UIP cows having the greatest BCS at 60, 90, and 120 d d postpartum and DIP having greater BCS than UIP IsoN cows only on d 60 postpartum. Serum insulin concentrations were highest (treatment x day interaction; P = 0.09) for DIP + UIP cows at 30 d postpartum but did not differ among treatment thereafter. Serum insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-2 (34 kDa) and -3 (40 and 44 kDa) were greatest (P calf weaning weights were unaffected (P = 0.35, 0.42, and 0.64, respectively) by

  2. Assessing the impact of rumen microbial communities on methane emissions and production traits in Holstein cows in a tropical climate.

    Cunha, Camila S; Veloso, Cristina M; Marcondes, Marcos I; Mantovani, Hilario C; Tomich, Thierry R; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo R; Ferreira, Matheus F L; Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A; Suen, Garret

    2017-12-01

    The evaluation of how the gut microbiota affects both methane emissions and animal production is necessary in order to achieve methane mitigation without production losses. Toward this goal, the aim of this study was to correlate the rumen microbial communities (bacteria, archaea, and fungi) of high (HP), medium (MP), and low milk producing (LP), as well as dry (DC), Holstein dairy cows in an actual tropical production system with methane emissions and animal production traits. Overall, DC cows emitted more methane, followed by MP, HP and LP cows, although HP and LP cow emissions were similar. Using next-generation sequencing, it was found that bacteria affiliated with Christensenellaceae, Mogibacteriaceae, S24-7, Butyrivibrio, Schwartzia, and Treponema were negatively correlated with methane emissions and showed positive correlations with digestible dry matter intake (dDMI) and digestible organic matter intake (dOMI). Similar findings were observed for archaea in the genus Methanosphaera. The bacterial groups Coriobacteriaceae, RFP12, and Clostridium were negatively correlated with methane, but did not correlate with dDMI and dOMI. For anaerobic fungal communities, no significant correlations with methane or animal production traits were found. Based on these findings, it is suggested that manipulation of the abundances of these microbial taxa may be useful for modulating methane emissions without negatively affecting animal production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Milk production and fertility performance of Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows and their respective crosses in seasonal-calving commercial farms.

    Coffey, E L; Horan, B; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-07-01

    There is renewed interest in dairy cow crossbreeding in Ireland as a means to further augment productivity and profitability. The objective of the present study was to compare milk production and fertility performance for Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows, and their respective crosses in 40 Irish spring-calving commercial dairy herds from the years 2008 to 2012. Data on 24,279 lactations from 11,808 cows were available. The relationship between breed proportion, as well as heterosis and recombination coefficients with performance, was quantified within a mixed model framework that also contained the fixed effects of parity; cow and contemporary group of herd-year-season of calving were both included as random effects in the mixed model. Breed proportion was associated with all milk production parameters investigated. Milk yield was greatest for Holstein (5,217kg), intermediate for Friesian (4,591kg), and least for Jersey (4,230kg), whereas milk constituents (i.e., fat and protein concentration) were greatest for Jersey (9.38%), intermediate for Friesian (7.91%), and least for Holstein (7.75%). Yield of milk solids in crossbred cows exceeded their respective parental average performance; greatest milk solids yield (i.e., fat kg + protein kg) was observed in the Holstein × Jersey first-cross, yielding 25kg more than the mid-parent mean. There was no consistent breed effect on the reproductive traits investigated. Relative to the mid-parent mean, Holstein × Jersey cows calved younger as heifers and had a shorter calving interval. Friesian × Jersey first-cross cows also had a shorter calving interval relative to their mid-parent mean. Results were consistent with findings from smaller-scale controlled experiments. Breed complementarity and heterosis attainable from crossbreeding resulted in superior animal performance and, consequently, greater expected profitability in crossbred cows compared with their respective purebreds. Copyright © 2016 American

  4. Effects of beef production system on animal performance and carcass characteristics.

    Maxwell, C L; Krehbiel, C R; Wilson, B K; Johnson, B T; Bernhard, B C; O'Neill, C F; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Step, D L; Richards, C J

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate conventional (CONV) and natural (NAT) beef production systems from annual pasture through finishing through grazing. Beef steers (n=180, initial BW=250±19 kg) were assigned randomly to 2 treatments in the pasture phase. Steers were implanted with 40 mg of trenbolone acetate (TBA), 8 mg estradiol, and 29 mg tylosin tartrate (CONV), or received no implant (NAT). Steers on the 2 treatments grazed wheat or cereal rye for 109 d. Conventional steers had an 18.5% improvement in ADG (1.22 vs. 1.03 kg/d, P0.07). The CONV steers ate 6.9% more feed (11.8 vs. 11.0 kg/d, Pcarcass weight gain (1.36 vs. 1.06 kg/d), 18.6% improvement in carcass efficiency (0.115 vs. 0.097, Pcarcass weight was increased by 62 kg (424 vs. 362 kg, Pcarcasses in the upper 2/3 of USDA Choice grade (48.7 vs. 18.7%, Pcarcasses (25.4 vs. 9.3%, Pcarcasses with superior YG and desirable quality grades with both roughage levels.

  5. Effects of garlic extract on color, lipid oxidation and oxidative breakdown products in raw ground beef during refrigerated storage

    XINZHUANG ZHANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the effects of garlic extracts on color, lipid oxidation, and oxidative breakdown products in raw ground beef during refrigerated storage. The two treatments were:control group (C, with no addition and experiment group (D, 50 mg garlic extracts added to 100 g beef. Adding garlic extracts significant increased a* value (PA ≤ 0.05, and significant decreased TBARS and PV values (PA ≤ 0.05. The pH and –SH value of D group had a decreasing tendency (PA=0.0522 and an increasing tendency (PA=0.0636 respectively compared to C group. Garlic extracts protected phospholipids, fatty acids and polypeptides from oxidation. The results indicatethat garlic extracts have the antioxidant activity, helping maintain the meat color, inhibiting lipid oxidation and protein degradation of raw ground beef during refrigerated storage.

  6. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted... beef parboiled and steam roasted. “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted” shall be prepared so that... “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted.” When beef cheek meat, beef head meat, or beef heart meat is...

  7. Productive, physiological and biochemical changes in imported and locally born Friesian and holstein lactating cow under hot summer conditions of egypt

    Habeeb, A.A.M.; Marai, I.F.M.; Gabr, H.; Farghaly, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    A number of 20 of each of healthy lactating friesian and holstein cows similar age and body weight, non-pregnant at the 3 rd lactation season, 80-100 days postpartum, were used in the present study. The investigation was carried out in two farms at the same time during the hot summer season of egypt and lasted 8 weeks. The first farm was in damietta (North east of the nile delta, 31 degree 40 N) including 20 friesian cows and the second one was in Fakous (East of the Nile delta 30 degree 40 N) including 20 holstein cows. In each of the two farms, 10 cows were newly imported and other 10 ones were born in egypt. The results showed that the newly imported cows were significantly (P <0.01) higher than the locally born cows in average daily milk yield, as well as, milk production in both friesian and holstein strains at the same time, the newly imported cows were significantly (P < 0.01 or 0.05) lower than the locally born in T4, T3, urea-N, blood picture values and GPT enzyme activity in the two strains of cattle, while the locally born cows showed significantly (P < 0.01 or 0.05) lower values in rectal temperature and respiration rate, as well as, Got and ALK-P enzymes activities than in the newly imported cows either in friesian or holstein cattle. Holstein cows surpassed friesian ones (P < 0.01 or 0.05) in milk production, thyroid hormones content, cholesterol, haemoglobin, packed cell volume and erythrocyte count values. The opposite was true in serum total protein, urea-N, creatinine concentrations, leucocyte counts, Got, GPT and ALK-P enzymes activities

  8. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on methane production, total body oxygen consumption, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers

    An indirect calorimetry experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 20 d on total body oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, methane production, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers. Sixteen Angus steers (initial BW = 555 ± 12.7 kg) w...

  9. 75 FR 10460 - Improving Tracing Procedures for E. coli O157:H7 Positive Raw Beef Product

    2010-03-08

    ... Tracing Procedures for E. coli O157:H7 Positive Raw Beef Product AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... has found positive for Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7. FSIS will also discuss additional verification activities the Agency will conduct at suppliers in response to positive E. coli O157:H7 results...

  10. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    Brown, Britni M; Stallings, Jon W; Clay, John S; Rhoads, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  11. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    Britni M Brown

    Full Text Available The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC cows (n = 94,440; cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC contemporaries (n = 141,365. In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall. Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however

  12. Genetic effects of PDGFRB and MARCH1 identified in GWAS revealing strong associations with semen production traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    Liu, Shuli; Yin, Hongwei; Li, Cong; Qin, Chunhua; Cai, Wentao; Cao, Mingyue; Zhang, Shengli

    2017-07-03

    Using a genome-wide association study strategy, our previous study discovered 19 significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to semen production traits in Chinese Holstein bulls. Among them, three SNPs were within or close to the phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A), membrane associated ring-CH-type finger 1 (MARCH1) and platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) genes. The present study was designed with the objectives of identifying genetic polymorphism of the PDE3A, PDGFRB and MARCH1 genes and their effects on semen production traits in a Holstein bull population. A total of 20 SNPs were detected and genotyped in 730 bulls. Association analyses using de-regressed estimated breeding values of each semen production trait revealed four statistically significant SNPs for one or more semen production traits (P semen volume per ejaculate. Furthermore, high expression of the MARCH1 gene was observed in sperm cells. One SNP (rs43445726) in the regulatory region of MARCH1 had a significant effect on gene expression. Our study demonstrated the significant associations of genetic variants of the PDGFRB and MARCH1 genes with semen production traits. The identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to optimize breeding programs for semen production traits in Holstein bull populations.

  13. The Effect of Age at First Calving and Calving Interval on Productive Life and Lifetime Profit in Korean Holsteins

    Changhee Do

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 Won (approximately $3.45 of lifetime profit per day increase in life span. This is evidence that care of each cow is necessary to improve net return and important for farms maintaining profitable cows. The estimates of heritability of age at first calving, first two calving intervals, days in milk for lifetime, lifespan, milk income and lifetime profit were 0.111, 0.088, 0.142, 0.140, 0.143, 0.123, and 0.102, respectively. The low heritabilities indicated that the productive life and economical traits include reproductive and productive characteristics. Age at first calving and interval between first and second calving had negative genetic correlation with lifetime profit (−0.080 and −0.265, respectively. Reducing age at first calving and first calving interval had a positive effect on lifetime profit. Lifetime profit increased to approximately 2,600,000 (2,363.6 from 800,000 Won ($727.3 when age at first calving decreased to (22.3 month from (32.8 month. Results suggested that reproductive traits such as age at first calving and calving interval might affect various economical traits and consequently influenced productive life and profitability of cows. In conclusion, regard of the age at first calving must be taken with the optimum age at first calving for maximum lifetime profit being 22.5 to 23.5 months. Moreover, considering the negative genetic correlation of first calving interval with lifetime profit, it should be reduced against the present

  14. Meat Standards Australia as an Innovation in the Australian Beef Production and Marketing System

    Griffith, Garry R.; Thompson, John M.; Polkinghorne, Rod; Gunner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Variable eating quality was identified as a major contributor to declining Australian beef consumption in the early 1990s. The primary issue was the inability to predict the eating quality of cooked beef before consumption. A R&D program funded by industry and Meat and Livestock Australia investigated the relationships between critical control points along the supply chain, cooking methods and beef palatability. These relationships were underpinned by extensive consumer taste panels. Out of t...

  15. Contamination of beef products with staphylococcal classical enterotoxins in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    Shawish, Reyad R.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne pathogens are of high concern for public health and food safety. food poisoning is one of the most economically devastating types of food poisoning globally. The purpose of this study was to detect staphylococcal classical enterotoxins (SEs in processed beef from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and Egypt. In the present investigation a total of 250 random processed meat samples (50 each of minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon were collected from different super markets in the study area. Using conventional cultural methods, samples were cultured for isolation and identification of . Multiplex PCR was used to detect SEs of the classical type SEA, SEB, SEC and SED from isolates.The percentage presence of in minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon was 38%, 22%, 30%, 32% and 12%, respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that all examined samples contain different types of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins and only minced meat samples contained all four types of toxins. Multiplex PCR is efficient in detection of SEs from food and may be used in tracing of toxins to promote food hygiene. Implications of contamination of processed meat to food hygiene in the study area are highlighted.

  16. Current situation and future prospects for beef production in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Napasirth, Pattaya; Napasirth, Viengsakoun

    2018-05-24

    Lao-native beef cattle are primarily Bos indicus, and most ruminant production in Laos is still dominated by small-scale or backyard producers that use traditional practices, resulting in low productivity. The cattle herd size in Laos has grown by an average of 5 percent per year from 1.52 million in 2010/11 to 1.81 million in 2014/15. In 2016, the Laos cattle population was 1.88 million head, with smallholder farmers representing 98% of production despite efforts by the Laos government to develop commercial-scale farms. There were 170 commercial cattle farms in 2016, with 56 percent in the Central region of Laos. Although, overall, ruminant meat production has tended to increase with consumption of 7.29 kg/capita/year in 2013, it remains insufficient to meet demand. Crop residues and agro-industrial by-products used in ruminant diets include rice straw, cassava pulp and wet brewers' grains as roughage, energy and protein sources, respectively. The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) proposed by China in 2013 will connect China closely with all countries in Southeast Asia. This initiative will change landlocked Laos to land linked for investors who will benefit from convenient transport at a lower cost, promoting agricultural production in Laos.

  17. Prediction of the lifetime productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows managed for different lactation durations, using a model of lifetime nutrient partitioning

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Martin, O; Blavy, P

    2016-01-01

    The GARUNS model is a lifetime performance model taking into account the changing physiological priorities of an animal during its life and through repeated reproduction cycles. This dynamic and stochastic model has been previously used to predict the productive and reproductive performance...... of various genotypes of cows across feeding systems. In the present paper, we used this model to predict the lifetime productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows for different lactation durations, with the aim of determining the lifetime scenario that optimizes cows' performance defined...... by lifetime efficiency (ratio of total milk energy yield to total energy intake) and pregnancy rate. To evaluate the model, data from a 16-mo extended lactation experiment on Holstein cows were used. Generally, the model could consistently fit body weight, milk yield, and milk components of these cows...

  18. Reaction norm of fertility traits adjusted for protein and fat production level across lactations in Holstein cattle.

    Menendez-Buxadera, A; Carabaño, M J; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Cue, R I; Ugarte, E; Alenda, R

    2013-07-01

    A total of 304,001 artificial insemination outcomes in up to 7 lactations from 142,389 Holstein cows, daughters of 5,349 sires and 101,433 dams, calving between January 1995 and December 2007 in 1,347 herds were studied by a reaction norm model. The (co)variance components for days to first service (DFS), days open, nonreturn rate in the first service (NRFS), and number of services per conception were estimated by 6 models: 3 Legendre polynomial degrees for the genetic effects and adjustment or not for the level of fat plus protein (FP) production recorded at day closest to DFS. For all traits and type of FP adjustment, a second degree polynomial showed the best fit. The use of the adjusted FP model did not increase the level of genetic (co)variance components except for DFS. The heritability for each of the traits was low in general (0.03-0.10) and increased from the first to fourth calving; nevertheless, very important variability was found for the estimated breeding value (EBV) of the sires. The genetic correlations (rg) were close to unity between adjacent calvings, but decreased for most distant parities, ranging from rg=0.36 (for DFS) to rg=0.63 (for NRFS), confirming the existence of heterogeneous genetic (co)variance components and EBV across lactations. The results of the eigen decomposition of rg shows that the first eigenvalue explained between 82 to 92% and the second between 8 to 14% of the genetic variance for all traits; therefore, a deformation of the overall mean trajectory for reproductive performance across the trajectory of the different calving could be expected if selection favored these eigenfunctions. The results of EBV for the 50 best sires showed a substantial reranking and variation in the shape of response across lactations. The more important aspect to highlight, however, is the difference between the EBV of the same sires in different calvings, a characteristic known as plasticity, which is particularly important for DFS and NRFS. This

  19. Improved pasture and herd management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a Brazilian beef production system

    Mazzetto, A.M.; Feigl, B.J.; Schils, R.L.M.; Cerri, C.E.P.; Cerri, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian farms produce 15% of the world[U+05F3]s beef, and consequently they are important sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). The beef sector faces the challenge to meet the increasing demand without further increase of GHG emissions. To reduce the pressure on forests it is essential that

  20. Climate metrics and the carbon footprint of livestock products: where’s the beef?

    Persson, U. Martin; Johansson, Daniel J. A.; Cederberg, Christel; Hedenus, Fredrik; Bryngelsson, David

    2015-03-01

    The livestock sector is estimated to account for 15% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 80% of which originate from ruminant animal systems due to high emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management. However, recent analyses have argued that the carbon footprint (CF) of ruminant meat and dairy products are substantially reduced if one adopts alternative metrics for comparing emissions of GHGs—e.g., the 100 year global temperature change potential (GTP100), instead of the commonly used 100 year global warming potential (GWP100)—due to a lower valuation of CH4 emissions. This raises the question of which metric to use. Ideally, the choice of metric should be related to a climate policy goal. Here, we argue that basing current GHG metrics solely on temperature impact 100 years into the future is inconsistent with the current global climate goal of limiting warming to 2 °C, a limit that is likely to be reached well within 100 years. A reasonable GTP value for CH4, accounting for current projections for when 2 °C warming will be reached, is about 18, leading to a current CF of 19 kg CO2-eq. per kilo beef (carcass weight, average European system), 20% lower than if evaluated using GWP100. Further, we show that an application of the GTP metric consistent with a 2 °C climate limit leads to the valuation of CH4 increasing rapidly over time as the temperature ceiling is approached. This means that the CF for beef would rise by around 2.5% per year in the coming decades, surpassing the GWP based footprint in only ten years. Consequently, the impact on the livestock sector of substituting GTPs for GWPs would be modest in the near term, but could potentially be very large in the future due to a much higher (>50%) and rapidly appreciating CF.

  1. Comparison of two feeding finishing treatments on production and quality of organic beef

    Giulio Cozzi

    Full Text Available The study compared growth and slaughter performance and meat quality of organic beef cattle finished with or without pasture grazing. One group of 10 Limousin heifers was finished under confined conditions and fed ad libitum a total mixed ration based on maize silage, hay and cereal grains. A second group of 10 Limousin heifers rotationally grazed two contiguous pasture plots of 1.5 ha each with a daily supplementation of a concentrate mix based on cereal grains and roasted soybeans. Heifers were slaughtered at commercial finishing and meat quality traits were assessed on Longissimus thoracis muscle. The grazing group, due to a lower average daily gain (0.74 vs. 0.95 kg/day; P<0.05, required a prolonged finishing period (172 vs. 155 days; P<0.05 than the confined animals. Meat samples from grazing cattle were less tender (shear force: 3.92 vs. 3.24 kg/cm2; P<0.05 and showed a lower lightness (L*: 33.0 vs. 35.8; P<0.001 and a higher redness (15.4 vs. 13.7; P<0.01 and yellowness (15.6 vs. 14.6; P<0.05. Fatty acid composition of the intramuscular fat was significantly affected by the finishing system. Grazing heifers had a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (4.06 vs. 3.66% of total fatty acids; P<0.05, conjugated linoleic acids (0.16 vs. 0.10% of total fatty acids; P<0.01 and ω-3 (0.44 vs. 0.30% of total fatty acids; P<0.001 than confined animals. The detrimental effects of pasture grazing on growth performance and on some important meat quality traits explain the limited adoption of this finishing system in organic beef production.

  2. Effects of nisin and temperature on survival, growth, and enterotoxin production characteristics of psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus in beef gravy.

    Beuchat, L R; Clavero, M R; Jaquette, C B

    1997-01-01

    The presence of psychrotrophic enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus in ready-to-serve meats and meat products that have not been subjected to sterilization treatment is a public health concern. A study was undertaken to determine the survival, growth, and diarrheal enterotoxin production characteristics of four strains of psychrotrophic B. cereus in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and beef gravy as affected by temperature and supplementation with nisin. A portion of unheated vegetative cells from...

  3. Divergence for residual feed intake of Holstein-Friesian cattle during growth did not affect production and reproduction during lactation.

    Macdonald, K A; Thomson, B P; Waghorn, G C

    2016-11-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual and predicted dry matter intake (DMI) of individual animals. Recent studies with Holstein-Friesian calves have identified an ~20% difference in RFI during growth (calf RFI) and these groups remained divergent in RFI during lactation. The objective of the experiment described here was to determine if cows selected for divergent RFI as calves differed in milk production, reproduction or in the profiles of BW and body condition score (BCS) change during lactation, when grazing pasture. The cows used in the experiment (n=126) had an RFI of -0.88 and +0.75 kg DM intake/day for growth as calves (efficient and inefficient calf RFI groups, respectively) and were intensively grazed at four stocking rates (SR) of 2.2, 2.6, 3.1 and 3.6 cows/ha on self-contained farmlets, over 3 years. Each SR treatment had equal number of cows identified as low and high calf RFI, with 24, 28, 34 and 40/11 ha farmlet. The cows divergent for calf RFI were randomly allocated to each SR. Although SR affected production, calf RFI group (low or high) did not affect milk production, reproduction, BW, BCS or changes in these parameters throughout lactation. The most efficient animals (low calf RFI) lost similar BW and BCS as the least efficient (high calf RFI) immediately post-calving, and regained similar BW and BCS before their next calving. These results indicate that selection for RFI as calves to increase efficiency of feed utilisation did not negatively affect farm productivity variables (milk production, BCS, BW and reproduction) as adults when managed under an intensive pastoral grazing system.

  4. Comparing Carbon and Water Footprints for Beef Cattle Production in Southern Australia

    Bradley G. Ridoutt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stand-alone environmental indicators based on life cycle assessment (LCA, such as the carbon footprint and water footprint, are becoming increasingly popular as a means of directing sustainable production and consumption. However, individually, these metrics violate the principle of LCA known as comprehensiveness and do not necessarily provide an indication of overall environmental impact. In this study, the carbon footprints for six diverse beef cattle production systems in southern Australia were calculated and found to range from 10.1 to 12.7 kg CO2e kg−1 live weight (cradle to farm gate. This compared to water footprints, which ranged from 3.3 to 221 L H2Oe kg−1 live weight. For these systems, the life cycle impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water use were subsequently modelled using endpoint indicators and aggregated to enable comparison. In all cases, impacts from GHG emissions were most important, representing 93 to 99% of the combined scores. As such, the industry’s existing priority of GHG emissions reduction is affirmed. In an attempt to balance the demands of comprehensiveness and simplicity, to achieve reliable public reporting of the environmental impacts of a large number of products across the economy, a multi-indicator approach based on combined midpoint and endpoint life cycle impact assessment modelling is proposed. For agri-food products, impacts from land use should also be included as tradeoffs between GHG emissions, water use and land use are common.

  5. Blood profile and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian steers finished on total mixed ration or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellet mixed with reed canary grass haylage.

    Utama, D T; Lee, S G; Baek, K H; Chung, W S; Chung, I A; Kim, D I; Kim, G Y; Lee, S K

    2018-02-01

    Holstein-Friesian steer beef production is renowned globally as a secondary product of the milk industry. Grass feeding is a common practice in raising Holstein steers because of its low cost. Furthermore, grass feeding is an alternative way to produce beef with a balanced n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) ratio. However, the performance and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian cattle is more likely to depend on a high-quality diet. The aim of this study was to observe whether feeding two mixed diets; a corn-based total mixed ration (TMR) with winter ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellets with reed canary grass haylage (n-3 mix) provided benefits on carcass weight, meat quality and FA composition compared with cattle fed with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) haylage alone. In all, 15 21-month-old Holstein-Friesian steers were randomly assigned to three group pens, were allowed free access to water and were fed different experimental diets for 150 days. Blood samples were taken a week before slaughter. Carcass weight and meat quality were evaluated after slaughter. Plasma lipid levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were determined. Diet did not affect plasma triglyceride levels and GGT activity. Plasma cholesterol levels, including low-density and high-density lipoproteins, were higher in both mixed-diet groups than in the haylae group. The highest activities of plasma AST, CK and ALP were observed in the haylage group, followed by n-3 mix and TMR groups, respectively. Carcass weight was lower in the haylage group than in the other groups and no differences were found between the TMR and n-3 mix groups. Although the n-3 mix-fed and haylage-fed beef provided lower n-6 to n-3 FAs ratio than TMR-fed beef, the roasted beef obtained from the TMR group was more acceptable with better overall meat physicochemical properties and sensory scores

  6. Characterization of the resistome in manure, soil and wastewater from dairy and beef production systems.

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Cook, Shaun R; Zaheer, Rahat; Yang, Hua; Woerner, Dale R; Geornaras, Ifigenia; McArt, Jessica A; Gow, Sheryl P; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; McAllister, Tim A; Belk, Keith E; Morley, Paul S

    2016-04-20

    It has been proposed that livestock production effluents such as wastewater, airborne dust and manure increase the density of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and genes in the environment. The public health risk posed by this proposed outcome has been difficult to quantify using traditional microbiological approaches. We utilized shotgun metagenomics to provide a first description of the resistome of North American dairy and beef production effluents, and identify factors that significantly impact this resistome. We identified 34 mechanisms of antimicrobial drug resistance within 34 soil, manure and wastewater samples from feedlot, ranch and dairy operations. The majority of resistance-associated sequences found in all samples belonged to tetracycline resistance mechanisms. We found that the ranch samples contained significantly fewer resistance mechanisms than dairy and feedlot samples, and that the resistome of dairy operations differed significantly from that of feedlots. The resistome in soil, manure and wastewater differed, suggesting that management of these effluents should be tailored appropriately. By providing a baseline of the cattle production waste resistome, this study represents a solid foundation for future efforts to characterize and quantify the public health risk posed by livestock effluents.

  7. Practices of traditional beef farmers in their production and marketing of cattle in Zambia.

    Mumba, Chisoni; Häsler, Barbara; Muma, John B; Munyeme, Musso; Sitali, Doreen Chilolo; Skjerve, Eystein; Rich, Karl M

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the practices of traditional cattle farmers in developing countries is an important factor in the development of appropriate, pro-poor disease control policies, and in formulating regional-specific production incentives that can improve productivity. This paper describes the production, husbandry practices, economics, and constraints of traditional cattle farming in Zambia. A cross-sectional study design was used to obtain data from traditional cattle farmers (n = 699) using a structured questionnaire. Data analyses were carried out using SPSS and STATA statistical packages. The results revealed that the majority [65% (95% CI: 59.3-71.1)] of farmers practised a transhumant cattle herding system under communal grazing. In these transhumant herding systems, animal husbandry and management systems were found to be of poor quality, in terms of supplementary feeding, vaccination coverage, deworming, uptake of veterinary services, usage of artificial insemination, and dip tanks all being low or absent. East Coast Fever was the most common disease, affecting 60% (95% CI: 56.4-63.7) of farmers. Cattle sales were low, as farmers only sold a median of two cattle per household per year. Crop farming was found to be the main source of farm income (47%) in agro-pastoralist communities, followed by cattle farming (28%) and other sources (25%). The median cost of production in the surveyed provinces was reported at US$316, while that of revenue from cattle and cattle products sales was estimated at US$885 per herd per year. This translates to an estimated gross margin of US$569, representing 64.3% of revenue.There is considerable diversity in disease distribution, animal husbandry practices, economics, and challenges in traditional cattle production in different locations of Zambia. Therefore, to improve the productivity of the traditional cattle sub-sector, policy makers and stakeholders in the beef value chain must develop fit-for-purpose policies and

  8. Assessing the sustainable development and intensification potential of beef cattle production in Sumbawa, Indonesia, using a system dynamics approach.

    Dahlanuddin; Henderson, Benjamin; Dizyee, Kanar; Hermansyah; Ash, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The intensification of beef cattle production in dryland areas of East Indonesia has the potential to substantially raise the incomes of smallholder farmers that dominate the sector. In this study we assess the potential for intensifying beef production on Sumbawa Island, by introducing a household feedlot production system (2-20 animals) based on the Leucaena leucocephala (leucanea) tree legume as an improved source of feed. We used a system dynamics approach to model the entire value chain, accounting for herd dynamics, demand dynamics and seasonality. Our findings complement the growing body of biophysical evidence about the potential success of this intervention, by simulating improvements in the annual profitability for beef farmers in the project area of up to 415% by 2023. Increases in farm profit were shown to depend near equally on the higher productivity of the leucaena feeding system and an associated price premium, demonstrating the importance of supporting improved agricultural production with better marketing practices. The intervention was also shown to generate positive or neutral benefits for the main post-farm value chain actors. Importantly, it also reduced the GHG emission intensity of outputs from the beef herd by 16% by 2020. We explored number of scale-out pathways, including a relatively moderate pace of autonomous adoption for our main analysis, resulting in the accumulation of 3,444 hectares of leucaena 20-years after the initial project phase, which could sustain the fattening of 37,124 male cattle per year. More ambitious rates of scale-out were found to be possible without exceeding the animal and land resources of the island.

  9. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia.

  10. Consumer Preferences for Public and Private Sector Certifications for Beef Products in the United States and the United Kingdom

    Christensen, Bryan J.; Bailey, DeeVon; Hunnicutt, Lynn; Ward, Ruby A.

    2003-01-01

    Focus groups and street surveys are used in the US and the UK to determine consumer perceptions of the ability of different agencies, associations, and groups to certify beef products for quality, food safety, animal welfare, social responsibility, and environmental responsibility. US consumers see the role of the federal government primarily as assuring food safety but desire the private sector to make other types of certifications. UK consumers prefer the private sector to assure food safet...

  11. CASE REPORT: CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF BEEF CATTLE, DEVELOPED BY BRAZILIANS IN THE REGION OF CHACO BOLIVIANO

    Ronan Lopes Albino; Ricardo Marostegan de Paula; Virgílio Mesquita Gomes; Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino; Rogério de Paula Lana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe the characteristic of the beef cattle production system in Bolivia. From a scholarship that happened in a Brazilian company who provide management in livestock, during this time it was possible know a little bit about the characteristic on Bolivia livestock. In oriental region from Bolivia the Boviplan Consultoria Agropecuaria Ltda., Brazilian company with head office in Piracicaba-SP, built an office, to offer a bigger technical support for customer th...

  12. Anthelmintic resistance impact on tropical beef cattle productivity: effect on weight gain of weaned calves.

    Borges, Fernando A; Almeida, Gabriel D; Heckler, Rafael P; Lemes, Raul T; Onizuka, Marcel K V; Borges, Dyego G L

    2013-03-01

    The performance of grazing cattle in tropical areas is deeply influenced by parasitism, and the increasing reports of resistance are a threat to effective nematode control. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of avermectins on the performance of weaned calves naturally infected by ivermectin-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The effect of four commercial endectocides (ivermectin 2.25 % + abamectin 1.25 %, ivermectin 3.15 %, doramectin 3.15 %, and doramectin 1 %) on parasitism and performance of a hundred weaned Nellore calves were evaluated during 112 days. The most effective anthelmintic showed efficacy of 84 % and resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) of live weight gain of 11.85 kg, compared to untreated group, 9.05 and 9.41 kg compared to those treated with more ineffective avermectins which showed efficacy of 0 and 48.2 %, respectively. A significant (P < 0.05) and weak negative correlation (r = -0.22) between the eggs per gram (EPG) and body weight was observed, indicating that even the low mean EPG (175 ± 150) observed at day 0 in the control group, with predominance of Haemonchus sp., was responsible for production losses. These results indicate that control of nematode parasites in beef cattle in the weaning phase may not result in increased productivity when carried out without technical criteria.

  13. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency profiles of 3 genotypes of Holstein-Friesian within pasture-based systems of milk production.

    Coleman, J; Berry, D P; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index (Economic Breeding Index) on dry matter intake and feed efficiency across lactation and to quantify the variation in performance among alternative definitions of feed efficiency. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: 1) low Economic Breeding Index North American Holstein-Friesian representative of the Irish national average dairy cow, 2) high genetic merit North American Holstein-Friesian, and 3) high genetic merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible intensive pasture-based feed systems: 1) the Moorepark pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 128 and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, feed system, and the interaction between genotype and feed system on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, body condition score, and different definitions of feed efficiency were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotypes and feed systems accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype-by-feed-system interactions were observed for any of the variables measured. Results showed that aggressive selection using the Irish Economic Breeding Index had no effect on dry matter intake across lactation when managed on intensive pasture-based systems of milk production, although the ranking of genotypes for feed efficiency differed depending on the definition of feed efficiency used. Performance of

  14. Models for Estimating Genetic Parameters of Milk Production Traits Using Random Regression Models in Korean Holstein Cattle

    C. I. Cho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to estimate genetic parameters for milk production traits of Holstein cattle using random regression models (RRMs, and to compare the goodness of fit of various RRMs with homogeneous and heterogeneous residual variances. A total of 126,980 test-day milk production records of the first parity Holstein cows between 2007 and 2014 from the Dairy Cattle Improvement Center of National Agricultural Cooperative Federation in South Korea were used. These records included milk yield (MILK, fat yield (FAT, protein yield (PROT, and solids-not-fat yield (SNF. The statistical models included random effects of genetic and permanent environments using Legendre polynomials (LP of the third to fifth order (L3–L5, fixed effects of herd-test day, year-season at calving, and a fixed regression for the test-day record (third to fifth order. The residual variances in the models were either homogeneous (HOM or heterogeneous (15 classes, HET15; 60 classes, HET60. A total of nine models (3 orders of polynomials×3 types of residual variance including L3-HOM, L3-HET15, L3-HET60, L4-HOM, L4-HET15, L4-HET60, L5-HOM, L5-HET15, and L5-HET60 were compared using Akaike information criteria (AIC and/or Schwarz Bayesian information criteria (BIC statistics to identify the model(s of best fit for their respective traits. The lowest BIC value was observed for the models L5-HET15 (MILK; PROT; SNF and L4-HET15 (FAT, which fit the best. In general, the BIC values of HET15 models for a particular polynomial order was lower than that of the HET60 model in most cases. This implies that the orders of LP and types of residual variances affect the goodness of models. Also, the heterogeneity of residual variances should be considered for the test-day analysis. The heritability estimates of from the best fitted models ranged from 0.08 to 0.15 for MILK, 0.06 to 0.14 for FAT, 0.08 to 0.12 for PROT, and 0.07 to 0.13 for SNF according to days in milk of first

  15. A study of the factors that influence consumer attitudes toward beef products using the conjoint market analysis tool.

    Mennecke, B E; Townsend, A M; Hayes, D J; Lonergan, S M

    2007-10-01

    This study utilizes an analysis technique commonly used in marketing, the conjoint analysis method, to examine the relative utilities of a set of beef steak characteristics considered by a national sample of 1,432 US consumers, as well as additional localized samples representing undergraduate students at a business college and in an animal science department. The analyses indicate that among all respondents, region of origin is by far the most important characteristic; this is followed by animal breed, traceability, animal feed, and beef quality. Alternatively, the cost of cut, farm ownership, the use (or nonuse) of growth promoters, and whether the product is guaranteed tender were the least important factors. Results for animal science undergraduates are similar to the aggregate results, except that these students emphasized beef quality at the expense of traceability and the nonuse of growth promoters. Business students also emphasized region of origin but then emphasized traceability and cost. The ideal steak for the national sample is from a locally produced, choice Angus fed a mixture of grain and grass that is traceable to the farm of origin. If the product was not produced locally, respondents indicated that their preferred production states are, in order from most to least preferred, Iowa, Texas, Nebraska, and Kansas.

  16. Discrimination of in vitro and in vivo digestion products of meat proteins from pork, beef, chicken, and fish.

    Wen, Siying; Zhou, Guanghong; Song, Shangxin; Xu, Xinglian; Voglmeir, Josef; Liu, Li; Zhao, Fan; Li, Mengjie; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun; Li, Chunbao

    2015-11-01

    In vitro digestion products of proteins were compared among beef, pork, chicken, and fish. Gastric and jejunal contents from the rats fed these meat proteins were also compared. Cooked pork, beef, chicken, and fish were homogenized and incubated with pepsin alone or followed by trypsin. The digestion products with molecular weights of less than 3000 Da were identified with MALDI-TOF-MS and nano-LC-MS/MS. Gastric and jejunal contents obtained from the rats fed the four meat proteins for 7 days were also analyzed. After pepsin digestion, pork, and beef samples had a greater number of fragments in similarity than chicken and fish samples, but the in vitro digestibility was the greatest (p 0.05). A total of 822 and 659 peptides were identified from the in vitro and in vivo digestion products, respectively. Our results could interpret for the differences in physiological functions after the ingestion of different species of meat. © 2015 The Authors. PROTEOMICS Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Analysis of SNPs in the KIT gene of cattle with different coat colour patterns and perspectives to use these markers for breed traceability and authentication of beef and dairy products

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the breed of origin of farm animals has recently assumed particular relevance as increasing interests in marketing mono-breed labelled lines of beef and dairy products have created the need to protect them from frauds. In order to develop DNA based breed traceability and authentication protocols, the first step is the identification of breed specific markers with high discriminatory power among breeds. We analysed two single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in exon 2 (g.72779776C>T and exon 3 (g.72783182A>G of the KIT gene (a candidate gene for the spotting locus in seven cattle breeds with different coat colour patterns (Italian Holstein-Friesian, no. = 61; Italian Brown, no. = 60; Italian Simmental, no. = 78; Jersey, no. = 60; Rendena, no. = 51; Reggiana, no. = 128; and Modenese, no. = 52. The two alleles of both SNPs were detected in all analysed breeds making their use unsuitable in breed traceabilty with a deterministic approach. Italian Simmental was almost fixed for the most common alleles (g.72779776C and g.72783182A. Haplotype analysis showed that spotted breeds (Italian Holstein-Friesian and Italian Simmental had only two haplotypes with one of them ([C:A] with high frequency (~90% and ~99%, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA averaged over the two loci indicated that genetic variation between spotted and non-spotted groups of breeds amounted to 25.3% (P<0.05 supporting a possible involvement of the KIT gene in influencing the spotted phenotype, but probably not determining it, as we previously suggested. Pairwise Fst values indicated significant differences between almost all pair of investigated breeds. The high discriminatory power of the analysed SNPs is an important characteristic for the inclusion of these markers in SNP panels useful for breed allocation and traceability based on probabilistic approaches.

  18. Nota técnica: Comportamiento productivo de machos Holstein x Cebú en silvopastoreo Technical note: Productive performance of Holstein x Zebu males under silvopastoral system conditions

    L Simón

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar el comportamiento productivo de machos de doble propósito Holstein x Cebú se realizó un experimento durante 288 días, en el cual se seleccionaron 32 añojos de 12 meses de edad, que fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos de ocho animales cada uno, pertenecientes a los genotipos: F1 (H x C, Siboney mestizo, Siboney y Mambí, los cuales pastorearon en un silvopastoreo constituido por Leucaena leucocephala y Panicum maximum cv. Likoni dividido en 10 cuartones. Se empleó una carga de tres animales/ha, los cuales se pesaron mensualmente para determinar los cambios de peso vivo, las ganancias y la invasión de garrapatas. Se determinó la disponibilidad de MS y la composición química del pastizal para el período lluvioso y el poco lluvioso. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la ganancia de peso; los valores fueron de 0,691ª: 0,472b: 0,363b y 0,370b para F1, Siboney mestizo, Siboney y Mambí, respectivamente. Similar respuesta se obtuvo en el conteo de garrapatas, donde F1 resultó significativamente inferior al resto (3,83ª; 7,63b; 8,18b y 8,63b para cada genotipo. De acuerdo con los resultados las mejores ganancias se obtuvieron en el F1, seguido de Siboney mestizo, Siboney y Mambí. Además la menor cantidad de garrapatas se encontró en el F1, vinculado al menor porcentaje de sangre Holstein y al mayor grosor de la piel, lo cual puede ser una característica adecuada para valorar la resistencia de los bovinos a la invasión de las garrapatas.With the objective of characterizing the productive performance of double purpose Holstein x Zebu bulls, a trial was conducted for 288 days, in which 32 twelve-month-old yearlings were selected and randomly distributed in four groups of eight animals each, belonging to the genotypes: F1 (H x Z, crossbred Siboney, Siboney and Mambí, which grazed in a silvopastoral system constituted by Leucaena leucocephala and Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, divided

  19. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  20. CASE REPORT: CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF BEEF CATTLE, DEVELOPED BY BRAZILIANS IN THE REGION OF CHACO BOLIVIANO

    Ronan Lopes Albino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to describe the characteristic of the beef cattle production system in Bolivia. From a scholarship that happened in a Brazilian company who provide management in livestock, during this time it was possible know a little bit about the characteristic on Bolivia livestock. In oriental region from Bolivia the Boviplan Consultoria Agropecuaria Ltda., Brazilian company with head office in Piracicaba-SP, built an office, to offer a bigger technical support for customer that have farm in Bolivia. This region is inside on biome of Bolivian Chaco that is characterized by soil extremely fertile and cheap land. These factora help to explain the favorable scenario of beef cattle found on farms that are managed by Boviplan in Bolivia.

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Bacillus cereus isolated from beef products in Egypt

    Reyad Shawish

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens have the main concern in public health and food safety. Bacillus cereus food poisoning is one of the most important foodborne pathogens worldwide. In the present study, a total of 200 random beef product samples were collected from different supermarkets located at Menofia and Cairo governorates were examined for the presence of B. cereus. In addition, the presence of some virulence encoding genes was evaluated using Multiplex PCR. Finally, the antibiogram testing was conveyed to illustrate the resistance pattern of the confirmed B. cereus. The data showed that B. cereus was recovered from 22.5%, 30%, 25%, 37.5% and 15% of the minced meat, burger, sausage, kofta, and luncheon respectively. Among the 20 examined isolates 18/20 (90% were harbor hblC enterotoxin encoding gene compared with 20/20 (100 were have cytK enterotoxin encoding gene. The isolated strains of B. cereus were resistant to penicillin G and sensitive to oxacillin, clindamycin, vancomycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and ceftriaxone. In all, the obtained data showed the importance of emerging B. cereus in disease control and prevention programs, and in regular clinical and food quality control laboratories in Egypt.

  2. THE EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LIGHT ON MILK PRODUCTION IN HOLSTEIN DAIRY COWS

    C. GAVAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available 20 multiparous cows were utilized to investigate effect of supplemental light on milk production. Cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments (n=10: a 10- 13 hours of light and 14-11 hours of darkness/d natural light -NL group; b 17 hours of light (natural light + supplemental light -SL group. Supplemental lighting of 350 lx at eye level was provided by fluorescent lamps, controlled by an automatic timer. Multiparous cows in SL group produced more fat corected milk (FMC than multiparous cows in NL group. The efficiency of production in dairy cows can be enhanced by the photoperiod manipulation and thus provide another management tool for dairy producers to enhance productivity.

  3. Global versus local environmental impacts of grazing and confined beef production systems

    Modernel, P; Astigarraga, L; Picasso, V

    2013-01-01

    Carbon footprint is a key indicator of the contribution of food production to climate change and its importance is increasing worldwide. Although it has been used as a sustainability index for assessing production systems, it does not take into account many other biophysical environmental dimensions more relevant at the local scale, such as soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and pesticide contamination. We estimated carbon footprint, fossil fuel energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and risk of pesticide contamination for five real beef background-finishing systems with increasing levels of intensification in Uruguay, which were combinations of grazing rangelands (RL), seeded pastures (SP), and confined in feedlot (FL). Carbon footprint decreased from 16.7 (RL–RL) to 6.9 kg (SP–FL) CO 2 eq kg body weight −1 (BW; ‘eq’: equivalent). Energy use was zero for RL–RL and increased up to 17.3 MJ kg BW −1 for SP–FL. Soil erosion values varied from 7.7 (RL–RL) to 14.8 kg of soil kg BW −1 (SP–FL). Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient balances showed surpluses for systems with seeded pastures and feedlots while RL–RL was deficient. Pesticide contamination risk was zero for RL–RL, and increased up to 21.2 for SP–FL. For the range of systems studied with increasing use of inputs, trade-offs were observed between global and local environmental problems. These results demonstrate that several indicators are needed to evaluate the sustainability of livestock production systems. (letter)

  4. Distributions of emissions intensity for individual beef cattle reared on pasture-based production systems.

    McAuliffe, G A; Takahashi, T; Orr, R J; Harris, P; Lee, M R F

    2018-01-10

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of livestock production systems is often based on inventory data for farms typical of a study region. As information on individual animals is often unavailable, livestock data may already be aggregated at the time of inventory analysis, both across individual animals and across seasons. Even though various computational tools exist to consider the effect of genetic and seasonal variabilities in livestock-originated emissions intensity, the degree to which these methods can address the bias suffered by representative animal approaches is not well-understood. Using detailed on-farm data collected on the North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP) in Devon, UK, this paper proposes a novel approach of life cycle impact assessment that complements the existing LCA methodology. Field data, such as forage quality and animal performance, were measured at high spatial and temporal resolutions and directly transferred into LCA processes. This approach has enabled derivation of emissions intensity for each individual animal and, by extension, its intra-farm distribution, providing a step towards reducing uncertainty related to agricultural production inherent in LCA studies for food. Depending on pasture management strategies, the total emissions intensity estimated by the proposed method was higher than the equivalent value recalculated using a representative animal approach by 0.9-1.7 kg CO 2 -eq/kg liveweight gain, or up to 10% of system-wide emissions. This finding suggests that emissions intensity values derived by the latter technique may be underestimated due to insufficient consideration given to poorly performing animals, whose emissions becomes exponentially greater as average daily gain decreases. Strategies to mitigate life-cycle environmental impacts of pasture-based beef productions systems are also discussed.

  5. Environmental profile and critical temperature effects on milk production of Holstein cows in desert climate

    Igono, M. O.; Bjotvedt, G.; Sanford-Crane, H. T.

    1992-06-01

    The environmental profile of central Arizona is quantitatively described using meteorological data between 1971 and 1986. Utilizing ambient temperature criteria of hours per day less than 21° C, between 21 and 27° C, and more than 27° C, the environmental profile of central Arizona consists of varying levels of thermoneutral and heat stress periods. Milk production data from two commercial dairy farms from March 1990 to February 1991 were used to evaluate the seasonal effects identified in the environmental profile. Overall, milk production is lower during heat stress compared to thermoneutral periods. During heat stress, the cool period of hours per day with temperature less than 21° C provides a margin of safety to reduce the effects of heat stress on decreased milk production. Using minimum, mean and maximum ambient temperatures, the upper critical temperatures for milk production are 21, 27 and 32° C, respectively. Using the temperature-humidity index as the thermal environment indicator, the critical values for minimum, mean and maximum THI are 64, 72 and 76, respectively.

  6. Gastrointestinal parasites presence during the peripartum decreases total milk production in grazing dairy Holstein cows.

    Perri, A F; Mejía, M E; Licoff, N; Lazaro, L; Miglierina, M; Ornstein, A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2011-06-10

    Parasitism in cattle is known to impair growth and development. Recent findings suggest that productivity of adult animals is also affected, but little is known about the physiological mechanisms involved. Furthermore, development of nematode resistance to drugs makes imperative the search of management practices that avoid whole herd treatment. We undertook an epidemiological and endocrine study in a grass based dairy farm in Argentina to study the effect of parasites on milk production and the underlying mechanisms involved, and identify individual animals that would benefit from antiparasitic treatment. All the cows in the dairy were followed monthly for egg parasite output in feces. Samples were cultured for genera determination. Milk production and reproductive results were recorded and periodical bleedings for hormone determination were performed. Nematode egg output (EPG) was maximal in late Summer and Autumn and minimal in Spring in coincidence with the Ostertagia inhibition-disinhibition cycle as this genus had the highest prevalence in all the study. The highest proportion of positive samples was found in the high producing herd and maximal counts were found in the peripartal period. Milk production did not correlate with EPG mean values but, when cows were grouped by EPG positivity around parturition, a significant difference in total milk production between EPG null and positive cows was observed. Positive cows produced 7%, 12% or 15% less milk than null EPG cows, depending on the sampling month/s chosen for classification. The highest difference was seen when both prepartum and postpartum samples were taken into account. No difference in lactation length and a marginal effect on partum to first service interval were encountered. Endocrine studies revealed a decrease in serum growth hormone (GH), type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and prolactin during lactation in cows with positive EPG in the first postpartum sample with respect to null EPG cows

  7. Effects of two different prepartum diets on some metabolic traits and productive response in multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation

    Gianfranco Gabai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six multiparous Italian Holstein cows were used to compare two feeding strategies for the prepartum period. Cowswere allocated to two dietary treatments on the basis of their parity (3.1 ± 1.1 and mature equivalent production (11473± 1449 kg. From 20 ± 7 d precalving to the calving day, one group of 13 cows (parity = 3.1 ± 1.0; mature equivalentproduction = 11473 ± 1606 kg was fed a Control diet made by mixing a 50:50 as fed combination of the far off dryration and the lactation diet fed postpartum. The remaining cows (parity = 3.1 ± 1.1; mature equivalent production =11473 ± 1338 kg were fed a prepartum diet (Anionic obtained by supplementing the far off dry ration with energy andprotein sources plus calcium chloride. This diet had a lower dietary cation-anion difference than the Control diet (7.35 vs26.66 meq/100 g DM; Pfed the Anionic diet had the lowest DM intake during the prepartum (12.0 vs 13.4 kg/d; Pshowed a limited drop in plasma Ca reducing the incidence of subclinical hypocalcaemia in comparison with the Controlgroup (8 vs 62%; Pof hepatic function (aspartate-amino transferase, ϒ-glutamil transferase, creatin-kinase and bilirubine. After calving,all the cows were co-mingled and fed the same lactation ration and those that had received the Anionic diet duringthe prepartum showed a significant increase in milk yield with no changes in milk quality. Average production at the peakof lactation was 43.8 kg/d for Control cows while it raised up to 47.8 kg/d (Pduring the prepartum. This positive result was obtained with a lower loss in cows’ body condition score measured at 30and 60 days in milk and without any effect on the uterine involution process. The use of the Anionic diet has proven tobe an effective alternative to the common practice of feeding close-up diets made by a partial replacement of the far offdry ration with the diet fed to the lactating cows. This strategy should be particularly recommended for dairy

  8. Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: I. Production characteristics and reproductive efficiency in a pasture-based system.

    Cummins, S B; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Berry, D P; Evans, R D; Butler, S T

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the phenotypic performance of cows with similar proportions of Holstein genetics, similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but with good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that cows with a negative estimated breeding value for calving interval would have superior fertility performance and would have detectable differences in body reserve mobilization and circulating concentrations of metabolic hormones and metabolites compared with cows that had a positive estimated breeding value for calving interval. For the duration of the study, cows were managed identically as a single herd in a typical grass-based, spring-calving production system. A total of 80 lactation records were available from 26 Fert+ and 26 Fert- cows over 2 consecutive years (2008 and 2009). During yr 1, cows were monitored during a 20-wk breeding season to evaluate reproductive performance. Milk production, body condition score (scale 1 to 5), body weight, grass dry matter intake, energy balance, and metabolic hormone and metabolite data were collected during both years. The Fert+ cows had greater daily milk yield (19.5 vs. 18.7 kg/d), shorter interval from calving to conception (85.6 vs. 113.8 d), and fewer services per cow (1.78 vs. 2.83). No difference between groups in grass dry matter intake, energy balance, or body weight was observed. The Fert+ cows maintained greater BCS during mid (2.84 vs. 2.74 units) and late lactation (2.82 vs. 2.73 units). Circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I were greater throughout the gestation-lactation cycle in Fert+ cows (148.3 vs. 128.2 ng/mL). The Fert+ cows also had greater circulating concentrations of insulin during the first 4 wk of lactation (1.71 vs. 1.24 μIU/mL). Analysis of records from national herd data verified the association between genetic merit for fertility traits and phenotypic reproductive

  9. A comparison of mutagen production in fried ground chicken and beef: effect of supplemental creatine.

    Knize, M G; Shen, N H; Felton, J S

    1988-11-01

    Ground chicken breast and ground beef with either endogenous or a 10-fold increase in the concentration of creatine were fried at 220 degrees C for 10 min per side. One patty (100 g) of chicken meat yielded 120,000 Salmonella (TA1538) revertants following metabolic activation. The pan residues had 39% of the total activity. Added creatine (10-fold the endogenous level) increased mutagen yields an average of 2-fold. Beef cooked under identical conditions yielded 150,000 revertants/100 g for the meat patties and pan residues combined. Added creatine to beef prior to cooking increased mutagen yields 3-fold. The mutagenic profiles following initial HPLC separation showed that chicken samples with endogenous or added creatine were remarkably similar. Chicken and beef HPLC mutagenicity profiles were also similar to each other, but not identical. This suggests that the general mutagen-forming reactions with the two different types of muscle are qualitatively similar with only minor quantitative differences. The pan residues from both meat types with and without added creatine showed some significant differences in the mutagen peak profile. This work suggests that the types of mutagens formed in chicken are similar to those formed in beef and that creatine appears to be involved in the formation of all the mutagenic compounds produced from fried muscle tissue.

  10. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  11. PRODUCT SAFETY AND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND BEEF PROCESSED FROM BEEF TRIMMINGS TREATED WITH PEROXYACETIC ACID ALONE OR FOLLOWED BY NOVEL ORGANIC ACIDS

    Fred Pohlman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial interventions using peroxyacetic acetic acid (PAA followed by novel organic acids on beef trimmings prior to grinding with conventional spray (CS or electrostatic spray (ES on ground beef microbial populations and color. Beef trimmings (80/20; 25kg were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, non- O157:H7 shiga toxin producing (STEC E. coli (EC and Salmonella spp. (SA at 105 CFU/g. Inoculated trimmings (1.5 kg /treatment/replicate, 2 replicates were treated with CS application of 0.02% PAA alone or followed by CS or ES application of 3% octanoic acid (PO, 3% pyruvic acid (PP, 3% malic acid (PM, saturated solution of fumaric acid (PF or deionized water (W. Findings from this study suggest that PA as a single or multiple chemical hurdle approach with malic, pyruvic, octanoic and fumaric acid on beef trimmings may be effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 as well as non-STEC serotypes and Salmonella in ground beef up to day 2 of simulated retail display. Results of this study showed that instrumental color properties of ground beef treated with peroxyacetic acid followed by organic acids had little or no difference (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated un-inoculated control ground beef samples. The results also indicate that ES application of some organic acids may have similar or greater efficiency in controlling ground beef microbial populations compared to the CS application of the same acid providing a more economical and waste manageable decontamination approach.

  12. Effects of rumen undegradable protein supplementation on productive performance and indicators of protein and energy metabolism in Holstein fresh cows.

    Amanlou, H; Farahani, T Amirabadi; Farsuni, N Eslamian

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding increased dietary crude protein (CP) on productive performance and indicators of protein and energy metabolism during 21 d postpartum. Thirty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were balanced by previous lactation milk yield, body condition score (BCS) at calving, and parity and randomly allocated to 1 of 3 dietary treatments from calving until 21 d postpartum. Dietary treatments were 16.0% CP with 5.0% rumen undegradable protein (RUP) based on dry matter (DM) (16CP), 18.7% CP with 7.0% RUP based on DM (19CP), and 21.4% CP with 9.0% RUP based on DM (21CP). Diets were similar in net energy for lactation (approximately 1.7 Mcal/kg of DM) and CP levels were increased with corn gluten meal and fish meal. Dry matter intake (DMI) was increased by increasing dietary CP levels from 16.0 to 19.0% of DM, but dietary CP beyond 19.0% had no effect on DMI. Milk yields were 4.7 and 6.5 kg/d greater in cows fed the 19CP and 21CP diets versus those fed the 16CP diet, whereas 4% fat-corrected milk was greater for cows fed the 21CP than the 16CP diet (36.0 vs. 31.4 kg/d). Milk protein content and yield, lactose yield, and milk urea nitrogen were elevated by increased dietary CP. Milk lactose content and fat yield were not different among dietary treatments, but milk fat content tended to decline with increasing content of CP in diets. High CP levels increased milk N secretion but decreased milk N efficiency. Apparent digestibility of DM, CP, and neutral detergent fiber was greater on the 19CP and 21CP diets compared with the 16CP diet. Cows fed the 19CP and 21CP diets lost less body condition relative to those fed the 16CP diet over 21 d postpartum. Feeding higher CP levels increased the concentrations of serum albumin, albumin to globulin ratio, and urea nitrogen and decreased aspartate aminotransferase, nonesterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate, but had no effect on globulin, glucose, cholesterol, or

  13. Evaluation of heat stress effects on production traits and somatic cell score of Holsteins in a temperate environment.

    Hammami, H; Bormann, J; M'hamdi, N; Montaldo, H H; Gengler, N

    2013-03-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the degree of thermal stress exhibited by Holsteins under a continental temperate climate. Milk, fat, protein, and somatic cell count test-day records collected between 2000 and 2011 from 23,963 cows in 604 herds were combined with meteorological data from 14 public weather stations in Luxembourg. Daily values of 6 different thermal indices (TI) weighted in term of temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed were calculated by averaging hourly TI over 24h. Heat stress thresholds were first identified by a broken-line regression model. Regression models were thereafter applied to quantify milk production losses due to heat stress. The tipping points at which milk and protein yields declined were effectively identified. For fat yield, no valid threshold was identified for any of the studied TI. Daily fat yields tended to decrease steadily with increasing values of TI. Daily somatic cell score patterns were marked by increased values at both lowest and highest TI ranges, with a more pronounced reaction to cold stress for apparent temperature indices. Thresholds differed between TI and traits. For production traits, they ranged from 62 (TI(1)) to 80 (TI(3)) for temperature-humidity indices (THI) and from 16 (TI(5)) to 20 (TI(6)) for apparent temperature indices. Corresponding somatic cell score thresholds were higher and ranged from 66 (TI(1)) to 82 (TI(3)) and from 20 (TI(5)) to 23 (TI(6)), respectively. The largest milk decline per unit of mild, moderate, and extreme heat stress levels of 0.164, 0.356, and 0.955 kg, respectively, was observed when using the conventional THI (TI(1)). The highest yearly milk, fat, and protein losses of 54, 5.7, and 4.2 kg, respectively, were detected by TI(2), the THI index that is adjusted for wind speed and solar radiation. The latter index could be considered as the best indicator of heat stress to be used for forecast and herd management in a first step in temperate regions under

  14. Enhancing Soil Productivity Using a Multi-Crop Rotation and Beef Cattle Grazing

    Şentürklü, Songül; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production systems that include complimentary plant, soil and animal interaction contribute to sustainability. In sustainable livestock systems integrated with crop production, the soil resource is impacted positively. The goal of this research was to maximize beef cattle and crop economic yield, while improving the soil resource by increasing soil organic matter (SOM) and subsequently seasonal soil nitrogen fertility over a 5-year period (2011-2015). Each experimental crop field used in the study was 1.74 ha. Small-seeded crops were planted using a JD 1590 No-Till drill. Corn (C) and sunflowers (SF) were planted using a JD 7000 No-Till planter. The cropping sequence used in the study was SF, hard red spring wheat (HRSW), fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (T-HV), spring harvested for hay/mid-June seeded 7-species cover crop (CC; SF, Everleaf Oat, Flex Winter Pea, HV, Winfred Forage Rape, Ethiopian Cabbage, Hunter Leaf Turnip), C (85-day var.), and field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF were harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC were harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers grazed PBY and unharvested C before feedlot entry, and after weaning, gestating cows grazed CC. Seasonal soil nitrogen fertility was measured at 0-15, 15-30, and 30-61 cm depths approximately every two weeks from June to October, 2014. The regression illustrating the relationship between SOM and average seasonal available mineral nitrogen shows that for each percentage increase in SOM there is a corresponding N increase of 1.47 kg/ha. Nitrogen fertilizer applications for the 5-year period of the study were variable; however, the overall trend was for reduced fertilizer requirement as SOM increased. At the same time, grain, oilseed, and annual forage crop yields increased year over year (2011-2015) except for the 2014 crop year, when above average precipitation delayed seeding and early frost killed the C and SF crops prematurely

  15. Phenotypic relationships among methane production traits assessed under ad libitum feeding of beef cattle.

    Bird-Gardiner, T; Arthur, P F; Barchia, I M; Donoghue, K A; Herd, R M

    2017-10-01

    Angus cattle from 2 beef cattle projects in which daily methane production (MPR) was measured were used in this study to examine the nature of the relationships among BW, DMI, and methane traits of beef cattle fed ad libitum on a roughage diet or a grain-based feedlot diet. In both projects methane was measured using the GreenFeed Emission Monitoring system, which provides multiple short-term breath measures of methane production. The data used for this study were from 119 Angus heifers over 15 d on a roughage diet and 326 Angus steers over 70 d on a feedlot diet. Mean (±SD) age, BW, and DMI were 372 ± 28 d, 355 ± 37 kg, and 8.1 ± 1.3 kg/d for the heifers and 554 ± 86 d, 577 ± 69 kg, and 13.3 ± 2.0 kg/d for the steers, respectively. The corresponding mean MPR was 212 g/d for heifers and 203 g/d for steers. Additional traits studied included methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), methane intensity (MPR/BW), and 3 forms of residual methane production (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR. For RMP, RMP, and RMP predicted MPR were obtained by regression of MPR on BW, on DMI, and on both DMI and BW, respectively. The 2 data sets were analyzed separately using the same statistical procedures. For both feed types the relationships between MPR and DMI and between MPR and BW were both positive and linear. The correlation between MPR and DMI was similar to that between MPR and BW, although the correlations were stronger for the roughage diet ( = 0.75 for MPR vs. DMI; = 0.74 for MPR vs. BW) than the grain-based diet ( = 0.62 for MPR vs. DMI; = 0.66 for MPR vs. BW). The correlation between MY and DMI was negative and moderate for the roughage ( = -0.68) and grain-based ( = -0.59) diets, a finding that is different from the nonsignificant correlations reported in studies of cattle on a restricted roughage diet. The 3 RMP traits were strongly correlated ( values from 0.76 to 0.99) with each other for both the roughage and the grain-based diets, which indicates

  16. Historical Overview of the Effect of -Adrenergic Agonists on Beef Cattle Production

    Bradley J. Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal muscle hypertrophy of beef cattle is the result of enhanced myofibrillar protein synthesis and reduced protein turnover. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy has been studied in cattle fed β-adrenergic agonists (β-AA, which are receptor-mediated enhancers of protein synthesis and inhibitors of protein degradation. Feeding β-AA to beef cattle increases longissimus muscle cross-sectional area 6% to 40% compared to non-treated cattle. The β-AA have been reported to improve live animal performance, including average daily gain, feed efficiency, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage. Treatment with β-AA increased mRNA concentration of the β2 or β1-adrenergic receptor and myosin heavy chain IIX in bovine skeletal muscle tissue. This review will examine the effects of skeletal muscle and adipose development with β-AA, and will interpret how the use of β-AA affects performance, body composition, and growth in beef cattle.

  17. Fortification of Sardine Fish Oil from By-product of Canning Processing into Beef Meatball and Chicken Nugget

    Teti Estiasih; Endang Trowulan; Widya Dwi Rukmi

    2017-01-01

    One source of ω-3 fatty acids is a by-product of lemuru canning processing that can be used for fortification.  Generally, fortification uses fish oil microcapsule but it is more expensive than direct fortification.  In this study, fish oil from a by-product of lemuru canning processing was directly fortified into beef meatball and chicken nugget at concentration of 0, 2, 4, and 6% (w/w).  Oxidation level, free fatty acid content, colour, lightness, texture, and sensory acceptance by triangle...

  18. Valuations of ‘Sustainably Produced’ Labels on Beef, Tomato, and Apple Products

    Tonsor, Glynn T.; Shupp, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates consumer perceptions of what “sustainably produced†food labels imply and estimates corresponding demand for products carrying these labels. Results suggest that the typical U.S. consumer is not willing to pay a positive premium for beef, tomatoes, or apple products labeled as “sustainably produced.†Demand is particularly sensitive to inferences consumers make regarding what a “sustainably produced†food label implies. Suggestions for future work and implication...

  19. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems.

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G

    2015-06-01

    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing

  20. Biogas production from various coal types using beef cattle rumen's liquid as a source of microorganisms consortium

    Kurnani, Tubagus Benito Achmad; Harlia, Ellin; Hidayati, Yuli Astuti; Marlina, Eulis Tanti; Sugiarto, A. N.; Rahmah, K. N.; Joni, I. M.

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, Indonesia is developing Coal-Bed Methane (CBM) production, but its production is not sufficient yet. Basically, CBM is produced naturally along with coal formation, i.e. through the activity of indigenous microorganisms. In this regard, to increase the production of CBM, adding a consortium of microorganisms into the coal deposit can be an option. One source of a consortium of bacteria available in nature is the rumen contents of ruminant livestock such as beef cattle. The purpose of this research was to know the capability of bacteria in rumen contents of beef cattle to produce CBM from various types of coal. In addition, to get a better concentration of bacteria than previous research so that it can be used as a reference for CBM production in the future. This explorative research used an experimental method with descriptive explanation. CBM production was performed using Hungate tube as a digester with three coal substrates, namely lignite, sub-bituminous and bituminous. This experiment also used 10-7 diluted rumen content of beef cattle as a source. The parameters measured were bacterial density, the amount of CBM, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide on day 2, 5, 10 and 14. The treatment and parameters measurement were carried out in triplicates. This study finding showed that the highest bacterial density in all three types of coal was obtained on day 10 as well as the amount of CBM, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. These results are higher than the results from previous research therefore, this treatment can be used as an inoculant in a solid form for easy distribution.

  1. Health disorders and their association with production and functional traits in Holstein Friesian cows

    Francesca Cesarini

    2010-01-01

    calving increased the risk of mastitis occurrence by nearly 50%. Regular recording of herd health  data seems advisable for a better understanding of the relationships between production and functional traits and the  occurrence of health disorders. 

  2. The association of plasma glucose, BHBA, and NEFA with postpartum uterine diseases, fertility, and milk production of Holstein dairy cows.

    Bicalho, M L S; Marques, E C; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2017-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the metabolic indicators such as nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and glucose during the transition period and the development of uterine diseases. In total, 181 Holstein dairy cows were enrolled in the study. Plasma glucose, NEFA, and BHBA concentrations were measured at -50, -6, 3, 7, and 14 days relative to parturition. All cows enrolled in the study were evaluated for retained placenta (RP), metritis, and endometritis. Metritis and RP were diagnosed and treated by trained farm personnel. Clinical endometritis was evaluated by a veterinarian at 35 days in milk using a Metricheck device. We found plasma glucose concentration to be associated with the occurrence of metritis and clinical endometritis. Moreover, cows with an increased calving-to-conception interval (>150 days) presented higher plasma glucose concentrations than cows that became pregnant within the first 150 days, whereas BHBA and NEFA were not associated with the occurrence of any uterine disorder. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used in an attempt to determine the cow-level critical thresholds for the occurrence of metritis, and endometritis. In addition, pairwise comparisons of area under the curve (AUC) of ROC curves for the critical thresholds for glucose, BHBA, and NEFA predicting the same uterine disease were performed. Glucose at 3 days in milk was the best predictor for metritis and endometritis diagnosis, with AUC values of 0.66 and 0.67, respectively. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed and showed that cows with higher levels of glucose at Day 3 were at 6.6 times higher odds of being diagnosed with metritis, and 3.5 times higher odds of developing clinical endometritis, compared with cows with lower glucose levels. Finally, a simple linear regression analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between daily milk yield in the first and second weeks of

  3. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco—the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category

  4. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Kalyan Annamalai, John M. Sweeten,

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  5. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco -- the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  6. Designing Sustainable Production and Distribution Scenarios for the Beef and Pork Supply Chains in Brazil

    Giulia Dondè

    2016-08-01

    The core improvements that can be extracted from the scenarios are: increased chain collaboration, information sharing in the chain, and governmental involvement in the Brazilian beef and pork supply chains. A major value of the paper lays in the three-phase methodology set-up. This paper will also contribute to the debate on sustainable improvements feasible in these Brazilian food chains.

  7. Effects of nisin and temperature on survival, growth, and enterotoxin production characteristics of psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus in beef gravy.

    Beuchat, L R; Clavero, M R; Jaquette, C B

    1997-05-01

    The presence of psychrotrophic enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus in ready-to-serve meats and meat products that have not been subjected to sterilization treatment is a public health concern. A study was undertaken to determine the survival, growth, and diarrheal enterotoxin production characteristics of four strains of psychrotrophic B. cereus in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and beef gravy as affected by temperature and supplementation with nisin. A portion of unheated vegetative cells from 24-h BHI broth cultures was sensitive to nisin as evidenced by an inability to form colonies on BHI agar containing 10 micrograms of nisin/ml. Heat-stressed cells exhibited increased sensitivity to nisin. At concentrations as low as 1 microgram/ml, nisin was lethal to B. cereus, the effect being more pronounced in BHI broth than in beef gravy. The inhibitory effect of nisin (1 microgram/ml) was greater on vegetative cells than on spores inoculated into beef gravy and was more pronounced at 8 degrees C than at 15 degrees C. Nisin, at a concentration of 5 or 50 micrograms/ml, inhibited growth in gravy inoculated with vegetative cells and stored at 8 or 15 degrees C, respectively, for 14 days. Growth of vegetative cells and spores of B. cereus after an initial period of inhibition is attributed to loss of activity of nisin. One of two test strains produced diarrheal enterotoxin in gravy stored at 8 or 15 degrees C within 9 or 3 days, respectively. Enterotoxin production was inhibited in gravy supplemented with 1 microgram of nisin/ml and stored at 8 degrees C for 14 days; 5 micrograms of nisin/ml was required for inhibition at 15 degrees C. Enterotoxin was not detected in gravy in which less than 5.85 log10 CFU of B. cereus/ml had grown. Results indicate that as little as 1 microgram of nisin/ml may be effective in inhibiting or retarding growth of and diarrheal enterotoxin production by vegetative cells and spores of psychrotrophic B. cereus in beef gravy at 8 degrees C, a

  8. Genetic associations of ketosis and displaced abomasum with milk production traits in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins.

    Koeck, A; Miglior, F; Jamrozik, J; Kelton, D F; Schenkel, F S

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic associations of ketosis and displaced abomasum with milk production traits in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins. Health data recorded by producers were available from the national dairy cattle health system in Canada. Test-day records of milk, fat, and protein yields were obtained from the routine milk recoding scheme. Ketosis and displaced abomasum were defined as binary traits (0 = healthy; 1 = sick) based on whether or not the cow had at least 1 case of the respective disease in the period from calving to 100 d after calving. Mean frequencies of ketosis and displaced abomasum were 4.1 and 2.7%, respectively. The following milk production traits were considered: milk yield, fat percentage (Fat%), protein percentage (Prot%), fat-to-protein (F:P) ratio, and F:P ratio >1.5. The trait F:P ratio >1.5 was scored as 1 or 0, based on whether or not the cow had an F:P ratio >1.5. For milk production traits, the first (5-30 d in milk) and the second (31-60 d in milk) test days were considered. Data were analyzed using bivariate linear animal models. Average heritabilities of 0.02 and 0.04 were obtained for ketosis and displaced abomasum, respectively. For milk production traits, the lowest heritabilities were obtained for F:P >1.5 (0.04 to 0.08), whereas the highest estimates were found for Prot% (0.27 to 0.38). Ketosis and displaced abomasum were genetically uncorrelated with milk yield in early lactation. Moderate favorable correlations were found between metabolic diseases and milk composition traits. Ketosis was significantly correlated with Fat% (0.33), F:P ratio (0.30), and F:P ratio >1.5 (0.35) at the first test day, whereas all genetic correlations with milk composition traits at the second test day were not significant and close to zero. Significant favorable genetic correlations were also found between displaced abomasum and F:P ratio (0.26), F:P ratio >1.5 (0.25) and Prot% (-0.19) at the first test

  9. Comparing the environmental impacts of ethyl biodiesel production from soybean oil and beef tallow through lca for brazilian conditions

    Rafael Alves Esteves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper sought compare the environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of biodiesel production obtained from the two raw materials most used in Brazil (soybean oil and beef tallow through the process ethyl transesterification in an alkaline medium. The reference flow adopted for the work was the generation of power supplied 1GJ from the produced biodiesel. The data used in the inventory life cycle were calculated based on similar scientific papers. The method of assessment of environmental impacts chosen was the CML 2001 modified. Altogether, it were analyzed nine categories of environmental impacts for both processes (abiotic depletion (kg Sb eq, land use (m2a, global warming (kg CO2 eq, ozone layer depletion (kg CFC-11 eq, human toxicity (kg 1,4-DB eq, freshwater ecotoxicity (kg 1,4-DB eq, terrestrial ecotoxicity (kg 1,4-DB eq, acidification (kg SO2 eq and eutrophication (kg PO43- eq. The results of evaluation of environmental impacts show that the biodiesel production process from soybean oil presents major environmental damage in seven categories of analyzed impacts (destruction of abiotic resources, destruction of the ozone layer, human toxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification and eutrophication. The production process of biodiesel from tallow presents major environmental damage in two categories of impacts analyzed (land use and global warming. However, the results show that the absolute values of environmental damage caused by impacts of the production process using beef tallow are much more aggressive.

  10. How product trial changes quality perception of four new processed beef products

    Saeed, Faiza; Grunert, Klaus G; Therkildsen, Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    evaluation, quality evaluation and purchase motive fulfillment. For two of the tested products, trial resulted in a decline of the evaluation of cues, quality and purchase motive fulfillment compared to pre-trial expectations. For these products, positive expectations were created by giving information about...... and gender, which may be due to underlying differences in previous experience. The study gives useful insights for testing of new processed meat products before market introduction....

  11. Beef lovers

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef...

  12. Analyses of genetic relationships between linear type traits, fat-to-protein ratio, milk production traits, and somatic cell count in first-parity Czech Holstein cows

    Zink, V; Zavadilová, L; Lassen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . The number of animals for each linear type trait was 59 454, except for locomotion, for which 53 424 animals were recorded. The numbers of animals with records of milk production data were 43 992 for milk yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, and fat-to-protein percentage ratio and 43 978 for fat yield...... and protein yield. In total, 27 098 somatic cell score records were available. The strongest positive genetic correlation between production traits and linear type traits was estimated between udder width and fat yield (0.51 ± 0.04), while the strongest negative correlation estimated was between body......Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production traits, selected linear type traits, and somatic cell score were estimated. The results could be useful for breeding programs involving Czech Holstein dairy cows or other populations. A series of bivariate analyses was applied whereby (co...

  13. Fulfillment of GMP standard, halal standard, and applying HACCP for production process of beef floss (Case study: Ksatria enterprise)

    A'diat, Arkan Addien Al; Liquiddanu, Eko; Laksono, Pringgo Widyo; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Suletra, I. Wayan

    2018-02-01

    Along with the increasing number of the modern retail business in Indonesia, give an opportunity to small and medium enterprise (SME) to sell its products through the modern retailer. There are some obstacles faced by the SMEs, one of them is about product standard. Product standard that must be owned by SMEs are GMP standard and halal standard. This research was conducted to know the fulfillment by the beef floss enterprise in jagalan in fulfilling the GMP standard and halal. In addition, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system was applied to analyze the process. HACCP which used in this research was based on the seven principles in SNI (Indonesian National Standard) 01-4852-1998. The seven principles included hazard analysis, critical control point (CCP) determination, critical limit establishment, CCP monitor system establishment, corrective action establishment, verification, and also documentation establishment that must be applied in preparing HACCP plan. Based on this case study, it is concluded that there were 5 CCPs : the boiling process, roasting process, frying process, the beef floss draining process, and the packaging process.

  14. Effects of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids on productive and reproductive parameters of lactating Holstein cows.

    Reis, M M; Cooke, R F; Ranches, J; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments evaluated milk production, serum progesterone and insulin, and reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows receiving or not receiving Ca salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or receiving Ca salts of PUFA at different daily frequencies. In experiment 1, 1,125 cows randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns were enrolled. Barns were assigned randomly to receive a high-concentrate diet containing (PF) or not containing (control, CON) 1.1% (dry matter basis) Ca salts of PUFA. Diets were offered 6 times daily, whereas the Ca salts of PUFA were included in the PF treatment in the first feeding of the day. In experiment 2, 1,572 cows were randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns, which were assigned randomly to receive a diet similar to PF, but with Ca salts of PUFA included only in the first feeding of the day (PF1X), or equally distributed across all 6 feedings (PF6X). During both experiments, cows were artificially inseminated 12 h after the onset of estrus. Once per month, cows that did not conceive to artificial insemination were assigned to a fixed-time embryo transfer protocol. Pregnancy was determined via transrectal ultrasonography 28 and 60 d after expected ovulation. Pregnancy loss was considered in cows that were pregnant on d 28 but nonpregnant on d 60. During both experiments, feed intake, milk yield, and milk protein and fat content were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected concurrently with embryo transfer. During experiment 1, feed intake was similar between treatments. Compared with CON, PF cows had greater milk yield (37.8 vs. 35.3 kg/d), and reduced milk fat content (3.41 vs. 3.55%). However, PF cows had reduced pregnancy losses per service compared with CON (12.6 vs. 18.3%). Serum progesterone was greater and serum insulin tended to be greater in primiparous cows receiving PF compared with CON cohorts (4.50 vs. 3.67 ng of progesterone/mL, and 10.4 vs. 7.5 µUI of insulin/mL). During experiment 2, no treatment

  15. Comparison of alternative beef production systems based on forage finishing or grain-forage diets with or without growth promotants: 1. Feedlot performance, carcass quality, and production costs.

    Berthiaume, R; Mandell, I; Faucitano, L; Lafrenière, C

    2006-08-01

    Forty Angus-cross steers were used to evaluate 5 beef cattle management regimens for their effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cost of production. A 98-d growing phase was incorporated using grass silage with or without growth promotants (trenbolone acetate + estradiol implants, and monensin in the feed) or soybean meal. Dietary treatments in the finishing phase were developed, with or without addition of the same growth promotants, based on exclusive feeding of forages with minimal supplementation or the feeding of barley-based diets. Overall, ADG for animals treated with growth promotants or fed supplemented diets (soybean meal and barley) was increased (P forage produced a heavier HCW (P forage-fed, nonimplanted beef market would need to garner a 16% premium to be economically competitive with cattle finished conventionally.

  16. Inhibitory activities of some vitamins on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products in beef patties.

    Wong, Daniel; Wang, Mingfu

    2013-09-04

    The capacities of 15 vitamins to inhibit the formation of 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholesterol were examined in beef patties. Their inhibitory activities were tested at a concentration of 0.4 mmol in 30 g of beef. Among them, L-ascorbic acid, retinoic acid, and α-(±)-tocopherol were found to exert a potent inhibitory effect (30-50%) on 7-ketocholesterol formation and (~20%) on 7α-hydroxycholesterol and 7β-hydroxycholesterol formations. Pyridoxamine inhibited 7-ketocholesterol formation by 60% with a statistically significant difference (p cholesterol oxidation, a chemical model with pyridoxamine added in the cholesterol oxidation system (heated at 140 °C for 240 min in dimethyl sulfoxide) was employed. It was demonstrated that pyridoxamine could directly react with 7-ketocholesterol via the addition reaction. The reaction involved a nucleophilic attack of the free amine group of pyridoxamine on 7-ketocholesterol (an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound). This type of reaction was also found to occur in beef patties by chromatographic and spectral analyses.

  17. Production, fertility, survival, and body measurements of Montbéliarde-sired crossbreds compared with pure Holsteins during their first 5 lactations.

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Seykora, A J; Hansen, L B

    2014-01-01

    Two-breed crossbreds of Montbéliarde and Holstein (MO × HO) as well as 3-breed crossbreds of Montbéliarde and Jersey/Holstein (MO × JH) were compared with pure Holstein (HO) cows for production, somatic cell score (SCS), fertility, survival to subsequent calving, mortality, and body measurements during their first 5 lactations. Cows calved for the first time between 2005 and 2010 and were housed in either a confinement herd or a herd that had access to pasture for 165d of the year in the north central region of the United States. Body, hoof, and udder measurements of cows were also objectively measured. The MO × HO crossbred cows were not different from pure HO cows for fat-plus-protein production during any lactation. However, the MO × JH crossbred cows had 5% lower fat-plus-protein production compared with pure HO cows in the confinement herd. On the other hand, the MO × JH crossbred cows were not different for fat-plus-protein production in the third to fifth lactation compared with pure HO cows in the seasonal pasture herd. Across the 2 herds, the MO × HO and MO × JH crossbred cows had 21% higher first-service conception rate, 41 fewer days open, and 12% higher pregnancy rate compared with the pure HO cows. Furthermore, the MO × HO (5%) and MO × JH (12%) crossbred cows had lower mortality rates than the pure HO cows (18%). Because of superior fertility and lower mortality rates, the MO × HO and MO × JH crossbred cows, combined, had greater survival to second (+13%), third (+24%), fourth (+25%), and fifth (+17%) lactation compared with pure HO cows. For body measurements, MO × HO were similar to pure HO cows for hip height and heart girth, but MO × HO cows had more body condition and greater body weight (+39kg) across the first 5 lactations. The MO × JH cows had more body condition but 5cm shorter hip height and 28kg less body weight than pure HO cows across the first 5 lactations. Foot angle was steeper and hoof length was shorter for MO × HO

  18. Genome-wide association analysis of thirty one production, health, reproduction and body conformation traits in contemporary U.S. Holstein cows

    Van Tassell Curtis P

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association analysis is a powerful tool for annotating phenotypic effects on the genome and knowledge of genes and chromosomal regions associated with dairy phenotypes is useful for genome and gene-based selection. Here, we report results of a genome-wide analysis of predicted transmitting ability (PTA of 31 production, health, reproduction and body conformation traits in contemporary Holstein cows. Results Genome-wide association analysis identified a number of candidate genes and chromosome regions associated with 31 dairy traits in contemporary U.S. Holstein cows. Highly significant genes and chromosome regions include: BTA13's GNAS region for milk, fat and protein yields; BTA7's INSR region and BTAX's LOC520057 and GRIA3 for daughter pregnancy rate, somatic cell score and productive life; BTA2's LRP1B for somatic cell score; BTA14's DGAT1-NIBP region for fat percentage; BTA1's FKBP2 for protein yields and percentage, BTA26's MGMT and BTA6's PDGFRA for protein percentage; BTA18's 53.9-58.7 Mb region for service-sire and daughter calving ease and service-sire stillbirth; BTA18's PGLYRP1-IGFL1 region for a large number of traits; BTA18's LOC787057 for service-sire stillbirth and daughter calving ease; BTA15's CD82, BTA23's DST and the MOCS1-LRFN2 region for daughter stillbirth; and BTAX's LOC520057 and GRIA3 for daughter pregnancy rate. For body conformation traits, BTA11, BTAX, BTA10, BTA5, and BTA26 had the largest concentrations of SNP effects, and PHKA2 of BTAX and REN of BTA16 had the most significant effects for body size traits. For body shape traits, BTAX, BTA19 and BTA3 were most significant. Udder traits were affected by BTA16, BTA22, BTAX, BTA2, BTA10, BTA11, BTA20, BTA22 and BTA25, teat traits were affected by BTA6, BTA7, BTA9, BTA16, BTA11, BTA26 and BTA17, and feet/legs traits were affected by BTA11, BTA13, BTA18, BTA20, and BTA26. Conclusions Genome-wide association analysis identified a number of

  19. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of acid whey and set milk to marinate beef with reference to quality parameters and product safety.

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Krajmas, Paweł; Solska, Elżbieta; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of acid whey and set milk as a marinade in the traditional production of fermented eye round. Studies involved assaying pH value, water activity (aw), oxidation-reduction potential and TBARS value, colour parameters in CIE system (L*, a*, b*), assaying the number of lactic acid bacteria and certain pathogenic bacteria after ripening process and after 60-day storing in cold storage. Sensory analysis and analysis of the fatty acids profile were performed after completion of the ripening process. Analysis of pH value in the products revealed that application of acid whey to marinate beef resulted in increased acidity of ripening eye round (5.14). The highest value of the colour parameter a* after ripening process and during storage was observed in sample AW (12.76 and 10.07 respectively), the lowest on the other hand was observed in sample SM (10.06 and 7.88 respectively). The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was higher in eye round marinated in acid whey by approx. 4% in comparison to other samples. Application of acid whey to marinade beef resulted in increased share of red colour in general colour tone as well as increased oxidative stability of the product during storage. It also increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the product. All model products had high content of lactic acid bacteria and there were no pathogenic bacteria such as: L. monocytogenes, Y. enterocolitica, S. aureus, Clostridium sp.

  1. Genetic variability and population structure in loci related to milk production traits in native Argentine Creole and commercial Argentine Holstein cattle

    Golijow C.D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cattle breeds have been subjected to high selection pressure for production traits. Consequently, population genetic structure and allelic distribution could differ in breeds under high selection pressure compared to unselected breeds. Analysis of k-casein, aS1-casein and prolactin gene frequencies was made for Argentine Creole (AC and Argentine Holstein (AH cattle herds. The calculated FST values measured the degree of genetic differentiation of subpopulations, depending on the variances of gene frequencies.The AC breed had considerably more variation among herds at the aS1-casein and k-casein loci. Conservation strategies should consider the entire AC population in order to maintain the genetic variability found in this native breed.

  2. Use of Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing Technology To Detect Foodborne Pathogens within the Microbiome of the Beef Production Chain.

    Yang, Xiang; Noyes, Noelle R; Doster, Enrique; Martin, Jennifer N; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Yang, Hua; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale R; Jones, Kenneth L; Ruiz, Jaime; Boucher, Christina; Morley, Paul S; Belk, Keith E

    2016-04-01

    Foodborne illnesses associated with pathogenic bacteria are a global public health and economic challenge. The diversity of microorganisms (pathogenic and nonpathogenic) that exists within the food and meat industries complicates efforts to understand pathogen ecology. Further, little is known about the interaction of pathogens within the microbiome throughout the meat production chain. Here, a metagenomic approach and shotgun sequencing technology were used as tools to detect pathogenic bacteria in environmental samples collected from the same groups of cattle at different longitudinal processing steps of the beef production chain: cattle entry to feedlot, exit from feedlot, cattle transport trucks, abattoir holding pens, and the end of the fabrication system. The log read counts classified as pathogens per million reads for Salmonella enterica,Listeria monocytogenes,Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium spp. (C. botulinum and C. perfringens), and Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni,C. coli, and C. fetus) decreased over subsequential processing steps. Furthermore, the normalized read counts for S. enterica,E. coli, and C. botulinumwere greater in the final product than at the feedlots, indicating that the proportion of these bacteria increased (the effect on absolute numbers was unknown) within the remaining microbiome. From an ecological perspective, data indicated that shotgun metagenomics can be used to evaluate not only the microbiome but also shifts in pathogen populations during beef production. Nonetheless, there were several challenges in this analysis approach, one of the main ones being the identification of the specific pathogen from which the sequence reads originated, which makes this approach impractical for use in pathogen identification for regulatory and confirmation purposes. Copyright © 2016 Yang et al.

  3. Moderate nutrient restriction influences transcript abundance of genes impacting production efficiencies of beef cattle in fetal liver, muscle, and cerebrum by d 50 of gestation

    We hypothesized that a moderate maternal nutrient restriction during the first 50 d of gestation in beef heifers would affect transcript abundance of genes impacting production efficiency phenotypes in fetal liver, muscle, and cerebrum. Fourteen Angus-cross heifers were estrus synchronized and assig...

  4. Moderate nutrient restriction influences expression of genes impacting production efficiencies of beef cattle in fetal liver, muscle and cerebrum by day 50 of gestation

    We hypothesized that a moderate maternal nutrient restriction during the first 50 days of gestation in beef heifers would affect expression of genes impacting production efficiency phenotypes in the fetal liver, muscle and cerebrum. Fourteen Angus-cross heifers were estrus synchronized and assigned ...

  5. Tracking contamination through ground beef production and identifying points of recontamination using a novel green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing, E. coli O103, non-pathogenic surrogate

    Introduction: Commonly, ground beef processors conduct studies to model contaminant flow through their production systems using surrogate organisms. Typical surrogate organisms may not behave as Escherichia coli O157:H7 during grinding and are not easy to detect at very low levels. Purpose: Develop...

  6. Effect of partially replacing a barley-based concentrate with flaxseed-based products on the rumen bacterial population of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Castillo-Lopez, E; Moats, J; Aluthge, N D; Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T; Penner, G B; Fernando, S C

    2018-01-01

    The effects of partial replacement of a barley-based concentrate with flaxseed-based products on the rumen bacterial population of lactating Holstein dairy cows were evaluated. Treatments fed were CONT, a normal diet that included barley silage, alfalfa hay and a barley-based concentrate that contained no flaxseed or faba beans; FLAX, inclusion of a nonextruded flaxseed-based product containing 55·0% flaxseed, 37·8% field peas and 6·9% alfalfa; EXT, similar to FLAX, but the product was extruded and EXTT, similar to FLAX, but product was extruded and field peas were replaced by high-tannin faba beans. The rumen bacterial population was evaluated by utilizing 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Most abundant phyla, families and genera were unaffected. However, some taxa were affected; for example, unsaturated fatty acid content was negatively correlated with Clostridiaceae, and tannin content was negatively correlated with BS11 and Paraprevotellaceae. Predominant rumen bacterial taxa were not affected, but the abundance of some taxa found in lower proportions shifted, possibly due to sensitivity to unsaturated fatty acids or tannins. Flaxseed-based products were effective for partially replacing barley-based concentrate in rations of lactating dairy cows. No negative effects of these products were observed on the abundance of predominant rumen bacterial taxa, with only minor shifts in less abundant bacteria. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Production and reproduction of Fleckvieh, Brown Swiss, and 2 strains of Holstein-Friesian cows in a pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy system.

    Piccand, V; Cutullic, E; Meier, S; Schori, F; Kunz, P L; Roche, J R; Thomet, P

    2013-08-01

    The first objective of this study was to compare the productive and reproductive performance of Holstein-Friesian (CH HF), Fleckvieh (CH FV), and Brown Swiss (CH BS) cows of Swiss origin with New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (NZ HF) cows in pasture-based compact-calving systems; NZ HF cows were chosen as the reference population for such grazing systems. The second objective was to analyze the relationships within and between breeds regarding reproductive performance, milk yield, and body condition score (BCS) dynamics. On 15 commercial Swiss farms, NZ HF cows were paired with Swiss cows over 3 yr. Overall, the study involved 259 complete lactations from 134 cows: 131 from 58 NZ HF, 40 from 24 CH HF, 43 from 27 CH FV, and 45 from 25 CH BS cows. All production parameters were affected by cow breed. Milk and energy-corrected milk yield over 270 d of lactation differed by 1,000 kg between the 2 extreme groups; CH HF having the highest yield and CH BS the lowest. The NZ HF cows had the greatest milk fat and protein concentrations over the lactation and exhibited the highest lactation persistency. Body weight differed by 90 kg between extreme groups; NZ HF and CH BS being the lightest and CH HF and CH FV the heaviest. As a result, the 2 HF strains achieved the highest milk production efficiency (270-d energy-corrected milk/body weight(0.75)). Although less efficient at milk production, CH FV had a high 21-d submission rate (86%) and a high conception rate within 2 inseminations (89%), achieving high pregnancy rates within the first 3 and 6 wk of the breeding period (65 and 81%, respectively). Conversely, poorer reproductive performance was recorded for CH HF cows, with NZ HF and CH BS being intermediate. Both BCS at nadir and at 100 d postpartum had a positive effect on the 6-wk pregnancy rate, even when breed was included in the model. The BCS at 100 d of lactation also positively affected first service conception rate. In conclusion, despite their high milk production

  8. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products. PMID:26743589

  9. Effects of decreasing metabolizable protein and rumen-undegradable protein on milk production and composition and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation.

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, H; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Jahanian, R; Kamalian, E

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of decreasing dietary protein and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on production performance, nitrogen retention, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein lactating cows (2 lactations; 50 ± 7 d in milk; 47 kg/d of milk production) were used in a Latin square design with 4 treatments and 3 replicates (cows). Treatments 1 to 4 consisted of diets containing 18, 17.2, 16.4, and 15.6% crude protein (CP), respectively, with the 18% CP diet considered the control group. Rumen-degradable protein levels were constant across the treatments (approximately 10.9% on a dry matter basis), whereas RUP was gradually decreased. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal Lys:Met ratio of about 3:1. Dietary CP had no significant effects on milk production or milk composition. In fact, 16.4% dietary CP compared with 18% dietary CP led to higher milk production; however, this effect was not significant. Feed intake was higher for 16.4% CP than for 18% CP (25.7 vs. 24.3 kg/d). Control cows had greater CP and RUP intakes, which resulted in higher concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen; cows receiving 16.4 and 15.6% CP, respectively, exhibited lower concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (15.2 and 15.1 vs. 17.3 mg/dL). The control diet had a significant effect on predicted urinary N. Higher CP digestibility was recorded for 18% CP compared with the other diets. Decreasing CP and RUP to 15.6 and 4.6% of dietary dry matter, respectively, had no negative effects on milk production or composition when the amounts of Lys and Met and the Lys:Met ratio were balanced. Furthermore, decreasing CP and RUP to 16.4 and 5.4%, respectively, increased dry matter intake. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of pure Holsteins to crossbred Holsteins with Norwegian Red cattle in first and second generations.

    Ezra, E; Van Straten, M; Weller, J I

    2016-08-01

    A total of 1922 first generation crossbred cows born between 2005 and 2012 produced by inseminating purebred Israeli Holstein cows with Norwegian Red semen, and 7487 purebred Israeli Holstein cows of the same age in the same 50 herds were analyzed for production, calving traits, fertility, calving diseases, body condition score, abortion rate and survival under intensive commercial management conditions. Holstein cows were higher than crossbreds for 305-day milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 764, 1244, 1231 for kg milk; 23.4, 37.4, 35.6 for kg fat, and 16.7, 29.8, 29.8 for kg protein; for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant; while crossbred cows were higher for protein concentration by 0.06% to 0.08%. Differences for somatic cells counts were not significant. Milk production persistency was higher for Holstein cows by 5, 8.3 and 8% in parities 1 through 3. Crossbred cows were higher for conception status by 3.1, 3.6 and 4.7% in parities 1 through 3. Rates of metritis for Holsteins were higher than the crossbred cows by 7.8, 4.6 and 3.4% in parities 1 to 3. Differences for incidence of abortion, dystocia, ketosis and milk fever were not significant. Holstein cows were lower than crossbred cows for body condition score for all three parities, with differences of 0.2 to 0.4 units. Contrary to comparisons in other countries, herd-life was higher for Holsteins by 79 days. A total of 6321 Holstein cows born between 2007 and 2011 were higher than 765 progeny of crossbred cows backcrossed to Israeli Holsteins of the same ages for milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 279, 537, 542 kg milk; 10.5, 17.7, 17.0 kg fat and 6.2, 12.9, 13.2 kg protein for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant, while backcross cows were higher for protein percentage by 0.02% to 0.04%. The differences for somatic cell score, conception rate, and calving diseases other than metritis, were not

  11. Effect of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Vacek, M; Stípková, M; Stádník, L; Crump, P

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADG), and age at first calving (AFC) of Holstein heifers on production and reproduction parameters in the 3 subsequent lactations. The data set consisted of 780 Holstein heifers calved at 2 dairy farms in the Czech Republic from 2007 to 2011. Their BW and BCS were measured at monthly intervals during the rearing period (5 to 18 mo of age), and the milk production and reproduction data of the first 3 lactations were collected over an 8-yr period (2005 to 2012). The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with medium ADG (5 to 14 mo of age; 0.949 to 0.850 kg of ADG). The highest average milk yield over lifetime performance was detected in heifers with the highest total ADG (≥ 0.950 kg/d). The difference in milk yield between the evaluated groups of highest ADG (in total and postpubertal growth ≥ 0.950 kg/d and in prepubertal growth ≥ 0.970 kg/d) and the lowest ADG (≤ 0.849 kg/d) was approximately 1,000 kg/305 d per cow. The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with the highest AFC ≥ 751 d, for which fat and protein content in the milk was not reduced. Postpubertal growth (11 to 14 mo of age) had the greatest effect on AFC. The group with lowest AFC ≤ 699 d showed a negative effect on milk yield but only in the first 100 d of the first parity. The highest ADG was detrimental to reproduction parameters in the first lactation. The highest BW at 14 mo (≥ 420 kg) led to lower AFC. Groups according to BCS at 14 mo showed no differences in AFC or milk yield in the first lactation or lifetime average production per lactation. We concluded that low AFC ≤ 699 d did not show a negative effect on subsequent production and reproduction parameters. Therefore, a shorter rearing period is recommended for dairy herds with suitable management. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  12. Variables affecting the propensity to buy branded beef among groups of Australian beef buyers.

    Morales, L Emilio; Griffith, Garry; Wright, Victor; Fleming, Euan; Umberger, Wendy; Hoang, Nam

    2013-06-01

    Australian beef consumers have different preferences given their characteristics and the effect on expected quality of cues related to health, production process and eating experience. Beef brands using Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grades can help to signal quality and reduce consumers' uncertainty when shopping. The objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of beef buyers and their perceptions about product attributes that affect the propensity to buy branded beef. Binary logistic models were applied identifying differences between all respondents and the potential target market, including buyers in medium to high income segments, and between buyers in the target market who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Variables increasing the propensity to buy branded beef include previous experience, appreciation for branded cuts and concern about quality more than size. Finally, variations in preferences for marbling and cut were found between buyers who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Supplementing Brown Seaweed By-products in the Diet of Holstein Cows during Transition on Ruminal Fermentation, Growth Performance and Endocrine Responses

    Z. S. Hong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of supplementing brown seaweed by-products (BSB in the diet of ruminants on ruminal fermentation characteristics, growth performance, endocrine response, and milk production in Holstein cows. In Experiment 1, the effects of different levels (0%, 2%, and 4% of basal diet as Control, 2% BSB, 4% BSB, respectively of BSB were evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h in vitro batch culture rumen fermentation. The pH tended to be higher for the higher level of BSB supplementation, with the pH at 12 h being significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of the control. The concentration of ammonia nitrogen was lower at 3, 9, 12, and 24 h incubation (p<0.05 compared with the control, and tended to be low at other incubation times. Volatile fatty acid concentration appeared to be minimally changed while lower values were observed with 4% BSB treatment at 24 h (p<0.05. In Experiment 2, effects of levels (0%, 2%, and 4% of BSB on growth performance, endocrine responses and milk production were studied with Holstein dairy cows during transition. Dry matter intake, daily gain and feed efficiency were not affected by BSB supplementation. The concentration of plasma estrogen for the control, 2% BSB and 4% BSB after three months of pregnancy were 55.7, 94.1, and 72.3 pg/mL, respectively (p = 0.08. Although the differences of progesterone levels between BSB treatments and the control were minimal, the concentration in 4% BSB treatment increased to 157.7% compared with the initial level of the study. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels were also higher after both three months and eight months of pregnancy than the initial level at the beginning of the study. In addition, BSB treatments during one month after delivery did not affect daily milk yield and composition. In conclusion, the present results indicate that supplementation of BSB did not compromise ruminal fermentation, and animal performance at lower levels and hence may

  14. Fluidized bed gasification of high tonnage sorghum, cotton gin trash and beef cattle manure: Evaluation of synthesis gas production

    Maglinao, Amado L.; Capareda, Sergio C.; Nam, Hyungseok

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • High tonnage sorghum, cotton gin trash and beef cattle manure were characterized and gasified in a fluidized bed reactor. • Biomass gasification at 730 °C and ER = 0.35 produced synthesis gas with an average energy content of 4.19 MJ Nm −3 . • Synthesis gas heating value and yield were relatively constant at reaction temperatures from 730 °C to 800 °C. • Optimum hydrogen production on HTS gasification was achieved at 780 °C temperature and ER of 0.4. - Abstract: Fluidized bed gasification using high-tonnage sorghum, cotton gin trash and beef cattle manure was performed in a pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor equipped with the necessary feedback control system. Characterization of biomass showed that the high-tonnage sorghum had the highest energy and carbon content of 19.58 MJ kg −1 and 42.29% wt , respectively among the three feed stocks. At 730 °C reaction temperature and equivalence ratio of 0.35, comparable yields of methane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide (within ± 1.4% vol ) were observed in all three feed stocks. The gasification system produced synthesis gas with an average heating value of 4.19 ± 0.09 MJ Nm −3 and an average yield of 1.98 ± 0.1 Nm 3 kg −1 of biomass. Carbon conversion and gasification efficiencies indicated that most of the carbon was converted to gaseous products (85% average ) while 48% average of the energy from the biomass was converted into combustible gas. The production of hydrogen was significantly affected by the biomass used during gasification. The synthesis gas heating value and yield were relatively constant at reaction temperatures from 730 °C to 800 °C. Utilizing high-tonnage sorghum, the optimum hydrogen production during gasification was achieved at a reaction temperature of 780 °C and an equivalence ratio of 0.40.

  15. The value of reproductive tract scoring as a predictor of fertility and production outcomes in beef heifers.

    Holm, D E; Thompson, P N; Irons, P C

    2009-06-01

    In this study, 272 beef heifers were studied from just before their first breeding season (October 15, 2003), through their second breeding season, and until just after they had weaned their first calves in March, 2005. This study was performed concurrently with another study testing the economic effects of an estrous synchronization protocol using PG. Reproductive tract scoring (RTS) by rectal palpation was performed on the group of heifers 1 d before the onset of their first breeding season. The effect of RTS on several fertility and production outcomes was tested, and the association of RTS with the outcomes was compared with that of other input variables such as BW, age, BCS, and Kleiber ratio using multiple or univariable linear, logistic, or Cox regression. Area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to compare the ability of different input variables to predict pregnancy outcome. After adjustment for BW and age, RTS was positively associated with pregnancy rate to the 50-d AI season (P Reproductive tract scoring was a better predictor of fertility than was Kleiber ratio and similar in its prediction of calf weaning weight. It was concluded from this study that RTS is a predictor of heifer fertility, compares well with other traits used as a predictor of production outcomes, and is likely to be a good predictor of lifetime production of the cow.

  16. Variables affecting the acceptability of radappertized ground beef products. Effects of food grade phosphates, NaCl, fat level, and grinding methods

    Cohen, J.S.; Shults, G.W.; Mason, V.C.; Wierbicki, E.

    1977-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effect of different variables on the quality of an irradiated ground beef product. Factors studied included: different food-grade phosphates; NaCl content; fat content; and size of grind. The influence of these variables on the cooking loss (moisture retention), shear press values and sensory scores was studied. The addition of phosphates and NaCl was desirable in controlling cooking losses. The most effective phosphate was tetrasodium pyrophosphate. The addition of NaCl decreased the shear press force required to penetrate the beef patty, i.e., it tenderized the product. Phosphate addition did not affect the shear press force. Increased fat content increased the cooking losses, but did not affect the shear press force. Irradiation with sterilizing doses had a marked effect on decreasing the shear press force

  17. Genetic differentiation of Mexican Holstein cattle and its relationship with Canadian and U.S. Holsteins

    Felipe De Jesus Ruiz-Lopez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican Holstein industry has imported Canadian and US (CAN+USA Holstein germplasm for use in two different production systems, the conventional (Conv and the low income system (Lowi. The objective of this work was to study the genetic composition and differentiation of the Mexican Holstein cattle, considering the production system in which they perform and their relationship with the Canadian and US Holstein populations. The analysis included information from 149, 303 and 173 unrelated or with unknown pedigree Holstein (HO animals from the Conv, Lowi and CAN+USA populations, respectively. Canadian and US Jersey (JE and Brown Swiss (BS genotypes (162 and 86, respectively were used to determine if Mexican Holsteins were hybridized with either of these breeds. After quality control filtering, a total of 6,617 out of 6,836 SNP markers were used. To describe the genetic diversity across the populations, principal component (PC, admixture composition, and linkage disequilibrium (r2 analyses were performed. Through the PC analysis, HOxJE and HOxBS crossbreeding was detected in the Lowi system. The Conv system appeared to be in between Lowi and CAN+USA populations. Admixture analysis differentiated between the genetic composition of the Conv and Lowi systems, and five ancestry groups associated to sire’s country of origin were identified. The minimum distance between markers to estimate a useful LD was found to be 54.5 kb for the Mexican HO populations. At this average distance, the persistence of phase across autosomes of Conv and Lowi systems was 0.94, for Conv and CAN+USA was 0.92 and for the Lowi and CAN+USA was 0.91. Results supported the flow of germplasm among populations being Conv a source for Lowi, and dependent on migration from CAN+USA. Mexican Holstein cattle in Conv and Lowi populations share common ancestry with CAN+USA but have different genetic signatures.

  18. Fortification of Sardine Fish Oil from By-product of Canning Processing into Beef Meatball and Chicken Nugget

    Teti Estiasih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One source of ω-3 fatty acids is a by-product of lemuru canning processing that can be used for fortification.  Generally, fortification uses fish oil microcapsule but it is more expensive than direct fortification.  In this study, fish oil from a by-product of lemuru canning processing was directly fortified into beef meatball and chicken nugget at concentration of 0, 2, 4, and 6% (w/w.  Oxidation level, free fatty acid content, colour, lightness, texture, and sensory acceptance by triangle difference test were analyzed. The results showed that oxidation level of nugget was higher than meatball.  Free fatty acid content increased in nugget by increasing fortification level, but it was decrease in meatball. Texture of both was relatively unchanged, with a tendency to increase in nugget and decrease in meatball. Lightness (L of meatball surface was higher than nugget surface. Lightness did not significantly change by increasing fortification level. Redness (+a and yellowness (+b of meatball and nugget changed significantly by fortification. Difference test showed that fortification level of 2% was the highest level of fortification that taste and odor could not be distinguished with control by panelists. Best level of fish oil fortification was 2%. At 2% fortification, EPA was 2.85% for meatball, and 2.22% for nugget.  Sharp decline was occured in EPA and the decrease washigher in nugget than meatball.

  19. Effects of rumen-degradable protein:rumen-undegradable protein ratio and corn processing on production performance, nitrogen efficiency, and feeding behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    Savari, M; Khorvash, M; Amanlou, H; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Mirzaei, M

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the ratio of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) to rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) and corn processing method on production performance, nitrogen (N) efficiency, and feeding behavior of high-producing Holstein dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (second parity; milk yield = 48 ± 3 kg/d) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factor 1 was corn processing method [ground corn (GC) or steam flaked corn (SFC) with a flake density of about 390 g/L], and factor 2 was RDP:RUP ratio [low ratio (LR) = 60:40; high ratio (HR) = 65:35] based on crude protein (%). The crude protein concentrations were kept constant across the treatments (16.7% of DM). No significant interactions of main treatment effects occurred for lactation performance data. Cows fed 2 different RDP:RUP ratios exhibited similar dry matter intake (DMI), but those fed SFC showed decreased feed intake compared with those receiving GC (25.1 ± 0.48 vs. 26.2 ± 0.47 kg/d, respectively). Cows fed HR diets produced more milk than did those fed LR diets (44.4 ± 1.05 vs. 43.2 ± 1.05 kg/d, respectively). Milk fat content decreased but milk protein content increased in cows fed SFC compared with those fed GC. Feed efficiency (i.e., milk yield/DMI) was enhanced with increasing ratio of RDP:RUP (1.68 ± 0.04 vs. 1.74 ± 0.04 for LR and HR, respectively). Apparent N efficiency was higher in cows fed HR than in those fed LR (30.4 ± 0.61 vs. 29.2 ± 0.62, respectively). Compared with cows fed the GC-based diet, those receiving SFC exhibited lower values of N intake, N-NH 3 concentration, and fecal N excretion. Cows receiving SFC-based diets spent more time ruminating (min/kg of DMI) than did those fed GC. Although these results showed no interaction effects of RDP:RUP ratio and corn processing method on performance, higher RDP:RUP ratios and ground corn can be effective feeding strategies for

  20. Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.

    Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of Wilmink’s Exponential Function in Genetic Analysis of 305-d Milk Production and Lactation Persistency in Holstein Cows of Razavi Khorasan

    R Izadkhah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To estimate heritability and genetic trend for 305-d milk production and lactation persistency, a total of 130,668 monthly test day milk yields belonging to 15,183 first lactation Holstein cows in 131 herds and calved from 2000 to 2009 were used. To calculate 305-d milk yield as well as lactation persistency, estimated parameters of Wilmink’s exponential function were applied. The parameters of the function were estimated by SAS software. Genetic and environmental variance components and heritability of the traits were estimated by single trait animal model using DMU software. Genetic trend was estimated based upon weighted simple linear regression of average breeding values on calving year. Heritability estimate of 305-d milk yield and lactation persistency were found to be 0.184 and 0.05, respectively. A positive significant phenotypic trend (166.11 kg per year was observed for 305-d milk yield while a non-significant genetic trend (-2.0107 was revealed for the trait. For the lactation persistency, there were no significant phenotypic (0.054 % per year and genetic (0.003 % per year trends over the period of time.

  2. Physiological and productive responses of multiparous lactating Holstein cows exposed to short-term cooling during severe summer conditions in an arid region of Mexico

    Avendaño-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Rivera, J. A.; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F. D.; Macías-Cruz, U.; Díaz-Molina, R.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Robinson, P. H.; Fadel, J. G.

    2012-11-01

    Heat stress generates a significant economic impact for the dairy industry in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, so that heat abatement is an important issue for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of two short-term cooling periods on physiological and productive status of lactating Holstein cows during hot ambient temperatures. Thirty-nine multiparous cows were blocked by milk yield and assigned to one of three treatments including: control group (C), cows cooled before milking time (0500 and 1700 h daily, 1 h cooling); AM group, cows cooled at 1000 h and before milking (2 h cooling); and AM + PM group, cows cooled at 1100, 1500 and 2200 h, as well as before milking (4 h cooling). The cooling system was placed in the holding pen which the cows were moved through for cooling. Respiratory rate, and temperatures of thurl and right flank, were lower ( P cows from the AM + PM group than AM and C cows during the morning and afternoon. However, udder temperature was higher in the AM + PM group compared to AM and C groups during the afternoon, although lower than the AM group during the morning. Rectal temperature was similar in all groups. Thyroxin concentrations tended ( P cows had a trend ( P cows.

  3. Comparison of productive and reproductive performance and hair cortisol levels between Brown Swiss cross-bred and Holstein cows housed in the same barn.

    Endo, Natsumi; Kuroki, Reimi; Tanaka, Tomomi

    2017-10-01

    The productive and reproductive characteristics of Brown Swiss (B) cross-bred cows were investigated by comparing with those of Holstein (H) cows housed in the same barn. Additionally, their hair cortisol levels were analyzed to evaluate the extent of stress experienced during dry and lactation periods. B cross-bred cows had lower milk yields and higher milk fat rates than H cows. Reproductive records showed that days from parturition to first artificial insemination (AI) in B cross-bred (n = 16) and H (n = 27) cows were not significantly different, but conception rate at first AI of B cross-bred cows tended to be higher than that of H cows. Percentage of B cross-bred cows that resumed ovarian cyclic activity within 45 days after parturition was higher than that of H cows (6/6 (100%) and 5/11 (45.5%), P cows had higher body condition scores at that time. Hair cortisol level at 60 to 90 days after parturition in H cows increased significantly compared with in the dry period, and it was higher than that of B cows during the same period. These results suggest that B cross-bred cows experience less metabolic stress during early lactation, which may result in earlier resumption of reproductive function. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Contribution of local beef cattle production on farmer’s income in the dryland farming of Kupang Regency, Indonesia

    Kapa, M. M. J.; Henuk, Y. L.; Hasnudi; Suyadi

    2018-02-01

    Study on contribution of local beef cattle enterprise on income of dryland farmers in Kupang Regency was conducted from September to December 2016. The study aimed to: (1) determine composition of farm household income in the dry land area of Kupang Regency, Indonesia, (2) analyze contribution of income from local beef cattle enterprise to farm household income. A survey was done on 56 beef cattle farmers who were purposively selected as respondents. All respondents were interviewed using structured questioners with focus on farm household activities and their income. The results showed that total net income of farm household was Rp 14,854,550 per year, out of this Rp3,246,550 to Rp 5,404,750 equals to 21.85 to 36.38% was from local beef cattle enterprise. To enhance the role of beef cattle enterprise, the owner should improve cattle husbandry management through providing good quality and quantity of feed continuously, as well as empowering livestock extension workers to deliver proper information and technology on beef cattle husbandry to the farmer.

  5. Beef, Real Food for Real People: An Industrial Analysis of the Beef Industry

    1992-04-01

    poultry . In 1989 Amrericans spent an average of $3.89 per person per week on beef products. Consumer bought $21 billion in beef products in 1989; they...or decreases in price. If the price of beef gets to high, consumers will switch their purchase to another red meat, poultry or seafood. TECHNOLOGY...The beginning of organized labor in meatpacking occurred with the -- •formation of the Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workman of North America

  6. Effect of two non-synonymous ecto-5'-nucleotidase variants on the genetic architecture of inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and its degradation products in Japanese Black beef.

    Uemoto, Yoshinobu; Ohtake, Tsuyoshi; Sasago, Nanae; Takeda, Masayuki; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Sakuma, Hironori; Kojima, Takatoshi; Sasaki, Shinji

    2017-11-13

    Umami is a Japanese term for the fifth basic taste and is an important sensory property of beef palatability. Inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) contributes to umami taste in beef. Thus, the overall change in concentration of IMP and its degradation products can potentially affect the beef palatability. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of IMP and its degradation products in Japanese Black beef. First, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS), candidate gene analysis, and functional analysis to detect the causal variants that affect IMP, inosine, and hypoxanthine. Second, we evaluated the allele frequencies in the different breeds, the contribution of genetic variance, and the effect on other economical traits using the detected variants. A total of 574 Japanese Black cattle were genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip and were then used for GWAS. The results of GWAS showed that the genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on BTA9 were detected for IMP, inosine, and hypoxanthine. The ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E) gene, which encodes the enzyme NT5E for the extracellular degradation of IMP to inosine, was located near the significant region on BTA9. The results of candidate gene analysis and functional analysis showed that two non-synonymous SNPs (c.1318C > T and c.1475 T > A) in NT5E affected the amount of IMP and its degradation products in beef by regulating the enzymatic activity of NT5E. The Q haplotype showed a positive effect on IMP and a negative effect on the enzymatic activity of NT5E in IMP degradation. The two SNPs were under perfect linkage disequilibrium in five different breeds, and different haplotype frequencies were seen among breeds. The two SNPs contribute to about half of the total genetic variance in IMP, and the results of genetic relationship between IMP and its degradation products showed that NT5E affected the overall concentration balance of IMP and its degradation products

  7. Comparative composition, diversity, and abundance of oligosaccharides in early lactation milk from commercial dairy and beef cows

    Sischo, William M.; Short, Diana M.; Geissler, Mareen; Bunyatratchata, Apichaya; Barile, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types. The goal of this study was to compare OS in milk from commercial dairy and beef cows in early lactation. Early-lactation multiparous cows (5–12 d in milk) from 5 commercial Holstein dairy herds and 5 Angus or Angus hybrid beef herds were sampled once. Milk was obtained from each enrolled cow and frozen on the farm. Subsequently, each milk sample was assessed for total solids, pH, and OS content and relative abundance. Oligosaccharide diversity and abundance within and between samples was transformed through principal component analysis to reduce data complexity. Factors from principal component analysis were used to create similarity clusters, which were subsequently used in a multivariate logistic regression. In total, 30 OS were identified in early-lactation cow milk, including 21 distinct OS and 9 isomers with unique retention times. The majority of OS detected in the milk samples were present in all individual samples regardless of production type. Two clusters described distribution patterns of OS for the study sample; when median OS abundance was compared between the 2 clusters, we found that overall OS relative abundance was consistently greater in the cluster dominated by beef cows. For several of the structures, including those with known prebiotic effect, the difference in abundance was 2- to 4-fold greater in the beef-dominated cluster. Assuming that beef OS content in milk is the gold standard for cattle, it is likely that preweaning dairy

  8. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display shelf life of longissimus muscle from two different beef production systems.

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Engle, T E; Delmore, R J; Hess, A M; Belk, K E

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging and production system (PS) on retail display life color (L*, a*, and b*), fatty acid profile (% of total fatty acids), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; mg malondialdehyde/kg of muscle), vitamin E content (µg/g of muscle), and odor (trained panelists) during storage of LM. Four (or 3) different packaging treatments were applied to LM from steers fattened on grazing systems (Uruguayan) or on high-concentrate diets (U.S.). From fabrication to application of treatments, Uruguayan LM were vacuum packaged for air shipment and U.S. LM were also vacuum packaged and kept in a cooler until Uruguayan samples arrived. Treatments were applied 7 d after slaughter. In Exp. 1, treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen (O) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (MAP/CO), low-O MAP with N2 plus CO and carbon monoxide (MAP/CO), and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2 block 1, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl-arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2 block 2, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. After 35 d storage, steaks were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, Uruguayan steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( packaging treatments on d 6 of display in Exp. 1. Packaging × PS × time interaction was significant ( 0.05) were detected among both VP and MAP/CO in U.S. steaks at this time. No significant ( > 0.05) packaging × PS × time interaction was observed in Exp. 2. Only PS (both experiments) and time (Exp. 1) affected ( Packaging × PS, PS × time, and packaging × PS × time interactions were not significant ( > 0.05) for any of the fatty acids. Beef from Uruguayan had lower ( < 0.05) SFA and MUFA and greater ( < 0.05) PUFA and n-6 and n-3 fatty acid percentages than U.S. beef. Complexity of fresh meat postmortem chemistry

  9. Supplementation with sunflower seeds in beef cattle did not impact on oocyte and in vitro embryo production.

    Baltazar, A L; de Mattos, G M; Ropelli, B M; Firetti, Smg; Castilho, C; Pugliesi, G; Maldonado, Mbc; Binelli, M; Silva, Jof; Lupatini, G C; Lafuente, B S; Membrive, Cmb

    2018-06-01

    Supplementation with compounds rich in linoleic acid, including sunflower seed supplementation, promotes increase in conception rates in cows. We aimed to evaluate whether the sunflower seed (linoleic acid source) supplementation in beef donor females alters the plasma concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL, increases the number and quality of oocytes, increases the cleavage rates and determines an improvement in number and quality of in vitro produced blastocysts. Thus, Nelore females were divided into two groups of 15 animals to receive supplementation with or without sunflower seed for 57 days. Females underwent follicular aspiration and the oocytes were subjected to in vitro embryo production. There was no difference (p > .1) between control group and group supplemented with sunflower seed on the number of displayed follicles; number of aspired oocytes; recovery rate; cleavage rate; number of embryos; number of blastocysts; embryos number of grades I and II; plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides; HDL and LDL. Therefore, sunflower seed supplementation in oocyte donors did not increase the number and quality of oocytes, cleavage rates and the number and quality of blastocysts produced in vitro. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. The Optimation of Crude Fiber Content of Diet for Fattening Madura Beef Cattle to Achieve Good A:P Ratio and Low Methane Production

    Luthfi, N.; Restitrisnani, V.; Umar, M.

    2018-02-01

    Abtract. Methane (CH4) is one of the major greenhouse gases being reducted. This study was carried out to determine the optimum of crude fiber needed for fattening Madura beef cattle to achieve low methane production. Twenty-four male madura beef cattles with an average body weight of 206.89 ± 7.82 kg were used in this study. Cattle were fed contained 47.65 - 70.23 % Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN), 9.22 - 13.20% Crude Protein (CP), and 10.25 - 28.53% Crude Fiber (CF). Correlation analysis was used to describe the correlations among crude fiber,Methane, and Acetate:Propionate acid ratio. The result showed that crude fiber (%) had medium possitive correlation with methane and the equation was y = 0.0936x + 5.4853 with determination as much as 33.98%. The Acetate: propionate acid had positive correlation withmethane and the equation was y = 1.1121x + 3.581 with determination as much as 61.64%. Crude fiber (%) had low possitive correlation with A/P ratio and the equation was y = 0.039x + 2.4437 with determination as much as 9.56%. According to the results, it can be concluded that the optimum ofcrude fiberof diet for Madura beef cattle should be 15.38% to obtain A:P ratio of 3 or less and methane production of 6.91 MJ/d.

  11. Effects of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) and its isopropyl ester on milk production and composition by Holstein cows.

    St-Pierre, N R; Sylvester, J T

    2005-07-01

    The esterification of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMB) to isopropanol (HMBi) decreases the rate and extent of its ruminal breakdown. The modes of action of HMB and HMBi appear to be different. The quantification of the production response to HMBi has not been done. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the lactation response to HMB, (2) to determine the lactation response to HMBi, and (3) to evaluate whether the response to HMBi is affected by HMB in the diet. Sixty-one Holstein cows (24 primiparous, 37 multiparous) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments 21 to 28 d after calving. The base diet consisted of [on a dry matter (DM) basis] 32.5% corn silage, 17.5% alfalfa hay, 10% whole cottonseed, and 40% of a pelleted concentrate made primarily of ground corn, soybean meal, and blood meal, and was fed for 16 wk as a control diet. To prepare the dietary treatments, the base diet was supplemented with 0.1% of diet DM with HMB (treatment 2), with 0.15% HMBi (treatment 3), or with 0.045% HMB and 0.15% HMBi (treatment 4). Results showed a significant increase in milk yield (2.9 kg/d), protein content (0.15%), protein yield (115 g/d), fat yield (165 g/d), and lactose yield (182 g/d) from HMBi. Supplementation of HMB had small and nonsignificant effects on milk yield and composition. There were no significant interaction effects of HMB with HMBi on any of the production traits measured in this experiment. Plasma free Met as a proportion of essential amino acids was increased by HMBi, but not by HMB. Dietary supplementation of HMBi increased gross N efficiency expressed as the proportion of ingested N secreted in milk. Consequently, HMBi significantly improved N efficiency.

  12. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of new technologies in beef production chains may affect consumers' opinion of meat products. A qualitative study was performed to investigate consumers' acceptance of seven beef processing technologies: marinating by injection aiming for increased 1) healthiness; 2) safety; and 3) eating...... adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural......' beef were considered negative outcomes of technological innovations. Beef processing technologies were predominantly perceived as valuable options for convenience shoppers and less demanding consumers. Overall, respondents supported the development of 'non-invasive' technologies that were able...

  13. Effects of Feed Supplementation in Friesien Holstein Crossbreed Cows at the First Quarter on the Production and Quality of Milk

    Suharyono; Hardani, S. N. W.; Sitoresmi, P. D.; Adiarto

    2018-02-01

    Nine heads of dairy cows were used in the study. The dairy cows were in 7-8 months pregnant condition, lactation II and were expected calving soon.The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of feed supplementation to increase the production and quality of milk. The feeding treatment was divided into 3 groups, G1 (control) given the usual feed given by livestock owners, G11 was given GI+500 g UMMB/h/d and G111 was given GI + 500 g MFS/h/d. Variables observed were feed and nutritional consumption, average milk production, milk quality, cumulative milk production, average 4% fat corrected milk (FCM) production, peak milk production. The experimental design used a completely randomized design of direct pattern, continued by Duncan’s new multiple range test (DMRT) if there were a significant difference of variable values between treatments. The results showed that the addition of dietary supplement significantly affected the mean consumption of crude protein between GIII and G1 and G11, respectively 1.22 kg/d versus 0.99 and 0.33 kg/d. The average milk production was also influenced by the addition of dietary supplement that was between G1; G11 and G111, respectively 9.55; 10.69 and 11.85 l/d. Cumulative milk and 4% FCM production were also significantly different at P milk production.

  14. Live animal measurements, carcass composition and plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations in male progeny of sires differing in genetic merit for beef production.

    Clarke, A M; Drennan, M J; McGee, M; Kenny, D A; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2009-07-01

    In genetic improvement programmes for beef cattle, the effect of selecting for a given trait or index on other economically important traits, or their predictors, must be quantified to ensure no deleterious consequential effects go unnoticed. The objective was to compare live animal measurements, carcass composition and plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations of male progeny of sires selected on an economic index in Ireland. This beef carcass index (BCI) is expressed in euros and based on weaning weight, feed intake, carcass weight and carcass conformation and fat scores. The index is used to aid in the genetic comparison of animals for the expected profitability of their progeny at slaughter. A total of 107 progeny from beef sires of high (n = 11) or low (n = 11) genetic merit for the BCI were compared in either a bull (slaughtered at 16 months of age) or steer (slaughtered at 24 months of age) production system, following purchase after weaning (8 months of age) from commercial beef herds. Data were analysed as a 2 × 2 factorial design (two levels of genetic merit by two production systems). Progeny of high BCI sires had heavier carcasses, greater (P animal value (obtained by multiplying carcass weight by carcass value, which was based on the weight of meat in each cut by its commercial value) than progeny of low BCI sires. Regression of progeny performance on sire genetic merit was also undertaken across the entire data set. In steers, the effect of BCI on carcass meat proportion, calculated carcass value (c/kg) and animal value was positive (P carcass fat proportion (P carcass weight followed the same trends as BCI. Muscularity scores, carcass meat proportion and calculated carcass value increased, whereas scanned fat depth, carcass fat and bone proportions decreased with increasing sire EPD for conformation score. The opposite association was observed for sire EPD for fat score. Results from this study show that selection using the BCI had positive

  15. 77 FR 12752 - Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order

    2012-03-02

    ... possessing the requisite experience, skills and information related to the marketing of beef and beef..., skills and information related to the marketing of beef and beef products, as is intended under the Act... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 [Doc. No. AMS-LS-11-0086...

  16. Relationships of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with metabolic rate, methane production, and energy partitioning in beef cattle.

    Nkrumah, J D; Okine, E K; Mathison, G W; Schmid, K; Li, C; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Wang, Z; Moore, S S

    2006-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its BW and growth rate over a specified period. The biological mechanisms underlying the variation in feed efficiency in animals with similar BW and growth rate are not well understood. This study determined the relationship of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with digestion and energy partitioning of 27 steers. The steers were selected from a total of 306 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests at the University of Alberta Kinsella Research Station. Selected steers were ranked into high RFI (RFI > 0.5 SD above the mean, n = 11), medium RFI (RFI +/- 0.5 SD above and below the mean, n = 8), and low RFI (RFI 0.10). Residual feed intake was correlated with daily methane production and energy lost as methane (r = 0.44; P < 0.05). Methane production was 28 and 24% less in low-RFI animals compared with high- and medium-RFI animals, respectively. Residual feed intake tended to be associated (P < 0.10) with apparent digestibilities of DM (r = -0.33) and CP (r = -0.34). The RFI of steers was correlated with DE (r = -0.41; P < 0.05), ME (r = -0.44; P < 0.05), heat production (HP; r = 0.68; P < 0.001), and retained energy (RE; r = -0.67; P < 0.001; energy values are expressed in kcal/kg of BW(0.75)). Feedlot partial efficiency of growth was correlated (P < 0.01) with methane production (r = -0.55), DE (r = 0.46), ME (r = 0.49), HP (r = -0.50), and RE (r = 0.62). With the exception of HP (r = 0.37; P < 0.05), feed conversion ratio was unrelated to the traits considered in the study. Feeding duration was correlated (P < 0.01) with apparent digestibility of DM (r = -0.55), CP (r = -0.47), methane production (r = 0.51), DE (r = -0.52), ME (r = -0.55), and RE (r = -0.60). These results have practical implications for the selection of animals that eat less at a similar BW and growth rate and for the environmental sustainability of beef

  17. Global versus local environmental impacts of grazing and confined beef production systems

    Modernel, P.; Astigarraga, L.; Picasso, V.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon footprint is a key indicator of the contribution of food production to climate change and its importance is increasing worldwide. Although it has been used as a sustainability index for assessing production systems, it does not take into account many other biophysical environmental dimensions

  18. The Larson Blue coat color phenotype in Holsteins: Characteristics and effects on body temperature regulation and production in lactating cows in a hot climate.

    Dikmen, S; Dahl, G E; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2017-03-01

    Here we report a previously undescribed coat color phenotype in Holstein cattle. Larson Blue Holsteins, located on a dairy in south Florida, exhibit a coloration pattern that is similar to that of black and white or red and white Holsteins except that, instead of being black or red, darker regions of the body vary in color from gray to taupe. The Larson Blue phenotype was readily apparent in young calves. The phenotype is not due to inheritance of known mutations causing coat color variation in cattle, including dominant red, Telstar, silver color dilutor, or Dun color. Three variants with moderate effects on the () gene were identified in 2 Larson blue cows. Despite being lighter in color, there was no difference in daily variation in vaginal temperature between Larson Blue and other Holsteins when recorded during the summer for cows housed in free-stall barns with shade, fans, and sprinklers. Similarly, there was no effect of the Larson Blue phenotype on seasonal variation in milk yield. Therefore, the phenotype confers no advantage in terms of response to heat stress when cattle are housed in facilities with extensive cooling.

  19. Impact of antimicrobial use during beef production on fecal occurrence of antimicrobial resistance

    Objective: To determine the impact of typical antimicrobial use during cattle production on fecal occurrence of antimicrobial resistance by culture, quantitative PCR, and metagenomic sequencing. Experimental Design & Analysis: Feces were recovered from colons of 36 lots of "conventional" (CONV) ca...

  20. Life cycle efficiency of beef production: VIII. Relationship between residual feed intake of heifers and subsequent cow efficiency ratios.

    Davis, M E; Lancaster, P A; Rutledge, J J; Cundiff, L V

    2016-11-01

    Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, and from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least 1 calf and were included in the first analysis were 37, 45, and 56 in the 1964, 1969, and 1974 data sets, respectively. Respective numbers of dams that weaned 3 calves and were included in a second analysis were 6, 8, 8, 22, 33, and 33 in the 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, and 1974 experiments. Individual feed consumption was measured at 28-d intervals from the time females were placed on the experiment until 3 calves were weaned or the dams had reached 5 yr of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual gain (RG) of the heifers that subsequently became the dams in this study were determined based on ADG and DMI from 240 d of age to first calving. Various measures of cow efficiency were calculated on either a life cycle or actual lifetime basis using ratios of progeny and dam weight outputs to progeny and dam feed inputs. Residual feed intake was phenotypically independent of ADG and metabolic midweight (MMW), whereas the correlation between RFI and DMI was positive and highly significant ( = 0.67; calving had superior efficiency ratios as cows. Residual feed intake was not significantly correlated with age at puberty, age at calving, or milk production. Results of this study do not indicate any serious antagonisms of postweaning heifer RFI with subsequent cow and progeny performance traits or with life cycle or actual lifetime cow efficiency. In addition, selection for increased RG would result in earlier ages at calving, but would also tend to result in taller and heavier cows.

  1. Beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; van Wezemael, Lynn

    Introduction: A trend towards a higher awareness of health with respect to food intake has been noticed during the last years. This makes the concept of health in relation to beef production and consumption a highly relevant research topic. Objective: To investigate beef healthiness and nutritional...... discussions were based on a common topic guide, translated into each language. The guide consisted of several sections, including one designed to elicit information on their opinions about beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement of beef. Results: Consumers associated health with wellbeing, an absence...... of disease and a good quality of life. Healthy beef was associated with a certain bias towards a "romantic view", a concept of the traditional encompassing grass-fed beef, raised outdoors with natural food. A healthy cut of meat was expected to be natural and without additives and hormones that could affect...

  2. Genomewide association study of methane emissions in Angus beef cattle with validation in dairy cattle.

    Manzanilla-Pech, C I V; De Haas, Y; Hayes, B J; Veerkamp, R F; Khansefid, M; Donoghue, K A; Arthur, P F; Pryce, J E

    2016-10-01

    Methane (CH) is a product of enteric fermentation in ruminants, and it represents around 17% of global CH emissions. There has been substantial effort from the livestock scientific community toward tools that can help reduce this percentage. One approach is to select for lower emitting animals. To achieve this, accurate genetic parameters and identification of the genomic basis of CH traits are required. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to perform a genomewide association study to identify SNP associated with several CH traits in Angus beef cattle (1,020 animals) and validate them in a lactating Holstein population (population 1 [POP1]; 205 animals); 2) to validate significant SNP for DMI and weight at test (WT) from a second Holstein population, from a previous study (population 2 [POP2]; 903 animals), in an Angus population; and 3) to evaluate 2 different residual CH traits and determine if the genes associated with CH also control residual CH traits. Phenotypes calculated for the genotyped Angus population included CH production (MeP), CH yield (MeY), CH intensity (MI), DMI, and WT. The Holstein population (POP1) was multiparous, with phenotypes on CH traits (MeP, MeY, and MI) plus genotypes. Additionally, 2 CH traits, residual genetic CH (RGM) and residual phenotypic CH (RPM), were calculated by adjusting MeP for DMI and WT. Estimated heritabilities in the Angus population were 0.30, 0.19, and 0.15 for MeP, RGM, and RPM, respectively, and genetic correlations of MeP with DMI and WT were 0.83 and 0.80, respectively. Estimated heritabilities in Holstein POP1 were 0.23, 0.30, and 0.42 for MeP, MeY, and MI, respectively. Strong associations with MeP were found on chromosomes 4, 12, 14, 20, and 30 at Angus population, the number of significant SNP for MeP at Angus population was used to estimate genetic parameters for MeP and MeY in Holstein POP1, the genetic variance and, consequently, the heritability slightly increased, meaning that most of the

  3. Beef herd health and productivity and exposure to the petroleum industry in west-central Alberta

    Waldner, C. L.

    1999-07-01

    Health and productivity of cow-calf herds surrounding a new sour gas processing plant have been monitored from the fall of 1991 through to the calfing season in 1997. No significant change in the risk of non-pregnancy, abortion, stillbirth, calf mortality, median calfing date or crude weaning date have been found. There was measurable improvement in average age-adjusted weight for both male and female calves. Exposure to hydrogen sulfide and the complex mixture of compounds found in emissions from sour gas processing plants did not appear to have affected productivity parameters across the cow-calf production cycles examined, although there have been five examples of positive association between increasing exposure to total sulfation and decreased productivity. Increased risk of non-pregnancy was occasionally observed to be associated with one or more of sour flaring battery facilities, all battery flaring sites, active gas wells, and larger field facilities, however, these associations were not consistent among years . Risk of abortions did not increase with proximity of facilities or flaring. Examples of positive correlation were observed between volume of sour gas flared from battery sites and increased risk of stillbirth, sour gas and increased calf mortality, and exposure to oil well or all well sites and increased productivity.

  4. Technical note: Use of a simplified equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate in beef cattle.

    Murayama, I; Miyano, A; Sasaki, Y; Hirata, T; Ichijo, T; Satoh, H; Sato, S; Furuhama, K

    2013-11-01

    This study was performed to clarify whether a formula (Holstein equation) based on a single blood sample and the isotonic, nonionic, iodine contrast medium iodixanol in Holstein dairy cows can apply to the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for beef cattle. To verify the application of iodixanol in beef cattle, instead of the standard tracer inulin, both agents were coadministered as a bolus intravenous injection to identical animals at doses of 10 mg of I/kg of BW and 30 mg/kg. Blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the injection, and the GFR was determined by the conventional multisample strategies. The GFR values from iodixanol were well consistent with those from inulin, and no effects of BW, age, or parity on GFR estimates were noted. However, the GFR in cattle weighing less than 300 kg, aged<1 yr old, largely fluctuated, presumably due to the rapid ruminal growth and dynamic changes in renal function at young adult ages. Using clinically healthy cattle and those with renal failure, the GFR values estimated from the Holstein equation were in good agreement with those by the multisample method using iodixanol (r=0.89, P=0.01). The results indicate that the simplified Holstein equation using iodixanol can be used for estimating the GFR of beef cattle in the same dose regimen as Holstein dairy cows, and provides a practical and ethical alternative.

  5. Improving the prediction of methane production and representation of rumen fermentation for finishing beef cattle within a mechanistic model

    Ellis, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Kebreab, E.; Archibeque, S.; Benchaar, C.; Beauchemin, K.; Nkrumah, D.J.; France, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prediction of methane emissions from finishing beef cattle using an extant mechanistic model with pH-independent or pH-dependent VFA stoichiometries, a recent stoichiometry adjustment for the use of monensin, and adaptation of the underlying model structure,

  6. Heat production, respiratory quotient, and methane loss subsequent to LPS challenge in beef heifers

    Respiration calorimetry was used to measure energy utilization during an acute phase response (APR) to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Eight Angus heifers (208 +/- 29.2 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two calorimeters in four 2-day periods for measurement of heat production (HP), methane (CH4), and r...

  7. The value of Smuts finger grass for beef production | RH | African ...

    Veld on three divergent soil series, was subjected to different degrees of intensification in the form of soil preparation, fertilization and establishment of different pasture grasses. These treatments were evaluated by determining the mass increases of year-old oxen, the number of grazing days and the herbage production.

  8. Effects of crossing of domestic breed with beef breeds on the quality of meat in PR China and Republic of Serbia

    Aleksić, S.; Fang, Sun; Di, Liu; Petrović, M.M.; Pantelić, V.; Stanišić, N.; Ostojić-Andrić, D.; Petričević, M.; Nikšić, D.; Delić, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of crossing Domestic Spotted breed with beef cattle breeds in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. China is a big country of beef production and consumption. In 2012, beef production in China was 5,540,000 tons, which accounted for 9.7% of the global beef production, ranking the third in the world. The main sources of China’s beef are from crossbreeding cattle (native breed crossbred with foreign beef ca...

  9. Present Features and Sustainable Beef Production in Korea (SAFEA21 THIRD KOBE SYMPOSIUM ON AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND ENVIRONMENT IN ASIA : TOWARDS THE 21ST CETURY)

    Yeo, Jung-sou

    2000-01-01

    Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) has been preserved for more than 4,000 years in the Korean peninsula as a unique genetic source and a symbol of wealth in Korean life. The major role of Hanwoo was to cultivate rice field for a long time until it was changed to produce meat after 1970's. However, high production cost and unstable prices are the major problems to be solved in Hanwoo industry in the opening beef marker era according to Uruguay agreements. But it is convinced that Hanwoo industry wi...

  10. IMPACT OF EXPORTS ON THE U.S. BEEF INDUSTRY

    Van Eenoo, Edward, Jr.; Peterson, Everett B.; Purcell, Wayne D.

    2000-01-01

    Policy and programmatic decisions dealing with beef exports require good information as to the impact of exports on the domestic beef industry. This paper utilizes a partial equilibrium model of the world beef market to assess the impacts on the U.S. beef sector of increases in real income in major beef importing countries, the impacts of changes in the prices of pork and poultry products, and the impacts of changes in the price of feedgrains. A one percent increase in real GDP in Canada, Jap...

  11. Enteric methane production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows fed grass silage- or corn silage-based diets.

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Klop, G; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing grass silage (GS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric methane (CH4) production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. A completely randomized block design experiment was conducted with 32 multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four dietary treatments were used, all having a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). The roughage consisted of either 100% GS, 67% GS and 33% CS, 33% GS and 67% CS, or 100% CS (all DM basis). Feed intake was restricted (95% of ad libitum DM intake) to avoid confounding effects of DM intake on CH4 production. Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Increasing CS proportion linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber and crude protein intake and linearly increased starch intake. Milk production and milk fat content (on average 23.4 kg/d and 4.68%, respectively) were not affected by increasing CS inclusion, whereas milk protein content increased quadratically. Rumen variables were unaffected by increasing CS inclusion, except the molar proportion of butyrate, which increased linearly. Methane production (expressed as grams per day, grams per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, and as a percent of gross energy intake) decreased quadratically with increasing CS inclusion, and decreased linearly when expressed as grams of CH4 per kilogram of DM intake. In comparison with 100% GS, CH4 production was 11 and 8% reduced for the 100% CS diet when expressed per unit of DM intake and per unit fat- and protein-corrected milk, respectively. Nitrogen efficiency increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. The concentration of trans C18:1 FA, C18:1 cis-12, and total CLA increased quadratically, and

  12. Exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 using coconut water as an alternative carbon source: the effect of peptone, yeast extract and beef extract

    Phisit Seesuriyachan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water (CW is a by-product of food industry and has little value in Thailand. It is usually discarded as a wasteinto the environment. Consequently, we developed a value added process of exopolysaccharide (EPS production usingLactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 and coconut water. The effect of three expensive supplements (peptone, yeast extractand beef extract on EPS and biomass production was investigated at 35°C for 24 h. Using a mod-MRS-CW medium, preparedby replacing the de-ionized water with 100% CW and supplemented with 20 g/l crystalline sucrose and a reduced quantity(50% of the three expensive supplements (5 g/l of peptone, 2.5 g/l of yeast extract, and 2.5 g/l of beef extract gave thehighest yield of EPS (12.3 g/l. By optimizing the conditions for fermentation (pH 5.5, agitation speed at 50 rpm and initialsucrose concentration of 100 g/l, EPS yield increased up to 38.2 g/l. When compared with the modified MRS medium, themedium supplemented with CW was found to be suitable for the reduction of cost spent on the organic nitrogen and growthfactors (savings close to 50%.

  13. Into beef consumers' mind

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...

  14. Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation Parameters, and Production Performance in Response to Dietary Grain Source and Oil Supplement of Holstein Dairy Cows

    Shahryar Kargar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High-producing dairy cows require large amounts of concentrates that are rich in energy and crude protein to meet their nutrient requirements. Cereal grains and oil supplements are commonly used for increasing energy density of diets fed to high-producing dairy cows. Dietary grain source (barley vs. corn and oil supplement (soybean- vs. fish oil resulted in varied dry matter intake and milk production responses in different research studies based on effects on nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of, and interactions between, grain source and oil supplement on the feed intake, rumen fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility and lactational performance of Holstein cows. Materials and Methods Eight lactating multiparous Holstein cows (parity = 3.3 ± 1.3 and days in milk = 77 ± 22.1; mean ± SD, were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 25-d periods. Each experimental period consisted of an 18-d diet adaptation period and a 7-d collection period. Cows within a square were assigned randomly to dietary treatments. Cows were blocked into 2 squares of 4 cows each based upon milk production, and days in milk, and within blocks were assigned to 1 of the 4 experimental diets with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 1 BF = barley-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, 2 BS = barley-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM, 3 CF = corn-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, and 4 CS = corn-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM. The TMR amounts offered and refused were measured daily for each cow and DMI determined daily for each cow. Cows were milked three times daily at 0200, 1000, and 1800 h in a herringbone milking parlor. Milk yield for all cows was recorded and sampled at each milking during the last 7 d of each period. Milk samples were

  15. Performance, profitability and greenhouse gas emissions of alternative finishing strategies for Holstein-Friesian bulls and steers.

    Murphy, B; Crosson, P; Kelly, A K; Prendiville, R

    2018-02-06

    Modifying finishing strategies within established production systems has the potential to increase beef output and farm profit while reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of finishing duration on animal performance of Holstein-Friesian (HF) bulls and steers and evaluate the profitability and GHG emissions of these finishing strategies. A total of 90 HF calves were assigned to a complete randomised block design; three bull and three steer finishing strategies. Calves were rotationally grazed in a paddock system for the first season at pasture, housed and offered grass silage ad libitum plus 1.5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for the first winter and returned to pasture for a second season. Bulls were slaughtered at 19 months of age and either finished indoors on concentrates ad libitum for 100 days (19AL), finished at pasture supplemented with 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for 100 (19SP) or 150 days (19LP). Steers were slaughtered at 21 months of age and finished at pasture, supplemented with 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for 60 (21SP) and 110 days (21LP) or slaughtered at 24 months of age and finished indoors over the second winter on grass silage ad libitum plus 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily (24MO). The Grange Dairy Beef Systems Model and the Beef Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model were used to evaluate profitability and GHG emissions, respectively. Average daily gain during the finishing period (Pprofit.

  16. Effect of low-dose irradiation on growth of and toxin production by Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus in roast beef and gravy.

    Grant, I R; Nixon, C R; Patterson, M F

    1993-03-01

    The effect of irradiation (2 kGy) on growth of and toxin production by Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus in roast beef and gravy during storage at abuse temperatures (15 and 22 degrees C) was assessed by inoculation studies. Irradiation resulted in a 3-4 log10 reduction in numbers of both pathogens. Whenever B. cereus and S. aureus numbers reached 10(6) and 10(7) cfu/g, respectively, during storage their toxins were detectable. As the time taken to attain these levels was longer in irradiated than in unirradiated samples, toxin production by both pathogens was delayed by irradiation. When samples initially containing low levels (10(2)/g) of S. aureus were irradiated no toxin was produced during subsequent storage at 15 or 22 degrees C. Diarrhoeal toxin produced by B. cereus was detected after 2 days at 22 degrees C, but not at 15 degrees C, in samples containing 10(2) cells/g prior to irradiation. When higher numbers (10(6)/g) of either pathogen were present prior to irradiation, toxins were produced by both pathogens at 22 degrees C, but not at 15 degrees C. Microbial competition had an effect on the growth of B. cereus and S. aureus after irradiation when a low initial inoculum was applied. However, when a higher inoculum was used the pathogens outnumbered their competitors and competition effects were less important. It was concluded that low-dose irradiation would improve the microbiological safety of roast beef and gravy.

  17. Produção de vitelos a partir de bezerros leiteiros mestiços e da raça Holandesa Veal production from crossbred and Holstein dairy calves

    Luiz Carlos Roma Júnior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo de nove animais jovens Zebu × Holandês em comparação a nove animais da raça Holandesa para produção de vitelos. Todos os animais foram mantidos em condições idênticas de ambiente, manejo e alimentação, com acompanhamento individual da ingestão de matéria seca. As medidas de avaliação do desenvolvimento animal, conversão e eficiência alimentar possibilitaram comparações entre os tratamentos, a partir de delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os bezerros Zebu × Holandês apresentaram maior ganho de perímetro torácico (23,3 cm e ganho de peso diário (1,45 kg, além de conversão alimentar (2,77 kg de MS/kg de peso corporal, se comparados aos bezerros da raça Holandesa, com, respectivamente, 18,5 cm de perímetro torácico, 1,16 kg de ganho de peso diário e conversão alimentar de 3,48 kg de MS/kg de peso corporal. Não houve diferença na ingestão de matéria seca entre os animais avaliados. Quanto ao estudo econômico da produção de carne de vitelo, os animais mestiços apresentaram o menor custo de produção por quilo de carne produzida e, conseqüentemente, o melhor potencial de produção de vitelos a partir de animais Zebu × Holandês, como atividade complementar à produção de leite.In this study, it was evaluated the productive performance of nine Zebu × Holstein crossbred calves in comparison with nine Holsteins calves for veal production. All animals were maintained in the similar environmental conditions, management and feeding, with individual measurement of dry matter intake. The evaluation measurements of the development of animal, as feed conversion ratio make possible to compare between the treatments, using a completely randomized design. The Zebu × Holstein calves showed higher values of hearth girth growth (23.3 cm and average weight gain (1.45 kg, and also better feed conversion ratio (2.77 kg DM/kg BW, as compared to Holstein calves with 18

  18. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  19. Jugular-infused methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids does not improve milk production in Holstein cows experiencing heat stress.

    Kassube, K R; Kaufman, J D; Pohler, K G; McFadden, J W; Ríus, A G

    2017-12-01

    Poor utilization of amino acids contributes to losses of milk protein yield in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS). Our objective was to test the effect of essential amino acids on milk production in lactating dairy cows exposed to short-term HS conditions. To achieve this objective, 12 multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were assigned to two environments (thermoneutral (THN) or HS) from days 1 to 14 in a split-plot type cross-over design. All cows received 0 g/day of essential amino acids from days 1 to 7 (negative control (NC)) followed by an intravenous infusion of l-methionine (12 g/day), l-lysine (21 g/day), l-leucine (35 g/day), l-isoleucine (15 g/day) and l-valine (15 g/day, methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids (ML+BCAA)) from days 8 to 14. The basal diet was composed of ryegrass silage and hay, and a concentrate mix. This diet supplied 44 g of methionine, 125 g of lysine, 167 g of leucine, 98 g of isoleucine and 109 g of valine per day to the small intestine of THN cows. Temperature-humidity index was maintained below 66 for the THN environment, whereas the index was maintained above 68, peaking at 76, for 14 continuous h/day for the HS environment. Heat stress conditioning increased the udder temperature from 37.0°C to 39.6°C. Cows that received the ML+BCAA treatment had greater p.m. rectal and vaginal temperatures (0.50°C and 0.40°C, respectively), and respiration rate (8 breaths/min) compared with those on the NC treatment and exposed to a HS environment. However, neither NC nor ML+BCAA affected rectal or vaginal temperatures and respiration rates in the THN environment. Compared with THN, the HS environment reduced dry matter intake (1.48 kg/day), milk yield (2.82 kg/day) and milk protein yield (0.11 kg/day). However, compared with NC, the ML+BCAA treatment increased milk protein percent by 0.07 points. For the THN environment, the ML+BCAA treatment increased concentrations of milk urea nitrogen. For the HS environment, the ML

  20. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    The higher increase in production (milk) of intensive dairy cows, compared to the increase in production (calf weight) of intensive beef cows, explains the antagonism in the carbon footprint between different beef and dairy production systems. Unfortunately, carbon sequestration estimates have been neglected and thus the ...

  1. Antioxidative activity of carnosine in gamma irradiated ground beef and beef patties

    Badr, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The activity of carnosine as a natural antioxidant in gamma irradiated ground beef and beef patties was studied. Samples of ground beef, in absence and presence of 0.5% or 1.0% carnosine, as well as raw and cooked beef patties prepared with 1.5% salt (NaCl), in absence and presence of 0.5% or 1.0% carnosine, were gamma irradiated at doses of 2 and 4 KGy. Then, the extent of oxidation in irradiated and non-irradiated samples of ground beef and raw beef patties was determined during refrigerated (4± 1 degree C) and frozen (-18 degree C) storage, while was determined for cooked beef patties during refrigerated storage only. Moreover, the determination of metmyoglobin (MetMb) accumulation and sensory evaluation for the visual colour were carried out for samples of ground beef and raw patties. The results indicated that salt or salt and cooking can accelerate the oxidative processes and significantly increased the peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the prepared non-irradiated samples. However, salt slowed down the accumulation of MetMb in raw patties. Irradiation treatments and storage in absence of carnosine significantly increased with higher rates the PV and TBARS in salted or salted and cooked beef samples. Moreover, irradiation and storage significantly increased the formation of MetMb in ground beef and raw patties in absence of carnosine. Addition of carnosine significantly reduced the oxidative processes and MetMb formation (proportionally to the used concentration) in samples post irradiation and during storage. Furthermore, carnosine exerted significant efficacy in maintaining an acceptable visual red colour post irradiation and during storage of ground beef and raw patties. These results demonstrate that carnosine can be successfully used as a natural antioxidant to increase the oxidative stability in gamma irradiated raw and cooked meat products

  2. Where's the beef? Retail channel choice and beef preferences in Argentina.

    Colella, Florencia; Ortega, David L

    2017-11-01

    Argentinean beef is recognized and demanded internationally. Locally, consumers are often unable to afford certified beef products, and may rely on external cues to determine beef quality. Uncovering demand for beef attributes and marketing them accordingly, may require an understanding of consumers' product purchasing strategies, which involves retailer choice. We develop a framework utilizing latent class analysis to identify consumer groups with different retailer preferences, and separately estimate their demand for beef product attributes. This framework accounts for the interrelationship between consumers' choice of retail outlets and beef product preferences. Our analysis of data from the city of Buenos Aires identifies two groups of consumers, a convenience- (67%) and a service- (33%) oriented group. We find significant differences in demand for beef attributes across these groups, and find that the service oriented group, while not willing to pay for credence attributes, relies on a service-providing retailer-namely a butcher-as a source of product quality assurance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries.

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; de Barcellos, Marcia D; Scholderer, Joachim; Perez-Cueto, Federico

    2010-06-15

    Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

  4. The interaction between milk and beef production and emissions from land use change – critical considerations in life cycle assessment and carbon footprint studies of milk

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Cederberg, Christel; Henriksson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Two most critical factors to address in environmental system analysis of future milk production are 1) the link between milk and beef production, and 2) the competition for land, possibly leading to land use change (LUC) with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and loss of biodiversity as important...... is investigated for 23 dairy farms (both organic and conventional) in Sweden. Use of a fixed allocation factor of 90% (based on economic value) indicates a reduction in CF with increased milk yield, while no correlation can be noted when system expansion is applied. The average CF for two groups of farms, organic...... and high yielding conventional, is also calculated. When conducting system expansion the CF is somewhat lower for the organic farms (which have a lower milk yield per cow, but more meat per kg milk), but when a 90% allocation factor is used, the CF is somewhat higher for the organic farms compared...

  5. Interaction between genotype and climates for Holstein milk ...

    This study was designed to investigate the interaction between genotype and climate for milk and fat production traits of Iranian Holstein dairy herds. Milk and fat production data were grouped in 5 climates, on the basis of Extended De Martonne method. (Co)Variance components and genetic parameters of first lactation ...

  6. Association of changes among body condition score during the transition period with NEFA and BHBA concentrations, milk production, fertility, and health of Holstein cows.

    Barletta, R V; Maturana Filho, M; Carvalho, P D; Del Valle, T A; Netto, A S; Rennó, F P; Mingoti, R D; Gandra, J R; Mourão, G B; Fricke, P M; Sartori, R; Madureira, E H; Wiltbank, M C

    2017-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the association between body condition score (BCS) change during the transition period with fertility, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations, milk yield, and health problems of Holstein cows in a retrospective cohort study. Holstein cows (n = 232) were assessed for BCS (5 point scale; 0.25 point increments) and had blood collected at 21 and 7 d before, on the day of, and 7 and 21 d after calving. Blood samples were assayed for NEFA and BHBA concentrations. All cows received a timed artificial insemination (TAI) at 65 ± 3 days in milk (DIM) following a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol with a progesterone implant during the Ovsynch protocol. Cows were grouped based on BCS change after calving as to whether they: 1) lost (L), 2) maintained (M), or 3) gained (G) BCS. Data were analyzed by logistic regression with GLIMMIX and ANOVA with repeated measures using the MIXED procedures of SAS. Both NEFA and BHBA concentrations after calving differed (P fertility, and occurrence of health problems during the lactation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation between haplotypes for k - caseine and lactic production characteristics in holstein cattle Correlación entre haplotipos para la k-caseína y características de producción láctea en bovinos holstein

    Estrada L.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein levels and specifically casein are important in the industrial processes of milk, especially in clotting and clot formation. Characterization of genotype frequencies is important to determine the genetic value of the animals. This experiment was carried out to determine the genotype frequencies and to establish the correlation between haplotypes and production phenotypes. Milk and blood samples were taken from 54 first parity Holstein heifers from farms in the Sabana de Bogotá (2000-3000 meters above sea level;12-18°C. Milk samples were analyzed for protein, casein, fat and lactose percent, whereas the blood was used to genotype the animals for the k-casein gene (AA, AB and BB. Also, data was taken from the Dairy Herd Improvement Program of the Holstein Association of Colombia for the 305 day 2X milk production. The data were used to determine the allelic and genotypic frequency of the k-casein gene and the correlation between the haplotypes and protein content, casein percent and 305 day 2X milk production projection. The genotype frequency was 57.41% for haplotype AA, 37.04% for haplotype AB and 5.55% for haplotype BB. The allelic frequency was 75.93% for allele A and 24.07% for allele B. There was a high significant correlation between the haplotypes and the protein percent in the milk (R>.975 being the BB haplotype superior to the AB and AA haplotypes. On the other hand, there was no significant correlation between the haplotypes and the casein percent nor the 305 day 2x milk production projection, even though the BB haplotype always showed higher valúes than the others.Los niveles de proteínas y específicamente de caseínas de interés en los procesos industriales de la leche especialmente en la coagulación y cantidad de cuajo. La caracterización molecular y establecimiento de las frecuencias genotípicas, que determinan cualidades de la leche, son por lo tanto importantes en predeterminar el valor genético de los animales

  8. Optimal Replacement and Management Policies for Beef Cows

    W. Marshall Frasier; George H. Pfeiffer

    1994-01-01

    Beef cow replacement studies have not reflected the interaction between herd management and the culling decision. We demonstrate techniques for modeling optimal beef cow replacement intervals and discrete management policies by incorporating the dynamic effects of management on future productivity when biological response is uncertain. Markovian decision analysis is used to identify optimal beef cow management on a ranch typical of the Sandhills region of Nebraska. Issues of breeding season l...

  9. Maintenance of safety and quality of refrigerated ready-to-cook seasoned ground beef product (meatball) by combining gamma irradiation with modified atmosphere packaging.

    Gunes, Gurbuz; Ozturk, Aylin; Yilmaz, Neriman; Ozcelik, Beraat

    2011-08-01

    Meatballs were prepared by mixing ground beef and spices and inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. enteritidis before packaged in modified atmosphere (3% O₂ + 50% CO₂ + 47% N₂) or aerobic conditions. The packaged samples were irradiated at 0.75, 1.5, and 3 kGy doses and stored at 4 °C for 21 d. Survival of the pathogens, total plate count, lipid oxidation, color change, and sensory quality were analyzed during storage. Irradiation at 3 kGy inactivated all the inoculated (approximately 10⁶ CFU/g) S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes cells in the samples. The inoculated (approximately 10⁶ CFU/g) E. coli O157:H7 cells were totally inactivated by 1.5 kGy irradiation. D¹⁰-values for E. coli O157:H7, S. enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes were 0.24, 0.43, and 0.41 kGy in MAP and 0.22, 0.39, and 0.39 kGy in aerobic packages, respectively. Irradiation at 1.5 and 3 kGy resulted in 0.13 and 0.36 mg MDA/kg increase in 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) reaching 1.02 and 1.49 MDA/kg, respectively, on day 1. Irradiation also caused significant loss of color and sensory quality in aerobic packages. However, MAP effectively inhibited the irradiation-induced quality degradations during 21-d storage. Thus, combining irradiation (3 kGy) and MAP (3% O₂ + 50% CO₂ + 47% N₂) controlled the safety risk due to the potential pathogens and maintained qualities of meatballs during 21-d refrigerated storage. Combined use of gamma irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) can maintain quality and safety of seasoned ground beef (meatball). Seasoned ground beef can be irradiated at 3 kGy and packaged in MAP with 3% O₂ + 50% CO₂ + 47% N₂ gas mixture in a high barrier packaging materials. These treatments can significantly decrease risk due to potential pathogens including E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. enteritidis in the product. The MAP would reduce the undesirable effects of

  10. Ohmic cooking of whole beef muscle--evaluation of the impact of a novel rapid ohmic cooking method on product quality.

    Zell, Markus; Lyng, James G; Cronin, Denis A; Morgan, Desmond J

    2010-10-01

    Cylindrical cores of beef semitendinosus (500g) were cooked in a combined ohmic/convection heating system to low (72 degrees C, LTLT) and high (95 degrees C, HTST) target end-point temperatures. A control was also cooked to an end-point temperature of 72 degrees C at the coldest point. Microbial challenge studies on a model meat matrix confirmed product safety. Hunter L-values showed that ohmically heated meat had significantly (pHTST)) relative to the control (56.85). No significant texture differences (p>/=0.05) were suggested by Warner-Bratzler peak load values (34.09, 36.37 vs. 35.19N). Cook loss was significantly (pHTST and the control were more comparable (6.09 and 7.71, respectively). These results demonstrate considerable potential for this application of ohmic heating for whole meats. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  12. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models.

  13. Produção e qualidade do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com silagens de grama estrela (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst = Production and quality of milk from Holstein cows fed stargrass silages (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst

    Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho e a qualidade do leite produzido por vacas da raça Holandesa no terço final da lactação, alimentadas com silagens de grama estrela com aplicação de inoculante ou uréia em relação à silagem de milho. Foram avaliadas silagens de grama estrela com aplicação de aditivo enzimo-bacteriano na dosagem de 80 g deinoculante/tonelada, uréia na dosagem de 7 kg t-1 e silagem de milho. Para avaliação do desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade foram utilizadas seis vacas da raça Holandesas com peso médio de 480 kg distribuídas em delineamento (duplo quadrado latino (3 x 3. Asdigestibilidades da MS, PB e FDN foram maiores para a silagem de milho. O fornecimento de silagens de grama estrela com aditivo e com uréia não interferiu na produção e qualidade do leite, mostrando-se como alternativa para sistemas de produção animal com base emvolumosos conservados mediante a análise econômica da substituição da silagem de milho.The study aimed to evaluate animal performance and quality of milk from Holstein cows during the final third period of lactation fed stargrass silages supplied with inoculant or urea in relation to corn silage. Stargrass silages with enzymatic-bacterial inoculant (80 g of additive/ton of silage, urea supply (7 kg t-1 and corn silage were evaluated. Six Holstein cows with an average body weight of 480 kg were allocated in a double Latin square design (3 x 3. Corn silagepresented the highest values of DM, CP and NDF digestibility when compared to stargrass silages. Supplying Holstein cows with stargrass silages with additive and urea did not promote any effect on production and milk quality. Thus, it can be an alternative in animalproduction systems based on conserved roughage, depending on economical analysis for the replacement of corn silage.

  14. Current situation and future prospects for the Australian beef industry.

    Greenwood, Paul Leo; Ferguson, Drewe M

    2018-04-12

    Beef production extends over almost half of Australia, with about 47,000 cattle producers that contribute about 20% ($A12.7 billion GVP) of the total value of farm production in Australia. Australia is one of the world's most efficient producers of cattle and was the world's third largest beef exporter in 2016. The Australian beef industry had 25 million head of cattle in 2016-17, with a national beef breeding herd of 11.5 million head. Australian beef production includes pasture based cow-calf systems, a backgrounding or grow-out period on pasture, and feedlot or pasture finishing. Feedlot finishing has assumed more importance in recent years to assure the eating quality of beef entering the relatively small Australian domestic market, and to enhance the supply of higher value beef for export markets. Maintenance of Australia's preferred status as a quality assured supplier of high value beef produced under environmentally sustainable systems from 'disease-free' cattle is of highest importance. Stringent livestock and meat quality regulations and quality assurance systems, and productivity growth and efficiency across the supply chain to ensure price competiveness, are crucial for continued export market growth in the face of increasing competition. Major industry issues, that also represent research, development and adoption priorities and opportunities for the Australian beef industry have been captured within exhaustive strategic planning processes by the red meat and beef industries. At the broadest level, these issues include consumer and industry support, market growth and diversification, supply chain efficiency, productivity and profitability, environmental sustainability, and animal health and welfare. This review provides an overview of the Australian beef industry including current market trends and future prospects, and major issues and opportunities for the continued growth, development and profitability of the industry.

  15. Effect of dietary treatment with olive oil by-product (olive cake on physico-chemical, sensory and microbial characteristics of beef during storage

    Raffaella Branciari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a commercial unified based diet administered for 90 days until slaughter (CTR, CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake administered for 90 days until slaughter (OC1, and CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake and administered for 60 days followed by the administration of the CTR diet for 30 days until slaughter (OC2. Beefsteaks were overwrapped with oxygen-permeable packaging and analysed at four different storage times (zero, three, six and nine days. At the four sampling times considered from all of the samples, total viable count (TVC, Enterobacteriaceae counts, colour coordinates (CIE L*a*b* colour system, peroxide value (PV, thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS determinations and descriptive sensory analyses were performed. No differences in TVC and Enterobacteriaceae count were detected among the groups over all of the sampling times considered. Differences were recorder among groups for PV, TBARS, colour and sensory analysis. The addition of olive cake in the animal diet had an effect on lipid oxidation reducing the level of PV, TBARS and retarding colour deterioration and the development of off odour in OC meat during storage.

  16. 9 CFR 94.27 - Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan.

    2010-01-01

    ... beef from Japan. 94.27 Section 94.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... IMPORTATIONS § 94.27 Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan. Notwithstanding any other... slaughtered in Japan may be imported into the United States under the following conditions: (a) The beef is...

  17. 77 FR 52597 - Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order

    2012-08-30

    ... experience, skills and information related to the marketing of beef and beef products, as is intended under... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 [Doc. No. AMS-LS-11-0086] Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA...

  18. Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile.

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-05-01

    The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanopurification of semen improves AI pregnancy rates in beef cattle

    Reproductive efficiency is several times more important than any other factor affecting economic efficiency in beef production. Multiple studies have been conducted to improve fertility of beef cows, but few studies have been conducted to improve fertility in sires. Also, with current improvements...

  20. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle housing

    Beef cattle are potential sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). These emissions include methane produced by fermentation within the gut (enteric), and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure. Life Cycle Analysis of North American (NA) beef cattle production systems consistently indicate that...

  1. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves

    Kamal, M.M.; Van Eetvelde, M.; Bogaert, H.; Hostens, M.; Vandaele, L.; Shamsuddin, M.; Opsomer, G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves

  2. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. CONCLUSIONS: The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct......BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  3. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in an integrated soybean-beef cattle production system under different grazing intensities

    Joice Mari Assmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grazing intensity on the decomposition of cover crop pasture, dung, and soybean residues, as well as the C and N release rates from these residues in a long-term integrated soybean-beef cattle system under no-tillage. The experiment was initiated in 2001, with soybean cultivated in summer and black oat + Italian ryegrass in winter. The treatments consisted of four sward heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, plus an ungrazed area, as the control. In 2009-2011, residues from pasture, dung, and soybean stems and leaves were placed in nylon-mesh litter bags and allowed to decompose for up to 258 days. With increasing grazing intensity, residual dry matter of the pasture decreased and that of dung increased. Pasture and dung lignin concentrations and C release rates were lower with moderate grazing intensity. C and N release rates from soybean residues are not affected by grazing intensity. The moderate grazing intensity produces higher quality residues, both for pasture and dung. Total C and N release is influenced by the greater residual dry matter produced when pastures were either lightly grazed or ungrazed.

  4. Consumer attitudes towards beef and acceptability of enhanced beef.

    Robbins, K; Jensen, J; Ryan, K J; Homco-Ryan, C; McKeith, F K; Brewer, M S

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate consumer quality characteristics of enhanced steaks and roasts derived from cattle supplemented with vitamin E during finishing, and to assess the attitudes of these consumers towards beef. Twelve steers were fed either a control (E-) diet or a diet supplemented with dl-alpha tocopheryl acetate (E+). Paired strip loins and rounds were either used as controls (C) or were pumped (P) to 110% of raw weight to contain 0.4% sodium chloride and 0.4% sodium tripolyphosphate in the final product. Consumers (n=103) evaluated roasts and steaks for juiciness, tenderness, saltiness, and overall acceptability on a 9-point hedonic scale. Enhanced steaks and roasts were more acceptable than non-enhanced controls; E+ steaks were less acceptable than E- steaks. A beef quality questionnaire revealed that color, price, visible fat and cut were the most important factors underlying beef steak purchase, while tenderness, flavor and juiciness were weighted most heavily with regard to eating satisfaction.

  5. Improvement of Milk Fatty Acid Composition for Production of Functional Milk by Dietary Phytoncide Oil Extracted from Discarded Pine Nut Cones ( in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Min Jeong Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of adding phytoncide oil extracted from Korean pine nut cone byproduct to the diet of dairy cows on milk yield and compositions, fatty acid characteristics, complete blood count and stress response. A total of 74 Holstein cows were used for 30 days and divided into two groups. Each group was given a basal diet (C or an experimental diet containing phytoncide additives at 0.016% (T in feed. The results showed that phytoncide feeding had no effect on milk yield. In addition, there were no observed effects on milk composition, but the ratio of fatty acid in milk was significantly affected by the phytoncide diet, and it showed a positive effect. Not only were the major functional fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid increased, but also ω6:ω3 fatty acid ratio was reduced in milk of T group (p<0.05. In blood analysis, the complete blood count showed no significant difference between C and T group on all parameters. However, the cortisol concentration was significantly decreased in T group compared to control (p<0.05. Taken together, we suggest that phytoncide oil does not have a great influence on the physiological changes, but can be a potential feed additive that improves the milk fatty acid and stress resilience in dairy cows. In addition, it will contribute to the development of feed resource, a reduction in feed cost and a lessening of environmental pollution.

  6. Biological characteristics that influence the SEUROP system classification for Czech fleckvieh and Holstein bull carcasses

    Radek Filipčík

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyse the influence of certain characteristics (aptitude, age, carcass weight, net daily gain, feeding on the final carcass classification in the SEUROP system. 703 Czech Fleckvieh bulls and 642 Holstein bulls were studied. The animals were slaughtered and evaluated at a designated beef processing company. Combine aptitude carcasses shown significant differences between characteristics. Remarkable differences of group averages (P>0, 01 were established between farms and they were due to various rearing conditions. Also the levels of net daily gain between aptitudes were proved significantly. Holstein breed showed significant difference among The net daily gain < 500 g.day–1 and levels 551–600; 601–650 and above 651 g.day–1. The SEUROP system is influenced the most by the feeding regime, which is described by a net daily gain in this work, and farm impact.

  7. The Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient and Medicated Block for Beef Cattle, Beef and Dairy Cow

    Suharyono

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB is a feed supplement and one of the best formulas constructed by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN. This supplement contains soya bean meal (SBM and has been developed using different protein sources, such as Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Ec, soya bean waste sauce (SBWs, wheat pollard (WP and WP bypass protein (WPBp. It has also been developed using medicated block (MB. The objective is to introduce the P-32 tracer for obtaining a new feed supplement, to apply UMMB-SBM on beef cattle for fattening, and to test UMMB-MB on cows in the field. Parameters measured include microbial protein synthesis (MPS in rumen liquid, daily live weight gain (DLWG, milk production and total count of worm in feces. Statistical analysis used were Latin squares, Student’s t-test, and completely randomized design. The UMMB-SBM was better than UMMB-Ec, UMMB-SBWs, and UMMB-WP, because it was able to increase MPS by up to 205.67%, superior to the other feed supplements (51.01%, 34.04%, and 73.94% respectively. On the other hand, with UMMB-WPBp supplementation, MPS was enhanced by 425.27%. The UMMB-SBM was able to increase DLWG by 0.34, 0.30, 0.38 and 0.36 kg/(animal d on Bali cattle, Ongole, Simmental, and Frisian Holstein cross breed respectively. The increase of cost benefit ratio was affected by increasing DLWG. These values were 1:1.89; 1: 1.34; 1:1.45 and 1:1.35 respectively. UMMB-MB-C. aeruginosa and albendazole increased milk production by 4.23% and 46.56% respectively. In the first communal group, beef cows that received UMMB-MB albendazole were able to increase feed consumption, including dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient, at P<0.05.The second communal group, feed consumption significantly differed from control at P<0.05 on crude protein, and total digestible nutrient. UMMB-MB tends to be effective only for ten days on the total amount of egg worm in feces.

  8. The Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient and Medicated Block for Beef Cattle, Beef and Dairy Cow

    Suharyono; Sutanto, H.; Purwanti, Y.; Martanti; Agus, A.; Utomo, R.

    2014-01-01

    Urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) is a feed supplement and one of the best formulas constructed by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). This supplement contains soya bean meal (SBM) and has been developed using different protein sources, such as Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Ec), soya bean waste sauce (SBWs), wheat pollard (WP) and WP bypass protein (WPBp). It has also been developed using medicated block (MB). The objective is to introduce the P-32 tracer for obtaining a new feed supplement, to apply UMMB-SBM on beef cattle for fattening, and to test UMMB-MB on cows in the field. Parameters measured include microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in rumen liquid, daily live weight gain (DLWG), milk production and total count of worm in feces. Statistical analysis used were Latin squares, Student’s t-test, and completely randomized design. The UMMB-SBM was better than UMMB-Ec, UMMB-SBWs, and UMMB-WP, because it was able to increase MPS by up to 205.67%, superior to the other feed supplements (51.01%, 34.04%, and 73.94% respectively). On the other hand, with UMMB-WPBp supplementation, MPS was enhanced by 425.27%. The UMMB-SBM was able to increase DLWG by 0.34, 0.30, 0.38 and 0.36 kg/head/d on Bali cattle, Ongole, Simmental, and Frisian Holstein cross breed respectively. The increase of cost benefit ratio was affected by increasing DLWG. These values were 1:1.89; 1: 1.34; 1:1.45 and 1:1.35 respectively. UMMB-MB-C. aeruginosa and albendazole increased milk production by 4.23% and 46.56%, respectively. In the first communal group, beef cows that received UMMB-MB albendazole were able to increase feed consumption, including dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient, at P<0.05. The second communal group, feed consumption significantly differed from control at P<0.05 on crude protein, and total digestible nutrient. UMMB-MB tends to be effective only for ten days on the total amount of egg worm in feces. (author)

  9. Impact of global warming on beef cattle production cost in Brazil Impacto do aquecimento global no custo de produção de carne bovina no Brasil

    Irenilza de Alencar Nääs

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is affecting agribusiness in its economic aspects. Therefore, the prediction of the evolution of Brazilian beef cattle production cost was made using the IPCC forecast scenario for global warming. The methodology consisted of two steps: (i the development of a fuzzy model that estimated the grazing land capacity (RP decrease risk as a function of the changes in the average total rain index, air temperature and increase in extension of the dry season; and (ii the design of an algorithm for predicting the decrease in production as function of the RPfuzzy model, that results in the impact in beef cattle productivity, and consequent increase in production costs. Historical environmental data from important producing counties in the Cerrado were organized and a set of fuzzy Gaussian functions were developed, and three possible settings (optimistic, medium and pessimistic were considered. The decrease in beef cattle productivity was estimated using the losses in production due to the increase in air temperature and vulnerability of pasture capacity. The boundary settings for the total increase of production cost scenario used the number of animals per area of grazing land, the adoption of grain supplement and its future scenario; and the result output function pointed to a threshold within a variation from an increase in production cost of 80% (optimistic to 160% (pessimistic. Under the optimistic scenario the total cost of Brazilian beef cattle production in the Cerrado became near to US$ 2.88 kg-1, while in the pessimistic scenario this cost reached US$ 4.16 kg-1, challenging the international competitiveness of this economic segment.O aquecimento global afeta o agronegócio em seus aspectos econômicos. Foi feita previsão daevolução do custo de produção de carne bovina brasileira usando a predição de aquecimento global do IPCC. A metodologia consistiu de duas etapas: (i o desenvolvimento de modelo fuzzy que estimou o risco de

  10. The beef market in the European Union

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... of cattle going through markets is declining. 10. Product quality has been very difficult to control in the beef sector. The cattle supplied for slaughtering is of a very varying quality with regard to important consumer-oriented quality characteristics like tenderness and taste, and the lack...

  11. Efficacy of using a combination of rendered protein products as an undegradable intake protein supplement for lactating, winter-calving, beef cows fed bromegrass hay.

    Encinias, A M; Lardy, G P; Leupp, J L; Encinias, H B; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-two (36 in each of two consecutive years) lactating, British-crossbred cows (609 +/- 19 kg) were used to evaluate effects of feeding a feather meal-blood meal combination on performance by beef cows fed grass hay. Bromegrass hay (9.6% CP, DM basis) was offered ad libitum and intake was measured daily in individual Calan electronic headgates. Acclimation to Calan gates began approximately 20 d after parturition, and treatments were initiated 21 d later. Cows were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (DM basis) for 60 d: 1) nonsupplemented control (CON), 2) energy control (ENG; 790 g/d; 100% beet pulp), 3) degradable intake protein (DIP; 870 g/d; 22% beet pulp and 78% sunflower meal), or 4) undegradable intake protein (UIP; 800 g/d; 62.5% sunflower meal, 30% hydrolyzed feather meal, and 7.5% blood meal). Net energy concentrations of supplements were formulated to provide similar NE(m) intakes (1.36 Mcal/d). The DIP and UIP supplements were calculated to supply similar amounts of DIP (168 g/d) and to supply 64 and 224 g/d of UIP, respectively. Forage DMI (kg/d) decreased in supplemented vs. nonsupplemented (P = 0.03) and DIP vs. UIP (P = 0.001); however, when expressed as a percentage of BW, forage DMI was not different (P = 0.23). Supplemented cows tended (P = 0.17) to lose less BW than CON. Body condition change was not affected (P = 0.60) by postpartum supplementation. No differences were noted in milk production (P = 0.29) or in calf gain during the supplementation period (P = 0.74). Circulating insulin concentrations were not affected by treatment (P = 0.42). In addition, supplementation did not affect circulating concentrations of NEFA (P = 0.18) or plasma urea nitrogen (P = 0.38). Results of the current study indicate that supplementation had little effect on BW, BCS, milk production, or calf BW when a moderate-quality forage (9.6% CP) was fed to postpartum, winter-calving cows in optimal body condition (BCS > 5). Supplemental UIP did not enhance

  12. Effect of farming practices for greenhouse gas mitigation and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of beef cattle production systems.

    Nguyen, T T H; Doreau, M; Eugène, M; Corson, M S; Garcia-Launay, F; Chesneau, G; van der Werf, H M G

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated effects of farming practice scenarios aiming to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of a beef cattle production system using the life cycle assessment approach. The baseline scenario includes a standard cow-calf herd with finishing heifers based on grazing, and a standard bull-fattening herd using a diet mainly based on maize silage, corresponding to current farm characteristics and management by beef farmers in France. Alternative scenarios were developed with changes in farming practices. Some scenarios modified grassland management (S1: decreasing mineral N fertiliser on permanent grassland; S2: decreasing grass losses during grazing) or herd management (S3: underfeeding of heifers in winter; S4: fattening female calves instead of being reared at a moderate growth rate; S5: increasing longevity of cows from 7 to 9 years; S6: advancing first calving age from 3 to 2 years). Other scenarios replaced protein sources (S7: partially replacing a protein supplement by lucerne hay for the cow-calf herd; S8: replacing soya bean meal with rapeseed meal for the fattening herd) or increased n-3 fatty acid content using extruded linseed (S9). The combination of compatible scenarios S1, S2, S5, S6 and S8 was also studied (S10). The impacts, such as climate change (CC, not including CO2 emissions/sequestration of land use and land-use change, LULUC), CC/LULUC (including CO2 emissions of LULUC), cumulative energy demand, eutrophication (EP), acidification and land occupation (LO) were expressed per kg of carcass mass and per ha of land occupied. Compared with the baseline, the most promising practice to reduce impacts per kg carcass mass was S10 (all reduced by 13% to 28%), followed by S6 (by 8% to 10%). For other scenarios, impact reduction did not exceed 5%, except for EP (up to 11%) and LO (up to 10%). Effects of changes in farming practices (the scenarios) on environmental impacts varied

  13. The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia

    Richard J. Eckard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq. intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO2-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively, whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively. Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites. Emissions per unit product of low input systems can be minimized by efficient utilization of pasture to maximize the annual turnoff of weaned calves and diluting resource input per unit product.

  14. A prospective field study examining the association between environmental emissions from the petroleum industry and the productivity of commercial beef cows

    Waldner, C.L.; Ribble, C.S.; Janzen, E.D.; Campbell, J.R. [Western College of Veterinary Medicine, AB (Canada). Dept. of Herd Medicine and Theriogenology

    2000-07-01

    The health and productivity of seven cow-calf herds located near a new sour gas processing plant was measured using newly developed intensive biological accounting methods. Production records from more than 7000 bull contacts were examined from 1991 to 1997. Detailed information was collected on other risk factors which could influence beef herd productivity. Published reports were in good agreement with the collected data on the median risks for non-pregnancy, abortion, late calving, stillbirth, calf mortality, calving date or weaning weight. Herd age-adjusted weight for both male and female calves improved significantly. Exposure assessments made on individual animals indicated that there is no consistent association between the total sulfation and H{sub 2}S deposition which was used as markers for the compounds found in emissions from sour gas processing plants and flares. However, five examples of association were found to exist between increasing exposure to total sulfation and decreased productivity. Finally, the association between cow-calf productivity and cumulative animal proximity to petroleum field facilities and sour gas flares from battery sites was examined. It was determined that an increased risk of non-pregnancy was sometimes associated with exposure to sour flaring, battery facilities, active gas wells and larger field facilities, but the association was not consistent from from year to year. Flaring was not found to be associated with increased abortion risk, but volume of flared sour gas from battery sites was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. In the 1992-1993 calf crop, sour flaring was found to be associated with an increased risk in calf mortality.

  15. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Kafilzadeh, F.; Piri, V.; Karami-Shabankareh, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30) were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5). Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01) in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively). While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09). The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001). Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01) for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period. (Author)

  16. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Farokh Kafilzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30 were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5. Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01 in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively. While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09. The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001. Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01 for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period.

  17. Effects of level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. 1. Feed intake and milk production.

    Dewhurst, R J; Moorby, J M; Dhanoa, M S; Fishert, W J

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the residual effects of the level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation on performance in the second lactation. Forty-three Holstein-Friesian heifers that calved for the first time at 2 or 3 yr of age were offered diets based on ad libitum consumption of ryegrass silage and either 2 or 7 kg/d of concentrates over the second half of the first lactation. All cows received a low quality diet, based on grass silage and barley straw (60:40 DM basis) for a short (6-wk) dry period. Feeding in the second lactation was based on ad libitum access to grass silage and a flat rate of concentrates (8 kg/ d for 120 d; 5 kg/d thereafter). Three-year-old heifers produced more milk than 2-yr old heifers in the first lactation, equivalent to 93 kg of fat-corrected milk for each additional month of rearing. Cows given the low level of concentrates produced less milk and gained less weight and body condition, though there was a partial compensation when silage quality improved in late lactation. Forage intake declined as cows approached calving, and cows gained little weight or body condition over the dry period. There was no effect on calf weights. Cows that had received the low level of concentrates in the previous lactation consumed more forage dry matter during the second lactation. Parallel curve analysis showed that 2-yr-old heifers that had received a low level of concentrates produced significantly less milk in the second lactation. The numerically much greater gains of weight and body condition for this group were not statistically significant, owing to large between-cow variation.

  18. Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment

    Chaiyabutr, N.; Chanpongsang, S.; Suadsong, S.

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how evaporative cooling modifies body function with respect to water metabolism and other variables relevant to milk synthesis in crossbred cattle. The study was conducted on two groups of 0.875HF:0.125RS crossbred Holstein cattle (87.5%) housed in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof (non-cooled animals) and in a close-sided barn under an evaporative cooling system (cooled animals). The maximum ambient temperature and relative humidity for the non-cooled group were 33°C and 61%, with the corresponding values for the evaporatively cooled barn being 28°C and 84%, respectively. The temperature humidity index (THI) of under non-cooled conditions was higher ( P glucose and triglyceride of cooled animals were not significantly different compared with values for non-cooled animals. No differences were seen in plasma hormonal levels for triiodotyronine (T3) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T4) levels tended to be lower in non-cooled animals. This study suggests that low cooling temperature accompanied by high humidity influences a galactopoietic effect, in part through increases in ECF, blood volume and plasma volume in association with an increase in DMI, which partitions the distribution of nutrients to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. Cooled animals were unable to maintain high milk yield as lactation advances even though a high level of body fluids was maintained during long-term cooled exposure. The decline in milk yield, coinciding with a decrease in net energy for lactation as lactation advances, could be attributed to a local change within the mammary gland.

  19. Prediction of manure nitrogen and organic matter excretion for young Holstein cattle fed on grass silage-based diets.

    Jiao, H P; Yan, T; McDowell, D A

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of sex (steers vs. heifers) of young Holstein cattle on N and OM excretion in feces and urine and to use these data to develop prediction models for N and OM excretion. Data used were derived from a study with 20 autumn-born Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) with N and OM intake and output measured at age of 6, 12, 18, and 22 mo, respectively. The cattle were offered a typical diet used on U.K. commercial farms containing a single grass silage mixed with concentrates. In each period, the cattle were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, individually in metabolism units for the next 3 d, and then in calorimeter chambers for the final 5 d with feed intake, feces, and urine excretion measured during the final 4 d. Within each period, sex had no effect (P > 0.05) on N or OM intake or excretion or N utilization efficiency, with exceptions of steers having a greater intake of N (P = 0.036) and OM (P = 0.018) at age of 18 mo and a lower ratio of fecal N:N intake (P = 0.023) at age of 6 mo. A range of regression relationships (P 0.05) on accumulated N or OM intake or N or OM excretion in feces and urine or retained N and OM during the first or second year of life. On average for the 2 sexes at first and second year of age, the accumulated N excretions in feces were 11.4 and 21.1 kg and in urine 11.6 and 30.6 kg, respectively, and the corresponding values for accumulated OM excretions were respectively 241.5, 565.7, 30.3 and 81.5 kg. A number of equations were developed to predict accumulated N and OM excretion in feces and urine (kg) using BW (kg; P r(2) = 0.95 to 0.97). The accurate prediction of N and OM excretion in feces and urine is essential for reducing N pollution to ground and surface water and calculating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure management of dairy and beef production systems. These data can add novel information to the scientific

  20. Advising Consumption of Green Vegetables, Beef, and Full-Fat Dairy Products Has No Adverse Effects on the Lipid Profiles in Children.

    van der Gaag, Ellen José; Wieffer, Romy; van der Kraats, Judith

    2017-05-19

    In children, little is known about lipid profiles and the influence of dietary habits. In the past, we developed a dietary advice for optimizing the immune system, which comprised green vegetables, beef, whole milk, and full-fat butter. However, there are concerns about a possible negative influence of the full-fat dairy products of the diet on the lipid profile. We investigated the effect of the developed dietary advice on the lipid profile and BMI (body mass index)/BMI- z -score of children. In this retrospective cohort study, we included children aged 1-16 years, of whom a lipid profile was determined in the period between June 2011 and November 2013 in our hospital. Children who adhered to the dietary advice were assigned to the exposed group and the remaining children were assigned to the unexposed group. After following the dietary advice for at least three months, there was a statistically significant reduction in the cholesterol/HDL (high-density lipoproteins) ratio ( p children, but has a significant beneficial effect on the cholesterol/HDL ratio, non-HDL-cholesterol, and the HDL-cholesterol.

  1. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Lactobacillus bavaricus MN in beef systems at refrigeration temperatures.

    Winkowski, K; Crandall, A D; Montville, T J

    1993-01-01

    The ability of Lactobacillus bavaricus, a meat isolate, to inhibit the growth of three Listeria monocytogenes strains was examined in three beef systems: beef cubes, beef cubes in gravy, and beef cubes in gravy containing glucose. The beef was minimally heat treated, inoculated with L. bavaricus at 10(5) or 10(3) CFU/g and L. monocytogenes at 10(2) CFU/g, vacuum sealed, and stored at 4 or 10 degrees C. The meat samples were monitored for microbial growth, pH, and bacteriocin production. The p...

  2. PREFERENCES AND BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF BEEF CONSUMERS IN TUSCANY

    Marija RADMAN

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuscany, probably the most famous Italian region, is known because of many typical food specialities. One of them is the “fi orentina” - a thick, fi rst quality beef, called after the name of the city of Florence. However, recent trends in consumers’ behaviour and the BSE crisis have affected the attitude of consumers toward such products. In this study are presented the results of a mail survey about beef consumption and preferences that was conducted in Tuscany in May 2002. The survey showed that, despite recent food scares and new consumption behaviour, Tuscany consumers still like and prefer beef that has guarantees of quality. Therefore, there are good market opportunities for the Italian and foreign beef producers in Tuscany if they will provide consumers with not only good quality beef, but also more information about the meat.

  3. Use of high irradiation doses for preservation of canned beef

    Hammad, A.A.I; Salem, F.A.; El-Sahy, K.M.; Rady, A.; Badr, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of high irradiation doses (11.25,22.5 and 45 KGy) on the bacteriology, organoleptic quality and shelf - life extension of beef meat that are hermetically sealed in metal cans was investigated in comparison with commercial heat sterilization. The unirradiated cans of pre cooked (enzyme inactivated) unirradiated beef were swollen after only one month of storage at ambient temperature (20-30 degree). Application of 11.25 and 22.5 kGy to vacuum packed and enzyme inactivated beef was not enough for sterilization and only delayed swelling of beef cans. Application of 45 KGy irradiation dose prevented swelling of beef vans up to 12 months at ambient temperature and provided meat product, similar to the commercial heat sterilized one, organoleptically acceptable and microbiologically safe. Running title: Radiation sterilization of meat

  4. Beef flavor: a review from chemistry to consumer.

    Kerth, Chris R; Miller, Rhonda K

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly reviews research that describes the sensation, generation and consumer acceptance of beef flavor. Humans sense the five basic tastes in their taste buds, and receptors in the nasal and sinus cavities sense aromas. Additionally, trigeminal senses such as metallic and astringent are sensed in the oral and nasal cavities and can have an effect on the flavor of beef. Flavors are generated from a complex interaction of tastes, tactile senses and aromas taken collectively throughout the tongue, nasal, sinus and oral cavities. Cooking beef generates compounds that contribute to these senses and result in beef flavor, and the factors that are involved in the cookery process determine the amount and type of these compounds and therefore the flavor generated. A low-heat, slow cooking method generates primarily lipid degradation products, while high-heat, fast cookery generates more Maillard reaction products. The science of consumer acceptance, cluster analyses and drawing relationships among all flavor determinants is a relatively new discipline in beef flavor. Consumers rate beef that has lipid degradation products generated from a low degree of doneness and Maillard flavor products from fast, hot cookery the highest in overall liking, and current research has shown that strong relationships exist between beef flavor and consumer acceptability, even more so than juiciness or tenderness. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Growth, carcass characteristics, and profitability of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers.

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Dicostanzo, A; Chester-Jones, H

    2014-03-01

    Bull calves (n=49), born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris) between March and May 2011, were used to compare growth measurements and profitability of conventional and organic dairy steers. Calves were assigned to 1 of 3 replicated groups at birth: conventional (CONV; n=16), organic (pasture and concentrate; ORG; n=16), or organic grass only (GRS; n=17), and analysis of variables was on a pen basis. Breed groups of calves were Holstein (HO; n=9); Holsteins (n=11) maintained at 1964 breed average level; crossbreds (n=19) including combinations of HO, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red; and crossbreds (n=10) including combinations of HO, Jersey, Swedish Red, and Normande. The CONV steers were fed a diet of 80% concentrate and 20% forage. The ORG steers were fed a diet of organic corn, organic corn silage, and at least 30% of their diet consisted of organic pasture during the grazing season. The GRS steers grazed pasture during the grazing season and were fed high-quality hay or hay silage during the nongrazing season. Intakes of a total mixed ration were recorded daily with herd management software. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for beef value, feed intake, pasture intake, health cost, and yardage. The GRS (358.6 kg) steers had lesser total gains from birth to slaughter than ORG (429.6 kg) and CONV (534.5 kg) steers. Furthermore, the GRS (0.61 kg/d) steers had lesser average daily gain from birth compared with ORG (0.81 kg/d) and CONV (1.1 kg/d) steers. The GRS and ORG steers had smaller rib eye area (49.5 and 65.8 cm(2), respectively) compared with CONV (75.4 cm(2)) steers. For profitability, GRS steers had 43% greater profit than CONV steers due to organic beef price premiums and lower feed costs. On the other hand, ORG steers had substantially less profit than CONV steers. The higher cost of production for the ORG steers is due to the extreme high value of organic corn. The results of the

  6. Análise do desempenho produtivo de diversos grupos genéticos Holandês x Gir no Brasil Analysis of productive performance of different Holstein x Gir genetic groups in Brazil

    Olivardo Facó

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram obtidos dados de controle leiteiro mensal junto à Associação Brasileira dos Criadores de Girolando, a partir dos quais foram calculadas as produções de leite por lactação (PL, as produções de leite até os 305 dias de lactação (PL305 e as durações das lactações (DL. Foram analisadas 3.574 lactações, das quais 10,8% foram registradas sob regime alimentar extensivo (RAEX, 67,9% sob regime alimentar semi-intensivo (RASI e 21,3% sob regime alimentar intensivo (RAI. Os dados foram analisados pelo método dos quadrados mínimos por meio do procedimento GLM (SAS, 1996. Análises preliminares indicaram forte interação entre grupo genético e regime alimentar. Em função disso, a comparação do desempenho dos diversos grupos genéticos foi feita separadamente para cada regime alimentar. Foram também estudados os efeitos genéticos da diferença genética aditiva (g entre as raças Holandesa e Gir, da dominância (d e da interação epistática do tipo aditiva x aditiva (gg. Verificou-se que nem sempre os efeitos das interações epistáticas são negligenciáveis. Não foi verificado qualquer benefício em elevar a proporção de genes da Raça Holandesa sob condições de ambiente hostis. Por outro lado, para manejos mais aprimorados, tal elevação deu indícios de ser benéfica para o aumento da produção.Total milk yield per lactation (PL, milk yield in 305 days (PL305 and lactation length (DL were estimated based on records of the Brazilian Association of Girolando Breeders (3,574 lactations. Milk production was recorded monthly and 10.8% of the herds were raised under an extensive feeding system, 67.9% under a semi-intensive feeding system and 21.3% under an intensive feeding system. Data were analyzed through the least square method by GLM procedure (SAS, 1996. Preliminary analysis indicated a high interaction between genetic group and feeding system. Thus, the performance of genetic groups was evaluated within each

  7. Genome-association analysis of Korean Holstein milk traits using genomic estimated breeding value

    Donghyun Shin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective Holsteins are known as the world’s highest-milk producing dairy cattle. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic regions strongly associated with milk traits (milk production, fat, and protein using Korean Holstein data. Methods This study was performed using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chip data (Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip of 911 Korean Holstein individuals. We inferred each genomic estimated breeding values based on best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP and ridge regression using BLUPF90 and R. We then performed a genome-wide association study and identified genetic regions related to milk traits. Results We identified 9, 6, and 17 significant genetic regions related to milk production, fat and protein, respectively. These genes are newly reported in the genetic association with milk traits of Holstein. Conclusion This study complements a recent Holstein genome-wide association studies that identified other SNPs and genes as the most significant variants. These results will help to expand the knowledge of the polygenic nature of milk production in Holsteins.

  8. Identification and quantification of flavor attributes present in chicken, lamb, pork, beef, and turkey.

    Maughan, Curtis; Martini, Silvana

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to use a meat flavor lexicon to identify and quantify flavor differences among different types of meats such as beef, chicken, lamb, pork, and turkey, and to identify and quantify specific flavor attributes associated with "beef flavor" notes. A trained descriptive panel with 11 participants used a previously developed meat lexicon composed of 18 terms to evaluate the flavor of beef, chicken, pork, turkey, and lamb samples. Results show that beef and lamb samples can be described by flavor attributes such as barny, bitter, gamey, grassy, livery, metallic, and roast beef. Inversely related to these samples were pork and turkey and those attributes that were closely related to them, namely brothy, fatty, salty, sweet, and umami. Chicken was not strongly related to the other types of meats or the attributes used. The descriptive panel also evaluated samples of ground beef mixed with chicken to identify and quantify flavor attributes associated with a "beef flavor." Meat patties for this portion consisted of ground beef mixed with ground chicken in varying amounts: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% beef, with the remainder made up of chicken. Beef and beef-rich patties (75% beef) were more closely related to flavor attributes such as astringent, bloody, fatty, gamey, metallic, livery, oxidized, grassy, and roast beef, while chicken was more closely associated with brothy, juicy, sour, sweet, and umami. This research provides information regarding the specific flavor attributes that differentiate chicken and beef products and provides the first set of descriptors that can be associated with "beefy" notes. POTENTIAL APPLICATION: The use of a standardized flavor lexicon will allow meat producers to identify specific flavors present in their products. The impact is to identify and quantify negative and positive flavors in the product with the ultimate goal of optimizing processing or cooking conditions and improve the quality of meat products.

  9. The water footprint of poultry, pork and beef : A comparative study in different countries and production systems

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture accounts for 92% of the freshwater footprint of humanity; almost one third relates to animal products. In a recent global study, Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2012) [31] show that animal products have a large water footprint (WF) relative to crop products. We use the outcomes of that study to

  10. Western Canada beef productivity study : a component of the western Canada study on animal and human health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities : study design

    2001-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine if exposure from oil and gas emissions has an impact on animal and human health in western Canada. The study design has been reviewed and endorsed by the Science Advisory Panel of the Western Interprovincial Scientific Studies Association which is composed of 10 internationally renowned scientists with experience in environmental and reproductive epidemiology, animal and human health, and toxicology. The research methodology includes a peer review process to ensure credibility. The five components of the study include: beef cattle productivity; assessment of the immune function in beef cattle; assessment of wildlife reproduction and immune function; exposure monitoring; and, human health. This study provides insight beyond that gained from previous studies. The association between flaring and reproductive outcomes in beef herds was examined. The association between herd location in high sulfur deposition areas and increased risk of reproductive failure was also evaluated. The study includes exposure markers for both sweet gas emissions and sour gas sources. Passive monitors measured volatile organic carbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene. Monitoring was also conducted for other compounds including sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, particulate matter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Final analysis and assessment of the data should be complete by late 2003 with a report available for peer review at the beginning of 2004. refs

  11. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 gene are associated with performance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    Michael Paul Mullen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to 1 identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs 2 determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5’ promoter, intronic and 3’ regulatory regions, encompassing ~ 5 kb of the IGF-1 gene. Genotyping and associations with daughter performance for milk production, fertility, survival and measures of body size were undertaken on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires. Using multiple regression analysis nominal associations (P<0.05 were identified between 6 SNPs (four novel and two previously identified and milk composition, survival, body condition score and body size. The C allele of AF017143 a previously published SNP (C-512T in the promoter region of IGF-1 predicted to introduce binding sites for transcription factors HSF1 and ZNF217 was associated (P<0.05 with increased cow carcass weight (i.e. an indicator of mature cow size. Novel SNPs were identified in the 3’ region of IGF-1 were associated (P<0.05 with functional survival and chest width. The remaining 4 SNPs, all located within introns of IGF-1 were associated (P<0.05 with milk protein yield, milk fat yield, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, carcass conformation and carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of IGF-1 on milk production and growth related traits in cattle.

  13. Whole genome association study identifies regions of the bovine genome and biological pathways involved in carcass trait performance in Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    Doran, Anthony G; Berry, Donagh P; Creevey, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Four traits related to carcass performance have been identified as economically important in beef production: carcass weight, carcass fat, carcass conformation of progeny and cull cow carcass weight. Although Holstein-Friesian cattle are primarily utilized for milk production, they are also an important source of meat for beef production and export. Because of this, there is great interest in understanding the underlying genomic structure influencing these traits. Several genome-wide association studies have identified regions of the bovine genome associated with growth or carcass traits, however, little is known about the mechanisms or underlying biological pathways involved. This study aims to detect regions of the bovine genome associated with carcass performance traits (employing a panel of 54,001 SNPs) using measures of genetic merit (as predicted transmitting abilities) for 5,705 Irish Holstein-Friesian animals. Candidate genes and biological pathways were then identified for each trait under investigation. Following adjustment for false discovery (q-value carcass traits using a single SNP regression approach. Using a Bayesian approach, 46 QTL were associated (posterior probability > 0.5) with at least one of the four traits. In total, 557 unique bovine genes, which mapped to 426 human orthologs, were within 500kbs of QTL found associated with a trait using the Bayesian approach. Using this information, 24 significantly over-represented pathways were identified across all traits. The most significantly over-represented biological pathway was the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. A large number of genomic regions putatively associated with bovine carcass traits were detected using two different statistical approaches. Notably, several significant associations were detected in close proximity to genes with a known role in animal growth such as glucagon and leptin. Several biological pathways, including PPAR signaling, were

  14. A brave new beef: The US Food and Drug Administration's review of the safety of cloned animal products.

    Solomon, Louis M; Noll, Rebekka C; Mordkoff, David S; Murphy, Patrick; Rolerson, Marcy

    2009-09-01

    To meet its public mandate, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) collected studies on the potential health hazards of eating or drinking cloned food products. Based on an earlier National Academy of Sciences study that, on closer analysis, was not nearly as sanguine, the FDA's report found no evidence of a health risk from the public's ingestion of cloned food products. This article analyzes the risks the FDA considered, and concludes that there is a disconnect between the risks the FDA assessed in these studies and the risks that might arise from cloned food products. The FDA should consider instituting effective tracking mechanisms and other diagnostics that would permit scientists and the public to answer the question of health risks posed by cloned food products.

  15. Effects of supplemental calcium salts of palm oil and chromium-propionate on insulin sensitivity and productive and reproductive traits of mid- to late-lactating Holstein × Gir dairy cows consuming excessive energy.

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Bertin, R D; Colombo, E A; Miranda, V F B; Lourenço, L A C; Rodrigues, S M B; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2018-01-01

    This experiment compared insulin sensitivity, milk production, and reproductive outcomes in dairy cows consuming excessive energy during mid to late lactation and receiving in a 2 × 2 factorial design (1) concentrate based on ground corn (CRN; n = 20) or including 8% (DM basis) of Ca salts of palm oil (CSPO; n = 20), and (2) supplemented (n = 20) or not (n = 20) with 2.5 g/d of Cr-propionate. During the experiment (d 0-203), 40 multiparous, nonpregnant, lactating 3/4 Holstein × 1/4 Gir cows (initial days in milk = 81 ± 2; mean ± SE) were offered corn silage for ad libitum consumption, and individually received concentrate formulated to allow diets to provide 160% of their daily net energy for lactation requirements. From d -15 to 203, milk production was recorded daily, blood samples collected weekly, and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) recorded on d 0 and 203. For dry matter intake evaluation, cows from both treatments were randomly divided in 5 groups of 8 cows each, and allocated to 8 individual feeding stations for 3 d. Intake was evaluated 6 times/group. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT; 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW) were performed on d -3, 100, and 200. Follicle aspiration for in vitro embryo production was performed via transvaginal ovum pick-up on d -1, 98, and 198. Mean DMI, net energy for lactation intake, as well as BW and BCS change were similar across treatments. On average, cows gained 40 kg of BW and 0.49 BCS during the experiment. Within weekly blood samples, CRN cows had lower serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, fatty acids, and insulin-to-glucose ratio compared with CSPO cows, suggesting increased insulin sensitivity in CRN cows. During the GTT, insulin-sensitivity traits were also greater in CRN versus CSPO cows. Supplemental Cr-propionate resulted in lower serum insulin concentrations and insulin-to-glucose ratio within CRN cows only, indicating that Cr-propionate improved basal insulin sensitivity in CRN but not in CSPO

  16. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. 319.312 Section 319.312 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce...

  17. A Study of Fresh Agricultural Products Circulation between China and Japan:With Beef as an Illustration%中日生鲜农产品流通的比较研究--以牛肉流通为例

    薛友林; 高琦

    2015-01-01

    日本的生鲜农产品的安全流通,离不开健全的流通体系的保驾护航。本文以牛肉流通为例,通过中日对比研究,探寻解决我国食品流通相关安全问题的方法。本文首先对牛肉流通体系和特征进行了归纳总结;其次结合实际情况对两国牛肉流通中的环节以及相关的规范等要素进行了分析;再次对日本现行的可追溯系统进行分析,思考如何在我国牛肉流通实现可追溯;最后,从流通体系的法律基础、检查体系和监管三个方面,对我国牛肉流通的安全保障提出了一些建议。%Japan has established a mature circulation system for fresh agricultural products, which plays an important role on guaranteeing the safety of circulation. Through the comparative study between China and Japan, the circulation of beef was taken for example to explore the methods to solve the food safety issues related to circulation in China. The content and characteristics of beef circulation system are summarized and based on the real conditions of beef circulation in China and Japan, distribution, specifications and other relevant elements are comparatively analyzed. Besides, by analyzing the current traceability system of Japan, possible applications of this system on Chinese beef circulations have been discussed. Finally, some suggestions about the safety of Chinese beef circulation are made from the aspect of legal basis, inspection system and supervision.

  18. Características produtivas e reprodutivas de vacas Holandesas e mestiças Holandês × Gir no Planalto Central Production and reproduction traits in Holstein and Gyr crossbred cows in the Central Plateau, Brazil

    Concepta McManus

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de comparar o desempenho leiteiro e reprodutivo de vacas da raça Holandesa e mestiças Holandês × Gir na região do Planalto Central foram utilizados dados de 1.456 vacas de cinco composições raciais, originadas das raças Holandesa (H e Gir (G: puras H; ¾H ¼G; ½H ½G; ³/8H 5/8G; e ¼H ¾G. Analisaram-se as características produção média diária de leite (PMD, número de dias em lactação (DL e produção total da lactação corrigida para 305 dias (P305, idade ao primeiro parto (IPP, período de gestação (PG e intervalo de partos (IEP. Os maiores valores de PMD e P305 foram obtidos para os animais ¾H ¼G e ½H ½G e os menores, para os animais com maior proporção da raça Gir (¼H ¾G. Os valores das características reprodutivas IPP e IEP, no entanto, foram menores para os animais ¾H ¼G.Esses resultados evidenciam a adaptação das vacas mestiças ao ambiente a que foram submetidas ou que os animais puros da raça Holandesa, em razão do estresse nutricional e/ou térmico, não expressaram todo o seu potencial genético para produção leiteira.Além disso, os dados comprovaram a importância da utilização de sistemas de cruzamento na manutenção da produção dos animais e na sua adaptação ao ambiente.Data from 1456 purebred and crossbred cows of five different crossbred groups involving the Holstein (H and Gyr (G breeds (H; ¾H ¼G; ½H ½G; ³/8H 5/8G e ¼H ¾G were used to compare their milk production and reproductive traits in the Brazilian central plateau region. The performance traits studied were: average daily milk production (DMP; lactation length (LL; total production in 305 days (P305 and age at first calving (AFC, gestation length (GL and calving interval (CI. Higher averages of DMP and P305 were observed for animals ¾H ¼G and ½H ½G and the smallest ones for crossbred animals with larger proportion of the Gyr breed (¼H ¾G. The lowest values of AFC and CI were observed for ¾H

  19. Identification of beef production farms in the Pampas and Campos area that stand out in economic and environmental performance

    Modernel, P.; Dogliotti, S.; Alvarez, S.; Corbeels, M.; Picasso, V.; Tittonell, P.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, native grasslands are being converted to non-native pastures and cropland. This process threatens local grassland biomes as well as the livelihoods of farm families that utilize these grasslands. In the Río de la Plata grasslands region meat production and multispecies native grasslands

  20. Use of Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing Technology To Detect Foodborne Pathogens within the Microbiome of the Beef Production Chain

    Yang, Xiang; Noyes, Noelle R.; Doster, Enrique; Martin, Jennifer N.; Linke, Lyndsey M.; Magnuson, Roberta J.; Yang, Hua; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale R.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Ruiz, Jaime; Boucher, Christina; Morley, Paul S.; Belk, Keith E.

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses associated with pathogenic bacteria are a global public health and economic challenge. The diversity of microorganisms (pathogenic and nonpathogenic) that exists within the food and meat industries complicates efforts to understand pathogen ecology. Further, little is known about the interaction of pathogens within the microbiome throughout the meat production chain. Here, a metagenomic approach and shotgun sequencing technology were used as tools to detect pathogenic bact...

  1. Beef production in irrigated and fertilized pastures of Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato II at the Sinú valley

    Sony Reza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the production of meat during the dry period in Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato II pasture with three stocking rates, irrigated and spring fertilized. The research was conducted for 140 days at the Center for Research Turipaná of the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (Corpoica, located at Cereté, Córdoba (Colombia. Were grazed 48 cattle, commercial zebu with average weight of 339 ± 29 kg in an area of 12 hectares. Three treatments (3, 4, 5 animals/ha were evaluated with two replications in a randomized block design. Production, chemical and botanical composition, in situ degradability of dry matter and the daily weight gain was determined. Economic feasibility was determined by the benefit/cost ratio. The dry matter production was 1.925.16, 1.111.18 and 884.92 kg ha-1 for treatments 3, 4, 5 animal/ha respectively, detected differences (p0.05. For daily gain analysis found differences (p<0.05, with gains of 1.07, 0.989 and 0.940 kg animal for treatments 3, 4, 5 animal/ha. The treatment 5 animal/ha provided the best indicators economical.

  2. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  3. Effects of supplementing methionine hydroxy analog on beef cow performance, milk production, reproduction, and preweaning calf performance.

    Clements, A R; Ireland, F A; Freitas, T; Tucker, H; Shike, D W

    2017-12-01

    Mature Simmental × Angus cows (214 cows; 635 ± 7 kg) were utilized to determine the effects of late gestation and early postpartum supplementation of methionine hydroxy analog (MHA) on cow BW, BCS, milk production, milk composition, reproduction, and calf performance until weaning in a fall-calving, cool-season grazing system. Cows were stratified by BW, age, AI sire, and assigned to 1 of 12 pastures (17 or 18 cows·pasture). Pastures were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: control (0.45 kg·cow·d of wheat midd-based pellets, = 6) or supplement including MHA (0.45 kg·cow·d of wheat midd-based pellets including 10 g MHA supplied as MFP (Novus International, Inc., St. Charles, MO; = 6). Treatments were fed 23 ± 7 d prepartum through 73 ± 7 d postpartum. Cow BW was collected at postcalving (27 ± 7 d postpartum), end of supplementation (73 ± 7 d postpartum), AI, pregnancy check, and end of trial (192 and 193 ± 7 d postpartum). At 73 ± 7 d postpartum, a subset of cow-calf pairs was used in a weigh-suckle-weigh procedure to determine milk production, and milk samples were taken to determine milk composition ( = 45·treatment). Serum from blood was collected at 73 ± 7 and 83 ± 7 d postpartum to determine cow cyclicity and concentrations of 2-hydroxy4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBa) and L-Methionine. After supplementation, all cow-calf pairs were managed as a common group until weaning (193 ± 7 d of age). Cows were bred via AI at 97 ± 7 d postpartum and clean-up bulls were turned out 11 d post-AI for a 55-d breeding season. Cows fed MHA had greater ( Cow BW and BCS were not different ( ≥ 0.10) at any time points between treatments. There was no treatment effect ( ≥ 0.17) on calf birth BW, calf weaning BW (193 ± 7 d of age), or calf ADG. Calculated 24-h milk production, milk composition and component production did not differ ( ≥ 0.21). There were no differences ( ≥ 0.50) in percentage of cows cycling, AI conception rate, and overall

  4. Environmental protection in Schleswig-Holstein

    Knauer, N.

    1977-01-01

    With the contributions by Norbert Knauer, the Akademie Sankelmark presents one of the results of its activities. Prof. Knauer is head of the department of grassland management, cropping and landscape ecology at Kiel University. He is a member of the Experts Commission for Problems of Environmental Protection of the Schleswig-Holstein Government, of the Schleswig-Holstein Curatory for Environmental Protection as well as of the regional planning council. He is also regional supervisor for nature and landscape conservation of the state of Schleswig-Holstein. All these functions have made him an expert in the field of landscape conservation and environmental protection. (orig.) [de

  5. Seminal quality and sperm production in beef bulls with chronic dietary vitamin A deficiency and subsequent re-alimentation.

    Rode, L M; Coulter, G H; Kastelic, J P; Bailey, D R

    1995-05-01

    Sixteen Hereford bulls (16 mo of age, 462 kg average body weight) were used in each of 2 yr to evaluate the effects of hypovitaminosis A on seminal quality and sperm production. Bulls were fed a high-concentrate diet with (+VIT) or without (-VIT) supplemental Vitamin A until the apparent onset of hypovitaminosis A (28 and 32 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively). Half of the bulls on each treatment were then slaughtered and those remaining were re-alimented with Vitamin A. Plasma retinol concentration in -VIT bulls reached a nadir at approximately 25 wk. In Year 1, the proportion of progressively motile spermatozoa was lower in -VIT bulls after 17 wk but returned to that of the +VIT group after re-alimentation. The proportion of spermatozoa with primary morphological defects appeared to be greater in -VIT bulls compared to +VIT bulls by 26 and 24 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively. The incidence of these defects declined in -VIT bulls upon re-alimentation, and approached the incidence observed in +VIT bulls by 8 to 12 wk of re-alimentation. Hypovitaminosis A decreased paired testes weight, daily sperm production, and epididymal sperm reserves but did not affect daily gain. Prolonged dietary Vitamin A deficiency impaired semen quality and sperm production in the absence of other clinical symptoms. However, under practical feeding conditions, diets that result in long-term, marginal Vitamin A deficiency or a relatively short-term absence of Vitamin A intake probably would have minimal effects on spermatogenesis.

  6. Differential responsiveness of Holstein and Angus dermal fibroblasts to LPS challenge occurs without major differences in the methylome.

    Benjamin, Aimee L; Green, Benjamin B; Crooker, Brian A; McKay, Stephanie D; Kerr, David E

    2016-03-24

    We have previously found substantial animal-to-animal and age-dependent variation in the response of Holstein fibroblast cultures challenged with LPS. To expand on this finding, fibroblast cultures were established from dairy (Holstein) and beef (Angus) cattle and challenged with LPS to examine breed-dependent differences in the innate immune response. Global gene expression was measured by RNA-Seq, while an epigenetic basis for expression differences was examined by methylated CpG island recovery assay sequencing (MIRA-Seq) analysis. The Holstein breed displayed a more robust response to LPS than the Angus breed based on RNA-Seq analysis of cultures challenged with LPS for 0, 2, and 8 h. Several immune-associated genes were expressed at greater levels (FDR Angus fibroblasts, and two of these regions fell within the promoter region (-2500 to +500 bp of the transcription start site) of the genes NTRK2 and ADAMTS5. Fibroblasts isolated from Holstein cattle display a more robust response to LPS in comparison to cultures from Angus cattle. Different selection strategies and management practices exist between these two breeds that likely give rise to genetic and epigenetic factors contributing to the different immune response phenotypes.

  7. Measures of methane production and their phenotypic relationships with dry matter intake, growth, and body composition traits in beef cattle.

    Herd, R M; Arthur, P F; Donoghue, K A; Bird, S H; Bird-Gardiner, T; Hegarty, R S

    2014-11-01

    Ruminants contribute up to 80% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock, and enteric methane production by ruminants is the main source of these GHG emissions. Hence, reducing enteric methane production is essential in any GHG emissions reduction strategy in livestock. Data from 2 performance-recording research herds of Angus cattle were used to evaluate a number of methane measures that target methane production (MPR) independent of feed intake and to examine their phenotypic relationships with growth and body composition. The data comprised 777 young bulls and heifers that were fed a roughage diet (ME of 9 MJ/kg DM) at 1.2 times their maintenance energy requirements and measured for MP in open circuit respiration chambers for 48 h. Methane traits evaluated included DMI during the methane measurement period, MPR, and methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), with means (± SD) of 6.2 ± 1.4 kg/d, 187 ± 38 L/d, and 30.4 ± 3.5 L/kg, respectively. Four forms of residual MPR (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR, were evaluated. For the first 3 forms, predicted MPR was calculated using published equations. For the fourth (RMPR), predicted MPR was obtained by regression of MPR on DMI. Growth traits evaluated were BW at birth, weaning (200 d of age), yearling age (400 d of age), and 600 d of age, with means (± SD) of 34 ± 4.6, 238 ± 37, 357 ± 45, and 471 ± 53 kg, respectively. Body composition traits included ultrasound measures (600 d of age) of rib fat, rump fat, and eye muscle area, with means (± SD) of 3.8 ± 2.6 mm, 5.4 ± 3.8 mm, and 61 ± 7.7 cm(2), respectively. Methane production was positively correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (0.65 ± 0.02), MY (0.72 ± 0.02), the RMP traits (r from 0.65 to 0.79), the growth traits (r from 0.19 to 0.57), and the body composition traits (r from 0.13 to 0.29). Methane yield was, however, not correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (-0.02 ± 0.04) as well as the growth (r from -0.03 to 0.11) and body composition (r from 0

  8. Influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products, SmartCare in milk replacer and Original XPC in calf starter, on the performance and health of preweaned Holstein calves challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of supplementing SmartCare™ (SC) in milk replacer and Original XPC™(XPC) in calf starter on performance and health of preweaned calves following an oral challenge with Salmonella enterica. The study was performed in two 35-d periods with 30 Holstein...

  9. Application of Raman spectroscopy and chemometric techniques to assess sensory characteristics of young dairy bull beef.

    Zhao, Ming; Nian, Yingqun; Allen, Paul; Downey, Gerard; Kerry, Joseph P; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2018-05-01

    This work aims to develop a rapid analytical technique to predict beef sensory attributes using Raman spectroscopy (RS) and to investigate correlations between sensory attributes using chemometric analysis. Beef samples (n = 72) were obtained from young dairy bulls (Holstein-Friesian and Jersey×Holstein-Friesian) slaughtered at 15 and 19 months old. Trained sensory panel evaluation and Raman spectral data acquisition were both carried out on the same longissimus thoracis muscles after ageing for 21 days. The best prediction results were obtained using a Raman frequency range of 1300-2800 cm -1 . Prediction performance of partial least squares regression (PLSR) models developed using all samples were moderate to high for all sensory attributes (R 2 CV values of 0.50-0.84 and RMSECV values of 1.31-9.07) and were particularly high for desirable flavour attributes (R 2 CVs of 0.80-0.84, RMSECVs of 4.21-4.65). For PLSR models developed on subsets of beef samples i.e. beef of an identical age or breed type, significant improvements on prediction performances were achieved for overall sensory attributes (R 2 CVs of 0.63-0.89 and RMSECVs of 0.38-6.88 for each breed type; R 2 CVs of 0.52-0.89 and RMSECVs of 0.96-6.36 for each age group). Chemometric analysis revealed strong correlations between sensory attributes. Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometric analysis was demonstrated to have high potential as a rapid and non-destructive technique to predict the sensory quality traits of young dairy bull beef. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Transient changes in milk production efficiency and bacterial community composition resulting from near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- and low-efficiency Holstein cows

    The objectives of this study were to determine if milk production efficiency (MPE) is altered by near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- (HE) and low-MPE (LE) cows and to characterize ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC) prior to exchange and over time post-exchange. Three pai...

  11. Application of FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Halal Authentication of Beef Meatball Adulterated with Dog Meat

    Rahayu, Wiranti Sri; Rohman, Abdul; Martono, Sudibyo; Sudjadi, Sudjadi

    2018-01-01

    Beef meatball is one of the favorite meat-based food products among Indonesian community. Currently, beef is very expensive in Indonesian market compared to other common meat types such as chicken and lamb. This situation has intrigued some unethical meatball producers to replace or adulterate beef with lower priced-meat like dog meat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for identification and quantification of dog meat (D...

  12. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS BEEF CATTLE FEEDYARDS: MEASUREMENT AND MODELING

    Predictive models for nitrous oxide emission are crucial for assessing the greenhouse gas footprint of beef cattle production. The Texas Panhandle produces approximately 42% of finished beef in the U.S. and cattle production is estimated to contribute 8 Tg carbon dioxide equivalents from nitrous oxi...

  13. An environmental assessment of grass-finishing beef operations in Pennsylvania

    Concern for the environmental sustainability of traditional beef production has increased consumer interest in alternatively produced beef products perceived to be more environmentally friendly. This includes those marketed under “grassfed beef” labels. However, little information exists on the env...

  14. Measurement of soy contents in ground beef using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Models for determining contents of soy products in ground beef were developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Samples were prepared by mixing four kinds of soybean protein products (Arconet, toasted soy grits, Profam and textured vegetable protein (TVP)) with ground beef (content from 0%–100...

  15. Notable fibrolytic enzyme production by Aspergillus spp. isolates from the gastrointestinal tract of beef cattle fed in lignified pastures.

    Flávia Oliveira Abrão

    Full Text Available Fungi have the ability to degrade vegetal cell wall carbohydrates, and their presence in the digestive tract of ruminants can minimize the effects of lignified forage on ruminal fermentation. Here, we evaluated enzyme production by Aspergillus spp. isolates from the digestive tracts of cattle grazed in tropical pastures during the dry season. Filamentous fungi were isolated from rumen and feces by culture in cellulose-based medium. Ninety fungal strains were isolated and identified by rDNA sequence analysis, microculture, or both. Aspergillus terreus was the most frequently isolated species, followed by Aspergillus fumigatus. The isolates were characterized with respect to their cellulolytic, xylanolytic, and lignolytic activity through qualitative evaluation in culture medium containing a specific corresponding carbon source. Carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase activity was quantified by the reducing sugar method. In the avicel and xilan degradation test, the enzyme activity (EA at 48 h was significantly higher other periods (P < 0.05. Intra- and inter-specific differences in EA were verified, and high levels of phenoloxidases, which are crucial for lignin degradation, were observed in 28.9% of the isolates. Aspergillus terreus showed significantly higher EA for avicelase (3.96 ±1.77 and xylanase (3.13 ±.091 than the other Aspergillus species at 48 h of incubation. Isolates AT13 and AF69 showed the highest CMCase specific activity (54.84 and 33.03 U mg-1 protein, respectively. Selected Aspergillus spp. isolates produced remarkable levels of enzymes involved in vegetal cell wall degradation, suggesting their potential as antimicrobial additives or probiotics in ruminant diets.

  16. Effect of systematic parturition induction of long gestation Holstein dairy cows on calf survival, cow health, production, and reproduction on a commercial farm

    Villarroel, Aurora; Lane, V. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of parturition induction on dairy cattle with long gestation (past due-date) single pregnancies on calf survivability, cow health, production, and reproduction. There was an induction period during which all cows and heifers reaching 282 days of gestation were induced with dexamethasone (n = 614). Control cows calved the year after, had a gestation length > 282 d and were not induced (n = 508). As the induced and non-induced groups were not contemporaneous, data were standardized using the ratio between the herd baselines for each period. Multivariate analyses of the data showed that induced cows were 1.41 times more likely (P = 0.020) to become pregnant in the lactation following the studied calving than non-induced cows with long gestation. There was no difference in the risk of difficult calvings, stillbirths, culling due to reproductive reasons, average milk production, average days open or risk of abortion in the following lactation between induced and non-induced cows. There seemed to be a relationship between parturition induction and a lower risk of post-partum death, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.162), because including induction as a factor in the model markedly improved the fit of the data. There was no information on incidence of retained placenta (RP) for the non-induced group. In conclusion, parturition induction resulted in more cows becoming pregnant and a seemingly lower risk of post-spartum death without affecting calving difficulty, calf viability, or milk production. PMID:20592844

  17. Irradiation of refrigerated corned beef for shelf-life extension

    Sallam, Y.I.; El-Magoli, S.B.M.; Mohamed, H.H.; El-Mongy, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The development of the microflora of unirradiated and irradiated cowed beef was followed during storage at 5 degree. The total aerobic counts in unirradiated corned beef samples reached x 10 7 cfu/g after 10 days and after 15, 20 , 25 and 30 days of cold storage in irradiated samples at 2, 4, 6, 8 kGy, respectively, accompanied with obvious organoleptic evidence of microbial. Radiation doses up to 8 kGy and cold storage (5 degree) of cowed beef had no effect on the major constituents (moisture, protein and lipids) of these products. During storage, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVBN) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values tended to increase; the Ph of corned beef fall down to ca. 5. 7. Increasing the radiation dose level to 6 and 8 kGy, to increase the product shelf-life, affects generally the physical properties of the corned beef samples, and therefore, it could be concluded that the radiation dose level should be chosen to inhibit public health concern bacteria and reduce spoilage organisms, and at the same time preserve the natural properties of the food. At the present study a dose level of 4 kGy was found to be quite enough to reach such requirements for corned beef samples

  18. Development of a breeding objective for Estonian Holstein cattle

    E. PÄRNA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic weights for milk carrier (water plus lactose, fat and protein yields, calving interval, age at first service, interval between the first service and conception of heifers and length of productive life of Estonian Holsteins were estimated under assumed milk production quota and for non-quota conditions. A bio-economic model of an integrated production system of a closed herd was used. Economic values of milk carrier yield and length of productive life differed between quota and non-quota conditions, but there were only minor differences between those marketing systems in economic values for functional traits. The standardised economic values of the most important traits varied in magnitude between18 to 81% of the economic value for milk yield. Discounting had a substantial impact on the economic value of length of productive life. When defining the breeding objective for Estonian Holstein, the interval between the first service and conception of heifers, and the length of productive life should be included in the breeding goal along with the traits with the highest economic value, milk, fat and protein yield. In the optimum breeding objective, relative weights of production vs. functional traits were 79 and 21%, respectively.;

  19. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata; Taenia solium; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T ...

  20. Effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on risk for infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, milk production, and longevity in Holstein dairy cows.

    Godden, S M; Wells, S; Donahue, M; Stabel, J; Oakes, J M; Sreevatsan, S; Fetrow, J

    2015-08-01

    In summer 2007, a randomized controlled field trial was initiated on 6 large Midwest commercial dairy farms to investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated (HT) colostrum on transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and on future milk production and longevity within the herd. On each farm, colostrum was collected daily from fresh cows, pooled, divided into 2 aliquots, and then 1 aliquot was heat-treated in a commercial batch pasteurizer at 60°C for 60min. A sample from each batch of colostrum was collected for PCR testing (MAP-positive vs. MAP-negative). Newborn heifer calves were removed from the dam within 30 to 60min of birth and systematically assigned to be fed 3.8 L of either fresh (FR; n=434) or heat-treated (HT; n=490) colostrum within 2h of birth. After reaching adulthood (>2 yr old), study animals were tested once annually for 3 yr (2010, 2011, 2012) for infection with MAP using serum ELISA and fecal culture. Lactation records describing milk production data and death or culling events were collected during the 3-yr testing period. Multivariable model logistic and linear regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk for testing positive to MAP during the 3-yr testing period (positive/negative; logistic regression) and on first and second lactation milk yield (kg/cow; linear regression), respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk and time to removal from the herd. Fifteen percent of all study animals were fed PCR-positive colostrum. By the end of the 3-yr testing period, no difference was noted in the proportion of animals testing positive for MAP, with either serum ELISA or fecal culture, when comparing the HT group (10.5%) versus the FR group (8.1%). There was no effect of treatment on first- (HT=11.797kg; FR=11,671kg) or second-lactation (HT=11,013kg; FR=11,235kg) milk production. The proportion of cows leaving the herd by

  1. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  2. Determinants of Beef and Pork Brand Equity

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2003-01-01

    A set of consumer-level characteristic demand models were estimated to determine the level of brand equity for pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premiums and discounts vary by private, national, and store brands; and brand equity varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Other results are that product size discounts are linear, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically do not garner higher prices than supermark...

  3. Saturated fat supplementation interacts with dietary forage neutral detergent fiber content during the immediate postpartum and carryover periods in Holstein cows: Production responses and digestibility of nutrients.

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-05-01

    Forty-eight multiparous cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the interaction between a highly saturated free FA supplement (SFFA) and dietary forage neutral detergent fiber (fNDF) content on production responses and nutrient digestibility of dairy cows in the postpartum period. Treatment diets were offered from 1 to 29d postpartum (postpartum period; PP) and contained 20 or 26% fNDF (50:50 corn silage:alfalfa silage and hay, dry matter basis) and 0 or 2% SFFA [Energy Booster 100 (Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN); 96.1% FA: 46.2% C18:0 and 37.0% C16:0]. From 30 to 71d postpartum (carryover period), a common diet (~23% fNDF, 0% SFFA) was offered to all cows to evaluate carryover effects of the treatment diets early in lactation. During the PP, higher fNDF decreased dry matter intake (DMI) by 2.0 kg/d, whereas SFFA supplementation increased it by 1.4kg/d. In addition, high fNDF with 0% SFFA decreased DMI compared with the other diets and this difference increased throughout the PP. Treatments did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield during the PP but did during the carryover period when SFFA supplementation decreased 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield for the low-fNDF diet (51.1 vs. 58.7kg/d), but not for the high-fNDF diet (58.5 vs. 58.0kg/d). During the PP, lower fNDF and SFFA supplementation decreased body condition score loss. A tendency for an interaction between fNDF and SFFA indicated that low fNDF with 2% SFFA decreased body condition score loss compared with the other diets (-0.49 vs. -0.89). During the PP, lower fNDF and 2% SFFA supplementation decreased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DMI) by 0.30 and 0.23 units, respectively. The low-fNDF diet with 2% SFFA decreased feed efficiency compared with other diets early in the PP, but this difference decreased over time. Supplementation of SFFA in the PP favored energy partitioning to body reserves and

  4. Comparison of alternative beef production systems based on forage finishing or grain-forage diets with or without growth promotants: 2. Meat quality, fatty acid composition, and overall palatability.

    Faucitano, L; Chouinard, P Y; Fortin, J; Mandell, I B; Lafrenière, C; Girard, C L; Berthiaume, R

    2008-07-01

    Five beef cattle management regimens were evaluated for their effect on meat quality, fatty acid composition, and overall palatability of the longis-simus dorsi (LD) muscle in Angus cross steers. A 98-d growing phase was conducted using grass silage with or without supplementation of growth promotants (Revalor G and Rumensin) or soybean meal. Dietary treatments in the finishing phase were developed with or without supplementation of growth promotants based on exclusive feeding of forages with no grain supplementation, or the feeding of grain:forage (70:30) diets. Growth promotants increased (P forages increased the proportion of cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 C18:3 as well as several other isomers of the n-3 family and decreased in the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in the LD muscle as compared with supplementing grain (P forage-based diet increased (P Forage feeding also increased the proportion of cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 (P forage-finishing and growth promotants-free beef production system.

  5. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    An effective way to reduce the carbon footprint from beef cattle would be to reduce the numbers and increase the production per animal, thereby improving their productivity. Sustainable crossbreeding systems can be an effective way to reduce GHG, as it has been shown to increase production. There are a wide range of ...

  6. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  7. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers

    The National Beef Quality Audit – 2011 (NBQA-2011) assessed the current status of quality and consistency of fed steers and heifers. Beef carcasses (n = 9,802), representing approximately 10 percent of each production lot in 28 beef processing facilities, were selected randomly for the survey. Car...

  9. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  10. Transcriptome differences in the rumen of beef steers with variation in feed intake and gain

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in beef production. The rumen wall interacts with feed, microbial populations and volatile fatty acids important to ruminant nutrition indicating it may play a critical role in the beef steer’s ability to utilize feedstuffs efficiently. To identif...

  11. An index for beef and veal characteristics in dairy cattle based on carcass traits.

    Werf, van der J.H.J.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Groen, A.F.; Jong, de G.

    1998-01-01

    Carcass data are nowadays routinely collected from Dutch slaughterhouses. The aim of this study was to develop a selection index for beef production traits in a dairy cattle population based upon such data. Records were available from three categories of animals: veal calves, beef bulls, and cows

  12. FED INTAKE AND MILK PRODUCTION OF HOLSTEIN-ZEBU CROSSBREED COWS HOLD IN DIFFERENT TROPICAL PASTURES CONSUMO DE ALIMENTOS E PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE DE VACAS MESTIÇAS MANTIDAS EM DIFERENTES PASTAGENS TROPICAIS

    Ana Luiza Costa Cruz Borges

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Fed intake and milk production of Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows, grazing Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP, Brachiaria decumbens (BRA and Guinea grass (Pannicum maximum (COL and supplemented with four kg of concentrate, were evaluated in a double Latin square (3x3. Fecal production and feed intake were calculated using Cr2O3 and in vitro digestibility. Dry mater intake (DMI was similar among forages (18kg/cow which represented 2.72%; 2.84% and 2.96% of the live weight for NAP, BRACH and COL respectively. The intake per unit of metabolic size (g DM/kg0.75 was 130 for NAP, 135 for BRACH and 145 for COL. The intake of BRACH resulted in lower milk production (14,4kg than NAP (15,5kg and COL (16,1Kg. Grasses did not affected the milk composition which showed 4,03% of fat, 2,46% of protein and 12,42% of total solids. It was concluded that NAP, BRACH and COL are good alternatives for milk production in grazing systems.

    KEY WORDS: Brachiaria decumbens, Guinea grass, Panicum maximum, Napier, Pennisetum purpureum.

    Realizou-se a avaliação do consumo de alimentos e da produção de leite de vacas mestiças pastejando piquetes de capim Napier (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP, Brachiaria decumbens (BRA e Colonião (Pannicum maximum (COL e suplementadas com quatro kg de concentrado em um esquema de quadrado latino (3x3 duplo. Calcularam-se a produção fecal e o consumo de alimentos com o auxílio do Cr2O3 e da digestibilidade in vitro. O consumo diário de MS foi semelhante entre as forragens (18kg/vaca, as quais representaram 2,72%; 2,84% e 2,96% do p.v. para o NAP, BRACH e COL, respectivamente. O consumo por unidade de tamanho metabólico (g MS/kg0,75 foi de 130 para o NAP, 135 para a BRACH e 145 para

  13. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

    Giovanni Bittante; Paolo Carnier; Luigi Gallo Gallo; Riccardo Dal Zotto; Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID)  on official estimated breeding values (EBV) for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least on...

  14. Reproductive performance and survival of Holstein and Holstein × Simmental crossbred cows.

    Knob, Deise Aline; Alessio, Dileta Regina Moro; Thaler Neto, Andre; Mozzaquatro, Fabrício Desconsi

    2016-10-01

    Crossbreed dairy breeds, such as Holstein × dairy type of Simmental, have been generally used to improve fertility, udder health, and longevity of dairy herds. The aim was to compare the reproductive performance and survival of Holstein and Holstein × Simmental crossbred cows. Data from two farms were used as follows: one located in Bom Retiro, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. and another in Carambeí, Paraná state. Information concerning birth, inseminations, and parity date were obtained from the management software of the farms, generating information regarding the calving interval, days between calving to first service, conception rate, and age at first calving. At one of the farms, calving was monitoring to quantify dystocia. Live weight as well as body condition score (BCS) of cows and information of culling were obtained to determine the survival rate. Data were analyzed by variance analysis and by logistic regression. Crossbred Holstein × Simmental cows had better reproductive performance than the Holstein cows, characterized by lower calving interval (381 vs. 445 days), higher conception rate (37.3 vs. 33.6 %), and shorter calving to first service interval (65 vs. 89 days). These results were related to a higher BCS in crossbred cows (3.63 vs. 2.94 points). Crossbred Holstein × Simmental cows had higher survival rate than Holstein cows on the second parity (83 vs. 92 %). No differences between genetic groups were observed (P > 0.05) for body weight and dystocia. In conclusion, Holstein × Simmental crossbred cows have better reproductive performance and higher survival rate than Holstein cows.

  15. Simulating economics and environmental impacts of beef and soybean systems in Brazil's Pamas and Amozon Biomes

    Recent reductions in the deforestation of the Amazon biome have highlighted the need for the sustainable intensification of beef and commodity crop production in Brazil to increase agricultural productivity without accelerating adverse environmental impacts related to greenhouse gas emissions, eutro...

  16. The economic value of somatic cell count in South African Holstein ...

    Somatic cell count (SCC) is of economic importance in dairy production as it directly influences the revenue from the sale of milk. The current study was carried out to determine the economic value of SCC in South African Holstein and Jersey cattle, in order to establish its relative emphasis in breeding objectives. Bulk-tank ...

  17. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions

    López, S.; France, J.; Odongo, N.E.; McBride, R.A.; Kebreab, E.; Alzahal, O.; McBride, B.W.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records

  18. Redes, alianças estratégicas e intercooperação: o caso da cadeia produtiva de carne bovina Networks, strategic alliances and cooperation: the case of production chain of beef meat

    Marcelo José Braga

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho é discutir a formação de parcerias, redes e alianças estratégicas na cadeia de produção de carne bovina brasileira. É apresentada discussão acerca dos conceitos básicos de rede, alianças estratégicas e intercooperação. São analisados quatro casos, baseados na literatura existente. Finalmente, conclui-se apontando as razões de sucesso em uma aliança na cadeia analisada.The objective of this paper is to discuss the formation of partnerships, networks and strategic alliances in the production chain of Brazilian beef. The basic concepts of networks, strategic alliances and, cooperation are discussed. Four cases of alliances are analyzed, based on the existent literature. Finally, the work is finished pointing the success reasons in an alliance.

  19. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  20. A survey of grass-finished beef producers in Pennsylvania

    To meet our goal of quantifying the environmental impacts of grass-finished beef production, data on production practices in Pennsylvania were collected at the farm level via visits and online surveys. Twenty-three responses represented a total of 1,055 animals on 2,155 acres of land. Farms were rel...

  1. Efeitos da climatização do curral de espera na produção de leite de vacas holandesas Effects of the climatization of the corral of wait on milk production of holstein cows

    Iran J.O. da Silva

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da climatização de ambientes em condições de pré-ordenha na produção de leite. O experimento foi realizado na fazenda experimental do Instituto de Zootecnia, em Nova Odessa, SP, durante doze dias consecutivos do verão de 1999. Foram analisados os efeitos do sistema de resfriamento evaporativo (SRE, por nebulização, no curral de espera. Utilizaram-se doze animais da raça holandesa, divididos em dois grupos de seis animais, onde apenas o segundo grupo foi submetido ao sistema de climatização. Os dados ambientais foram registrados no horário das ordenhas, ou seja, às 7 e 15 h. Para avaliação dos dados ambientais utilizaram-se os índices de conforto térmico: índice de temperatura de globo (WBGT, índice de temperatura e umidade (THI e índice de carga térmica radiante (CTR. As respostas fisiológicas, como freqüência cardíaca e respiratória, temperatura retal e produção de leite também foram consideradas variáveis de resposta. Conclui-se que o efeito do resfriamento do ambiente é mais significativo no horário da segunda ordenha (15 h, quando comparado ao da primeira (7 h, melhorando as condições de conforto térmico no curral de espera, refletindo em um aumento de 7,28% na produção de leite, além de promover redução na frequência respiratória e cardíaca.This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of the climatization of environments in daily pay-milking conditions. The experiment was carried out in the experimental farm of the Institute of Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa, SP, during twelve consecutive days of the summer. The effects of the system of evaporative cooling (SRE, by fogging in the wait corral and milking room were analyzed. Twelve Holstein cows were divided in two groups, where only the second group had passed climatization. Data environment were recorded at 7:00 am and 3:00 pm. For evaluation of the ambient data, index of thermal

  2. Does Excluding Cross-commodity Interactions Matter? Beef and Lamb in Australia

    Dent, Siobahn K.; Piggott, Roley R.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Griffith, Garry R.

    2003-01-01

    Australian broadacre agriculture is typified by strong cross-commodity relationships, where sheep and cattle grazing enterprises compete for pasture and both compete with wheat and other crops for land. Further, some commodities produced by multi-product farms are also used in the production of final products that are substitutes in demand, such as beef and lamb. Economic analyses of the beef market, for example, should also include consideration of the market for the related product, lamb. I...

  3. Legume finishing provides beef with positive human dietary fatty acid ratios and consumer preference comparable with grain-finished beef.

    Chail, A; Legako, J F; Pitcher, L R; Griggs, T C; Ward, R E; Martini, S; MacAdam, J W

    2016-05-01

    Consumer liking, proximate composition, pH, Warner-Bratzler shear force, fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds were determined from the LM (longissimus thoracis) of cattle ( = 6 per diet) finished on conventional feedlot (USUGrain), legume, and grass forage diets. Forage diets included a condensed tannin-containing perennial legume, birdsfoot trefoil (; USUBFT), and a grass, meadow brome ( Rehmann; USUGrass). Moreover, representative retail forage (USDA Certified Organic Grass-fed [OrgGrass]) and conventional beef (USDA Choice, Grain-fed; ChGrain) were investigated ( = 6 per retail type). The ChGrain had the greatest ( 0.05) to that of both USUGrain and USUGrass. Both grain-finished beef treatments were rated greater ( Consumer liking of USUBFT beef tenderness, fattiness, and overall liking were comparable ( > 0.05) with that of USUGrain and ChGrain. Flavor liking was rated greatest ( 0.05) to those of ChGrain, USUGrass, and OrgGrass. Cumulative SFA and MUFA concentrations were greatest ( 0.05) to those of USUGrain and USUGrass. Each forage-finished beef treatment, USUGrass, OrgGrass, and USUBFT, had lower ( < 0.001) ratios of -6:-3 fatty acids. Hexanal was the most numerically abundant volatile compound. The concentration of hexanal increased with increasing concentrations of total PUFA. Among all the lipid degradation products (aldehydes, alcohols, furans, carboxylic acids, and ketones) measured in this study, there was an overall trend toward greater quantities in grain-finished products, lower quantities in USUGrass and OrgGrass, and intermediate quantities in USUBFT. This trend was in agreement with IMF content, fatty acid concentrations, and sensory attributes. These results suggest an opportunity for a birdsfoot trefoil finishing program, which results in beef comparable in sensory quality with grain-finished beef but with reduced -6 and SFA, similar to grass-finished beef.

  4. Methods for early prediction of lactation flow in Holstein heifers

    Vesna Gantner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to define methods for early prediction (based on I. milk control record of lactation flow in Holstein heifers as well as to choose optimal one in terms of prediction fit and application simplicity. Total of 304,569 daily yield records automatically recorded on a 1,136 first lactation Holstein cows, from March 2003 till August 2008., were included in analysis. According to the test date, calving date, the age at first calving, lactation stage when I. milk control occurred and to the average milk yield in first 25th, T1 (and 25th-45th, T2 lactation days, measuring monthcalving month-age-production-time-period subgroups were formed. The parameters of analysed nonlinear and linear methods were estimated for each defined subgroup. As models evaluation measures,adjusted coefficient of determination, and average and standard deviation of error were used. Considering obtained results, in terms of total variance explanation (R2 adj, the nonlinear Wood’s method showed superiority above the linear ones (Wilmink’s, Ali-Schaeffer’s and Guo-Swalve’s method in both time-period subgroups (T1 - 97.5 % of explained variability; T2 - 98.1 % of explained variability. Regarding the evaluation measures based on prediction error amount (eavg±eSD, the lowest average error of daily milk yield prediction (less than 0.005 kg/day, as well as of lactation milk yield prediction (less than 50 kg/lactation (T1 time-period subgroup and less than 30 kg/lactation (T2 time-period subgroup; were determined when Wood’s nonlinear prediction method were applied. Obtained results indicate that estimated Wood’s regression parameters could be used in routine work for early prediction of Holstein heifer’s lactation flow.

  5. European consumers' acceptance and rejection of novel beef technologies

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    As part of ProSafeBeef, an integrated research project funded by the European Commission, the present qualitative study was carried out with European consumers to obtain insights into their acceptance or rejection of eight selected novel beef production and processing technologies, identified here...... capital cities: Madrid, Paris, Berlin and London. A common and translated topic guide was developed prior to the field work. A ranking exercise was applied, where the participants classified the technologies into accepted, neutral or rejected concepts, after discussing the perceived benefits and risks...... in society, global warming crisis, disease outbreaks and degradation of the environment are shaping consumers' opinion in regard to food production. There was a severe criticism about too much intervention in food and a strong desire to keep food and beef processing as simple and natural as possible....

  6. A Review of Sustainability Enhancements in the Beef Value Chain: State-of-the-Art and Recommendations for Future Improvements

    Maia de Souza, Danielle; Petre, Ruaraidh; Jackson, Fawn; Hadarits, Monica; Pogue, Sarah; Carlyle, Cameron N.; Bork, Edward; McAllister, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary To better address consumer concerns, the beef sector is working on strategies to enhance the sustainability of all aspects of the beef supply chain. Among these strategies are (1) the development of science-based frameworks and indicators capable of measuring progress at all stages of beef production; (2) the engagement of different stakeholders along the beef supply chain at regional and global levels; and (3) the improvement of communication among stakeholders and transparency towards consumers. Progress on these three fronts was presented during the 2nd Global Conference on Sustainable Beef, hosted by the Global and Canadian Roundtables for Sustainable Beef. During the event, there was a clear understanding that the beef industry is substantially advancing efforts to continuously improve its sustainability, both at regional and global levels, by developing assessment frameworks and indicators to measure progress. However, it is also clear that the beef sector has a need to more clearly define the concept of beef sustainability, strengthen cooperation and exchange of information among national roundtables for sustainable beef, as well as improve the flow of information along the supply chain. An improved transparency in the beef sector will help consumers make more informed decisions about food products. Abstract The beef sector is working towards continually improving its sustainability in order to achieve environmentally, socially and economically desirable outcomes, all of which are of increasing concern to consumers. In this context, the Global Roundtable for Sustainable Beef (GRSB) provides guidance to advance the sustainability of the beef industry, through increased stakeholder engagement and the formation of national roundtables. Recently, the 2nd Global Conference on Sustainable Beef took place in Banff, Alberta, Canada, hosted by the GRSB and the Canadian Roundtable for Sustainable Beef. Conference attendees discussed the various

  7. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality.

  8. Hematology reference intervals for neonatal Holstein calves.

    Panousis, Nikolaos; Siachos, Nektarios; Kitkas, Georgios; Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Valergakis, Georgios E

    2018-01-09

    Data regarding hematologic reference intervals (RI) for neonatal calves have not been published yet. The aims of this study were: a) to establish hematology RIs for neonatal Holstein calves, b) to compare them with the RIs for lactating cows, and c) to investigate the relationship of age and gender with the hematologic profile of calves. Two-hundred and fifty-four clinically healthy Holstein calves (1-9days old, from 30 farms) and 82 healthy Holstein cows (between 30 and 150days in milk, from 10 farms) were blood sampled once for a complete blood count evaluation, using the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer. An additional blood sample was collected from each calf for serum total protein concentration measurement. RIs and age-related RIs were calculated with the Reference Value Advisor freeware. Comparisons between calves and cows and between male and female calves were performed with t-test or Mann-Whitney test. Red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts in calves were higher, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were lower than in cows. Lymphocyte and platelets showed a notable increase through age. Finally, female calves had higher RBC, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration than males. Age-specific RIs should be used for the interpretation of the complete blood count in Holstein calves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Unilateral notomelia in a newborn Holstein calf.

    Muirhead, Tammy L; Pack, LeeAnn; Radtke, Catherine L

    2014-07-01

    A 24-hour-old Holstein bull calf with notomelia was donated to the Atlantic Veterinary College. The extra limb was on the right side of the caudal neck adjacent to the withers. The limb was surgically removed under general anesthesia. The calf was adopted and discharged with no complications.

  10. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    ... 4 days. If frozen, it should keep its quality for about 4 months. When reheating fully cooked patties or casseroles containing ground beef, be sure the internal temperature reaches 165 °F (73.9 °C). Why ...

  11. Industrial development of beef and pork cecina with different flavors

    Francisco A. Nuñez-Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cecina used traditional technique for salting and preserving meat as well as to impart flavor; however, addition of spices is a viable alternative to diversify the flavors of the product. The objective of this research was to develop beef and pork cecina of flavors and evaluate lipid oxidation after 30 days of storage. Beef and pork cecina were distributed independently in four treatments: Formulation 1 or base (10.7% salt, 1.3% sugar, 0.5% nitrite and seasoning 0.1%; formulation 2, base plus 10 g of mixture of coriander, celery, parsley dehydrated/kg meat; formulation 3, base plus 10 g dry mirasol chilli/kg of meat and liquid smoke (2 mL/L and formulation 4, base plus 0.80 mL of essential oregano oil/L. Beef cecina was dried at 80 °C for 150 minutes and pork cecina for 180 minutes until these achieved a water activity (aw of 0.75. Beef cecina was packaged in cellophane bag, while for pork cecina in vacuum bags. Lipid oxidation was determined using thiobarbituric acid test (TBA. The results revealed that only beef cecina presented fat rancidity.

  12. A SUPPORTING AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT OF FARM HOUSEHOLD IN CENTRAL JAVA

    T. Ekowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze some factors influencing production, income, farmhousehold consumption and investment of farm household beef cattle in Central Java. Five districts werepurposively chosen for research location based on the number of beef cattle population, namelyRembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri. Forty respondents of each district were chosenrandomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Simultaneous Regression and estimated byTwo Stage Least Square (TSLS. The results showed that independent variables were simultaneouslysignificant to dependent variables (production, income, farm household consumption and investmentwith the Probability F test 0.0000 and adjusted R2 were 91%; 89%; 96%; 62%, respectively. Thesimulation’s analysis of agribusiness implementation consisted of 1 decreasing 15% of service perconception, 2 increasing of beef cattle breed and number of beef cattle 15% respectively, 3 raising ofprice of rice and number of household member 15% respectively and 4 increasing of income and priceof beef cattle 10% respectively influenced to farm household consumption and investment 0.446% and5.14%, respectively, meanwhile production and income did not change. The research can be concludedthat the independent variables simultaneously significant influenced to production, income, farmhousehold consumption and beef cattle investment. The simulation of changing usage of input factor andprice significantly influenced to farm household consumption and beef cattle investment.

  13. The effect of technology information on consumer expectations and liking of beef.

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Rødbotten, Rune; De Smet, Stefaan; Scholderer, Joachim; Verbeke, Wim

    2012-02-01

    European consumers increasingly attach value to process characteristics of food. Although beef technologies are hardly communicated to consumers, providing consumer-oriented information about technology application might increase perceived transparency and consumer acceptance. This study investigates how information about beef technologies influences consumer expectations and liking of beef. Beef consumers in Belgium (n = 108) and Norway (n = 110) participated in an information experiment combined with sensory testing in which each consumer tasted three beef muscles treated with different technologies: unprocessed tenderloin M. Psoas major, muscle profiled M. Infraspinatus, and marinated (by injection) M. Semitendinosus. The findings indicate that detailed information about beef technologies can enhance consumers' expectations and liking of beef. However, this effect differs between countries and beef technologies. Information becomes either less relevant when the product is actually tasted, as indicated by the findings in Norway, or more relevant when information is confirmed by own experience during tasting, as indicated by the findings in Belgium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intensive vs. free-range organic beef. A preference study through consumer liking and conjoint analysis.

    García-Torres, S; López-Gajardo, A; Mesías, F J

    2016-04-01

    This paper evaluates consumer liking and preferences towards organic beef from two production systems allowed by EU regulation: i) free-range and ii) intensive (fattened in feed-lot with organic feedstuff) as compared with conventionally produced beef. Data were obtained in April-May 2014 with a sample of 150 regular beef consumers who completed two tasks: firstly a sensory test where consumers tasted and rated the meats and secondly a conjoint analysis to study beef purchasing preferences. Willingness-to-pay for the different meats was also calculated from conjoint results. Results show that consumers preferred organic-from-concentrate beef at sensory level while organic beef from animals fed on grass was preferred when process characteristics (i.e. farming system) or attributes perceived at the point of purchase (i.e. colour) were evaluated. It was also found that the price-premium for organic beef is over 40%, with organic-fed-on grass beef preferred slightly over that fed-on-concentrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modelling of beef sensory quality for a better prediction of palatability.

    Hocquette, Jean-François; Van Wezemael, Lynn; Chriki, Sghaier; Legrand, Isabelle; Verbeke, Wim; Farmer, Linda; Scollan, Nigel D; Polkinghorne, Rod; Rødbotten, Rune; Allen, Paul; Pethick, David W

    2014-07-01

    Despite efforts by the industry to control the eating quality of beef, there remains a high level of variability in palatability, which is one reason for consumer dissatisfaction. In Europe, there is still no reliable on-line tool to predict beef quality and deliver consistent quality beef to consumers. Beef quality traits depend in part on the physical and chemical properties of the muscles. The determination of these properties (known as muscle profiling) will allow for more informed decisions to be made in the selection of individual muscles for the production of value-added products. Therefore, scientists and professional partners of the ProSafeBeef project have brought together all the data they have accumulated over 20 years. The resulting BIF-Beef (Integrated and Functional Biology of Beef) data warehouse contains available data of animal growth, carcass composition, muscle tissue characteristics and beef quality traits. This database is useful to determine the most important muscle characteristics associated with a high tenderness, a high flavour or generally a high quality. Another more consumer driven modelling tool was developed in Australia: the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grading scheme that predicts beef quality for each individual muscle×specific cooking method combination using various information on the corresponding animals and post-slaughter processing factors. This system has also the potential to detect variability in quality within muscles. The MSA system proved to be effective in predicting beef palatability not only in Australia but also in many other countries. The results of the work conducted in Europe within the ProSafeBeef project indicate that it would be possible to manage a grading system in Europe similar to the MSA system. The combination of the different modelling approaches (namely muscle biochemistry and a MSA-like meat grading system adapted to the European market) is a promising area of research to improve the prediction

  16. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a modified dry curing process for beef.

    Hayes, J E; Kenny, T A; Ward, P; Kerry, J P

    2007-11-01

    The development of a dry curing process using physical treatments to promote the diffusion of the cure ingredients was studied. Vacuum pulsing with and without tumbling, continuous vacuum, and tumbling only treatments were compared with a conventional static dry cure control method on beef M. supraspinatus. Vacuum tumble and tumble only treatments gave highest core salt content after 7 days conditioning (3.3% and 3.1%, respectively). All test treatments resulted in higher colour uniformity and lower % cook loss in comparison to control (PCured beef slices were stored in modified atmosphere packs (MAP) (80%N(2):20%CO(2)) for up to 28 day at 4°C. Redness (a(∗), Pcured beef products with enhanced organoleptic quality and increased yields.

  18. Applying real-time quantitative PCR to diagnosis of freemartin in Holstein cattle by quantifying SRY gene: a comparison experiment

    Qinghua Qiu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Freemartinism generally occurs in female offspring of dizygotic twins in a mixed-sex pregnancy. Most bovine heterosexual twin females are freemartins. However, about 10% of bovine heterosexual twin females are fertile. Farmers mostly cull bovine fertile heterosexual twin females due to the lack of a practical diagnostic approach. Culling of such animals results in economic and genetic-material losses both for dairy and beef industry. Methods In this study, a comparative test, including qualitative detection of SRY gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, quantitative detection of relative content of SRY by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, and quantitative detection of H-Y antigen, was performed to establish the most accurate diagnosis for freemartin. Twelve Holstein heterosexual twin females were used in this study, while three normal Holstein bulls and three normal Holstein cows were used as a positive and negative control, respectively. Results Polymerase chain reaction results revealed that SRY gene were absent in three heterosexual twin females and only two of them were verified as fertile in later age. The qPCR results showed that relative content of SRY was more than 14.2% in freemartins and below 0.41% in fertile heterosexual twin females. The H-Y antigen test showed no significant numerical difference between freemartin and fertile heterosexual twin female. Discussion Our results show that relative content of SRY quantified by qPCR is a better detection method for diagnosis of freemartin in Holstein cattle as compare to qualitative detection of SRY gene by PCR or quantitative detection of H-Y antigen. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time we applied qPCR to diagnosing freemartin by quantifying SRY gene and got relative SRY content of each freemartin and fertile heterosexual twin female. We concluded that low-level of SRY would not influence fertility of bovine heterosexual twin female.

  19. Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow

    Prins Diether G J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma.

  20. Alpharma Beef Cattle Nutrition Symposium: implications of nutritional management for beef cow-calf systems.

    Funston, R N; Summers, A F; Roberts, A J

    2012-07-01

    The beef cattle industry relies on the use of high-forage diets to develop replacement females, maintain the cow herd, and sustain stocker operations Forage quantity and quality fluctuate with season and environmental conditions Depending on class and physiological state of the animal, a forage diet may not always meet nutritional requirements, resulting in reduced ADG or BW loss if supplemental nutrients are not provided It is important to understand the consequences of such BW loss and the economics of providing supplementation to the beef production system Periods of limited or insufficient nutrient availability can be followed by periods of compensatory BW gain once dietary conditions improve This may have less impact on breeding animals, provided reproductive efficiency is not compromised, where actual BW is not as important as it is in animals destined for the feedlot A rapidly evolving body of literature is also demonstrating that nutritional status of cows during pregnancy can affect subsequent offspring development and production characteristics later in life The concept of fetal programming is that maternal stimuli during critical periods of fetal development have long-term implications for offspring Depending on timing, magnitude, and duration of nutrient limitation or supplementation, it is possible that early measures in life, such as calf birth BW, may be unaffected, whereas measures later in life, such as weaning BW, carcass characteristics, and reproductive traits, may be influenced This body of research provides compelling evidence of a fetal programming response to maternal nutrition in beef cattle Future competitiveness of the US beef industry will continue to be dependent on the use of high-forage diets to meet the majority of nutrient requirements Consequences of nutrient restriction or supplementation must be considered not only on individual animal performance but also the developing fetus and its subsequent performance throughout life.

  1. Differentiation of pork from beef, chicken, mutton and chevon ...

    The detection of pork in various food products has been an important subject of study in many countries. The current study was aimed to differentiate pork from selected meats of beef, mutton, chevon and chicken based on their primary amino acid contents using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography ...

  2. Increase in. gamma. -radiation from powdered milk and beef

    Sievert, R M; Gustafsson, S; Sylander, C G

    1956-01-01

    Samples of powdered milk and beef preserved during the years 1953 to 1956 were examined for the presence of ..gamma..-radiation. The higher ..gamma..-radiation found in the last year was attributed to an increase in fission products. Data are compared with measurements on a series of children.

  3. 76 FR 42012 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    2011-07-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) has considered the economic effect of this action on small entities and..., methods of production and distribution, marketing strategies, and other distinguishing factors that will... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 [No. AMS-LS-10-0086] Beef...

  4. Determinants and opportunities for commercial marketing of beef ...

    The objective of this study was to examine the factors influencing smallholder producers' potential to sell cattle and identify marketing opportunities for sustainable beef production in South Africa. A total of 95 structured questionnaires was administered to the Ncorha and Gxwalibomvu communities in the Eastern Cape ...

  5. Holstein-Friesian milk performance in organic farming in North Spain: Comparison with other systems and breeds

    Ruth Rodríguez-Bermúdez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic systems are highly dependent on the environment and require animals well adapted to local conditions. In Spain, organic dairy farmers are not satisfied with the productive performance of their herds and ask for technical advice to obtain suitable animals for organic systems. The milk productive performance (milk yield, nutritional composition, and somatic cell count of Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming in North Spain compared with conventional farms has been analysed. When breed diversity was present in the same organic farm, Holstein-Friesian milk performance was compared with other breeds and/or crosses. Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming produce slightly less milk than grazing conventional cows, but milk was similar in composition and somatic cell count across systems. The limited data from organic farms where breed diversity exists indicate that Holstein-Friesian cows produce numerically more milk than other breeds and crosses but with statistically lower protein content. Considering that in Spain organic milk production is mostly used for liquid milk consumption and that the payment system is based only on milk volume, Holstein-Friesian cows would better fit the farmer interests than other breeds or crosses. However, in addition to productive performance, reproductive efficiency, animal health and consumer’s preferences should be fully considered when selecting a breed for organic production. If Holstein-Friesian was the selected breed, efforts should be made to identify cows within the breed that are best adapted to organic conditions. New productive, reproductive, nutritional and economic studies would be needed to develop a genetic merit index for organic systems.

  6. A comparison between beef fed organically, in a feedlot, and on a ...

    Johnny

    2 Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, ... Keywords: Production system, organic, meat quality, profit margins, feedlot, beef cattle ..... Table 5 Calculation of price and feed margin, and profit or loss.

  7. Corned Beef: an Enigmatic Irish Dish

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín; Gallagher, Pádraic Óg

    2011-01-01

    Corned beef and cabbage, which is consumed in America in large quantities each Saint Patrick’s Day (17th March), is considered by most Americans to be the ultimate Irish dish. However, corned beef and cabbage is seldom eaten in modern day Ireland. It is widely reported that Irish immigrants replaced their beloved bacon and cabbage with corned beef and cabbage when they arrived in America, drawing on the corned beef supplied by their neighbouring Jewish butchers, but not all commentators beli...

  8. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  9. Osteogenesis imperfecta in Holstein-Friesian calves

    Agerholm, J.S.; Lund, A.M.; Bloch, B.; Reibel, J.; Basse, A.; Arnbjerg, J.

    1994-01-01

    Eight calves with osteogenesis imperfecta were born in a Danish Holstein-Friesian herd during a two-year period. In total 92 calves were born (84 normal), and all were sired by a clinically normal Holstein-Friesian bull. The defect was probably due to a de novo dominant mutation present as a gonadal mosaicism in the bull. Affected calves were characterised by multiple fractures, congenital bone deformations, generaljoint laxity, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and light blue sclerae. The skin seemed normal. Electron microscopical studies revealed slightly decreased average diameter of cutaneous collagen fibrils, while the diameter of collagen fibrils in tendons and ligaments was severely reduced. Abnormalities of collagen type I from skin and compact bone were not detected by biochemical analyses

  10. NEW INSTRUMENTS FOR CO-ORDINATION AND RISK SHARING WITHIN THE CANADIAN BEEF INDUSTRY

    Unterschultz, James R.

    2000-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Canadian beef industry has stated objectives of improving beef quality and consumer satisfaction while reducing unit costs of production. Suggested methods for achieving these goals include working towards value based marketing and improved information flows between different market levels through systems such as a birth to plate information system. These initiatives are designed to provide a more direct link between consumer product needs and breeding and management dec...

  11. Identifying efficiency trends for Queensland broad-acre beef enterprises

    Gregg, Daniel; Rolfe, John

    2010-01-01

    Productivity and efficiency improvements in agriculture have recently been targeted as Federal Government priorities in Australia. This research examined a dataset of 116 broad-acre beef enterprises from Queensland who participated in a program, Profit Probe, developed to improve management and profitability of enterprises. The aim of this research was to identify the sources, if any, of productivity growth for this sample of enterprises. Two potential sources of productivity growth were iden...

  12. High pressure processing for dark-firm-dry beef: effect on physical properties and oxidative deterioration during refrigerated storage

    Dicky Tri Utama; Seung Gyu Lee; Ki Ho Baek; Woon Si Chung; In Ae Chung; Jung Tae Jeon; Sung Ki Lee

    2017-01-01

    Objective Study on the application of high pressure processing (HPP) for dark-firm-dry (DFD) beef was conducted to observe whether HPP has any impact on physical properties and to evaluate oxidative deterioration during refrigerated storage under vacuum. Methods The longissimus lumborum muscles obtained from Friesian Holstein steers (33?0.5 months old) with 24-h postmortem pH higher than 6.0 were vacuum-packed and subjected to pressurization at 200, 400, and 600 MPa for 180 s at 15?C?2?C; the...

  13. Beef identification in industrial slaughterhouses using machine vision techniques

    J. F. Velez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate individual animal identification provides the producers with useful information to take management decisions about an individual animal or about the complete herd. This identification task is also important to ensure the integrity of the food chain. Consequently, many consumers are turning their attention to issues of quality in animal food production methods. This work describes an implemented solution for individual beef identification, taking in the time from cattle shipment arrival at the slaughterhouse until the animals are slaughtered and cut up. Our beef identification approach is image-based and the pursued goals are the correct automatic extraction and matching between some numeric information extracted from the beef ear-tag and the corresponding one from the Bovine Identification Document (BID. The achieved correct identification results by our method are near 90%, by considering the practical working conditions of slaughterhouses (i.e. problems with dirt and bad illumination conditions. Moreover, the presence of multiple machinery in industrial slaughterhouses make it difficult the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID beef tags due to the high risks of interferences between RFID and the other technologies in the workplace. The solution presented is hardware/software since it includes a specialized hardware system that was also developed. Our approach considers the current EU legislation for beef traceability and it reduces the economic cost of individual beef identification with respect to RFID transponders. The system implemented has been in use satisfactorily for more than three years in one of the largest industrial slaughterhouses in Spain.

  14. Detection of chicken contamination in beef meatball using duplex-PCR Cyt b gene

    Sari, E. P.; Kartikasari, L. R.; Cahyadi, M.

    2017-04-01

    Beef is one of expensive animal protein sources compared to other meats, on the other hand, chicken is cheap animal protein source. Mixing of chicken into beef meatball is possibly performed to decrease production cost. The aim of this study was to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball using Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene by duplex-PCR. Sample was designed and prepared as follows, 100% of chicken meatball, 100% of beef meatball and serial level of chicken contaminations in beef meatball (1, 5, 10 and 25%, respectively). Isolation of DNA genome from meatball was according to the guideline of gSYNCTM DNA Extraction Kit for animal tissue. The PCR reaction was carried out using KAPA2G Fast Multiplex Mix. This study found that the DNA genome was succesfully extracted. Moreover, chicken contamination in beef meatball was indicated by the presence of 227 bp DNA band on 2% of agarose gels. Current study revealed that duplex-PCR using Cyt b gene as a genetic marker was able to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball until 1% of chicken meat in the sample. It can be effectively used to identify contamination and also authenticate species origin in animal products to protect consumer from undesirable contents in the food.

  15. Financial feasibility analysis, small business farm beef cattle livestock in Gorontalo District

    Amir Halid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are: 1 analyze the responses of farmers on small business farm beef cattle livestock in Gorontalo District, 2 analyze the feasibility of small business farm beef cattle livestock in Gorontalo District, 3 analyze the estimated increase of beef cattle production in Gorontalo District. The research method that used is survey method. The data analysis used in this research are descriptive analysis, feasibility analysis, and forecasting analysis. The result of this research showed: 1 The development of beef cattle business is an industry in the field of agribusiness with no limited. Beef cattle farmers said this business could give a huge profits. It can be seen from people welfare that increased, this business does not require a large cost from the technical point of view (cost of facilities and infrastructure, 2 Based on financial analysis aspect of beef cattle livestock is feasible to develop. 3 The result of forecasting analysis can be seen that there will be increased production for the Year 2017-2019 at all intervals except at 1-2cows. Keyword: Financial Feasibility, Beef Cattle, Agribusiness

  16. A study of the level and dynamics of Eimeria populations in naturally infected, grazing beef cattle at various stages of production in the Mid-Atlantic USA.

    Lucas, Aaron S; Swecker, William S; Lindsay, David S; Scaglia, Guillermo; Neel, James P S; Elvinger, Francois C; Zajac, Anne M

    2014-05-28

    There is little information available on the species dynamics of eimerian parasites in grazing cattle in the central Appalachian region of the United States. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the level of infection and species dynamics of Eimeria spp. in grazing beef cattle of various age groups over the course of a year in the central Appalachian region. Rectal fecal samples were collected from male and female calves (n=72) monthly from May through October 2005, heifers only (n=36) monthly from November 2005 to April 2006, and cows (n=72) in May, July, and September, 2005. Eimeria spp. oocysts were seen in 399 of 414 (96%) fecal samples collected from the calves from May through October. Fecal oocysts counts (FOC) in the calves were lower (PEimeria spp. oocysts were detected in 198 of 213 (92%) of fecal samples collected from the 36 replacement heifers monthly from November to April and monthly mean FOC did not differ during this time period. The prevalence of oocyst shedding increased to 100% in calves in September and remained near 100% in the replacement heifers during the sampling period. Eimeria spp. oocysts were also detected in 150 of 200 (75%) samples collected in May, July, and September from the cows and mean FOC did not differ significantly over the sampling period. Eimeria spp. composition was dominated by Eimeria bovis in fecal samples collected from calves, replacement heifers and cows. Mixed Eimeria spp. infections were, however, common in all groups and 13 Eimeria spp. oocysts were identified throughout the sampling period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A qualitative study of Southern U.S. consumers' top of the mind beliefs about the safety of local beef.

    Telligman, Amy L; Worosz, Michelle R; Bratcher, Christy L

    2017-02-01

    Following the Reasoned Action Approach, the aim of this study was to explore consumers' top-of-mind food safety beliefs about local beef. Beef consumers recruited from farmers' markets (N = 101) and grocery stores (N = 174) across the state of Alabama participated in face-to-face intercept surveys. The survey included closed- and open-ended questions designed to elicit consumers' food safety beliefs about local beef. Results indicate that beef safety was not a top-of-mind concern for a majority of participants, however of the total number of participants familiar with the term "local beef" (n = 168, 61%), a majority (n = 105, 63%) associated local beef with improved food safety. Content analysis of verbatim text revealed that consumers believed local beef was safer because they possess greater knowledge about the product and less shipping was involved. Respondents also believe that locally processed meat is derived from small-scale operations which provided the assurance that local beef is more likely to meet U.S. regulatory standards and therefore be safer. Consumers believe they have more oversight of local beef due to both their relationships with supply chain actors and proximity which also provided food safety assurances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quality Assurance "Down Under": Market Access and Product Differentiation

    John D. Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Australia and New Zealand are major beef producing countries and major beef exporters. Unlike the case in the United States, where less than 10 percent of beef is exported, approximately 60 percent of Australia's and 85 percent of New Zealand's beef production is exported. Because of their dependency on a diverse set of export customers, these two countries are developing quality assurance programs that differentiate their beef in the global market and assure individual customers that the pro...

  19. A case of mesothelioma in a Holstein cow

    Francoz, D.

    2004-01-01

    A seven-year old Holstein cow was referred to the Saint Hyacinth (Quebec) veterinary school for anorexia, progressive weight loss, rapid decline in milk production and abdominal pain. Due to the presence of abdominal and thoracic fluid, abdominal pain and tachycardia with jugular pulse, initially a possible diagnosis was traumatic reticuloperitonitis and pericarditis, but excluded after radiography and ultrasonography. On exploratory laparotomy, numerous 1 to 50 mm diameter nodules were seen on the peritoneum and throughout the abdominal serosa. The animal was euthanased due to the presence of generalised tumour. On histopathology, a mesothelioma was diagnosed. Mesothelioma is rarely diagnosed in cattle. However, it is impossible to know whether this is due to its rarity or to the fact that it may be easily mistaken for other diseases and its histological diagnosis is currently difficult [it

  20. Survey of transportation procedures, management practices, and health assessment related to quality, quantity, and value for market beef and dairy cows and bulls.

    Nicholson, J D W; Nicholson, K L; Frenzel, L L; Maddock, R J; Delmore, R J; Lawrence, T E; Henning, W R; Pringle, T D; Johnson, D D; Paschal, J C; Gill, R J; Cleere, J J; Carpenter, B B; Machen, R V; Banta, J P; Hale, D S; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W

    2013-10-01

    This survey consisted of data collected from 23 beef harvest plants to document transportation procedures, management practices, and health assessments of market beef and dairy cows and bulls (about n ≅ 7,000 animals). Gooseneck/bumper-pulled trailers were used more often to transport dairy cattle than beef cattle to market whereas tractor-trailers were used more often to transport beef cattle than dairy cattle. All loads (n = 103) met the American Meat Institute Foundation guidelines for spacing. Loads where more than 3% of the cattle slipped during unloading were observed in 27.3% of beef loads and 29.0% of the dairy loads. Beef loads had numerically greater usage of electrical prods (32.4%) versus dairy loads (15.4%) during unloading and were more likely to have a variety of driving aids used more aggressively on them. Fewer cattle had horns, brands, and mud/manure contamination on hides than in the previous survey in 1999. The predominant hide color for beef cows was black (44.2%) whereas the predominant color for dairy cows was the Holstein pattern (92.9%). Fewer cattle displayed evidence of bovine ocular neoplasia (2.9%) than in previous surveys in 1994 (8.5%) and 1999 (4.3%). Knots on live cattle were found less in the round (0.5%) and more in the shoulder region (4.6%) than in 1999 (1.4% and 0.4%, respectively). Dairy cows were more frequently lame in 2007 (48.7%) than 1999 (39.2%) whereas beef cows had numerically less lameness (16.3% vs. 26.6%, respectively). Most beef cows (62.3%) and dairy cows (68.9%) received midpoint body condition scores (3, 4, and 5 for beef; 2 and 3 for dairy). Beef cows had higher numerical percentages of no defects present (72.0%) versus dairy cows (63.0%) when evaluated for a variety of reproductive, health, or management conditions. Continued improvements in several key factors related to transportation, management, and health were observed in this survey, which could result in increased value in market beef and dairy cows

  1. Um estudo da implantação de um otimizador de mix para o setor agropecuário Study of the implementation of a production mix optimizer for the beef sector

    Guilherme Luís Roehe Vaccaro

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve uma abordagem de implantação de um otimizador de mix de produção em empresas do setor agropecuário, mais propriamente em frigoríficos. A implantação de um otimizador de mix envolve diversas áreas da organização, uma vez que esta é uma ferramenta sistêmica e que tem por objetivo gerar um plano mestre de produção orientado ao mercado, respeitando capacidades finitas agregadas e otimizando a lucratividade da empresa. O artigo discute as dimensões envolvidas na implantação de um projeto dessa natureza, bem como os principais benefícios de sua implantação.This paper proposes the implementation of a mix optimization tool for the beef sector, particularly for meat packing plants. The implementation of a mix optimization tool involves different areas of the organization, since this is a systemic tool for creating a market-oriented master production plan based on aggregate finite capacities, which optimizes the company's profitability. The article discusses the dimensions involved in the implementation of such a project and the main benefits resulting from it.

  2. Beef Quality Identification Using Thresholding Method and Decision Tree Classification Based on Android Smartphone

    Kusworo Adi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beef is one of the animal food products that have high nutrition because it contains carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Therefore, the quality of beef should be maintained so that consumers get good beef quality. Determination of beef quality is commonly conducted visually by comparing the actual beef and reference pictures of each beef class. This process presents weaknesses, as it is subjective in nature and takes a considerable amount of time. Therefore, an automated system based on image processing that is capable of determining beef quality is required. This research aims to develop an image segmentation method by processing digital images. The system designed consists of image acquisition processes with varied distance, resolution, and angle. Image segmentation is done to separate the images of fat and meat using the Otsu thresholding method. Classification was carried out using the decision tree algorithm and the best accuracies were obtained at 90% for training and 84% for testing. Once developed, this system is then embedded into the android programming. Results show that the image processing technique is capable of proper marbling score identification.

  3. Ecosystems Potency of Small and Outer Islands of Indonesia for Beef Cattle Farming Development

    Ismeth Inounu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian archipelago consists of five main islands and more than seventeen thousand of small islands. These small islands are very effective as natural barrier to the spread of contagious animal diseases. This situation is very advantageous to develop many programs such as beef cattle farming to support beef self sufficient program in 2010. However, there are some constraints in developing of these small islands, namely human resources, natural resources, infrastructure, mean of communications and transportations and lack of intra sector integrated coordination. In taking the advantageous of developing small islands as a screening base and quarantine area, animal production technologies and veterinary science are much needed. The development can be done in integration with transmigration development program so that the beef cattle development could become source of income and job opportunity for the transmigran and local inhabitant as well. Beef cattle farming scheme are recommended by doing cow-calf operation or fattening. Political support from government and legislative are needed in establishment of infrastructure in the area chosen as beef cattle farming location. Besides, it need facilitations in land procurement for beef cattle farming, legal aspect, supports of law enforcement, simple regulation in land used and zone management planning, regulation in controlling beef importation, and credit with minimum interest rate.

  4. The Effects of Thyme and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Holstein Calves Consuming High Concentrate Diet

    A. R. Vakili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY and cinnamon (CIN essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive, 2-THY (5 g/d/calf and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf. Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites.

  5. Changes in fat content of pork and beef after pan-frying under different conditions

    Clausen, Ina; Ovesen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    ) gained 0.4 g. Similar results were obtained for low- (8%) and high-fat (12%) beef patties. Meatballs (7.5% fat initially) gained up to 2.4 g fat/100 g raw product depending on the cooking conditions. The greatest fat loss was 7.2 g for high fat ground beef (12% fat), which was pan-fried and then rinsed...

  6. CONSUMER DEMAND FOR AND ATTITUDES TOWARD ALTERNATIVE BEEF LABELING STRATEGIES IN FRANCE, GERMANY, AND THE UK

    Roosen, Jutta; Lusk, Jayson L.; Fox, John A.

    2001-01-01

    A wide array of food safety scares and breakdowns have led to loss of consumer confidence in the quality and safety of beef products. To counteract such concerns, firms and regulators have the ability to utilize brands or labels to signal quality. Utilizing a mail survey in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, we analyzed consumer preferences for alternative beef labeling strategies. Using an ordered probit model and a double bounded logit model, we estimate consumer preferences for alter...

  7. Veal calves produce less antibodies against C. perfringens alpha toxin compared to beef calves

    Valgaeren, Bonnie; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, wher...

  8. Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreak Associated with Restaurant Beef Grinding.

    Torso, Lauren M; Voorhees, Ronald E; Forest, Stephen A; Gordon, Andrew Z; Silvestri, Sharon A; Kissler, Bonnie; Schlackman, Jessica; Sandt, Carol H; Toma, Paul; Bachert, Joel; Mertz, Kristen J; Harrison, Lee H

    2015-07-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a common cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Beef ground at establishments regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service is routinely tested for E. coli O157:H7. Prior to December 2013, boxed beef product (wholesale cuts of beef, such as beef loin, packaged into bags and boxed for shipping) was not always tested for this pathogen. Downstream processors or retailers may grind the product; and, if the ground beef is not cooked to the recommended temperature, pathogens on the exterior of the beef introduced to the interior through grinding may survive. On 18 October 2013, the Allegheny County Health Department identified two E. coli O157:H7 cases, both of whom were food handlers at restaurant A, a restaurant that ground locally produced boxed beef for hamburgers on site. Case finding was conducted through public messaging, employee surveys, and disease surveillance. All potential cases were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. A confirmed case was defined as laboratory-confirmed E. coli O157:H7 with exposure to restaurant A. A probable case was defined as a patient with compatible symptoms and exposure to restaurant A but without laboratory confirmation. All human and food isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis. The analysis identified 14 confirmed and 10 probable cases of E. coli; 18 nonintact ground beef samples tested positive for E. coli O157:H7. Nine confirmed cases were restaurant A employees. All confirmed cases recalled eating a restaurant A hamburger in the 10 days before illness onset; most cases reported consuming medium to rare hamburgers. Multiple pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis patterns were identified among both the human and ground beef isolates, and the patient isolates matched those found in ground beef samples. Restaurant A

  9. Canadian beef quality audit.

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    aged. Based on January 1996 prices, the economic analysis showed that the Canadian beef industry lost $70.52 per head or $189.6 million annually from quality nonconformities. Methods identified to reduce these nonconformities included improvements in management, animal identification, handling, genetic selection, marketing, grading, and information transfer. PMID:9105719

  10. Beef alliances: motivations, extent, and future prospects.

    Schroeder, Ted C; Kovanda, Joseph

    2003-07-01

    With their growth, it is important to consider how alliances will impact the beef industry in the future. Alliances have the potential to make sweeping changes to cattle production, live and feeder cattle marketing, food safety protocols, use of government grades and standards, ownership structure, supply chain management, wholesale and retail product marketing, risk management, and many other industry activities. In an effort to address these issues, this article addresses the following questions: What is an alliance? What has motivated their proliferation? What have we learned from alliances? What aspects of alliances affect their likelihood of success or failure? What is the future of alliances? Are they a fad or a long-term evolving industry structural change?

  11. You say "lean finely textured beef," I say "pink slime".

    Reid, Rita-Marie Cain

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. (ABC) broadcast a segment on its evening news show regarding the manufacture of "lean finely textured beef" by Beef Products, Inc. (BPI). The broadcast, as well as follow-up reports and social media communications, repeatedly referred to the product as "pink slime," a term originated by a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) employee for the processed meat. The market backlash against the product was immediate and intense. Ultimately, BPI closed three processing plants, cut hundreds of jobs, and filed for bankruptcy. BPI sued ABC and others for food libel, defamation, and tortious interference. This research analyzes those claims and defenses and discusses the future of such cases.

  12. Planning Of Beef Cattle Development in District Blora, Central Java, Indonesia

    Santoso, Budi; Prasetiyono, Bambang Waluyo Hadi Eko

    2018-02-01

    Continuity of meat supply availability is generally related to the number and production of livestock in a region. Therefore, a framework of sustainable livestock development is needed to increase the production and productivity of livestock. Blora Regency is one of the areas in the Province of Central Java with the largest number of large livestock, primarily beef cattle. Blora Regency has a population of 199.584 beef cattle. Agricultural waste results in Blora Regency can be used as supporting the availability of feed for livestock sector. This is supported by the availability of forage feed which is very abundant.Based on these potentials, it is necessary to assess the characteristics of natural land for the development of beef cattle farms. Therefore, the objectives of this study are (1) to assess the environmental suitability of the environment for the development of cattle ranching that is grazed and stacked; (2) to analyze the potential of forage source of fodder and bearing capacity for beef cattle farming; (3) to analyze the centers of activity of development of beef cattle; (4) to prepare direction and strategy of beef cattle development in Blora Regency.

  13. Chemical Composition and Storage Stability of Beef burger Steaks as Influenced by Cooking and Irradiation

    Tawfik, S.S.; El kabbani, H.M.; Sallam, M.H.; Attia, A.I.

    2007-01-01

    Meat industry in Egypt has a great economic potential, but till now it has not received adequate attention. Beef burgers were prepared (50 g, 1 cm thick steaks) and aerobically packaged into polyethylene pages then divided into control, cooking and gamma-irradiated (3 and 4 kGy) groups. Samples stored at (5±degree c) and periodically judged after 5, 10, 15, 20,25 and 30 days. The results showed that irradiation increased the shelf life of stored cooked beef burger, as compared to control samples. In addition, the dose of 3 kGy is considered the most adequate for irradiation of this meat product because it obtained the same results reflected by 4 kGy. The microbiological, chemical and sensorial testing for stored cooking and irradiated beef burger steaks were examined according an experimental design presented conditions that were adequate for human consumption of this product during the refrigeration storage periods. For the non-irradiated beef burger samples, bacterial contamination was the main limiting factor with respect to the shelf life, whereas for the irradiated beef burger samples this factor was lipid oxidation. Conclusion: The cooking before food irradiation may be of practical efficacy in enhancing the technical effectiveness and feasibility of irradiation of a variety of meat products. Recommendation: The necessity for a proper preservation method for marketing the processing beef burger steaks in each of its numerous retail markets should be established central irradiation units for processing and packing before distribution in these retail markets

  14. Planning Of Beef Cattle Development in District Blora, Central Java, Indonesia

    Santoso Budi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuity of meat supply availability is generally related to the number and production of livestock in a region. Therefore, a framework of sustainable livestock development is needed to increase the production and productivity of livestock. Blora Regency is one of the areas in the Province of Central Java with the largest number of large livestock, primarily beef cattle. Blora Regency has a population of 199.584 beef cattle. Agricultural waste results in Blora Regency can be used as supporting the availability of feed for livestock sector. This is supported by the availability of forage feed which is very abundant.Based on these potentials, it is necessary to assess the characteristics of natural land for the development of beef cattle farms. Therefore, the objectives of this study are (1 to assess the environmental suitability of the environment for the development of cattle ranching that is grazed and stacked; (2 to analyze the potential of forage source of fodder and bearing capacity for beef cattle farming; (3 to analyze the centers of activity of development of beef cattle; (4 to prepare direction and strategy of beef cattle development in Blora Regency.

  15. Management practices to control gastrointestinal parasites in dairy and beef goats in Minas Gerais; Brazil.

    Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; do Carmo, Filipe Borges; Gouveia, Gabriela Canabrava; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2011-03-10

    Parasitic infection is recognized worldwide as a limiting factor in the production of goats, and various control methods are used to reduce economic losses, often without considering the epidemiology of the parasites. This has led to the development of highly tolerant parasite populations and the presence of chemical residues in the beef and milk. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of goat farmers about parasitic diseases and to correlate this with the epidemiology of endoparasites and parasite control practices in goat farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analysis was based on a questionnaire applied by trained veterinarians. The sample was homogeneous throughout the state, covering 18.4% (157/853) of municipalities. Eighty-four dairy goat farms in 81 municipalities and 200 properties with beef goats in 76 municipalities were evaluated. The herd size per goat farm ranged from 4 to 57 (average 24) for beef herds and from 2 to 308 (average 63) for dairy farms. The majority of the beef herd production was extensive and semi-extensive (98.5%), while the dairy herds were maintained under intensive farming (98.8%). The mixed production of goats and sheep was reported by 36.5% of beef goat farmers and by 20.2% of dairy goat farmers. Among the beef goats farms on which the technological level was determined, 2.0% were categorized as having high technological level, 34.5% as medium, and 63.5% as low. Of the 84 dairy farms, 30% operated at a high, 47% at a medium, and 23% at a low technological level. The adoption of practices to reduce parasitism, such as the quarantine of animals, treatment of newly arrived animals, regular cleaning of the floor, and technical assistance, was significantly higher on dairy farms than on beef farms. Although 85.7% of dairy farmers and 83% of beef farmers medicate their animals, the treatments were performed without technical criteria, and deworming intervals ranged from 30 to 120 days or more. The

  16. Bridging Expectations: Extension Agents’ Perception of a Gap between Expectations and Experience when Implementing the Indonesian Beef Self-Sufficiency Programme

    Gayatri, Siwi; Vaarst, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Beef self-sufficiency programme (BSSP) was launched in Indonesia in 2004 in response to the massive import of beef from other countries. The objective of the present article is to explore and discuss how Indonesian extension agents perceived the practical implementation of the programme, including...... of the programme, the future of self-sufficiency regarding beef production in the country, and how this learning could be captured and used for the future....

  17. Consumer perception of Brazilian traced beef

    Júlio Otávio Jardim Barcellos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine consumers understanding of beef traceability, identifying how consumers value this meat and traceability elements to be presented on retail shelves. The method used in this study was a survey through the internet applying the Sphinx software. The sample consisted of 417 consumers, mostly living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Consumers are aware of certified beef, consider it important, but this is not a demand. As to traced beef, most consumers (62.4% are in favor of mandatory traceability of beef cattle in Brazil, but 86.6% disagree with the destination of traced beef only to the foreign market. The majority of people are willing to pay more for traced beef and consider traceability a market opportunity, used as a differentiating tool.

  18. Pedigree Analysis of Holstein Bulls in Slovakia

    Ivan Pavlík

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in Holstein bulls population in Slovakia by the methods of pedigree analysis. The population was represented by the bulls with reserve of frozen semen doses in AI centers. Whole reference population consisted of 169 bulls born from 1997 to 2009. For calculation of diversity parameters the program Endog v.4.8 (Gutiérrez, Goyache, 2005 was used. An average maximal number of generations traced was 9.35, 3.06 complete generations and equivalent number of generations traced was 5.71. An average coefficient of inbreeding was 2.48%, individual increase in inbreeding was 0.53% and average relatedness was 2.72%. The 167 bulls from 169 were inbred (98.82%. An average number of offsprings per bull was 107.70 with maximal number 1,641 offsprings. The effective population size computed via individual increase in inbreeding was 94.50. The effective number of founders was 88, effective number of ancestors 31 and only 13 ancestors described 50% of diversity. From these results we can conclude that the diversity of Holstein bulls is reduced by more factors (inbreeding, high relatedness, bottlenecks. Obtained results point out the need to use new outbred bull lines for mating cows.

  19. Optimum body size of Holstein replacement heifers.

    Hoffman, P C

    1997-03-01

    Criteria that define optimum body size of replacement heifers are required by commercial dairy producers to evaluate replacement heifer management programs. Historically recommended body size criteria have been based on live BW measurements. Numerous research studies have observed a positive relationship between BW at first calving and first lactation milk yield, which has served as the impetus for using live BW to define body size of replacement heifers. Live BW is, however, not the only available measurement to define body size. Skeletal measurements such as wither height, length, and pelvic area have been demonstrated to be related to first lactation performance and (or) dystocia. Live BW measurements also do not define differences in body composition. Differences in body composition of replacement heifers at first calving are also related to key performance variables. An updated research data base is available for the modern Holstein genotype to incorporate measures of skeletal growth and body composition with BW when defining body size. These research projects also lend insight into the relative importance of measurements that define body size of replacement heifers. Incorporation of these measurements from current research into present BW recommendations should aid commercial dairy producers to better define replacement heifer growth and management practices. This article proposes enhancements in defining optimum body size and growth characteristics of Holstein replacement heifers.

  20. Prevalence, Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella Serovars from Retail Beef in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Thung, Tze Y; Radu, Son; Mahyudin, Nor A; Rukayadi, Yaya; Zakaria, Zunita; Mazlan, Nurzafirah; Tan, Boon H; Lee, Epeng; Yeoh, Soo L; Chin, Yih Z; Tan, Chia W; Kuan, Chee H; Basri, Dayang F; Wan Mohamed Radzi, Che W J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in retail beef from different retail markets of Selangor area, as well as, to assess their pathogenic potential and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 240 retail beef meat samples (chuck = 60; rib = 60; round = 60; sirloin = 60) were randomly collected. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) in combination with the most probable number (MPN) method was employed to detect Salmonella spp., S . Enteritidis and S . Typhimurium in the meat samples. The prevalence of Salmonella spp., S . Enteritidis and S . Typhimurium in 240 beef meat samples were 7.50, 1.25, and 0.83%, respectively. The microbial loads of total Salmonella was found in the range of retail beef products tested were widely contaminated with multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella and various virulence genes are present among the isolated Salmonella serovars.

  1. Parâmetros nutricionais e produtivos em bovinos de corte a pasto alimentados com diferentes quantidades de suplemento Nutritional and productive parameters of beef cattle on pasture fed different amounts of supplement

    Polyana Albino Silva Machado

    2011-06-01

    supplement on the intake, digestibility, body weight gain and microbial synthesis efficiency in beef cattle. Four Holstein-Zebu steers fistulated in the esophagus, rumen and abomasum with an average of 250 kg of body weight were used in experiment 1. The supplement was made up cottonseed meal, ground corn grain, mineral mixture and urea/ammonium sulfate. The diets were: control (salt and supplements levels of 0.33, 0.66 and 1.00% of body weight (BW. Maximum intake of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and total digestible nutrients (TDN were estimated at 1.09, 0.73 and 1.20% of BW, respectively. It was observed a linear intake increase to organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC intake as supplement offer increased. The total digestibility from DM, OM, CP, EE and NDF increased linearly with the intake of supplement but no affected on microbial efficiency. Nineteen Zebu steers aging 18 months and mean body weight of 320 kg were used in experiment 2. The diets were: maintenance, control (salt, and the daily supplement offer of 1, 2 and 3 kg. It was observed linear increase in DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF and NFC intake as supplement offer increased. Maximum intake of TDN, diet TDN content and average daily gain (ADG were estimated to occur as 2.88, 2.62 and 2.69 kg of supplement offer, respectively. A quadratic effect was observed for total digestibility in all diet components. The microbial efficiency was not influenced by diet supplementation. The neutral detergent fiber digestibility is highest for a intake of approximately 1.5 kg of the supplement/day, which results in the best response to the ADG obtained with the intake of 400 g of CP.

  2. Consumo, digestibilidade e excreção de uréia e derivados de purinas em vacas de diferentes níveis de produção de leite Intake, digestibility and nitrogen metabolism in Holstein cows with different milk production levels

    Mário Luiz Chizzotti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do nível de produção de leite sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes (MS, MO, EE, PB, FDNcp e CNF corrigidos, o consumo de NDT, a produção de proteína microbiana e a excreção de compostos nitrogenados na urina. Foram avaliadas as concentrações de N uréico no soro (NUS e no leite (NUL de animais de diferentes níveis de produção de leite. Foram comparadas as metodologias de coletas de urina spot e total para quantificação do fluxo de N microbiano. Quinze vacas holandesas foram alocadas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos, de acordo com a produção de leite: 5,88 (baixa; 18,54 (média e 32,6 kg de leite/dia (alta. A dieta foi constituída de silagem de milho fornecida à vontade e 1 kg de concentrado para cada 3 kg de leite produzido. Os consumos de todos os nutrientes, exceto FDNcp, foram maiores nos animais mais produtivos. As digestibilidades de MS e MO e o teor de NDT não diferiram entre os tratamentos, mas as digestibilidades da PB e da FDNcp foram influenciadas pelo nível de produção, sendo maior e menor, respectivamente, nos animais de alta produção. Os teores de NUS e NUL e a excreção de compostos nitrogenados na urina foram altamente correlacionados e superiores nos animais mais produtivos, indicando que a concentração ótima varia com o nível de produção de leite. A produção microbiana não diferiu entre as metodologias de coleta spot e total de urina, sendo inferior nos animais menos produtivos. Assim, a coleta de urina spot pode ser utilizada para estimar a excreção de compostos nitrogenados na urina e a produção de proteína microbiana no rúmen.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of milk production level on intake, digestibility of nutrients, microbial protein synthesis, and nitrogen (N metabolism in Holstein cows. It was also of particular interest to compare spot urine sampling and total urine collection as

  3. Rosemary and Pitanga Aqueous Leaf Extracts On Beef Patties Stability under Cold Storage

    Flávia Carolina Vargas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Because processing and storage conditions affect several beef quality attributes, the food industry uses a variety of synthetic antioxidants. However, some synthetic antioxidants have been questioned regarding its safety, and thus the interest in using natural antioxidants in food products is increasing. This paper aimed at assessing leaf aqueous extracts of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus and Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora Linnaeus as antioxidants in beef cold storage. After 48h storage, patties added of Rosemary leaf extracts showed increased pH. Patties added of Pitanga extracts had the lowest a* color values. Oxymyoglobin levels were significantly higher for Negative control, than for Pitanga treatment. The 10% extract addition increased lipid oxidation of beef patties. Correlation coefficients between lipid and myoglobin oxidations were all above 0.85. Pitanga leaf extracts negatively influenced beef color, probably because of its higher chlorophyll content. Lipid oxidation of beef patties was increased with the addition of leaf extracts. The inclusion of 10% leaf extract into beef patties seems not suitable, because it may enhance the amount of prooxidant compounds, as well as the amount of substances capable of reacting with lipid secondary products. Correlations between lipid and myoglobin oxidations demonstrated strong relationship.

  4. Evaluation of heat stress on Tarentaise and Holstein cow performance in the Mediterranean climate

    Bellagi, Rahma; Martin, Bruno; Chassaing, Chantal; Najar, Taha; Pomiès, Dominique

    2017-08-01

    This study was undertaken to first quantify the effect of heat stress on milk yield and components of Tarentaise in comparison to Holstein cows. A dataset of 16,143 monthly individual records of production traits was collected for 435 Tarentaise and 543 Holstein cows from 21 farms in Tunisia (2009 to 2014). This dataset was merged with meteorological data from 5 public stations relative to the 21 farms. The temperature-humidity index (THI), calculated as a combination of ambient temperature and relative humidity, was used to characterize heat stress. When the THI increased from an average value of 53.7 in winter to 75.4 in summer, the Holstein and Tarentaise cows decreased their milk production by 0.93 and 0.15 kg/day, respectively. Milk fat, protein, and urea content decreased similarly in both breeds (-2.20 g/kg, -1.40 g/kg, and -14 mg/L, respectively), and the milk somatic cell count increased for Holstein cows (+352,000/mL) while decreased for Tarentaise cows (-160,000/mL). The second aim of this study was to describe the relationship between the variations of the milk yields between the summer and the winter (Δ milk yields) and some barn characteristics during the hot season. A survey carried out on 19 of the 21 previous farms permitted to conclude that the closed buildings led to a higher decrease in milk yield between the summer and winter than the open buildings (-1.13 vs. -0.27 kg/day). A metallic roof had a more negative impact on Δ milk yields than the other roof types (-1.04 vs. -0.15 kg/day).

  5. Genetics of heat tolerance for milk yield and quality in Holsteins.

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Pereira, R J; Stefani, G; El Faro, L

    2017-01-01

    Tropical and sub-tropical climates are characterized by high temperature and humidity, during at least part of the year. Consequently, heat stress is common in Holstein cattle and productive and reproductive losses are frequent. Our objectives were as follows: (1) to quantify losses in production and quality of milk due to heat stress; (2) to estimate genetic correlations within and between milk yield (MY) and milk quality traits; and (3) to evaluate the trends of genetic components of tolerance to heat stress in multiple lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows. Thus, nine analyses using two-trait random regression animal models were carried out to estimate variance components and genetic parameters over temperature-humidity index (THI) values for MY and milk quality traits (three lactations: MY×fat percentage (F%), MY×protein percentage (P%) and MY×somatic cell score (SCS)) of Brazilian Holstein cattle. It was demonstrated that the effects of heat stress can be harmful for traits related to milk production and milk quality of Holstein cattle even though most herds were maintained in a modified environment, for example, with fans and sprinklers. For MY, the effect of heat stress was more detrimental in advanced lactations (-0.22 to -0.52 kg/day per increase of 1 THI unit). In general, the mean heritability estimates were higher for lower THI values and longer days in milk for all traits. In contrast, the heritability estimates for SCS increased with increasing THI values in the second and third lactation. For each trait studied, lower genetic correlations (different from unity) were observed between opposite extremes of THI (THI 47 v. THI 80) and in advanced lactations. The genetic correlations between MY and milk quality trait varied across the THI scale and lactations. The genotype×environment interaction due to heat stress was more important for MY and SCS, particularly in advanced lactations, and can affect the genetic relationship between MY and milk quality

  6. Comparison between conventional and ultrasonic preparation of beef tallow biodiesel

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Instituto de Quimica - Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40.170-280 - Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Assis, Julio C.R.; Santos, Iran T.V.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M. [Universidade Salvador - UNIFACS - Departamento de Engenharia e Arquitetura, - Av. Cardeal da Silva 132, 40.220-141 - Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Mendonca, Daniel R. [Escola Politecnica - Universidade Federal da Bahia, Av. Aristides Novis 2, 40.210-630, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Teixeira, Josanaide S.R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologica da Bahia - IFBAHIA - Rua Emidio de Morais S/N, 40.625-650, Salvador - BA (Brazil)

    2009-09-15

    Tallow is biodiesel feedstock that, due to its highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energetic, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. Transesterification of fatty acids by means of ultrasonic energy has been used for biodiesel production from different vegetable oils. However, application of ultrasonic irradiation for biodiesel production from beef tallow has received little attention. In this work, the transesterification of beef tallow with methanol was performed in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst using ultrasound irradiation (400 W, 24 kHz). The reaction time, conversion and biodiesel quality were compared with that seen in conventional transesterification. The results indicated that the reaction conversion and biodiesel quality were similar; however, the use of ultrasonic irradiation decreased the reaction time, showing that this method may be a promising alternative to the conventional method. (author)

  7. Consumers' willingness to pay for irradiated prepared ground beef

    Nayga, R.M. Jr.; Woodward, R.; Aiew, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating willingness to pay for reducing the risk of contracting foodborne illness using a non-hypothetical experiment utilizing real food products (i.e. prepared ground beef), real cash and actual exchange in a market setting. Respondents were given positive information about the nature of food irradiation. Single bounded and one and one-half bounded models are developed using dichotomous choice experiments. The results indicate that individuals are willing to pay for a reduction in the risk of foodborne illness once informed about the nature of food irradiation. Respondents are willing to pay a premium of about US $0.77 for 450 g (1 pound) of irradiated ground beef, which is higher than the cost of irradiating the product. (author)

  8. Comparison between conventional and ultrasonic preparation of beef tallow biodiesel

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G.; Assis, Julio C.R.; Santos, Iran T.V.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M.; Mendonca, Daniel R.; Teixeira, Josanaide S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Tallow is biodiesel feedstock that, due to its highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energetic, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. Transesterification of fatty acids by means of ultrasonic energy has been used for biodiesel production from different vegetable oils. However, application of ultrasonic irradiation for biodiesel production from beef tallow has received little attention. In this work, the transesterification of beef tallow with methanol was performed in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst using ultrasound irradiation (400 W, 24 kHz). The reaction time, conversion and biodiesel quality were compared with that seen in conventional transesterification. The results indicated that the reaction conversion and biodiesel quality were similar; however, the use of ultrasonic irradiation decreased the reaction time, showing that this method may be a promising alternative to the conventional method. (author)

  9. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  10. High Sierra Beef Progress Update

    Ingram, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Research similar efforts in other regions Research was completed on similar efforts in other regions. There are over 300 grass-fed beef marketing operations across the United States. Here in California, there are approximately 10. Most are selling approximately 50-60 head per year. This appears to be a marketing limit for those who produce, process, market and distribute on their own. Additional labor and space requirements for marketing, storage for dry-aging, and distribution appea...

  11. A comparison of consumer sensory acceptance, purchase intention, and willingness to pay for high quality United States and Spanish beef under different information scenarios.

    Beriain, M J; Sánchez, M; Carr, T R

    2009-10-01

    Tests were performed to identify variation across consumer evaluation ratings for 2 types of beef (Spanish yearling bull beef and US Choice and Prime beef), using 3 information levels (blind scores; muscle fat content + production conditions; and all production data including geographical origin) and 3 consumer evaluation ratings (hedonic rating, willingness to pay, and purchase intention). Further testing was carried out to assess the extent to which expert evaluations converged with those of untrained consumers. Taste panel tests involving 290 consumers were conducted in Navarra, a region in northern Spain. The beef samples were 20 loins of Pyrenean breed yearling bulls that had been born and raised on private farms located in this Spanish region and 20 strip loins from high quality US beef that ranged from high Choice to average Prime US quality grades. The Spanish beef were slaughtered at 507 +/- 51 kg of BW and 366 +/- 23 d of age. The US beef proved more acceptable to consumers and received greater ratings from the trained panel, with greater scores for juiciness (3.33), tenderness (3.33), flavor (3.46), and fat content (5.83) than for Spanish beef (2.77, 2.70, 3.14, 1.17). The differences in sensory variable rating were more pronounced for the Spanish beef than for the US beef, always increasing with the level of information. The variation in the ratings across different information levels was statistically significant in the case of the Spanish beef, whereas the variation observed in the ratings of the US beef was highly significant in the willingness of consumers to pay a premium. Consumers who appreciated greater quality were also more willing to pay for the additional level of quality.

  12. Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of Brazilian beef.

    Cederberg, Christel; Persson, U Martin; Neovius, Kristian; Molander, Sverker; Clift, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Effects of land use changes are starting to be included in estimates of life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so-called carbon footprints (CFs), from food production. Their omission can lead to serious underestimates, particularly for meat. Here we estimate emissions from the conversion of forest to pasture in the Legal Amazon Region (LAR) of Brazil and present a model to distribute the emissions from deforestation over products and time subsequent to the land use change. Expansion of cattle ranching for beef production is a major cause of deforestation in the LAR. The carbon footprint of beef produced on newly deforested land is estimated at more than 700 kg CO(2)-equivalents per kg carcass weight if direct land use emissions are annualized over 20 years. This is orders of magnitude larger than the figure for beef production on established pasture on non-deforested land. While Brazilian beef exports have originated mainly from areas outside the LAR, i.e. from regions not subject to recent deforestation, we argue that increased production for export has been the key driver of the pasture expansion and deforestation in the LAR during the past decade and this should be reflected in the carbon footprint attributed to beef exports. We conclude that carbon footprint standards must include the more extended effects of land use changes to avoid giving misleading information to policy makers, retailers, and consumers.

  13. Physical chemistry and microscopic characteristics of matured beef peccary (Tayassu tajacu

    Hugo Rangel Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Fernandes H.R., Oliveira L.C., Ribeiro S.C.A. & Lourenço L.F.H. [Physical chemistry and microscopic characteristics of matured beef peccary (Tayassu tajacu.] Características físicas e microscópicas da carne maturada de caititu (Tayassu tajacu. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:167-172, 2015. Universidade do Estado do Pará, Travessa Enéas Pinheiro, 2626, Marco, Belém, PA 66113-200, Brasil. Email: suziar@yahoo.com The objective of this article was to analyze the physical and microscopic matured beef peccary. Were performed analyses of shear force, water holding capacity, weight loss by cooking and scanning electron microscopy in matured beef. The matured beef presented values of shear force between 3.76 and 5.26 %, water activity between 0,96 to 0,98 and weight loss by cooking between 19,46 and 21,17%. Therefore, it was found that the matured beef peccary, were considered soft according to analysis of shear force. The matured beef at 0ºC for 12 days was considered the best product for having less weight loss by cooking and softness according to analysis of shear force and scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  15. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R.; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin. PMID:26184311

  16. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves.

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-07-10

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  17. Optimising reproductive performance of beef cows and replacement heifers.

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2014-05-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd is fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognisant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires significant technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval for each successive calving, conception and pregnancy rate and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals and number of calves weaned over her lifetime. Puberty in heifers is a consequence of the interactive effects of genetics and both pre- and post-weaning nutrition. Early onset of puberty is essential to achieving the first main reproductive target for beef cow herds; first calving at 2 years of age. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. Following the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through artificial insemination. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. While, increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively

  18. Video image analysis as a potential grading system for Uruguayan beef carcasses.

    Vote, D J; Bowling, M B; Cunha, B C N; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Montossi, F; Smith, G C

    2009-07-01

    with use of current INAC grades. Use of VIA to sort carcasses according to muscle color would allow for the marketing of more consistent beef products with respect to tenderness. This would help facilitate the initiation of a value-based marketing system for the Uruguayan beef industry.

  19. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  20. Estimating animal abundance in ground beef batches assayed with molecular markers.

    Xin-Sheng Hu

    Full Text Available Estimating animal abundance in industrial scale batches of ground meat is important for mapping meat products through the manufacturing process and for effectively tracing the finished product during a food safety recall. The processing of ground beef involves a potentially large number of animals from diverse sources in a single product batch, which produces a high heterogeneity in capture probability. In order to estimate animal abundance through DNA profiling of ground beef constituents, two parameter-based statistical models were developed for incidence data. Simulations were applied to evaluate the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE of a joint likelihood function from multiple surveys, showing superiority in the presence of high capture heterogeneity with small sample sizes, or comparable estimation in the presence of low capture heterogeneity with a large sample size when compared to other existing models. Our model employs the full information on the pattern of the capture-recapture frequencies from multiple samples. We applied the proposed models to estimate animal abundance in six manufacturing beef batches, genotyped using 30 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers, from a large scale beef grinding facility. Results show that between 411∼1367 animals were present in six manufacturing beef batches. These estimates are informative as a reference for improving recall processes and tracing finished meat products back to source.

  1. Potential to curb the environmental burdens of American beef consumption using a novel plant-based beef substitute.

    Benjamin Goldstein

    Full Text Available The food demands of the United States (US impart significant environmental pressures. The high rate of consumption of beef has been shown to be the largest driver of food-borne greenhouse gas emissions, water use and land occupation in the US diet. The environmental benefits of substituting animal products with vegetal foods are well documented, but significant psychological barriers persist in reducing meat consumption. Here we use life cycle assessment to appraise the environmental performance of a novel vegetal protein source in the mean US diet where it replaces ground beef, and in vegetarian and vegan diets where it substitutes for legumes, tofu and other protein sources. We find that relative to the mean US diet, vegetarian and vegan diets significantly reduce per-capita food-borne greenhouse gas emission (32% and 67%, respectively, blue water use (70% and 75%, respectively and land occupation (70% and 79%, respectively, primarily in the form of rangeland. The substitution of 10%, 25% and 50% of ground beef with plant-based burger (PBB at the national scale results in substantial reductions in annual US dietary greenhouse gas emissions (4.55-45.42 Mt CO2 equivalents, water consumption (1.30-12.00 km3 and land occupation (22300-190100 km2. Despite PBB's elevated environmental pressures compared to other vegetal protein sources, we demonstrate that minimal risk exists for the disservices of PBB substitution in non-meat diets to outweigh the benefits of ground-beef substitution in the omnivorous American diet. Demand for plant-based oils in PBB production has the potential to increase land use pressures in biodiversity hotspots, though these could be obviated through responsible land stewardship. Although the apparent environmental benefits of the PBB are contingent on actual uptake of the product, this study demonstrates the potential for non-traditional protein substitutes to play a role in a transition towards more sustainable consumption

  2. The beef market in the European Union

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 3% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share......'s share of total meat consumption 3. As a consequence of the consumers' demand for convenient shopping, butcher's share of total beef sales is rapidly decreasing in Europe. 4. Changes in meat consumption have traditionally been explained by relative price and per capita income, but these economic demand...... analyses can explain a rapidly decreasing share of the variation in beef consumption. 5. Studies show that beef consumption tends to increase with age; the heavy users are found among middle-aged men. Beef consumption also increases with income and social class. 6. The most important user-oriented quality...

  3. Beef traders' and consumers' perceptions on the development of a ...

    Beef traders' and consumers' perceptions on the development of a natural pasture-fed beef (NPB) brand by smallholder cattle producers were investigated. In total, 18 meat traders (five abattoirs and 13 beef retailers) and 155 beef consumers were interviewed using structured questionnaires. All meat traders had the ...

  4. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  5. Produção e composição do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com fenos de alfafa e de tifton-85 e silagem de milho Milk production and composition of Holstein cows fed with alfafa and tifton-85 hays and corn silage

    Clóves Cabreira Jobim

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos da ingestão dos fenos de alfafa e tifton-85 e da silagem de milho na produção e composição do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa, multíparas, com peso vivo médio de 460 kg, em início de lactação, num experimento em triplo quadrado latino, simultâneo, com três linhas (vacas e três colunas (volumoso. Não houve efeito (p > 0,05 dos diferentes volumosos na produção e na composição do leite, nem nas porcentagens e produções de gordura, de proteína, de lactose e de sólidos totais. Também a contagem de células somáticas não foi afetada pelos tratamentos. Os resultados da análise econômica mostraram que a silagem de milho proporcionou maior margem líquida por litro de leite/dia produzido.This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of intake of alfalfa and tifton-85 hays and corn silage on the milk production and composition of multiparous Holstein cows, averaging 460 kg in body weight, at the beginning of lactation, using a triple Latin square, simultaneous, with three lines (cows and three columns (forages. There was no effect (p > 0.05 of the different types of forage on the milk production and composition, or on the percentage the production of fat, protein, lactose, total solids, and somatic cell count. The results of the economic analysis showed that the corn silage provided a larger liquid margin for liters of milk produced per day.

  6. Sensory quality of beef from different finishing diets.

    Resconi, V C; Campo, M M; Font i Furnols, M; Montossi, F; Sañudo, C

    2010-11-01

    Beef production under different local husbandry systems might have meat sensory quality implications for the marketing of these products abroad. In order to assess the effect of finishing diet systems on beef quality, a trained sensory taste panel assessed meat aged for 20 days from 80 Uruguayan Hereford steers that were finished on one of the following diets: T1=Pasture [4% of animal live weight (LW)], T2=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (0.6% LW)], T3=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (1.2% LW)], or T4=Concentrate plus hay ad libitum. Beef odour and flavour intensities decreased with an increase in the energy content of the diet. The meat from T2 had the lowest acid flavour and strange odours intensities. In general, steers fed only concentrate plus hay (T4) produced meat that had an inferior sensory quality because they had more pronounced off-flavours and was tougher. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Parámetros Genéticos para Algunas Características Productivas y Reproductivas en un Hato Holstein del Oriente Antioqueño, Colombia Genetic Parameters for Some Productive and Reproductive Traits in a Dairy Herd in Eastern Antioquia, Colombia

    Katerinne Quiroz Osorio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La edad y el peso al primer parto y otros caracteres productivos y reproductivos son importantes porque determinan el desempeño futuro de las vacas lecheras, su análisis permite definir metas relacionadas con el inicio de la vida productiva de las mismas, influyendo directamente en el costo del periodo de crecimiento y desarrollo. En esta investigación se estimaron las heredabilidades (h2 y algunas correlaciones genéticas y fenotípicas para edad y peso al primer servicio, edad y peso al servicio fértil, producción en primera y segunda lactancia y algunas otras características relacionadas con el desempeño general de las vacas durante su vida. Fueron analizadas 928 lactancias de 184 vacas de la raza Holstein nacidas entre 1985 y 2006 en un hato lechero del departamento de Antioquia. Los componentes de varianza fueron estimados mediante análisis univariados con la metodología de máxima verosimilitud restricta libre de derivadas y las correlaciones se estimaron directamente con la información fenotípica y los valores genéticos estimados. Se utilizó el programa SAS 9,0 para la edición de los datos y los análisis estadísticos y el software MTDFREML para el análisis genético. No se encontró efecto significativo (P>0,05 de la edad y peso al primer servicio con producción de leche en primera y segunda lactancia, ni con caracteres reproductivos, la edad y el peso al primer servicio fértil tuvieron efecto altamente significativo (PThe age and weight at first calving and other productive and reproductive traits are decisive because are important for the future performance of dairy cows, their analysis allows to define some goals related to the start of productive life of those, influencing direct economic cost of the period of growth and development. In this research, were estimated the heritability (h2 and some genetic and phenotypic correlations of age and weight at first service, age and weight at fertile service, milk yield at

  8. [The use of macrolides, lincomycin and tiamulin as animal feed drugs for pigs in Schleswig-Holstein].

    Broll, Susanne; Kietzmann, Manfred; Bettin, Ulrich; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation of production orders for medicated feedingstuffs for pigs given in 1998 in Schleswig-Holstein showed macrolides, lincomycin and tiamulin as frequently used antibiotical ingredients. The presented study analyses the production orders which include macrolides, lincomycin or tiamulin in more detail. There were large deviations to the rules of good clinical practise for the use of antibiotics (2000). The applied dosage was often lower than suggested in the literature.

  9. [The use of sulfonamides and sulfonamide/trimethoprim combinations as animal feed drugs for pigs in Schleswig-Holstein].

    Broll, Susanne; Kietzmann, Manfred; Bettin, Ulrich; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation of production orders for medicated feedingstuffs for pigs given in 1998 in Schleswig-Holstein showed sulphonamides and combinations of sulphonamides and trimethoprim as frequently used antibiotical ingredients. The presented study analyses the production orders which include sulphonamides and combinations of sulphonamides and trimethoprim in more detail. There were large deviations to the rules of good clinical practise for the use of antibiotics. The applied dosage was often lower than suggested in the literature.

  10. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles to lactating beef cows: impact of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk production and pre-weaning progeny growth.

    Shee, C N; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-01-01

    Multiparous Angus×Simmental cows (n=54, 5.22±2.51 years) with male progeny were fed one of two diets supplemented with either dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or soybean meal (CON), from calving until day 129 postpartum (PP) to determine effects of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk composition and calf growth. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and consisted of rye hay and DDGS (19.4% CP; 8.76% fat), or corn silage, rye hay and soybean meal (11.7% CP; 2.06% fat). Cow-calf pairs were allotted by cow and calf age, BW and breed. Cow BW and body condition score (BCS; P⩾0.13) were similar throughout the experiment. A weigh-suckle-weigh was performed on day 64 and day 110±10 PP to determine milk production. Milk was collected on day 68 and day 116±10 PP for analysis of milk components. Milk production was unaffected (P⩾0.75) by dietary treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was increased at both time points in DDGS compared with CON cows (Pcows on day 68 PP. Compared to CON, DDGS decreased medium chain FA (Pcows, which resulted in an increase (Pcows fed DDGS compared with cows fed CON (Pcows did not change cow BW or BCS, but did improve TAI rates and altered milk composition compared with CON. As a result, male progeny from cows fed DDGS during lactation had greater average daily gain and were heavier at day 129 and at weaning compared with male progeny from cows fed a control diet.

  11. Genetic analysis of superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada.

    Jaton, C; Koeck, A; Sargolzaei, M; Malchiodi, F; Price, C A; Schenkel, F S; Miglior, F

    2016-05-01

    Superovulation of dairy cattle is frequently used in Canada. The cost of this protocol is high, and so is the variability of the outcome. Knowing the superovulatory potential of a donor cow could influence the breeder's decision to superovulate it or not. The main objective of this study was to perform a genetic analysis for superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada using data recorded by Holstein Canada, and to investigate if these data could be used for genetic evaluation. Data contained the total number of embryos and the number of viable embryos from every successful flushing performed across Canada. After editing, 137,446 records of superovulation performed between 1992 and 2014 were analyzed. A univariate repeatability animal model analysis was performed for both total number of embryos and number of viable embryos. Because both data and residuals did not follow a normal distribution, records were subject to either logarithmic or Anscombe transformation. Using logarithmic transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.15 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. Using Anscombe transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.17 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. The genetic correlation between the 2 traits was estimated at 0.97 using logarithmic transformation and 0.95 using Anscombe transformation. Breeding values were estimated for 54,463 cows, and 3,513 sires. Only estimated breeding values of sires having a reliability higher than 40% were considered for estimated breeding values correlations with other routinely evaluated traits. The results showed that selection for a higher response to superovulation would lead to a slight decrease in milk production, but an improvement for functional traits, including all reproduction traits. In all cases, the estimated correlations are either low or modest. We conclude that

  12. Considering genetic characteristics in German Holstein breeding programs.

    Segelke, D; Täubert, H; Reinhardt, F; Thaller, G

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several research groups have demonstrated that several haplotypes may cause embryonic loss in the homozygous state. Up to now, carriers of genetic disorders were often excluded from mating, resulting in a decrease of genetic gain and a reduced number of sires available for the breeding program. Ongoing research is very likely to identify additional genetic defects causing embryonic loss and calf mortality by genotyping a large proportion of the female cattle population and sequencing key ancestors. Hence, a clear demand is present to develop a method combining selection against recessive defects (e.g., Holstein haplotypes HH1-HH5) with selection for economically beneficial traits (e.g., polled) for mating decisions. Our proposed method is a genetic index that accounts for the allele frequencies in the population and the economic value of the genetic characteristic without excluding carriers from breeding schemes. Fertility phenotypes from routine genetic evaluations were used to determine the economic value per embryo lost. Previous research has shown that embryo loss caused by HH1 and HH2 occurs later than the loss for HH3, HH4, and HH5. Therefore, an economic value of € 97 was used against HH1 and HH2 and € 70 against HH3, HH4, and HH5. For polled, € 7 per polled calf was considered. Minor allele frequencies of the defects ranged between 0.8 and 3.3%. The polled allele has a frequency of 4.1% in the German Holstein population. A genomic breeding program was simulated to study the effect of changing the selection criteria from assortative mating based on breeding values to selecting the females using the genetic index. Selection for a genetic index on the female path is a useful method to control the allele frequencies by reducing undesirable alleles and simultaneously increasing economical beneficial characteristics maintaining most of the genetic gain in production and functional traits. Additionally, we applied the genetic index to real data and

  13. Performance and financial consequences of stillbirth in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Mahnani, A; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Keshavarzi, H

    2018-03-01

    Stillbirth is an economically important trait on dairy farms. Knowledge of the consequences of, and the economic losses associated with stillbirth can help the producer when making management decisions. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of stillbirth on productive and reproductive performance as well as financial losses due to stillbirth incidence in Iranian Holstein dairy farms. Economic and performance data were collected from nine Holstein dairy farms in Isfahan and Khorasan provinces of Iran from March 2008 to December 2013. The final data set included 160 410 calving records from 53 265 cows. A linear mixed model was developed to evaluate the effects of stillbirth on performance of primiparous and multiparous cows separately and overall. An economic model was used to estimate the economic losses due to stillbirth. The incidence of stillbirth cases per cow per year was 4.2% on average (3.4% to 6.8% at herd level). The least square means results showed that a case of stillbirth significantly (P0.05). Overall, a case of stillbirth reduced 305-day milk yield by 544.0±76.5 kg/cow per lactation. Stillbirth had no significant effects on 305-day fat and protein percentages in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Overall, cows that gave birth to stillborn calves had significantly increased days open by 14.6±2.6 days and the number of inseminations per conception by 0.2 compared with cows that gave birth to live calves (Pfinancial losses associated with stillbirth incidence averaged US$ 938 per case (range from $US 767 to $US 1189 in the nine investigated farms). The loss of a calf was not the only cost associated with stillbirth, as it accounted for 71.0% of the total cost. The costs of dystocia (7.6%) and culling and replacement expenses (6.3%) were the next most important costs associated with stillbirth. These results can be used to assess the potential return from management strategies to reduce the occurrence of stillbirths.

  14. Effects of dietary potato by-product and rumen-protected histidine on growth, carcass characteristics and quality attributes of beef.

    Thornton, K J; Richard, R P; Colle, M J; Doumit, M E; de Veth, M J; Hunt, C W; Murdoch, G K

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that variable composition in finishing rations, more specifically; the proportion of potato-by-product (PBP) and rumen protected histidine (His) supplementation may influence growth and meat quality attributes. Two different diets were fed (1) finishing ration with corn and barley as grains (CB, n = 20) and (2) substitution of 10% corn, DM basis, with PBP (PBP, n = 20). Additionally, half of each dietary treatment received 50 g/hd/d rumen protected His (HS, n= 20) while the other half received no supplement (NS, n = 20). Inclusion of 10% PBP or HS did not affect growth or carcass traits. Color stability was analyzed using Hunter color values as well as AMSA visual appraisal in both longissimus thoracis (LT) and gluteus medius (GM) muscles. The LT, but not the GM, of CB steers was more color stable over a 9 d simulated retail display compared to those fed a PB diet. Steers receiving HS produced significantly (P < 0.05) more color stable LT and GM steaks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Indicadores de desempenho em rebanho da raça Holandesa: curvas de crescimento e altura, características reprodutivas, produtivas e parâmetros genéticos Productive indicator in a Holstein dairy herd: growth and height curves, reproductive and productive traits and genetic parameters

    J.E. Val

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados dados de peso, altura e desempenho produtivo e reprodutivo de 1.272 novilhas da raça Holandesa, nascidas no período de 1990 a 1998. Estudaram-se o desenvolvimento em peso e altura do nascimento até o primeiro parto, as características peso ao primeiro parto (PP, idade ao primeiro parto (IP, produção de leite na primeira lactação (PL, primeiro intervalo de partos (IEP, e os parâmetros genéticos pertinentes. As equações para as curvas de peso e altura, estimadas pelo modelo proposto por von Bertalanffy, foram: Yi= 802,10 (1 - 0,630EXP (-0,0022t e Yi= 1,40 (1 - 0,208EXP (-0,0038t, respectivamente. As novilhas atingiram o primeiro parto com altura média de 140cm e peso de 602kg aos 27 meses de idade. A produção total de leite na primeira lactação foi de 8.026kg e o primeiro IEP 420 dias. Na obtenção dos componentes de (covariância utilizou-se o método da máxima verossimilhança restrita livre de derivada. As estimativas de herdabilidade foram 0,31, 0,35 e 0,34, respectivamente, para PP, IP e PL, e 0,10 para IEP, evidenciando variância genética aditiva média para as três primeiras características. As correlações genéticas apresentaram pequena magnitude para PP e PL, PL e IP, e IEP e PL. A correlação entre IEP e PP foi 0,49; entre IEP e IP o valor foi negativo, -0,69, indicando provável antagonismo entre as duas últimas características.Data on weight, height, productive and reproductive performance of 1,272 Holstein heifers, born from 1990 to 1998, were used to evaluate the growth and height patterns of these females from birth to first calving, and the following traits: weight at first calving (PP, age at first calving (IP, milk production in the first lactation (PL and first calving interval (IEP, and to estimate genetic parameters of these traits. The von Bertalanffy fitted models were: Yi=802.10 (1-0.630EXP (-0.0022t for weight, and Yi=1.40 (1-0.208EXP (-0.0038t for height. The average

  16. Effect of energy balance profiles on metabolic and reproductive response in Holstein and Swedish Red cows.

    Ntallaris, T; Humblot, P; Båge, R; Sjunnesson, Y; Dupont, J; Berglund, B

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the effect of two feeding levels during the antepartum and postpartum period on reproductive performance and blood metabolites (glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin) in primiparous Holstein and Swedish Red (SRB) cows, in order to identify possible differences in the way these breeds respond to negative energy balance after calving. A total of 44 cows (22 Holstein, 22 SRB) kept in a loose housing system were included in the study. The control group (HE, n = 23) was fed a diet for high-producing cows (target 35 kg/d energycorrected milk, ECM). A lower feeding intensity (LE, n = 21) was achieved by giving -50% concentrate to target 25 kg/d ECM. Diets were implemented 30 days before expected calving and the cows were monitored for 120 days postpartum. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), live body weight and body condition score (BCS) were assessed to calculate the weekly energy balance (residual feed intake). Blood sampling started before diet implementation and was repeated every 2 weeks until Day 60 postpartum and then once monthly until Day 120. Plasma was kept at -20 °C until analysis for glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations. Mixed linear models were used to analyse data (SAS 9.3; PROC MIXED). Holstein cows had lower mean energy balance than SRB cows (-4.7 ± 1.4 and -0.9 ± 1.4 MJ, respectively; p = 0.05). SRB cows had higher (pcows (2.7 ± 0.1) and also higher plasma glucose concentrations from Day -30 to Day 120 relative to parturition (4.1 ± 0.1 and 4.2 ± 0.1 log ; mg/100 ml, respectively; p cows than in Holsteins at Day -14 before calving, indicating higher mobilisation of lipid from adipose tissue already before calving. In contrast, Holstein cows had higher NEFA at Day 14 postpartum than SRB cows (p cows prioritise milk production to a larger extent than SRB cows, resulting in a less balanced metabolic profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CROSSING OF HOLSTEIN HORSE BREED WITH SOME OTHER BREEDS

    Josip Ljubešić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of crossing a heavier-weight semi-breed horse (Holstein with mares of Croatian Posavian type draft horse resulted in possibility of such further crossing. Attained product meets today’s market requirements: firstly as an export-meat category that meets Italian market requirements, since other markets are not well known, secondly, it can be used as a sport-tourist-recreation horse. It must be pointed out that all produced hybrids did not meet the needs of these two basic criteria. In spite of being potential slaughtery head with good utilization, each produced head can be, according to its exterial properties, used as a sporttourist animal that showed certain usable values and results proven by the experiment. The hybrids showed some hereditory draft horse properties shown on enclosed photos. In addition, exterier measures show that former knowledge on hybrids can respond the question of a horse raising on non-utilized pastures which they got used to very well. Thus these horses are able to be estimated by their body development just as our native draft Posavian type horse including possibility of using them as a sport-tourist-recreation horse.

  18. Inflammatory biomarkers are associated with ketosis in periparturient Holstein cows.

    Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Kvidera, Sara K; Fernandez, Maria V Sanz; Nayeri, Amir; Upah, Nathan C; Nolan, Erin A; Lei, Sam M; DeFrain, Jeffery M; Green, Howard B; Schoenberg, Katie M; Trout, William E; Baumgard, Lance H

    2016-12-01

    Ketosis is a prevalent periparturient metabolic disorder and we hypothesize that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infiltration may play a key role in its etiology. Study objectives were to characterize biomarkers of inflammation during the transition period in healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic cows. Cows were retrospectively categorized into one of two groups: healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic. Two data sets were utilized; the first dataset (Study A) was obtained as a subset of cows (n=16) enrolled in a larger experiment conducted at the Iowa State University Dairy utilizing Holstein cows (8 healthy; 8 ketotic), and the second dataset (Study B; 22 healthy; 22 ketotic) was obtained from a commercial farm. For both experiments, blood samples were collected prior to and following calving. Ketotic cows in both studies had reduced milk production compared to healthy cows (P6 fold and ~4 fold; P=0.04 and P=0.03), and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (66 and 45%; Pketosis in transition dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heat stress effects on Holstein dairy cows' rumination.

    Moretti, R; Biffani, S; Chessa, S; Bozzi, R

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between temperature-humidity index (THI) and rumination time (RT) in order to possibly exploit it as a useful tool for animal welfare improvement. During summer 2015 (1 June to 31 August), data from an Italian Holstein dairy farm located in the North of Italy were collected along with environmental data (i.e. ambient temperature and relative humidity) recorded with a weather station installed inside the barn. Rumination data were collected through the Heatime® HR system (SCR Engineers Ltd., Hadarim, Netanya, Israel), an automatic system composed of a neck collar with a Tag that records the RT and activity of each cow. A significant negative correlation was observed between RT and THI. Mixed linear models were fitted, including animal and test day as random effects, and parity, milk production level and date of last calving as fixed effects. A statistically significant effect of THI on RT was identified, with RT decreasing as THI increased.

  20. Produtividade e Eficiência Biológica de Sistemas de Recria e Engorda de Gado de Corte no Rio Grande de Sul Productivity and Biological Efficiency of Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle Systems in Rio Grande do Sul

    Virginia Beretta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas, por meio de simulações, a produtividade e a eficiência de sistemas de produção de gado de corte no Rio Grande do Sul, diferindo na idade de abate (IA dos novilhos (54, 42, 36, 30, 24 e 18 meses, IA54, IA42, IA36, IA30, IA24 e IA18, respectivamente, ou nos pesos de compra e venda (sistemas especializados na recria desde 150 a 250 kg - R1, recria de 250 a 350 kg - R2 ou engorda desde 350 a 450 kg -R3. Foi utilizado um modelo estático determinístico, representando os sistemas em equilíbrio. O manejo alimentar foi caracterizado para cada sistema com base em dados bibliográficos, conforme a IA estabelecida, enquanto os sistemas R1, R2 e R3 foram avaliados somente em campo nativo. Houve uma resposta em produtividade de tipo quadrático à redução na IA, atingindo o menor valor (65 kg/ha no sistema IA54 e o maior no IA18 (343 kg/ha. O custo energético por quilo de peso vivo produzido aumentou em 1,19 Mcal EM/kg a cada mês a mais na IA. Associada à redução da IA, a proporção de pastagens melhoradas cresceu até 68% da área de pastejo, possibilitando um aumento paralelo da carga e do ganho médio diário. A diminuição do peso de compra e venda dos animais, para um mesmo ganho total de peso vivo, aumentou a produtividade das empresas (R1=113; R2=81; R3=63 kg/ha, demonstrando ser a especialização na produção uma alternativa de melhoria em sistemas dependentes exclusivamente do campo nativo.A static deterministic model was used to evaluate productivity and efficiency of growing and finishing beef steers systems in Rio Grande do Sul State differing at steers slaughter age (IA: 54, 42, 36, 30, 24 and 18 months (IA54, IA42, IA36, IA30, IA24 e IA18, respectively, or in market live weight for buying and sale (cattle growing systems from 150 to 250 kg -R1, from 250 to 350 kg -R2, or finishing cattle from 350 to 450 kg -R3. Feeding management was described for each system based on published reports according to IA, while

  1. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation. - Highlights: • Soy sauce (SS) could inhibit volatiles cooked irradiated beef patties. • Vacuum packaging and SS treatment is effective to prevent lipid oxidation. • Hexanal content was highly correlated with TBA value of the irradiated beef patties

  2. Evaluation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product as an alternative to monensin on growth performance, cost of gain, and carcass characteristics of heavy-weight yearling beef steers.

    Swyers, K L; Wagner, J J; Dorton, K L; Archibeque, S L

    2014-06-01

    Two hundred fifty-two cross-bred yearling steers (406 ± 24 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (7 pens/treatment) to evaluate the effects of dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SFP) and monensin (MON) on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Dietary treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial were 1) with or without SFP and 2) with or without MON. Finishing diets contained 19.7% of DM as dried distiller's grains with solubles. Both SFP and MON were added in the total mixed ration in place of an equal amount of cornmeal (DM basis; target intake = 2.8 g of SFP and 33 mg of MON/kg of dietary DM). Each treatment group was offered ad libitum access to a transition ration from d 1 to 8 and then to the finishing ration from d 9 to 125. Body weights were collected on d 0, 28, 56, 84, 110, and 125. Initial and final BW was an average of 2-d weights (d -1 and 0 and d 124 and 125, respectively). Steers were shipped for harvest on d 125. Overall ADG was decreased (P = 0.03) in steers supplemented with SFP, but final BW was similar among treatments. Feeding SFP was associated with lighter (P < 0.01) HCW and a greater (P = 0.01) number of carcasses grading USDA Choice. Twelfth rib fat thickness was not affected by SFP (P = 0.82) or MON (P = 0.35), but numerical decreases in 12th rib fat thickness among cattle receiving SFP or MON alone contributed to a tendency (P = 0.07) for greater 12 rib fat thickness when SFP and MON were provided. There was no effect of treatment on cost of gain (P ≥ 0.21). The effects of SFP in the current study may have been limited in heavy yearling steers due to consumption of a finishing diet containing 19.7% dried distiller's grains with solubles.

  3. Biofilm formation, antimicrobial resistance, and sanitizer tolerance of Salmonella entericia strains isolated from beef trim

    In the beef industry, product contamination by Salmonella enterica is a serious public health concern, which may result in human infection and cause significant financial loss due to product recalls. Currently, the precise mechanism and pathogen source responsible for Salmonella contamination in com...

  4. THE BREEDING OF BEEF CATTLE IN soUTH AFRICA: PAST ...

    which I prefer, "breeding" is seen as the utilisation of total genetic variation ... was useful for preserving food and for the candle industry. (Evans and ... replaced by more productive types as mother stock while sires are .... Classification of cattle breeds used mainly for beef production in South Africa. Breeds ... maintenance.

  5. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages

    Judy Cunningham

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia’s food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education.

  6. A nationwide survey on seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in beef cattle in Uruguay.

    Bañales, Pedro; Fernandez, Leandro; Repiso, María V; Gil, Andres; Dargatz, David A; Osawa, Takeshi

    2006-06-30

    Bovine abortions due to Neospora caninum infection have been reported worldwide and its economic impact on the beef industry has been acknowledged as a problem. Uruguay has the largest export value of beef per acre in South America. However, no data on the prevalence of N. caninum infection have been available in this country. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and distribution of N. caninum infection in beef cattle in Uruguay through a nationwide survey. A two stage sampling design was used with farms being selected in stage one and animals being selected in stage two. A brief questionnaire was administered on each farm. Seroprevalence of N. caninum in 4444 beef cattle from 229 farms in all the counties, except Montevideo, of Uruguay was determined by an ELISA. The data were then analyzed to identify associations between infection and variables such as type of animal (cow or heifer), herd size, use of veterinary advice, productivity of the soil in relation to the national average, use of improved grass, use of mineral salts, use of supplemental feed, and presence of a dog(s) on the farm. The estimated proportion of positive farms for all the beef cattle operations was 69.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 53.7-84.7). The overall cattle seroprevalence was estimated as 13.9% (95% CI, 11.6-16.3). The prevalence estimation by animal category was 14.3% (95% CI, 11.4-17.2) for beef cows and 12.9% (95% CI, 10.0-15.8) for beef heifers. There was no significant difference in the estimated prevalence between the two animal types. There was no significant difference in the animal level prevalence of N. caninum infection among different herd sizes. None of the herd demographic or management variables was significantly associated with the seropositivity to N. caninum infection. In conclusion, these results show that N. caninum infection is common among beef herds across Uruguay. Since the beef industry is one of the key industries in Uruguay, the

  7. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    and Germany to assess their opinions about beef muscle profiling and their interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Findings indicate that both concepts are well accepted by European beef consumers, although not unconditional. Besides acknowledging the opportunity to purchase beef with guaranteed...... tenderness, consumers express some reserve related to the possible upgrading of lower value cuts, too much standardisation, and the fact that tenderness is to some extent subjective. They further require the system to be simple, sufficiently documented and independent-party controlled. The insights obtained...

  8. Influence of puberty and antral follicle count on calving day in crossbred beef heifers.

    McNeel, Anthony K; Cushman, Robert A

    2015-10-15

    Lifetime productivity and longevity are greater in beef cows that give birth early in their first calving season. The ability of heifers to conceive early in the breeding season is traditionally thought to be a function of pubertal status; however, recent evidence suggests that antral follicle count is positively associated with calving day in pubertal beef heifers. Additionally, there is evidence to suggest that the total number of ovarian follicles may alter response to hormonal synchronization protocols. The objectives of this study were to confirm the beneficial influence of antral follicle count on calving day in beef heifers and to determine whether response to PGF2α is associated with differences in antral follicle counts. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was designed to investigate the interaction between calving period (early vs. late) and PGF2α (control vs. PGF) on calving day and antral follicle count in yearling beef heifers (n = 95). As intended, calving day was less in the early calving period compared to the late calving period (P 0.05). There was a significant interaction between calving period and PGF2α on age at first calving (P reproductive tract scoring for commercial production because of its association with calving day. As a prebreeding ovarian phenotype, antral follicle counts may hold additional applicability for organic beef producers looking to reduce the length of their calving season without increasing the total number of replacement heifers retained. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Identification of offal adulteration in beef by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Velioglu, Hasan Murat; Sezer, Banu; Bilge, Gonca; Baytur, Süleyman Efe; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2018-04-01

    Minced meat is the major ingredient in sausages, beef burgers, and similar products; and thus it is the main product subjected to adulteration with meat offal. Determination of this kind of meat adulteration is crucial due to religious, economic and ethical concerns. The aim of the present study is to discriminate the beef meat and offal samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). To this end, LIBS and multivariate data analysis were used to discriminate pure beef and offal samples qualitatively and to determine the offal mixture adulteration quantitatively. In this analysis, meat samples were frozen and LIBS analysis were performed. The results indicate that by using principal component analysis (PCA), discrimination of pure offal and offal mixture adulterated beef samples can be achieved successfully. Besides, adulteration ratio can be determined using partial least square analysis method (PLS) with 0.947 coefficient of determination (R 2 ) and 3.8% of limit of detection (LOD) values for offal mixture adulterated beef samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaerobic digestibility of beef hooves with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge.

    Xia, Yun; Wang, Ding-Kang; Kong, Yunhong; Ungerfeld, Emilio M; Seviour, Robert; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an effective method for treating animal by-products, generating at the same time green energy as methane (CH4). However, the methods and mechanisms involved in anaerobic digestion of α-keratin wastes like hair, nails, horns and hooves are still not clear. In this study we investigated the feasibility of anaerobically co-digesting ground beef hooves in the presence of swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge at 25 °C using eight 42-L Plexiglas lab-scale digesters. Our results showed addition of beef hooves statistically significantly increased the rate of CH4 production with swine manure, but only increased it slightly with slaughterhouse sludge. After 90-day digestion, 73% of beef hoof material added to the swine manure-inoculated digesters had been converted into CH4, which was significantly higher than the 45% level achieved in the slaughterhouse sludge inoculated digesters. BODIPY-Fluorescent casein staining detected proteolytic bacteria in all digesters with and without added beef hooves, and their relative abundances corresponded to the rate of methanogenesis of the digesters with the different inocula. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with BODIPY-Fluorescent casein staining identified most proteolytic bacteria as members of genus Alkaliphilus in the subfamily Clostridiaceae 2 of family Clostridiaceae. They thus appear to be the bacteria mainly responsible for digestion of beef hooves. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF TROPICAL THEILERIOSIS ON A HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN DAIRY FARM IN PAKISTAN.

    Rashid, Muhammad; Haroon, Akbar; Rashid, Muhmmad Imran; Khalid, Saeed; Liaquat, Ahmad; Saghir, Abdullah; Wasim, Shehzad; Saher, Islam; Shahid, Farooqi

    2018-03-09

    The dairy industry in Pakistan is booming and investors are anxious to fund dairy farms that are using high milk producing (exotic) cattle breeds such as Holsteins that are not native to the country. Unfortunately, the benefits of increased milk production do not provide resistance to pathogens present in regions where the exotic breeds are introduced. Therefore, the current study was conducted to evaluate the economic impact of Theileria annulata on a commercial Holstein dairy farm in the District of Ranjanpur, in the Province of Punjab, Pakistan. The economic impact of T. annulata infection was calculated for cattle with subclinical and clinical theileriosis. Losses were estimated based on milk production, morbidity, mortality and tick control costs (organophosphate sprays). Animals were classified into groups after screening for mastitis, teat abnormality, abnormal parturition, intestinal parasites and hemoparasites (T. annulata, Babesia spp., and Anaplasma spp.). Microscopy was done for hemoparasites and intestinal parasites. PCR was used to confirm microscopic identification of T. annulata. Animals were classified into 3 groups, comprising group A (normal), group B (subclinical theileriosis) and group C (acute theileriosis). Hemoparasites were observed microscopically in 28.7% of cows. Theileria annulata was found in 8% and the herd incidence (new cases) of T. annulata was 2.8%. Milk production, animal rectal temperature and body condition scores of group A with B and C were significantly different (P0.05). The total expenditure incurred due to theileriosis was US $74.98 per animal and 13.83% of total farm costs. Hence theileriosis caused significant economic loss of US $18743.76 (0.02 million) on this Holstein Friesian dairy.

  12. Persistency of milk yield in Indonesian Holstein cows

    Widyas, N.; Putra, F. Y.; Nugroho, T.; Pramono, A.; Susilowati, A.; Sutarno; Prastowo, S.

    2018-03-01

    Milk yield is an important trait in dairy industry; thus, information regarding this phenotype is essential to measure the productivity of a farm. Total milk yield in one lactation period was often predicted using information from samples collected within certain time intervals. The rate of change of milk production between two-time intervals is defined as persistency. This article aims to estimate the persistency of milk yield between lactation 1, 2 and 3 in Indonesian Friesian Holstein (IFH) cows. Data was collected from Limpakuwus stable, Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre, Central Java Indonesia. Records were obtained from cows which started lactating on 2013 until the end of third lactation around the beginning of 2016. Milk yield from the first (L1), second (L2) and third (L3) lactations of 21 cows were recorded in kilograms. Samples were collected in 30 days basis interval started from the 10th day of lactation up to the 10th month. In this population, the cows first calving was around February – April 2013; while the second and third calving occurred all over the relevant year. The mean of milk yield for L1, L2 and L3 were 17.77±3.70, 16.09±5.17 and 13.73±4.02 Kg respectively. The peak of milk yields was achieved at the second month of the lactation for L1, L2 and L3. The persistency from the second to the tenth test days were 97, 93 and 94% for L1, L2 and L3, respectively. Milk yield persistency is representing ability of cow in maintain milk production after peak during lactation period. The more persistent shows better performance of dairy cattle as well as farm management. For that, persistency value could be used as valuable information in evaluating the management in Indonesian dairy farms.

  13. Okara, a soymilk industry by-product, as a non-meat protein source in reduced fat beef burgers Okara, um sub-produto da indústria de leite de soja, como fonte de proteína não cárnea em hambúrguer bovino com reduzido teor de gordura

    Simone Ing Tie Su

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Okara is a by-product generated during the manufacture of soymilk and tofu. Wet okara was added to beef burgers at 0%, 20%, and 25%. The effects of okara on certain physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties of reduced fat beef burgers were investigated. The beef burgers formulated with okara (104.0-106.0 kcal/100 g had 60% less calories than commercial beef burgers (268.8 kcal/100 g. The texture profile analysis showed that the addition of wet okara led to a significant increase in hardness (p Okara é o subproduto gerado na fabricação de leite de soja ou tofu. Okara úmido foi adicionado em hambúrguer de carne bovina nas concentrações de 0%, 20% e 25%. A influência da adição de okara em 0%, 20% e 25% sobre certas propriedades físico-químicas, de textura e sensoriais em hambúrgueres bovinos com reduzido teor de gordura foi investigada. Os hambúrgueres formulados com okara (104,0-106,0 kcal/100 g apresentaram 60% menos calorias do que hambúrgueres comerciais de carne bovina (268,8 kcal/100 g. A análise do perfil de textura mostrou que o aumento da concentração de okara foi acompanhado por um aumento de dureza (p < 0,05, com concomitante diminuição dos valores de mastigabilidade, elasticidade e coesividade. Notas sensoriais significativamente mais baixas (p < 0,05 para sabor foram observadas nos hambúrgueres contendo 25% de okara úmido. No entanto, os resultados da análise sensorial mostraram que a suculência, aparência, maciez e aceitabilidade geral dos hambúgueres formulados com okara não diferiram estatisticamente do controle (0% okara. Okara úmido a 20% pode ser utilizado como fonte de proteína não cárnea para a produção de hambúrguer bovino com gordura reduzida sem alterar a sua qualidade sensorial.

  14. German Grocery Discounters: Dynamics and Regional Impact. the Case of Schleswig-Holstein (Germany

    Jürgens Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grocery discount stores have long dominated developments in the German food retail sector, and they continue to grow. This paper discusses the reasons for this long-term success based on internal decision-making parameters such as price, adjustment of product range, choice of location, and size of new stores. The result is significant customer acceptance, but also adverse developments viewed critically in various governance constellations. The paper is based on expert interviews and a comprehensive collection of data on grocery discount stores and supermarkets in the German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein

  15. Dietary effects of lutein-fortified chlorella on milk components of Holstein cows

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3???3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30?g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3?weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentration...

  16. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain. PMID:26431340

  17. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China.

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain.

  18. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction.

    Hocquette, Jean-Francois; Bernard-Capel, Carine; Vidal, Veronique; Jesson, Beline; Levéziel, Hubert; Renand, Gilles; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2012-08-15

    bulls slaughtered in year 2, and in the 21 Charolais steers slaughtered in year 1, but not in the group of 19 steers slaughtered in year 2 which differ from the reference group by two factors (gender and year). When the first three groups of animals were analysed together, this subset of genes explained a 4-fold higher proportion of the variability in tenderness than muscle biochemical traits. This study underlined the relevance of the GENOTEND chip to identify markers of beef quality, mainly by confirming previous results and by detecting other genes of the heat shock family as potential markers of beef quality. However, it was not always possible to extrapolate the relevance of these markers to all animal groups which differ by several factors (such as gender or environmental conditions of production) from the initial population of reference in which these markers were identified.

  19. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction

    Hocquette Jean-Francois

    2012-08-01

    validated in the groups of 30 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 2, and in the 21 Charolais steers slaughtered in year 1, but not in the group of 19 steers slaughtered in year 2 which differ from the reference group by two factors (gender and year. When the first three groups of animals were analysed together, this subset of genes explained a 4-fold higher proportion of the variability in tenderness than muscle biochemical traits. Conclusion This study underlined the relevance of the GENOTEND chip to identify markers of beef quality, mainly by confirming previous results and by detecting other genes of the heat shock family as potential markers of beef quality. However, it was not always possible to extrapolate the relevance of these markers to all animal groups which differ by several factors (such as gender or environmental conditions of production from the initial population of reference in which these markers were identified.

  20. Administração de somatotropina bovina no período pré-parto sobre parâmetros produtivos, sanitários e reprodutivos da primeira lactação de vacas holandesas Bovine somatotropin administration during pre-delivery period to productive, sanitary and reproductive parameters of holstein cows' first lactation

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a administração de somatotropina bovina (bST no período pré-parto, sobre o desempenho na primeira lactação, foram utilizadas 18 novilhas gestantes, de modo que 9 receberam injeções subcutâneas de 500mg de bST nos dias 21 e 9 antes da data prevista para o parto. Os animais foram alimentados com dieta total, 2 vezes ao dia, e os dados coletados foram relativos a parâmetros sanitários, produtivos e reprodutivos na primeira lactação. A administração de bST não afetou os parâmetros sanitários (retenção de placenta, metrite, deslocamento de abomaso, febre do leite e cetose e reprodutivo (cisto folicular. Entretanto, o uso de bST no pré-parto levou à variação de escore de condição corporal (ECC 65% maior, adiantou o pico de produção de leite em 9,7 dias e diminuiu os dias em lactação em 21,8 dias em relação ao controle (P The effects of pre-delivery administration of bovine somatotropin (bST on first lactation performance were evaluated in this study, which involved eighteen Holstein pregnant heifers. Nine animals were supplemented with subcutaneous injections of 500 mg of bST, on days 21 and 9 prior expected delivery, and 9 were not supplemented (control group. Animals were fed total mixed ration, twice daily. Data evaluated in this experiment were related to sanitary, reproductive and productive parameters during first lactation. Administration of bST did not affect parameters related to sanity (retained placenta, metritis, displacement abomasum, milk fever, ketosis, reproduction (follicular cysts. However, heifers supplemented with bST showed changes of body condition score 65% greater, anticipated milk production peak in 9.7 days and decreased number of days in lactation in 21,8 days, compared to the non-supplemented ones (p < 0.05. Milk production peak and milk production corrected for 305 days were not affected by bST administration.

  1. Effect of ketoprofen, lidocaine local anesthesia, and combined xylazine and lidocaine caudal epidural anesthesia during castration of beef cattle on stress responses, immunity, growth, and behavior.

    Ting, S T L; Earley, B; Hughes, J M L; Crowe, M A

    2003-05-01

    To determine the effects of burdizzo castration alone or in combination with ketoprofen (K), local anesthesia (LA), or caudal epidural anesthesia (EPI) on plasma cortisol, acute-phase proteins, interferon-gamma production, growth, and behavior of beef cattle, 50 Holstein x Friesian bulls (13 mo old, 307 +/- 5.3 kg) were assigned to (n = 10/treatment): 1) control (handled; C); 2) burdizzo castration (B); 3) B following K (3 mg/ kg of BW i.v.; BK); 4) B following LA (8 mL into each testis and 3 mL s.c. along the line where the jaws of the burdizzo were applied with 2% lidocaine HCl; BLA); and 5) B following EPI (0.05 mg/kg of BW of xylazine HCl and 0.4 mg/kg of BW of lidocaine HCl as caudal epidural; BEPI). The area under the cortisol curve against time was lower (P castration groups than in C. On d 7, haptoglobin and fibrinogen concentrations remained higher (P castration increased plasma cortisol and acute-phase proteins, and suppressed immune function and growth rates. Local anesthesia prolonged the increase in acute-phase proteins. Ketoprofen was more effective than LA or EPI in decreasing cortisol and partially reversed the reduction in ADG following castration. The use of K or EPI was more effective than LA in decreasing pain-associated behavioral responses observed during the first 6 h after treatment. Systemic analgesia with ketoprofen, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, was more effective in reducing inflammatory responses associated with castration than LA or EPI.

  2. Energy report 1995 for Schleswig-Holstein. Situation, focal areas, examples; Energiebericht Schleswig-Holstein 1995. Situation, Schwerpunkte, Beispiele

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Since 1988 the Land of Schleswig Holstein has been going new ways in its energy policy. Its declared aims are energy saving in heat and electricity supply, efficient energy utilisation, a greater utilisation of renewable energy resources, and, of principal importance, the phase-out of nuclear energy. As the legislative competence of the Laender is very restricted in matters relating to energy, the new policy has primarily been designed as a means of demonstrating by way of example that there actually are considerable potentials for saving energy and that they can be exploited. The present report gives an overview of the results of Schleswig Holstein`s energy policy of the last seven years. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Seit 1988 geht das Land Schleswig-Holstein energiepolitisch neue Wege. Das erklaerte Ziel: Energieeinsparung im Waerme- und Strombereich, rationelle Energieverwendung, staerkere Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien. Und grundsaetzlich: Ausstieg aus der Kernenergie. Da die Bundeslaender nur ueber eine sehr eingeschraenkte Gesetzgebungskompetenz im Energiebereich verfuegen, zielte die neue Energiepolitik zunaechst darauf ab, durch Foerderprogramme beispielhaft zu zeigen, dass tatsaechlich erhebliche Einsparpotentiale bestehen und auch umsetzbar sind. Der Bericht gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die Ergebnisse der Energiepolitik der letzten sieben Jahre in Schleswig-Holstein. (orig./RHM)

  3. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  4. Genetic relationship of lactation persistency with milk yield, somatic cell score, reproductive traits, and longevity in Slovak Holstein cattle

    Strapáková, Eva; Candrák, Juraj; Strapák, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the breeding values (BVs) of lactation persistency, the test day of milk yield, the somatic cell score, reproductive traits (calving interval, days open), longevity in Slovak Holstein dairy cattle. BVs were used for the detection of relationships among the persistency of lactation and other selected traits. Data for the estimation of BVs of milk production and somatic cell score were collected from 855 240 cows. BVs for reproductive t...

  5. Comportamiento productivo y reproductivo del ganado holstein rojo, holstein negro y pardo suizo en Palmira, Valle del Cauca

    Zapata Oscar

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Three breeds of dairy cattle (26 Red Holstein RH, 97 Black Holstein BH and 29 Brown Swiss BS, were evaluated for reproductive eficiency, and milk production for the years 1979 - 1987 a t the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, Palmira. Days of milking, milk and fat production were for BH (324.0days, 2545.9 kg, 91.1 kg for the RH (300.0 days, 2243.7 kg, 81.0 kg for the BS (298.2 days, 1886.6 kg, 66.9 kg. % fat average were 3.6% in RH, 3.7 % in BH and BS. The lactation curves for the three breeds were best ajusted with the model: Y=A+B(lnt + C(lnt2. Larger persistaency was observed on BS followed by RH. The BS presented better reproductive efficiency than RH and BH with a mean of 169.0,177.4 and 195.6 days, calving data-conception and 2.0, 22 and 22 for number of services per conception. The HR breed had a calving age of 3.4 years and 470.5 kg of calving weight larger than 3.5 years and 440.0 kg for the BH and 3.8 years and 458.1 kg for the BS. Average weight at birth for males and females together BS showed grater weights (37.02 kq, BH and RH showed similar results (36.0 and 362 kg. The incidence of problem at birth was higher for RH (10.90/0 and puerperium problems in BS(21.60,b. Not significal effect of calving weight and rainfall on milk yield and calving date-conception. In most cases there was no correlation between milk yield and calving date-conception. There was a very narow relation between calving date- conception and number of services per conception.En el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario-Palmira, se evaluó el comportamiento productivo y reproductivo de 152 vacas; 26 Holstein Rojo (HR, 97 Holstein Negro (HN y 29 vacas Pardo Suizo (PS, durante el período 1979-1987. La mayor duración de la lactancia, producción de leche y grasa (kg la presentó la raza HN (324 días, 2545.9 ka, 91.1 kg, seguido de la HR (300 días, 2243.7,81.0 kg y de la PS (298.2 días, 1886.6 kg, 66.9 kg. los porcentajes de grasa fueron 3.6 (HR y 3.7010 (HN y PSI

  6. Vitamin D-biofortified beef

    Duffy, Sarah K.; O'Doherty, John V.; Rajauria, Gaurav

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates dietary fortification of heifer feeds with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol sources and effects on beef total vitamin D activity, vitamer, respective 25-hydroxymetabolite contents, and meat quality. Thirty heifers were allocated to one of three dietary treatments [(1......) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D3 (Vit D3); (2) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2 (Vit D2); and (3) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (Mushroom D2)] for a 30 day pre-slaughter period. Supplementation of heifer diets with Vit D3 yielded higher (p ...) total vitamin D activity (by 38–56%; p vitamin D source, carcass characteristics, sensory and meat quality parameter were unaffected (p > 0.05) by the dietary...

  7. Creep feeding nursing beef calves.

    Lardy, Gregory P; Maddock, Travis D

    2007-03-01

    Creep feeding can be used to increase calf weaning weights. However, the gain efficiency of free-choice, energy-based creep feeds is relatively poor. Generally, limit-feeding, high-protein creep feeds are more efficient, and gains may be similar to those produced by creep feeds offered free choice. Creep feeding can increase total organic matter intake and improve the overall energy status of the animal. Creep-fed calves tend to acclimate to the feedlot more smoothly than unsupplemented calves. Furthermore, provision of a high-starch creep feed may have a positive influence on subsequent carcass quality traits. Creep feeding can be applied to numerous environmental situations to maximize calf performance; however, beef cattle producers should consider their individual situations carefully before making the decision to creep feed.

  8. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry. PMID:27504957

  9. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability.

    Ana Carolina Pelaes Vital

    Full Text Available The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale. Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry.

  10. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability.

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry.

  11. Review: The variability of the eating quality of beef can be reduced by predicting consumer satisfaction.

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2018-04-02

    The Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grading scheme has the ability to predict beef eating quality for each 'cut×cooking method combination' from animal and carcass traits such as sex, age, breed, marbling, hot carcass weight and fatness, ageing time, etc. Following MSA testing protocols, a total of 22 different muscles, cooked by four different cooking methods and to three different degrees of doneness, were tasted by over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia. Consumers scored the sensory characteristics (tenderness, flavor liking, juiciness and overall liking) and then allocated samples to one of four quality grades: unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day and premium. We observed that 26% of the beef was unsatisfactory. As previously reported, 68% of samples were allocated to the correct quality grades using the MSA grading scheme. Furthermore, only 7% of the beef unsatisfactory to consumers was misclassified as acceptable. Overall, we concluded that an MSA-like grading scheme could be used to predict beef eating quality and hence underpin commercial brands or labels in a number of European countries, and possibly the whole of Europe. In addition, such an eating quality guarantee system may allow the implementation of an MSA genetic index to improve eating quality through genetics as well as through management. Finally, such an eating quality guarantee system is likely to generate economic benefits to be shared along the beef supply chain from farmers to retailors, as consumers are willing to pay more for a better quality product.

  12. Effect of comminution method and raw binder system in restructured beef.

    Boles, J A; Shand, P J

    1998-07-01

    The effect of particle size, method of particle size reduction (grinding, flaking, slicing) and alginate or Fibrimex(™) binding systems on processing properties of restructured beef were investigated. The size of semimembranosus muscles was reduced with a meat slicer, grinder or flaker (Comitrol) through machine openings that were 2, 4 and 8 mm in size. Bind of meat pieces in raw and cooked beef steakettes were measured. Sensory evaluation to determine the effect of method of size reduction on texture of beef steakettes was done only on steakettes manufactured with alginate. Beef steakettes manufactured with the alginate binding system had significantly (p meat for the manufacture of restructured beef steakettes resulted in a higher raw bind than did either grinding or flaking the meat. Significant (p meat was sliced than when it was ground or flaked. However, when Fibrimex was used, bind was stronger when sliced meat was used. The alginate system resulted in higher binds for cooked product when particle size was smaller but with the Fibrimex system bind was higher when particle sizes were larger. A consumer panel on alginate restructured steakettes showed no preference for the texture produced by the different methods of particle size reduction.

  13. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Campylobacter species Isolated From Chicken and Beef Meat

    Hossein Dabiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and beef meat, and determine the drug susceptibility of strains, 450 samples in Tehran, Iran were investigated. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of entropathogenic Campylobacter strains ,especially C. jejuni isolated from raw chicken and beef meat in Tehran- Iran. Materials and Methods: Out of 250 chickens and 200 beef meats, 121(26.8 % contaminated cases with Campylobacter strains were isolated. Campylobacter was isolated from a significantly larger number of chickens (44% than beef meats (5.5 % (P < 0.05. Results: From all isolated Campylobacter organisms, 93 (76.8% species were identified as C. jejuni and 28 cases (23.1% as C. coli. Susceptibilities of 121 strains (93 C. jejuni and 28 C. coli were determined against 12 antimicrobial drugs using the disk agar diffusion method. Resistance to nalidixic acid (75% and ciprofloxacin (50% was an alarming finding, moreover, 32.6% of isolates was resistant to tetracycline, 10.8% to ampicillin, 29.3% to colisitin and 26.1% to amoxicillin. The highest sensitivity was seen to erythromycin (95 % and gentamicin (96%. Conclusions: These results showed that a high proportion of chicken and beef meat in Iran is contaminated with Campylobacter, particularly with Campylobacter jejuni. The high rate of contamination, especially chicken is a significant public health concern. Most of the isolates were resistant; therefore, human infection with Campylobacter spp. via consumption of these products is possible.

  14. BIODIESEL DARI CAMPURAN LEMAK SAPI (Beef Tallow DAN MINYAK SAWIT

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadangan minyak bumi semakin menipis, sehingga dicari bahan bakar alternatif, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Minyak nabati terutama minyak sawit merupakan bahan baku edible sedangkan lemak sapi merupakan bahan baku non-edible dengan biaya rendah dan memiliki ketersediaan tinggi pada produksi sapi. Pemanfaatan lemak sapi yang belum maksimal dapat digunakan bersama minyak sawit untuk menghasilkan biodiesel. Lemak sapi dicairkan supaya menjadi minyak sapi. Bahan baku minyak sapi dan minyak sawit dicampur dengan perban-dingan 3:1. Campuran minyak ditransesterifikasi dengan metanol dengan perbandingan molar (1:6 dan katalis NaOH. Proses dilakukan selama 90 menit pada suhu ±65°C. Hasil proses transesterifikasi adalah metil ester dan gliserol. Metil ester pada lapisan atas dipisahkan dari gliserol kemudian dilakukan pencucian. Metil ester atau biodiesel selanjutnya diuji angka asam, viskositas, densitas, dan analisis menggunakan GC-MS. Yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan dari campuran minyak sapi dan minyak sawit adalah 76%, angka asam 0,67124 mg-KOH/g, densitas 857,76 kg/cm³, dan viskositas 3,0074 mm2/s. Kesemua parameter tersebut sesuai dengan standart mutu SNI biodiesel. Kandungan metil ester dari minyak sawit dan lemak sapi adalah metiloleat dan metil palmitat. The availability of the fossil fuel is decreasing; hence the finding of an alternative fuels is very important. One of those alternative fuels is biodiesel. Vegetable oil, especially palm oil is the edible raw material, while the beef tallow is the non-edible raw material with low cost production and the availability is huge in the cattle production. The beef tallow mixed with palm oil can be used as raw material for producing biodiesel. Firstly, the beef tallow was melted into beef oil. The raw materials of beef tallow and palm oil were mixed with the composition ratio of 3:1. The resulted mixed-oil was transesterificated by adding methanol with molar ratio of 1:6 and NaOH as

  15. FULL SCIENTIFIC REPORTS - Complex vertebral malformation in Holstein calves

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Bendixen, Christian; Andersen, Ole

    2001-01-01

    A recently observed lethal congenital defect of purebred Holstein calves is reported. Eighteen genetically related calves were necropsied. One calf had been aborted on gestation day 159, and the others were delivered between day 250 and day 285. Birth weights were reduced. The defect was characte......A recently observed lethal congenital defect of purebred Holstein calves is reported. Eighteen genetically related calves were necropsied. One calf had been aborted on gestation day 159, and the others were delivered between day 250 and day 285. Birth weights were reduced. The defect...

  16. Effect of Holstein phonons on the electronic properties of graphene

    Stauber, T; Peres, N M R

    2008-01-01

    We obtain the self-energy of the electronic propagator due to the presence of Holstein polarons within the first Born approximation. This leads to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity of 1%. We further compute the optical conductivity of the system at the Dirac point and at finite doping within the Kubo formula. We argue that the effects due to Holstein phonons are negligible and that the Boltzmann approach, which does not include inter-band transitions and can thus not treat optical phonons due to their high energy of ℎω 0 ∼ 0.1-0.2 eV, remains valid

  17. Effect of Holstein phonons on the electronic properties of graphene

    Stauber, T.; Peres, N. M. R.

    2007-01-01

    We obtain the self-energy of the electronic propagator due to the presence of Holstein polarons within the first Born approximation. This leads to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity of one percent. We further compute the optical conductivity of the system at the Dirac point and at finite doping within the Kubo-formula. We argue that the effects due to Holstein phonons are negligible and that the Boltzmann approach which does not include inter-band transition and can thus not treat optica...

  18. DEMAND FOR BEEF IN THE PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Sulistiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  19. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC–MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added. - Highlights: ► Garlic and red wine were added to ground beef and irradiated at 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. ► When the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly and it affected sensory score. ► Thus, addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation. ► This effect was consistent when additives, such as garlic and red wine, were added into ground beef.

  20. Emerging markets for imported beef in China: Results from a consumer choice experiment in Beijing.

    Ortega, David L; Hong, Soo Jeong; Wang, H Holly; Wu, Laping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore emerging markets for imported beef in China by assessing Beijing consumer demand for quality attributes. This study utilizes data from an in-store choice experiment to evaluate consumer willingness-to-pay for select food quality attributes (food safety, animal welfare, Green Food and Organic certification) taking into account country-of-origin information. Our results show that Beijing consumers value food safety information the most, and are willing to pay more for Australian beef products than for US or domestic (Chinese) beef. We explore the various relationships between the quality attributes, find evidence of preference heterogeneity and discuss agribusiness and marketing implications of our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.