Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; LeGore, Virginia L.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.
2004-04-01
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area T-TX-TY. This report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from three probe holes (C3830, C3831, and C3832) in the TX Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-10-27. Sediments from borehole 299-W-10-27 are considered to be uncontaminated sediments that can be compared with contaminated sediments. This report also presents our interpretation of the sediment lithologies, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone and groundwater below the TX Tank Farm. Sediment from the probe holes was analyzed for: moisture, radionuclide and carbon contents;, one-to-one water extracts (soil pH, electrical conductivity, cation, trace metal, and anion data), and 8 M nitric acid extracts. Overall, our analyses showed that common ion exchange is a key mechanism that influences the distribution of contaminants within that portion of the vadose zone affected by tank liquor. We did not observe significant indications of caustic alteration of the sediment mineralogy or porosity, or significant zones of slightly elevated pH values in the probe holes. The sediments do show that sodium-, nitrate-, and sulfate-dominated fluids are present. The fluids are more dilute than tank fluids observed below tanks at the SX and BX Tank Farms. Three primary stratigraphic units were encountered in each probe hole: (1) backfill material, (2) the Hanford formation, and (3) the Cold Creek unit. Each of the probe holes contain thin fine-grained layers in the Hanford H2 stratigraphic unit that may impact the flow of leaked fluids and effect irregular and horizontal flow. The probe holes could not penetrate below the enriched calcium carbonate strata of the Cold Creek lower subunit; therefore, we did not
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.
2008-09-11
This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.8, 4.28,4.43, and 4.59. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in April 2004. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) T-TX-TY. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from boreholes C3830, C3831, and C3832 in the TX Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-10-27 installed northeast of the TY Tank Farm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven R. Cranmer
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Coronal holes are the darkest and least active regions of the Sun, as observed both on the solar disk and above the solar limb. Coronal holes are associated with rapidly expanding open magnetic fields and the acceleration of the high-speed solar wind. This paper reviews measurements of the plasma properties in coronal holes and how these measurements are used to reveal details about the physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wave-like fluctuations, and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. Evidence for both paradigms is summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is also given to spectroscopic and coronagraphic measurements that allow the highly dynamic non-equilibrium evolution of the plasma to be followed as the asymptotic conditions in interplanetary space are established in the extended corona. For example, the importance of kinetic plasma physics and turbulence in coronal holes has been affirmed by surprising measurements from the UVCS instrument on SOHO that heavy ions are heated to hundreds of times the temperatures of protons and electrons. These observations point to specific kinds of collisionless Alfvén wave damping (i.e., ion cyclotron resonance, but complete theoretical models do not yet exist. Despite our incomplete knowledge of the complex multi-scale plasma physics, however, much progress has been made toward the goal of understanding the mechanisms ultimately responsible for producing the observed properties of coronal holes.
Calmet, Xavier; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2014-01-01
Written by foremost experts, this short book gives a clear description of the physics of quantum black holes. The reader will learn about quantum black holes in four and higher dimensions, primordial black holes, the production of black holes in high energy particle collisions, Hawking radiation, black holes in models of low scale quantum gravity and quantum gravitational aspects of black holes.
Dokuchaev, V. I.
2012-01-01
We consider test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside a black hole, which are stable, periodic and neither come out of the black hole nor terminate at the singularity. Interiors of supermassive black holes may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on planets with the third-kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of black holes by observing their white hole counterparts.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Gutperle, Michael; Kraus, Per
2011-01-01
.... We find solutions that generalize the BTZ black hole and carry spin-3 charge. The black hole entropy formula yields a result for the asymptotic growth of the partition function at finite spin-3 chemical potential...
Moss, I.G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.
2000-01-01
Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.
Wijers, R.A.M.J.
1996-01-01
Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes
Charged cosmological black hole
Moradi, Rahim; Stahl, Clément; Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Xue, She-Sheng
2017-11-01
The cosmological black holes are black holes living not in an asymptotically flat universe but in an expanding spacetime. They have a rich dynamics especially for their mass and horizon. In this article, we perform a natural step in investigating this new type of black hole: we consider the possibility of a charged cosmological black hole. We derive the general equations of motion governing its dynamics and report a new analytic solution for the special case of the charged Lematre-Tolman-Bondi equations of motion that describe a charged cosmological black hole. We then study various relevant quantities for the characterization of the black hole, such as the C-function, the effect of the charge on the black hole flux, and the nature of the singularity. We also perform numerical investigations to strengthen our results. Finally, we challenge a model of gamma ray burst within our framework.
Stimulated Black Hole Evaporation
Spaans, Marco
2016-01-01
Black holes are extreme expressions of gravity. Their existence is predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity and is supported by observations. Black holes obey quantum mechanics and evaporate spontaneously. Here it is shown that a mass rate $R_f\\sim 3\\times 10^{-8} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ $M_0$ yr$^{-1}$ onto the horizon of a black hole with mass $M$ (in units of solar mass $M_0$) stimulates a black hole into rapid evaporation. Specifically, $\\sim 3 M_0$ black holes can emit a large fraction of their mass, and explode, in $M/R_f \\sim 3\\times 10^7 (M/M_0)^{3/2}$ yr. These stimulated black holes radiate a spectral line power $P \\sim 2\\times 10^{39} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ erg s$^{-1}$, at a wavelength $\\lambda \\sim 3\\times 10^5 (M/M_0)$ cm. This prediction can be observationally verified.
Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica
2016-01-01
Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.
Hole crystallization in semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonitz, M [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Filinov, V S [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Fortov, V E [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation); Levashov, P R [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation); Fehske, H [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Greifswald, l7487 Greifswald (Germany)
2006-04-28
When electrons in a solid are excited to a higher energy band they leave behind a vacancy (hole) in the original band which behaves like a positively charged particle. Here we predict that holes can spontaneously order into a regular lattice in semiconductors with sufficiently flat valence bands. The critical hole to electron effective mass ratio required for this phase transition is found to be of the order of 80.
Hole crystallization in semiconductors
Bonitz, M.; Filinov, V. S.; Fortov, V. E.; Levashov, P. R.; Fehske, H.
2005-01-01
When electrons in a solid are excited to a higher energy band they leave behind a vacancy (hole) in the original band which behaves like a positively charged particle. Here we predict that holes can spontaneously order into a regular lattice in semiconductors with sufficiently flat valence bands. The critical hole to electron effective mass ratio required for this phase transition is found to be of the order of 80.
Ho, Pei-Ming
2017-04-01
Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of ...
Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.
2010-01-01
We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kragh, Helge Stjernholm
2016-01-01
Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....
de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.
2009-01-01
Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the
Raine, Derek
2005-01-01
This introduction to the fascinating subject of black holes fills a significant gap in the literature which exists between popular, non-mathematical expositions and advanced textbooks at the research level. It is designed for advanced undergraduates and first year postgraduates as a useful stepping-stone to the advanced literature. The book provides an accessible introduction to the exact solutions of Einstein’s vacuum field equations describing spherical and axisymmetric (rotating) black holes. The geometry and physical properties of these spacetimes are explored through the motion of particles and light. The use of different coordinate systems, maximal extensions and Penrose diagrams is explained. The association of the surface area of a black hole with its entropy is discussed and it is shown that with the introduction of quantum mechanics black holes cease to be black and can radiate. This result allows black holes to satisfy the laws of thermodynamics and thus be consistent with the rest of physics.
1999-01-01
This graphic shows the computer simulation of a black hole from start to finish. Plasma is falling slowly toward the black hole in a (at the upper left). The plasma has a magnetic field, shown by the white lines. It picks up speed as it falls toward the hole in b (at the upper right), c (lower left) and d (lower right). However, the rotating black hole twists up space itself (and the magnetic field lines) and ejects electromagnetic power along the north and south poles above the black hole. The red and white color shows the immense electromagnetic power output, which eventually will pick up particles and form squirting jets. This simulation was conducted using supercomputers at Japan's National Institute for Fusion Science.
Black hole critical phenomena without black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical ...
The Thermodynamics of Black Holes
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Emparan, Roberto; Tinto, Massimo; Barbero G, J Fernando; Heusler, Markus; Rendall, Alan D; Adamo, Timothy M; Liebling, Steven L; Sasaki, Misao; Poisson, Eric; Wald, Robert M; Postnov, Konstantin A; Amendola, Luca; Shibata, Masaru; Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Reall, Harvey S; Kozameh, Carlos; Palenzuela, Carlos; Yungelson, Lev R; Villaseñor, Eduardo J. S; Appleby, Stephen; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Dhurandhar, Sanjeev V; Bacon, David; Newman, Ezra T; Baker, Tessa; Baldi, Marco; Bartolo, Nicola; Blanchard, Alain; Bonvin, Camille; Borgani, Stefano; Branchini, Enzo; Burrage, Clare; Camera, Stefano; Carbone, Carmelita; Casarini, Luciano; Cropper, Mark; de Rham, Claudia; Di Porto, Cinzia; Ealet, Anne; Ferreira, Pedro G; Finelli, Fabio; García-Bellido, Juan; Giannantonio, Tommaso; Guzzo, Luigi; Heavens, Alan; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Heymans, Catherine; Hoekstra, Henk; Hollenstein, Lukas; Holmes, Rory; Horst, Ole; Jahnke, Knud; Kitching, Thomas D; Koivisto, Tomi; Kunz, Martin; La Vacca, Giuseppe; March, Marisa; Majerotto, Elisabetta; Markovic, Katarina; Marsh, David; Marulli, Federico; Massey, Richard; Mellier, Yannick; Mota, David F; Nunes, Nelson J; Percival, Will; Pettorino, Valeria; Porciani, Cristiano; Quercellini, Claudia; Read, Justin; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Sapone, Domenico; Scaramella, Roberto; Skordis, Constantinos; Simpson, Fergus; Taylor, Andy; Thomas, Shaun; Trotta, Roberto; Verde, Licia; Vernizzi, Filippo; Vollmer, Adrian; Wang, Yun; Weller, Jochen; Zlosnik, Tom
...We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds...
Gronz, Oliver; Seeger, Manuel; Klaes, Björn; Casper, Markus C.; Ries, Johannes B.
2015-04-01
Accurate and dense 3D models of soil surfaces can be used in various ways: They can be used as initial shapes for erosion models. They can be used as benchmark shapes for erosion model outputs. They can be used to derive metrics, such as random roughness... One easy and low-cost method to produce these models is structure from motion (SfM). Using this method, two questions arise: Does the soil moisture, which changes the colour, albedo and reflectivity of the soil, influence the model quality? How can the model quality be evaluated? To answer these questions, a suitable data set has been produced: soil has been placed on a tray and areas with different roughness structures have been formed. For different moisture states - dry, medium, saturated - and two different lighting conditions - direct and indirect - sets of high-resolution images at the same camera positions have been taken. From the six image sets, 3D point clouds have been produced using VisualSfM. The visual inspection of the 3D models showed that all models have different areas, where holes of different sizes occur. But it is obviously a subjective task to determine the model's quality by visual inspection. One typical approach to evaluate model quality objectively is to estimate the point density on a regular, two-dimensional grid: the number of 3D points in each grid cell projected on a plane is calculated. This works well for surfaces that do not show vertical structures. Along vertical structures, many points will be projected on the same grid cell and thus the point density rather depends on the shape of the surface but less on the quality of the model. Another approach has been applied by using the points resulting from Poisson Surface Reconstructions. One of this algorithm's properties is the filling of holes: new points are interpolated inside the holes. Using the original 3D point cloud and the interpolated Poisson point set, two analyses have been performed: For all Poisson points, the
2002-01-01
Each spring the ozone layer over Antarctica nearly disappears, forming a 'hole' over the entire continent. The hole is created by the interaction of some man-made chemicals-freon, for example-with Antarctica's unique weather patterns and extremely cold temperatures. Ozone in the stratosphere absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun, thereby protecting living things. Since the ozone hole was discovered many of the chemicals that destroy ozone have been banned, but they will remain in the atmosphere for decades. In 2000, the ozone hole grew quicker than usual and exceptionally large. By the first week in September the hole was the largest ever-11.4 million square miles. The top image shows the average total column ozone values over Antarctica for September 2000. (Total column ozone is the amount of ozone from the ground to the top of the atmosphere. A relatively typical measurement of 300 Dobson Units is equivalent to a layer of ozone 0.12 inches thick on the Earth's surface. Levels below 220 Dobson Units are considered to be significant ozone depletion.) The record-breaking hole is likely the result of lower than average ozone levels during the Antarctic fall and winter, and exceptionally cold temperatures. In October, however (bottom image), the hole shrank dramatically, much more quickly than usual. By the end of October, the hole was only one-third of it's previous size. In a typical year, the ozone hole does not collapse until the end of November. NASA scientists were surprised by this early shrinking and speculate it is related to the region's weather. Global ozone levels are measured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). For more information about ozone, read the Earth Observatory's ozone fact sheet, view global ozone data and see these ozone images. Images by Greg Shirah, NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)
2015-05-11
In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho
2015-01-01
In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar-tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and ordinary hairy black holes. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.
Danielsson, U H
1993-01-01
In this work the quantum theory of two dimensional dilaton black holes is studied using the Wheeler De Witt equation. The solutions correspond to wave functions of the black hole. It is found that for an observer inside the horizon, there are uncertainty relations for the black hole mass and a parameter in the metric determining the Hawking flux. Only for a particular value of this parameter, can both be known with arbitrary accuracy. In the generic case there is instead a relation which is very similar to the so called string uncertainty relation.
Hayward, Sean Alan
2013-01-01
Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burkhard Kleihaus
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.
Black Hole Shadows of Charged Spinning Black Holes
Takahashi, Rohta
2005-01-01
We propose a method for measuring the black hole charge by imaging a black hole shadow in a galactic center by future interferometers. Even when the black hole is uncharged, it is possible to confirm the charge neutrality by this method. We first derive the analytic formulae of the black hole shadow in an optically thin medium around a charged spinning black hole, and then investigate how contours of the black hole shadow depend on the spin and the charge of the black hole for several inclina...
Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara
2018-02-01
We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
David Levin
2017-01-01
A blue hole in the ocean is a striking sight. Fly over remote areas of the Caribbean Sea and you'll see shallow turquoise water stretching for miles, interrupted only by occasional sand bars and coral reefs...
Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O'Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.
2016-07-01
Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.
Chamseddine, Ali H.; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav
2017-03-01
We consider the Schwarzschild black hole and show how, in a theory with limiting curvature, the physical singularity "inside it" is removed. The resulting spacetime is geodesically complete. The internal structure of this nonsingular black hole is analogous to Russian nesting dolls. Namely, after falling into the black hole of radius rg, an observer, instead of being destroyed at the singularity, gets for a short time into the region with limiting curvature. After that he re-emerges in the near horizon region of a spacetime described by the Schwarzschild metric of a gravitational radius proportional to rg^{1/3}. In the next cycle, after passing the limiting curvature, the observer finds himself within a black hole of even smaller radius proportional to rg^{1/9}, and so on. Finally after a few cycles he will end up in the spacetime where he remains forever at limiting curvature.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Corda, Christian
2013-01-01
Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re...
Holographic black hole chemistry
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Karch, Andreas; Robinson, Brandon
2015-01-01
Thermodynamic quantities associated with black holes in Anti-de Sitter space obey an interesting identity when the cosmological constant is included as one of the dynamical variables, the generalized Smarr relation...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique (LPT), Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8627, F-91405 Orsay (France); Hassaine, Mokhtar, E-mail: eugeny.babichev@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: christos.charmousis@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: hassaine@inst-mat.utalca.cl [Instituto de Matemática y Física, Universidad de Talca, Casilla 747, Talca (Chile)
2015-05-01
We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.
The Thermodynamics of Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wald Robert M.
2001-01-01
Full Text Available We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2002-02-01
Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for
Centrella, John
2009-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
Black hole gravitohydromagnetics
Punsly, Brian
2008-01-01
Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bender, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bloom, E. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cominsky, L. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others
1995-07-01
Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.
2002-01-01
These images from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) show the progressive depletion of ozone over Antarctica from 1979 to 1999. This 'ozone hole' has extended to cover an area as large as 10.5 million square miles in September 1998. The previous record of 10.0 million square miles was set in 1996. The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year between late August and early October. Regions with higher levels of ozone are shown in red. NASA and NOAA instruments have been measuring Antarctic ozone levels since the early 1970s. Large regions of depleted ozone began to develop over Antarctica in the early 1980s. Ozone holes of substantial size and depth are likely to continue to form during the next few years, scientists hope to see a reduction in ozone loss as levels of ozone-destroying CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) are gradually reduced. Credit: Images by Greg Shirah, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-27
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rajaraman, Arvind
2003-06-02
It is known that the naive version of D-brane theory is inadequate to explain the black hole entropy in the limit in which the Schwarzschild radius becomes larger than all compactification radii. We present evidence that a more consistent description can be given in terms of strings with rescaled tensions. We show that the rescaling can be interpreted as a redshift of the tension of a fundamental string in the gravitational field of the black hole. An interesting connection is found between the string level number and the Rindler energy. Using this connection, we reproduce the entropies of Schwarzschild black holes in arbitrary dimensions in terms of the entropy of a single string at the Hagedorn temperature.
Characterizing Black Hole Mergers
Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard
2010-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.
Roldán-Molina, A.; Nunez, Alvaro S.; Duine, R. A.
2017-02-01
We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons—the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.
Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson
2017-01-13
We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.
Roldán-Molina, A; Nunez, Alvaro S; Duine, R A
2017-02-10
We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons-the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.
Good, Michael R R
2014-01-01
A $(3+1)$-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed $\\Omega_+$ can be used to define an effective spring constant, $k=m\\Omega_+^2$. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, $k = \\kappa $, which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: $2\\pi T = \\kappa - k$. Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force $F = 1/4$, which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.
Goldstein, K.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314132376; Katmadas, S.
2009-01-01
We study non-BPS black hole solutions to ungauged supergravity with 8 supercharges coupled to vector multiplets in four and five dimensions. We identify a large class of five dimensional non-BPS solutions, which we call ``almost BPS'', that are supersymmetric on local patches and satisfy a first
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut (Lebanon); I.H.E.S., Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Mukhanov, Viatcheslav [Niels Bohr Institute, Niels Bohr International Academy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theoretical Physics, Munich (Germany); MPI for Physics, Munich (Germany)
2017-03-15
We consider the Schwarzschild black hole and show how, in a theory with limiting curvature, the physical singularity ''inside it'' is removed. The resulting spacetime is geodesically complete. The internal structure of this nonsingular black hole is analogous to Russian nesting dolls. Namely, after falling into the black hole of radius r{sub g}, an observer, instead of being destroyed at the singularity, gets for a short time into the region with limiting curvature. After that he re-emerges in the near horizon region of a spacetime described by the Schwarzschild metric of a gravitational radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/3}. In the next cycle, after passing the limiting curvature, the observer finds himself within a black hole of even smaller radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/9}, and so on. Finally after a few cycles he will end up in the spacetime where he remains forever at limiting curvature. (orig.)
Baker, John
2010-01-01
Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.
Mascia, Elizabeth G.
2001-01-01
Demonstrates that a careful reading of the book for young adults, "Holes" by Louis Sachar, reveals how this contemporary story is grounded in folklore, and that it is this debt to folk literature that allows readers to accept an improbable plot. Shows how the story weaves together elements from traditional folk literature and stretches them across…
Stolarski, Richard S.
1988-01-01
Discusses the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (1987) and the findings of the British Antarctic Survey (1985). Proposes two theories for the appearance of the hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica which appears each spring; air pollution and natural atmospheric shifts. Illustrates the mechanics of both. Supports worldwide chlorofluorocarbon…
Quantum aspects of black holes
2015-01-01
Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.
Black Hole: The Interior Spacetime
Ong, Yen Chin
2016-01-01
The information loss paradox is often discussed from the perspective of the observers who stay outside of a black hole. However, the interior spacetime of a black hole can be rather nontrivial. We discuss the open problems regarding the volume of a black hole, and whether it plays any role in information storage. We also emphasize the importance of resolving the black hole singularity, if one were to resolve the information loss paradox.
String physics and black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Susskind, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Uglum, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1996-02-01
In these lectures we review the quantum physics of large Schwarzschild black holes. Hawking`s information paradox, the theory of the stretched horizon and the principle of black hole complementarity are covered. We then discuss how the ideas of black hole complementarity may be realized in string theory. Finally, arguments are given that the world may be a hologram. (orig.).
Hole pairs in a spin liquid: Influence of electrostatic hole-hole repulsion
Gazza, Claudio; Martins, George B.; Riera, José; Dagotto, Elbio
1999-01-01
The stability of hole bound states in the t-J model including short-range Coulomb interactions is analyzed using computational techniques on ladders with up to 2×30 sites. For a nearest-neighbor (NN) hole-hole repulsion, the two-holes bound state is surprisingly robust and breaks only when the repulsion is several times the exchange J. At ~10% hole doping the pairs break only for a NN repulsion as large as V~4J. Pair-pair correlations remain robust in the regime of hole binding. The results support electronic hole-pairing mechanisms on ladders based on holes moving in spin-liquid backgrounds. Implications in two dimensions are also presented. The need for better estimations of the range and strength of the Coulomb interaction in copper oxides is remarked.
Olmo, Gonzalo J
2011-01-01
We find that if general relativity is modified at the Planck scale by a Ricci-squared term, electrically charged black holes may be nonsingular. These objects concentrate their mass in a microscopic sphere of radius $r_{core}\\approx N_q^{1/2}l_P/3$, where $l_P$ is the Planck length and $N_q$ is the number of electric charges. The singularity is avoided if the mass of the object satisfies the condition $M_0^2\\approx m_P^2 \\alpha_{em}^{3/2} N_q^3/2$, where $m_P$ is the Planck mass and $\\alpha_{em}$ is the fine-structure constant. For astrophysical black holes this amount of charge is so small that their external horizon almost coincides with their Schwarzschild radius. We work within a first-order (Palatini) approach.
Prisons of light : black holes
Ferguson, Kitty
What is a black hole? Could we survive a visit to one -- perhaps even venture inside? Have we yet discovered any real black holes? And what do black holes teach us about the mysteries of our Universe? These are just a few of the tantalizing questions examined in this tour-de-force, jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light - Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Casadio
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce
Bellucci, S; Marrani, A; Yeranyan, A
2008-01-01
The general solutions of the radial attractor flow equations for extremal black holes, both for non-BPS with non-vanishing central charge Z and for Z=0, are obtained for the so-called stu model, the minimal rank-3 N=2 symmetric supergravity in d=4 space-time dimensions. Comparisons with previous results, as well as the fake supergravity (first order) formalism and an analysis of the BPS bound all along the non-BPS attractor flows and of the marginal stability of corresponding D-brane configurations, are given.
Bellucci, Stefano; Ferrara, Sergio; Marrani, Alessio; Yeranyan, Armen
2008-12-01
The general solutions of the radial attractor flow equations for extremal black holes, both for non-BPS with non-vanishing central charge Z and for Z = 0, are obtained for the so-called stu model, the minimal rank-3 N = 2 symmetric supergravity in d = 4 space-time dimensions. Comparisons with previous results, as well as the fake supergravity (first order) formalism and an analysis of the BPS bound all along the non-BPS attractor flows and of the marginal stability of corresponding D-brane configurations, are given.
Su, Daiqin; Ho, C. T. Marco; Mann, Robert B.; Ralph, Timothy C.
2017-09-01
We show that the gravitational quasinormal modes (QNMs) of a Schwarzschild black hole play the role of a multimode squeezer that can generate particles. For a minimally coupled scalar field, the QNMs "squeeze" the initial state of the scalar field (even for the vacuum) and produce scalar particles. The maximal squeezing amplitude is inversely proportional to the cube of the imaginary part of the QNM frequency, implying that the particle generation efficiency is higher for lower decaying QNMs. Our results show that the gravitational perturbations can amplify Hawking radiation.
Dolya, S N
2014-01-01
This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total mass of bromine equal to the following four tons.
Visser, Matt; Volovik, Grigory E
2009-01-01
Physicists are pondering on the possibility of simulating black holes in the laboratory by means of various "analog models". These analog models, typically based on condensed matter physics, can be used to help us understand general relativity (Einstein's gravity); conversely, abstract techniques developed in general relativity can sometimes be used to help us understand certain aspects of condensed matter physics. This book contains 13 chapters - written by experts in general relativity, particle physics, and condensed matter physics - that explore various aspects of this two-way traffic.
2002-10-01
Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way
Black holes in massive gravity
Babichev, Eugeny
2015-01-01
We review the black hole solutions of the ghost-free massive gravity theory and its bimetric extension and outline the main results on the stability of these solutions against small perturbations. Massive (bi)-gravity accommodates exact black hole solutions, analogous to those of General Relativity. In addition to these solutions, hairy black holes -- solutions with no correspondent in General Relativity -- have been found numerically, whose existence is a natural consequence of the absence of the Birkhoff's theorem in these theories. The existence of extra propagating degrees of freedom, makes the stability properties of these black holes richer and more complex than those of General Relativity. In particular, the bi-Schwarzschild black hole exhibits an unstable spherically symmetric mode, while the bi-Kerr geometry is also generically unstable, both against the spherical mode and against superradiant instabilities. If astrophysical black holes are described by these solutions, the superradiant instability o...
Dvali, Gia
2013-01-01
According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.
Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reall Harvey S.
2008-09-01
Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.
Black holes and the multiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Tufts University, 574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA, 02155 (United States)
2016-02-01
Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.
Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.
Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David
2016-09-23
We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.
Campillo, I.; Rubio, A.; Pitarke, J. M.; Goldmann, A.; Echenique, P. M.
2000-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of hole dynamics in noble metals (Cu and Au), by means of first-principles many-body calculations. While holes in a free-electron gas are known to live shorter than electrons with the same excitation energy, our results indicate that d-holes in noble metals exhibit longer inelastic lifetimes than excited sp-electrons, in agreement with experiment. The density of states available for d-hole decay is larger than that for the decay of excited electrons; however, th...
Black holes under external influence £
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
KTF MFF UK
of the flux of external fields across charged and rotating black holes which are approaching extremal states. Recently this effect has been shown to occur for black hole solutions in string theory. We also discuss black holes surrounded by rings and disks and rotating black holes accelerated by strings. Keywords. Black holes ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Marianne
2004-01-01
The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Black holes are bits of space, or more precisely, 'space-time', from which even light cannot escape, because they are regions of extremely strong gravity. We now know that black holes, es- pecially those that are a million times heavier than our Sun or more, i.e., 'supermassive', are abundant in our universe, occur- ring in the ...
Drilling miniature holes, Part III
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gillespie, L.K.
1978-07-01
Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.
ATLAS simulated black hole event
Pequenão, J
2008-01-01
The simulated collision event shown is viewed along the beampipe. The event is one in which a microscopic-black-hole was produced in the collision of two protons (not shown). The microscopic-black-hole decayed immediately into many particles. The colors of the tracks show different types of particles emerging from the collision (at the center).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Cabrera-Munguia
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.
Magnetic fields around black holes
Garofalo, David A. G.
Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our
When Charged Black Holes Merge
Kohler, Susanna
2016-08-01
Most theoretical models assume that black holes arent charged. But a new study shows that mergers of charged black holes could explain a variety of astrophysical phenomena, from fast radio bursts to gamma-ray bursts.No HairThe black hole no hair theorem states that all black holes can be described by just three things: their mass, their spin, and their charge. Masses and spins have been observed and measured, but weve never measured the charge of a black hole and its widely believed that real black holes dont actually have any charge.That said, weve also never shown that black holes dont have charge, or set any upper limits on the charge that they might have. So lets suppose, for a moment, that its possible for a black hole to be charged. How might that affect what we know about the merger of two black holes? A recent theoretical study by Bing Zhang (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) examines this question.Intensity profile of a fast radio burst, a sudden burst of radio emission that lasts only a few milliseconds. [Swinburne Astronomy Productions]Driving TransientsZhangs work envisions a pair of black holes in a binary system. He argues that if just one of the black holes carries charge possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere then it may be possible for the system to produce an electromagnetic signal that could accompany gravitational waves, such as a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst!In Zhangs model, the inspiral of the two black holes generates a global magnetic dipole thats perpendicular to the plane of the binarys orbit. The magnetic flux increases rapidly as the separation between the black holes decreases, generating an increasingly powerful magnetic wind. This wind, in turn, can give rise to a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst, depending on the value of the black holes charge.Artists illustration of a short gamma-ray burst, thought to be caused by the merger of two compact objects. [ESO/A. Roquette]Zhang calculates lower limits on the charge
Prisons of Light - Black Holes
Ferguson, Kitty
1998-05-01
In this jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science, acclaimed science writer Kitty Ferguson examines the discovery of black holes, their nature, and what they can teach us about the mysteries of the universe. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light--Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hubeny, V.
2005-01-12
We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect--the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive. The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.
Are LIGO's Black Holes Made From Smaller Black Holes?
Kohler, Susanna
2017-05-01
The recent successes of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has raised hopes that several long-standing questions in black-hole physics will soon be answerable. Besides revealing how the black-hole binary pairs are built, could detections with LIGO also reveal how the black holes themselves form?Isolation or HierarchyThe first detection of gravitational waves, GW150914, was surprising for a number of reasons. One unexpected result was the mass of the two black holes that LIGO saw merging: they were a whopping 29 and 36 solar masses.On the left of this schematic, two first-generation (direct-collapse) black holes form a merging binary. The right illustrates a second-generation hierarchical merger: each black hole in the final merging binary was formed by the merger of two smaller black holes. [Adapted fromGerosa et al., a simultaneously published paper that also explores the problem of hierarchical mergers and reaches similar conclusions]How do black holes of this size form? One possibility is that they form in isolation from the collapse of a single massive star. In an alternative model, they are created through the hierarchical merger of smaller black holes, gradually building up to the size we observed.A team of scientists led by Maya Fishbach (University of Chicago) suggests that we may soon be able to tell whether or not black holes observed by LIGO formed hierarchically. Fishbach and collaborators argue that hierarchical formation leaves a distinctive signature on the spins of the final black holes and that as soon as we have enough merger detections from LIGO, we can use spin measurements to statistically determine if LIGO black holes were formed hierarchically.Spins from Major MergersWhen two black holes merge, both their original spins and the angular momentum of the pair contribute to the spin of the final black hole that results. Fishbach and collaborators calculate the expected distribution of these final spins assuming that
Area spectrum of slowly rotating black holes
Myung, Yun Soo
2010-01-01
We investigate the area spectrum for rotating black holes which are Kerr and BTZ black holes. For slowly rotating black holes, we use the Maggiore's idea combined with Kunstatter's method to derive their area spectra, which are equally spaced.
New entropy formula for Kerr black holes
Gonzalez, Hernan; Grumiller, Daniel; Merbis, Wout; Wutte, Raphaela
2017-01-01
We introduce a new entropy formula for Kerr black holes inspired by recent results for 3-dimensional black holes and cosmologies with soft Heisenberg hair. We show that also Kerr-Taub-NUT black holes obey the same formula.
VTrans Small Culvert Inventory - Access Holes
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont Agency of Transportation Small Culvert Inventory: Access Holes. This data contains access hole locations along VTrans maintained roadways. The data was...
2006-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version This artist's concept shows a supermassive black hole at the center of a remote galaxy digesting the remnants of a star. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer had a 'ringside' seat for this feeding frenzy, using its ultraviolet eyes to study the process from beginning to end. The artist's concept chronicles the star being ripped apart and swallowed by the cosmic beast over time. First, the intact sun-like star (left) ventures too close to the black hole, and its own self-gravity is overwhelmed by the black hole's gravity. The star then stretches apart (middle yellow blob) and eventually breaks into stellar crumbs, some of which swirl into the black hole (cloudy ring at right). This doomed material heats up and radiates light, including ultraviolet light, before disappearing forever into the black hole. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer was able to watch this process unfold by observing changes in ultraviolet light. The area around the black hole appears warped because the gravity of the black hole acts like a lens, twisting and distorting light.
Atlantic coastal plain geothermal test holes, Virginia: hole completion reports
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cobb, L.B.; Radford, L.; Glascock, M.
1979-03-01
A description of the Atlantic Coastal Plain Geothermal Drilling Program and data for the following geothermal test holes drilled in Virginia are summarized: Creeds, Norfolk Naval Base, Langley Air Force Base, Wattsville, Withams, and Atlantic.
Unveiling the edge of time black holes, white holes, wormholes
Gribbin, John
1992-01-01
Acclaimed science writer John Gribbin recounts dramatic stories that have led scientists to believe black holes and their more mysterious kin are not only real, but might actually provide a passage to other universes and travel through time.
Quantum mechanics of black holes.
Witten, Edward
2012-08-03
The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely.
Orbital resonances around black holes.
Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja
2015-02-27
We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.
Black holes and Higgs stability
Tetradis, Nikolaos
2016-09-20
We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.
Parker, E. N.
1991-01-01
It has been shown that the coronal hole, and the associated high-speed stream in the solar wind, are powered by a heat input of the order of 500,000 ergs/sq cm s, with most of the heat injected in the first 1-2 solar radii, and perhaps 100,000 ergs/sq cm s introduced at distances of several solar radii to provide the high speed of the issuing solar wind. The traditional view has been that this energy is obtained from Alfven waves generated in the subphotospheric convection, which dissipate as they propagate outward, converting the wave energy into heat. This paper reviews the generation of waves and the known wave dissipation mechanisms, to show that the necessary Alfven waves are not produced under the conditions presently understood to exist in the sun, nor would such waves dissipate significantly in the first 1-2 solar radii if they existed. Wave dissipation occurs only over distances of the order of 5 solar radii or more.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lineham, D.H.
1991-04-24
An automatically controlled ball-valve type bottom-hole blowout preventer is provided for use in drilling oil or gas wells. The blowout preventer of the invention operates under normal drilling conditions in a fully open position with an unrestricted bore. This condition is maintained by a combination of spring and mud flow pressure acting against the upper surfaces of the valve. In the event of a well kick or blowout, pressures from gas or fluid volumes acting against the lower surfaces of the valve force it into the fully closed position. A system of ports and check valves within the blowout preventer forces hydraulic fluid from one chamber to another. The metering effect of these ports determines the rate of closure of the valve, thereby allowing normal running and pulling of the drill string or tubing, without interference to pipe fill-up or drainage, from valve closure. The blowout preventer is placed in a subassembly that is an integral part of the drill string and can be incorporated in a string in any location. 3 figs.
van Herck, Walter; Wyder, Thomas
2010-04-01
The enumeration of BPS bound states in string theory needs refinement. Studying partition functions of particles made from D-branes wrapped on algebraic Calabi-Yau 3-folds, and classifying states using split attractor flow trees, we extend the method for computing a refined BPS index, [1]. For certain D-particles, a finite number of microstates, namely polar states, exclusively realized as bound states, determine an entire partition function (elliptic genus). This underlines their crucial importance: one might call them the ‘chromosomes’ of a D-particle or a black hole. As polar states also can be affected by our refinement, previous predictions on elliptic genera are modified. This can be metaphorically interpreted as ‘crossing-over in the meiosis of a D-particle’. Our results improve on [2], provide non-trivial evidence for a strong split attractor flow tree conjecture, and thus suggest that we indeed exhaust the BPS spectrum. In the D-brane description of a bound state, the necessity for refinement results from the fact that tachyonic strings split up constituent states into ‘generic’ and ‘special’ states. These are enumerated separately by topological invariants, which turn out to be partitions of Donaldson-Thomas invariants. As modular predictions provide a check on many of our results, we have compelling evidence that our computations are correct.
Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself
2009-03-01
New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don
Susskind, Leonard
1997-01-01
I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum mechanics that has occured over the last few years as a result of a deeper understanding of string theory.
Hole dephasing caused by hole-hole interaction in a multilayered black phosphorus.
Li, Lijun; Khan, Muhammad Atif; Lee, Yoontae; Lee, Inyeal; Yun, Sun Jin; Youn, Doo-Hyeb; Kim, Gil-Ho
2017-11-01
We study the magnetotransport of holes in a multilayered black phosphorus in a temperature range of 1.9 to 21.5 K. We observed a negative magnetoresistance at magnetic fields up to 1.5 T. This negative magetoresistance was analyzed by weak localization theory in diffusive regime. At the lowest temperature and the highest carrier density we found a phase coherence length of 48 nm. The linear temperature dependence of the dephasing rate shows that the hole-hole scattering processes with small energy transfer are the dominant contribution in breaking the carrier phase coherence.
Newman, P. A.; Nash, E. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.
2003-01-01
Since 1979, the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million km2. This area is most strongly controlled by levels of inorganic chlorine and bromine oncentrations. In addition, dynamical variations modulate the size of the ozone hole by either cooling or warming the polar vortex collar region. We will review the size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. Using a simple trajectory model, we will demonstrate the sensitivity of the ozone hole to dynamical forcing, and we will use these observations to discuss the size of the ozone hole during the 2002 Austral spring. We will further show how the Cly decreases in the stratosphere will cause the ozone hole to decrease by 1-1.5% per year. We will also show results from a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) that has been continuously run since 1999. These CTM results directly show how strong dynamics acts to reduce the size of the ozone hole.
Black Hole Spin Measurement Uncertainty
Salvesen, Greg; Begelman, Mitchell C.
2018-01-01
Angular momentum, or spin, is one of only two fundamental properties of astrophysical black holes, and measuring its value has numerous applications. For instance, obtaining reliable spin measurements could constrain the growth history of supermassive black holes and reveal whether relativistic jets are powered by tapping into the black hole spin reservoir. The two well-established techniques for measuring black hole spin can both be applied to X-ray binaries, but are in disagreement for cases of non-maximal spin. This discrepancy must be resolved if either technique is to be deemed robust. We show that the technique based on disc continuum fitting is sensitive to uncertainties regarding the disc atmosphere, which are observationally unconstrained. By incorporating reasonable uncertainties into black hole spin probability density functions, we demonstrate that the spin measured by disc continuum fitting can become highly uncertain. Future work toward understanding how the observed disc continuum is altered by atmospheric physics, particularly magnetic fields, will further strengthen black hole spin measurement techniques.
Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes ...
Formation and Coalescence of Electron Solitary Holes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saeki, K.; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, H. L.
1979-01-01
Electron solitary holes were observed in a magnetized collisionless plasma. These holes were identified as Bernstein-Green-Kruskal equilibria, thus being purely kinetic phenomena. The electron hole does not damp even though its velocity is close to the electron thermal velocity. Two holes attract...
Rethinking Black Hole Accretion Discs
Salvesen, Greg
Accretion discs are staples of astrophysics. Tapping into the gravitational potential energy of the accreting material, these discs are highly efficient machines that produce copious radiation and extreme outflows. While interesting in their own right, accretion discs also act as tools to study black holes and directly influence the properties of the Universe. Black hole X-ray binaries are fantastic natural laboratories for studying accretion disc physics and black hole phenomena. Among many of the curious behaviors exhibited by these systems are black hole state transitions -- complicated cycles of dramatic brightening and dimming. Using X-ray observations with high temporal cadence, we show that the evolution of the accretion disc spectrum during black hole state transitions can be described by a variable disc atmospheric structure without invoking a radially truncated disc geometry. The accretion disc spectrum can be a powerful diagnostic for measuring black hole spin if the effects of the disc atmosphere on the emergent spectrum are well-understood; however, properties of the disc atmosphere are largely unconstrained. Using statistical methods, we decompose this black hole spin measurement technique and show that modest uncertainties regarding the disc atmosphere can lead to erroneous spin measurements. The vertical structure of the disc is difficult to constrain due to our ignorance of the contribution to hydrostatic balance by magnetic fields, which are fundamental to the accretion process. Observations of black hole X-ray binaries and the accretion environments near supermassive black holes provide mounting evidence for strong magnetization. Performing numerical simulations of accretion discs in the shearing box approximation, we impose a net vertical magnetic flux that allows us to effectively control the level of disc magnetization. We study how dynamo activity and the properties of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability depend on the
Regular black hole in three dimensions
Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok
2008-01-01
We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.
Charge carrier holes and Majorana fermions
Liang, Jingcheng; Lyanda-Geller, Yuli
2017-05-01
Understanding Luttinger holes in low dimensions is crucial for numerous spin-dependent phenomena and nanotechnology. In particular, hole quantum wires that are proximity coupled to a superconductor is a promising system for the observation of Majorana fermions. Earlier treatments of confined Luttinger holes ignored a mutual transformation of heavy and light holes at the heteroboundaries. We derive the effective hole Hamiltonian in the ground state. The mutual transformation of holes is crucial for Zeeman and spin-orbit coupling, and results in several spin-orbit terms linear in momentum in hole quantum wires. We discuss the criterion for realizing Majorana modes in charge carrier hole systems. GaAs or InSb hole wires shall exhibit stronger topological superconducting pairing, and provide additional opportunities for its control compared to InSb electron systems.
Lectures on Quantum Black Holes
Dabholkar, Atish
2012-01-01
In these notes we describe recent progress in understanding finite size corrections to the black hole entropy. Much of the earlier work concerning quantum black holes has been in the limit of large charges when the area of the even horizon is also large. In recent years there has been substantial progress in understanding the entropy of supersymmetric black holes within string theory going well beyond the large charge limit. It has now become possible to begin exploring finite size effects in perturbation theory in inverse size and even nonperturbatively, with highly nontrivial agreements between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Unlike the leading Bekenstein-Hawking entropy which follows from the two-derivative Einstein-Hilbert action, these finite size corrections depend sensitively on the phase under consideration and contain a wealth of information about the details of compactification as well as the spectrum of nonperturbative states in the theory. Finite-size corrections are therefore very inter...
Massive Black Holes and Galaxies
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
Evidence has been accumulating for several decades that many galaxies harbor central mass concentrations that may be in the form of black holes with masses between a few million to a few billion time the mass of the Sun. I will discuss measurements over the last two decades, employing adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy on large ground-based telescopes that prove the existence of such a massive black hole in the Center of our Milky Way, beyond any reasonable doubt. These data also provide key insights into its properties and environment. Most recently, a tidally disrupting cloud of gas has been discovered on an almost radial orbit that reached its peri-distance of ~2000 Schwarzschild radii in 2014, promising to be a valuable tool for exploring the innermost accretion zone. Future interferometric studies of the Galactic Center Black hole promise to be able to test gravity in its strong field limit.
The black hole quantum atmosphere
Dey, Ramit; Liberati, Stefano; Pranzetti, Daniele
2017-11-01
Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan-Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4 MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.
Black holes and galaxy formation
Propst, Raphael J
2010-01-01
Galaxies are the basic unit of cosmology. The study of galaxy formation is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning. The physics of galaxy formation is complicated because it deals with the dynamics of stars, thermodynamics of gas and energy production of stars. A black hole is a massive object whose gravitational field is so intense that it prevents any form of matter or radiation to escape. It is hypothesized that the most massive galaxies in the universe- "elliptical galaxies"- grow simultaneously with the supermassive black holes at their centers, giving us much stronger evidence that black holes control galaxy formation. This book reviews new evidence in the field.
Black holes and random matrices
Cotler, Jordan S.; Gur-Ari, Guy; Hanada, Masanori; Polchinski, Joseph; Saad, Phil; Shenker, Stephen H.; Stanford, Douglas; Streicher, Alexandre; Tezuka, Masaki
2017-05-01
We argue that the late time behavior of horizon fluctuations in large anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes is governed by the random matrix dynamics characteristic of quantum chaotic systems. Our main tool is the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model, which we use as a simple model of a black hole. We use an analytically continued partition function | Z( β + it)|2 as well as correlation functions as diagnostics. Using numerical techniques we establish random matrix behavior at late times. We determine the early time behavior exactly in a double scaling limit, giving us a plausible estimate for the crossover time to random matrix behavior. We use these ideas to formulate a conjecture about general large AdS black holes, like those dual to 4D super-Yang-Mills theory, giving a provisional estimate of the crossover time. We make some preliminary comments about challenges to understanding the late time dynamics from a bulk point of view.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cosimo Bambi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We derive and study an approximate static vacuum solution generated by a point-like source in a higher derivative gravitational theory with a pair of complex conjugate ghosts. The gravitational theory is local and characterized by a high derivative operator compatible with Lee–Wick unitarity. In particular, the tree-level two-point function only shows a pair of complex conjugate poles besides the massless spin two graviton. We show that singularity-free black holes exist when the mass of the source M exceeds a critical value Mcrit. For M>Mcrit the spacetime structure is characterized by an outer event horizon and an inner Cauchy horizon, while for M=Mcrit we have an extremal black hole with vanishing Hawking temperature. The evaporation process leads to a remnant that approaches the zero-temperature extremal black hole state in an infinite amount of time.
The black hole quantum atmosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramit Dey
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan–Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phillip M. Ligrani
1996-01-01
Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.
Macular Hole in Behcet's Disease
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shwu-Jiuan Sheu
2004-11-01
Full Text Available Behcet's disease is an inflammatory disorder of unknown cause, characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. Ocular involvement occurs in 60-80% of patients with Behcet's disease and presents as panuveitis in most cases. Posterior segment involvement may lead to irreversible alterations and significant vision loss. The development of a partial or full-thickness macular hole, though rarely reported, may cause serious vision loss. In this report, we present two cases of macular hole in the worse eye of bilateral cases of Behcet's disease, and discuss the possible mechanisms and management in such cases.
Improved Black Hole Fireworks: Asymmetric Black-Hole-to-White-Hole Tunneling Scenario
De Lorenzo, Tommaso
2015-01-01
A new scenario for gravitational collapse has been recently proposed by Haggard and Rovelli. Presenting the model under the name of black hole fireworks, they claimed that the accumulation of quantum gravitational effects outside the horizon can cause the tunneling of geometry from a black hole to a white hole, allowing a bounce of the collapsing star which can eventually go back to infinity. In this paper we discuss the instabilities of this model and propose a simple minimal modification which eliminates them, as well as other related instabilities discussed in the literature. The new scenario is a time-asymmetric version of the original model with a time-scale for the final explosion that is shorter than m log m in Planck units. Our analysis highlights the importance of irreversibility in gravitational collapse which, in turn, uncovers important issues that cannot be addressed in detail without a full quantum gravity treatment.
Black Holes and Exotic Spinors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. Hoff da Silva
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Exotic spin structures are non-trivial liftings, of the orthogonal bundle to the spin bundle, on orientable manifolds that admit spin structures according to the celebrated Geroch theorem. Exotic spin structures play a role of paramount importance in different areas of physics, from quantum field theory, in particular at Planck length scales, to gravity, and in cosmological scales. Here, we introduce an in-depth panorama in this field, providing black hole physics as the fount of spacetime exoticness. Black holes are then studied as the generators of a non-trivial topology that also can correspond to some inequivalent spin structure. Moreover, we investigate exotic spinor fields in this context and the way exotic spinor fields branch new physics. We also calculate the tunneling probability of exotic fermions across a Kerr-Sen black hole, showing that the exotic term does affect the tunneling probability, altering the black hole evaporation rate. Finally we show that it complies with the Hawking temperature universal law.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Current technologies have enabled glimpses at the many facetsof black holes, which we know to be plentiful in our cosmos.A panoramic view of the evidence for them is presented hereacross the large range of masses that they span.
Extremal Higher Spin Black Holes
Bañados, M.; Castro, A.; Faraggi, A.; Jottar, J.I.
The gauge sector of three-dimensional higher spin gravities can be formulated as a Chern-Simons theory. In this context, a higher spin black hole corresponds to a flat connection with suitable holonomy (smoothness) conditions which are consistent with the properties of a generalized thermal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-10-06
Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of “coded apertures”. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.
Rotating black hole and quintessence
Ghosh, Sushant G
2015-01-01
We discuss spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations for quintessential matter surrounding a black hole (BH), which has additional parameters ($\\alpha$ and $\\omega$) due to the quintessential matter, apart from the mass ($M$). In turn, we employ the Newman\\(-\\)Janis complex transformation to this spherical quintessence BH solution and present a rotating counterpart that is identified, for $\\alpha=-e^2 \
'Black holes': escaping the void.
Waldron, Sharn
2013-02-01
The 'black hole' is a metaphor for a reality in the psyche of many individuals who have experienced complex trauma in infancy and early childhood. The 'black hole' has been created by an absence of the object, the (m)other, so there is no internalized object, no (m)other in the psyche. Rather, there is a 'black hole' where the object should be, but the infant is drawn to it, trapped by it because of an intrinsic, instinctive need for a 'real object', an internalized (m)other. Without this, the infant cannot develop. It is only the presence of a real object that can generate the essential gravity necessary to draw the core of the self that is still in an undeveloped state from deep within the abyss. It is the moving towards a real object, a (m)other, that relativizes the absolute power of the black hole and begins a reformation of its essence within the psyche. © 2013, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Dvali, Gia
2014-01-01
It is a common wisdom that properties of macroscopic bodies are well described by (semi)classical physics. As we have suggested this wisdom is not applicable to black holes. Despite being macroscopic, black holes are quantum objects. They represent Bose-Einstein condensates of N-soft gravitons at the quantum critical point, where N Bogoliubov modes become gapless. As a result, physics governing arbitrarily-large black holes (e.g., of galactic size) is a quantum physics of the collective Bogoiliubov modes. This fact introduces a new intrinsically-quantum corrections in form of 1/N, as opposed to exp(-N). These corrections are unaccounted by the usual semiclassical expansion in h and cannot be recast in form of a quantum back-reaction to classical metric. Instead the metric itself becomes an approximate entity. These 1/N corrections abolish the presumed properties of black holes, such as non existence of hair, and are the key to nullifying the so-called information paradox.
Supersymmetric black holes and Freudenthal duality
Marrani, Alessio; Mandal, Taniya; Tripathy, Prasanta K.
2017-07-01
We study the effect of Freudenthal duality on supersymmetric extremal black hole attractors in 𝒩 = 2, D = 4 ungauged supergravity. Freudenthal duality acts on the dyonic black hole charges as an anti-involution which keeps the black hole entropy and the critical points of the effective black hole potential invariant. We analyze its effect on the recently discovered distinct, mutually exclusive phases of axionic supersymmetric black holes, related to the existence of nontrivial involutory constant matrices. In particular, we consider a supersymmetric D0 - D4 - D6 black hole and we explicitly Freudenthal-map it to a supersymmetric D0 - D2 - D4 - D6 black hole. We thus show that the charge representation space of a supersymmetric D0 - D2 - D4 - D6 black hole also contains mutually exclusive domains.
Spin distribution of primordial black holes
Chiba, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Shuichiro
2017-08-01
We estimate the spin distribution of primordial black holes based on the recent study of the critical phenomena in the gravitational collapse of a rotating radiation fluid. We find that primordial black holes are mostly slowly rotating.
Implementing black hole as efficient power plant
Wei, Shao-Wen
2016-01-01
Treating the black hole molecules as working substance and considering its phase structure, we study the black hole heat engine by a charged anti-de Sitter black hole. In the reduced temperature-entropy chart, it is found that the work, heat, and efficiency of the engine are independent of the black hole charge. Applying the Rankine cycle with or without a back pressure mechanism to the black hole heat engine, the efficiency is numerically solved. The result shows that the black hole engine working along the Rankine cycle with a back pressure mechanism has a higher efficiency. This provides a novel and efficient mechanism to produce the useful mechanical work with black hole, and such heat engine may act as a possible energy source for the high energy astrophysical phenomena near the black hole.
Mass Inflation in the Loop Black Hole
Brown, Eric G; Modesto, Leonardo
2011-01-01
In classical general relativity the Cauchy horizon within a two-horizon black hole is unstable via a phenomenon known as mass inflation, in which the mass parameter (and the spacetime curvature) of the black hole diverges at the Cauchy horizon. Here we study this effect for loop black holes -- quantum gravitationally corrected black holes from loop quantum gravity -- whose construction alleviates the $r=0$ singularity present in their classical counterparts. We use a simplified model of mass inflation, which makes use of the generalized DTR relation, to conclude that the Cauchy horizon of loop black holes indeed results in a curvature singularity similar to that found in classical black holes. The DTR relation is of particular utility in the loop black hole because it does not directly rely upon Einstein's field equations. We elucidate some of the interesting and counterintuitive properties of the loop black hole, and corroborate our results using an alternate model of mass inflation due to Ori.
Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P. Chris
2013-01-01
This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves...
Extremal higher spin black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bañados, Máximo [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago (Chile); Castro, Alejandra [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, Amsterdam, 1090 GL (Netherlands); Faraggi, Alberto [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago (Chile); Jottar, Juan I. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, ETH Zürich,Zürich, CH-8093 (Switzerland)
2016-04-13
The gauge sector of three-dimensional higher spin gravities can be formulated as a Chern-Simons theory. In this context, a higher spin black hole corresponds to a flat connection with suitable holonomy (smoothness) conditions which are consistent with the properties of a generalized thermal ensemble. Building on these ideas, we discuss a definition of black hole extremality which is appropriate to the topological character of 3d higher spin theories. Our definition can be phrased in terms of the Jordan class of the holonomy around a non-contractible (angular) cycle, and we show that it is compatible with the zero-temperature limit of smooth black hole solutions. While this notion of extremality does not require supersymmetry, we exemplify its consequences in the context of sl(3|2)⊕sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and show that, as usual, not all extremal solutions preserve supersymmetries. Remarkably, we find in addition that the higher spin setup allows for non-extremal supersymmetric black hole solutions. Furthermore, we discuss our results from the perspective of the holographic duality between sl(3|2)⊕sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and two-dimensional CFTs with W{sub (3|2)} symmetry, the simplest higher spin extension of the N=2 super-Virasoro algebra. In particular, we compute W{sub (3|2)} BPS bounds at the full quantum level, and relate their semiclassical limit to extremal black hole or conical defect solutions in the 3d bulk. Along the way, we discuss the role of the spectral flow automorphism and provide a conjecture for the form of the semiclassical BPS bounds in general N=2 two-dimensional CFTs with extended symmetry algebras.
A New Cosmological Model: Black Hole Universe
Zhang T. X.
2009-01-01
A new cosmological model called black hole universe is proposed. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient mate- rials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers hierarchically. The innermost three laye...
Compensating Scientism through "The Black Hole."
Roth, Lane
The focal image of the film "The Black Hole" functions as a visual metaphor for the sacred, order, unity, and eternal time. The black hole is a symbol that unites the antinomic pairs of conscious/unconscious, water/fire, immersion/emersion, death/rebirth, and hell/heaven. The black hole is further associated with the quest for…
Black Hole Monodromy and Conformal Field Theory
Castro, A.; Lapan, J.M.; Maloney, A.; Rodriguez, M.J.
2013-01-01
The analytic structure of solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in a black hole background, as represented by monodromy data, is intimately related to black hole thermodynamics. It encodes the "hidden conformal symmetry" of a nonextremal black hole, and it explains why features of the inner event
On Quantum Contributions to Black Hole Growth
Spaans, M.
2013-01-01
The effects of Wheeler’s quantum foam on black hole growth are explored from an astrophysical per- spective. Quantum fluctuations in the form of mini (10−5 g) black holes can couple to macroscopic black holes and allow the latter to grow exponentially in mass on a time scale of 109 years.
Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the con- jecture that the primordial ...
On black holes and gravitational waves
Loinger, Angelo
2002-01-01
Black holes and gravitational waves are theoretical entities of today astrophysics. Various observed phenomena have been associated with the concept of black hole ; until now, nobody has detected gravitational waves. The essays contained in this book aim at showing that the concept of black holes arises from a misinterpretation of general relativity and that gravitational waves cannot exist.
Extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity
Katmadas, S.
2011-01-01
An explanation for the entropy of black holes has been an outstanding problem in recent decades. A special case where this is possible is that of extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity in four and five dimensions. The best developed case is for black holes preserving some supersymmetry (BPS),
Chandra Catches "Piranha" Black Holes
2007-07-01
Supermassive black holes have been discovered to grow more rapidly in young galaxy clusters, according to new results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These "fast-track" supermassive black holes can have a big influence on the galaxies and clusters that they live in. Using Chandra, scientists surveyed a sample of clusters and counted the fraction of galaxies with rapidly growing supermassive black holes, known as active galactic nuclei (or AGN). The data show, for the first time, that younger, more distant galaxy clusters contained far more AGN than older, nearby ones. Galaxy clusters are some of the largest structures in the Universe, consisting of many individual galaxies, a few of which contain AGN. Earlier in the history of the universe, these galaxies contained a lot more gas for star formation and black hole growth than galaxies in clusters do today. This fuel allows the young cluster black holes to grow much more rapidly than their counterparts in nearby clusters. Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus "The black holes in these early clusters are like piranha in a very well-fed aquarium," said Jason Eastman of Ohio State University (OSU) and first author of this study. "It's not that they beat out each other for food, rather there was so much that all of the piranha were able to really thrive and grow quickly." The team used Chandra to determine the fraction of AGN in four different galaxy clusters at large distances, when the Universe was about 58% of its current age. Then they compared this value to the fraction found in more nearby clusters, those about 82% of the Universe's current age. The result was the more distant clusters contained about 20 times more AGN than the less distant sample. AGN outside clusters are also more common when the Universe is younger, but only by factors of two or three over the same age span. "It's been predicted that there would be fast-track black holes in clusters, but we never
Shapes and Positions of Black Hole Shadows in Accretion Disks and Spin Parameters of Black Holes
Takahashi, Rohta
2004-01-01
Can we determine a spin parameter of a black hole by observation of a black hole shadow in an accretion disk? In order to answer this question, we make a qualitative analysis and a quantitative analysis of a shape and a position of a black hole shadow casted by a rotating black hole on an optically thick accretion disk and its dependence on an angular momentum of a black hole. We have found black hole shadows with a quite similar size and a shape for largely different black hole spin paramete...
The stable problem of the black-hole connected region in the Schwarzschild black hole
Tian, Guihua
2005-01-01
The stability of the Schwarzschild black hole is studied. Using the Painlev\\'{e} coordinate, our region can be defined as the black-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole or the white-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole. We study the stable problems of the black-hole-connected region. The conclusions are: (1) in the black-hole-connected region, the initially regular perturbation fields must have real frequency or complex frequen...
Spectral Hole Burning via Kerr Nonlinearity
Khan, Anwar Ali; Abdul Jabar, M. S.; Jalaluddin, M.; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Iftikhar, Ahmad
2015-10-01
Spectral hole burning is investigated in an optical medium in the presence of Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity. The Kerr nonlinearity generates coherent hole burning in the absorption spectrum. The higher order Kerr nonlinearity enhances the typical lamb dip of the hole. Normal dispersion in the hole burning region while Steep anomalous dispersion between the two hole burning regions also enhances with higher order Kerr effect. A large phase shift creates large delay or advancement in the pulse propagation while no distortion is observed in the pulse. These results provide significant steps to improve optical memory, telecom devices, preservation of information and image quality. Supported by Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan
Black hole thermodynamics with conical defects
Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David
2017-05-01
Recently we have shown [1] how to formulate a thermodynamic first law for a single (charged) accelerated black hole in AdS space by fixing the conical deficit angles present in the spacetime. Here we show how to generalise this result, formulating thermodynamics for black holes with varying conical deficits. We derive a new potential for the varying tension defects: the thermodynamic length, both for accelerating and static black holes. We discuss possible physical processes in which the tension of a string ending on a black hole might vary, and also map out the thermodynamic phase space of accelerating black holes and explore their critical phenomena.
Black-hole creation in quantum cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhong Chao, Wu [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics]|[Specola Vaticana, Vatican City State (Vatican City State, Holy See)
1997-11-01
It is proven that the probability of a black hole created from the de Sitter space-time background, at the Wkb level, is the exponential of one quarter of the sum of the black hole and cosmological horizon areas, or the total entropy of the universe. This is true not only for the spherically symmetric cases of the Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, but also for the rotating cases of the Kerr black hole and the rotating charged case of the Newman black hole. The de Sitter metric is the most probable evolution at the Planckian era of the universe.
Manschot, Jan; Sen, Ashoke
2012-01-01
Middle cohomology states on the Higgs branch of supersymmetric quiver quantum mechanics - also known as pure Higgs states - have recently emerged as possible microscopic candidates for single-centered black hole micro-states, as they carry zero angular momentum and appear to be robust under wall-crossing. Using the connection between quiver quantum mechanics on the Coulomb branch and the quantum mechanics of multi-centered black holes, we propose a general algorithm for reconstructing the full moduli-dependent cohomology of the moduli space of an arbitrary quiver, in terms of the BPS invariants of the pure Higgs states. We analyze many examples of quivers with loops, including all cyclic Abelian quivers and several examples with two loops or non-Abelian gauge groups, and provide supporting evidence for this proposal. We also develop methods to count pure Higgs states directly.
Black hole with quantum potential
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Farag Ali
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In this work, we investigate black hole (BH physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE. From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which may introduce a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. Those corrections also turn the spacelike singularity of the black hole to be timelike, and hence this may ameliorate the information loss problem.
Black hole with quantum potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt); Khalil, Mohammed M., E-mail: moh.m.khalil@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria 12544 (Egypt)
2016-08-15
In this work, we investigate black hole (BH) physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which may introduce a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. Those corrections also turn the spacelike singularity of the black hole to be timelike, and hence this may ameliorate the information loss problem.
"Twisted" black holes are unphysical
Gray, Finnian; Schuster, Sebastian; Visser, Matt
2016-01-01
So-called "twisted" black holes have recently been proposed by Zhang (1609.09721 [gr-qc]), and further considered by Chen and Jing (1610.00886 [gr-qc]), and more recently by Ong (1610.05757 [gr-qc]). While these spacetimes are certainly Ricci-flat, and so mathematically satisfy the vacuum Einstein equations, they are also merely minor variants on Taub--NUT spacetimes. Consequently they exhibit several unphysical features that make them quite unreasonable as realistic astrophysical objects. Specifically, these "twisted" black holes are not (globally) asymptotically flat. Furthermore, they contain closed timelike curves that are not hidden behind any event horizon --- the most obvious of these closed timelike curves are small azimuthal circles around the rotation axis, but the effect is more general. The entire region outside the horizon is infested with closed timelike curves.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aruna Rajagopal
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In the context of extended phase space, where the negative cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic pressure in the first law of black hole thermodynamics, we find an asymptotically AdS metric whose thermodynamics matches exactly that of the Van der Waals fluid. We show that as a solution of Einstein's equations, the corresponding stress energy tensor obeys (at least for certain range of metric parameters all three weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions.
Opportunity Leaves a Trail of 'Rat' Holes
2004-01-01
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rock abrasion tool, known informally as the 'Rat,' has nibbled seven holes into the slope of 'Endurance Crater.' This image from the rover's navigation camera was released previously (PIA06716) without the Rat holes labeled so that viewers could try to find the holes themselves. Here, the holes have been identified. Starting from the uppermost pictured (closest to the crater rim) to the lowest, the Rat hole targets are: 'Tennessee,' 'Cobblehill,' 'Virginia,' 'London,' 'Grindstone,' 'Kettlestone,' and 'Drammensfjorden.' These holes were drilled on sols 138 (June 13, 2004), 143 (June 18), 145 (June 20), 148 (June 23), 151 (June 26), 153 (June 28) and 161 (July 7), respectively. Each hole is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter.
Collision of two rotating Hayward black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gwak, Bogeun [Sejong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-07-15
We investigate the spin interaction and the gravitational radiation thermally allowed in a head-on collision of two rotating Hayward black holes. The Hayward black hole is a regular black hole in a modified Einstein equation, and hence it can be an appropriate model to describe the extent to which the regularity effect in the near-horizon region affects the interaction and the radiation. If one black hole is assumed to be considerably smaller than the other, the potential of the spin interaction can be analytically obtained and is dependent on the alignment of angular momenta of the black holes. For the collision of massive black holes, the gravitational radiation is numerically obtained as the upper bound by using the laws of thermodynamics. The effect of the Hayward black hole tends to increase the radiation energy, but we can limit the effect by comparing the radiation energy with the gravitational waves GW150914 and GW151226. (orig.)
Plasma electron-hole kinematics: momentum conservation
Hutchinson, I H
2016-01-01
We analyse the kinematic properties of a plasma electron hole: a non-linear self-sustained localized positive electric potential perturbation, trapping electrons, that behaves as a coherent entity. When a hole accelerates or grows in depth, ion and electron plasma momentum is changed both within the hole and outside it, by an energization process we call jetting. We present a comprehensive analytic calculation of the momentum changes of an isolated general one-dimensional hole. The conservation of the total momentum gives the hole's kinematics, determining its velocity evolution. Our results explain many features of the behavior of hole speed observed in numerical simulations, including self-acceleration at formation, and hole pushing and trapping by ion streams.
Reed's Conjecture on hole expansions
Fouquet, Jean-Luc
2012-01-01
In 1998, Reed conjectured that for any graph $G$, $\\chi(G) \\leq \\lceil \\frac{\\omega(G) + \\Delta(G)+1}{2}\\rceil$, where $\\chi(G)$, $\\omega(G)$, and $\\Delta(G)$ respectively denote the chromatic number, the clique number and the maximum degree of $G$. In this paper, we study this conjecture for some {\\em expansions} of graphs, that is graphs obtained with the well known operation {\\em composition} of graphs. We prove that Reed's Conjecture holds for expansions of bipartite graphs, for expansions of odd holes where the minimum chromatic number of the components is even, when some component of the expansion has chromatic number 1 or when a component induces a bipartite graph. Moreover, Reed's Conjecture holds if all components have the same chromatic number, if the components have chromatic number at most 4 and when the odd hole has length 5. Finally, when $G$ is an odd hole expansion, we prove $\\chi(G)\\leq\\lceil\\frac{\\omega(G)+\\Delta(G)+1}{2}\\rceil+1$.
Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew
2016-06-10
It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.
Entanglement Entropy of Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey N. Solodukhin
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The entanglement entropy is a fundamental quantity, which characterizes the correlations between sub-systems in a larger quantum-mechanical system. For two sub-systems separated by a surface the entanglement entropy is proportional to the area of the surface and depends on the UV cutoff, which regulates the short-distance correlations. The geometrical nature of entanglement-entropy calculation is particularly intriguing when applied to black holes when the entangling surface is the black-hole horizon. I review a variety of aspects of this calculation: the useful mathematical tools such as the geometry of spaces with conical singularities and the heat kernel method, the UV divergences in the entropy and their renormalization, the logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy in four and six dimensions and their relation to the conformal anomalies. The focus in the review is on the systematic use of the conical singularity method. The relations to other known approaches such as ’t Hooft’s brick-wall model and the Euclidean path integral in the optical metric are discussed in detail. The puzzling behavior of the entanglement entropy due to fields, which non-minimally couple to gravity, is emphasized. The holographic description of the entanglement entropy of the black-hole horizon is illustrated on the two- and four-dimensional examples. Finally, I examine the possibility to interpret the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy entirely as the entanglement entropy.
Plasma electron hole kinematics. II. Hole tracking Particle-In-Cell simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, C.; Hutchinson, I. H. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2016-08-15
The kinematics of a 1-D electron hole is studied using a novel Particle-In-Cell simulation code. A hole tracking technique enables us to follow the trajectory of a fast-moving solitary hole and study quantitatively hole acceleration and coupling to ions. We observe a transient at the initial stage of hole formation when the hole accelerates to several times the cold-ion sound speed. Artificially imposing slow ion speed changes on a fully formed hole causes its velocity to change even when the ion stream speed in the hole frame greatly exceeds the ion thermal speed, so there are no reflected ions. The behavior that we observe in numerical simulations agrees very well with our analytic theory of hole momentum conservation and the effects of “jetting.”.
XFEM Modelling of Multi-holes Plate with Single-row and Staggered Holes Configurations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Supar Khairi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Joint efficiency is the key to composite structures assembly design, good structures response is dependent upon multi-holes behavior as subjected to remote loading. Current benchmarking work were following experimental testing series taken from literature on multi-holes problem. Eleven multi-hole configurations were investigated with various pitch and gage distance of staggered holes and non-staggered holes (single-row holes. Various failure modes were exhibited, most staggered holes demonstrates staggered crack path but non-staggered holes series displayed crack path along net-section plane. Stress distribution were carried out and good agreement were exhibited in experimental observation as reported in the respective literature. Consequently, strength prediction work were carried out under quasi-static loading, most showed discrepancy between 8% -31%, better prediction were exhibited in thicker and non-staggered holes plate combinations.
Limits on P: filling in holes vs. falling in holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Svenonius
2004-01-01
Full Text Available All Germanic languages make extensive use of verb-particle combinations (known as separable-prefix verbs in the OV languages. I show some basic differences here distinguishing the Scandinavian type from the OV West Germanic languages, with English superficially patterning with Scandinavian but actually manifesting a distinct type. Specifically, I argue that the P projection is split into p and P (in accordance with earlier work, roughly analogous to v and V in the verb phrase. In English, p is always present in PP, and enables P to assign case, if P has an internal argument (as it does in "fall in the hole". The arguments of particle verbs are then arguments of p, external arguments of the particle (as in "throw the rock in". OV West Germanic allows p to be missing completely, thus having a type of unaccusative particle whose inner argument must receive case from the verb (corresponding to "fall the hole in," impossible in English. Scandinavian allows p to be missing, so that there is no external argument of the particle, but provides an alternative source for case for the internal argument (giving examples corresponding to "pour in the glass". Thus English and Scandinavian are different from OV West Germanic in lacking the unaccusative type of particle, while Scandinavian differs from OV West Germanic and English in having an alternative source of case.
Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes
Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W.; Liebling, Steven L.; Motl, Patrick M.; Garrett, Travis
2011-01-01
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford–Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux. PMID:21768341
Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes.
Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Garrett, Travis
2011-08-02
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux.
Monitoring Holes in the Sun's Corona
Kohler, Susanna
2016-09-01
Coronal holes are where the fast solar wind streams out of the Suns atmosphere, sending charged particles on rapid trajectories out into the solar system. A new study examines how the distribution of coronal holes has changed over the last 40 years.Coronal holes form where magnetic field lines open into space (B) instead of looping back to the solar surface (A). [Sebman81]Source of the Fast Solar WindAs a part of the Suns natural activity cycle, extremely low-density regions sometimes form in the solar corona. These coronal holes manifest themselves as dark patches in X-ray and extreme ultraviolet imaging, since the corona is much hotter than the solar surface that peeks through from underneath it.Coronal holes form when magnetic field lines open into space instead of looping back to the solar surface. In these regions, the solar atmosphere escapes via these field lines, rapidly streaming away from the Suns surface in whats known as the fast solar wind.Coronal Holes Over Space and TimeAutomated detection of coronal holes from image-based analysis is notoriously difficult. Recently, a team of scientists led by Kenichi Fujiki (ISEE, Nagoya University, Japan) has developed an automated prediction technique for coronal holes that relies instead on magnetic-field data for the Sun, obtained at the National Solar Observatorys Kitt Peak between 1975 and 2014. The team used these data to produce a database of 3335 coronal hole predictions over nearly 40 years.Latitude distribution of 2870 coronal holes (each marked by an x; color indicates polarity), overlaid on the magnetic butterfly map of the Sun. The low-latitude coronal holes display a similar butterfly pattern, in which they move closer to the equator over the course of the solar cycle. Polar coronal holes are more frequent during solar minima. [Fujiki et al. 2016]Examining trends in the coronal holes distribution in latitude and time, Fujiki and collaborators find a strong correlation between the total area covered
The Recovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole
Newman, Paul A.
2004-01-01
The ozone hole is a massive loss of ozone that annually occurs over Antarctica during the Austral spring (August-November). Man-made chlorine and bromine compounds cause the ozone hole. As opposed to local urban pollution, the hole illustrates how man-made chemicals can affect the atmosphere over enormous regions remote from their release point. These chlorine and bromine gases have long lifetimes in the atmosphere; hence, the ozone hole will slowly recover into the next few decades. In this talk I will briefly cover some of the history of the Antarctic ozone hole and the theory behind the phenomena. I will then discuss the recovery of ozone over Antarctica. State-of-the-art computer models project the recovery of the ozone hole to 1980 levels by about 2050. However, this recovery may be affected by greenhouse warming.
Information Retention by Stringy Black Holes
Ellis, John
2015-01-01
Building upon our previous work on two-dimensional stringy black holes and its extension to spherically-symmetric four-dimensional stringy black holes, we show how the latter retain information. A key r\\^ole is played by an infinite-dimensional $W_\\infty$ symmetry that preserves the area of an isolated black-hole horizon and hence its entropy. The exactly-marginal conformal world-sheet operator representing a massless stringy particle interacting with the black hole necessarily includes a contribution from $W_\\infty$ generators in its vertex function. This admixture manifests the transfer of information between the string black hole and external particles. We discuss different manifestations of $W_\\infty$ symmetry in black-hole physics and the connections between them.
What does a black hole look like?
Bailyn, Charles D
2014-01-01
Emitting no radiation or any other kind of information, black holes mark the edge of the universe--both physically and in our scientific understanding. Yet astronomers have found clear evidence for the existence of black holes, employing the same tools and techniques used to explore other celestial objects. In this sophisticated introduction, leading astronomer Charles Bailyn goes behind the theory and physics of black holes to describe how astronomers are observing these enigmatic objects and developing a remarkably detailed picture of what they look like and how they interact with their surroundings. Accessible to undergraduates and others with some knowledge of introductory college-level physics, this book presents the techniques used to identify and measure the mass and spin of celestial black holes. These key measurements demonstrate the existence of two kinds of black holes, those with masses a few times that of a typical star, and those with masses comparable to whole galaxies--supermassive black holes...
Braneworld black holes and entropy bounds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Heydarzade
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The Bousso's D-bound entropy for the various possible black hole solutions on a 4-dimensional brane is checked. It is found that the D-bound entropy here is apparently different from that of obtained for the 4-dimensional black hole solutions. This difference is interpreted as the extra loss of information, associated to the extra dimension, when an extra-dimensional black hole is moved outward the observer's cosmological horizon. Also, it is discussed that N-bound entropy is hold for the possible solutions here. Finally, by adopting the recent Bohr-like approach to black hole quantum physics for the excited black holes, the obtained results are written also in terms of the black hole excited states.
Braneworld black holes and entropy bounds
Heydarzade, Y.; Hadi, H.; Corda, C.; Darabi, F.
2018-01-01
The Bousso's D-bound entropy for the various possible black hole solutions on a 4-dimensional brane is checked. It is found that the D-bound entropy here is apparently different from that of obtained for the 4-dimensional black hole solutions. This difference is interpreted as the extra loss of information, associated to the extra dimension, when an extra-dimensional black hole is moved outward the observer's cosmological horizon. Also, it is discussed that N-bound entropy is hold for the possible solutions here. Finally, by adopting the recent Bohr-like approach to black hole quantum physics for the excited black holes, the obtained results are written also in terms of the black hole excited states.
Hole spin relaxation in quantum dots
Woods, L. M.; Reinecke, T. L.; Kotlyar, R.
2004-03-01
We present results for relaxation of the spin of a hole in a cylindrical quantum dot due to acoustic phonon assisted spin flips at low temperatures with an applied magnetic field. The hole dispersion is calculated by numerical diagonalization of the Luttinger Hamiltonian and applying perturbation theory with respect to the magnetic field, and the hole-phonon coupling is described by the Bir-Pikus Hamiltonian. We find that the decoherence time for hole spins for dots ≲20 nm is on the order of 10-8 s. This is several orders smaller than the decoherence time due to phonon assisted processes for electron spins in similar dots and is comparable to the total decoherence time of an electron spin in a quantum dot, which is controlled by the hyperfine interaction with nuclei. We obtain the dependence of the relaxation rate of the hole spin on dot size and hole mass.
BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole
Wang, Liancheng; He, Feng; Fu, Xiangyun
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study the BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole. It can be found that the BSW process will also arise near black hole horizon when the evaporation of charged black hole is very slow. But now the background black hole does not have to be an extremal black hole, and it will be approximately an extremal black hole unless it is nearly a huge stationary black hole.
Superradiance by mini black holes with mirror
Lee, Jong-Phil
2011-01-01
The superradiant scattering of massive scalar particles by a rotating mini black hole is investigated. Imposing the mirror boundary condition, the system becomes the so called black-hole bomb where the rotation energy of the black hole is transferred to the scattered particle exponentially with time. Bulk emissions as well as brane emissions are considered altogether. It is found that the largest effects are expected for the brane emission of lower angular modes with lighter mass and larger a...
Gravitational lensing by a Horndeski black hole
Badía, Javier; Eiroa, Ernesto F.
2017-11-01
In this article we study gravitational lensing by non-rotating and asymptotically flat black holes in Horndeski theory. By adopting the strong deflection limit, we calculate the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to black holes in General Relativity. We analyze the astrophysical consequences in the case of the nearest supermassive black holes.
Computational Complexity and Black Hole Horizons
Susskind, Leonard
2014-01-01
Computational complexity is essential to understanding the properties of black hole horizons. The problem of Alice creating a firewall behind the horizon of Bob's black hole is a problem of computational complexity. In general we find that while creating firewalls is possible, it is extremely difficult and probably impossible for black holes that form in sudden collapse, and then evaporate. On the other hand if the radiation is bottled up then after an exponentially long period of time firewa...
Cool horizons for entangled black holes
Maldacena, Juan; Susskind, Leonard
2013-01-01
General relativity contains solutions in which two distant black holes are connected through the interior via a wormhole, or Einstein-Rosen bridge. These solutions can be interpreted as maximally entangled states of two black holes that form a complex EPR pair. We suggest that similar bridges might be present for more general entangled states. In the case of entangled black holes one can formulate versions of the AMPS(S) paradoxes and resolve them. This suggests possible resolutions of the fi...
Geometrothermodynamics of Van der Waals black hole
Hu, Yumin; Chen, Juhua; Wang, Yongjiu
2017-12-01
We study the geometrothermodynamics of a special asymptotically AdS black hole, i.e. Van der Waals ( VdW) black hole, in the extended phase space where the negative cosmological constant Λ can be regarded as thermodynamic pressure. Analysing some special conditions of this black hole with geometrothermodynamical method, we find a good correlation with ordinary cases according to the state equation.
Techniques for Binary Black Hole Simulations
Baker, John G.
2006-01-01
Recent advances in techniques for numerical simulation of black hole systems have enabled dramatic progress in astrophysical applications. Our approach to these simulations, which includes new gauge conditions for moving punctures, AMR, and specific tools for analyzing black hole simulations, has been applied to a variety of black hole configurations, typically resulting in simulations lasting several orbits. I will discuss these techniques, what we've learned in applications, and outline some areas for further development.
A New Model of Black Hole Formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thayer G. D.
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The formation of a black hole and its event horizon are described. Conclusions, which are the result of a thought experiment, show that Schwarzschild [1] was correct: A singularity develops at the event horizon of a newly-formed black hole. The intense gravitational field that forms near the event horizon results in the mass-energy of the black hole accumulating in a layer just inside the event horizon, rather than collapsing into a central singularity.
Black hole evaporation in conformal gravity
Bambi, Cosimo; Modesto, Leonardo; Porey, Shiladitya; Rachwał, Lesław
2017-09-01
We study the formation and the evaporation of a spherically symmetric black hole in conformal gravity. From the collapse of a spherically symmetric thin shell of radiation, we find a singularity-free non-rotating black hole. This black hole has the same Hawking temperature as a Schwarzschild black hole with the same mass, and it completely evaporates either in a finite or in an infinite time, depending on the ensemble. We consider the analysis both in the canonical and in the micro-canonical statistical ensembles. Last, we discuss the corresponding Penrose diagram of this physical process.
Rotating black holes in brane worlds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frolov, Valeri P.; Stojkovic, Dejan; Fursaev, Dmitri V. E-mail: fursaev@thsun1.jinr.ru
2004-06-01
We study interaction of rotating higher dimensional black holes with a brane in space-times with large extra dimensions. We demonstrate that a rotating black hole attached to a brane can be stationary only if the null Killing vector generating the black hole horizon is tangent to the brane world-sheet. The characteristic time when a rotating black hole with the gravitational radius r{sub 0} reaches this final stationary state is T {approx} r{sub 0}{sup p}'-'1/(G{sigma}), where G is the higher dimensional gravitational coupling constant, {sigma} is the brane tension, and p is the number of extra dimensions. (author)
Rotating black holes in brane worlds
Frolov, Valeri P.; Fursaev, Dmitri V.; Stojkovic, Dejan
2004-01-01
We study interaction of rotating higher dimensional black holes with a brane in space-times with large extra dimensions. We demonstrate that a rotating black hole attached to a brane can be stationary only if the null Killing vector generating the black hole horizon is tangent to the brane world-sheet. The characteristic time when a rotating black hole with the gravitational radius $r_0$ reaches this final stationary state is $T\\sim r_0^{p-1}/(G\\sigma)$, where $G$ is the higher dimensional gr...
Planar domain walls in black hole spacetimes
Ficek, Filip; Mach, Patryk
2018-02-01
We investigate the behavior of low-mass, planar domain walls in the so-called ϕ4 model of the scalar field on the Schwarzschild and Kerr backgrounds. We focus on a transit of a domain wall through a black hole and solve numerically the equations of motion for a range of parameters of the domain wall and the black hole. We observe a behavior resembling an occurrence of ringing modes. Perturbations of domain walls vanish during latter evolution, suggesting their stability against a passage through the black hole. The results obtained for Kerr and Reissner-Nordström black holes are also compared.
Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chou, Chia-Jui, E-mail: agoodmanjerry.ep02g@nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Xiaoning, E-mail: wuxn@amss.ac.cn [Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and System Science, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); Yang, Yi, E-mail: yiyang@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yuan, Pei-Hung, E-mail: phyuan.py00g@nctu.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China)
2016-10-10
In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.
Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chia-Jui Chou
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.
Schwarzschild black holes can wear scalar wigs.
Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier
2012-08-24
We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations.
Particle accelerators inside spinning black holes.
Lake, Kayll
2010-05-28
On the basis of the Kerr metric as a model for a spinning black hole accreting test particles from rest at infinity, I show that the center-of-mass energy for a pair of colliding particles is generically divergent at the inner horizon. This shows not only that classical black holes are internally unstable, but also that Planck-scale physics is a characteristic feature within black holes at scales much larger that the Planck length. The novel feature of the divergence discussed here is that the phenomenon is present only for black holes with rotation, and in this sense it is distinct from the well-known Cauchy horizon instability.
Drilling history core hole DC-8
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1978-10-01
Core hole DC-8 was completed in August, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-8. Core hole DC-8 is located on the Hanford Site near the Wye Barricade and 50 feet northwest of rotary hole DC-7. The Hanford Site vation coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 mean sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-8 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing and cross-hole seismic shear and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-7. The total depth of core hole DC-8 was 4100.5 feet. Core recovery exceeded 97 percent of the total footage cored.
Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation.
Greene, Jenny E
2012-01-01
Bridging the gap between the approximately ten solar mass 'stellar mass' black holes and the 'supermassive' black holes of millions to billions of solar masses are the elusive 'intermediate-mass' black holes. Their discovery is key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth soon after the Big Bang. Currently, tentative evidence suggests that the progenitors of supermassive black holes were formed as ∼10(4)-10(5) M(⊙) black holes via the direct collapse of gas. Ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes at galaxy centres will help shed light on this formation mechanism.
Superluminality, black holes and EFT
Goon, Garrett; Hinterbichler, Kurt
2017-02-01
Under the assumption that a UV theory does not display superluminal behavior, we ask what constraints on superluminality are satisfied in the effective field theory (EFT). We study two examples of effective theories: quantum electrodynamics (QED) coupled to gravity after the electron is integrated out, and the flat-space galileon. The first is realized in nature, the second is more speculative, but they both exhibit apparent superluminality around non-trivial backgrounds. In the QED case, we attempt, and fail, to find backgrounds for which the superluminal signal advance can be made larger than the putative resolving power of the EFT. In contrast, in the galileon case it is easy to find such backgrounds, indicating that if the UV completion of the galileon is (sub)luminal, quantum corrections must become important at distance scales of order the Vainshtein radius of the background configuration, much larger than the naive EFT strong coupling distance scale. Such corrections would be reminiscent of the non-perturbative Schwarzschild scale quantum effects that are expected to resolve the black hole information problem. Finally, a byproduct of our analysis is a calculation of how perturbative quantum effects alter charged Reissner-Nordstrom black holes.
Porth, Oliver; Mizuno, Yosuke; Younsi, Ziri; Rezzolla, Luciano; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Falcke, Heino; Kramer, Michael
2016-01-01
We present the black hole accretion code (BHAC), a new multidimensional general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics module for the MPI-AMRVAC framework. BHAC has been designed to solve the equations of ideal general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in arbitrary spacetimes and exploits adaptive mesh refinement techniques with an efficient block-based approach. Several spacetimes have already been implemented and tested. We demonstrate the validity of BHAC by means of various one-, two-, and three-dimensional test problems, as well as through a close comparison with the HARM3D code in the case of a torus accreting onto a black hole. The convergence of a turbulent accretion scenario is investigated with several diagnostics and we find accretion rates and horizon-penetrating fluxes to be convergent to within a few percent when the problem is run in three dimensions. Our analysis also involves the study of the corresponding thermal synchrotron emission, which is performed by means of a new general-relativistic radi...
FEASTING BLACK HOLE BLOWS BUBBLES
2002-01-01
A monstrous black hole's rude table manners include blowing huge bubbles of hot gas into space. At least, that's the gustatory practice followed by the supermassive black hole residing in the hub of the nearby galaxy NGC 4438. Known as a peculiar galaxy because of its unusual shape, NGC 4438 is in the Virgo Cluster, 50 million light-years from Earth. These NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy's central region clearly show one of the bubbles rising from a dark band of dust. The other bubble, emanating from below the dust band, is barely visible, appearing as dim red blobs in the close-up picture of the galaxy's hub (the colorful picture at right). The background image represents a wider view of the galaxy, with the central region defined by the white box. These extremely hot bubbles are caused by the black hole's voracious eating habits. The eating machine is engorging itself with a banquet of material swirling around it in an accretion disk (the white region below the bright bubble). Some of this material is spewed from the disk in opposite directions. Acting like high-powered garden hoses, these twin jets of matter sweep out material in their paths. The jets eventually slam into a wall of dense, slow-moving gas, which is traveling at less than 223,000 mph (360,000 kph). The collision produces the glowing material. The bubbles will continue to expand and will eventually dissipate. Compared with the life of the galaxy, this bubble-blowing phase is a short-lived event. The bubble is much brighter on one side of the galaxy's center because the jet smashed into a denser amount of gas. The brighter bubble is 800 light-years tall and 800 light-years across. The observations are being presented June 5 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Rochester, N.Y. Both pictures were taken March 24, 1999 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. False colors were used to enhance the details of the bubbles. The red regions in the picture denote the hot gas
ATLAS: Black hole production and decay
2004-01-01
This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ATLAS detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. These tracks would be produced if a miniature black hole was produced in the proton-proton collision. Such a small black hole would decay instantly to various particles via a process known as Hawking radiation.
The reluctant father of black holes [Einstein].
Bernstein, J.
1996-06-01
Albert Einstein's equations of gravity are the foundation of the modern view of black holes; ironically, he used the equations in trying to prove these objects cannot exist. The author discusses quantum statistics, white dwarfs and black holes outlining the work of the key protagonists.
Slowly Rotating Black Holes with Nonlinear Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. H. Hendi
2014-01-01
4 dimensions. These solutions are asymptotically AdS and their horizon has spherical topology. We calculate the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the rotation parameter a as well as the nonlinearity parameter β. In the limit β→∞, the solution describes slowly rotating AdS type black holes.
Scalar absorption by charged rotating black holes
Leite, Luiz C. S.; Benone, Carolina L.; Crispino, Luís C. B.
2017-08-01
We compute numerically the absorption cross section of planar massless scalar waves impinging upon a Kerr-Newman black hole with different incidence angles. We investigate the influence of the black hole electric charge and angular momentum in the absorption spectrum, comparing our numerical computations with analytical results for the limits of high and low frequency.
5D Black Holes and Matrix Strings
Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, E.; Verlinde, H.
1997-01-01
We derive the world-volume theory, the (non)-extremal entropy and background geometry of black holes and black strings constructed out of the NS IIA fivebrane within the framework of matrix theory. The CFT description of strings propagating in the black hole geometry arises as an effective field theory.
Quantum aspects of black hole entropy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. This survey intends to cover recent approaches to black hole entropy which attempt to go beyond the standard semiclassical perspective. Quantum corrections to the semiclassical Bekenstein–. Hawking area law for black hole entropy, obtained within the quantum geometry framework, are treated in some detail.
Black Hole Entanglement and Quantum Error Correction
Verlinde, E.; Verlinde, H.
2013-01-01
It was recently argued in [1] that black hole complementarity strains the basic rules of quantum information theory, such as monogamy of entanglement. Motivated by this argument, we develop a practical framework for describing black hole evaporation via unitary time evolution, based on a holographic
Primordial braneworld black holes: significant enhancement of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The Randall-Sundrum (RS-II) braneworld cosmological model with a frac- tion of the total energy density in primordial black holes is considered. Due to their 5d geometry, these black holes undergo modified Hawking evaporation. It is shown that dur- ing the high-energy regime, accretion from the surrounding ...
Black Hole Dynamic Potentials Koustubh Ajit Kabe
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynam- ics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics.
Estimating Black Hole Masses of Blazars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... Estimating black hole masses of blazars is still a big challenge. Because of the contamination of jets, using the previously suggested size–continuum luminosity relation can overestimate the broad line region (BLR) size and black hole mass for radio-loud AGNs, including blazars. We propose a new relation ...
Advantage of hole stimulus in rivalry competition.
Meng, Qianli; Cui, Ding; Zhou, Ke; Chen, Lin; Ma, Yuanye
2012-01-01
Mounting psychophysical evidence suggests that early visual computations are sensitive to the topological properties of stimuli, such as the determination of whether the object has a hole or not. Previous studies have demonstrated that the hole feature took some advantages during conscious perception. In this study, we investigate whether there exists a privileged processing for hole stimuli during unconscious perception. By applying a continuous flash suppression paradigm, the target was gradually introduced to one eye to compete against a flashed full contrast Mondrian pattern which was presented to the other eye. This method ensured that the target image was suppressed during the initial perceptual period. We compared the initial suppressed duration between the stimuli with and without the hole feature and found that hole stimuli required less time than no-hole stimuli to gain dominance against the identical suppression noise. These results suggest the hole feature could be processed in the absence of awareness, and there exists a privileged detection of hole stimuli during suppressed phase in the interocular rivalry.
Advantage of hole stimulus in rivalry competition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qianli Meng
Full Text Available Mounting psychophysical evidence suggests that early visual computations are sensitive to the topological properties of stimuli, such as the determination of whether the object has a hole or not. Previous studies have demonstrated that the hole feature took some advantages during conscious perception. In this study, we investigate whether there exists a privileged processing for hole stimuli during unconscious perception. By applying a continuous flash suppression paradigm, the target was gradually introduced to one eye to compete against a flashed full contrast Mondrian pattern which was presented to the other eye. This method ensured that the target image was suppressed during the initial perceptual period. We compared the initial suppressed duration between the stimuli with and without the hole feature and found that hole stimuli required less time than no-hole stimuli to gain dominance against the identical suppression noise. These results suggest the hole feature could be processed in the absence of awareness, and there exists a privileged detection of hole stimuli during suppressed phase in the interocular rivalry.
Microwave Enhancement in Coronal Holes: Statistical Properties
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 21; Issue 3-4. Microwave Enhancement in Coronal Holes: Statistical Properties. Ν. Gopalswamy Κ. Shibasaki Μ. Salem. Session X – Cycle Variation in the Quiet Corona & Coronal Holes Volume 21 Issue 3-4 September-December 2000 pp 413-417 ...
When Will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?
Newman, Paul A.
2006-01-01
The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early spring (late September - early October). Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average area coverage during this September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen (chlorine and bromine) catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this talk, I will show the relationships of halogens and temperature to both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections. I will also discuss current assessments of mid-latitude ozone recovery.
Thermal hair of a quantum black hole
Itoh, Y.; Hotta, M.; Futamase, T.; Morikawa, M.
1998-09-01
We reexamine the possibility which has been argued since just after the discovery of Hawking radiation: the statistical explanation of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy by counting quasibounded modes of thermal fluctuation in two-dimensional black hole spacetime. While string theory has made much progress recently, it may be still interesting to study black hole entropy with field theories. The black hole concerned is quantum in the sense that it is in thermal equilibrium with its Hawking radiation. It is shown that the fluctuation around such a black hole obeys a wave equation with a potential whose peaks are located near the black hole and which is caused by quantum effects. We can construct models in which the potential in the above sense has several positive peaks and there are quasibounded modes confined between these peaks. This suggests that these modes contribute to black hole entropy. However, it is shown that the entropy associated with these modes does not obey the ordinary area law. We can call these modes additional thermal hair of the quantum black hole. Therefore the situation for the possibility is more difficult and we might find other ways to explain the entropy. From recent progress counting the number of states in string theory, it becomes more convincing that we expect Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for the Schwarzschild black hole will be explained exactly from the string theoretical point of view.
A Black Hole in Our Galactic Center
Ruiz, Michael J.
2008-01-01
An introductory approach to black holes is presented along with astronomical observational data pertaining to the presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Concepts of conservation of energy and Kepler's third law are employed so students can apply formulas from their physics class to determine the mass of the black hole…
Lifshitz black holes in IIA supergravity
Barclay, Luke; Gregory, Ruth; Parameswaran, Susha; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Zavala, Ivonne
We compute string theoretic black hole solutions having Lifshitz asymptotics with a general dynamical exponent z > 1. We start by constructing solutions in a flux compactification of six dimensional supergravity, then uplift them to massive type HA supergravity. Alongside the Lifshitz black holes we
ATLAS: Simulated production of a black hole
2006-01-01
This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ATLAS detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. These tracks would be produced if a miniature black hole was produced in the proton-proton collisions. Such a small black hole would decay instantly to various particles via a process known as Hawking radiation.
ATLAS: Simulated production of a black hole
2006-01-01
This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ATLAS detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. These tracks would be produced if a miniature black hole was produced in the proton-proton collision. Such a small black hole would decay instantly to various particles via a process known as Hawking radiation.
Black holes: just beyond the event horizon
Vergano, Dan
2007-01-01
An upcoming study adds to the long history, suggesting blakc holes, now almost taken for granted, never actually comme fully into existence, and that the solution to a decades-old black hole paradox may be simpler than supposed. (1 page)
When will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?
Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve
2006-01-01
The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the .TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to, both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections.
Revealing Black Holes with Gaia
Breivik, Katelyn; Chatterjee, Sourav; Larson, Shane L.
2017-11-01
We estimate the population of black holes with luminous stellar companions (BH-LCs) in the Milky Way (MW) observable by Gaia. We evolve a realistic distribution of BH-LC progenitors from zero-age to the current epoch taking into account relevant physics, including binary stellar evolution, BH-formation physics, and star formation rate, in order to estimate the BH-LC population in the MW today. We predict that Gaia will discover between 3800 and 12,000 BH-LCs by the end of its 5 {years} mission, depending on BH natal kick strength and observability constraints. We find that the overall yield, and distributions of eccentricities and masses of observed BH-LCs, can provide important constraints on the strength of BH natal kicks. Gaia-detected BH-LCs are expected to have very different orbital properties compared to those detectable via radio, X-ray, or gravitational-wave observations.
Design study of hole positions and hole shapes for crack tip stress releasing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Pauli
2004-01-01
The method of hole drilling near or at the crack tip is often used in fatigue damage repair. From a design optimization point of view, two questions are posed: Where should the hole(s) be drilled? And is there a better shape of the hole than a circular one? For the first question, we extend earlier...... results for isotropic material and in general study the influence of having orthotropic material. Optimal shapes are by no means circular, and we focus on the shape of a single hole centered at (or in front of) the crack tip. It is shown that the stress field at the crack boundary can be significantly...
2001-08-01
ISAAC Finds "Cool" Young Stellar Systems at the Centres of Active Galaxies Summary Supermassive Black Holes are present at the centres of many galaxies, some weighing hundreds of millions times more than the Sun. These extremely dense objects cannot be observed directly, but violently moving gas clouds and stars in their strong gravitational fields are responsible for the emission of energetic radiation from such "active galaxy nuclei" (AGN) . A heavy Black Hole feeds agressively on its surroundings . When the neighbouring gas and stars finally spiral into the Black Hole, a substantial fraction of the infalling mass is transformed into pure energy. However, it is not yet well understood how, long before this dramatic event takes place, all that material is moved from the outer regions of the galaxy towards the central region. So how is the food for the central Black Hole delivered to the table in the first place? To cast more light on this central question, a team of French and Swiss astronomers [1] has carried out a series of trailblazing observations with the VLT Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. The ISAAC instrument is particularly well suited to this type of observations. Visible light cannot penetrate the thick clouds of dust and gas in the innermost regions of active galaxies, but by recording the infrared light from the stars close to the Black Hole , their motions can be studied. By charting those motions in the central regions of three active galaxies (NGC 1097, NGC 1808 and NGC 5728), the astronomers were able to confirm the presence of "nuclear bars" in all three. These are dynamical structures that "open a road" for the flow of material towards the innermost region. Moreover, the team was surprised to discover signs of a young stellar population near the centres of these galaxies - stars that have apparently formed quite recently in a central gas disk. Such a system is unstable
Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Black Hole Accretion
Avara, Mark J.
Black holes embody one of the few, simple, solutions to the Einstein field equations that describe our modern understanding of gravitation. In isolation they are small, dark, and elusive. However, when a gas cloud or star wanders too close, they light up our universe in a way no other cosmic object can. The processes of magnetohydrodynamics which describe the accretion inflow and outflows of plasma around black holes are highly coupled and nonlinear and so require numerical experiments for elucidation. These processes are at the heart of astrophysics since black holes, once they somehow reach super-massive status, influence the evolution of the largest structures in the universe. It has been my goal, with the body of work comprising this thesis, to explore the ways in which the influence of black holes on their surroundings differs from the predictions of standard accretion models. I have especially focused on how magnetization of the greater black hole environment can impact accretion systems.
Particles and fields near black holes
Frolov, Valeri
Taking now the existence of black holes for granted, the motion of particles is studied in black hole spacetimes, first in the Schwarzschild and then in the Kerr background. Subsequently, the propagation of fields in the same backgrounds is reviewed, taking a massless scalar field as a "guinea pig". Thereafter, more complicated spin-carrying fields are shortly discussed. Some physical effects, such as superradiance, are briefly mentioned. Finally, black hole electrodynamics is dealt with. A 3+1 decomposition of Maxwell's equations is carried out. The so-called membrane paradigm is introduced which treats the black hole as a black box with classical electrodynamic behavior. In this way, a black hole can serve as a kind of a dynamo. This mechanism may explain the activity of the nuclei of galaxies and quasars.
Magnetized black holes and nonlinear electrodynamics
Kruglov, S. I.
2017-08-01
A new model of nonlinear electrodynamics with two parameters is proposed. We study the phenomenon of vacuum birefringence, the causality and unitarity in this model. There is no singularity of the electric field in the center of pointlike charges and the total electrostatic energy is finite. We obtain corrections to the Coulomb law at r →∞. The weak, dominant and strong energy conditions are investigated. Magnetized charged black hole is considered and we evaluate the mass, metric function and their asymptotic at r →∞ and r → 0. The magnetic mass of the black hole is calculated. The thermodynamic properties and thermal stability of regular black holes are discussed. We calculate the Hawking temperature of black holes and show that there are first-order and second-order phase transitions. The parameters of the model when the black hole is stable are found.
Binary Black Holes from Dense Star Clusters
Rodriguez, Carl
2017-01-01
The recent detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of compact object astrophysics. But to fully utilize this new window into the universe, we must compare these observations to detailed models of binary black hole formation throughout cosmic time. In this talk, I will review our current understanding of cluster dynamics, describing how binary black holes can be formed through gravitational interactions in dense stellar environments, such as globular clusters and galactic nuclei. I will review the properties and merger rates of binary black holes from the dynamical formation channel. Finally, I will describe how the spins of a binary black hole are determined by its formation history, and how we can use this to discriminate between dynamically-formed binaries and those formed from isolated evolution in galactic fields.
Primordial black hole formation by vacuum bubbles
Deng, Heling; Vilenkin, Alexander
2017-12-01
Vacuum bubbles may nucleate during the inflationary epoch and expand, reaching relativistic speeds. After inflation ends, the bubbles are quickly slowed down, transferring their momentum to a shock wave that propagates outwards in the radiation background. The ultimate fate of the bubble depends on its size. Bubbles smaller than certain critical size collapse to ordinary black holes, while in the supercritical case the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior region by a wormhole. The wormhole then closes up, turning into two black holes at its two mouths. We use numerical simulations to find the masses of black holes formed in this scenario, both in subcritical and supercritical regime. The resulting mass spectrum is extremely broad, ranging over many orders of magnitude. For some parameter values, these black holes can serve as seeds for supermassive black holes and may account for LIGO observations.
Dual jets from binary black holes.
Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L
2010-08-20
The coalescence of supermassive black holes--a natural outcome when galaxies merge--should produce gravitational waves and would likely be associated with energetic electromagnetic events. We have studied the coalescence of such binary black holes within an external magnetic field produced by the expected circumbinary disk surrounding them. Solving the Einstein equations to describe black holes interacting with surrounding plasma, we present numerical evidence for possible jets driven by these systems. Extending the process described by Blandford and Znajek for a single, spinning black hole, the picture that emerges suggests that the electromagnetic field extracts energy from the orbiting black holes, which ultimately merge and settle into the standard Blandford-Znajek scenario. Emissions along these jets could potentially be observable at large distances.
Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries
Centrella, Joan
2008-01-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the merger of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases in which the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a first step towards this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We report on the results of these initial simulations and discuss their likely importance for future hydrodynamical simulations.
Plasma electron hole oscillatory velocity instability
Zhou, Chuteng; Hutchinson, Ian H.
2017-10-01
In this paper, we report a new type of instability of electron holes (EHs) interacting with passing ions. The nonlinear interaction of EHs and ions is investigated using a new theory of hole kinematics. It is shown that the oscillation in the velocity of the EH parallel to the magnetic field direction becomes unstable when the hole velocity in the ion frame is slower than a few times the cold ion sound speed. This instability leads to the emission of ion-acoustic waves from the solitary hole and decay in its magnitude. The instability mechanism can drive significant perturbations in the ion density. The instability threshold, oscillation frequency and instability growth rate derived from the theory yield quantitative agreement with the observations from a novel high-fidelity hole-tracking particle-in-cell code.
Will we observe black holes at LHC?
Cavaglià, M; Maartens, R; Cavaglia, Marco; Das, Saurya; Maartens, Roy
2003-01-01
The generalized uncertainty principle, motivated by string theory and non-commutative quantum mechanics, implies significant modifications to the Hawking temperature and evaporation process of black holes. For extra-dimensional gravity with Planck scale O(TeV), this leads to important changes in the formation and detection of black holes at the the Large Hadron Collider. The number of particles produced in Hawking evaporation decreases substantially. The evaporation ends when the black hole mass is Planck scale, leaving a remnant and a consequent missing energy of order TeV. Furthermore, the minimum energy for black hole formation in collisions is increased, and could even be increased to such an extent that no black holes are formed at LHC energies.
Renormalized vacuum polarization of rotating black holes
Ferreira, Hugo R C
2015-01-01
Quantum field theory on rotating black hole spacetimes is plagued with technical difficulties. Here, we describe a general method to renormalize and compute the vacuum polarization of a quantum field in the Hartle-Hawking state on rotating black holes. We exemplify the technique with a massive scalar field on the warped AdS3 black hole solution to topologically massive gravity, a deformation of (2+1)-dimensional Einstein gravity. We use a "quasi-Euclidean" technique, which generalizes the Euclidean techniques used for static spacetimes, and we subtract the divergences by matching to a sum over mode solutions on Minkowski spacetime. This allows us, for the first time, to have a general method to compute the renormalized vacuum polarization (and, more importantly, the renormalized stress-energy tensor), for a given quantum state, on a rotating black hole, such as the physically relevant case of the Kerr black hole in four dimensions.
Inspection considerations for holes 0. 040 inch and smaller
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1980-03-01
The accurate inspection of hole size and location for holes smaller than 0.040 inch necessitates several considerations beyond those normally encountered for larger holes. The technical aspects are described herein.
Rotating embedded black holes: Entropy and Hawking's radiation
Ibohal, Ng.
2004-01-01
In this paper we derive a class of rotating embedded black holes. Then we study Hawking's radiation effects on these embedded black holes. The surface gravity, entropy and angular velocity are given for each of these black holes.
Revisiting Black Holes as Dark Matter
Kohler, Susanna
2017-02-01
Could dark matter be made of intermediate-mass black holes formed in the beginning of the universe? A recent study takes a renewed look at this question.Galactic LurkersThe nature of dark matter has long been questioned, but the recent discovery of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has renewed interest in the possibility that dark matter could consist of primordial black holes in the mass range of 101000 solar masses.The relative amounts of the different constituents of the universe. Dark matter makes up roughly 27%. [ESA/Planck]According to this model, the extreme density of matter present during the universes early expansion led to the formation of a large number of intermediate-mass black holes. These black holes now hide in the halos of galaxies, constituting the mass that weve measured dynamically but remains unseen.LIGOs first gravitational-wave detection revealed the merger of two black holes that were both tens of solar masses in size. If primordial black holes are indeed a major constituent of dark matter, then LIGOs detection is consistent with what we would expect to find: occasional mergers of the intermediate-mass black holes that formed in the early universe and now lurk in galactic halos.Quasar MicrolensingTheres a catch, however. If there truly were a large number of intermediate-mass primordial black holes hiding in galactic halos, they wouldnt go completely unnoticed: we would see signs of their presence in the gravitational microlensing of background quasars. Unseen primordial black holes in a foreground galaxy could cause an image of a background quasar to briefly brighten which would provide us with clear evidence of such black holes despite our not being able to detect them directly.A depiction of quasar microlensing (click for a closer look!). The microlensing object in the foreground galaxy could be a star (as depicted), a primordial black hole, or any other compact object. [NASA
Black hole as a wormhole factory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sung-Won Kim
2015-12-01
Full Text Available There have been lots of debates about the final fate of an evaporating black hole and the singularity hidden by an event horizon in quantum gravity. However, on general grounds, one may argue that a black hole stops radiation at the Planck mass (ħc/G1/2∼10−5 g, where the radiated energy is comparable to the black hole's mass. And also, it has been argued that there would be a wormhole-like structure, known as “spacetime foam”, due to large fluctuations below the Planck length (ħG/c31/2∼10−33 cm. In this paper, as an explicit example, we consider an exact classical solution which represents nicely those two properties in a recently proposed quantum gravity model based on different scaling dimensions between space and time coordinates. The solution, called “Black Wormhole”, consists of two different states, depending on its mass parameter M and an IR parameter ω: For the black hole state (with ωM2>1/2, a non-traversable wormhole occupies the interior region of the black hole around the singularity at the origin, whereas for the wormhole state (with ωM2<1/2, the interior wormhole is exposed to an outside observer as the black hole horizon is disappearing from evaporation. The black hole state becomes thermodynamically stable as it approaches the merging point where the interior wormhole throat and the black hole horizon merges, and the Hawking temperature vanishes at the exact merge point (with ωM2=1/2. This solution suggests the “Generalized Cosmic Censorship” by the existence of a wormhole-like structure which protects the naked singularity even after the black hole evaporation. One could understand the would-be wormhole inside the black hole horizon as the result of microscopic wormholes created by “negative” energy quanta which have entered the black hole horizon in Hawking radiation process; the quantum black hole could be a wormhole factory! It is found that this speculative picture may be consistent with the
Spin One Hawking Radiation from Dirty Black Holes
Petarpa Boonserm; Tritos Ngampitipan; Matt Visser
2013-01-01
A “clean” black hole is a black hole in vacuum such as the Schwarzschild black hole. However in real physical systems, there are matter fields around a black hole. Such a black hole is called a “dirty black hole”. In this paper, the effect of matter fields on the black hole and the greybody factor is investigated. The results show that matter fields make a black hole smaller. They can increase the potential energy to a black hole to obstruct Hawking radiation to propagate. This causes the gre...
LIGO Finds Lightest Black-Hole Binary
Kohler, Susanna
2017-11-01
Wednesdayevening the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) collaboration quietly mentioned that theyd found gravitational waves from yet another black-hole binary back in June. This casual announcement reveals what is so far the lightest pair of black holes weve watched merge opening the door for comparisons to the black holes weve detected by electromagnetic means.A Routine DetectionThe chirp signal of GW170608 detected by LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston. [LIGO collaboration 2017]After the fanfare of the previous four black-hole-binary merger announcements over the past year and a half as well as the announcement of the one neutron-star binary merger in August GW170608 marks our entry into the era in which gravitational-wave detections are officially routine.GW170608, a gravitational-wave signal from the merger of two black holes roughly a billion light-years away, was detected in June of this year. This detection occurred after wed already found gravitational waves from several black-hole binaries with the two LIGO detectors in the U.S., but before the Virgo interferometer came online in Europe and increased the joint ability of the detectors to localize sources.Mass estimates for the two components of GW170608 using different models. [LIGO collaboration 2017]Overall, GW170608 is fairly unremarkable: it was detected by both LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston some 7 ms apart, and the signal looks not unlike those of the previous LIGO detections. But because were still in the early days of gravitational-wave astronomy, every discovery is still remarkable in some way! GW170608 stands out as being the lightest pair of black holes weve yet to see merge, with component masses before the merger estimated at 12 and 7 times the mass of the Sun.Why Size MattersWith the exception of GW151226, the gravitational-wave signal discovered on Boxing Day last year, all of the black holes that have been discovered by LIGO/Virgo have been quite large: the masses
Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits
2008-06-01
The biggest black holes may feed just like the smallest ones, according to data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ground-based telescopes. This discovery supports the implication of Einstein's relativity theory that black holes of all sizes have similar properties, and will be useful for predicting the properties of a conjectured new class of black holes. The conclusion comes from a large observing campaign of the spiral galaxy M81, which is about 12 million light years from Earth. In the center of M81 is a black hole that is about 70 million times more massive than the Sun, and generates energy and radiation as it pulls gas in the central region of the galaxy inwards at high speed. In contrast, so-called stellar mass black holes, which have about 10 times more mass than the Sun, have a different source of food. These smaller black holes acquire new material by pulling gas from an orbiting companion star. Because the bigger and smaller black holes are found in different environments with different sources of material to feed from, a question has remained about whether they feed in the same way. Using these new observations and a detailed theoretical model, a research team compared the properties of M81's black hole with those of stellar mass black holes. The results show that either big or little, black holes indeed appear to eat similarly to each other, and produce a similar distribution of X-rays, optical and radio light. AnimationMulti-wavelength Images of M81 One of the implications of Einstein's theory of General Relativity is that black holes are simple objects and only their masses and spins determine their effect on space-time. The latest research indicates that this simplicity manifests itself in spite of complicated environmental effects. "This confirms that the feeding patterns for black holes of different sizes can be very similar," said Sera Markoff of the Astronomical Institute, University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands, who led the study
Testing quantum gravity through dumb holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pourhassan, Behnam, E-mail: b.pourhassan@du.ac.ir [School of Physics, Damghan University, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada); Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia - Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: capozzie@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli ”Frederico II” Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), Via F. Crispi 7, I-67100 L’ Aquila (Italy)
2017-02-15
We propose a method to test the effects of quantum fluctuations on black holes by analyzing the effects of thermal fluctuations on dumb holes, the analogs for black holes. The proposal is based on the Jacobson formalism, where the Einstein field equations are viewed as thermodynamical relations, and so the quantum fluctuations are generated from the thermal fluctuations. It is well known that all approaches to quantum gravity generate logarithmic corrections to the entropy of a black hole and the coefficient of this term varies according to the different approaches to the quantum gravity. It is possible to demonstrate that such logarithmic terms are also generated from thermal fluctuations in dumb holes. In this paper, we claim that it is possible to experimentally test such corrections for dumb holes, and also obtain the correct coefficient for them. This fact can then be used to predict the effects of quantum fluctuations on realistic black holes, and so it can also be used, in principle, to experimentally test the different approaches to quantum gravity.
Recovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole
Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve; Schauffler, Sue; Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Pawson, Steven; Nielsen, J. Eric
2006-01-01
The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the TOMS and OMI instruments. The severity of the hole has been assessed using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole), the average size during the September-October period, and the ozone mass deficit. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. We use two methods to estimate ozone hole recovery. First, we use projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates in a parametric model. Second, we use a coupled chemistry climate model to assess recovery. We find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. Furthermore, full recovery to 1980 levels will not occur until approximately 2068. We will also show some error estimates of these dates and the impact of climate change on the recovery.
Black Holes in Modified Gravity (MOG)
Moffat, J W
2014-01-01
The field equations for Scalar-Tensor-Vector-Gravity (STVG) or modified gravity (MOG) have a static, spherically symmetric black hole solution determined by the mass $M$ with either two horizons or no horizon depending on the strength of the gravitational constant $G=G_N(1+\\alpha)$ where $\\alpha$ is a parameter. A regular singularity-free MOG black hole solution is derived using a nonlinear, repulsive gravitational field dynamics and a reasonable physical energy-momentum tensor. The Kruskal-Szekeres completions of the MOG black hole solutions are obtained. The Kerr-MOG black hole solution is determined by the mass $M$, the parameter $\\alpha$ and the spin angular momentum $J=Ma$. The equations of motion and the stability condition of a test particle orbiting the MOG black hole are derived, and the radius of the black hole photosphere and its shadow cast by the Kerr-MOG black hole are calculated. A traversable wormhole solution is constructed with a throat stabilized by the repulsive gravitational field.
Particle creation rate for dynamical black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Firouzjaee, Javad T. [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); University of Oxford, Department of Physics (Astrophysics), Oxford (United Kingdom); Ellis, George F.R. [University of Cape Town, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics Department, Rondebosch (South Africa)
2016-11-15
We present the particle creation probability rate around a general black hole as an outcome of quantum fluctuations. Using the uncertainty principle for these fluctuation, we derive a new ultraviolet frequency cutoff for the radiation spectrum of a dynamical black hole. Using this frequency cutoff, we define the probability creation rate function for such black holes. We consider a dynamical Vaidya model and calculate the probability creation rate for this case when its horizon is in a slowly evolving phase. Our results show that one can expect the usual Hawking radiation emission process in the case of a dynamical black hole when it has a slowly evolving horizon. Moreover, calculating the probability rate for a dynamical black hole gives a measure of when Hawking radiation can be killed off by an incoming flux of matter or radiation. Our result strictly suggests that we have to revise the Hawking radiation expectation for primordial black holes that have grown substantially since they were created in the early universe. We also infer that this frequency cut off can be a parameter that shows the primordial black hole growth at the emission moment. (orig.)
Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lochan, Kinjalk, E-mail: kinjalk@iucaa.in; Chakraborty, Sumanta, E-mail: sumanta@iucaa.in
2016-04-10
The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.
Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piotr T. Chruściel
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.
Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heusler Markus
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.
Partition functions for supersymmetric black holes
Manschot, Jan
2008-01-01
This dissertation presents recent discoveries on partition functions for four-dimensional supersymmetric black holes. These partition functions are important tools to explain the entropy of black holes from a microscopic point of view within string theory and M-theory. The results are applied to two central research topics in modern theoretical physics, namely (1) the correspondence between the physics (including gravity) within an Anti-de Sitter space and conformal field theory, and (2) the relation between black holes and topological strings.
Quantum chaos and the black hole horizon
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
Thanks to AdS/CFT, the analogy between black holes and thermal systems has become a practical tool, shedding light on thermalization, transport, and entanglement dynamics. Continuing in this vein, recent work has shown how chaos in the boundary CFT can be analyzed in terms of high energy scattering right on the horizon of the dual black hole. The analysis revolves around certain out-of-time-order correlation functions, which are simple diagnostics of the butterfly effect. We will review this work, along with a general bound on these functions that implies black holes are the most chaotic systems in quantum mechanics. (NB Room Change to Main Auditorium)
Black hole dynamics at large D
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that the classical dynamics of black holes can be reformulated as a dynamical problem of a codimension one membrane moving in flat space. This membrane - roughly the black hole event horizon - carries a conserved charge current and stress tensor which source radiation. This `membrane paradigm' may be viewed as a simplification of the equations of general relativity at large D, and suggests the possibility of using 1/D as a useful expansion parameter in the analysis of complicated four dimensional solutions of general relativity, for instance the collision between two black holes.
The 1991 Antarctic ozone hole - TOMS observations
Krueger, Arlin; Schoeberl, Mark; Newman, Paul; Stolarski, Richard
1992-01-01
The 1991 Antarctic springtime ozone decline, as measured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), was similar to those of earlier deep ozone hole years, 1987, 1989, and 1990. The minimum total ozone value was recorded on October 5, 1991 at 108 Dobson units near the South Pole. This was 8 DU lower than in any of the earlier years. Four of the last five years have exhibited an extensive, deep ozone hole. The area of the hole was about the same as in 1987, 1989, and 1990. The recovery of the low total ozone values occurred in mid-November as the polar vortex broke up.
Black hole jet power from impedance matching
Penna, Robert F.
2015-01-01
Black hole jet power depends on the angular velocity of magnetic field lines, $\\Omega_F$. Force-free black hole magnetospheres typically have $\\Omega_F/\\Omega_H \\approx 0.5$, where $\\Omega_H$ is the angular velocity of the horizon. We give a streamlined proof of this result using an extension of the classical black hole membrane paradigm. The proof is based on an impedance-matching argument between membranes at the horizon and infinity. Then we consider a general relativistic magnetohydrodyna...
Testing black hole candidates with electromagnetic radiation
Bambi, Cosimo
2017-04-01
Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black holes of general relativity, but there is not yet direct observational evidence that the spacetime geometry around these objects is described by the Kerr solution. The study of the properties of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by gas or stars orbiting these objects can potentially test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. This paper reviews the state of the art of this research field, describing the possible approaches to test the Kerr metric with current and future observational facilities and discussing current constraints.
Depilating Global Charge From Thermal Black Holes
March-Russell, John David; March-Russell, John; Wilczek, Frank
2001-01-01
At a formal level, there appears to be no difficulty involved in introducing a chemical potential for a globally conserved quantum number into the partition function for space-time including a black hole. Were this possible, however, it would provide a form of black hole hair, and contradict the idea that global quantum numbers are violated in black hole evaporation. We demonstrate dynamical mechanisms that negate the formal procedure, both for topological charge (Skyrmions) and complex scalar-field charge. Skyrmions collapse to the horizon; scalar-field charge fluctuates uncontrollably.
Entropy Inequality Violations from Ultraspinning Black Holes.
Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Kubizňák, David
2015-07-17
We construct a new class of rotating anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solutions with noncompact event horizons of finite area in any dimension and study their thermodynamics. In four dimensions these black holes are solutions to gauged supergravity. We find that their entropy exceeds the maximum implied from the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality, which states that for a given thermodynamic volume, the black hole entropy is maximized for Schwarzschild-AdS space. We use this result to suggest more stringent conditions under which this conjecture may hold.
Black Holes and Gravitational Properties of Antimatter
Hajdukovic, D
2006-01-01
We speculate about impact of antigravity (i.e. gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter) on the creation and emission of particles by a black hole. If antigravity is present a black hole made of matter may radiate particles as a black body, but this shouldn't be true for antiparticles. It may lead to radical change of radiation process predicted by Hawking and should be taken into account in preparation of the attempt to create and study mini black holes at CERN. Gravity, including antigravity is more than ever similar to electrodynamics and such similarity with a successfully quantized interaction may help in quantization of gravity.
Fast plunges into Kerr black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hadar, Shahar [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Porfyriadis, Achilleas P.; Strominger, Andrew [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2015-07-15
Most extreme-mass-ratio-inspirals of small compact objects into supermassive black holes end with a fast plunge from an eccentric last stable orbit. For rapidly rotating black holes such fast plunges may be studied in the context of the Kerr/CFT correspondence because they occur in the near-horizon region where dynamics are governed by the infinite dimensional conformal symmetry. In this paper we use conformal transformations to analytically solve for the radiation emitted from fast plunges into near-extreme Kerr black holes. We find perfect agreement between the gravity and CFT computations.
Massive black holes from dissipative dark matter
D'Amico, Guido; Panci, Paolo; Lupi, Alessandro; Bovino, Stefano; Silk, Joe
2018-01-01
We show that a subdominant component of dissipative dark matter resembling the Standard Model can form many intermediate-mass black hole seeds during the first structure formation epoch. We also observe that, in the presence of this matter sector, the black holes will grow at a much faster rate with respect to the ordinary case. These facts can explain the observed abundance of supermassive black holes feeding high-redshift quasars. The scenario will have interesting observational consequences for dark substructures and gravitational wave production.
Black holes will break up solitons and white holes may destroy them
Akbar, Fiki T.; Gunara, Bobby E.; Susanto, Hadi
2017-06-01
We consider a quantum analogue of black holes and white holes using Bose-Einstein condensates. The model is described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a 'stream flow' potential, that induces a spatial translation to standing waves. We then mainly consider the dynamics of dark solitons in a black hole or white hole flow analogue and their interactions with the event horizon. A reduced equation describing the position of the dark solitons was obtained using variational method. Through numerical computations and comparisons with the analytical approximation we show that solitons can pass through black hole horizons even though they will break up into several solitons after the collision. In the interaction with a white hole horizon, we show that solitons either pass through the horizon or will be destroyed by it.
Cosmological solutions with charged black holes
Bibi, Rashida; Clifton, Timothy; Durk, Jessie
2017-07-01
We consider the problem of constructing cosmological solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations that contain multiple charged black holes. By considering the field equations as a set of constraint and evolution equations, we construct exact initial data for N charged black holes on a hypersphere. This corresponds to the maximum of expansion of a cosmological solution, and provides sufficient information for a unique evolution. We then consider the specific example of a universe that contains eight charged black holes, and show that the existence of non-zero electric charge reduces the scale of the cosmological region of the space. These solutions generalize the Majumdar-Papapetrou solutions away from the extremal limit of charged black holes, and provide what we believe to be some of the first relativistic calculations of the effects of electric charge on cosmological backreaction.
Black Hole - Neutron Star Binary Mergers
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravitational radiation waveforms for black hole-neutron star coalescence calculations. The physical input is Newtonian physics, an ideal gas equation of state with...
Merging Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
This talk will focus on simulations of binary black hole mergers and the gravitational wave signals they produce. Applications to gravitational wave detection with LISA, and electronagnetic counterparts, will be highlighted.
Black hole dynamics in general relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Basic features of dynamical black holes in full, non-linear general relativity are summarized in a pedagogical fashion. Qualitative properties of the evolution of various horizons follow directly from the celebrated Raychaudhuri equation.
Data from Devils Hole Core DH-11
Landwehr, Jurate Maciunas; Coplen, T.B.; Ludwig, K. R.; Winograd, I.J.; Riggs, A.C.
1997-01-01
This report presents the stable isotope values measured in Devils Hole Core DH-11 and interpolated ages at the depth the samples were taken, as analyzed in a recent publication by Winograd and others (1997).
Miller, Jon M.
2017-08-01
Across the mass scale, high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy has transformed our view of accretion onto black holes. The ionized disk winds observed from stellar-mass black holes may sometimes eject more mass than is able to accrete onto the black hole. It is possible that these winds can probe the fundamental physics that drive disk accretion. The most powerful winds from accretion onto massive black holes may play a role in feedback, seeding host bulges with hot gas and halting star formation. The lessons and techniques emerging from these efforts can also reveal the accretion flow geometry in tidal disruption events (TDEs), an especially rich discovery space. This talk will review some recent progress enabled by high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy, and look at the potential of gratings spectrometers and microcalorimeters in the years ahead.
Black hole evaporation rates without spacetime.
Braunstein, Samuel L; Patra, Manas K
2011-08-12
Verlinde recently suggested that gravity, inertia, and even spacetime may be emergent properties of an underlying thermodynamic theory. This vision was motivated in part by Jacobson's 1995 surprise result that the Einstein equations of gravity follow from the thermodynamic properties of event horizons. Taking a first tentative step in such a program, we derive the evaporation rate (or radiation spectrum) from black hole event horizons in a spacetime-free manner. Our result relies on a Hilbert space description of black hole evaporation, symmetries therein which follow from the inherent high dimensionality of black holes, global conservation of the no-hair quantities, and the existence of Penrose processes. Our analysis is not wedded to standard general relativity and so should apply to extended gravity theories where we find that the black hole area must be replaced by some other property in any generalized area theorem.
The physics of accretion onto black holes
Belloni, Tomaso; Casella, Piergiorgio; Gilfanov, Marat; Jonker, Peter; King, Andrew
2015-01-01
This title reviews in-depth research on accretion on all scales, from galactic binaries to intermediate mass and supermassive black holes. Possible future directions of accretion are also discussed. The following main themes are covered: a historical perspective; physical models of accretion onto black holes of all masses; black hole fundamental parameters; and accretion, jets and outflows. An overview and outlook on the topic is also presented. This volume summarizes the status of the study of astrophysical black hole research and is aimed at astrophysicists and graduate students working in this field. Originally published in Space Science Reviews, Vol 183/1-4, 2014.
Black-hole masses of distant quasars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Marianne
2011-01-01
A brief overview of the methods commonly used to determine or estimate the black hole mass in quiescent or active galaxies is presented and it is argued that the use of mass-scaling relations is both a reliable and the preferred method to apply to large samples of distant quasars. The method uses...... that the black hole masses are very large, of order 1 to 10 billion solar masses, even at the highest redshifts of 4 to 6. The black holes must build up their mass very fast in the early universe. Yet they do not grow much larger than that: a maximum mass of about 10 billion solar masses is also observed....... Preliminary mass functions of active black holes are presented for several quasar samples, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Finally, common concerns related to the application of the mass scaling relations, especially for high redshift quasars, are briefly discussed....
Squeeze film dampers with oil hole feed
Chen, P. Y. P.; Hahn, E. J.
1994-01-01
To improve the damping capability of squeeze film dampers, oil hole feed rather than circumferential groove feed is a practical proposition. However, circular orbit response can no longer be assumed, significantly complicating the design analysis. This paper details a feasible transient solution procedure for such dampers, with particular emphasis on the additional difficulties due to the introduction of oil holes. It is shown how a cosine power series solution may be utilized to evaluate the oil hole pressure contributions, enabling appropriate tabular data to be compiled. The solution procedure is shown to be applicable even in the presence of flow restrictors, albeit at the expense of introducing an iteration at each time step. Though not of primary interest, the procedure is also applicable to dynamically loaded journal bearings with oil hole feed.
Mass of a black hole firewall.
Abramowicz, M A; Kluźniak, W; Lasota, J-P
2014-03-07
Quantum entanglement of Hawking radiation has been supposed to give rise to a Planck density "firewall" near the event horizon of old black holes. We show that Planck density firewalls are excluded by Einstein's equations for black holes of mass exceeding the Planck mass. We find an upper limit of 1/(8πM) to the surface density of a firewall in a Schwarzschild black hole of mass M, translating for astrophysical black holes into a firewall density smaller than the Planck density by more than 30 orders of magnitude. A strict upper limit on the firewall density is given by the Planck density times the ratio M(Pl)/(8πM).
Hagedorn temperature and physics of black holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zakharov V.I.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A mini-review devoted to some implications of the Hagedorn temperature for black hole physics. The existence of a limiting temperature is a generic feature of string models. The Hagedorn temperature was introduced first in the context of hadronic physics. Nowadays, the emphasis is shifted to fundamental strings which might be a necessary ingredient to obtain a consistent theory of black holes. The point is that, in field theory, the local temperature close to the horizon could be arbitrarily high, and this observation is difficult to reconcile with the finiteness of the entropy of black holes. After preliminary remarks, we review our recent attempt to evaluate the entropy of large black holes in terms of fundamental strings. We also speculate on implications for dynamics of large-Nc gauge theories arising within holographic models.
Primordial Black Holes from First Principles (Overview)
Lam, Casey; Bloomfield, Jolyon; Moss, Zander; Russell, Megan; Face, Stephen; Guth, Alan
2017-01-01
Given a power spectrum from inflation, our goal is to calculate, from first principles, the number density and mass spectrum of primordial black holes that form in the early universe. Previously, these have been calculated using the Press- Schechter formalism and some demonstrably dubious rules of thumb regarding predictions of black hole collapse. Instead, we use Monte Carlo integration methods to sample field configurations from a power spectrum combined with numerical relativity simulations to obtain a more accurate picture of primordial black hole formation. We demonstrate how this can be applied for both Gaussian perturbations and the more interesting (for primordial black holes) theory of hybrid inflation. One of the tools that we employ is a variant of the BBKS formalism for computing the statistics of density peaks in the early universe. We discuss the issue of overcounting due to subpeaks that can arise from this approach (the ``cloud-in-cloud'' problem). MIT UROP Office- Paul E. Gray (1954) Endowed Fund.
Back-reaction in acoustic black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fagnocchi, Serena [Centro Enrico Fermi, Compendio Viminale, 00184 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Bologna and INFN sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy)
2006-03-01
Acoustic black holes are very interesting non-gravitational objects which can be described by the geometrical formalism of General Relativity. These models can be useful to experimentally test effects otherwise undetectable, as for example the Hawking radiation. The back-reaction effects on the background quantities induced by the analogue Hawking radiation could be the key to indirectly observe it. We briefly show how this analogy works and derive the backreaction equations for the linearized quantum fluctuations in the background of an acoustic black hole. A first order in h-bar solution is given in the near the horizon region. It indicates that acoustic black holes, unlike Schwarzschild ones, get cooler as they radiate phonons. They show remarkable analogies with near-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes.
[Macular hole associated with paintball ocular trauma].
Michalewska, Zofia; Michalewski, Janusz; Nawrocka, Zofia; Nawrocki, Jerzy
2007-01-01
A presentation of two patients with macular hole after ocular trauma due to paintball. HRT, OCT, SOCT and visual field examinations were performed preoperatively and on 3 postoperative visits. Patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy with trypan blue staining. Final visual acuity 0.6 was achieved in the first patient 6 months after surgery. Best corrected visual acuity 0.2 was achieved in the second patient 3 months after surgery. Macular hole closure was observed on OCT, SOCT, HRT and indirect ophthalmoscopy examination. Pars plana vitrectomy with trypan blue staining and fluid-air exchange is a safe procedure in posttraumatic macular holes. HRT, Oct and SOCT are valuable tools for diagnosis of macular holes and for control after surgical intervention.
Testing black hole superradiance with pulsar companions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
João G. Rosa
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We show that the magnetic dipole and gravitational radiation emitted by a pulsar can undergo superradiant scattering off a spinning black hole companion. We find that the relative amount of superradiant modes in the radiation depends on the pulsar's angular position relative to the black hole's equatorial plane. In particular, when the pulsar and black hole spins are aligned, superradiant modes are dominant at large angles, leading to an amplification of the pulsar's luminosity, whereas for small angles the radiation is dominantly composed of non-superradiant modes and the signal is attenuated. This results in a characteristic orbital modulation of the pulsar's luminosity, up to the percent level within our approximations, which may potentially yield a signature of superradiant scattering in astrophysical black holes and hence an important test of general relativity.
A menagerie of hairy black holes
Winstanley, Elizabeth
2015-01-01
According to the no-hair conjecture, equilibrium black holes are simple objects, completely determined by global charges which can be measured at infinity. This is the case in Einstein-Maxwell theory due to beautiful uniqueness theorems. However, the no-hair conjecture is not true in general, and there is now a plethora of matter models possessing hairy black hole solutions. In this note we focus on one such matter model: Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) theory, and restrict our attention to four-dimensional, static, non-rotating black holes for simplicity. We outline some of the menagerie of EYM solutions in both asymptotically flat and asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. We attempt to make sense of this black hole zoo in terms of Bizon's modified no-hair conjecture.
Skyrmion black hole hair: Conservation of baryon number by black holes and observable manifestations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dvali, Gia [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany); Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Gußmann, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.gussmann@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 80333 München (Germany)
2016-12-15
We show that the existence of black holes with classical skyrmion hair invalidates standard proofs that global charges, such as the baryon number, cannot be conserved by a black hole. By carefully analyzing the standard arguments based on a Gedankenexperiment in which a black hole is seemingly-unable to return the baryon number that it swallowed, we identify inconsistencies in this reasoning, which does not take into the account neither the existence of skyrmion black holes nor the baryon/skyrmion correspondence. We then perform a refined Gedankenexperiment by incorporating the new knowledge and show that no contradiction with conservation of baryon number takes place at any stage of black hole evolution. Our analysis also indicates no conflict between semi-classical black holes and the existence of baryonic gauge interaction arbitrarily-weaker than gravity. Next, we study classical cross sections of a minimally-coupled massless probe scalar field scattered by a skyrmion black hole. We investigate how the skyrmion hair manifests itself by comparing this cross section with the analogous cross section caused by a Schwarzschild black hole which has the same ADM mass as the skyrmion black hole. Here we find an order-one difference in the positions of the characteristic peaks in the cross sections. The peaks are shifted to smaller scattering angles when the skyrmion hair is present. This comes from the fact that the skyrmion hair changes the near horizon geometry of the black hole when compared to a Schwarzschild black hole with same ADM mass. We keep the study of this second aspect general so that the qualitative results which we obtain can also be applied to black holes with classical hair of different kind.
Imaging black holes: past, present and future
Falcke, Heino
2017-12-01
This paper briefly reviews past, current, and future efforts to image black holes. Black holes seem like mystical objects, but they are an integral part of current astrophysics and are at the center of attempts to unify quantum physics and general relativity. Yet, nobody has ever seen a black hole. What do they look like? Initially, this question seemed more of an academic nature. However, this has changed over the past two decades. Observations and theoretical considerations suggest that the supermassive black hole, Sgr A*, in the center of our Milky Way is surrounded by a compact, foggy emission region radiating at and above 230 GHz. It has been predicted that the event horizon of Sgr A* should cast its shadow onto that emission region, which could be detectable with a global VLBI array of radio telescopes. In contrast to earlier pictures of black holes, that dark feature is not supposed to be due to a hole in the accretion flow, but would represent a true negative image of the event horizon. Currently, the global Event Horizon Telescope consortium is attempting to make such an image. In the future those images could be improved by adding more telescopes to the array, in particular at high sites in Africa. Ultimately, a space array at THz frequencies, the Event Horizon Imager, could produce much more detailed images of black holes. In combination with numerical simulations and precise measurements of the orbits of stars – ideally also of pulsars – these images will allow us to study black holes with unprecedented precision.
Universality of black hole quantum computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dvali, Gia [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); New York Univ., NY (United States). Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics; Gomez, Cesar [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM-CSIC; Luest, Dieter [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Omar, Yasser [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes (Portugal). Physics of Information and Quantum Technologies Group; Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico; Richter, Benedikt [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Instituto de Telecomunicacoes (Portugal). Physics of Information and Quantum Technologies Group; Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico
2017-01-15
By analyzing the key properties of black holes from the point of view of quantum information, we derive a model-independent picture of black hole quantum computing. It has been noticed that this picture exhibits striking similarities with quantum critical condensates, allowing the use of a common language to describe quantum computing in both systems. We analyze such quantum computing by allowing coupling to external modes, under the condition that the external influence must be soft-enough in order not to offset the basic properties of the system. We derive model-independent bounds on some crucial time-scales, such as the times of gate operation, decoherence, maximal entanglement and total scrambling. We show that for black hole type quantum computers all these time-scales are of the order of the black hole half-life time. Furthermore, we construct explicitly a set of Hamiltonians that generates a universal set of quantum gates for the black hole type computer. We find that the gates work at maximal energy efficiency. Furthermore, we establish a fundamental bound on the complexity of quantum circuits encoded on these systems, and characterize the unitary operations that are implementable. It becomes apparent that the computational power is very limited due to the fact that the black hole life-time is of the same order of the gate operation time. As a consequence, it is impossible to retrieve its information, within the life-time of a black hole, by externally coupling to the black hole qubits. However, we show that, in principle, coupling to some of the internal degrees of freedom allows acquiring knowledge about the micro-state. Still, due to the trivial complexity of operations that can be performed, there is no time advantage over the collection of Hawking radiation and subsequent decoding. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Conservation laws for dynamical black holes
Hayward, Sean A.
2006-01-01
An essentially complete new paradigm for dynamical black holes in terms of trapping horizons is presented, including dynamical versions of the physical quantities and laws which were considered important in the classical paradigm for black holes in terms of Killing or event horizons. Three state functions are identified as surface integrals over marginal surfaces: irreducible mass, angular momentum and charge. There are three corresponding conservation laws, expressing the rate of change of t...
Numerical simulation of orbiting black holes.
Brügmann, Bernd; Tichy, Wolfgang; Jansen, Nina
2004-05-28
We present numerical simulations of binary black hole systems which for the first time last for about one orbital period for close but still separate black holes as indicated by the absence of a common apparent horizon. An important part of the method is the construction of comoving coordinates, in which both the angular and the radial motion are minimized through a dynamically adjusted shift condition. We use fixed mesh refinement for computational efficiency.
Black holes will break up solitons and white holes may destroy them
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akbar, Fiki T., E-mail: ftakbar@fi.itb.ac.id [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha no. 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Gunara, Bobby E., E-mail: bobby@fi.itb.ac.id [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha no. 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Susanto, Hadi, E-mail: hsusanto@essex.ac.uk [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • What happens if a soliton collides with a black or white hole? • Solitons can pass through black hole horizons, but they will break up into several solitons after the collision. • In the interaction with a white hole horizon, solitons either pass through the horizon or will be destroyed by it. - Abstract: We consider a quantum analogue of black holes and white holes using Bose–Einstein condensates. The model is described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a ‘stream flow’ potential, that induces a spatial translation to standing waves. We then mainly consider the dynamics of dark solitons in a black hole or white hole flow analogue and their interactions with the event horizon. A reduced equation describing the position of the dark solitons was obtained using variational method. Through numerical computations and comparisons with the analytical approximation we show that solitons can pass through black hole horizons even though they will break up into several solitons after the collision. In the interaction with a white hole horizon, we show that solitons either pass through the horizon or will be destroyed by it.
Observational features of equatorial coronal hole jets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Nisticò
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Collimated ejections of plasma called "coronal hole jets" are commonly observed in polar coronal holes. However, such coronal jets are not only a specific features of polar coronal holes but they can also be found in coronal holes appearing at lower heliographic latitudes. In this paper we present some observations of "equatorial coronal hole jets" made up with data provided by the STEREO/SECCHI instruments during a period comprising March 2007 and December 2007. The jet events are selected by requiring at least some visibility in both COR1 and EUVI instruments. We report 15 jet events, and we discuss their main features. For one event, the uplift velocity has been determined as about 200 km s−1, while the deceleration rate appears to be about 0.11 km s−2, less than solar gravity. The average jet visibility time is about 30 min, consistent with jet observed in polar regions. On the basis of the present dataset, we provisionally conclude that there are not substantial physical differences between polar and equatorial coronal hole jets.
Observational features of equatorial coronal hole jets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Zimbardo
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Collimated ejections of plasma called "coronal hole jets" are commonly observed in polar coronal holes. However, such coronal jets are not only a specific features of polar coronal holes but they can also be found in coronal holes appearing at lower heliographic latitudes. In this paper we present some observations of "equatorial coronal hole jets" made up with data provided by the STEREO/SECCHI instruments during a period comprising March 2007 and December 2007. The jet events are selected by requiring at least some visibility in both COR1 and EUVI instruments. We report 15 jet events, and we discuss their main features. For one event, the uplift velocity has been determined as about 200 km s^{−1}, while the deceleration rate appears to be about 0.11 km s^{−2}, less than solar gravity. The average jet visibility time is about 30 min, consistent with jet observed in polar regions. On the basis of the present dataset, we provisionally conclude that there are not substantial physical differences between polar and equatorial coronal hole jets.
Black holes in modified gravity (MOG)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moffat, J.W. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada)
2015-04-15
The field equations for scalar-tensor-vector gravity (STVG) or modified gravity (MOG) have a static, spherically symmetric black hole solution determined by the mass M with two horizons. The strength of the gravitational constant is G = G{sub N} (1 + α) where α is a parameter. A regular singularity-free MOG solution is derived using a nonlinear field dynamics for the repulsive gravitational field component and a reasonable physical energy-momentum tensor. The Kruskal-Szekeres completion of the MOG black hole solution is obtained. The Kerr-MOG black hole solution is determined by the mass M, the parameter α and the spin angular momentum J = Ma. The equations of motion and the stability condition of a test particle orbiting the MOG black hole are derived, and the radius of the black hole photosphere and the shadows cast by the Schwarzschild-MOG and Kerr-MOG black holes are calculated. A traversable wormhole solution is constructed with a throat stabilized by the repulsive component of the gravitational field. (orig.)
Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory.
Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P Chris
2013-01-01
This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).
Hawking radiation power equations for black holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ravi Mistry
2017-10-01
Full Text Available We derive the Hawking radiation power equations for black holes in asymptotically flat, asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS and asymptotically de Sitter (dS black holes. This is done by using the greybody factor for these black holes. We observe that the radiation power equation for asymptotically flat black holes, corresponding to greybody factor at low frequency, depends on both the Hawking temperature and the horizon radius. However, for the greybody factors at asymptotic frequency, it only depends on the Hawking temperature. We also obtain the power equation for asymptotically AdS black holes both below and above the critical frequency. The radiation power equation for at asymptotic frequency is same for both Schwarzschild AdS and Reissner–Nordström AdS solutions and only depends on the Hawking temperature. We also discuss the power equation for asymptotically dS black holes at low frequency, for both even or odd dimensions.
Ineffective higher derivative black hole hair
Goldstein, Kevin; Mashiyane, James Junior
2018-01-01
Inspired by the possibility that the Schwarzschild black hole may not be the unique spherically symmetric vacuum solution to generalizations of general relativity, we consider black holes in pure fourth order higher derivative gravity treated as an effective theory. Such solutions may be of interest in addressing the issue of higher derivative hair or during the later stages of black hole evaporation. Non-Schwarzschild solutions have been studied but we have put earlier results on a firmer footing by finding a systematic asymptotic expansion for the black holes and matching them with known numerical solutions obtained by integrating out from the near-horizon region. These asymptotic expansions can be cast in the form of trans-series expansions which we conjecture will be a generic feature of non-Schwarzschild higher derivative black holes. Excitingly we find a new branch of solutions with lower free energy than the Schwarzschild solution, but as found in earlier work, solutions only seem to exist for black holes with large curvatures, meaning that one should not generically neglect even higher derivative corrections. This suggests that one effectively recovers the nonhair theorems in this context.
Micro Black Holes and the Democratic Transition
Dvali, Gia
2009-01-01
Unitarity implies that the evaporation of microscopic quasi-classical black holes cannot be universal in different particle species. This creates a puzzle, since it conflicts with the thermal nature of quasi-classical black holes, according to which all the species should see the same horizon and be produced with the same Hawking temperatures. We resolve this puzzle by showing that for the microscopic black holes, on top the usual quantum evaporation time, there is a new time-scale which characterizes a purely classical process during which the black hole looses the ability to differentiate among the species, and becomes democratic. We demonstrate this phenomenon in a well-understood framework of large extra dimensions, with a number of parallel branes. An initially non-democratic black hole is the one localized on one of the branes, with its high-dimensional Schwarzschild radius being much shorter than the interbrane distance. Such a black hole seemingly cannot evaporate into the species localized on the oth...
Electrodynamics of black holes in STU supergravity
Cvetič, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; Pope, C. N.; Saleem, Z. H.
2014-09-01
External magnetic fields can probe the composite structure of black holes in string theory. With this motivation we study magnetised four-charge black holes in the STU model, a consistent truncation of maximally supersymmetric supergravity with four types of electromagnetic fields. We employ solution generating techniques to obtain Melvin backgrounds, and black holes in these backgrounds. For an initially electrically charged static black hole immersed in magnetic fields, we calculate the resultant angular momenta and analyse their global structure. Examples are given for which the ergoregion does not extend to infinity. We calculate magnetic moments and gyromagnetic ratios via Larmor's formula. Our results are consistent with earlier special cases. A scaling limit and associated subtracted geometry in a single surviving magnetic field is shown to lift to AdS 3 × S 2. Magnetizing magnetically charged black holes give static solutions with conical singularities representing strings or struts holding the black holes against magnetic forces. In some cases it is possible to balance these magnetic forces.
Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marek A. Abramowicz
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks, Shakura-Sunyaev (thin disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs. After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs.
Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Merritt David
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.
Measuring spin of black holes in the universe
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Table of contents. Measuring spin of black holes in the universe · What is black hole? Accretion Disk and Jet · What is black hole's spin? Accretion Disk · Black Hole's Potential · Light Curves: Photon Count Rate Vs Time · Quasi-Periodic Oscillation · Slide 9 · Model · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Summary.
Measurement of Black Hole Mass Radio-Loud Quasars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... In this work, we construct a sample of 1585 radio-loud quasars to measure their black hole masses using broad emission lines. We compare our black hole masses with the virial black hole masses measured by Shen et al. (2010).We find that there is a large deviation between them if our black hole mass is ...
Towards a characterization of fields leading to black hole hair
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
a characterization of the fields leading to a black hole hair. Keywords. Black hole; No Hair Theorem. PACS Nos 04.20.−q; 04.70.Bw. 1. Introduction. Black holes are easily amongst the most fascinating offshoots of General Theory of Rel- ativity. One important question asked about a black hole is regarding the information ...
Estimation of Black Hole Masses from Steep Spectrum Radio Quasars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Our black hole masses are compared with the virial black hole masses estimated by Shen (2010). We find that there is a large deviation between the two kinds of values if the black hole masses are estimated from broad emission line of CIV. However, both values are in agreement if the black hole masses are estimated from ...
21 CFR 882.5250 - Burr hole cover.
2010-04-01
... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5250 Burr hole cover. (a) Identification. A burr hole cover is a plastic or metal device used to cover or plug holes drilled into the skull... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burr hole cover. 882.5250 Section 882.5250 Food...
Rotating black holes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory.
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen
2011-04-15
We construct generalizations of the Kerr black holes by including higher-curvature corrections in the form of the Gauss-Bonnet density coupled to the dilaton. We show that the domain of existence of these Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton (EGBD) black holes is bounded by the Kerr black holes, the critical EGBD black holes, and the singular extremal EGBD solutions. The angular momentum of the EGBD black holes can exceed the Kerr bound. The EGBD black holes satisfy a generalized Smarr relation. We also compare their innermost stable circular orbits with those of the Kerr black holes and show the existence of differences which might be observable in astrophysical systems.
Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (3/5)
CERN. Geneva
2001-01-01
Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.
Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (1/5)
CERN. Geneva
2001-01-01
Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.
Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (5/5)
CERN. Geneva
2001-01-01
Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.
Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (2/5)
CERN. Geneva
2001-01-01
Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.
Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (4/5)
CERN. Geneva
2001-01-01
Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.
Black hole clustering and duty cycles in the Illustris simulation
DeGraf, Colin; Sijacki, Debora
2016-01-01
We use the high-resolution cosmological simulation Illustris to investigate the clustering of supermassive black holes across cosmic time, the link between black hole clustering and host halo masses, and the implications for black hole duty cycles. Our predicted black hole correlation length and bias match the observational data very well across the full redshift range probed. Black hole clustering is strongly luminosity-dependent on small, 1-halo scales, with some moderate dependence on larg...
NASA's Chandra Finds Youngest Nearby Black Hole
2010-11-01
Astronomers using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have found evidence of the youngest black hole known to exist in our cosmic neighborhood. The 30-year-old black hole provides a unique opportunity to watch this type of object develop from infancy. The black hole could help scientists better understand how massive stars explode, which ones leave behind black holes or neutron stars, and the number of black holes in our galaxy and others. The 30-year-old object is a remnant of SN 1979C, a supernova in the galaxy M100 approximately 50 million light-years from Earth. Data from Chandra, NASA's Swift satellite, the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton and the German ROSAT observatory revealed a bright source of X-rays that has remained steady during observation from 1995 to 2007. This suggests the object is a black hole being fed either by material falling into it from the supernova or a binary companion. "If our interpretation is correct, this is the nearest example where the birth of a black hole has been observed," said Daniel Patnaude of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. who led the study. The scientists think SN 1979C, first discovered by an amateur astronomer in 1979, formed when a star about 20 times more massive than the Sun collapsed. Many new black holes in the distant universe previously have been detected in the form of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). However, SN 1979C is different because it is much closer and belongs to a class of supernovas unlikely to be associated with a GRB. Theory predicts most black holes in the universe should form when the core of a star collapses and a GRB is not produced. "This may be the first time the common way of making a black hole has been observed," said co-author Abraham Loeb, also of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "However, it is very difficult to detect this type of black hole birth because decades of X-ray observations are needed to make the case." The idea of a black hole with
Hole transport in pure and doped hematite
Liao, Peilin; Carter, Emily A.
2012-07-01
Hematite (α-Fe2O3) is a promising candidate for use in photovoltaic (PV) and photoelectrochemical devices. Its poor conductivity is one major drawback. Doping hematite either p-type or n-type greatly enhances its measured conductivity and is required for potential p-n junctions in PVs. Here, we study hole transport in pure and doped hematite using an electrostatically embedded cluster model with ab initio quantum mechanics (unrestricted Hartree-Fock theory). Consistent with previous work, the model suggests that hole hopping is via oxygen anions for pure hematite. The activation energy for hole mobility is predicted to be at least 0.1 eV higher than the activation energy for electron mobility, consistent with the trend observed in experiments. We examine four dopants—magnesium(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and manganese(II/III) in direct cation substitution sites—to gain insight into the mechanism by which conductivity is improved. The activation energies are used to assess qualitative effects of different dopants. The hole carriers are predicted to be attracted to O anions near the dopants. The magnitude of the trapping effect is similar among the four dopants in their +2 oxidation states. The multivalent character of Mn doping facilitates local hole transport around Mn centers via a low-barrier O-Mn-O pathway, which suggests that higher hole mobility can be achieved with increasing Mn doping concentration, especially when a network of these low-barrier pathways is produced. Our results suggest that the experimentally observed conductivity increase in Mg-, Ni-, and Cu-doped p-type hematite is mostly due to an increase in hole carriers rather than improved mobility, and that Mg-, Ni-, and Cu-doping perform similarly, while the conductivity of Mn-doped hematite might be significantly improved in the high doping concentration limit.
Antarctic Ozone Hole on September 17, 2001
2002-01-01
Satellite data show the area of this year's Antarctic ozone hole peaked at about 26 million square kilometers-roughly the size of North America-making the hole similar in size to those of the past three years, according to scientists from NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Researchers have observed a leveling-off of the hole size and predict a slow recovery. Over the past several years the annual ozone hole over Antarctica has remained about the same in both its size and in the thickness of the ozone layer. 'This is consistent with human-produced chlorine compounds that destroy ozone reaching their peak concentrations in the atmosphere, leveling off, and now beginning a very slow decline,' said Samuel Oltmans of NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colo. In the near future-barring unusual events such as explosive volcanic eruptions-the severity of the ozone hole will likely remain similar to what has been seen in recent years, with year-to-year differences associated with meteorological variability. Over the longer term (30-50 years) the severity of the ozone hole in Antarctica is expected to decrease as chlorine levels in the atmosphere decline. The image above shows ozone levels on Spetember 17, 2001-the lowest levels observed this year. Dark blue colors correspond to the thinnest ozone, while light blue, green, and yellow pixels indicate progressively thicker ozone. For more information read: 2001 Ozone Hole About the Same Size as Past Three Years. Image courtesy Greg Shirah, GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio, based on data from the TOMS science team
Jets, black holes and disks in blazars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghisellini Gabriele
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The Fermi and Swift satellites, together with ground based Cherenkov telescopes, has greatly improved our knowledge of blazars, namely Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars and BL Lac objects, since all but the most powerful emit most of their electro–magnetic output at γ–ray energies, while the very powerful blazars emit mostly in the hard X–ray region of the spectrum. Often they show coordinated variability at different frequencies, suggesting that in these cases the same population of electrons is at work, in a single zone of the jet. The location of this region along the jet is a matter of debate. The jet power correlates with the mass accretion rate, with jets existing at all values of disk luminosities, measured in Eddington units, sampled so far. The most powerful blazars show clear evidence of the emission from their disks, and this has revived methods of finding the black hole mass and accretion rate by modelling a disk spectrum to the data. Being so luminous, blazars can be detected also at very high redshift, and therefore are a useful tool to explore the far universe. One interesting line of research concerns how heavy are their black holes at high redshifts. If we associate the presence of a relativistic jets with a fastly spinning black hole, then we naively expect that the accretion efficiency is larger than for non–spinning holes. As a consequence, the black hole mass in jetted systems should grow at a slower rate. In turn, this would imply that, at high redshifts, the heaviest black holes should be in radio–quiet quasars. We instead have evidences of the opposite, challenging our simple ideas of how a black hole grows.
Garofalo, David
2017-07-01
The idea that black hole spin is instrumental in the generation of powerful jets in active galactic nuclei and X-ray binaries is arguably the most contentious claim in black hole astrophysics. Because jets are thought to originate in the context of electromagnetism, and the modeling of Maxwell fields in curved spacetime around black holes is challenging, various approximations are made in numerical simulations that fall under the guise of `ideal magnetohydrodynamics'. But the simplifications of this framework may struggle to capture relevant details of real astrophysical environments near black holes. In this work, we highlight tension between analytic and numerical results, specifically between the analytically derived conserved Noether currents for rotating black hole spacetimes and the results of general relativistic numerical simulations (GRMHD). While we cannot definitively attribute the issue to any specific approximation used in the numerical schemes, there seem to be natural candidates, which we explore. GRMHD notwithstanding, if electromagnetic fields around rotating black holes are brought to the hole by accretion, we show from first principles that prograde accreting disks likely experience weaker large-scale black hole-threading fields, implying weaker jets than in retrograde configurations.
Single-hole tunneling through a two-dimensional hole gas in intrinsic silicon
Spruijtenburg, P.C.; Ridderbos, Joost; Ridderbos, Joost; Mueller, Filipp; Müller, F.; Leenstra, Anne W.; Brauns, M.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Zwanenburg, Floris Arnoud
2013-01-01
In this letter we report single-hole tunneling through a quantum dot in a two-dimensional hole gas, situated in a narrow-channel field-effect transistor in intrinsic silicon. Two layers of aluminum gate electrodes are defined on Si/SiO2 using electron-beam lithography. Fabrication and subsequent
A New Cosmological Model: Black Hole Universe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang T. X.
2009-07-01
Full Text Available A new cosmological model called black hole universe is proposed. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient mate- rials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we are living, the outside called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer is infinite in radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. The relationships among all layers or universes can be connected by the universe family tree. Mathematically, the entire space can be represented as a set of all universes. A black hole universe is a subset of the en- tire space or a subspace. The child universes are null sets or empty spaces. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics - the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-walker metric of spacetime - and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. The entire life of a universe begins from the birth as a hot star-like or supermassive black hole, passes through the growth and cools down, and expands to the death with infinite large and zero mass density and absolute temperature. The black hole universe model is consistent with the Mach principle, the observations of the universe, and the Einstein general theory of relativity. Its various aspects can be understood with the well-developed physics without any difficulty. The dark energy is not required for the universe to accelerate its expansion. The inflation is not necessary because the black hole universe
Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc
2007-07-24
A striking property of an electric charge near a magnetic pole is that the system possesses angular momentum even when both the electric and the magnetic charges are at rest. The angular momentum is proportional to the product of the charges and independent of their distance. We analyze the effect of bringing gravitation into this remarkable system. To this end, we study an electric charge held at rest outside a magnetically charged black hole. We find that even if the electric charge is treated as a perturbation on a spherically symmetric magnetic Reissner-Nordstrom hole, the geometry at large distances is that of a magnetic Kerr-Newman black hole. When the charge approaches the horizon and crosses it, the exterior geometry becomes that of a Kerr-Newman hole, with electric and magnetic charges and with total angular momentum given by the standard value for a charged monopole pair. Thus, in accordance with the "no-hair theorem," once the charge is captured by the black hole, the angular momentum associated with the charge monopole system loses all traces of its exotic origin and is perceived from the outside as common rotation. It is argued that a similar analysis performed on Taub-NUT space should give the same result.
Black Hole Accretion in Gamma Ray Bursts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agnieszka Janiuk
2017-02-01
Full Text Available We study the structure and evolution of the hyperaccreting disks and outflows in the gamma ray bursts central engines. The torus around a stellar mass black hole is composed of free nucleons, Helium, electron-positron pairs, and is cooled by neutrino emission. Accretion of matter powers the relativistic jets, responsible for the gamma ray prompt emission. The significant number density of neutrons in the disk and outflowing material will cause subsequent formation of heavier nuclei. We study the process of nucleosynthesis and its possible observational consequences. We also apply our scenario to the recent observation of the gravitational wave signal, detected on 14 September 2015 by the two Advanced LIGO detectors, and related to an inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. A gamma ray burst that could possibly be related with the GW150914 event was observed by the Fermi satellite. It had a duration of about 1 s and appeared about 0.4 s after the gravitational-wave signal. We propose that a collapsing massive star and a black hole in a close binary could lead to the event. The gamma ray burst was powered by a weak neutrino flux produced in the star remnant’s matter. Low spin and kick velocity of the merged black hole are reproduced in our simulations. Coincident gravitational-wave emission originates from the merger of the collapsed core and the companion black hole.
The Geometry of Black Hole Singularities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ovidiu Cristinel Stoica
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Recent results show that important singularities in General Relativity can be naturally described in terms of finite and invariant canonical geometric objects. Consequently, one can write field equations which are equivalent to Einstein's at nonsingular points but, in addition remain well-defined and smooth at singularities. The black hole singularities appear to be less undesirable than it was thought, especially after we remove the part of the singularity due to the coordinate system. Black hole singularities are then compatible with global hyperbolicity and do not make the evolution equations break down, when these are expressed in terms of the appropriate variables. The charged black holes turn out to have smooth potential and electromagnetic fields in the new atlas. Classical charged particles can be modeled, in General Relativity, as charged black hole solutions. Since black hole singularities are accompanied by dimensional reduction, this should affect Feynman's path integrals. Therefore, it is expected that singularities induce dimensional reduction effects in Quantum Gravity. These dimensional reduction effects are very similar to those postulated in some approaches to make Quantum Gravity perturbatively renormalizable. This may provide a way to test indirectly the effects of singularities, otherwise inaccessible.
Hole expansion test of third generation steels
Agirre, Julen; Mendiguren, Joseba; Galdos, Lander; de Argandoña, Eneko Sáenz
2017-10-01
The trend towards the implementation of new materials in the chassis of the automobiles is considerably making more complex the manufacturing of the components that built it up. In this scenario materials with higher strengths and lower formabilities are daily faced by tool makers and component producers what reduces the process windows and makes the forming processes to be in the limits of the materials. One of the concerns that tool makers must face during the definition of the tools is the expansion ratios that the holes in the sheet may reach before producing a breakage due to the stretching of the material (also known as edge cracks). For the characterization of such limits, a standard test, the hole expansion test, can be applied so that the limits of the material are known. At the present study, hole expansion tests of a third generation steel, Fortiform1050 with a thickness of 1.2 millimeters have been carried out and compared them to a mild steel, DX54D with a thickness of 0.6 millimeters. A comparison for each material in terms of technology used to punch the hole, mechanical punching vs laser cutting has also been conducted. In addition, the measurement technique (online measurement vs offline measurement) followed in the Hole Expansion Ratio (HER) identification has also been analyzed. Finally, differences between both materials and techniques are presented.
BLACK HOLE FORAGING: FEEDBACK DRIVES FEEDING
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dehnen, Walter; King, Andrew, E-mail: wd11@leicester.ac.uk, E-mail: ark@astro.le.ac.uk [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)
2013-11-10
We suggest a new picture of supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth in galaxy centers. Momentum-driven feedback from an accreting hole gives significant orbital energy, but little angular momentum to the surrounding gas. Once central accretion drops, the feedback weakens and swept-up gas falls back toward the SMBH on near-parabolic orbits. These intersect near the black hole with partially opposed specific angular momenta, causing further infall and ultimately the formation of a small-scale accretion disk. The feeding rates into the disk typically exceed Eddington by factors of a few, growing the hole on the Salpeter timescale and stimulating further feedback. Natural consequences of this picture include (1) the formation and maintenance of a roughly toroidal distribution of obscuring matter near the hole; (2) random orientations of successive accretion disk episodes; (3) the possibility of rapid SMBH growth; (4) tidal disruption of stars and close binaries formed from infalling gas, resulting in visible flares and ejection of hypervelocity stars; (5) super-solar abundances of the matter accreting on to the SMBH; and (6) a lower central dark-matter density, and hence annihilation signal, than adiabatic SMBH growth implies. We also suggest a simple subgrid recipe for implementing this process in numerical simulations.
Phantom black holes and critical phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha [Engineering Faculty, Başkent University, Bağlıca Campus, Ankara (Turkey); Marques, Glauber T. [Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia ICIBE-LASIC, Av. Presidente Tancredo Neves 2501, CEP 66077-901—Belém/PA (Brazil); Rodrigues, Manuel E., E-mail: azreg@baskent.edu.tr, E-mail: gtadaiesky@hotmail.com, E-mail: esialg@gmail.com [Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Pará, Campus Universitário de Abaetetuba, CEP 68440-000, Abaetetuba, Pará (Brazil)
2014-07-01
We consider the two classes cosh and sinh of normal and phantom black holes of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. The thermodynamics of these holes is characterized by heat capacities that may have both signs depending on the parameters of the theory. Leaving aside the normal Reissner-Nordström black hole, it is shown that only some phantom black holes of both classes exhibit critical phenomena. The two classes share a nonextremality, but special, critical point where the transition is continuous and the heat capacity, at constant charge, changes sign with an infinite discontinuity. This point yields a classification scheme for critical points. It is concluded that the two unstable and stable phases coexist on one side of the criticality state and disappear on the other side, that is, there is no configuration where only one phase exists. The sinh class has an extremality critical point where the entropy diverges. The transition from extremality to nonextremality with the charge held constant is accompanied by a loss of mass and an increase in the temperature. A special case of this transition is when the hole is isolated (microcanonical ensemble), it will evolve by emission of energy, which results in a decrease of its mass, to the final state of minimum mass and vanishing heat capacity. The Ehrenfest scheme of classification is inaccurate in this case but the generalized one due to Hilfer leads to conclude that the transition is of order less than unity. Fluctuations near criticality are also investigated.
Type-II superlattice hole effective masses
Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Gunapala, Sarath D.
2017-08-01
A long wavelength infrared (LWIR) type-II superlattice (T2SL) is typically characterized by a very large valence-band-edge curvature effective mass, which is often assumed to lead to poor hole mobility. A detailed examination of the LWIR T2SL heavy-hole 1 (hh1) band structure reveals that a hole with non-zero in-plane momentum (k‖ ≠ 0) can move with a much larger group velocity component along the growth direction than one at the band edge (k‖ = 0), and that the hh1 miniband width can exhibit a very strong dependence on the in-plane wavevector k‖ . To distill the band structure effects relevant to hole transport into a simple quantity, we describe a formulation for computing the thermally averaged conductivity effective mass. We show that the LWIR T2SL hole conductivity effective masses along the growth direction can be orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding band-edge curvature effective masses. We compare the conductivities effective masses of InAs/GaSb T2SL and InAs/InAsSb T2SL grown pseudomorphically on GaSb substrate, as well as the metamorphic bulk InAsSb and InAs/InAsSb T2SL.
Black holes in the early Universe.
Volonteri, Marta; Bellovary, Jillian
2012-12-01
The existence of massive black holes (MBHs) was postulated in the 1960s, when the first quasars were discovered. In the late 1990s their reality was proven beyond doubt in the Milky way and a handful nearby galaxies. Since then, enormous theoretical and observational efforts have been made to understand the astrophysics of MBHs. We have discovered that some of the most massive black holes known, weighing billions of solar masses, powered luminous quasars within the first billion years of the Universe. The first MBHs must therefore have formed around the time the first stars and galaxies formed. Dynamical evidence also indicates that black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses ordinarily dwell in the centers of today's galaxies. MBHs populate galaxy centers today, and shone as quasars in the past; the quiescent black holes that we detect now in nearby bulges are the dormant remnants of this fiery past. In this review we report on basic, but critical, questions regarding the cosmological significance of MBHs. What physical mechanisms led to the formation of the first MBHs? How massive were the initial MBH seeds? When and where did they form? How is the growth of black holes linked to that of their host galaxy? The answers to most of these questions are works in progress, in the spirit of these reports on progress in physics.
The theory of optical black hole lasers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaona-Reyes, José L., E-mail: jgaona@fis.cinvestav.mx; Bermudez, David, E-mail: dbermudez@fis.cinvestav.mx
2017-05-15
The event horizon of black holes and white holes can be achieved in the context of analogue gravity. It was proven for a sonic case that if these two horizons are close to each other their dynamics resemble a laser, a black hole laser, where the analogue of Hawking radiation is trapped and amplified. Optical analogues are also very successful and a similar system can be achieved there. In this work we develop the theory of optical black hole lasers and prove that the amplification is also possible. Then, we study the optical system by determining the forward propagation of modes, obtaining an approximation for the phase difference which governs the amplification, and performing numerical simulations of the pulse propagation of our system. - Highlights: • We develop the conditions to obtain the kinematics of the optical black hole laser. • We prove the amplification of Hawking radiation for the optical case. • We derive the forward propagation of modes and check the result of the backward case. • A model is proposed to calculate the phase difference and the amplification rate. • We perform numerical simulations of a pulse between two solitons forming a cavity.
Resonance spectra of caged black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)
2014-11-15
Recent numerical studies of the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon system in a cavity have provided compelling evidence that confined scalar fields generically collapse to form black holes. Motivated by this intriguing discovery, we here use analytical tools in order to study the characteristic resonance spectra of the confined fields. These discrete resonant frequencies are expected to dominate the late-time dynamics of the coupled black-hole-field-cage system. We consider caged Reissner-Nordstroem black holes whose confining mirrors are placed in the near-horizon region x{sub m} ≡ (r{sub m} - r{sub +})/r{sub +} << τ ≡ (r{sub +} - r{sub -})/r{sub +} (here r{sub m} is the radius of the confining mirror and r{sub ±} are the radii of the black-hole horizons). We obtain a simple analytical expression for the fundamental quasinormal resonances of the coupled blackhole- field-cage system: ω{sub n} = -2πT{sub BH}.n [1 + O(x{sub m}{sup n}/τ{sup n})], where T{sub BH} is the temperature of the caged black hole and n = 1, 2, 3,.. is the resonance parameter. (orig.)
Asymmetric interiors for small black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kabat, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College,City University of New York, Bronx NY 10468 (United States); Lifschytz, Gilad [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Science,University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel)
2016-08-16
We develop the representation of infalling observers and bulk fields in the CFT as a way to understand the black hole interior in AdS. We first discuss properties of CFT states which are dual to black holes. We then show that in the presence of a Killing horizon bulk fields can be decomposed into pieces we call ingoing and outgoing. The ingoing field admits a simple operator representation in the CFT, even inside a small black hole at late times, which leads to a simple CFT description of infalling geodesics. This means classical infalling observers will experience the classical geometry in the interior. The outgoing piece of the field is more subtle. In an eternal two-sided geometry it can be represented as an operator on the left CFT. In a stable one-sided geometry it can be described using entanglement via the PR construction. But in an evaporating black hole trans-horizon entanglement breaks down at the Page time, which means that for old black holes the PR construction fails and the outgoing field does not see local geometry. This picture of the interior allows the CFT to reconcile unitary Hawking evaporation with the classical experience of infalling observers.
Black Hole Astrophysics The Engine Paradigm
Meier, David L
2012-01-01
As a result of significant research over the past 20 years, black holes are now linked to some of the most spectacular and exciting phenomena in the Universe, ranging in size from those that have the same mass as stars to the super-massive objects that lie at the heart of most galaxies, including our own Milky Way. This book first introduces the properties of simple isolated holes, then adds in complications like rotation, accretion, radiation, and magnetic fields, finally arriving at a basic understanding of how these immense engines work. Black Hole Astrophysics • reviews our current knowledge of cosmic black holes and how they generate the most powerful observed pheonomena in the Universe; • highlights the latest, most up-to-date theories and discoveries in this very active area of astrophysical research; • demonstrates why we believe that black holes are responsible for important phenomena such as quasars, microquasars and gammaray bursts; • explains to the reader the nature of the violent and spe...
Hole-doped cuprate high temperature superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chu, C.W.; Deng, L.Z.; Lv, B.
2015-07-15
Highlights: • Historical discoveries of hole-doped cuprates and representative milestone work. • Several simple and universal scaling laws of the hole-doped cuprates. • A comprehensive classification list with references for hole-doped cuprates. • Representative physical parameters for selected hole-doped cuprates. - Abstract: Hole-doped cuprate high temperature superconductors have ushered in the modern era of high temperature superconductivity (HTS) and have continued to be at center stage in the field. Extensive studies have been made, many compounds discovered, voluminous data compiled, numerous models proposed, many review articles written, and various prototype devices made and tested with better performance than their nonsuperconducting counterparts. The field is indeed vast. We have therefore decided to focus on the major cuprate materials systems that have laid the foundation of HTS science and technology and present several simple scaling laws that show the systematic and universal simplicity amid the complexity of these material systems, while referring readers interested in the HTS physics and devices to the review articles. Developments in the field are mostly presented in chronological order, sometimes with anecdotes, in an attempt to share some of the moments of excitement and despair in the history of HTS with readers, especially the younger ones.
Stationary black holes with stringy hair
Boos, Jens; Frolov, Valeri P.
2018-01-01
We discuss properties of black holes which are pierced by special configurations of cosmic strings. For static black holes, we consider radial strings in the limit when the number of strings grows to infinity while the tension of each single string tends to zero. In a properly taken limit, the stress-energy tensor of the string distribution is finite. We call such matter stringy matter. We present a solution of the Einstein equations for an electrically charged static black hole with the stringy matter, with and without a cosmological constant. This solution is a warped product of two metrics. One of them is a deformed 2-sphere, whose Gaussian curvature is determined by the energy density of the stringy matter. We discuss the embedding of a corresponding distorted sphere into a three-dimensional Euclidean space and formulate consistency conditions. We also found a relation between the square of the Weyl tensor invariant of the four-dimensional spacetime of the stringy black holes and the energy density of the stringy matter. In the second part of the paper, we discuss test stationary strings in the Kerr geometry and in its Kerr-NUT-(anti-)de Sitter generalizations. Explicit solutions for strings that are regular at the event horizon are obtained. Using these solutions, the stress-energy tensor of the stringy matter in these geometries is calculated. Extraction of the angular momentum from rotating black holes by such strings is also discussed.
'RAT' Hole on 'Pilbara' (post-RAT)
2004-01-01
The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity broke its own record for the deepest hole ground into a rock on another planet with a 7.2-millimeter (about 0.28-inch) grind on the rock 'Pilbara,' on the rover's 86th sol on Mars. This image is a panoramic camera picture highlighting the hole left by the rock abrasion tool after two hours and 16 minutes of grinding. The hole is 7.2 millimeters (about 0.28 inches) deep and 4.5 centimeters (about 1.8 inches) in diameter. The tool swept the hole clean after grinding, leaving the ring of cuttings around the hole. When this image was taken, the abraded area was mostly shaded by the rover, with the sun peeking through the joint that connects the front solar panel to the body of the rover. The team has developed a new approach to commanding the rock abrasion tool that allows for more aggressive grinding parameters. The tool is now programmed, in the event of a stall, to retreat from its target and attempt to grind again. This allows the grinder to essentially reset itself instead of aborting its sequence altogether and waiting for further commands from rover planners.
Black Hole Hunters Set New Distance Record
2010-01-01
Astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have detected, in another galaxy, a stellar-mass black hole much farther away than any other previously known. With a mass above fifteen times that of the Sun, this is also the second most massive stellar-mass black hole ever found. It is entwined with a star that will soon become a black hole itself. The stellar-mass black holes [1] found in the Milky Way weigh up to ten times the mass of the Sun and are certainly not be taken lightly, but, outside our own galaxy, they may just be minor-league players, since astronomers have found another black hole with a mass over fifteen times the mass of the Sun. This is one of only three such objects found so far. The newly announced black hole lies in a spiral galaxy called NGC 300, six million light-years from Earth. "This is the most distant stellar-mass black hole ever weighed, and it's the first one we've seen outside our own galactic neighbourhood, the Local Group," says Paul Crowther, Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Sheffield and lead author of the paper reporting the study. The black hole's curious partner is a Wolf-Rayet star, which also has a mass of about twenty times as much as the Sun. Wolf-Rayet stars are near the end of their lives and expel most of their outer layers into their surroundings before exploding as supernovae, with their cores imploding to form black holes. In 2007, an X-ray instrument aboard NASA's Swift observatory scrutinised the surroundings of the brightest X-ray source in NGC 300 discovered earlier with the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory. "We recorded periodic, extremely intense X-ray emission, a clue that a black hole might be lurking in the area," explains team member Stefania Carpano from ESA. Thanks to new observations performed with the FORS2 instrument mounted on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have confirmed their earlier hunch. The new data show that the black hole and the Wolf-Rayet star dance
Regular Magnetic Black Hole Gravitational Lensing
Liang, Jun
2017-05-01
The Bronnikov regular magnetic black hole as a gravitational lens is studied. In nonlinear electrodynamics, photons do not follow null geodesics of background geometry, but move along null geodesics of a corresponding effective geometry. To study the Bronnikov regular magnetic black hole gravitational lensing in the strong deflection limit, the corresponding effective geometry should be obtained firstly. This is the most important and key step. We obtain the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, and further calculate the angular positions and magnifications of relativistic images as well as the time delay between different relativistic images. The influence of the magnetic charge on the black hole gravitational lensing is also discussed. Supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Education Department of Shannxi Province under Grant No 15JK1077, and the Doctorial Scientific Research Starting Fund of Shannxi University of Science and Technology under Grant No BJ12-02.
Fundamental Dynamics of Black Hole Physics
Haramein, Nassim
2002-04-01
The dynamics of rotating, charged black holes, obeying the Kerr-Newman metric is presented. These dynamical high-density, gravitationally collapsing, black hole systems for stellar, galactic, intergalactic and cosmogenesis appear to obey similar constraints on their mass, apparent density and radius. Under these extreme conditions, the gravitational force becomes "balanced" with the larger coupling constant of the electromagnetic force. Thus, the gravitational attraction forms dynamic pseudo equilibrium with the plasma dynamics surrounding the black holes. Thermodynamic-type processes occupy a role in energy transfer between gravitational attraction and electro-dynamic repulsion. Solving the modified Einstein-Maxwell's equations under high magnetic field conditions, with additional thermodynamic conditions, leads to a good description of the processes occurring externally, near and in the event horizons of the Kerr-Newman geometry and leads to a unification possibility. Reference; N. Haramein, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. AB06, 1154(2001)
Electron-positron outflow from black holes.
van Putten, M H
2000-04-24
Cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) appear as the brightest transient phenomena in the Universe. The nature of their central engine is a missing link in the theory of fireballs to stellar mass progenitors, and may be associated with low mass black holes. In contact with an external magnetic field B, black hole spin produces a gravitational potential on the wave function of charged particles. We show that a rapidly rotating black hole of mass M produces outflow from initially electrostatic equilibrium with normalized isotropic emission approximately 10(48)(B/B(c))(2)(M/7M)(2)sin (2) theta erg/s, where B(c) = 4.4x10(13) G. The half-opening angle satisfies theta >or = square root[B(c)/3B]. The outflow proposed as input to GRB fireball models.
Thermodynamics of regular accelerating black holes
Astorino, Marco
2017-03-01
Using the covariant phase space formalism, we compute the conserved charges for a solution, describing an accelerating and electrically charged Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. The metric is regular provided that the acceleration is driven by an external electric field, in spite of the usual string of the standard C-metric. The Smarr formula and the first law of black hole thermodynamics are fulfilled. The resulting mass has the same form of the Christodoulou-Ruffini irreducible mass. On the basis of these results, we can extrapolate the mass and thermodynamics of the rotating C-metric, which describes a Kerr-Newman-(A)dS black hole accelerated by a pulling string.
Phases of Kaluza-Klein Black Holes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harmark, Troels; Obers, N. A.
2005-01-01
We review the latest progress in understanding the phase structure of static and neutral Kaluza-Klein black holes, i.e. static and neutral solutions of pure gravity with an event horizon that asymptote to a d-dimensional Minkowski-space times a circle. We start by reviewing the (mu,n) phase diagram...... and the split-up of the phase structure into solutions with an internal SO(d-1) symmetry and solutions with Kaluza-Klein bubbles. We then discuss the uniform black string, non-uniform black string and localized black hole phases, and how those three phases are connected, involving issues such as classical...... instability and horizon-topology changing transitions. Finally, we review the bubble-black hole sequences, their place in the phase structure and interesting aspects such as the continuously infinite non-uniqueness of solutions for a given mass and relative tension....
Black holes thermodynamics, information, and firewalls
Mann, Robert B
2015-01-01
This book reflects the resurgence of interest in the quantum properties of black holes, culminating most recently in controversial discussions about firewalls. On the thermodynamic side, it describes how new developments allowed the inclusion of pressure/volume terms in the first law, leading to a new understanding of black holes as chemical systems, experiencing novel phenomena such as triple points and reentrant phase transitions. On the quantum-information side, the reader learns how basic arguments undergirding quantum complementarity have been shown to be flawed; and how this suggests that a black hole may surround itself with a firewall: a violent and chaotic region of highly excited states. In this thorough and pedagogical treatment, Robert Mann traces these new developments from their roots to our present-day understanding, highlighting their relationships and the challenges they present for quantum gravity.
Black hole chromosphere at the CERN LHC
Anchordoqui, L A; Anchordoqui, Luis; Goldberg, Haim
2003-01-01
If the scale of quantum gravity is near a TeV, black holes will be copiously produced at the LHC. In this work we study the main properties of the light descendants of these black holes. We show that the emitted partons are closely spaced outside the horizon, and hence they do not fragment into hadrons in vacuum but more likely in a kind of quark-gluon plasma. Consequently, the thermal emission occurs far from the horizon, at a temperature characteristic of the QCD scale. We analyze the energy spectrum of the particles emerging from the "chromosphere", and find that the hard hadronic jets are completely suppressed. They are replaced by an isotropic distribution of soft photons and hadrons, with hundreds of particles in the GeV range. This provides a new distinctive signature for black hole events at LHC.
The RIT binary black hole simulations catalog
Healy, James; Lousto, Carlos O.; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela
2017-11-01
The RIT numerical relativity group is releasing a public catalog of black-hole-binary waveforms. The initial release of the catalog consists of 126 recent simulations that include precessing and nonprecessing systems with mass ratios q=m_1/m2 in the range 1/6≤slant q≤slant1 . The catalog contains information about the initial data of the simulation, the waveforms extrapolated to infinity, as well as information about the peak luminosity and final remnant black hole properties. These waveforms can be used to independently interpret gravitational wave signals from laser interferometric detectors and the remnant properties to model the merger of black-hole binaries from initial configurations.
Scalar fields in black hole spacetimes
Thuestad, Izak; Khanna, Gaurav; Price, Richard H.
2017-07-01
The time evolution of matter fields in black hole exterior spacetimes is a well-studied subject, spanning several decades of research. However, the behavior of fields in the black hole interior spacetime has only relatively recently begun receiving some attention from the research community. In this paper, we numerically study the late-time evolution of scalar fields in both Schwarzschild and Kerr spacetimes, including the black hole interior. We recover the expected late-time power-law "tails" on the exterior (null infinity, timelike infinity, and the horizon). In the interior region, we find an interesting oscillatory behavior that is characterized by the multipole index ℓ of the scalar field. In addition, we also study the extremal Kerr case and find strong indications of an instability developing at the horizon.
Cosmological and black hole apparent horizons
Faraoni, Valerio
2015-01-01
This book overviews the extensive literature on apparent cosmological and black hole horizons. In theoretical gravity, dynamical situations such as gravitational collapse, black hole evaporation, and black holes interacting with non-trivial environments, as well as the attempts to model gravitational waves occurring in highly dynamical astrophysical processes, require that the concept of event horizon be generalized. Inequivalent notions of horizon abound in the technical literature and are discussed in this manuscript. The book begins with a quick review of basic material in the first one and a half chapters, establishing a unified notation. Chapter 2 reminds the reader of the basic tools used in the analysis of horizons and reviews the various definitions of horizons appearing in the literature. Cosmological horizons are the playground in which one should take baby steps in understanding horizon physics. Chapter 3 analyzes cosmological horizons, their proposed thermodynamics, and several coordinate systems....
Thermodynamics of higher dimensional black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Accetta, F.S.; Gleiser, M.
1986-05-01
We discuss the thermodynamics of higher dimensional black holes with particular emphasis on a new class of spinning black holes which, due to the increased number of Casimir invariants, have additional spin degrees of freedom. In suitable limits, analytic solutions in arbitrary dimensions are presented for their temperature, entropy, and specific heat. In 5 + 1 and 9 + 1 dimensions, more general forms for these quantities are given. It is shown that the specific heat for a higher dimensional black hole is negative definite if it has only one non-zero spin parameter, regardless of the value of this parameter. We also consider equilibrium configurations with both massless particles and massive string modes. 16 refs., 3 figs.
Massive Black Hole Implicated in Stellar Destruction
2010-01-01
New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Magellan telescopes suggest that a dense stellar remnant has been ripped apart by a black hole a thousand times as massive as the Sun. If confirmed, this discovery would be a cosmic double play: it would be strong evidence for an intermediate mass black hole, which has been a hotly debated topic, and would mark the first time such a black hole has been caught tearing a star apart. This scenario is based on Chandra observations, which revealed an unusually luminous source of X-rays in a dense cluster of old stars, and optical observations that showed a peculiar mix of elements associated with the X-ray emission. Taken together, a case can be made that the X-ray emission is produced by debris from a disrupted white dwarf star that is heated as it falls towards a massive black hole. The optical emission comes from debris further out that is illuminated by these X-rays. The intensity of the X-ray emission places the source in the "ultraluminous X-ray source" or ULX category, meaning that it is more luminous than any known stellar X-ray source, but less luminous than the bright X-ray sources (active galactic nuclei) associated with supermassive black holes in the nuclei of galaxies. The nature of ULXs is a mystery, but one suggestion is that some ULXs are black holes with masses between about a hundred and several thousand times that of the Sun, a range intermediate between stellar-mass black holes and supermassive black holes located in the nuclei of galaxies. This ULX is in a globular cluster, a very old and crowded conglomeration of stars. Astronomers have suspected that globular clusters could contain intermediate-mass black holes, but conclusive evidence for this has been elusive. "Astronomers have made cases for stars being torn apart by supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies before, but this is the first good evidence for such an event in a globular cluster," said Jimmy Irwin of the University
Statistical Entropy of Schwarzschild Black Holes
Englert, F
1998-01-01
The entropy of a seven dimensional Schwarzschild black hole of arbitrary large radius is obtained by a mapping onto a near extremal self-dual three-brane whose partition function can be evaluated. The three-brane arises from duality after submitting a neutral blackbrane, from which the Schwarzschild black hole can be obtained by compactification, to an infinite boost in non compact eleven dimensional space-time and then to a Kaluza-Klein compactification. This limit can be defined in precise terms and yields the Beckenstein-Hawking value up to a factor of order one which can be set to be exactly one with the extra assumption of keeping only transverse brane excitations. The method can be generalized to five and four dimensional black holes.
Counting Schwarzschild and Charged Black Holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rajaraman, Arvind
2003-05-23
We review the arguments that fundamental string states are in one to one correspondence with black hole states. We demonstrate the power of the assumption by showing that it implies that the statistical entropy of a wide class of nonextreme black holes occurring in string theory is proportional to the horizon area. However, the numerical coefficient relating the area and entropy only agrees with the Bekenstein-Hawking formula if the central charge of the string is six which does not correspond to any known string theory. Unlike the current D-brane methods the method used in this paper is applicable for the case of Schwarzschild and highly non-extreme charged black holes.
Slim hole drilling and testing strategies
Nielson, Dennis L.; Garg, Sabodh K.; Goranson, Colin
2017-12-01
The financial and geologic advantages of drilling slim holes instead of large production wells in the early stages of geothermal reservoir assessment has been understood for many years. However, the practice has not been fully embraced by geothermal developers. We believe that the reason for this is that there is a poor understanding of testing and reservoir analysis that can be conducted in slim holes. In addition to reservoir engineering information, coring through the cap rock and into the reservoir provides important data for designing subsequent production well drilling and completion. Core drilling requires significantly less mud volume than conventional rotary drilling, and it is typically not necessary to cure lost circulation zones (LCZ). LCZs should be tested by either production or injection methods as they are encountered. The testing methodologies are similar to those conducted on large-diameter wells; although produced and/or injected fluid volumes are much less. Pressure, temperature and spinner (PTS) surveys in slim holes under static conditions can used to characterize temperature and pressure distribution in the geothermal reservoir. In many cases it is possible to discharge slim holes and obtain fluid samples to delineate the geochemical properties of the reservoir fluid. Also in the latter case, drawdown and buildup data obtained using a downhole pressure tool can be employed to determine formation transmissivity and well properties. Even if it proves difficult to discharge a slim hole, an injection test can be performed to obtain formation transmissivity. Given the discharge (or injection) data from a slimhole, discharge properties of a large-diameter well can be inferred using wellbore modeling. Finally, slim hole data (pressure, temperature, transmissivity, fluid properties) together with reservoir simulation can help predict the ability of the geothermal reservoir to sustain power production.
Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes.
Petermann, Jana S; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gossner, Martin M
2016-01-01
Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and
Hole fluids for deep ice core drilling
Talalay, P.G.; Gundestrup, N.S.
2002-01-01
This paper is based on the data published in research report of P. G. Talalay and N. S. Gundestrup; Hole fluids for deep ice core drilling : A review. Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, 1999,120p. In the practice of deep ice core drilling only three types of bore-hole fluids have been used : 1) petroleum oil products (fuels or solvents) containing densifier, 2) aqueous ethylene glycol or ethanol solutions, 3) n-butyl acetate. The main parameters of drilling fluids are 1) density and fluid top...
Tidal forces in Kiselev black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shahzad, M.U. [University of Central Punjab, CAMS, UCP Business School, Lahore (Pakistan); Jawad, Abdul [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)
2017-06-15
The aim of this paper is to examine the tidal forces occurring in a Kiselev black hole surrounded by radiation and dust fluids. It is noted that the radial and angular components of the tidal force change the sign between event and Cauchy horizons. We solve the geodesic deviation equation for radially free-falling bodies toward Kiselev black holes. We explain the geodesic deviation vector graphically and point out the location of the event and Cauchy horizons for specific values of the radiation and dust parameters. (orig.)
Dynamics of Black Holes in Rotating Cores
Fiestas, Jose A.; Spurzem, Rainer
2010-05-01
We study the dynamical interaction between stars surrounding black holes in self-gravitating galaxy cores by using realistic N-body techniques, calibrated by Fokker-Planck approximated models (Fiestas, Spurzem, & Kim 2006). We study the evolution over the relaxation time (collisional nuclei) of non-spherical (triaxial) models as flattening of the system due to rotation is allowed. We follow the interplay between velocity diffusion due to relaxation and black hole star accretion and study accretion rates and cusp formation in spherically symmetric and axisymmetric models.
Constructing black hole entropy from gravitational collapse
Acquaviva, Giovanni; Goswami, Rituparno; Hamid, Aymen I M
2016-01-01
Based on a recent proposal for the gravitational entropy of free gravitational fields, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of black hole formation through gravitational collapse in the framework of the semitetrad 1+1+2 covariant formalism. In the simplest case of an Oppenheimer-Snyder-Datt collapse we prove that the change in gravitational entropy outside a collapsing body is related to the variation of the surface area of the body itself, even before the formation of horizons. As a result, we are able to relate the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black hole endstate to the variation of the vacuum gravitational entropy outside the collapsing body.
Constructing black hole entropy from gravitational collapse
Acquaviva, Giovanni; Goswami, Rituparno; Hamid, Aymen I M
2014-01-01
Based on a recent proposal for the gravitational entropy of free gravitational fields, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of black hole formation through gravitational collapse in the framework of the semitetrad 1+1+2 covariant formalism. In the simplest case of an Oppenheimer-Snyder-Datt collapse we prove that the change in gravitational entropy outside a collapsing body is related to the variation of the surface area of the body itself, even before the formation of horizons. As a result, we are able to relate the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black hole endstate to the variation of the vacuum gravitational entropy outside the collapsing body.
Gowdy Cosmological Models from Stringy Black Holes
Cisneros-Perez, Tzihue; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Mejia-Ambriz, Julio Cesar; Rojas-Macias, Violeta
2006-01-01
In the framework of 4D Einstein-Maxwell Dilaton-Axion theory we show how to obtain a family of both unpolarized and polarized S^1XS^2 Gowdy cosmological models endowed with nontrivial axion, dilaton and electromagnetic fields from a solitonic rotating black hole-type solution by interchanging the r and t coordinates in the region located between the horizons of the black hole configuration. We also get a family of Kantowski-Sachs cosmologies with topology R^1XS^2 from the polarized Gowdy cosm...
Phases of Kaluza-Klein black holes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elvang, Henriette; Obers, Niels; Harmark, Troels
2004-01-01
We review the latest progress in understanding the phase structure of static and neutral Kaluza-Klein black holes, i.e. static and neutral solutions of pure gravity with an event horizon and with asymptotics Md × S1, Md being d-dimensional Minkowski space.......We review the latest progress in understanding the phase structure of static and neutral Kaluza-Klein black holes, i.e. static and neutral solutions of pure gravity with an event horizon and with asymptotics Md × S1, Md being d-dimensional Minkowski space....
Local Operators in the Eternal Black Hole.
Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat
2015-11-20
In the AdS/CFT correspondence, states obtained by Hamiltonian evolution of the thermofield doubled state are also dual to an eternal black-hole geometry, which is glued to the boundary with a time shift generated by a large diffeomorphism. We describe gauge-invariant relational observables that probe the black hole interior in these states and constrain their properties using effective field theory. By adapting recent versions of the information paradox we show that these observables are necessarily described by state-dependent bulk-boundary maps, which we construct explicitly.
Local Operators in the Eternal Black Hole
Papadodimas, Kyriakos
2015-01-01
We show that, in the AdS/CFT correspondence, states obtained by Hamiltonian evolution of the thermofield doubled state are also dual to an eternal black hole geometry, which is glued to the boundary with a time shift generated by a large diffeomorphism. We describe gauge invariant relational observables that probe the black hole interior in these states and constrain their properties using effective field theory. By adapting recent versions of the information paradox we show that these observables are necessarily described by state-dependent bulk-boundary maps, which we construct explicitly.
Photoluminescence of hole centers in olivine crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakhtin, A.I.; Denisov, I.G.; Lopatin, O.N. [Kazan State University (Russian Federation)
1995-11-01
The intracenter luminescence of O{sup {minus}} hole centers is first detected in olivine crystals. The holes are shown to be localized at the three structural different oxygens of SiO{sub 4} and AlO{sub 4} tetrahedra. This explains the three-component structure of the luminescence band (420-470 nm) and of its excitation band (340-390). The energy level diagram of the O{sup {minus}} center in olivine crystals is constructed and the electronic transitions corresponding to its excitation and luminescence are shown. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Fourier Analysis of the BTZ Black Hole
Tolfree, Ian M.
2009-01-01
In this paper we extend our previous work regarding the role of the Fourier transformation in bulk to boundary mappings to include the BTZ black hole. We follow standard procedures for modifying Fourier Transformations to accommodate quotient spaces and arrive at a bulk to boundary mapping in a black hole background. We show that this mapping is consistent with known results and lends a new insight into the AdS/CFT duality. We find that the micro-states corresponding to the entropy of a bulk ...
The Antarctic Ozone Hole: An Update
Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.; Solomon, Susan
2014-01-01
The stratospheric ozone hole, an annual occurrence during austral spring, is caused by heterogeneous conversion of hydrogen chloride and chlorine nitrate to chlorine radicals. These reactions take place of polar stratospheric cloud particles in the cold, isolate Antarctic winter vortex. The chlorine radicals participate in chemical reactions that rapidly deplete ozone when sunlight returns at the end of polar night. International agreements eliminated production of the culprit anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons in the late 1990s, but due to their long stratospheric lifetime (50-100 years), the ozone hole will continue its annual appearance for years to come.
Quantum corrections to Schwarzschild black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calmet, Xavier; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom)
2017-04-15
Using effective field theory techniques, we compute quantum corrections to spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's gravity and focus in particular on the Schwarzschild black hole. Quantum modifications are covariantly encoded in a non-local effective action. We work to quadratic order in curvatures simultaneously taking local and non-local corrections into account. Looking for solutions perturbatively close to that of classical general relativity, we find that an eternal Schwarzschild black hole remains a solution and receives no quantum corrections up to this order in the curvature expansion. In contrast, the field of a massive star receives corrections which are fully determined by the effective field theory. (orig.)
Black holes in higher derivative gravity.
Lü, H; Perkins, A; Pope, C N; Stelle, K S
2015-05-01
Extensions of Einstein gravity with higher-order derivative terms arise in string theory and other effective theories, as well as being of interest in their own right. In this Letter we study static black-hole solutions in the example of Einstein gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. A Lichnerowicz-type theorem simplifies the analysis by establishing that they must have vanishing Ricci scalar curvature. By numerical methods we then demonstrate the existence of further black-hole solutions over and above the Schwarzschild solution. We discuss some of their thermodynamic properties, and show that they obey the first law of thermodynamics.
CHARYBDIS: A Black Hole Event Generator
Harris, C M; Webber, Bryan R
2003-01-01
CHARYBDIS is an event generator which simulates the production and decay of miniature black holes at hadronic colliders as might be possible in certain extra dimension models. It interfaces via the Les Houches accord to general purpose Monte Carlo programs like HERWIG and PYTHIA which then perform the parton evolution and hadronization. The event generator includes the extra-dimensional `grey-body' effects as well as the change in the temperature of the black hole as the decay progresses. Various options for modelling the Planck-scale terminal decay are provided.
Charged black holes in colored Lifshitz spacetimes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhong-Ying Fan
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We consider Einstein gravities coupled to a cosmological constant and SU(2 Yang–Mills fields in four and five dimensions. We find that the theories admit colored Lifshitz solutions with dynamic exponents z>1. We study the wave equations of the SU(2 scalar triplet in the bulk, and find that the vacuum color modifies the scaling dimensions of the dual operators. We also introduce a Maxwell field and construct exact solutions of electrically-charged black holes that approach the D=4, z=3 and D=5, z=4 colored Lifshitz spacetimes. We derive the thermodynamical first law for general colored and charged Lifshitz black holes.
Exact formation of hairy planar black holes
Fan, Zhong-Ying; Chen, Bin
2015-01-01
We consider Einstein gravity minimally coupled to a scalar field with a given potential in general dimensions. We obtain large classes of static hairy planar black holes which are asymptotic to AdS space-times. In particular, for a special case $\\mu=(n-2)/2$, we obtain new classes of exact dynamical solutions describing black holes formation. We find there are two classes of collapse solutions. The first class solutions describe the evolution start from AdS space-time with a naked singularity...
Horizon quantum mechanics of rotating black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casadio, Roberto [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, I.S. FLAG, Bologna (Italy); Giugno, Andrea [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Munich (Germany); Giusti, Andrea [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, I.S. FLAG, Bologna (Italy); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Munich (Germany); Micu, Octavian [Institute of Space Science, Bucharest, P.O. Box MG-23, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)
2017-05-15
The horizon quantum mechanics is an approach that was previously introduced in order to analyze the gravitational radius of spherically symmetric systems and compute the probability that a given quantum state is a black hole. In this work, we first extend the formalism to general space-times with asymptotic (ADM) mass and angular momentum. We then apply the extended horizon quantum mechanics to a harmonic model of rotating corpuscular black holes. We find that simple configurations of this model naturally suppress the appearance of the inner horizon and seem to disfavor extremal (macroscopic) geometries. (orig.)
Weighing Supermassive Black Holes with EXIST
Coppi, Paolo S.; Pappadakis, I.; ScienceTeam, EXIST
2009-12-01
The EXIST mission concept features a wide field of view telescope that scans the full sky every two orbits at hard X-ray energies (5-600 keV) as well as a high resolution (R 3000) near infrared/optical spectrograph that can be quickly slewed to new targets. These two instruments will enable us to extend supermassive black hole timing studies (reverberation mapping and power spectrum break determination) from the current sample of 30 objects to well over 300, including highly obscured ones. We present examples of the direct black hole mass determinations such studies will enable.
The effect of holes quality on fatigue life of open hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, J.; Shao, X.J.; Liu, Y.J.; Liu, Y.S. [School of Mechanics, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Yue, Z.F. [School of Mechanics, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)], E-mail: zfyue@nwpu.edu.cn
2007-10-15
In this paper, a series of study were conducted on the effect of hole quality on the fatigue life of open holes in 2A12-T4 aircraft quality aluminum alloy. Four metrics that can define holes quality are analyzed. They are roughness, verticality, cylindricity and roundness. Firstly, open holes with different roughness were fatigue tested under constant amplitude remote tensile load and post-failure investigations were performed by scanning electron microscope. Further, the effects of another three metrics on the stress distributions around the holes have been studied by the finite element method (FEM). The fatigue lives are determined based on the stress distributions by the method of nominal stress approach. The results show that the fatigue lives of open holes are dependent on the holes quality. For these four metrics, the fatigue lives decrease with the increasing of the values of the tolerance of these metrics. At last, empirical equations that relate these four metrics to fatigue lives were established by linear regression method.
Simulations of jets driven by black hole rotation.
Semenov, Vladimir; Dyadechkin, Sergey; Punsly, Brian
2004-08-13
The origin of jets emitted from black holes is not well understood; however, there are two possible energy sources: the accretion disk or the rotating black hole. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations show a well-defined jet that extracts energy from a black hole. If plasma near the black hole is threaded by large-scale magnetic flux, it will rotate with respect to asymptotic infinity, creating large magnetic stresses. These stresses are released as a relativistic jet at the expense of black hole rotational energy. The physics of the jet initiation in the simulations is described by the theory of black hole gravitohydromagnetics.
Strong deflection lensing by a Lee-Wick black hole
Zhao, Shan-Shan; Xie, Yi
2017-11-01
We study strong deflection gravitational lensing by a Lee-Wick black hole, which is a non-singular black hole generated by a high derivative modification of Einstein-Hilbert action. The strong deflection lensing is expected to produce a set of relativistic images very closed to the event horizon of the black hole. We estimate its observables for the supermassive black hole in our Galactic center. It is found that the Lee-Wick black hole can be distinguished from the Schwarzschild black hole via such lensing effects when the UV scale is not very large, but the requiring resolution is much higher than current capability.
ENRICHED BLACK HOLE ALGORITHM FOR DIMINUTION OF REAL POWER LOSS
Dr.K.Lenin
2017-01-01
This paper presents an Enriched Black Hole (EBH) algorithm for solving reactive power flow problem. The Black Hole Algorithm starts with a preliminary population of contestant and for all iteration of the black hole algorithm, the most excellent candidate is favored to be the black hole, which followed by pulling further candidates around it, called stars. If a star move very close to the black hole, it will be consumed by the black hole and is vanished undyingly. In such a case, a new star...
Upper bound on the radii of black-hole photonspheres
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem 91010 (Israel)
2013-11-25
One of the most remarkable predictions of the general theory of relativity is the existence of black-hole “photonspheres”, compact null hypersurfaces on which massless particles can orbit the central black hole. We prove that every spherically-symmetric asymptotically flat black-hole spacetime is characterized by a photonsphere whose radius is bounded from above by r{sub γ}⩽3M, where M is the total ADM mass of the black-hole spacetime. It is shown that hairy black-hole configurations conform to this upper bound. In particular, the null circular geodesic of the (bald) Schwarzschild black-hole spacetime saturates the bound.
Accreting fluids onto regular black holes via Hamiltonian approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jawad, Abdul [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Shahzad, M.U. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); University of Central Punjab, CAMS, UCP Business School, Lahore (Pakistan)
2017-08-15
We investigate the accretion of test fluids onto regular black holes such as Kehagias-Sfetsos black holes and regular black holes with Dagum distribution function. We analyze the accretion process when different test fluids are falling onto these regular black holes. The accreting fluid is being classified through the equation of state according to the features of regular black holes. The behavior of fluid flow and the existence of sonic points is being checked for these regular black holes. It is noted that the three-velocity depends on critical points and the equation of state parameter on phase space. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Film cooling technology is developed to enhance the temperature resistant of nickel-base single crystal alloy blade. The shape, dimension, and arrangement of cooling holes impact the blade strength and life grievously. In this paper, the influences of holes arrangement on creep characteristic of cooling holes in the plate sample are investigated. The constitutive model for creep considering both cavitation and degradation damage is developed to predict the creep behavior of cooling holes. Results show that there are stress interferences among cooling holes. The distance and radius of the cooling holes impact the creep behavior of cooling holes seriously. Decreasing horizontal distance of the holes results in creep time reducing. On the contrary, increasing the vertical distance of the holes makes the creep time reduced.
Largest-ever Ozone Hole over Antarctica
2002-01-01
A NASA instrument has detected an Antarctic ozone 'hole' (what scientists call an 'ozone depletion area') that is three times larger than the entire land mass of the United States-the largest such area ever observed. The 'hole' expanded to a record size of approximately 11 million square miles (28.3 million square kilometers) on Sept. 3, 2000. The previous record was approximately 10.5 million square miles (27.2 million square km) on Sept. 19, 1998. The ozone hole's size currently has stabilized, but the low levels in its interior continue to fall. The lowest readings in the ozone hole are typically observed in late September or early October each year. 'These observations reinforce concerns about the frailty of Earth's ozone layer. Although production of ozone-destroying gases has been curtailed under international agreements, concentrations of the gases in the stratosphere are only now reaching their peak. Due to their long persistence in the atmosphere, it will be many decades before the ozone hole is no longer an annual occurrence,' said Dr. Michael J. Kurylo, manager of the Upper Atmosphere Research Program, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC. Ozone molecules, made up of three atoms of oxygen, comprise a thin layer of the atmosphere that absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. Most atmospheric ozone is found between approximately six miles (9.5 km) and 18 miles (29 km) above the Earth's surface. Scientists continuing to investigate this enormous hole are somewhat surprised by its size. The reasons behind the dimensions involve both early-spring conditions, and an extremely intense Antarctic vortex. The Antarctic vortex is an upper-altitude stratospheric air current that sweeps around the Antarctic continent, confining the Antarctic ozone hole. 'Variations in the size of the ozone hole and of ozone depletion accompanying it from one year to the next are not unexpected,' said Dr. Jack Kaye, Office of Earth Sciences Research Director, NASA Headquarters
Collisions Around a Black Hole Mean Mealtime
Kohler, Susanna
2017-08-01
When a normally dormant supermassive black hole burps out a brief flare, its assumed that a star was torn apart and fell into the black hole. But a new study suggests that some of these flares might have a slightly different cause.Not a Disruption?Artists impression of a tidal disruption event, in which a star has been pulled apart and its gas feeds the supermassive black hole. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]When a star swings a little too close by a supermassive black hole, the black holes gravity can pull the star apart, completely disrupting it. The resulting gas can then accrete onto the black hole, feeding it and causing it to flare. The predicted frequency of these tidal disruption events and their expected light curves dont perfectly match all our observations of flaring black holes, however.This discrepancy has led two scientists from the Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Brian Metzger and Nicholas Stone, to wonder if we can explain flares from supermassive black holes in another way. Could a differentevent masquerade as a tidal disruption?Evolution of a stars semimajor axis (top panel) and radius (bottom panel) as a function of time since Roche-lobe overflow began onto a million-solar-mass black hole. Curves show stars of different masses. [Metzger Stone 2017]Inspirals and OutspiralsIn the dense nuclear star cluster surrounding a supermassive black hole, various interactions can send stars on new paths that take them close to the black hole. In many of these interactions, the stars will end up on plunging orbits, often resulting in tidal disruption. But sometimes stars can approach the black hole on tightly bound orbits with lower eccentricities.A main-sequence star on such a path, in what is known as an extreme mass ratio inspiral (EMRI), slowly approaches the black hole over a period of millions of years, eventually overflowing its Roche lobe and losing mass. Theradius of the star inflates, driving more mass loss and halting the stars inward progress. The star then
Chemistry and Dynamics of the Unusual 2015 Antarctic Ozone Hole
Braathen, Geir O.
2016-04-01
The Global Atmosphere Watch of the World Meteorological Organization includes several stations in Antarctica that keep a close eye on the ozone layer during the ozone hole season. Observations made during the unusually large ozone hole of 2015 will be compared to ozone holes from 2003 to 2014 and interpreted in light of the meteorological conditions. Satellite observations will be used to get a more general picture of the size and depth of the ozone hole and will also be used to calculate various metrics for ozone hole severity. In 2003, 2005 and 2006, the ozone hole was relatively large with more ozone loss than normal. This is in particular the case for 2006, which by most ozone hole metrics was the most severe ozone hole on record. On the other hand, the ozone holes of 2004, 2007, 2010 and 2012, 2013 and 2014 were less severe than normal, and only the very special ozone hole of 2002 had less ozone depletion when one regards the ozone holes of the last decade. The South Polar vortex of 2015 was unusually stable and long-lived, so ozone depletion lasted longer than seen in recent years. The ozone hole area, i.e. the area where total ozone is less that 220 DU, averaged over the worst 60 consecutive days was larger in 2015 than in any other year since the beginning of the ozone hole era in the early 1980s.
Dance of Two Monster Black Holes
Kohler, Susanna
2016-03-01
This past December, researchers all over the world watched an outburst from the enormous black hole in OJ 287 an outburst that had been predicted years ago using the general theory of relativity.Outbursts from Black-Hole OrbitsOJ 287 is one of the largest supermassive black holes known, weighing in at 18 billion solar masses. Located about 3.5 billion light-years away, this monster quasar is bright enough that it was first observed as early as the 1890s. What makes OJ 287 especially interesting, however, is that its light curve exhibits prominent outbursts roughly every 12 years.Diagram illustrating the orbit of the secondary black hole (shown in blue) in OJ 287 from 2000 to 2023. We see outbursts (the yellow bubbles) every time the secondary black hole crosses the accretion disk (shown in red, ina side view) surrounding the primary (the black circle). [Valtonen et al. 2016]What causes the outbursts? Astronomers think that there is a second supermassive black hole, ~100 times smaller, inspiraling as it orbits the central monster and set to merge within the next 10,000 years. In this model, the primary black hole of OJ 287 is surrounded by a hot accretion disk. As the secondary black hole orbits the primary, it regularly punches through this accretion disk, heating the material and causing the release of expanding bubbles of hot gas pulled from the disk. This gas then radiates thermally, causing the outbursts we see.Attempts to model this scenario using Newtonian orbits all fail; the timing of the secondary black holes crossings through the accretion disk (as measured by when we see the outbursts) can only be explained by a model incorporating general-relativistic effects on the orbit. Careful observations and precise timing of these outbursts therefore provide an excellent test of general relativity.Watching a Predicted CrossingThe model of OJ 287 predicted another disk crossing in December 2015, so professional and amateur astronomers around the world readied more
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF HOLE CLEANING PERFORMANCE ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Underbalanced drilling is one of the most widely used drilling technologies while drilling poor permeability, low pressure and depleted reservoirs. Advantages inherent in application of this drilling technique which are major factors affecting cost, time and drilling quality can be significantly hindered due to poor hole cleaning ...
Physicists strive to build a black hole
Johnson, G
2001-01-01
The next generation of particle accelerators, like the LHC, may be able to produce minature black holes. At the same time the experiments will explore the theory that the universe consists of hidden dimensions, outside the three we are familiar with (1 page).
Hawking radiation inside a Schwarzschild black hole
Hamilton, Andrew J S
2016-01-01
The boundary of any observer's spacetime is the boundary that divides what the observer can see from what they cannot see. The boundary of an observer's spacetime in the presence of a black hole is not the true (future event) horizon of the black hole, but rather the illusory horizon, the dimming, redshifting surface of the star that collapsed to the black hole long ago. The illusory horizon is the source of Hawking radiation seen by observers both outside and inside the true horizon. The perceived acceleration (gravity) on the illusory horizon sets the characteristic frequency scale of Hawking radiation, even if that acceleration varies dynamically, as it must do from the perspective of an infalling observer. The acceleration seen by a non-rotating free-faller both on the illusory horizon below and in the sky above is calculated for a Schwarzschild black hole. Remarkably, as an infaller approaches the singularity, the acceleration becomes isotropic, and diverging as a power law. The isotropic, power-law char...
Bubbles and holes in the interstellar medium
vanderHulst, JM; Skillman, ED
1996-01-01
Studies of the HI in nearby galaxies now clearly begin to show the effects of star formation on the interstellar medium. Holes, filaments, expanding motions and other anomalous velocity signatures are clearly apparent in sensitive observations of the HI in nearby galaxies. A global relation with the
CFT duals for accelerating black holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Astorino
2016-09-01
Further generalisation in presence of an external Melvin-like magnetic field, used to regularise the conical singularity characteristic of the C-metrics, shows that the Kerr/CFT correspondence can be applied also for the accelerating and magnetised extremal black holes.
The black hole interpretation of string theory
Hooft, G. 't
1990-01-01
For scattering processes in which both s and t are significantly larger than the Planck mass we have string theory on the one hand, and on the other hand the physics of black hole formation and decay. Both these descriptions are as yet ill understood. It is argued in this paper that a lot of insight
Dyonic black holes at arbitrary locations
Meessen, Patrick; Ortín, Tomás; Ramírez, Pedro F.
2017-10-01
We construct and study stationary, asymptotically flat multicenter solutions describing regular black holes with non-Abelian hair (colored magnetic-monopole and dyon fields) in two models of N=2 , d = 4 Super-Einstein-Yang-Mills theories: the quadratic model \\overline{CP}^3 and the cubic model ST[2, 6], which can be embedded in 10-dimensional Heterotic Supergravity. These solutions are based on the multicenter dyon recently discovered by one of us, which solves the SU(2) Bogomol'nyi and dyon equations on E^3 . In contrast to the well-known Abelian multicenter solutions, the relative positions of the non-Abelian black-hole centers are unconstrained. We study necessary conditions on the parameters of the solutions that ensure the regularity of the metric. In the case of the \\overline{CP}^3 model we show that it is enough to require the positivity of the "masses" of the individual black holes, the finiteness of each of their entropies and their superadditivity. In the case of the ST[2, 6] model we have not been able to show that analogous conditions are sufficient, but we give an explicit example of a regular solution describing thousands of non-Abelian dyonic black holes in equilibrium at arbitrary relative positions. We also construct non-Abelian solutions that interpolate smoothly between just two aDS2×S2 vacua with different radii ( dumbbell solutions).
Magnetic Topology of Coronal Hole Linkages
Titov, V. S.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J. A.; Lionello, R.; Antiochos, S. K.
2010-01-01
In recent work, Antiochos and coworkers argued that the boundary between the open and closed field regions on the Sun can be extremely complex with narrow corridors of open ux connecting seemingly disconnected coronal holes from the main polar holes, and that these corridors may be the sources of the slow solar wind. We examine, in detail, the topology of such magnetic configurations using an analytical source surface model that allows for analysis of the eld with arbitrary resolution. Our analysis reveals three important new results: First, a coronal hole boundary can join stably to the separatrix boundary of a parasitic polarity region. Second, a single parasitic polarity region can produce multiple null points in the corona and, more important, separator lines connecting these points. Such topologies are extremely favorable for magnetic reconnection, because it can now occur over the entire length of the separators rather than being con ned to a small region around the nulls. Finally, the coronal holes are not connected by an open- eld corridor of finite width, but instead are linked by a singular line that coincides with the separatrix footprint of the parasitic polarity. We investigate how the topological features described above evolve in response to motion of the parasitic polarity region. The implications of our results for the sources of the slow solar wind and for coronal and heliospheric observations are discussed.
Quantum aspects of black hole entropy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Quantum corrections to the semiclassical Bekenstein–Hawking area law for black hole entropy, obtained within the quantum geometry framework, are treated in some detail. Their ramiﬁcation for the holographic entropy bound for bounded stationary spacetimes is discussed. Four dimensional supersymmetric extremal black ...
Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider
Roy, Arunava
2011-01-01
The European Center for Nuclear Research or CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has caught our attention partly due to the film "Angels and Demons." In the movie, an antimatter bomb attack on the Vatican is foiled by the protagonist. Perhaps just as controversial is the formation of mini black holes (BHs). Recently, the American Physical Society…
Black hole dynamics in general relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
69, No. 1. — journal of. July 2007 physics pp. 77–92. Black hole dynamics in general relativity. ABHAY ASHTEKAR. 1,2. 1. Institute for Gravitational Physics and Geometry, Physics Department,. Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. 2. Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Utrecht, Princetonplein 5,.
Canonical Ensemble Model for Black Hole Radiation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, a canonical ensemble model for the black hole quantum tunnelling radiation is introduced. In this model the probability distribution function corresponding to the emission shell is calculated to second order. The formula of pressure and internal energy of the thermal system is modified, and the fundamental ...
Topological transport from a black hole
Melnikov, Dmitry
2018-03-01
In this paper the low temperature zero-frequency transport in a 2 + 1-dimensional theory dual to a dyonic black hole is discussed. It is shown that transport exhibits topological features: the transverse electric and heat conductivities satisfy the Wiedemann-Franz law of free electrons; the direct heat conductivity is measured in units of the central charge of CFT2+1, while the direct electric conductivity vanishes; the thermoelectric conductivity is non-zero at vanishing temperature, while the O (T) behavior, controlled by the Mott relation, is subleading. Provided that the entropy of the black hole, and the dual system, is non-vanishing at T = 0, the observations indicate that the dyonic black hole describes a ħ → 0 limit of a highly degenerate topological state, in which the black hole charge measures the density of excited non-abelian quasiparticles. The holographic description gives further evidence that non-abelian nature of quasiparticles can be determined by the low temperature behavior of the thermoelectric transport.
Hawking Temperature of Acoustic Black Hole
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... Using a new tortoise coordinate transformation, the Hawking radiation of the acoustic black hole was discussed by studying the Klein–Gordon equation of scalar particles in the curve space-time. It was found that the Hawking temperature is connected with time and position on the event horizon.
NITROANILINE FILM-HOLE MODIFIED GLASSY CARBON ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Graphene modified GCE. DPV. 2.64. [43] p-Nitroaniline film-holes modified GCE. Amp. 0.611. This work. LSV – linear sweep voltammetry, DPV – differential pulse voltammetry, Amp – Amperometry. The proposed sensor is selective and sensitive for DA detection when compared with other techniques (Table 1) by excluding ...
Chandrasekhar, Black Holes, and Singularities Roger Penrose
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Administrator
Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford 0X1 3LB, UK. 1. .... (Lifshitz and Khalatnikov had omitted a certain degree of freedom in their .... abled him to separate and decouple the equations. Chandra was a relative latecomer to the study of black holes. In his early work on white dwarf stars and the inevitability of their ...
Black holes in supergravity and integrability
Chemissany, W.; Fre, P.; Rosseel, J.; Sorin, A. S.; Trigiante, M.; Van Riet, T.
Stationary black holes of massless supergravity theories are described by certain geodesic curves on the target space that is obtained after dimensional reduction over time. When the target space is a symmetric coset space we make use of the group-theoretical structure to prove that the second order
Evolving Coronal Holes and Interplanetary Erupting Stream ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The newborn coronal hole emerges on the Sun, owing to the changes in magnetic field configuration leading to the opening of closed magnetic structure into the corona. The fundamental activity for the onset of an erupting stream seems to be a transient opening of pre-existing closed magnetic structures into a new coronal ...
Black Hole Attractors in Extended Supergravity
Ferrara, Sergio
2007-01-01
We review some aspects of the attractor mechanism for extremal black holes of (not necessarily supersymmetric) theories coupling Einstein gravity to scalars and Maxwell vector fields. Thence, we consider N=2 and N=8, d=4 supergravities, reporting some recent advances on the moduli spaces associated to BPS and non-BPS attractor solutions supported by charge orbits with non-compact stabilizers.
Quantitative characterization of the Antarctic ozone hole
Ito, T.; Sakoda, Y.; Matsubara, K.; Takao, T.; Akagi, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Shibata, S.; Naganuma, H.
1994-01-01
The long-term evolution of the Antarctic ozone hole is studied based on the TOMS data and the JMA data-set of stratospheric temperature in relation with the possible role of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's). The effective mass of depleted ozone in the ozone hole at its annual mature stage reached a historical maximum of 55 Mt in 1991, 4.3 times larger than in 1981. The ozone depletion rate during 30 days before the mature ozone hole does not show any appreciable long-term trend but the interannual fluctuations do, ranging from 0.169 to 0.689 Mt/day with the average of 0.419 Mt/day for the period of 1979 - 1991. The depleted ozone mass has the highest correlation with the region below 195 K on the 30 mb surface in June, whereas the ozone depletion rate correlates most strongly with that in August. The present result strongly suggests that the long-term evolution of the mature ozone hole is caused both by the interannual change of the latitudinal coverage of the early PSC's, which may control the latitude and date of initiation of ozone decrease, and by that of the spatial coverage of the mature PSC's which may control the ozone depletion rate in the Antarctic spring.
Black Holes and Sub-millimeter Dimensions
Argyres, Philip C; March-Russell, John David; Argyres, Philip C.; Dimopoulos, Savas; March-Russell, John
1998-01-01
Recently, a new framework for solving the hierarchy problem was proposed which does not rely on low energy supersymmetry or technicolor. The fundamental Planck mass is at a TeV and the observed weakness of gravity at long distances is due the existence of new sub-millimeter spatial dimensions. In this letter, we study how the properties of black holes are altered in these theories. Small black holes---with Schwarzschild radii smaller than the size of the new spatial dimensions---are quite different. They are bigger, colder, and longer-lived than a usual $(3+1)$-dimensional black hole of the same mass. Furthermore, they primarily decay into harmless bulk graviton modes rather than standard-model degrees of freedom. We discuss the interplay of our scenario with the holographic principle. Our results also have implications for the bounds on the spectrum of primordial black holes (PBHs) derived from the photo-dissociation of primordial nucleosynthesis products, distortion of the diffuse gamma-ray spectrum, overcl...
Revision of mass inflation inside black holes
Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav I
2013-01-01
The mass inflation phenomenon implies that the black hole interiors are unstable due to a back-reaction divergence of the perturbed black hole mass function at the Cauchy horizon. The mass inflation was initially derived by using the generalized Dray-t'\\,Hooft-Redmount (DTR) relation in the linear approximation of the Einstein equations near the perturbed Cauchy horizon. However, this linear approximation for the DTR relation is improper for the highly nonlinear behavior of back reaction perturbations near horizons. An additional weak point in the standard mass inflation calculations is in a fallacious using of the global Cauchy horizon as a place for the maximally growing back reaction perturbations instead of the local inner apparent horizon. It is derived the new spherically symmetric back reaction solution by considering the back-reaction of two counter-streaming light-like fluxes near the inner apparent horizon of the charged black hole. In this solution the back reaction perturbations of the black hole ...
Songlines from Direct Collapse Seed Black Holes
Aykutalp, Aycin; Wise, John; Spaans, Marco; Meijerink, Rowin
In the last decade, the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) has been intricately linked to galaxy formation and evolution, and is a key ingredient in the assembly of galaxies. Observations of SMBHs with masses of 109 solar at high redshifts (z~7) poses challenges to the theory of seed black
Flip-flopping binary black holes.
Lousto, Carlos O; Healy, James
2015-04-10
We study binary spinning black holes to display the long term individual spin dynamics. We perform a full numerical simulation starting at an initial proper separation of d≈25M between equal mass holes and evolve them down to merger for nearly 48 orbits, 3 precession cycles, and half of a flip-flop cycle. The simulation lasts for t=20 000M and displays a total change in the orientation of the spin of one of the black holes from an initial alignment with the orbital angular momentum to a complete antialignment after half of a flip-flop cycle. We compare this evolution with an integration of the 3.5 post-Newtonian equations of motion and spin evolution to show that this process continuously flip flops the spin during the lifetime of the binary until merger. We also provide lower order analytic expressions for the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency. We discuss the effects this dynamics may have on spin growth in accreting binaries and on the observational consequences for galactic and supermassive binary black holes.
Black Hole Complementarity and Violation of Causality
Rozenblit, Moshe
2017-01-01
Analysis of a massive shell collapsing on a solid sphere shows that black hole complementarity (BHC) violates causality in its effort to save information conservation. In particular, this note describes a hypothetical contraption based on BHC that would allow the transfer of information from the future to the present.
Black holes in loop quantum gravity
Perez, Alejandro
2017-12-01
This is a review of results on black hole physics in the context of loop quantum gravity. The key feature underlying these results is the discreteness of geometric quantities at the Planck scale predicted by this approach to quantum gravity. Quantum discreteness follows directly from the canonical quantization prescription when applied to the action of general relativity that is suitable for the coupling of gravity with gauge fields, and especially with fermions. Planckian discreteness and causal considerations provide the basic structure for the understanding of the thermal properties of black holes close to equilibrium. Discreteness also provides a fresh new look at more (at the moment) speculative issues, such as those concerning the fate of information in black hole evaporation. The hypothesis of discreteness leads, also, to interesting phenomenology with possible observational consequences. The theory of loop quantum gravity is a developing program; this review reports its achievements and open questions in a pedagogical manner, with an emphasis on quantum aspects of black hole physics.
Hole hopping rates in single strand oligonucleotides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borrelli, Raffaele [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università di Torino, Largo Paolo Braccini 2, I-10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Capobianco, Amedeo [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Peluso, Andrea, E-mail: apeluso@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy)
2014-08-31
Highlights: • DNA hole transfer rates have been computed. • Delocalized adenine domains significantly affect hole transfer rates in DNA. • Franck–Condon weighted density of state from DFT normal modes. • DNA application in molecular electronics. - Abstract: The rates of hole transfer between guanine and adenine in single strand DNA have been evaluated by using Fermi’s golden rule and Kubo’s generating function approach for the Franck–Condon weighted density of states. The whole sets of the normal modes and vibrational frequencies of the two nucleobases, obtained at DFT/B3LYP level of calculation, have been considered in computations. The results show that in single strand the pyramidalization/planarization mode of the amino groups of both nucleobases plays the major role. At room temperature, the Franck–Condon density of states extends over a wide range of hole site energy difference, 0–1 eV, giving some hints about the design of oligonucleotides of potential technological interest.
Absolute rates of hole transfer in DNA
Senthilkumar, K.; Grozema, F.C.; Fonseca Guerra, C.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.; Lewis, F.D.; Berlin, Y.A.; Ratner, M.A.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.
2005-01-01
Absolute rates of hole transfer between guanine nucleobases separated by one or two A:T base pairs in stilbenedicarboxamide-linked DNA hairpins were obtained by improved kinetic analysis of experimental data. The charge-transfer rates in four different DNA sequences were calculated using a
Black holes in loop quantum gravity.
Perez, Alejandro
2017-12-01
This is a review of results on black hole physics in the context of loop quantum gravity. The key feature underlying these results is the discreteness of geometric quantities at the Planck scale predicted by this approach to quantum gravity. Quantum discreteness follows directly from the canonical quantization prescription when applied to the action of general relativity that is suitable for the coupling of gravity with gauge fields, and especially with fermions. Planckian discreteness and causal considerations provide the basic structure for the understanding of the thermal properties of black holes close to equilibrium. Discreteness also provides a fresh new look at more (at the moment) speculative issues, such as those concerning the fate of information in black hole evaporation. The hypothesis of discreteness leads, also, to interesting phenomenology with possible observational consequences. The theory of loop quantum gravity is a developing program; this review reports its achievements and open questions in a pedagogical manner, with an emphasis on quantum aspects of black hole physics.
NONSUPINE POSITIONING IN MACULAR HOLE SURGERY
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alberti, Mark; la Cour, Morten
2016-01-01
PURPOSE: To determine whether nonsupine positioning (NSP) is noninferior to face-down positioning (FDP) in full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) surgery. METHODS: This is a single-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial. Between October 2013 and October 2014, pseudophakic participants underw...
Semiclassical S-matrix for black holes
Bezrukov, Fedor; Sibiryakov, Sergey
2015-01-01
We propose a semiclassical method to calculate S-matrix elements for two-stage gravitational transitions involving matter collapse into a black hole and evaporation of the latter. The method consistently incorporates back-reaction of the collapsing and emitted quanta on the metric. We illustrate the method in several toy models describing spherical self-gravitating shells in asymptotically flat and AdS space-times. We find that electrically neutral shells reflect via the above collapse-evaporation process with probability exp(-B), where B is the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the intermediate black hole. This is consistent with interpretation of exp(B) as the number of black hole states. The same expression for the probability is obtained in the case of charged shells if one takes into account instability of the Cauchy horizon of the intermediate Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. Our semiclassical method opens a new systematic approach to the gravitational S-matrix in the non-perturbative regime.
Experimentally, How Dark Are Black Hole Mergers?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Annis, James [Fermilab; Soares-Santos, Marcelle [Fermilab
2016-09-29
The first Advanced LIGO observing run detected two black hole merger events with confidence and likely a third. Many groups organized to followup the events in the optical even though the strong theoretical prior that no optical emission should be seen. We carry through the logic of this by asking about the experimental upper limits to the optical light from Advanced LIGO black hole mergere events. We inventory the published optical searches for transient events associated with the black hole mergers. We describe the factors that go into a formal limit on the visibility of an event (sky area coverage, the coverage factor of the camera, the fraction of sky not covered by intervening objects), and list what is known from the literature of the followup teams quantitative assessment of each factor. Where possible we calculate the total probability from each group that the source was imaged. The calculation of confidence level is reviewed for the case of no background. We find that an experimental 95% upper limit on the magnitude of a black hole requires the sum of the total probabilities over all events to be more than 3. In the first Advanced LIGO observing run we were far from reaching that threshold.
Black hole unitarity and antipodal entanglement
't Hooft, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074127888
Hawking particles emitted by a black hole are usually found to have thermal spectra, if not exactly, then by a very good approximation. Here, we argue differently. It was discovered that spherical partial waves of in-going and out-going matter can be described by unitary evolution operators
Black Hole Safari: Tracking Populations and Hunting Big Game
McConnell, N. J.
2013-10-01
Understanding the physical connection, or lack thereof, between the growth of galaxies and supermassive black holes is a key challenge in extragalactic astronomy. Dynamical studies of nearby galaxies are building a census of black hole masses across a broad range of galaxy types and uncovering statistical correlations between galaxy bulge properties and black hole masses. These local correlations provide a baseline for studying galaxies and black holes at higher redshifts. Recent measurements have probed the extremes of the supermassive black hole population and introduced surprises that challenge simple models of black hole and galaxy co-evolution. Future advances in the quality and quantity of dynamical black hole mass measurements will shed light upon the growth of massive galaxies and black holes in different cosmic environments.
Problem of mathematical deduction of the existence of black holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuan-Shun Chin
1990-01-01
Full Text Available The mathematical proof of existence of Black Hole is based on the assumption of mass being independent of speed. Considering the effect of special relativity of the dependence of mass with speed there is no Black hole.
Thermodynamic studies of different black holes with modifications of entropy
Haldar, Amritendu; Biswas, Ritabrata
2018-02-01
In recent years, the thermodynamic properties of black holes are topics of interests. We investigate the thermodynamic properties like surface gravity and Hawking temperature on event horizon of regular black holes viz. Hayward Class and asymptotically AdS (Anti-de Sitter) black holes. We also analyze the thermodynamic volume and naive geometric volume of asymptotically AdS black holes and show that the entropy of these black holes is simply the ratio of the naive geometric volume to thermodynamic volume. We plot the different graphs and interpret them physically. We derive the `cosmic-Censorship-Inequality' for both type of black holes. Moreover, we calculate the thermal heat capacity of aforesaid black holes and study their stabilities in different regimes. Finally, we compute the logarithmic correction to the entropy for both the black holes considering the quantum fluctuations around the thermal equilibrium and study the corresponding thermodynamics.
[Idiopathic macular hole: history and status quo review].
Samoylov, A N; Khaibrakhmanov, T R; Fazleeva, G A; Samoylova, P A
2017-01-01
The article reviews the literature on one of the topical problems of vitreoretinal surgery - idiopathic macular holes. The history, concept, classification and diagnostics, as well as surgical and alternative treatment methods of macular holes are explored.
Preparation and Characterization of High-Temperature Hole Burning Materials
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bommareddi, Rami
2004-01-01
.... Hole burning efficiency depends on the glass composition as well. We investigated persistent spectral hole burning studies in europium doped glasses such as sodium borates, silicates, borosilicates, germinates and tellurites...
Notes on nonsingular models of black holes
Frolov, Valeri P.
2016-11-01
We discuss static spherically symmetric metrics which represent nonsingular black holes in four- and higher-dimensional spacetime. We impose a set of restrictions, such as a regularity of the metric at the center r =0 and Schwarzschild asymptotic behavior at large r . We assume that the metric besides mass M contains an additional parameter ℓ, which determines the scale where modification of the solution of the Einstein equations becomes significant. We require that the modified metric obeys the limiting curvature condition; that is, its curvature is uniformly restricted by the value ˜ℓ-2. We also make a "more technical" assumption that the metric coefficients are rational functions of r . In particular, the invariant (∇r )2 has the form Pn(r )/P˜n(r ), where Pn and P˜n are polynomials of the order of n . We discuss first the case of four dimensions. We show that when n ≤2 such a metric cannot describe a nonsingular black hole. For n =3 we find a suitable metric, which besides M and ℓ contains a dimensionless numerical parameter. When this parameter vanishes, the obtained metric coincides with Hayward's one. The characteristic property of such spacetimes is -ξ2=(∇r )2, where ξ2 is a timelike at infinity Killing vector. We describe a possible generalization of a nonsingular black-hole metric to the case when this equality is violated. We also obtain a metric for a charged nonsingular black hole obeying similar restrictions as the neutral one and construct higher dimensional models of neutral and charged black holes.
Supersymmetric Rotating Black Hole in a Compactified Spacetime
Maeda, Kei-ichi; Ohta, Nobuyoshi; Tanabe, Makoto
2006-01-01
We construct a supersymmetric rotating black hole with asymptotically flat four-dimensional spacetime times a circle, by superposing an infinite number of BMPV black hole solutions at the same distance in one direction. The near horizon structure is the same as that of the five-dimensional BMPV black hole. The rotation of this black hole can exceed the Kerr bound in general relativity ($q\\equiv a/G_4 M=1$), if the size is small.
Action growth for black holes in modified gravity
Sebastiani, Lorenzo; Vanzo, Luciano; Zerbini, Sergio
2018-02-01
The general form of the action growth for a large class of static black hole solutions in modified gravity which includes F (R ) -gravity models is computed. The cases of black hole solutions with nonconstant Ricci scalar are also considered, generalizing the results previously found and valid only for black holes with constant Ricci scalar. An argument is put forward to provide a physical interpretation of the results, which seem tightly connected with the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics.
Observational strong gravity and quantum black hole structure
Giddings, Steven B
2016-01-01
Quantum considerations have led many theorists to believe that classical black hole physics is modified not just deep inside black holes but at horizon scales, or even further outward. The near-horizon regime has just begun to be observationally probed for astrophysical black holes -- both by LIGO, and by the Event Horizon Telescope. This suggests exciting prospects for observational constraints on or discovery of new quantum black hole structure.
Caravan-Submm, Black Hole Imager in the Andes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Makoto Miyoshi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Imaging a black hole horizon as a shadow at the center of black hole accretion disk is another method to prove/check Einstein’s general relativity at strong gravitational fields. Such black hole imaging is expected to be achievable using a submillimeter wavelength VLBI (very long baseline interferometer technique. Here, we introduce a Japanese black hole imaging project, Caravan-submm undertaken in the Andes.
Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassic black hole
Levanony, Dana; 10.1103/PhysRevD.80.084008
2009-01-01
We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. The field equations admit two types of singularities, and their local asymptotic structure is investigated. One of these singularities is found to develop, as a spacelike singularity, inside the black hole. We then study the internal structure of the evaporating black hole from the horizon to the singularity.
From black holes to white holes: a quantum gravitational, symmetric bounce
Olmedo, Javier; Saini, Sahil; Singh, Parampreet
2017-11-01
Recently, a consistent non-perturbative quantization of the Schwarzschild interior resulting in a bounce from black hole to white hole geometry has been obtained by loop quantizing the Kantowski-Sachs vacuum spacetime. As in other spacetimes where the singularity is dominated by the Weyl part of the spacetime curvature, the structure of the singularity is highly anisotropic in the Kantowski-Sachs vacuum spacetime. As a result, the bounce turns out to be in general asymmetric, creating a large mass difference between the parent black hole and the child white hole. In this manuscript, we investigate under what circumstances a symmetric bounce scenario can be constructed in the above quantization. Using the setting of Dirac observables and geometric clocks, we obtain a symmetric bounce condition which can be satisfied by a slight modification in the construction of loops over which holonomies are considered in the quantization procedure. These modifications can be viewed as quantization ambiguities, and are demonstrated in three different flavors, all of which lead to a non-singular black to white hole transition with identical masses. Our results show that quantization ambiguities can mitigate or even qualitatively change some key features of the physics of singularity resolution. Further, these results are potentially helpful in motivating and constructing symmetric black to white hole transition scenarios.
Superradiantly stable non-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Jia-Hui [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, Guangzhou (China); Mai, Zhan-Feng [Beijing Normal University, Department of Physics, Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Beijing (China)
2016-06-15
The superradiant stability is investigated for non-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. We use an algebraic method to demonstrate that all non-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes are superradiantly stable against a charged massive scalar perturbation. This improves the results obtained before for non-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. (orig.)
Stellar-Mass Black Holes and their Progenitors
Miller, J.; Uttley, [No Value; Nandra, [No Value; Barret, [No Value; Matt, [No Value; Paerels, [No Value; Mendez, [No Value; Diaz-Trigo, [No Value; Cappi, [No Value; Kitamoto, [No Value; Nowak, [No Value; Wilms, [No Value; Rothschild, [No Value; Smith, [No Value; Weisskopf, [No Value; Terashima, [No Value; Ueda, [No Value
2009-01-01
If a black hole has a low spin value, it must double its mass to reach a high spin parameter (Volonteri et al. 2005). Although this is easily accomplished through mergers or accretion in the case of supermassive black holes in galactic centers, it is impossible for stellar-mass black holes in X-ray
An Extreme Black Hole with Electric Dipole Moment
Horowitz, Gary T.; Tada, Tsukasa
1996-01-01
We construct a new extreme black hole solution in toroidally compactified heterotic string theory. The black hole saturates the Bogomol'nyi bound, has zero angular momentum, but nonzero electric dipole moment. It is obtained by starting with a higher dimensional rotating charged black hole, and compactifying one direction in the plane of rotation.
The Life and Times of Extremal Black Holes
Adams, Fred C.
2000-01-01
Charged extremal black holes cannot fully evaporate through the Hawking effect and are thus long lived. Over their lifetimes, these black holes take part in a variety of astrophysical processes, including many that lead to their eventual destruction. This paper explores the various events that shape the life of extremal black holes and calculates the corresponding time scales.
Noncommutative geometry-inspired rotating black hole in three ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We ﬁnd a new rotating black hole in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space using an anisotropic perfect ﬂuid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. We deduce the thermodynamical quantities of this black hole and compare them with those of a rotating BTZ solution and give corrections to the area law to get the exact ...
Entropy Spectrum of Modified Schwarzschild Black Hole via an ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... Abstract. The entropy spectrum of a modified Schwarzschild black hole in the gravity's rainbow are investigated. By utilizing an action invariance of the black hole with the help of Bohr–Sommerfield quantization rule, the entropy spectrum for the modified black hole are calculated. The result of the equally ...
Noncommutative geometry-inspired rotating black hole in three ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We find a new rotating black hole in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space using an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. We deduce the thermodynam- ical quantities of this black hole and compare them with those of a rotating BTZ solution and give corrections to the area law to get ...
Estimation of Black Hole Masses from Steep Spectrum Radio ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
SSRQs) to estimate their black hole masses from broad emis- sion lines. Our black hole masses are compared with the virial black hole masses estimated by Shen (2010). We find that there is a large deviation between the two kinds of values if ...
A quantum bound-state description of black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hofmann, Stefan [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, LMU-München, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 München (Germany); Rug, Tehseen, E-mail: Tehseen.Rug@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, LMU-München, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)
2016-01-15
A relativistic framework for the description of bound states consisting of a large number of quantum constituents is presented, and applied to black-hole interiors. At the parton level, the constituent distribution, number and energy density inside black holes are calculated, and gauge corrections are discussed. A simple scaling relation between the black-hole mass and constituent number is established.
Black holes with surrounding matter in scalar-tensor theories.
Cardoso, Vitor; Carucci, Isabella P; Pani, Paolo; Sotiriou, Thomas P
2013-09-13
We uncover two mechanisms that can render Kerr black holes unstable in scalar-tensor gravity, both associated with the presence of matter in the vicinity of the black hole and the fact that this introduces an effective mass for the scalar. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the structure of spacetime in realistic, astrophysical black holes in scalar-tensor theories.
Charged Randall–Sundrum black holes in higher dimensions
Meiers, M.; Bovard, L.; Mann, R. B.
2018-01-01
We extend some solutions for black holes in the Randall–Sundrum theory with a single brane. We consider a generalised version of the extremal black hole on the brane in n+1 dimensions and determine an asymptotic value of the geometry for large black holes.
The Revival of White Holes as Small Bangs
Retter, Alon
2011-01-01
Black holes are extremely dense and compact objects from which light cannot escape. There is an overall consensus that black holes exist and many astronomical objects are identified with black holes. White holes were understood as the exact time reversal of black holes, therefore they should continuously throw away material. It is accepted, however, that a persistent ejection of mass leads to gravitational pressure, the formation of a black hole and thus to the "death of while holes". So far, no astronomical source has been successfully tagged a white hole. The only known white hole is the Big Bang which was instantaneous rather than continuous or long-lasting. We thus suggest that the emergence of a white hole, which we name a 'Small Bang', is spontaneous - all the matter is ejected at a single pulse. Unlike black holes, white holes cannot be continuously observed rather their effect can only be detected around the event itself. Gamma ray bursts are the most energetic explosions in the universe. Long {\\gamma...
Solar Wind Associated with Near Equatorial Coronal Hole M ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2015-05-25
May 25, 2015 ... coronal hole and solar wind. For both the wavelength bands, we also com- pute coronal hole radiative energy near the earth and it is found to be of similar order as that of solar wind energy. However, for the wavelength. 193 Å, owing to almost similar magnitudes of energy emitted by coronal hole and ...
Horizons of description: Black holes and complementarity
Bokulich, Peter Joshua Martin
Niels Bohr famously argued that a consistent understanding of quantum mechanics requires a new epistemic framework, which he named complementarity . This position asserts that even in the context of quantum theory, classical concepts must be used to understand and communicate measurement results. The apparent conflict between certain classical descriptions is avoided by recognizing that their application now crucially depends on the measurement context. Recently it has been argued that a new form of complementarity can provide a solution to the so-called information loss paradox. Stephen Hawking argues that the evolution of black holes cannot be described by standard unitary quantum evolution, because such evolution always preserves information, while the evaporation of a black hole will imply that any information that fell into it is irrevocably lost---hence a "paradox." Some researchers in quantum gravity have argued that this paradox can be resolved if one interprets certain seemingly incompatible descriptions of events around black holes as instead being complementary. In this dissertation I assess the extent to which this black hole complementarity can be undergirded by Bohr's account of the limitations of classical concepts. I begin by offering an interpretation of Bohr's complementarity and the role that it plays in his philosophy of quantum theory. After clarifying the nature of classical concepts, I offer an account of the limitations these concepts face, and argue that Bohr's appeal to disturbance is best understood as referring to these conceptual limits. Following preparatory chapters on issues in quantum field theory and black hole mechanics, I offer an analysis of the information loss paradox and various responses to it. I consider the three most prominent accounts of black hole complementarity and argue that they fail to offer sufficient justification for the proposed incompatibility between descriptions. The lesson that emerges from this
Spectral hole burning studies of photosystem II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Hai -Chou [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
1995-09-26
Low temperature absorption and hole burning spectroscopies were applied to the D1-D2-cyt b_{559} and the CP47 and CP43 antenna protein complexes of Photosystem H from higher plants. Low temperature transient and persistent hole-burning data and theoretical calculations on the kinetics and temperature dependence of the P680 hole profile are presented and provide convincing support for the linker model. Implicit in the linker model is that the 684-nm-absorbing Chl a serve to shuttle energy from the proximal antenna complex to reaction center. The stoichiometry of isolated Photosystem H Reaction Center (PSII RC) in several different preparations is also discussed. The additional Chl a are due to 684-nm-absorbing Chl a, some contamination by the CP47 complex, and non-native Chl a absorbing near 670 nm. In the CP47 protein complex, attention is focused on the lower energy chlorophyll a Q_{y}-states. High pressure hole-burning studies of PSII RC revealed for the first time a strong pressure effect on the primary electron transfer dynamics. The 4.2 K lifetime of P680*, the primary donor state, increases from 2.0 ps to 7.0 ps as pressure increases from 0.1 to 267 MPa. Importantly, this effect is irreversible (plastic) while the pressure induced effect on the low temperature absorption and non-line narrowed P680 hole spectra are reversible (elastic). Nonadiabatic rate expressions, which take into account the distribution of energy gap values, are used to estimate the linear pressure shift of the acceptor state energy for both the superexchange and two-step mechanisms for primary charge separation. It was found that the pressure dependence could be explained with a linear pressure shift of ~1 cm^{-1}/MPa in magnitude for the acceptor state. The results point to the marriage of hole burning and high pressures as having considerable potential for the study of primary transport dynamics in reaction centers and antenna complexes.
What Can We Learn About Black-Hole Formation from Black-Hole X-ray Binaries?
Nelemans, G.A.
2007-01-01
I discuss the effect of the formation of a black hole on a (close) binary and show some of the current constraints that the observed properties of black hole X-ray binaries put on the formation of black holes. In particular, I discuss the evidence for and against asymmetric kicks imparted on the
Sterile neutrinos and the rapid formation of supermassive black holes
Richter, M. C.; Tupper, G. B.; Viollier, R. D.
2008-11-01
The most massive black holes, lurking at the centers of large galaxies, must have formed less than a billion years after the big bang, as they are visible today in the form of bright quasars at redshift z gtrsim 6[1]. Their early appearance is mysterious, because the radiation pressure, generated by infalling ionized baryonic matter, inhibits the rapid growth of these black holes from stellar-mass black holes [2]. Here we show that the supermassive black holes may, instead, form timeously through the accretion of degenerate sterile neutrino dark matter onto stellar-mass black holes [3].
(2 + 1)-dimensional regular black holes with nonlinear electrodynamics sources
He, Yun; Ma, Meng-Sen
2017-11-01
On the basis of two requirements: the avoidance of the curvature singularity and the Maxwell theory as the weak field limit of the nonlinear electrodynamics, we find two restricted conditions on the metric function of (2 + 1)-dimensional regular black hole in general relativity coupled with nonlinear electrodynamics sources. By the use of the two conditions, we obtain a general approach to construct (2 + 1)-dimensional regular black holes. In this manner, we construct four (2 + 1)-dimensional regular black holes as examples. We also study the thermodynamic properties of the regular black holes and verify the first law of black hole thermodynamics.
Dark matter spikes in the vicinity of Kerr black holes
Ferrer, Francesc; Medeiros da Rosa, Augusto; Will, Clifford M.
2017-10-01
The growth of a massive black hole will steepen the cold dark matter density at the center of a galaxy into a dense spike, enhancing the prospects for indirect detection. We study the impact of black hole spin on the density profile using the exact Kerr geometry of the black whole in a fully relativistic adiabatic growth framework. We find that, despite the transfer of angular momentum from the hole to the halo, rotation increases significantly the dark matter density close to the black hole. The gravitational effects are still dominated by the black hole within its influence radius, but the larger dark matter annihilation fluxes might be relevant for indirect detection estimates.
Cosmic Censorship Conjecture in Kerr-Sen Black Hole
Gwak, Bogeun
2016-01-01
The validity of cosmic censorship conjecture for the Kerr-Sen black hole, which is a solution to the low-energy effective field theory for four-dimensional heterotic string theory, is investigated using charged particle absorption. When the black hole absorbs the particle, its charges are changed due to the conserved quantities of the particle. Changes in the black hole are constrained to the equation for the motion of the particle and are consistent with the laws of thermodynamics. Particle absorption increases the mass of the extremal Kerr-Sen black hole to more than its charges, so the black hole cannot be overcharged. Therefore, cosmic censorship conjecture is valid.
Relativistic three-body effects in black hole coalescence
Campanelli, Manuela; Dettwyler, Miranda; Hannam, Mark; Lousto, Carlos O.
2005-01-01
Three-body interactions are expected to be common in globular clusters and in galactic cores hosting supermassive black holes. Here we consider an equal-mass binary-black-hole system in the presence of a third black hole. Using numerically generated binary-black-hole initial-data sets, and first- and second-order post-Newtonian (1PN and 2PN) techniques, we find that the presence of the third black hole has non-negligible relativistic effects on the location of the innermost stable circular or...
Better late than never: information retrieval from black holes.
Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano; Życzkowski, Karol
2013-03-08
We show that, in order to preserve the equivalence principle until late times in unitarily evaporating black holes, the thermodynamic entropy of a black hole must be primarily entropy of entanglement across the event horizon. For such black holes, we show that the information entering a black hole becomes encoded in correlations within a tripartite quantum state, the quantum analogue of a one-time pad, and is only decoded into the outgoing radiation very late in the evaporation. This behavior generically describes the unitary evaporation of highly entangled black holes and requires no specially designed evolution. Our work suggests the existence of a matter-field sum rule for any fundamental theory.
The Thermodynamic Efficiency in Static and Dynamic Black Holes
Jafarzade, Kh.; Sadeghi, J.
2017-11-01
We note that, in extended phase space the cosmological constant is a thermodynamic variable. In this paper, this cosmological constant lead us to consider a black hole as a heat engine. So, here we take advantage from holographic heat engine and study two kind of different black holes. We first investigate a static black hole (Dyonic BH) and consider the necessary condition to have high efficiency. Also we continue our investigation for dynamic black hole (rotating charged black hole) and study the effect of rotating parameter on the thermodynamic efficiency of holographic heat engine. We show that the rotating parameter has a more effective role than electric charge in thermodynamic efficiency.
Grand unification scale primordial black holes: consequences and constraints.
Anantua, Richard; Easther, Richard; Giblin, John T
2009-09-11
A population of very light primordial black holes which evaporate before nucleosynthesis begins is unconstrained unless the decaying black holes leave stable relics. We show that gravitons Hawking radiated from these black holes would source a substantial stochastic background of high frequency gravititational waves (10(12) Hz or more) in the present Universe. These black holes may lead to a transient period of matter-dominated expansion. In this case the primordial Universe could be temporarily dominated by large clusters of "Hawking stars" and the resulting gravitational wave spectrum is independent of the initial number density of primordial black holes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lake, Matthew J. [The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Naresuan University, Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Department of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Department of Mathematics, University College London (United Kingdom)
2017-10-15
The discovery of a large number of supermassive black holes (SMBH) at redshifts z > 6, when the Universe was only 900 million years old, raises the question of how such massive compact objects could form in a cosmologically short time interval. Each of the standard scenarios proposed, involving rapid accretion of seed black holes or black hole mergers, faces severe theoretical difficulties in explaining the short-time formation of supermassive objects. In this work we propose an alternative scenario for the formation of SMBH in the early Universe, in which energy transfer from superconducting cosmic strings piercing small seed black holes is the main physical process leading to rapid mass increase. As a toy model, the accretion rate of a seed black hole pierced by two antipodal strings carrying constant current is considered. Using an effective action approach, which phenomenologically incorporates a large class of superconducting string models, we estimate the minimum current required to form SMBH with masses of order M = 2 x 10{sup 9} M {sub CircleDot} by z = 7.085. This corresponds to the mass of the central black hole powering the quasar ULAS J112001.48+064124.3 and is taken as a test case scenario for early-epoch SMBH formation. For GUT scale strings, the required fractional increase in the string energy density, due to the presence of the current, is of order 10{sup -7}, so that their existence remains consistent with current observational bounds on the string tension. In addition, we consider an ''exotic'' scenario, in which an SMBH is generated when a small seed black hole is pierced by a higher-dimensional F-string, predicted by string theory. We find that both topological defect strings and fundamental strings are able to carry currents large enough to generate early-epoch SMBH via our proposed mechanism. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jones, N.O.
1982-09-01
The Getty Oil Company began the field work on a government cost-sharing venture to assess the geothermal potential in the Colado area of Pershing County, Nevada. Eighteen shallow (500-foot) temperature gradient holes, two intermediate (1500-foot) temperature gradient holes and one deep (8000-foot) exploratory well were drilled. All field work was completed in May 1981. Maximum temperature achieved was 282/sup 0/F at 7064 feet. No fluid reservoir was encountered with this hole.
Slant hole completion test. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mann, R.L.
1993-07-01
One of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategies and Objectives in the Natural Gas Program is to conduct activities to transfer technology from R&D programs to potential users. The Slant Hole Completion Test has achieved exactly this objective. The Slant Hole site is essentially the same as the Multiwell site and is located in the southeastern portion of the Piceance Basin near Rifle, Colorado. The Piceance Basin is typical of the Western low permeability basins that contain thick sequences of sands, silts and coals deposited during the Cretaceous period. These sequences contain vast amounts of natural gas but have proven to be resistant to commercial production because of the low permeability of the host rocks. Using the knowledge gained from the DOE`s earlier Multiwell experiment, the SHCT-1 was drilled to demonstrate that by intersecting the natural fractures found in these ``tight rocks,`` commercial gas production can be obtained.
“Twisted” black holes are unphysical
Gray, Finnian; Santiago, Jessica; Schuster, Sebastian; Visser, Matt
2017-06-01
So-called “twisted” black holes were recently proposed by [H. Zhang, arXiv:1609.09721], and were further considered by [S. Chen and J. Jing, arXiv:1610.00886]. More recently, they were severely criticized by [Y. C. Ong, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 1701, 001 (2017)]. While these spacetimes are certainly Ricci-flat, and so mathematically satisfy the vacuum Einstein equations, they are also merely minor variants on Taub-NUT spacetimes. Consequently, they exhibit several unphysical features that make them quite unreasonable as realistic astrophysical objects. Specifically, these “twisted” black holes are not (globally) asymptotically flat. Furthermore, they contain closed time-like curves that are not hidden behind any event horizon — the most obvious of these closed time-like curves are small azimuthal circles around the rotation axis, but the effect is more general. The entire region outside the horizon is infested with closed time-like curves.
Black hole entropy calculations based on symmetries
Dreyer, O; Wísniewski, J A; Dreyer, Olaf; Ghosh, Amit; Wisniewski, Jacek
2001-01-01
Symmetry based approaches to the black hole entropy problem have a number of attractive features; in particular they are very general and do not depend on the details of the quantization method. However we point out that, of the two available approaches, one faces conceptual problems (also emphasized by others), while the second contains certain technical flaws. We correct these errors and, within the new, improved scheme, calculate the entropy of 3-dimensional black holes. We find that, while the new symmetry vector fields are well-defined on the ``stretched horizon,'' and lead to well-defined Hamiltonians satisfying the expected Lie algebra, they fail to admit a well-defined limit to the horizon. This suggests that, although the formal calculation can be carried out at the classical level, its real, conceptual origin probably lies in the quantum theory.
Semiclassical geons as solitonic black hole remnants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D., E-mail: flobo@cii.fc.ul.pt, E-mail: gonzalo.olmo@csic.es, E-mail: drubiera@fisica.ufpb.br2 [Departamento de Física Teórica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia - CSIC. Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot-46100, Valencia (Spain)
2013-07-01
We find that the end state of black hole evaporation could be represented by non-singular and without event horizon stable solitonic remnants with masses of the order the Planck scale and up to ∼ 16 units of charge. Though these objects are locally indistinguishable from spherically symmetric, massive electric (or magnetic) charges, they turn out to be sourceless geons containing a wormhole generated by the electromagnetic field. Our results are obtained by interpreting semiclassical corrections to Einstein's theory in the first-order (Palatini) formalism, which yields second-order equations and avoids the instabilities of the usual (metric) formulation of quadratic gravity. We also discuss the potential relevance of these solutions for primordial black holes and the dark matter problem.
MEASURING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE SPINS IN AGN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Brenneman
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Measuring the spins of supermassive black holes (SMBHs in active galactic nuclei (AGN can inform us about the relative role of gas accretion vs. mergers in recent epochs of the life of the host galaxy and its AGN. Recent theoretical and observation advances have enabled spin measurements for ten SMBHs thus far, but this science is still very much in its infancy. Herein, I discuss how we measure black hole spin in AGN, using recent results from a long Suzaku campaign on NGC 3783 to illustrate this process and its caveats. I then present our current knowledge of the distribution of SMBH spins in the local universe. I also address prospects for improving the accuracy, precision and quantity of these spin constraints in the next decade and beyond with instruments such as NuSTAR, Astro-H and future large-area X-ray telescopes.
Hybrid Black-Hole Binary Initial Data
Mundim, Bruno C.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela
2010-01-01
"Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class. Quantum Grav. 27:114005 (2010)], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculations was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features."
Black holes in supergravity and integrability
Chemissany, W.; Fré, P.; Rosseel, J.; Sorin, A. S.; Trigiante, M.; van Riet, T.
2010-09-01
Stationary black holes of massless supergravity theories are described by certain geodesic curves on the target space that is obtained after dimensional reduction over time. When the target space is a symmetric coset space we make use of the group-theoretical structure to prove that the second order geodesic equations are integrable in the sense of Liouville, by explicitly constructing the correct amount of Hamiltonians in involution. This implies that the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism can be applied, which proves that all such black hole solutions, including non-extremal solutions, possess a description in terms of a (fake) superpotential. Furthermore, we improve the existing integration method by the construction of a Lax integration algorithm that integrates the second order equations in one step instead of the usual two step procedure. We illustrate this technology with a specific example
PBR theorem and Einstein's quantum hole argument
Weinstein, Galina
2013-01-01
This note discusses the latest hot topic: Quantum states: ontic or epistemic? and the PBR theorem. Upon reading Einstein's views on quantum incompleteness in publications or in his correspondence after 1935 (the EPR paradox), one gets a very intense feeling of deja-vu. Einstein presents a quantum hole argument, which somewhat reminds of the hole argument in his 1914 "Entwurf" general theory of relativity. In their paper, PBR write the following: "an important step towards the derivation of our result is the idea that the quantum state is physical if distinct quantum states correspond to non-overlapping distributions for [the set of possible physical states that a system can be in]", and they then refer to Einstein's argument and views.
Black-hole universe: time evolution.
Yoo, Chul-Moon; Okawa, Hirotada; Nakao, Ken-ichi
2013-10-18
Time evolution of a black hole lattice toy model universe is simulated. The vacuum Einstein equations in a cubic box with a black hole at the origin are numerically solved with periodic boundary conditions on all pairs of faces opposite to each other. Defining effective scale factors by using the area of a surface and the length of an edge of the cubic box, we compare them with that in the Einstein-de Sitter universe. It is found that the behavior of the effective scale factors is well approximated by that in the Einstein-de Sitter universe. In our model, if the box size is sufficiently larger than the horizon radius, local inhomogeneities do not significantly affect the global expansion law of the Universe even though the inhomogeneity is extremely nonlinear.
Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth, E-mail: acd@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: r.jha@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jlmuir@umich.edu [Centre for Particle Theory, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)
2014-08-01
Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect.
Percutaneous epidural drainage through a burr hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Priscila M Falsarella
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Intracranial extradural collection may cause an increase in intracranial pressure, requiring rapid emergency treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. We described an alternative CT-guided percutaneous access for extradural collection drainage. We report a case of a patient with previous craniectomy for meningioma ressection who presented to the Emergency Department with symptoms of intracranial hypertension. Brains CT showed a extradural collection with subfalcine herniation. After multidisciplinary discussion a CT-guided percutaneous drainage through previous burr hole was performed. The patient was discharged after 36 hours of admission, without further symptoms. We describe a safe and effective alternative percutaneous access for extradural collection drainage in patients with previous burr hole.
Gravitino perturbations in Schwarzschild black holes
Piedra, Owen Pavel Fernández
2010-01-01
We consider the time evolution of massless gravitino perturbations in Schwarzschild black holes, and show that as in the case of fields of other values of spin, the evolution comes in three stages, after an initial outburst as a first stage, we observe the damped oscillations characteristic of the quasinormal ringing stage, followed by long time tails. Using the sixth order WKB method and Prony fitting of time domain data we determine the quasinormal frequencies. There is a good correspondence between the results obtained by the above two methods, and we obtain a considerable improvement with respect to the previously obtained third order WKB results. We also show that the response of a black hole depends crucially on the spin class of the perturbing field: the quality factor becomes a decreasing function of the spin for boson perturbations , whereas the opposite situation appears for fermion ones.
Black holes, cosmology and extra dimensions
Bronnikov, Kirill A
2013-01-01
Assuming foundational knowledge of special and general relativity, this book guides the reader on issues surrounding black holes, wormholes, cosmology, and extra dimensions. Its first part is devoted to local strong field configurations (black holes and wormholes) in general relativity and the most relevant of alternative theories: scalar-tensor, f(R) and multidimensional theories. The second part is on cosmology, including inflation and a unified description of the whole evolution of the universe. The third part concerns multidimensional theories of gravity and contains a number of original results obtained by the authors. Expository work is conducted for a mechanism of symmetries and fundamental constants formation, while the original approach to nonlinear multidimensional gravity that is able to construct a unique perspective describing different phenomena is highlighted. Much of the content is new in book publications, because it was previously found only in journal publications, e.g. regarding regular bl...
Geometrothermodynamics of Myers-Perry Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandro Bravetti
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the thermodynamics and geometrothermodynamics of the Myers-Perry black holes in five dimensions for three different cases, depending on the values of the angular momenta. We follow Davies approach to study the thermodynamics of black holes and find a nontrivial thermodynamic structure in all cases, which is fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the techniques of Geometrothermodynamics. Moreover, we observe that in the cases when only one angular momentum is present or the two angular momenta are fixed to be equal, that is, when the thermodynamic system is two dimensional, there is a complete agreement between the divergences of the generalized susceptibilities and the singularities of the equilibrium manifold, whereas when the two angular momenta are fully independent, that is, when the thermodynamic system is three dimensional, additional singularities in the curvature appear. However, we prove that such singularities are due to the changing from a stable phase to an unstable one.
Extra Dimensions and Quantum Black Holes
Loureiro, K F
2007-01-01
In the late nineties several authors suggested that the extra dimensions predicted by string theory might lead to observable effects at high energy colliders. The ATLAS experiment which will start taking data at the LHC in 2007 will be an excellent place to search for such effects. One particularly intriguing possibility is that mini black holes could be produced if the centre-of-mass energy of two elementary particles is higher than the Planck scale and their impact parameter is lower than the Schwarzschild radius. Although the exact signature of a black hole is difficult to predict, some general features can be used as guideline for a search strategy. Non-observation will lead to the determination of lower bounds on the Planck Scale and the number of possible extra dimensions. This talk spans results from running experiments such as the Tevatron, Eöt-Wash and AGASA/Auger and presents predictions on the LHC in general.
Black holes in massive conformal gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myung, Yun Soo, E-mail: ysmyung@inje.ac.kr
2014-03-07
We analyze the classical stability of Schwarzschild black hole in massive conformal gravity which was recently proposed for another massive gravity model. This model in the Jordan frame is conformally equivalent to the Einstein–Weyl gravity in the Einstein frame. The coupled linearized Einstein equation is decomposed into the traceless and trace equation when one chooses 6m{sup 2}φ=δR. Solving the traceless equation exhibits unstable modes featuring the Gregory–Laflamme s-mode instability of five-dimensional black string, while we find no unstable modes when solving the trace equation. It is shown that the instability of the black hole in massive conformal gravity arises from the massiveness where the geometry of extra dimension trades for mass.
Electromagnetic Jets from Stars and Black Holes
Gralla, Samuel E; Rodriguez, Maria J
2015-01-01
We present analytic force-free solutions modeling rotating stars and black holes immersed in the magnetic field of a thin disk that terminates at an inner radius. The solutions are exact in flat spacetime and approximate in Kerr spacetime. The compact object produces a conical jet whose properties carry information about its nature. For example, the jet from a star is surrounded by a current sheet, while that of a black hole is smooth. We compute an effective resistance in each case and compare to the canonical values used in circuit models of energy extraction. These solutions illustrate all of the basic features of the Blandford-Znajek process for energy extraction and jet formation in a clean setting.
Classifying Black Hole States with Machine Learning
Huppenkothen, Daniela
2018-01-01
Galactic black hole binaries are known to go through different states with apparent signatures in both X-ray light curves and spectra, leading to important implications for accretion physics as well as our knowledge of General Relativity. Existing frameworks of classification are usually based on human interpretation of low-dimensional representations of the data, and generally only apply to fairly small data sets. Machine learning, in contrast, allows for rapid classification of large, high-dimensional data sets. In this talk, I will report on advances made in classification of states observed in Black Hole X-ray Binaries, focusing on the two sources GRS 1915+105 and Cygnus X-1, and show both the successes and limitations of using machine learning to derive physical constraints on these systems.
Twisted Black Hole Is Taub-NUT
Ong, Yen Chin
2016-01-01
Recently a purportedly novel solution of the vacuum Einstein field equations was discovered: it supposedly describes an asymptotically flat twisted black hole in 4-dimensions whose exterior spacetime rotates in a peculiar manner -- the frame dragging in the northern hemisphere is opposite from that of the southern hemisphere, which results in a globally vanishing angular momentum. Furthermore it was shown that the spacetime has no curvature singularity. We show that the geometry of this black hole spacetime is nevertheless not free of pathological features. In particular, it harbors a rather drastic conical singularity along the axis of rotation. In addition, there exist closed timelike curves due to the fact that the constant r and constant t surfaces are not globally Riemannian. In fact, none of these are that surprising since the solution is just the Taub-NUT geometry.
New generalized nonspherical black hole solutions
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Radu, Eugen; Rodriguez, Maria J
2010-01-01
We present numerical evidence for the existence of several types of static black hole solutions with a nonspherical event horizon topology in $d\\geq 6$ spacetime dimensions. These asymptotically flat configurations are found for a specific metric ansatz and can be viewed as higher dimensional counterparts of the $d=5$ static black rings, dirings and black Saturn. Similar to that case, they are supported against collapse by conical singularities. The issue of rotating generalizations of these solutions is also considered.
Quantum correlator outside a Schwarzschild black hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudia Buss
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We calculate the quantum correlator in Schwarzschild black hole space–time. We perform the calculation for a scalar field in three different quantum states: Boulware, Unruh and Hartle–Hawking, and for points along a timelike circular geodesic. The results show that the correlator presents a global fourfold singularity structure, which is state-independent. Our results also show the different correlations in the three different quantum states arising in-between the singularities.
Microstate solutions from black hole deconstruction
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Raeymaekers, Joris; Van den Bleeken, D.
2015-01-01
Roč. 2015, č. 12 (2015), s. 095 ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31689S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) TUB-14-03 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : back hole s in string theory * AdS-CFT correspondence * D-branes * M-theory Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 6.023, year: 2015
Quantum correlator outside a Schwarzschild black hole
Buss, Claudia; Casals, Marc
2018-01-01
We calculate the quantum correlator in Schwarzschild black hole space-time. We perform the calculation for a scalar field in three different quantum states: Boulware, Unruh and Hartle-Hawking, and for points along a timelike circular geodesic. The results show that the correlator presents a global fourfold singularity structure, which is state-independent. Our results also show the different correlations in the three different quantum states arising in-between the singularities.
Terskelposisjonen i Stian Holes Garmann-trilogi
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kristin Ørjasæter
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Stian Holes Garmann-trilogi er oversatt til en rekke språk og har mottatt norske, nordiske og internasjonale priser. Den er også blitt en forskningsgjenstand. Men Holes eget utsagn om at han må hensette seg i en spesiell sanseposisjon for å skape Garmanns drømmeliknende virkelighet gjennom photoshop-programmet, er ikke blitt lyttet til. Artikkelen argumenterer for at Garmann-trilogien utvikler en lesepakt som er i samsvar med performativ estetikk. Det hypermedierte preget får leseren til å bli bevisst at hun inntar en sanseposisjon, åpen for nye muligheter og med oppmerksomhet på sin egen deltakelse på terskelen mellom den aktuelle, frembringende og den virtuelle, frembrakte virkeligheten. Artikkelen har et eklektisk teoretisk grunnlag som består av litteraturteori, kultur- og medieteori, samt performativ estetikk.Stian Hole's trilogy on Garmann has been translated into at least sixteen languages and rewarded with several Norwegian, Nordic and international prizes. It has also become a research topic; however, Hole's statement about the special sense position that conditions the creation of Garmann's dreamlike reality through photoshop software has not yet been taken into account. This article argues that the Garmann thrilogy develops a reading pact in accordance with performative aesthetics. The trilogy's hypermediated character makes the reader aware that she takes up a sense position open to new possibilities on a threshold between the real and the virtual world, conscious about her own participation in the generation of the latter. Literary theory, cultural media theory and performative aesthetics make up the article's eclectic theoretical framework.
Gravitino perturbations in Schwarzschild black holes
Piedra, Owen Pavel Fernández
2010-01-01
We consider the time evolution of massless gravitino perturbations in Schwarzschild black holes, and show that as in the case of fields of other values of spin, the evolution comes in three stages, after an initial outburst as a first stage, we observe the damped oscillations characteristic of the quasinormal ringing stage, followed by long time tails. Using the sixth order WKB method and Prony fitting of time domain data we determine the quasinormal frequencies. There is a good correspondenc...
New Concepts for Old Black Holes
Susskind, Leonard
2013-01-01
It has been argued that the AMPS paradox implies catastrophic breakdown of the equivalence principle in the neighborhood of a black hole horizon, or even the non-existence of any spacetime at all behind the horizon. Maldacena and the author suggested a different resolution of the paradox based on the close relationship between Einstein-Rosen bridges and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement. In this paper the new mechanisms required by the proposal are reviewed: the ER=EPR connection: precurso...
Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes
Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson
2012-01-01
We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.
Accretion onto a Kiselev black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiao, Lei [Hebei University, College of Physical Science and Technology, Baoding (China); Yang, Rongjia [Hebei University, College of Physical Science and Technology, Baoding (China); Hebei University, Hebei Key Lab of Optic-Electronic Information and Materials, Baoding (China)
2017-05-15
We consider accretion onto a Kiselev black hole. We obtain the fundamental equations for accretion without the back-reaction. We determine the general analytic expressions for the critical points and the mass accretion rate and find the physical conditions the critical points should fulfill. The case of a polytropic gas are discussed in detail. It turns out that the quintessence parameter plays an important role in the accretion process. (orig.)
Black Hole Results from XMM-Newton
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Norbert Schartel
2014-12-01
Full Text Available XMM-Newton is one of the most successful science missions of the European Space Agency. Since 2003 every year about 300 articles are published in refereed journals making directly use of XMM-Newton data. All XMM-Newton calls for observing proposals are highly oversubscribed by factors of six and more. In the following some scientic highlights of XMM-Newton observations of black holes are summarized.
Dirac Quasinormal modes of Schwarzschild black hole
Jing, Jiliang
2005-01-01
The quasinormal modes (QNMs) associated with the decay of Dirac field perturbation around a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated by using continued fraction and Hill-determinant approaches. It is shown that the fundamental quasinormal frequencies become evenly spaced for large angular quantum number and the spacing is given by $\\omega_{\\lambda+1}- \\omega_{\\lambda}=0.38490-0.00000i$. The angular quantum number has the surprising effect of increasing real part of the quasinormal frequencies...
Effective Conformal Descriptions of Black Hole Entropy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven Carlip
2011-07-01
Full Text Available It is no longer considered surprising that black holes have temperatures and entropies. What remains surprising, though, is the universality of these thermodynamic properties: their exceptionally simple and general form, and the fact that they can be derived from many very different descriptions of the underlying microscopic degrees of freedom. I review the proposal that this universality arises from an approximate conformal symmetry, which permits an effective “conformal dual” description that is largely independent of the microscopic details.
Lovelock gravity, black holes and holography
Otero Camaño, Xián
2013-01-01
Lovelock theory is the natural extension of General Relativity to higher di- mensions and can also be thought of as a toy model for ghost-free higher curvature gravity. These gravity theories capture some of the de ning fea- tures of higher curvature gravities, namely the existence of more than one (A)dS vacuum and an intricate dynamics, more general black hole solutions and instabilities; while avoiding some of their problems. In particular, Love- lock gravities yield secon...
Observations of the Antarctic Ozone Hole from 2003 to 2014
Braathen, Geir O.
2015-04-01
The Global Atmosphere Watch of WMO includes several stations in Antarctica that keep a close eye on the ozone layer during the ozone hole season. Observations made during the ozone holes from 2003 to 2014 will be compared to each other and interpreted in light of the meteorological conditions. Satellite observations will be used to get a more general picture of the size and depth of the ozone hole and will also be used to calculate various metrics for ozone hole severity. In 2003, 2005 and 2006, the ozone hole was relatively large with more ozone loss than normal. This is in particular the case for 2006, which by most ozone hole metrics was the most severe ozone hole on record. On the other hand, the ozone holes of 2004, 2007, 2010 and 2012 were less severe than normal, and only the very special ozone hole of 2002 had less ozone depletion when one regards the ozone holes of the last decade. The ozone hole of 2011 suffered more ozone depletion than in 2010, but it was quite average in comparison to other years of the last decade. The situation was similar in 2013 and 2014. The interannual variability will be discussed with the help of meteorological data, such as temperature conditions, possibility for polar stratospheric clouds, vortex shape and vortex longevity.
Probing strong-field general relativity near black holes
CERN. Geneva; Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís
2005-01-01
Nature has sprinkled black holes of various sizes throughout the universe, from stellar mass black holes in X-ray sources to supermassive black holes of billions of solar masses in quasars. Astronomers today are probing the spacetime near black holes using X-rays, and gravitational waves will open a different view in the near future. These tools give us an unprecedented opportunity to test ultra-strong-field general relativity, including the fundamental theorem of the uniqueness of the Kerr metric and Roger Penrose's cosmic censorship conjecture. Already, fascinating studies of spectral lines are showing the extreme gravitational lensing effects near black holes and allowing crude measurements of black hole spin. When the ESA-NASA gravitational wave detector LISA begins its observations in about 10 years, it will make measurements of dynamical spacetimes near black holes with an accuracy greater even than that which theoreticians can reach with their computations today. Most importantly, when gravitational wa...
Black holes, hidden symmetries, and complete integrability
Frolov, Valeri P.; Krtouš, Pavel; Kubizňák, David
2017-11-01
The study of higher-dimensional black holes is a subject which has recently attracted vast interest. Perhaps one of the most surprising discoveries is a realization that the properties of higher-dimensional black holes with the spherical horizon topology and described by the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics are very similar to the properties of the well known four-dimensional Kerr metric. This remarkable result stems from the existence of a single object called the principal tensor. In our review we discuss explicit and hidden symmetries of higher-dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS black hole spacetimes. We start with discussion of the Killing and Killing-Yano objects representing explicit and hidden symmetries. We demonstrate that the principal tensor can be used as a "seed object" which generates all these symmetries. It determines the form of the geometry, as well as guarantees its remarkable properties, such as special algebraic type of the spacetime, complete integrability of geodesic motion, and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations. The review also contains a discussion of different applications of the developed formalism and its possible generalizations.
Where are LIGO's Big Black Holes?
Fishbach, Maya; Holz, Daniel E.
2018-01-01
In LIGO's O1 and O2 observational runs, the detectors were sensitive to stellar mass binary black hole coalescences with component masses up to 100 M⊙, with binaries with primary masses above 40 M⊙ representing over 90% of the total accessible sensitive volume. Nonetheless, of the first 3.9 LIGO detections (GW150914, GW151226, GW170104, and LVT151012), the most massive binary detected was GW150914 with a primary component mass of ~ 36 M⊙ far below the detection mass limit. Furthermore, there are theoretical arguments in favor of an upper mass gap, predicting an absence of black holes in the mass range 50 < M < 135 M⊙. We argue that the absence of detected binary systems with component masses heavier than ~ 40 M⊙ may be preliminary evidence for this upper mass gap. By allowing for the presence of a mass gap, we find weaker constraints on the shape of the underlying mass distribution of LIGO's binary black holes. We fit a power-law distribution with an upper mass cutoff to real and simulated BBH mass measurements, finding that the first four detections favor shallow power law slopes α < 3 and an upper mass cutoff Mmax ~ 40 M⊙. We show that with ~10 additional LIGO BBH detections, fitting the BH mass distribution will provide strong evidence for an upper mass gap if one exists.
Analysis and simulation of BGK electron holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Muschietti
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Recent observations from satellites crossing regions of magnetic-field-aligned electron streams reveal solitary potential structures that move at speeds much greater than the ion acoustic/thermal velocity. The structures appear as positive potential pulses rapidly drifting along the magnetic field, and are electrostatic in their rest frame. We interpret them as BGK electron holes supported by a drifting population of trapped electrons. Using Laplace transforms, we analyse the behavior of one phase-space electron hole. The resulting potential shapes and electron distribution functions are self-consistent and compatible with the field and particle data associated with the observed pulses. In particular, the spatial width increases with increasing amplitude. The stability of the analytic solution is tested by means of a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation code with open boundaries. We consider a strongly magnetized parameter regime in which the bounce frequency of the trapped electrons is much less than their gyrofrequency. Our investigation includes the influence of the ions, which in the frame of the hole appear as an incident beam, and impinge on the BGK potential with considerable energy. The nonlinear structure is remarkably resilient
Black hole thermodynamics with dynamical lambda
Gregory, Ruth; Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie
2017-10-01
We study evolution and thermodynamics of a slow-roll transition between early and late time de Sitter phases, both in the homogeneous case and in the presence of a black hole, in a scalar field model with a generic potential having both a maximum and a positive minimum. Asymptotically future de Sitter spacetimes are characterized by ADM charges known as cosmological tensions. We show that the late time de Sitter phase has finite cosmological tension when the scalar field oscillation around its minimum is underdamped, while the cosmological tension in the overdamped case diverges. We compute the variation in the cosmological and black hole horizon areas between the early and late time phases, finding that the fractional change in horizon area is proportional to the corresponding fractional change in the effective cosmological constant. We show that the extended first law of thermodynamics, including variation in the effective cosmological constant, is satisfied between the initial and final states, and discuss the dynamical evolution of the black hole temperature.
Black Hole Spectroscopy with Coherent Mode Stacking.
Yang, Huan; Yagi, Kent; Blackman, Jonathan; Lehner, Luis; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás
2017-04-21
The measurement of multiple ringdown modes in gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers will allow for testing the fundamental properties of black holes in general relativity and to constrain modified theories of gravity. To enhance the ability of Advanced LIGO/Virgo to perform such tasks, we propose a coherent mode stacking method to search for a chosen target mode within a collection of multiple merger events. We first rescale each signal so that the target mode in each of them has the same frequency and then sum the waveforms constructively. A crucial element to realize this coherent superposition is to make use of a priori information extracted from the inspiral-merger phase of each event. To illustrate the method, we perform a study with simulated events targeting the ℓ=m=3 ringdown mode of the remnant black holes. We show that this method can significantly boost the signal-to-noise ratio of the collective target mode compared to that of the single loudest event. Using current estimates of merger rates, we show that it is likely that advanced-era detectors can measure this collective ringdown mode with one year of coincident data gathered at design sensitivity.
New geometries for black hole horizons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armas, Jay [Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Blau, Matthias [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)
2015-07-10
We construct several classes of worldvolume effective actions for black holes by integrating out spatial sections of the worldvolume geometry of asymptotically flat black branes. This provides a generalisation of the blackfold approach for higher-dimensional black holes and yields a map between different effective theories, which we exploit by obtaining new hydrodynamic and elastic transport coefficients via simple integrations. Using Euclidean minimal surfaces in order to decouple the fluid dynamics on different sections of the worldvolume, we obtain local effective theories for ultraspinning Myers-Perry branes and helicoidal black branes, described in terms of a stress-energy tensor, particle currents and non-trivial boost vectors. We then study in detail and present novel compact and non-compact geometries for black hole horizons in higher-dimensional asymptotically flat space-time. These include doubly-spinning black rings, black helicoids and helicoidal p-branes as well as helicoidal black rings and helicoidal black tori in D≥6.
Peculiar Black-Hole Unipolar Induction
Okamoto, Isao
2012-06-01
It is argued that a posteriori without conflicting with the dubbed no-hair theorem, a Kerr black hole acquires its own proper magnetosphere in the steady eigen-state. The angular frequency of field lines, ΩF, given as the eigenvalue in terms of the hole's angular frequency, ΩH , couples with the frame-dragging angular frequency, ω, to create an inner general-relativistic domain of ΩH > ω > ΩF, in which the gradient of the electric potential is, when viewed by the fiducial observers (FIDOs), reversed in direction from that in the outer quasi-classical domain of ΩF > ω > 0. The field lines are pinned down in the plasma source at the interface between the two domains (upper null surface SN), from which pair-particles well up, charge-separated into the ingoing and outgoing winds. The EMFs due to unipolar induction operate to drive the surface currents, following Ohm's law, on the resistive membranes terminating the force-free domains (say, SffH and Sff∞), to exert the surface torques onto the respective membranes, thereby extracting angular momentum from the hole and transferring to the domain of astrophysical loads.
Ultramassive black hole feedback in compact galaxies
Ishibashi, W.; Fabian, A. C.
2017-12-01
Recent observations confirm the existence of ultra-massive black holes (UMBH) in the nuclei of compact galaxies, with physical properties similar to NGC 1277. The nature of these objects poses a new puzzle to the `black hole-host galaxy co-evolution' scenario. We discuss the potential link between UMBH and galaxy compactness, possibly connected via extreme active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback at early times ($z > 2$). In our picture, AGN feedback is driven by radiation pressure on dust. We suggest that early UMBH feedback blows away all the gas beyond a $\\sim$kpc or so, while triggering star formation at inner radii, eventually leaving a compact galaxy remnant. Such extreme UMBH feedback can also affect the surrounding environment on larger scales, e.g. the outflowing stars may form a diffuse stellar halo around the compact galaxy, or even escape into the intergalactic or intracluster medium. On the other hand, less massive black holes will drive less powerful feedback, such that the stars formed within the AGN feedback-driven outflow remain bound to the host galaxy, and contribute to its size growth over cosmic time.
Black holes, hidden symmetries, and complete integrability.
Frolov, Valeri P; Krtouš, Pavel; Kubizňák, David
2017-01-01
The study of higher-dimensional black holes is a subject which has recently attracted vast interest. Perhaps one of the most surprising discoveries is a realization that the properties of higher-dimensional black holes with the spherical horizon topology and described by the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics are very similar to the properties of the well known four-dimensional Kerr metric. This remarkable result stems from the existence of a single object called the principal tensor. In our review we discuss explicit and hidden symmetries of higher-dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS black hole spacetimes. We start with discussion of the Killing and Killing-Yano objects representing explicit and hidden symmetries. We demonstrate that the principal tensor can be used as a "seed object" which generates all these symmetries. It determines the form of the geometry, as well as guarantees its remarkable properties, such as special algebraic type of the spacetime, complete integrability of geodesic motion, and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations. The review also contains a discussion of different applications of the developed formalism and its possible generalizations.
Radiative Magnetic Reconnection Near Accreting Black Holes
Beloborodov, Andrei M.
2017-12-01
A radiative mechanism is proposed for magnetic flares near luminous accreting black holes. It is based on recent first-principle simulations of magnetic reconnection, which show a hierarchical chain of fast-moving plasmoids. The reconnection occurs in a compact region (comparable to the black hole radius), and the chain experiences fast Compton cooling accompanied by electron-positron pair creation. The distribution of plasmoid speeds is shaped by radiative losses, and the self-regulated chain radiates its energy in hard X-rays. The mechanism is illustrated by Monte-Carlo simulations of the transfer of seed soft photons through the reconnection layer. The emerging radiation spectrum has a cutoff near 100 keV similar to the hard-state spectra of X-ray binaries and AGN. We discuss how the chain cooling differs from previous phenomenological emission models, and suggest that it can explain the hard X-ray activity of accreting black holes from first principles. Particles accelerated at the X-points of the chain produce an additional high-energy component, explaining the “hybrid Comptonization” observed in Cyg X-1.
Kerr black holes with scalar hair.
Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Radu, Eugen
2014-06-06
We present a family of solutions of Einstein's gravity minimally coupled to a complex, massive scalar field, describing asymptotically flat, spinning black holes with scalar hair and a regular horizon. These hairy black holes (HBHs) are supported by rotation and have no static limit. Besides mass M and angular momentum J, they carry a conserved, continuous Noether charge Q measuring the scalar hair. HBHs branch off from the Kerr metric at the threshold of the superradiant instability and reduce to spinning boson stars in the limit of vanishing horizon area. They overlap with Kerr black holes for a set of (M, J) values. A single Killing vector field preserves the solutions, tangent to the null geodesic generators of the event horizon. HBHs can exhibit sharp physical differences when compared to the Kerr solution, such as J/M^{2}>1, a quadrupole moment larger than J^{2}/M, and a larger orbital angular velocity at the innermost stable circular orbit. Families of HBHs connected to the Kerr geometry should exist in scalar (and other) models with more general self-interactions.
Black hole free energy during charged collapse
Edery, Ariel; Beauchesne, Hugues
2012-03-01
Numerical work on gravitational collapse in isotropic coordinates has recently shown that the negative of the gravitational Lagrangian approaches the (Helmholtz) free energy of a Schwarzschild black hole at late times of the collapse. We investigate numerically this association during the collapse of a charged scalar field to a Reissner-Nordström (RN) black hole in isotropic coordinates. Charged collapse yields a large outgoing matter wave in the exterior region but this has a negligible effect on the interior. The thermodynamics via the free energy can therefore be investigated by focusing on the interior. We find that the percentage discrepancy between the numerical value for the Lagrangian and the analytical expression for the free energy reach values as low as 3% depending on the initial state. As a consistency check, we also implement a procedure for prolonging the evolution of the exterior region. The matter Lagrangian approaches zero everywhere (interior and exterior) showing clearly that the entropy of the charged black hole is gravitational in origin.
GOODS Missing Black Hole Report: Hundreds Found!
2007-10-01
Astronomers have unmasked hundreds of black holes hiding deep inside dusty galaxies billions of light-years away Normal Galaxies Normal Galaxies The massive, growing black holes, discovered by NASA's Spitzer and Chandra space telescopes, represent a large fraction of a long-sought missing population. Their discovery implies there are hundreds of millions of additional black holes growing in our young universe, more than doubling the total amount known at that distance. "Active, supermassive black holes are everywhere in the early universe," said Mark Dickinson of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory in Tucson, Ariz. "We had seen the tip of the iceberg before in our search for these objects. Now, we can see the iceberg itself." Dickinson is a co-author of two new papers appearing in the Nov. 10 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. Emanuele Daddi of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique in France led the research. The findings are also the first direct evidence that most, if not all, massive galaxies in the distant universe spend their youths building monstrous black holes at their cores. For decades, large populations of active black holes have been considered missing. These highly energetic structures, also called quasars, consist of a dusty, doughnut-shaped cloud that surrounds and feeds a growing supermassive black hole. They give off a lot of X-rays that can be detected as a general glow in space, but sometimes the quasars themselves can't be seen because dust and gas blocks their X-rays from our point of view. "We knew from other studies from about 30 years ago that there must be more quasars in the universe, but we didn't know where to find them until now," said Daddi. Daddi and his team initially set out to study 1,000 dusty, massive galaxies that are busy making stars, and were thought to lack quasars. The galaxies are about the same mass as our own spiral Milky Way galaxy, but irregular in shape. At 9 to 11 billion light-years away, they exist at a
Costa, Miguel S.; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.
2016-05-03
We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...
Accurate Black Hole Spin Measurements using ABC
Connolly, Andrew
Measuring the spin of black holes provides important insights into the supernova formation mechanism of stellar-mass black holes, galaxy merger scenarios for supermassive black holes, and the launching mechanisms of ballistic jets. It is therefore of crucial importance to measure black hole spins to a high degree of accuracy. Stellar-mass black holes in binary systems (BHBs) have two major advantages over Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN): (1) owing to their proximity and brightness, observations of BHBs are not as limited by counting statistics as their supermassive counter-parts; (2) unlike in AGN, one can use two largely independent methods to measure the spin in BHBs, providing a check on spin measurements. However, the high flux that makes BHBs such excellent targets for spin measurements also proves to be their Achilles heel: modern CCD cameras are optimized for observing faint sources. Consequently, observations of bright BHBs with CCD cameras are subject to non-linear instrumental effects among them pile-up and grade migration that strongly distort the spectrum. Since spin measurements rely on a very precise model of both the continuum X-ray flux and disc reflection signatures superimposed on top of the former, these instrumental effects may cause inferred spin measurements to differ by a factor of two or more. Current mitigation strategies are aimed at removing instrumental effects either during the observations themselves, by requiring simultaneous observations with multiple telescopes, or in post-processing. Even when these techniques are employed, pile-up may remain unrecognized and still distort results, whereas mitigation strategies may introduce additional systematic biases, e.g. due to increased (cross-)calibration uncertainties. Advances in modern statistical methodology allow for efficient modeling of instrumental effects during the analysis stage, largely eliminating the requirements for observations with multiple instruments or increased observation
Speeding Clouds May Reveal Invisible Black Holes
Kohler, Susanna
2017-07-01
Several small, speeding clouds have been discovered at the center of our galaxy. A new study suggests that these unusual objects may reveal the lurking presence of inactive black holes.Peculiar Cloudsa) Velocity-integrated intensity map showing the location of the two high-velocity compact clouds, HCN0.0090.044 and HCN0.0850.094, in the context of larger molecular clouds. b) and c) Latitude-velocity and longitude-velocity maps for HCN0.0090.044 and HCN0.0850.094, respectively. d) and e) spectra for the two compacts clouds, respectively. Click for a closer look. [Takekawa et al. 2017]Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole marking the center of our galaxy, is surrounded by a region roughly 650 light-years across known as the Central Molecular Zone. This area at the heart of our galaxy is filled with large amounts of warm, dense molecular gas that has a complex distribution and turbulent kinematics.Several peculiar gas clouds have been discovered within the Central Molecular Zone within the past two decades. These clouds, dubbed high-velocity compact clouds, are characterized by their compact sizes and extremely broad velocity widths.What created this mysterious population of energetic clouds? The recent discovery of two new high-velocity compact clouds, reported on in a paper led by Shunya Takekawa (Keio University, Japan), may help us to answer this question.Two More to the CountUsing the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii, Takekawa and collaborators detected the small clouds near the circumnuclear disk at the centermost part of our galaxy. These two clouds have velocity spreads of -80 to -20 km/s and -80 to 0 km/s and compact sizes of just over 1 light-year. The clouds similar appearances and physical properties suggest that they may both have been formed by the same process.Takekawa and collaborators explore and discard several possible origins for these clouds, such as outflows from massive protostars (no massive, luminous stars have been detected affiliated
Black Hole Caught Zapping Galaxy into Existence?
2009-11-01
Which come first, the supermassive black holes that frantically devour matter or the enormous galaxies where they reside? A brand new scenario has emerged from a recent set of outstanding observations of a black hole without a home: black holes may be "building" their own host galaxy. This could be the long-sought missing link to understanding why the masses of black holes are larger in galaxies that contain more stars. "The 'chicken and egg' question of whether a galaxy or its black hole comes first is one of the most debated subjects in astrophysics today," says lead author David Elbaz. "Our study suggests that supermassive black holes can trigger the formation of stars, thus 'building' their own host galaxies. This link could also explain why galaxies hosting larger black holes have more stars." To reach such an extraordinary conclusion, the team of astronomers conducted extensive observations of a peculiar object, the nearby quasar HE0450-2958 (see eso0523 for a previous study of this object), which is the only one for which a host galaxy has not yet been detected [1]. HE0450-2958 is located some 5 billion light-years away. Until now, it was speculated that the quasar's host galaxy was hidden behind large amounts of dust, and so the astronomers used a mid-infrared instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope for the observations [2]. At such wavelengths, dust clouds shine very brightly, and are readily detected. "Observing at these wavelengths would allow us to trace dust that might hide the host galaxy," says Knud Jahnke, who led the observations performed at the VLT. "However, we did not find any. Instead we discovered that an apparently unrelated galaxy in the quasar's immediate neighbourhood is producing stars at a frantic rate." These observations have provided a surprising new take on the system. While no trace of stars is revealed around the black hole, its companion galaxy is extremely rich in bright and very young stars. It is forming stars at a rate
BOOK REVIEW: Introduction to Black Hole Physics Introduction to Black Hole Physics
Tanaka, Takahiro
2012-07-01
Introduction to Black Hole Physics is a large volume (504 pages), and yet despite this it is still really an introductory text. The book gives an introduction to general relativity, but most of the text is dedicated to attracting the reader's attention to the interesting world of black hole physics. In this sense, the book is very distinct from other textbooks on general relativity. We are told that it was based on the lectures given by Professor Frolov, one of the authors, over the last 30 years. One can obtain the basic ideas about black holes, and also the necessary tips to understand general relativity at a very basic level. For example, in the discussion about particle motion in curved space, the authors start with a brief review on analytical mechanics. The book does not require its readers to have a great deal of knowledge in advance. If you are familiar with such a basic subject, you can simply omit that section. The reason why I especially picked up on this topic as an example is that the book devotes a significant number of pages to geodesic motions in black hole spacetime. One of the main motivations to study black holes is related to how they will actually be observed, once we develop the ability to observe them clearly. The book does explain such discoveries as, for instance, how the motion of a particle is related to a beautiful mathematical structure arising from the hidden symmetry of spacetime, which became transparent via the recent progress in the exploration of black holes in higher dimensions; a concise introduction to this latest topic is deferred to Appendix D, so as not to distract the reader with its mathematical complexities. It should be also mentioned that the book is not limited to general relativistic aspects: quantum fields on a black hole background and Hawking radiation are also covered. Also included are current hot topics, for instance the gravitational waves from a system including black holes, whose first direct detection is
Quantum-gravity fluctuations and the black-hole temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)
2015-05-15
Bekenstein has put forward the idea that, in a quantum theory of gravity, a black hole should have a discrete energy spectrum with concomitant discrete line emission. The quantized black-hole radiation spectrum is expected to be very different from Hawking's semi-classical prediction of a thermal black-hole radiation spectrum. One naturally wonders: Is it possible to reconcile the discrete quantum spectrum suggested by Bekenstein with the continuous semi-classical spectrum suggested by Hawking? In order to address this fundamental question, in this essay we shall consider the zero-point quantum-gravity fluctuations of the black-hole spacetime. In a quantum theory of gravity, these spacetime fluctuations are closely related to the characteristic gravitational resonances of the corresponding black-hole spacetime. Assuming that the energy of the black-hole radiation stems from these zero-point quantum-gravity fluctuations of the black-hole spacetime, we derive the effective temperature of the quantized black-hole radiation spectrum. Remarkably, it is shown that this characteristic temperature of the discrete (quantized) black-hole radiation agrees with the well-known Hawking temperature of the continuous (semi-classical) black-hole spectrum. (orig.)
Andreev reflections and the quantum physics of black holes
Manikandan, Sreenath K.; Jordan, Andrew N.
2017-12-01
We establish an analogy between superconductor-metal interfaces and the quantum physics of a black hole, using the proximity effect. We show that the metal-superconductor interface can be thought of as an event horizon and Andreev reflection from the interface is analogous to the Hawking radiation in black holes. We describe quantum information transfer in Andreev reflection with a final state projection model similar to the Horowitz-Maldacena model for black hole evaporation. We also propose the Andreev reflection analogue of Hayden and Preskill's description of a black hole final state, where the black hole is described as an information mirror. The analogy between crossed Andreev reflections and Einstein-Rosen bridges is discussed: our proposal gives a precise mechanism for the apparent loss of quantum information in a black hole by the process of nonlocal Andreev reflection, transferring the quantum information through a wormhole and into another universe. Given these established connections, we conjecture that the final quantum state of a black hole is exactly the same as the ground state wave function of the superconductor/superfluid in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity; in particular, the infalling matter and the infalling Hawking quanta, described in the Horowitz-Maldacena model, forms a Cooper pairlike singlet state inside the black hole. A black hole evaporating and shrinking in size can be thought of as the analogue of Andreev reflection by a hole where the superconductor loses a Cooper pair. Our model does not suffer from the black hole information problem since Andreev reflection is unitary. We also relate the thermodynamic properties of a black hole to that of a superconductor, and propose an experiment which can demonstrate the negative specific heat feature of black holes in a growing/evaporating condensate.
Hole dephasing caused by hole–hole interaction in a multilayered black phosphorus
Li, Lijun; Atif Khan, Muhammad; Lee, Yoontae; Lee, Inyeal; Yun, Sun Jin; Youn, Doo-Hyeb; Kim, Gil-Ho
2017-11-01
We study the magnetotransport of holes in a multilayered black phosphorus in a temperature range of 1.9 to 21.5 K. We observed a negative magnetoresistance at magnetic fields up to 1.5 T. This negative magetoresistance was analyzed by weak localization theory in diffusive regime. At the lowest temperature and the highest carrier density we found a phase coherence length of 48 nm. The linear temperature dependence of the dephasing rate shows that the hole–hole scattering processes with small energy transfer are the dominant contribution in breaking the carrier phase coherence.
Single-hole tunneling through a two-dimensional hole gas in intrinsic silicon
Spruijtenburg, P. C.; Ridderbos, Joost; Mueller, Filipp; Müller, F.; Leenstra, Anne W.; Brauns, M.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Zwanenburg, Floris Arnoud
2013-01-01
In this letter we report single-hole tunneling through a quantum dot in a two-dimensional hole gas, situated in a narrow-channel field-effect transistor in intrinsic silicon. Two layers of aluminum gate electrodes are defined on Si/SiO2 using electron-beam lithography. Fabrication and subsequent electrical characterization of different devices yield reproducible results, such as typical MOSFET turn-on and pinch-off characteristics. Additionally, linear transport measurements at 4 K result in ...
COMPARING THE IMPACT OF BLACK HOLE AND GRAY HOLE ATTACKS IN MOBILE ADHOC NETWORKS
Bose; Usha
2012-01-01
Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs) are dynamic in nature. Any nodes can join and leave the network at any time. Hence any type of intruders can attack the communication at any time, especially the routing mechanism between the nodes. In this study, we study and understand two types of attacks which cause more damage to the routing performance of MANET; the attacks are Black Hole attacks and Gray Hole attacks and compare the impact of these attacks on MANET. âSend Fake Route Reply to the nodesâ ty...
Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption
2009-05-01
NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after
Black hole solutions of modified gravity theories
Bardoux, Yannis
2012-10-01
The main interest of the work exposed in this thesis is to explore hairy black holes in a more general framework than General Relativity by taking into account the presence of a cosmological constant, of higher dimensions, of exotic matter fields or of higher curvature terms. These extensions to General Relativity can be derived in the context of String Theory. It is also by studying natural extensions to General Relativity that we can more deeply understand the theory of Einstein. Firstly, we will display the theory of General Relativity with its building blocks in particular and we will give the mathematical tools that we need afterwards. Then, a first extension will be detailed with the introduction of higher dimensions and p-form fields which constitute the natural generalization of the electromagnetic interaction. We will build in this framework new static black hole solutions where p-form fields allow to shape the geometry of the horizon. Secondly, we will present the general extension of Einstein theory in any dimension which produces second order field equations: Lovelock theory. We will determine in this context a large class of solutions in dimension 6 for which the theory is reduced to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory with the presence of p-form fields. Thirdly, we will study a generalization of General Relativity in dimension 4 whose modification is induced by a conformally coupled scalar field. We will namely exhibit a new black hole solution with a flat horizon in the presence of axionic fields. To conclude this thesis, thermodynamical aspects of these gravitational theories will be studied. In this way, we will be able to determine the mass and the charges of these new solutions and we will examine phase transition phenomena in the presence of a conformally scalar field.
McNutt, David D.
2017-11-01
We introduce three approaches to generate curvature invariants that transform covariantly under a conformal transformation of a four-dimensional spacetime. For any black hole conformally related to a stationary black hole, we show how a set of conformally covariant invariants can be combined to produce a conformally covariant invariant that detects the event horizon of the conformally related black hole. As an application we consider the rotating dynamical black holes conformally related to the Kerr-Newman-Unti-Tamburino-(anti)-de Sitter spacetimes and construct an invariant that detects the conformal Killing horizon along with a second invariant that detects the conformal stationary limit surface. In addition, we present necessary conditions for a dynamical black hole to be conformally related to a stationary black hole and apply these conditions to the ingoing Kerr-Vaidya and Vaidya black hole solutions to determine if they are conformally related to stationary black holes for particular choices of the mass function. While two of the three approaches cannot be generalized to higher dimensions, we discuss the existence of a conformally covariant invariant that will detect the event horizon for any higher dimensional black hole conformally related to a stationary black hole which admits at least two conformally covariant invariants, including all vacuum spacetimes.
Black Hole Thermodynamics and Lorentz Symmetry
Jacobson, Ted; Wall, Aron C.
2010-08-01
Recent developments point to a breakdown in the generalized second law of thermodynamics for theories with Lorentz symmetry violation. It appears possible to construct a perpetual motion machine of the second kind in such theories, using a black hole to catalyze the conversion of heat to work. Here we describe and extend the arguments leading to that conclusion. We suggest the inference that local Lorentz symmetry may be an emergent property of the macroscopic world with origins in a microscopic second law of causal horizon thermodynamics.
Erice Lectures on Black Holes and Attractors
Ferrara, Sergio; Marrani, A
2008-01-01
These lectures give an elementary introduction to the subject of four dimensional black holes (BHs) in supergravity and the Attractor Mechanism in the extremal case. Some thermodynamical properties are discussed and some relevant formulae for the critical points of the BH effective potential are given. The case of Maxwell-Einstein-axion-dilaton (super)gravity is discussed in detail. Analogies among BH entropy and multipartite entanglement of qubits in quantum information theory, as well moduli spaces of extremal BH attractors, are also discussed.
The geometry of Kerr black holes
O'Neill, Barrett
2014-01-01
This unique monograph by a noted UCLA professor examines in detail the mathematics of Kerr black holes, which possess the properties of mass and angular momentum but carry no electrical charge. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of mathematics, physics, and astronomy as well as professional physicists, the self-contained treatment constitutes an introduction to modern techniques in differential geometry. The text begins with a substantial chapter offering background on the mathematics needed for the rest of the book. Subsequent chapters emphasize physical interpretation
Bondi accretion onto cosmological black holes
Karkowski, Janusz
2012-01-01
In this paper we investigate a steady accretion within the Einstein-Straus vacuole, in the presence of the cosmological constant. The dark energy damps the mass accretion rate and --- above certain limit --- completely stops the steady accretion onto black holes, which in particular is prohibited in the inflation era and after (roughly) $10^{12}$ years from Big Bang (assuming the presently known value of the cosmological constant). Steady accretion would not exist in the late phases of the Penrose's scenario - known as the Weyl curvature hypothesis - of the evolution of the Universe.
Bondi accretion onto cosmological black holes
Karkowski, Janusz; Malec, Edward
2013-02-01
In this paper we investigate a steady accretion within the Einstein-Straus vacuole, in the presence of the cosmological constant. The dark energy damps the mass accretion rate and—above a certain limit—completely stops the steady accretion onto black holes, which, in particular, is prohibited in the inflation era and after (roughly) 1012 years from the big bang (assuming the presently known value of the cosmological constant). Steady accretion would not exist in the late phases of the Penrose’s scenario—known as the Weyl curvature hypothesis—of the evolution of the Universe.
Terminating black holes in quantum gravity
Bambi, Cosimo; Modesto, Leonardo
2014-01-01
We study the homogeneous gravitational collapse of a spherical cloud composed of radiation or dust in a super-renormalizable and asymptotically free theory of gravity. The central singularity appearing in classical general relativity is resolved in both cases. The singularity is replaced by a bounce, after which the cloud re-expands indefinitely. In this model, strictly speaking, a black hole never forms and the high density state governed by quantum-gravitational physics is visible to faraway observers. Our result is quite general, and it holds for gravity theories with form factors suggested by string field theory and non-commutative geometries.
Angular momentum conservation for dynamical black holes
Hayward, Sean A.
2006-01-01
Angular momentum can be defined by rearranging the Komar surface integral in terms of a twist form, encoding the twisting around of space-time due to a rotating mass, and an axial vector. If the axial vector is a coordinate vector and has vanishing transverse divergence, it can be uniquely specified under certain generic conditions. Along a trapping horizon, a conservation law expresses the rate of change of angular momentum of a general black hole in terms of angular momentum densities of ma...