Sample records for hole-doped spin ladder

  1. Spin gaps in coupled t-J ladders (United States)

    Poilblanc, D.; Tsunetsugu, H.; Rice, T. M.


    Spin gaps in coupled t-J ladders are investigated by exact diagonalization of small clusters up to 4×8 sites. At half-filling, the numerical results for the triplet excitation spectrum are in very good agreement with a second-order perturbation expansion in terms of small interladder and intraladder exchange couplings between rungs (J/J'moving coherently along the ladder (with momenta close to π) is split by the interladder coupling. For intermediate couplings, finite-size scaling is used to estimate the spin gap. In the isotropic infinite four-chain system (two coupled ladders) we find a spin gap of 0.245J, roughly half of the single-ladder spin gap. When the system is hole doped, bonding and antibonding bound pairs of holes can propagate coherently along the chains and the spin gap remains finite.

  2. Spin-state polarons in lightly hole-doped LaCoO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlesnyak, Andrey A [ORNL; Russina, Margarita [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin, Germany; Furrer, Albert [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering ETHZ & PSI; Alfonsov, Aleksei [IFW Dresden; Vavilova, Eugenia [IFW Dresden; Kataev, Vladislav [IFW Dresden; Buechner, Bernd [IFW Dresden; Straessle, Thierry [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering ETHZ & PSI; Pomjakushina, Ekaterina [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Conder, Kazimierz [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Khomskii, Daniel [Universitat zu Koln, Koln, Germany


    Inelastic neutron scattering (INS), electron spin resonance (ESR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were employed to establish the origin of the strong magnetic signal in lightly-hole-doped La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3}, x{approx}0.002. Both INS and ESR low temperature spectra show intense excitations with large effective g factors {approx}10-18. NMR data indicate the creation of extended magnetic clusters. From the Q dependence of the INS magnetic intensity, we conclude that the observed anomalies are caused by the formation of octahedrally shaped spin-state polarons comprising seven Co ions. The present INS, ESR, and NMR data give evidence for two regimes in the lightly-hole-doped samples: (i) T < 35 K dominated by spin polarons; (ii) T > 35 K dominated by thermally activated magnetic Co{sup 3+} ions.

  3. Spin-state polarons in lightly-hole-doped LaCoO3. (United States)

    Podlesnyak, A; Russina, M; Furrer, A; Alfonsov, A; Vavilova, E; Kataev, V; Büchner, B; Strässle, Th; Pomjakushina, E; Conder, K; Khomskii, D I


    Inelastic neutron scattering (INS), electron spin resonance (ESR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were employed to establish the origin of the strong magnetic signal in lightly-hole-doped La1-xSrxCoO3, x approximately 0.002. Both INS and ESR low temperature spectra show intense excitations with large effective g factors approximately 10-18. NMR data indicate the creation of extended magnetic clusters. From the Q dependence of the INS magnetic intensity, we conclude that the observed anomalies are caused by the formation of octahedrally shaped spin-state polarons comprising seven Co ions. The present INS, ESR, and NMR data give evidence for two regimes in the lightly-hole-doped samples: (i) T35 K dominated by thermally activated magnetic Co3+ ions.

  4. Spin-state polaron in lightly hole doped LaCoO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsov, A.; Kataev, V.; Buechner, B. [IFW Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Vavilova, E. [IFW Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Zavoisky Physical Technical Institute, RAS, 420029 Kazan (Russian Federation); Podlesnyak, A.; Russina, M. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Furrer, A.; Straessle, T. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETH Zuerich, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); PSI, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Pomjakushina, E. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETH Zuerich, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Laboratory for Developments and Methods, PSI, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Conder, K. [Laboratory for Developments and Methods, PSI, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Khomskii, D.I. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany)


    LaCoO{sub 3} is nonmagnetic at low temperatures and shows a T-activated magnetism due to a change of the Co{sup 3+} spin state. Surprisingly, a very small Sr{sup 2+} (i.e. hole) doping yields a strong magnetic response already at low T. To establish its nature we performed electron spin- (ESR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) measurements of lightly doped La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} single crystals (x{proportional_to}0.002). {sup 59}Co NMR data indicate the formation of extended magnetic clusters distributed over the entire sample volume. Low-T ESR spectra show up multiple lines with large g-factors suggesting that these clusters have a large spin multiplicity with a strong orbital contribution. From the Q-dependence of the INS intensity we conclude that the cluster comprises 7 magnetic Co ions. We propose a mechanism of how already a very light hole doping yields a formation of big spin polarons in LaCoO{sub 3}.

  5. Origin of a spin-state polaron in lightly hole doped LaCoO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsov, A; Vavilova, E; Kataev, V; Buechner, B [IFW Dresden, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Podlesnyak, A; Russina, M [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Furrer, A; Straessle, Th; Pomjakushina, E [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETH Zuerich and PSI, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Conder, K [Laboratory for Developments and Methods, PSI, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Khomskii, D I, E-mail: v.kataev@ifw-dresden.d, E-mail: a.alfonsov@ifw-dresden.d [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany)


    We performed electron spin and nuclear magnetic resonance and inelastic neutron scattering measurements of a single crystal of lightly hole-doped La{sub 1}-{sub x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3}, x approx 0.002 in order to establish the origin of a surprisingly strong magnetization due to a very small Sr doping. The data provide experimental evidence for the creation at low temperatures of extended spin clusters with a large spin multiplicity. We argue that the doped hole couples ferromagnetically seven magnetic Co ions yielding a spin-state polaron with a huge local magnetic moment with a strong orbital contribution.

  6. Spin-Glass Transition and Giant Paramagnetism in Heavily Hole-Doped Bi2Sr2Co2Oy (United States)

    Hsu, Hung Chang; Lee, Wei-Li; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Young, Ben-Li; Kung, Hsiang-Hsi; Huang, Jian; Chou, Fang Cheng


    Hole-doped single crystals of misfit-layered cobaltate Bi2-xPbxSr2-zCo2Oy (x = 0-0.61, y = 8.28-8.62, and z = 0.01-0.22) have been successfully grown using the optical floating-zone method. Heavier hole doping has been achieved through both Pb substitution in the Bi site and the more effective Sr vacancy formation. The Co4+ : Co3+ ratio can be raised significantly from its original ˜1 : 1 to 4.5 : 1, as confirmed by iodometric titration. A spin-glass transition temperature of Tg ˜ 70 K is confirmed by ac susceptibility measurement when the Co4+ : Co3+ ratio becomes higher than 2 : 1, presumably owing to the significantly increased probability of triangular geometrical frustration among antiferromagnetically coupled localized Co4+ spins.

  7. Breakdown of single spin-fluid model in the heavily hole-doped superconductor CsFe2As2 (United States)

    Zhao, D.; Li, S. J.; Wang, N. Z.; Li, J.; Song, D. W.; Zheng, L. X.; Nie, L. P.; Luo, X. G.; Wu, T.; Chen, X. H.


    Although Fe-based superconductors are correlated electronic systems with multiorbital, previous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurement suggests that a single spin-fluid model is sufficient to describe its spin behavior. Here, we first observed the breakdown of single spin-fluid model in a heavily hole-doped Fe-based superconductor CsFe2As2 by site-selective NMR measurement. At high-temperature regime, both Knight shift and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation at 133Cs and 75As nuclei exhibit distinct temperature-dependent behavior, suggesting the breakdown of the single spin-fluid model in CsFe2As2 . This is ascribed to the coexistence of both localized and itinerant spin degree of freedom at 3 d orbitals, which is consistent with the orbital-selective Mott phase. With decreasing temperature, the single spin-fluid behavior is recovered below T*˜75 K due to a coherent state among 3 d orbitals. The Kondo liquid scenario is proposed to understand the low-temperature coherent state.

  8. Susceptibilities and Spin Gaps of Weakly Coupled Spin Ladders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larochelle, S.


    We calculate the uniform and staggered susceptibilities of two-chain spin-1/2 Heisenberg ladders using Monte-Carlo simulations. We show that the gap extracted from the uniform susceptibility and the saturation value of the staggered susceptibility are independent of the sign of the interchain coupling J{perpendicular} in the asymptotic limit |J{perpendicular}|/J {yields} 0. Furthermore, we examine the existence of logarithmic corrections to the linear scaling of the gap with |J{perpendicular}|.

  9. Field induced quantum phase transition in the anisotropic spin ladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezania, Hamed, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jesri, Sounya [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    We have studied the quantum phase transition between antiferromagnetic and spin liquid phases for field induced quasi-one dimensional spin ladder model Hamiltonian. Using bond operator formalism, the original spin Hamiltonian is mapped to bosonic one. Green's function approach has been implemented to get the low energy spectrum and the corresponding structure factor. The critical field (B{sub c}) for a fixed coupling exchange between two rungs is found based on the Bose-Einstein condensation of quasi-particles (triplons) which takes place when the spin excitation spectrum vanishes at the antiferromagnetic wave vector. We have investigated the effect of both intersite ({delta}) and local ({Delta}) anisotropy on the critical field, critical coupling exchange and transverse static structure factor of the field induced quasi-one dimensional antiferromagnetic anisotropic spin ladder model at zero temperature. We have also studied the divergent behavior of static spin structure factor when magnetic field approaches the critical point. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculation of quantum critical field of spin ladder Hamiltonian by Green's function approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study of behavior of energy gap of spin excitation spectrum versus field and anisotropies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The investigation of behavior of transverse structure factor in terms of magnetic field.

  10. Magnetotransport property of the hole-doped delafossite CuCr0.97Mg0.03O2 with a Spin-3/2 antiferromagnetic triangular sublattice (United States)

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Oozono, Satoshi; Kihara, Takumi; Tokunaga, Masashi


    The magnetotransport property of a hole-doped delafossite CuCr0.97Mg0.03O2 with a spin-3/2 antiferromagnetic (AF) triangular sublattice was investigated by using a pulsed high magnetic field. A dramatic change of magnetoresistance was observed with a variation of temperature, which indicates that a spin fluctuation due to a competition between the AF and the ferromagnetic Hund's interactions is enhanced at temperatures around the Néel temperatures ( T N). The competition may lead to a partially-disordered state at temperatures below T N which may cause a nontrivial promotion of a 120° Néel state.

  11. Thermal Reduced Density Matrices in Fermion and Spin Ladder Systems (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Fradkin, Eduardo


    A recent numerical study found that the reduced density matrix of a spin 1/2 system on a two-leg ladder is the same as the spectrum of a spin 1/2 chain at a finite temperature determined by the spin gap of the ladder. We investigate this interesting result by considering two-leg ladders of free fermions and spin systems with a gapped ground state using several controlled approximations. We calculate the entanglement entropy for the cut made between the chains. In the fermionic system we find the explicit form of the reduced density matrix for one of the chains and determine the entanglement spectrum explicitly. In the case of the spin system, we consider both the strong coupling limit by using perturbation theory and weak coupling limit by using replica trick method. The calculation shows that, 1) the Von Neumann entropy equals to the thermal entropy of one chain, 2) the R'enyi entropy is equivalent to the free energy of one chain, and 3) the coupling constant (gap) plays the role of effective temperature. This result can be generalized to other coupled critical systems with a bulk gap. This work was supported in part by the NSF grant DMR-1064319 at the University of Illinois

  12. The spin-ladder and spin-chain system (La,Y,Sr,Ca){sub 14}Cu{sub 24}O{sub 41}: Electronic phases, charge and spin dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuletic, T. [Institut za fiziku, P.O. Box 304, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Korin-Hamzic, B. [Institut za fiziku, P.O. Box 304, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Ivek, T. [Institut za fiziku, P.O. Box 304, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Tomic, S. [Institut za fiziku, P.O. Box 304, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia)]. E-mail:; Gorshunov, B. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Dressel, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail:; Akimitsu, J. [Department of Physics, Aoyama-Gakuin University, Kanagawa (Japan)


    The quasi-one-dimensional cuprates (La,Y,Sr,Ca){sub 14}Cu{sub 24}O{sub 41}, consisting of spin-chains and spin-ladders, have attracted much attention, mainly because they represent the first superconducting copper oxide with a non-square lattice. Theoretically, in isolated hole-doped two-leg ladders, superconductivity is tightly associated with the spin gap, although in competition with a charge-density wave (CDW). Indeed, both the gapped spin-liquid and CDW states have been established in the doped spin-ladders of Sr{sub 14-x}Ca{sub x}Cu{sub 24}O{sub 41}, however the relevance of these objects to electronic properties and superconductivity is still subject of intensive discussion. In this treatise, an appreciable set of experimental data is reviewed, which has been acquired in recent years, indicating a variety of magnetic and charge arrangements found in the chains and ladders of underdoped (La,Y){sub y}(S,Ca){sub 14-y}Cu{sub 24}O{sub 41} and fully doped Sr{sub 14-x}Ca{sub x}Cu{sub 24}O{sub 41}. Based on these data, phase diagrams are constructed for the chains of underdoped systems (as a function of La, Y-substitution), as well as for the chains and ladders of the fully doped ones (as a function of Ca-substitution). We try to reconcile contradictory results concerning the charge dynamics in the ladders, like the hole redistribution between ladders and chains, collective modes and pseudogap, field-dependent transport and the temperature scales and doping levels at which the two-dimensional CDW develops in the ladder planes. The remaining open issues are clearly extracted. In the discussion the experimental results are contrasted with theoretical predictions, which allows us to conclude with two important remarks concerning the nature of the competing CDW and superconducting ground states. A density wave in ladders, characterized by a sinusoidal charge modulation, belongs to the class of broken symmetry patterns, which is theoretically predicted for strongly

  13. Effect of Rashba Spin-Orbit Interaction on the Stability of Spin-Vortex-Induced Loop Current in Hole-Doped Cuprate Superconductors: A Scenario for the Appearance of Magnetic Field Enhanced Charge Order and Fermi Surface Reconstruction (United States)

    Morisaki, Tsubasa; Wakaura, Hikaru; Koizumi, Hiroyasu


    Rashba type spin-orbit interaction is included in the model Hamiltonian for the spin-vortex-induced loop current (SVILC) mechanism of superconductivity for hole doped cuprate superconductors and its effects are investigated. We assume that a Rashba interaction appears around the small polarons formed by the doped holes in the bulk; its internal electric field is assumed to be in the direction perpendicular to the CuO2 plane and stabilizes the spin polarization lying in the CuO2 plane. We examine 4 × 4, 4 × 6, and 4 × 8 spin-vortex-quartet (SVQ) and perform Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the superconducting transition temperature Tc, where each SVQ is a n × m two dimensional region (in the units of the lattice constant) containing four holes, four spin-vortices, and four SVILCs. We find that the 4 × 6 SVQ is the most stable one among them with the highest Tc; in this case, the hole concentration per Cu atom is x = 0.167, which is close to the optimal doping value x = 0.170, suggesting that the optimal doping may be related to the stabilization of the superconducting state by the Rashba interaction. We also find that the 4 × 8 SVQ becomes more stable than the 4 × 6 SVQ in a current flowing situation; this indicates that the conversion from the 4 × 6 SVQs to 4 × 8 SVQs may occur upon the emergence of a macroscopic current by the application of a magnetic field. This conversion may explain the enhancement of the charge order around x = 0.125 and the Fermi surface reconstruction upon an application of a magnetic field.

  14. Doped spin ladders under magnetic field; Echelles de spins dopees sous champ magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, G


    This thesis deals with the physics of doped two-leg ladders which are a quasi one-dimensional and unconventional superconductor. We particularly focus on the properties under magnetic field. Models for strongly correlated electrons on ladders are studied using exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). Results are also enlightened by using the bosonization technique. Taking into account a ring exchange it highlights the relation between the pairing of holes and the spin gap. Its influence on the dynamics of the magnetic fluctuations is also tackled. Afterwards, these excitations are probed by the magnetic field by coupling it to the spin degree of freedom of the electrons through Zeeman effect. We show the existence of doping-dependent magnetization plateaus and also the presence of an inhomogeneous superconducting phase (FFLO phase) associated with an exceeding of the Pauli limit. When a flux passes through the ladder, the magnetic field couples to the charge degree of freedom of the electrons via orbital effect. The diamagnetic response of the doped ladder probes the commensurate phases of the t-J model at low J/t. Algebraic transverse current fluctuations are also found once the field is turned on. Lastly, we report numerical evidences of a molecular superfluid phase in the 3/2-spin attractive Hubbard model: at a density low enough, bound states of four fermions, called quartets, acquire dominant superfluid fluctuations. The observed competition between the superfluid and density fluctuations is connected to the physics of doped ladders. (author)

  15. Topological quantum paramagnet in a quantum spin ladder (United States)

    Joshi, Darshan G.; Schnyder, Andreas P.


    It has recently been found that bosonic excitations of ordered media, such as phonons or spinons, can exhibit topologically nontrivial band structures. Of particular interest are magnon and triplon excitations in quantum magnets, as they can easily be manipulated by an applied field. Here, we study triplon excitations in an S =1 /2 quantum spin ladder and show that they exhibit nontrivial topology, even in the quantum-disordered paramagnetic phase. Our analysis reveals that the paramagnetic phase actually consists of two separate regions with topologically distinct triplon excitations. We demonstrate that the topological transition between these two regions can be tuned by an external magnetic field. The winding number that characterizes the topology of the triplons is derived and evaluated. By bulk-boundary correspondence, we find that the nonzero winding number implies the presence of localized triplon end states. Experimental signatures and possible physical realizations of the topological paramagnetic phase are discussed.

  16. Spin-singlet Quantum Ground State in Zigzag Spin Ladder Cu(CF3 COO)2. (United States)

    Danilovich, Igor L; Karpova, Elena V; Morozov, Igor V; Ushakov, Alexey V; Streltsov, Sergey V; Shakin, Alexander A; Volkova, Olga S; Zvereva, Elena A; Vasiliev, Alexander N


    The copper salt of trifluoroacetic acid, Cu(CF3 COO)2 , offers a new platform to investigate the quantum ground states of low-dimensional magnets. In practice, it realizes the ideal case of a solid hosting essentially isolated magnetic monolayers. These entities are constituted by well-separated two-leg half-integer spin ladders organized in a zigzag fashion. The ladders are comprised of dimeric units of edge-sharing tetragonal pyramids coupled through carbon ions. The spin-gap state in this compound was revealed by static and dynamic magnetic measurements. No indications of long range magnetic ordering down to liquid helium temperature were obtained in specific heat measurements. First principles calculations allow estimation of the main exchange interaction parameters, J⊥ =176 K and J∥ =12 K, consistent with the weakly interacting dimers model. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Phase diagram study of a dimerized spin-S zig-zag ladder. (United States)

    Matera, J M; Lamas, C A


    The phase diagram of a frustrated spin-S zig-zag ladder is studied through different numerical and analytical methods. We show that for arbitrary S, there is a family of Hamiltonians for which a fully-dimerized state is an exact ground state, being the Majumdar-Ghosh point for a particular member of the family. We show that the system presents a transition between a dimerized phase to a Néel-like phase for S = 1/2, and spiral phases can appear for large S. The phase diagram is characterized by means of a generalization of the usual mean field approximation. The novelty in the present implementation is to consider the strongest coupled sites as the unit cell. The gap and the excitation spectrum is analyzed through the random phase approximation. Also, a perturbative treatment to obtain the critical points is discussed. Comparisons of the results with numerical methods like the Density Matrix Renormalization Group are also presented.

  18. Quantum entanglement and thermal reduced density matrices in fermion and spin systems on ladders (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Fradkin, Eduardo


    Numerical studies of the reduced density matrix of a gapped spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a two-leg ladder find that it has the same form as the Gibbs density matrix of a gapless spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain at a finite temperature determined by the spin gap of the ladder. We investigate this interesting result by considering a model of free fermions on a two-leg ladder (gapped by the inter-chain tunneling operator) and in spin systems on a ladder with a gapped ground state using exact solutions and several controlled approximations. We calculate the reduced density matrix and the entanglement entropy for a leg of the ladder (i.e. a cut made between the chains). In the fermionic system we find the exact form of the reduced density matrix for one of the chains and determine the entanglement spectrum explicitly. Here we find that in the weak tunneling limit of the ladder the entanglement entropy of one chain of the gapped ladder has a simple and universal form dictated by conformal invariance. In the case of the spin system, we consider the strong coupling limit by using perturbation theory and get the reduced density matrix by the Schmidt decomposition. The entanglement entropies of a general gapped system of two coupled conformal field theories (in 1 + 1 dimensions) are discussed using the replica trick and scaling arguments. We show that (1) for a system with a bulk gap the reduced density matrix has the form of a thermal density matrix, (2) the long-wavelength modes of one subsystem (a chain) of a gapped coupled system are always thermal, (3) the von Neumann entropy equals the thermodynamic entropy of one chain, and (4) the bulk gap plays the role of effective temperature.

  19. Symmetry protected topological phases in spin-1 ladders and their phase transitions


    Chen, Ji-Yao; Liu, Zheng-Xin


    We study two-legged spin-1 ladder systems with $D_2\\times \\sigma$ symmetry group, where $D_2$ is discrete spin rotational symmetry and $\\sigma$ means interchain reflection symmetry. The system has one trivial phase and seven nontrivial symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases. We construct Hamiltonians to realize all of these SPT phases and study the phase transitions between them. Our numerical results indicate that there is no direct continuous transition between any two SPT phases we st...

  20. Oxygen hole-doping effects on the spin-chain system Ca2+xY2-xCu5O (United States)

    Park, K.; Cackowski, T.; Markert, J. T.


    The magnetic properties of the low-dimensional spin-chain system Ca2+xY2-xCu5O were studied as a function of oxygen content and Ca-doping. A series of samples with different oxygen contents were prepared by solid state reaction under various oxygen pressures up to 170 atm and characterized by X-ray diffraction and iodometric titration. Oxygen deficiency was observed to be from δ=0.2-0.4 at 0.2 atm to δ≈0.0 at 170 atm oxygen pressure. Oxygen deficiency increases with Ca-doping at fixed oxygen pressure. The temperature dependence of the magnetic moment and of the specific heat are reported here for the x=0.9 sample with various oxygen deficiencies. The effects of oxygen deficiency on magnetic coupling are compared with Ca-doping. Notably, oxygen content plays a much more critical role in the reduction of magnetic interactions in the CuO2 chains than Ca-doping, even for the same hole concentration.

  1. Hole-doped cuprate high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, C.W.; Deng, L.Z.; Lv, B.


    Highlights: • Historical discoveries of hole-doped cuprates and representative milestone work. • Several simple and universal scaling laws of the hole-doped cuprates. • A comprehensive classification list with references for hole-doped cuprates. • Representative physical parameters for selected hole-doped cuprates. - Abstract: Hole-doped cuprate high temperature superconductors have ushered in the modern era of high temperature superconductivity (HTS) and have continued to be at center stage in the field. Extensive studies have been made, many compounds discovered, voluminous data compiled, numerous models proposed, many review articles written, and various prototype devices made and tested with better performance than their nonsuperconducting counterparts. The field is indeed vast. We have therefore decided to focus on the major cuprate materials systems that have laid the foundation of HTS science and technology and present several simple scaling laws that show the systematic and universal simplicity amid the complexity of these material systems, while referring readers interested in the HTS physics and devices to the review articles. Developments in the field are mostly presented in chronological order, sometimes with anecdotes, in an attempt to share some of the moments of excitement and despair in the history of HTS with readers, especially the younger ones.

  2. A generalized spin ladder in a magnetic field


    Frahm, Holger; Rödenbeck, Claus


    We study the phase diagram of coupled spin-1/2 chains with bilinear and (chiral) three-spin exchange interactions in a magnetic field. The model is soluble on a one-parametric line in the space of coupling constants connecting the limiting cases of a single and two decoupled Heisenberg chains with nearest neighbour exchange only. We give a complete classification of the low-energy properties of the integrable system and introduce a numerical method which allows to study the possible phases of...

  3. Phase transitions and thermal entanglement of the distorted Ising-Heisenberg spin chain: topology of multiple-spin exchange interactions in spin ladders. (United States)

    Arian Zad, Hamid; Ananikian, Nerses


    We consider a symmetric spin-1/2 Ising-XXZ double sawtooth spin ladder obtained from distorting a spin chain, with the XXZ interaction between the interstitial Heisenberg dimers (which are connected to the spins based on the legs via an Ising-type interaction), the Ising coupling between nearest-neighbor spins of the legs and rungs spins, respectively, and additional cyclic four-spin exchange (ring exchange) in the square plaquette of each block. The presented analysis supplemented by results of the exact solution of the model with infinite periodic boundary implies a rich ground state phase diagram. As well as the quantum phase transitions, the characteristics of some of the thermodynamic parameters such as heat capacity, magnetization and magnetic susceptibility are investigated. We prove here that among the considered thermodynamic and thermal parameters, solely heat capacity is sensitive versus the changes of the cyclic four-spin exchange interaction. By using the heat capacity function, we obtain a singularity relation between the cyclic four-spin exchange interaction and the exchange coupling between pair spins on each rung of the spin ladder. All thermal and thermodynamic quantities under consideration should be investigated by regarding those points which satisfy the singularity relation. The thermal entanglement within the Heisenberg spin dimers is investigated by using the concurrence, which is calculated from a relevant reduced density operator in the thermodynamic limit.

  4. Phase transitions and thermal entanglement of the distorted Ising–Heisenberg spin chain: topology of multiple-spin exchange interactions in spin ladders (United States)

    Arian Zad, Hamid; Ananikian, Nerses


    We consider a symmetric spin-1/2 Ising-XXZ double sawtooth spin ladder obtained from distorting a spin chain, with the XXZ interaction between the interstitial Heisenberg dimers (which are connected to the spins based on the legs via an Ising-type interaction), the Ising coupling between nearest-neighbor spins of the legs and rungs spins, respectively, and additional cyclic four-spin exchange (ring exchange) in the square plaquette of each block. The presented analysis supplemented by results of the exact solution of the model with infinite periodic boundary implies a rich ground state phase diagram. As well as the quantum phase transitions, the characteristics of some of the thermodynamic parameters such as heat capacity, magnetization and magnetic susceptibility are investigated. We prove here that among the considered thermodynamic and thermal parameters, solely heat capacity is sensitive versus the changes of the cyclic four-spin exchange interaction. By using the heat capacity function, we obtain a singularity relation between the cyclic four-spin exchange interaction and the exchange coupling between pair spins on each rung of the spin ladder. All thermal and thermodynamic quantities under consideration should be investigated by regarding those points which satisfy the singularity relation. The thermal entanglement within the Heisenberg spin dimers is investigated by using the concurrence, which is calculated from a relevant reduced density operator in the thermodynamic limit.

  5. Direct comparison of hole doping effects due to cation and to oxygen content on magnetic properties of the spin-chain system Ca2+xY2-xCu5O10-δ (United States)

    Park, Keeseong; Cackowski, Theodore; Markert, John


    A quasi-one dimensional system, Ca2+xY2-xCu5O10-δ (CaYCuO) is studied to compare the magnetic effects of cation doping with those of oxygen deficiency. Hole doping (p) due to cation concentration (x) and oxygen deficiency (δ) in other copper oxides is often observed to obey p = x - 2 δ. CaYCuO has a simple edge shared CuO structure and is hole dopable up to a formal copper valence of 2.4. Various Ca doped CaYCuO specimens were fabricated in different oxygen environments, including high pressure oxygen up to 170 atm. X-ray diffraction and iodometric titration were used to confirm phase and oxygen content. Samples are found to be more oxygen deficient with increasing cation doping. Magnetic moment and specific heat were measured. The antiferromagnetic phase was observed up to x = 1.0 doping for fully oxygenated specimens. N'eel temperatures decreased with increasing cation doping and decreasing oxygen deficiency. The decrease in N'eel temperature is found to be more than expected from hole doping p = x - 2 δ. A new quantity that describes all of the behavior of N'eel temperature, p' = x - (2/3) δ, is proposed.

  6. Quantum criticality in the coupled two-leg spin ladder Ba2CuTeO6 (United States)

    Glamazda, A.; Choi, Y. S.; Do, S.-H.; Lee, S.; Lemmens, P.; Ponomaryov, A. N.; Zvyagin, S. A.; Wosnitza, J.; Sari, Dita Puspita; Watanabe, I.; Choi, K.-Y.


    We report on zero-field muon spin rotation, electron-spin resonance, and polarized Raman scattering measurements of the coupled quantum spin ladder Ba2CuTeO6 . Zero-field muon spin rotation and electron-spin resonance probes disclose a successive crossover from a paramagnetic through a spin-liquid-like into a magnetically ordered state with decreasing temperature. More significantly, the two-magnon Raman response obeys a T -linear scaling relation in its peak energy, linewidth, and intensity. This critical scaling behavior presents an experimental signature of proximity to a quantum-critical point from an ordered side in Ba2CuTeO6 .

  7. Quantum phase transitions in effective spin-ladder models for graphene zigzag nanoribbons (United States)

    Koop, Cornelie; Wessel, Stefan


    We examine the magnetic correlations in quantum spin models that were derived recently as effective low-energy theories for electronic correlation effects on the edge states of graphene nanoribbons. For this purpose, we employ quantum Monte Carlo simulations to access the large-distance properties, accounting for quantum fluctuations beyond mean-field-theory approaches to edge magnetism. For certain chiral nanoribbons, antiferromagnetic interedge couplings were previously found to induce a gapped quantum disordered ground state of the effective spin model. We find that the extended nature of the intraedge couplings in the effective spin model for zigzag nanoribbons leads to a quantum phase transition at a large, finite value of the interedge coupling. This quantum critical point separates the quantum disordered region from a gapless phase of stable edge magnetism at weak intraedge coupling, which includes the ground states of spin-ladder models for wide zigzag nanoribbons. To study the quantum critical behavior, the effective spin model can be related to a model of two antiferromagnetically coupled Haldane-Shastry spin-half chains with long-ranged ferromagnetic intrachain couplings. The results for the critical exponents are compared also to several recent renormalization-group calculations for related long-ranged interacting quantum systems.

  8. Magnetization Process of the S = 1/2 Two-Leg Organic Spin-Ladder Compound BIP-BNO (United States)

    Nomura, Kazuya; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Narumi, Yasuo; Kindo, Koichi; Takeyama, Shojiro; Hosokoshi, Yuko; Ono, Toshio; Hasegawa, Naoya; Suwa, Hidemaro; Todo, Synge


    We have measured the magnetization of the organic compound BIP-BNO [3,5'-bis(N-tert-butylaminoxyl)-3',5-dibromobiphenyl] up to 76 T, at which the magnetization is saturated. The S = 1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg (AFH) two-leg spin-ladder model accounts for the magnetization curve, which is well reproduced by quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The exchange constants on the rung and leg of the ladder are evaluated as Jrung/kB = 65.7 K and Jleg/kB = 14.1 K, respectively, which is in the strong coupling region of Jrung/Jleg > 1. The results provide strong evidence that BIP-BNO is an S = 1/2 AFH two-leg spin ladder.

  9. Heat transport imaging in the spin-ladder compound Ca9La5Cu24O41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, M.; Krasnikov, V. V.; Fishman, D. A.; Pshenichnikov, M. S.; Saint-Martin, R.; Revcolevschi, A.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.

    All-optical heat transport imaging on the spin-ladder compound Ca9La5Cu24O41 is presented. A 'time-of-flight' principle is discussed along with its experimental veri. cation which can be used to measure the bulk thermal diffusion constant. The results of the thermal imaging experiments clearly

  10. Field-controlled magnetic order in the quantum spin-ladder system (Hpip)2CuBr4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielemann, B.; Rüegg, C.; Kiefer, K.


    Neutron diffraction is used to investigate the field-induced, antiferromagnetically ordered state in the two-leg spin-ladder material (Hpip)(2)CuBr4. This "classical" phase, a consequence of weak interladder coupling, is nevertheless highly unconventional: its properties are influenced strongly b...... the quantum fluctuation corrections to the mean-field interaction....

  11. Conditions for the appearance of boundary modes in topological phases of Heisenberg spin ladders (United States)

    Robinson, Neil; Atland, Alexander; Egger, Reinhold; Gergs, Nkilas; Konik, Robert; Li, Wei; Schuricht, Dirk; Tsvelik, Alexei; Weichselbaum, Andreas

    We consider the problem of delineating the necessary conditions for the appearance of boundary modes in extended SU (2) Heisenberg spin ladders. Specifically, we study Heisenberg ladders with rung exchange, J⊥, and ring exchange, JX, that admit a field theoretic description in terms of Majorana fermions in the continuum limit. In this description there are four Majorana fermions, arranged in a triplet and a singlet. This suggests there are four distinct phases, corresponding to the configurations of the signs of the triplet mt and singlet ms masses. We label these phases as: Haldane (mt > 0 ,ms 0), VBS+ (mt ,ms > 0) and VBS- (mt ,ms VBS+ phase, where all the Majorana fermions have gapless boundary modes. The absence of a gapless boundary mode in the rung singlet phase is surprising; we find that the singlet mode can become gapless if open boundary conditions are replaced with a continuous change in lattice parameters. We suggest a symmetry-allowed modification to the low-energy effective theory which may be responsible for this behavior.

  12. Short-range resonating-valence-bond state of even-spin ladders: A recurrent variational approach (United States)

    Sierra, Germán; Martín-Delgado, Miguel A.


    Using a recursive method we construct dimer and nondimer variational ansatzs of the ground state for the two-legged ladder, and compute the number of dimer coverings, the energy density, and the spin-correlation functions. The number of dimer coverings are given by the Fibonacci numbers for the dimer-resonating-valence-bond state and their generalization for the nondimer states. Our method relies on the recurrent relations satisfied by the overlaps of the states with different lengths, which can be solved using generating functions. The recurrent-relation method is applicable to other short-range systems. Based on our results we make a conjecture about the bond amplitudes of the two-legged ladder.

  13. Luttinger liquid physics in the spin ladder material CuBr{sub 4}(C{sub 5}H{sub 12}N){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klanjsek, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Mayaffre, H. [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, Universite J. Fourier and UMR5588 CNRS, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Berthier, C.; Horvatic, M. [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Chiari, B.; Piovesana, O. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Perugia, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); Bouillot, P.; Giamarchi, T. [DPMC-MaNEP, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Kollath, C. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Orignac, E. [LPENSL CNRS UMR 5672, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Citro, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. R. Caianiello' ' , Unita CNISM di Salerno, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, I-84081 Baronissi (Sa) (Italy)


    We present a {sup 14}N nuclear magnetic resonance study of a single crystal of CuBr{sub 4}(C{sub 5}H{sub 12}N){sub 2} consisting of weakly coupled spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic ladders. When placed in a magnetic field, such a ladder is theoretically predicted to exhibit a quantum critical Luttinger liquid (LL) behaviour in the gapless phase, i.e. between the two critical fields. Treating ladders as LLs and interaction between them as a perturbation, we are indeed able to fully account for (i) the spin dynamics accessed by measuring the spin-lattice relaxation rate T{sub 1}{sup -} {sup 1}, and for (ii) the phase transition to a 3D ordered phase occurring below 110 mK due to the weak interladder coupling. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. From Complex Magnetism Ordering to Simple Ferromagnetism in Two-Dimensional LaCrSb{sub 3} by Hole Doping.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haijie; Narayan, Awadhesh; Fang, Lei; Calta, Nicholas P.; Shi, Fengyuan; Chung, Duck Young; Wagner, Lucas; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.


    Competing orders widely exist in many material systems, such as superconductivity, magnetism, and ferroelectricity; LaCrSb3 is a highly anisotropic magnetic material in which the spins are aligned ferromagnetically in one direction and canted antiferromagnetically in another in the Cr-Sb chains. Hole doping with Sr2+ and Ca2+ in the La site suppresses the antiferromagnetic correlations and transforms the anisotropic magnetic order into a ferromagnetic lattice in all directions. First-principles density functional theory calculations show that the canted magnetic order becomes energetically less favorable compared to the FM order upon hole doping. Doping in the La site is an effective approach to modulate the competing orders in LaCrSb3.

  15. The magnetic phase diagram of the spin-chain system Ca{sub 2+x}Y{sub 2-x}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10-{delta}}: Oxygen hole-doping corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Keeseong [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)], E-mail:; Lee, Yong J.; Markert, John T. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)


    Recently, the antiferromagnetic transition temperature in the coupled spin-chain system Ca{sub 2+x}Y{sub 2-x}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10-{delta}} was found to decrease with increasing x and disappear around x = 1.4 [K. Kubo, S. Kurogi, Y. Koike, T. Nishizaki, N. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. B 71 (2005) 104413]. We report the results of X-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, and iodometric titration measurements, and find that such behavior corresponds to oxygen-deficient specimens. We propose that the correct phase diagram is a function of both cation doping and oxygen content, with hole concentration p = (x - 2{delta}) per formula unit. We find that the true phase transition occurs just below p = 1.0, corresponding to a hole concentration of 0.20 per copper. For example, for x = 1.00, the single crystals of Kubo et al. (2005) correspond to our polycrystalline specimens with {delta} = 0.37 (p = 0.26), a very large oxygen-defect effect. Such a composition has only a slightly suppressed Neel temperature, while for our fully oxygenated x = 1.00 samples, the antiferromagnetic transition is completely suppressed.

  16. Oxygen hole-doping effects on the spin-chain system Ca{sub 2+x}Y{sub 2-x}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10-{delta}}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)], E-mail:; Cackowski, T. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Markert, J.T. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)], E-mail:


    The magnetic properties of the low-dimensional spin-chain system Ca{sub 2+x}Y{sub 2-x}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10-{delta}} were studied as a function of oxygen content and Ca-doping. A series of samples with different oxygen contents were prepared by solid state reaction under various oxygen pressures up to 170 atm and characterized by X-ray diffraction and iodometric titration. Oxygen deficiency was observed to be from {delta}=0.2-0.4 at 0.2 atm to {delta}{approx}0.0 at 170 atm oxygen pressure. Oxygen deficiency increases with Ca-doping at fixed oxygen pressure. The temperature dependence of the magnetic moment and of the specific heat are reported here for the x=0.9 sample with various oxygen deficiencies. The effects of oxygen deficiency on magnetic coupling are compared with Ca-doping. Notably, oxygen content plays a much more critical role in the reduction of magnetic interactions in the CuO{sub 2} chains than Ca-doping, even for the same hole concentration.

  17. Selective d-band Participation in Magnetic and Electronic Behavior of Spin-Ladder Iron-chalcogenides (United States)

    Caron, Joseph; Neilson, James; Miller, David; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Felser, Claudia; Arpino, Kathrine; Llobet, Anna; McQueen, Tyrel


    The mechanism of superconductivity in the iron-based superconductors, particularly the role of magnetism and band nesting, remains controversial. The iron-based superconductors share many properties with the high-Tc cuprates, including two-dimensional layers and proximity to magnetic order. Using reduced dimensionality, as exemplified by the ``spin ladder'' cuprates, we attempt to understand the electronic and magnetic behavior of the AFe2X3 (A= alkali or alkali earth, X = chalcogenide) family of materials. These compounds have 2 × ∞ double-chains (``ladders'') of edge-sharing FeX4 tetrahedra, cutouts of the full two-dimensional Fe2X2 layers of the iron-based superconductors which provide a platform from which to understand the interplay of structure, magnetism, and electronic behavior. The unique properties of these compounds is exemplified by both the inability of DFT programs recapitulate either the underlying physical properties or the dramatic transition from block to stripe magnetic order in Ba1-xKxFe2Se3 that coincides with a change from magnetic to non-magnetic behavior of one d- orbital-derived band. I will also present the influence of pressure and chemical doping on metallic and/or superconducting behavior.

  18. Thermodynamic behavior near the quantum orders in dimerized spin S = 1/2 two-leg ladders (United States)

    Jahangiri, J.; Amiri, F.; Mahdavifar, S.


    Thermodynamic properties of spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic (AFM) two-leg ladder with alternating strong rung interactions are investigated by numerical and analytical approaches. Two gapless Luttinger Liquid (LL) and two gapped symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases are observed in this type of spin structure. As a low temperature characteristic of the first LL gapless regime, a maximum and a minimum are observed in the magnetization curve. The magnetization of the system in the second LL phase is completely different and shows only a maximum in the temperature behavior. In the SPT Haldane phase, the value of magnetization increases with single broad peak, while apparently anomalous behavior is observed in the SPT 1 / 2 -plateau phase. In fact, we have argued that the magnetization shows a complex logical temperature behavior in the 1 / 2 -plateau phase. In the second LL phase, there is a novel three peaks structure in the temperature behavior of the specific heat whereas in the first LL phase, specific heat shows a double peaks structure. The temperature dependence of thermodynamic quantities like the magnetization, the susceptibility and the specific heat are also studied to specify various SPT and LL phases.

  19. Ground-state phase diagram, fermionic entanglement and kinetically-induced frustration in a hybrid ladder with localized spins and mobile electrons (United States)

    Carvalho, R. C. P.; Pereira, M. S. S.; de Oliveira, I. N.; Strečka, J.; Lyra, M. L.


    We introduce an exactly solvable hybrid spin-ladder model containing localized nodal Ising spins and interstitial mobile electrons, which are allowed to perform a quantum-mechanical hopping between the ladder’s legs. The quantum-mechanical hopping process induces an antiferromagnetic coupling between the ladder’s legs that competes with a direct exchange coupling of the nodal spins. The model is exactly mapped onto the Ising spin ladder with temperature-dependent two- and four-spin interactions, which is subsequently solved using the transfer-matrix technique. We report the ground-state phase diagram and compute the fermionic concurrence to characterize the quantum entanglement between the pair of interstitial mobile electrons. We further provide a detailed analysis of the local spin ordering including the pair and four-spin correlation functions around an elementary plaquette, as well as, the local ordering diagrams. It is shown that a complex sequence of distinct local orderings and frustrated correlations takes place when the model parameters drive the investigated system close to a zero-temperature triple coexistence point.

  20. Hole doped Dirac states in silicene by biaxial tensile strain

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.


    The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the structure, electronic states, and mechanical properties of silicene are studied by ab-initio calculations. Our results show that up to 5% strain the Dirac cone remains essentially at the Fermi level, while higher strain induces hole doped Dirac states because of weakened Si–Si bonds. We demonstrate that the silicene lattice is stable up to 17% strain. It is noted that the buckling first decreases with the strain (up to 10%) and then increases again, which is accompanied by a band gap variation. We also calculate the Grüneisen parameter and demonstrate a strain dependence similar to that of graphene.

  1. Phonon energy gaps in the charged incommensurate planes of the spin-ladder Sr14Cu24O41 compound by Raman and infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Thorsmølle, V K; Homes, C C; Gozar, A; Blumberg, G; van Mechelen, J L M; Kuzmenko, A B; Vanishri, S; Marin, C; Rønnow, H M


    The terahertz (THz) excitations in the quantum spin-ladder system Sr14Cu24O41 have been determined along the c axis using THz time-domain, Raman, and infrared spectroscopy. Low-frequency infrared and Raman active modes are observed above and below the charge-ordering temperature T(co) is approximately equal to 200 K over a narrow interval approximately equal to 1-2 meV approximately equal to 8-16 cm(-1)). A new infrared mode at approximately equal to 1 meV develops below approximately equal to 100 K. The temperature dependence of these modes shows that they are coupled to the charge- and spin-density-wave correlations in this system. These low-energy features are conjectured to originate in the gapped sliding motion of the chain and ladder subsystems, which are both incommensurate and charged.

  2. Tunable magneto-optical effects in hole-doped group-IIIA metal-monochalcogenide monolayers (United States)

    Feng, Wanxiang; Guo, Guang-Yu; Yao, Yugui


    Because of unusual properties and fascinating prospects for next-generation device applications, two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted enormous attention since graphene was discovered in 2004. Among the 2D materials beyond graphene, group-IIIA metal-monochalcogenide (MX) monolayers (MLs), are receiving increasing interests because their excellent applications on electronics and optoelectronics. Recently, ferromagnetism and half-metallicity have been predicted in hole-doped GaS and GaSe MLs, which promise exciting potentials for semiconductor spintronics. Detection and measurement of spontaneous magnetization in these 2D materials will be essential for their spintronic applications. The magneto-optical (MO) effects not only are a powerful probe of magnetism in 2D materials but also have valuable applications in high-density data-storage technology. Furthermore, anomalous Hall effect is not only an ideal transport probe of itinerant magnetism but also of considerable current interest because of its topological nature. Here we perform a systematic first-principles density functional study on the MO Kerr and Faraday effects as well as such important magnetic and transport properties as magneto-crystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) and anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) of all hole-doped MX (M = Ga, In; X = S, Se, Te) MLs. In this paper, we report the following important findings: (a) gate-tunable MO effects in MX MLs in a broad range of hole concentration; (b) large Kerr and Faraday rotation angles with Kerr angles comparable to well-known MO 3d-transition-metal multilayers and Faraday angles being among the largest ones reported; (c) tunable MAE and large AHC, making MX MLs suitable for magnetic memory devices current-driven via spin-transfer torque and also promising materials for magnetic field nanosensors with high sensitivity. Superior MO characteristics, together with the other interesting properties, would make MX MLs an excellent family of 2D materials for

  3. Hole pairs in a spin liquid: Influence of electrostatic hole-hole repulsion (United States)

    Gazza, Claudio; Martins, George B.; Riera, José; Dagotto, Elbio


    The stability of hole bound states in the t-J model including short-range Coulomb interactions is analyzed using computational techniques on ladders with up to 2×30 sites. For a nearest-neighbor (NN) hole-hole repulsion, the two-holes bound state is surprisingly robust and breaks only when the repulsion is several times the exchange J. At ~10% hole doping the pairs break only for a NN repulsion as large as V~4J. Pair-pair correlations remain robust in the regime of hole binding. The results support electronic hole-pairing mechanisms on ladders based on holes moving in spin-liquid backgrounds. Implications in two dimensions are also presented. The need for better estimations of the range and strength of the Coulomb interaction in copper oxides is remarked.

  4. Signatures of pairing in the magnetic excitation spectrum of strongly correlated two-leg ladders (United States)

    Nocera, A.; Patel, N. D.; Dagotto, E.; Alvarez, G.


    Magnetic interactions are widely believed to play a crucial role in the microscopic mechanism leading to high critical temperature superconductivity. It is therefore important to study the signatures of pairing in the magnetic excitation spectrum of simple models known to show unconventional superconducting tendencies. Using the density matrix renormalization group technique, we calculate the dynamical spin structure factor S (k ,ω ) of a generalized t -U -J Hubbard model away from half filling in a two-leg ladder geometry. The addition of J enhances pairing tendencies. We analyze quantitatively the signatures of pairing in the magnetic excitation spectra. We found that the superconducting pair-correlation strength, that can be estimated independently from ground state properties, is closely correlated with the integrated low-energy magnetic spectral weight in the vicinity of (π ,π ) . In this wave-vector region, robust spin incommensurate features develop with increasing doping. The branch of the spectrum with rung direction wave vector krung=0 does not change substantially with doping where pairing dominates and thus plays a minor role. We discuss the implications of our results for neutron scattering experiments, where the spin excitation dynamics of hole-doped quasi-one-dimensional magnetic materials can be measured and also address implications for recent resonant inelastic x-ray scattering experiments.

  5. Three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensation in the spin-1/2 ferromagnetic-leg ladder 3-Br-4-F-V (United States)

    Kono, Yohei; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Hosokoshi, Yuko; Sakakibara, Toshiro


    The critical exponent of the phase boundary has been examined on the three-dimensional incommensurate ordering phase in the spin-1/2 ferromagnetic-leg ladder 3-Br-4-F-V [=3-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-1,5-diphenylverdazyl]. Using the temperature-window fitting technique, we obtained the critical exponents which agreed with the three-dimensional (3D) Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) universality class at both sides of the lower critical field and the saturation field. 3-Br-4-F-V thus becomes a new member of the quantum magnets which prove the universality of the 3D BEC exponent.

  6. Exploring the effect of hole localization on the charge-phonon dynamics of hole doped delafossite. (United States)

    Mazumder, Nilesh; Mandal, Prasanta; Roy, Rajarshi; Ghorai, Uttam Kumar; Saha, Subhajit; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar


    For weak or moderate doping, electrical measurement is not suitable for detecting changes in the charge localization inside a semiconductor. Here, to investigate the nature of charge-phonon coupling in the presence of gradually delocalized holes within a weak doping regime (~1016 cm-3), we examine the temperature dependent Raman spectra (303-817 K) of prototype hole doped delafossite [Formula: see text] (x  =  0/0.03, y  =  0/0.01). For both [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] phonons, negative lineshape asymmetry and relative thermal hardening are distinctly observed upon [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] doping. Using Allen formalism, charge density of states at the Fermi level per spin and molecule, and charge delocalization associated to [Formula: see text] plane, are estimated to increase appreciably upon codoping compared to the [Formula: see text]-axis. We delineate the interdependence between charge-phonon coupling constant ([Formula: see text]) and anharmonic phonon lifetime ([Formula: see text]), and deduce that excitation of delocalized holes weakly coupled with phonons of larger [Formula: see text] is the governing feature of observed Fano asymmetry ([Formula: see text]) reversal.

  7. Ground state of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg-Ising two-leg ladder with XYZ intra-rung coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Verkholyak


    Full Text Available The quantum spin-1/2 two-leg ladder with an anisotropic XYZ Heisenberg intra-rung interaction and Ising inter-rung interactions is treated by means of a rigorous approach based on the unitary transformation. The particular case of the considered model with X-X intra-rung interaction resembles a quantum compass ladder with additional frustrating diagonal Ising interactions. Using an appropriately chosen unitary transformation, the model under investigation may be reduced to a transverse Ising chain with composite spins, and one may subsequently find the ground state quite rigorously. We obtain a ground-state phase diagram and analyze the interplay of the competition between several factors: the XYZ anisotropy in the Heisenberg intra-rung coupling, the Ising interaction along the legs, and the frustrating diagonal Ising interaction. The investigated model shows extraordinarily diverse ground-state phase diagrams including several unusual quantum ordered phases, two different disordered quantum paramagnetic phases, as well as discontinuous or continuous quantum phase transitions between those phases.

  8. Orbital control of effective dimensionality: from spin-orbital fractionalization to confinement in the anisotropic ladder system CaCu(2)O(3). (United States)

    Bisogni, Valentina; Wohlfeld, Krzysztof; Nishimoto, Satoshi; Monney, Claude; Trinckauf, Jan; Zhou, Kejin; Kraus, Roberto; Koepernik, Klaus; Sekar, Chinnathambi; Strocov, Vladimir; Büchner, Bernd; Schmitt, Thorsten; van den Brink, Jeroen; Geck, Jochen


    Fractionalization of an electronic quasiparticle into spin, charge, and orbital parts is a fundamental and characteristic property of interacting electrons in one dimension. However, real materials are never strictly one dimensional and the fractionalization phenomena are hard to observe. Here we studied the spin and orbital excitations of the anisotropic ladder material CaCu_{2}O_{3}, whose electronic structure is not one dimensional. Combining high-resolution resonant inelastic x-ray scattering experiments with theoretical model calculations, we show that (i) spin-orbital fractionalization occurs in CaCu_{2}O_{3} along the leg direction x through the xz orbital channel as in a 1D system, and (ii) no fractionalization is observed for the xy orbital, which extends in both leg and rung direction, contrary to a 1D system. We conclude that the directional character of the orbital hopping can select different degrees of dimensionality. Using additional model calculations, we show that spin-orbital separation is generally far more robust than the spin-charge separation. This is not only due to the already mentioned selection realized by the orbital hopping, but also due to the fact that spinons are faster than the orbitons.

  9. Lead Monoxide: Two-Dimensional Ferromagnetic Semiconductor Induced by Hole-Doping

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yao


    We employ first-principles calculations to demonstrate ferromagnetic ground states for single- and multi-layer lead monoxide (PbO) under hole-doping, originating from a van Hove singularity at the valence band edge. Both the sample thickness and applied strain are found to have huge effects on the electronic and magnetic properties. Multi-layer PbO is an indirect band gap semiconductor, while a direct band gap is realized in the single-layer limit. In hole-doped single-layer PbO, biaxial tensile strain can enhance the stability of the ferromagnetic state.

  10. Pairing symmetries of a hole-doped extended two-orbital model for the pnictides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, Andrew D [ORNL; Ge, Weihao [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Riera, J. A. [Universidad Nacional de Rosario; Daghofer, Maria [ORNL; Moreo, Adriana [ORNL; Dagotto, Elbio R [ORNL


    The hole-doped ground state of a recently introduced extended t-U-J two-orbital Hubbard model for the Fe-based superconductors is studied via exact diagonalization methods on small clusters. Similarly as in the previously studied case of electron doping [A. Nicholson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 217002 (2011)], upon hole doping it is observed that there are several competing pairing symmetries, including A1g , B1g , and B2g . However, contrary to the electron-doped case, the ground state of the hole-doped state has pseudocrystal momentum k = ( , ) in the unfolded Brillouin zone. In the two Fe-atom per unit cell representation, this indicates that the ground state involves antibonding, rather than bonding, combinations of the orbitals of the two Fe atoms in the unit cell. The lowest state with k = (0,0) has only a slightly higher energy. These results indicate that this simple two-orbital model may be useful to capture some subtle aspects of the hole-doped pnictides, since calculations for the five-orbital model have unveiled a hole pocket centered at M [k = ( , )] in the unfolded Brillouin zone.

  11. Voegelin's Ladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Harter


    Full Text Available Leadership has non-logical aspects. One of these is spirituality. Voegelin’s Ladder provides a context for studying spirituality as a part of leadership. What it reveals is that spirituality arises at the intersection of the human with the divine. Spirituality expresses itself as purpose and aspiration, which a leader embodies.

  12. Crystal growth under high pressure: preparation of the spin-ladder compound SrCu sub 2 O sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Loeffert, A; Assmus, W


    The two-leg ladder SrCu sub 2 O sub 3 belongs to the homologous series Sr sub n sub sub - sub 1 Cu sub n O sub 2 sub n sub - sub 1 and was first synthesized by Hiroi et al (Hiroi Z, Azuma M, Takano M and Bando Y 1991 J. Solid State Chem. 95 230). Due to the massive reaction of the sample material with the crucible (Au or Pt), only short reaction times up to 30 min have been used typically. We suggest an improved composite crucible with a single-crystalline MgO inset in a sealed Pt capsule and demonstrate its capability for single-crystal growth of SrCu sub 2 O sub 3. Experiments with a typical duration of 15 h were conducted at pressures between 3 and 6 GPa at temperatures between 950 and 1500 deg. C. Slow cooling of the melt effected directed growth of the first SrCu sub 2 O sub 3 milimetre-sized single crystals.

  13. Thermoelectric performance of electron and hole doped PtSb2

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Yasir


    We investigate the thermoelectric properties of electron and hole doped PtSb2. Our results show that for doping of 0.04 holes per unit cell ( 1.5×1020 cm−3 ) PtSb2 shows a high Seebeck coefficient at room temperature, which can also be achieved at other temperatures by controlling the carrier concentration (both electron and hole). The electrical conductivity becomes temperature independent when the doping exceeds some 0.2 electrons/holes per unit cell. The figure of merit at 800 K in electron and hole doped PtSb2 is comparatively low at 0.13 and 0.21, respectively, but may increase significantly with As alloying due to the likely opening of a band gap and reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity.

  14. Hole-doping of fullerenes and nanotubes by way of intercalation chemistry. (United States)

    Claves, D


    Succeeding to the electron-doping processes of carbon nanostructures, chemical methods devoted to the hole-doping of the latter have significantly developed over the past ten years. Intercalation chemistry remains a top-rated technique in this purpose, among the variety of available chemical doping schemes. A review of the p-type doping of fullerenes and nanotubes by this method is exposed, which also includes a wide range of derived potential applications and prospects regarding the materials thus obtained.

  15. Superconducting and normal state properties of heavily hole-doped diamond synthesized at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Sidorov, E.A. Ekimov, A.V. Rakhmanina, S.M. Stishov, E.D. Bauer and J.D. Thompson


    Full Text Available Diamonds, synthesized at high pressures and high temperatures in the presence of boron, are heavily hole-doped by incorporation of boron into the diamond lattice. These diamonds become superconducting below Tc=2–9 K. Synthesis in the systems B-C and B4C-C at P=9 GPa and T=2500–2800 K result in formation of polycrystalline carbonado-like material, whereas synthesis from B-C-H gives small single crystals and intergrowth plates. Dense superconducting bodies can be prepared by compacting these single crystal particles at P=8 GPa and T=1800 K. Specific heat and resistivity measurements in magnetic fields prove the bulk nature of superconductivity in all pressure-synthesized samples and provide a consistent set of materials parameters that favor a conventional weak-coupling electron–phonon interpretation of the superconducting mechanism at high hole doping. Schottky barrier tunneling conductance spectra, obtained with contacts fabricated at the surface of these hole-doped diamonds, indicate the appearance of superconducting gap below Tc.

  16. Resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering on the spin-ladder/spin-chain system Sr{sub 14}Cu{sub 24}O{sub 41}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlappa, Justina; Schmitt, T.; Bendounan, A.; Strocov, V.; Delley, B.; Patthey, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland); Wang, X.; Ronnow, H. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (Switzerland); Piazzalunga, A.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Grioni, M.; Braicovich, L.; Dallera, C. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy); Thielemann, B.; Mesot, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland); ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)


    The layered system (Sr,Ca){sub 14}Cu{sub 24}O{sub 41}, is a low-dimensional cuprate system that has been studied recently with large interest. It is mixed-valent and built up of two different cupper-oxygen layers: 1-dim CuO{sub 2} chains and quasi 1-dim Cu{sub 2}O{sub 3} 2-leg ladders. When cooling below 200 K a full range of interesting phenomena is observed, as structural changes, formation of charge order and formation of AF-dimers on the chains. We investigated the electronic structure of Sr{sub 14}Cu{sub 24}O{sub 41} by inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the Cu M{sub 2,3} edge (3p{yields}3d transition). The spectra show well-pronounced inelastic signal in the constant energy loss of 1.5-2.5 eV, which originates from crystal field excitations. Differences between the different crystallographic directions and between the high- and low-temperature phase are revealed.

  17. Ladder Safety Live #12985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    This course presents information for working safely with portable ladders: specifically, stepladders, extensions ladders, and their derivations. Additionally, this course provides limited information on the safe use of stepstools and fixed ladders. The skills, techniques, and good practices needed for selecting, inspecting, setting up and securing, and using ladders are presented in this course.

  18. Magnetic ordering induced by interladder coupling in the spin-1/2 Heisenberg two-leg ladder antiferromagnet C9H18N2CuBr4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schmidt, K. P. [Technische Universitat Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Coester, K. [Technische Universitat Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Awwadi, F. F. [The University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Turnbull, M. M. [Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (United States); Qiu, Y. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Zhu, M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ke, X. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Aoyama, C. P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Takano, Y. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Cao, Huibo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tian, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ma, Jie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Custelcean, Radu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhou, H. D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Matsuda, Masaaki [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    In this article, we present specific-heat and neutron-scattering results for the S=1/2 quantum antiferromagnet (dimethylammonium)(3,5-dimethylpyridinium)CuBr4. The material orders magnetically at TN=1.99(2) K, and magnetic excitations are accompanied by an energy gap of 0.30(2) meV due to spin anisotropy. The system is best described as coupled two-leg spin-1/2 ladders with the leg exchange Jleg=0.60(2) meV, rung exchange Jrung=0.64(9) meV, interladder exchange Jint=0.19(2) meV, and an interaction-anisotropy parameter λ=0.93(2), according to inelastic neutron-scattering measurements. In contrast to most spin ladders reported to date, the material is a rare example in which the interladder coupling is very near the critical value required to drive the system to a Néel-ordered phase without the assistance of a magnetic field.

  19. Prediction of phonon-mediated superconductivity in hole-doped black phosphorus. (United States)

    Feng, Yanqing; Sun, Hongyi; Sun, Junhui; Lu, Zhibin; You, Yong


    We study the conventional electron-phonon mediated superconducting properties of hole-doped black phosphorus by density functional calculations and get quite a large electron-phonon coupling (EPC) constant λ ~ 1.0 with transition temperature T C ~ 10 K, which is comparable to MgB 2 when holes are doped into the degenerate and nearly flat energy bands around the Fermi level. We predict that the softening of low-frequency [Formula: see text] optical mode and its phonon displacement, which breaks the lattice nonsymmorphic symmetry of gliding plane and lifts the band double degeneracy, lead to a large EPC. These factors are favorable for BCS superconductivity.

  20. Thermal entanglement and sharp specific-heat peak in an exactly solved spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg ladder with alternating Ising and Heisenberg inter-leg couplings (United States)

    Rojas, Onofre; Strečka, J.; de Souza, S. M.


    The spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg two-leg ladder accounting for alternating Ising and Heisenberg inter-leg couplings in addition to the Ising intra-leg coupling is rigorously mapped onto to a mixed spin-(3/2,1/2) Ising-Heisenberg diamond chain with the nodal Ising spins S = 3 / 2 and the interstitial spin-1/2 Heisenberg dimers. The latter effective model with higher-order interactions between the nodal and interstitial spins is subsequently exactly solved within the transfer-matrix method. The model under investigation exhibits five different ground states: ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, superantiferromagnetic and two types of frustrated ground states with a non-zero residual entropy. A detailed study of thermodynamic properties reveals an anomalous specific-heat peak at low enough temperatures, which is strongly reminiscent because of its extraordinary height and sharpness to an anomaly accompanying a phase transition. It is convincingly evidenced, however, that the anomalous peak in the specific heat is finite and it comes from vigorous thermal excitations from a two-fold degenerate ground state towards a macroscopically degenerate excited state. Thermal entanglement between the nearest-neighbor Heisenberg spins is also comprehensively explored by taking advantage of the concurrence. The threshold temperature delimiting a boundary between the entangled and disentangled parameter space may show presence of a peculiar temperature reentrance.

  1. Synthesis, structural and magnetic properties of spin ladder compound Ca{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekar, C., E-mail: [Department of Bioelectronics and Biosensors, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003 (India); Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636011 (India); Paulraj, S. [Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636011 (India); Krabbes, G. [Leibniz-Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, IFW-Dresden, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Kanagaraj, M.; Arumugam, S. [Centre for High Pressure Research, Bharathidasan University, Trichy 620024 (India); Kumar, Ravhi S. [High Pressure Science and Engineering Centre and Department of Physics, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)


    MCu{sub 2}O{sub 3} (M=Ca and Co) system has two-leg spin ladder structure similar to that of the prototype SrCu{sub 2}O{sub 3} system except that the rungs are buckled with an angle of 123{sup o} and 105{sup o} for CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CoCu{sub 2}O{sub 3} compounds, respectively. We have synthesized powder samples of (Ca{sub 1-x}Co{sub x})Cu{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x=0.00-1.00) by the solid state reaction method and their structural and magnetic properties have been investigated. All the synthesized compounds crystallize in orthorhombic structure with space group Pmmn. Lattice parameters of (Ca{sub 1-x}Co{sub x})Cu{sub 2}O{sub 3} decrease with the increase in Co content. DC magnetic susceptibility {chi}(T) results of the end products CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CoCu{sub 2}O{sub 3} show antiferromagnetic transition (T{sub N}) at 27 and 215 K, respectively. Co doping into (Ca{sub 1-x}Co{sub x})Cu{sub 2}O{sub 3} enhances its T{sub N} systematically with increasing Co concentration. The {chi}(T) of CoCu{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows a broad transition with the peak temperature around 215 K and it was found to be field independent up to 90 kOe. The ambiguity concerning the transition was ruled out by recording the temperature dependent X-ray diffraction pattern on CoCu{sub 2}O{sub 3} system, which indicated that there is no structural transition in the investigated temperature range of 115-300 K. Further, specific heat measurement on CoCu{sub 2}O{sub 3} confirms the magnetic phase transition by the appearance of a sharp peak at 215 K. - Highlights: > Powder sample of (Ca{sub 1-x}Co{sub x})Cu{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x=0.00-1.00) has been synthesized by the solid state reaction method for the first time. > DC magnetic susceptibility {chi}(T) results of CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CoCu{sub 2}O{sub 3} show antiferromagnetic shift (T{sub N}) at 27 and 215 K in that order. > {chi}(T) of CoCu{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows a broad transition with the peak temperature around 215 K.

  2. Chemical hole doping into large-area transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using boron-based oxidant (United States)

    Matsuoka, Hirofumi; Kanahashi, Kaito; Tanaka, Naoki; Shoji, Yoshiaki; Li, Lain-Jong; Pu, Jiang; Ito, Hiroshi; Ohta, Hiromichi; Fukushima, Takanori; Takenobu, Taishi


    Hole carrier doping into single-crystalline transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) films can be achieved with various chemical reagents. However, large-area polycrystalline TMDC monolayers produced by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth method have yet to be chemically doped. Here, we report that a salt of a two-coordinate boron cation, Mes2B+ (Mes: 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl group), with a chemically stable tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion, [(C6F5)4B]‑, can serve as an efficient hole-doping reagent for large-area CVD-grown tungsten diselenide (WSe2) films. Upon doping, the sheet resistance of large-area polycrystalline WSe2 monolayers decreased from 90 GΩ/sq to 3.2 kΩ/sq.

  3. Variational Monte Carlo method for fermionic models combined with tensor networks and applications to the hole-doped two-dimensional Hubbard model (United States)

    Zhao, Hui-Hai; Ido, Kota; Morita, Satoshi; Imada, Masatoshi


    The conventional tensor-network states employ real-space product states as reference wave functions. Here, we propose a many-variable variational Monte Carlo (mVMC) method combined with tensor networks by taking advantages of both to study fermionic models. The variational wave function is composed of a pair product wave function operated by real-space correlation factors and tensor networks. Moreover, we can apply quantum number projections, such as spin, momentum, and lattice symmetry projections, to recover the symmetry of the wave function to further improve the accuracy. We benchmark our method for one- and two-dimensional Hubbard models, which show significant improvement over the results obtained individually either by mVMC or by tensor network. We have applied the present method to a hole-doped Hubbard model on the square lattice, which indicates the stripe charge/spin order coexisting with a weak d -wave superconducting order in the ground state for the doping concentration of less than 0.3, where the stripe oscillation period gets longer with increasing hole concentration. The charge homogeneous and highly superconducting state also exists as a metastable excited state for the doping concentration less than 0.25.

  4. Electronic correlations in the hole-doped superconductor RbFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} probed via {sup 75}As NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molatta, S.; Wosnitza, J. [Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden (HLD), Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany); DFG, GRK-1621 (Germany); Zhang, Z.; Dmytriieva, D.; Kuehne, H. [Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden (HLD), Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Khim, S.; Grafe, H.J. [IFW Dresden (Germany); Wurmehl, S.; Buechner, B. [TU Dresden (Germany); DFG, GRK-1621 (Germany); IFW Dresden (Germany)


    We will present latest {sup 75}As NMR data in the normal state of the stoichiometric superconductor RbFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. This will be put into context to known results for the heavily hole-doped compound KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. The static and dynamic magnetic correlations were probed via measurements of the Knight shift and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate in a wide temperature range from 0.3 to 300 K. Although neither a magnetic nor a structural transition were observed down to lowest temperatures, the very close proximity of the ground state to a magnetic instability is indicated by a pronounced Curie-Weiss-like behavior of spin fluctuations. At around 100 K, we find a maximum of the Knight shift and a changing exponent of the temperature-dependent relaxation rate. This is phenomenologically similar to the case of KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and was proposed to stem from a incoherence-coherence crossover mechanism of electronic correlations.

  5. Realization of a Hole-Doped Mott Insulator on a Triangular Silicon Lattice (United States)

    Ming, Fangfei; Johnston, Steve; Mulugeta, Daniel; Smith, Tyler S.; Vilmercati, Paolo; Lee, Geunseop; Maier, Thomas A.; Snijders, Paul C.; Weitering, Hanno H.


    The physics of doped Mott insulators is at the heart of some of the most exotic physical phenomena in materials research including insulator-metal transitions, colossal magnetoresistance, and high-temperature superconductivity in layered perovskite compounds. Advances in this field would greatly benefit from the availability of new material systems with a similar richness of physical phenomena but with fewer chemical and structural complications in comparison to oxides. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, we show that such a system can be realized on a silicon platform. The adsorption of one-third monolayer of Sn atoms on a Si(111) surface produces a triangular surface lattice with half filled dangling bond orbitals. Modulation hole doping of these dangling bonds unveils clear hallmarks of Mott physics, such as spectral weight transfer and the formation of quasiparticle states at the Fermi level, well-defined Fermi contour segments, and a sharp singularity in the density of states. These observations are remarkably similar to those made in complex oxide materials, including high-temperature superconductors, but highly extraordinary within the realm of conventional s p -bonded semiconductor materials. It suggests that exotic quantum matter phases can be realized and engineered on silicon-based materials platforms.

  6. Potential Thermoelectric Performance from Optimization of Hole-Doped Bi_{2}Se_{3}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Parker


    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the potential thermoelectric performance of hole-doped Bi_{2}Se_{3}, which is commonly considered to show inferior room temperature performance when compared to Bi_{2}Te_{3}. We find that if the lattice thermal conductivity can be reduced by nanostructuring techniques (as have been applied to Bi_{2}Te_{3} in Refs. [W. Xie, X. Tang, Y. Yan, Q. Zhang, and T. M. Tritt, Unique Nanostructures and Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance of Melt-Spun BiSbTe Alloys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 102111 (2009; APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.3097026B. Poudel et al., High-Thermoelectric Performance of Nanostructured Bismuth Antimony Telluride Bulk Alloys, Science 320, 634 (2008.SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1156446] the material may show optimized ZT values of unity or more in the 300–500 K temperature range and thus be suitable for cooling and moderate temperature waste heat recovery and thermoelectric solar cell applications. Central to this conclusion are the larger band gap and the relatively heavier valence bands of Bi_{2}Se_{3}.

  7. The career ladder. (United States)


    With the addition of the proposed Certificate of Continuing Professional Studies (CCPS) which has not yet been implemented, the Society will have developed an open-ended career ladder for medical laboratory technologists. Moving from one step to the next may entail a return to school; it will certainly entail hard work and commitment. There are no barriers to prevent a motivated individual from progressing up the ladder. The ladder is illustrated in diagrammatic form below. The shaded areas represent the elements that are not yet in place.

  8. Ladder attachment platform (United States)

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC


    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  9. Boat boarding ladder placement (United States)


    Presented in three volumes; 'Boat Boarding Ladder Placement,' which explores safety considerations including potential for human contact with a rotating propeller; 'Boat Handhold Placement,' which explores essential principles and methods of fall con...

  10. Crystal growth and characterization of the dilutable frustrated spin-ladder compound Bi(Cu 1- xZn x) 2PO 6 (United States)

    Wang, S.; Pomjakushina, E.; Shiroka, T.; Deng, G.; Nikseresht, N.; Rüegg, Ch.; Rønnow, H. M.; Conder, K.


    High quality centimeter size single crystals of Bi(Cu 1- xZn x) 2PO 6 ( x=0%, 1%, 5%) have been successfully grown by the Travelling Solvent Floating Zone (TSFZ) technique. The crystals were grown with a rate of 1 mm/h in a gas mixture of 20% O 2 in Ar. Characterization of the single crystal samples by means of optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray Laue diffraction, neutron diffraction and magnetization measurement are reported. The magnetic susceptibility χspin(T), measured from 2 to 300 K, passes a broad maximum around 60 K, followed by an exponential decrease towards lower T, and confirm the formation of a spin singlet ground state at low temperature. At low-temperature a paramagnetic Curie-like upturn quantitatively reflect the increasing Zn-doping level.

  11. Ladder Climbing Robot


    Anu Wilson; Haripriya R. P.; Rijul Reji P.; Sukesh S. Menon


    In this paper, we describe a new design of a robotic system having two arms that is suitable of motion in uneven surfaces as well as climbing ladders. Ladder climbing is an essential mode of locomotion for navigating industrial environments and conducting maintenance tasks in buildings, trees and other man-made structures. The motion of robot is mapped by hand movements. An arduino board is used to control the whole operation. It collects data from the controller and sends it to the robot (wi...

  12. Ladder Variational Autoencoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Raiko, Tapani; Maaløe, Lars


    Variational autoencoders are powerful models for unsupervised learning. However deep models with several layers of dependent stochastic variables are difficult to train which limits the improvements obtained using these highly expressive models. We propose a new inference model, the Ladder...... Variational Autoencoder, that recursively corrects the generative distribution by a data dependent approximate likelihood in a process resembling the recently proposed Ladder Network. We show that this model provides state of the art predictive log-likelihood and tighter log-likelihood lower bound compared...

  13. Ladder variational autoencoders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Raiko, Tapani; Maaløe, Lars


    Variational autoencoders are powerful models for unsupervised learning. However deep models with several layers of dependent stochastic variables are difficult to train which limits the improvements obtained using these highly expressive models. We propose a new inference model, the Ladder...... Variational Autoencoder, that recursively corrects the generative distribution by a data dependent approximate likelihood in a process resembling the recently proposed Ladder Network. We show that this model provides state of the art predictive log-likelihood and tighter log-likelihood lower bound compared...

  14. Missile Maintenance Career Ladder (United States)


    the factors which may affect the job performance of airme in the caeer ladder. Questions covering job interest, perceived utilization of talents and...traiing progress of students 44 D159 Prepare training reports 44 B29 Conduct briefings 44 D149 Evaluate instructor performance 44 A17 TABLE A 18 QUALITY

  15. Tennessee Teacher Career Ladder. (United States)

    Clapp, Beecher

    Tennessee's Better Schools Program includes a Master Teacher Program that has three components: teacher education, clinical supervision of beginning teachers, and a career ladder based on performance. In conjunction with the establishment of the Master Teacher Program, 23 master teacher competencies for teacher evaluation have been defined.…

  16. Voegelin’s Ladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Harter


    Full Text Available Leadership has non-logical aspects. One of these is spirituality. Voegelin’s Ladder provides a context for studying spirituality as a part of leadership. What it reveals is that spirituality arises at the intersection of the human with the divine. Spirituality expresses itself as purpose and aspiration, which a leader embodies.

  17. The latrine ownership ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeng, Peter Appiah; Keraita, Bernard; Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the latrine ownership ladder as a conceptual policy framework to enhance sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws from literature and a case study in a Ghanaian peri-urban community to highlight...... the challenges that undermine sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas and the prospects of various levels of facility sharing as conceived in the latrine ownership ladder approach. Findings – The authors argue that the infrastructural and other socio-economic challenges of low-income peri-urban areas...... prevent some households from acquiring their own latrines. For such households, a more responsive approach to latrine promotion and prevention of open defecation would be the recognition of shared ownership regimes such as co-tenant shared, neighbourhood shared and community shared, in addition...

  18. 29 CFR 1917.119 - Portable ladders. (United States)


    ... achieve additional length. (5) Except for combination ladders, self-supporting ladders shall not be used as single straight ladders. (6) Unless intended for cantilever operation, non-self-supporting ladders... portable ladders obtained before October 3, 1983, shall be capable of supporting a 200-pound (890 N) load...

  19. Electronic and magnetic properties of the (001) surface of hole-doped manganites (United States)

    Zenia, H.; Gehring, G. A.; Banach, G.; Temmerman, W. M.


    The electronic and magnetic properties of ferromagnetic doped manganites are investigated by means of model tight-binding and self-interaction corrected local spin density (SIC-LSD) approximation calculations. It is found that the surface alone by breaking the cubic symmetry induces a difference in the occupation of the two eg orbitals at the surface. We found surface localization of one orbital and hence a change in the Mn valency from four in the bulk to three at the subsurface. Different surface or disordered interface induced localization of the orbitals are considered too with respect to the nature and the strength of the local orbital ordering and magnetic exchange coupling between the surface/interface and the bulklike region. We predict that better tunneling can be achieved in tunnel barriers that favor slightly the occupancy of the Mn eg(3z2-r2) at the interface.

  20. Real-space localization and quantification of hole distribution in chain-ladder Sr3Ca11Cu24O41 superconductor. (United States)

    Bugnet, Matthieu; Löffler, Stefan; Hawthorn, David; Dabkowska, Hanna A; Luke, Graeme M; Schattschneider, Peter; Sawatzky, George A; Radtke, Guillaume; Botton, Gianluigi A


    Understanding the physical properties of the chain-ladder Sr3Ca11Cu24O41 hole-doped superconductor has been precluded by the unknown hole distribution among chains and ladders. We use electron energy-loss spectrometry (EELS) in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) at atomic resolution to directly separate the contributions of chains and ladders and to unravel the hole distribution from the atomic scale variations of the O-K near-edge structures. The experimental data unambiguously demonstrate that most of the holes lie within the chain layers. A quantitative interpretation supported by inelastic scattering calculations shows that about two holes are located in the ladders, and about four holes in the chains, shedding light on the electronic structure of Sr3Ca11Cu24O41. Combined atomic resolution STEM-EELS and inelastic scattering calculations is demonstrated as a powerful approach toward a quantitative understanding of the electronic structure of cuprate superconductors, offering new possibilities for elucidating their physical properties.

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1053 - Ladders. (United States)


    ... supported equally unless it is equipped with a single support attachment. (11) Ladders shall not be moved... hand to grasp the ladder when progressing up and/or down the ladder. (22) An employee shall not carry... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ladders. 1926.1053 Section 1926.1053 Labor Regulations...

  2. Stennis acquires new ladder truck (United States)


    The Stennis Space Center Fire Department added to its fire-fighting capabilities with acquisition of a new emergency response vehicle, Ladder-1, for use on-site. The E-One HP78 Aerial Truck is a combination aerial ladder and fire suppression unit and is designed with the latest safety technology. Featuring a 78-foot ladder and a pumping capability of 1,500 gallons per minute, the new truck provides firefighters with a tremendous rescue and fire suppression tool, Stennis Fire Chief Clark Smith said.

  3. Room temperature d (0) ferromagnetism in hole doped Y2O3: widening the choice of host to tailor DMS. (United States)

    Chakraborty, Brahmananda; Ramaniah, Lavanya M


    Transition metal-free-ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) is of much current interest in view of the search for more efficient DMS materials for spintronics applications. Our DFT results predict for the first time, that impurities from group1A (Li(+), Na(+), K(+)) doped on Y2O3 can induce a magnetic signature with a magnetic moment around 2.0 μ B per defect at hole concentrations around 1.63  ×  10(21) cm(-3), which is one order less than the critical hole density of ZnO with ferromagnetic coupling large enough to promote room temperature ferromagnetism. The induction of room temperature ferromagnetism by hole doping with an impurity atom from group 1A, which injects two holes per defect in the system, implies that the recommendation of three holes per defect given in the literature, which puts a restriction on the choice of host material and the impurity, is not a necessary criterion for hole induced room temperature ferromagnetism. DFT simulations with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), confirmed by the more sophisticated hybrid functional, Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06), predict that the magnetic moment is mostly contributed by O atoms surrounding the impurity atom and the magnetic moment scale up with impurity concentration which is a positive indicator for practical applications. We quantitatively and extensively demonstrate through the analysis of the density of states and ferromagnetic coupling that the Stoner criterion is satisfied by pushing the Fermi level inside the valence band to activate room temperature ferromagnetism. The stability of the structure and the persistence of ferromagnetism at room temperature were demonstrated by ab initio MD simulations and computation of Curie temperature through the mean field approximation. This study widens the choice of host oxides to tailor DMS for spintronics applications.

  4. Charge and spin quantum fluctuations in the doped strongly coupled Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice (United States)

    Ribeiro, F. G.; Coutinho-Filho, M. D.


    Field-theoretic methods are used to investigate the large-U Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice at half-filling and in the hole-doped regime. Within the framework of a functional-integral approach, we obtain the Lagrangian density associated with the charge and spin degrees of freedom. The Hamiltonian related to the charge degrees of freedom is exactly diagonalized. In the strong-coupling regime, we derive a perturbative low-energy theory suitable to describe the quantum antiferromagnetic phase (AF) as a function of hole doping. At half-filling, we deal with the underlying spin degrees of freedom of the quantum AF Heisenberg model by employing a second-order spin-wave analysis, in which case we have calculated the ground-state energy and the staggered magnetization; the results are in very good agreement with previous studies. Further, in the continuum, we derive a nonlinear σ model with a topological Hopf term that describes the AF-VBS (valence bond solid) competition. Lastly, in the challenging doped regime, our approach allows the derivation of a t -J Hamiltonian, and the analysis of the role played by charge and spin quantum fluctuations on the ground-state energy and, particularly, on the breakdown of the AF order at a critical hole doping; the results are benchmarked against recent Grassmann tensor product state simulations.

  5. Twisted-order parameter applied to dimerized ladders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J; Martin-Delgado, M A [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sierra, G [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, C.S.I.C.-U.A.M., Madrid (Spain)


    We apply the twisted-order parameter (TOP) for dimerized quantum spin ladders to locate the critical points that separate gapped phases representing quantum spin liquids of various types. Using the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), method, we find that the TOP is a good order parameter for these systems regardless of the number of legs. As a check, we reproduce with the DMRG and periodic boundary conditions the computations previously done with quantum Monte Carlo for one-dimensional S = 1/2, S = 1, S = 3/2 and S = 2 Heisenberg chains with alternating bonds.

  6. Transformations of triangle ladder diagrams (United States)

    Kondrashuk, Igor; Vergara, Alvaro


    It is shown how dual space diagrammatic representation of momentum integrals corresponding to triangle ladder diagrams with an arbitrary number of rungs can be transformed to half-diamonds. In paper arXiv:0803.3420 [hep-th] the half-diamonds were related by conformal integral substitution to the diamonds which represent the dual space image of four-point ladder integrals in the four-dimensional momentum space. Acting in the way described in the present paper we do not need to use the known result for diamond (four-point) diagrams as an external input in deriving relations of arXiv:0803.3420 [hep-th], however, that result for the diamond diagram arises in the present proof as an intermediate consequence in a step-by-step diagrammatic transformation from the triangle ladder diagram to the half-diamond diagrams.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clive Kaplan


    .... The reason you are not moving up the ladder has nothing to do with the ladder. This also means that moving to another company is more than likely not going to solve the problem -- a lack of upward movement...

  8. (DARPA) Topologically Protected Quantum Information Processing In Spin-Orbit Compled Semiconductors (United States)


    studied in detail the non-Abelian topological order and Majorana fermions (MFs) in a heterostructure consisting of both electron- and hole-doped spin...the absence of the gap closing signatures before the emergence of the MFs in the electron doped nanowires , and deducing alternative scenarios for the...alternative interpretations for the experiments. This necessitated proposing a true smoking-gun signature of MFs in semiconductor nanowires which we also

  9. The effect of gap fluctuations on interacting and non-interacting polarization for nano-superconducting grains in electron- and hole-doped cuprates (United States)

    Afzali, R.; Alizadeh, A.


    The behavior of non-interacting and interacting polarization under influence of fluctuations of the superconducting gap with D-wave symmetry and under consideration of the gap dependence on nano- grain size is obtained in terms of the frequency, temperature and the size at zero and finite temperatures for rectangular cuprate nano-superconducting grains. By using Eliashberg equations and applying the relations of the fermionic dispersion for the hole-doped and electron-doped cuprates, we numerically compute the real part of size-dependent polarization for both types of cuprates. We show that the peak of real part of polarization moves to higher frequency by including the additional fluctuating part of gap (or the nano-size effect). Also, we obtain the temperatures for different frequencies, in which the effect of gap fluctuations fades. In the case of size-dependent gap, there is a critical frequency; for frequencies lower (higher) than the critical frequency, the nano-effect weakens (improves) the superconducting state. Moreover, it is concluded that the real part of polarization for hole- doped cuprates in terms of the grain size has more significant amount in comparison with electron-doped ones.

  10. Tensile Strain Effects on the Magneto-transport in Calcium Manganese Oxide Thin Films: Comparison with its Hole-doped Counterpart (United States)

    Lawson, Bridget; Neubauer, Samuel; Chaudhry, Adeel; Hart, Cacie; Ferrone, Natalie; Houston, David; Yong, Grace; Kolagani, Rajeswari

    Magnetoresistance properties of the epitaxial thin films of doped rare earth manganites are known to be influenced by the effect of bi-axial strain induced by lattice mismatch with the substrate. In hole-doped manganites, the effect of both compressive and tensile strain is qualitatively consistent with the expected changes in unit cell symmetry from cubic to tetragonal, leading to Jahn-Teller strain fields that affect the energy levels of Mn3 + energy levels. Recent work in our laboratory on CaMnO3 thin films has pointed out that tetragonal distortions introduced by tensile lattice mismatch strain may also have the effect of modulating the oxygen content of the films in agreement with theoretical models that propose such coupling between strain and oxygen content. Our research focuses on comparing the magneto-transport properties of hole-doped manganite LaCaMnO3 thin films with that of its electron doped counter parts, in an effort to delineate the effects of oxygen stoichiometry changes on magneto-transport from the effects of Jahn-Teller type strain. Towson University Office of Undergraduate Research, Fisher Endowment Grant and Undergraduate Research Grant from the Fisher College of Science and Mathematics, Seed Funding Grant from the School of Emerging technologies and the NSF Grant ECCS 112856.

  11. Transformations of triangle ladder diagrams


    Kondrashuk, Igor; Vergara, Alvaro


    It is shown how dual space diagrammatic representation of momentum integrals corresponding to triangle ladder diagrams with an arbitrary number of rungs can be transformed to half-diamonds. In paper arXiv:0803.3420 [hep-th] the half-diamonds were related by conformal integral substitution to the diamonds which represent the dual space image of four-point ladder integrals in the four-dimensional momentum space. Acting in the way described in the present paper we do not need to use the known re...

  12. Hole-doping effect on the magnetic state of delafossite oxide CuCrO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, T; Beppu, Y; Fujii, Y; Kishimoto, T; Uto, K; Onoe, T; Jufuku, N; Hidaka, S; Terada, N [Department of Nano-Structures and Advanced Materials, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Miyasaka, S, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)


    We investigated the substitution effects of Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Al{sup 3+} for Cr{sup 3+} on the magnetic, transport and thermal properties of delafossite oxide CuCrO{sub 2}, which possesses a quasi-2D Heisenberg triangular antiferromagnetic (AF) lattice. Magnetization and specific heat measurements indicated that AF ordering is promoted by the substitution of nonmagnetic Mg{sup 2+} for Cr{sup 3+} (S = 3/2), despite the fact that a spin vacancy is introduced in a 120 deg. spin structure at the Cr sites. These results suggest that the residual magnetic frustration is partially broken by spin fluctuations, which are enhanced through the interaction between the itinerant hole introduced by Mg doping and the localized spin at the Cr site.

  13. Enhanced thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT for hole-doped Bi2Sr2Co2Oy through Pb substitution (United States)

    Hsu, H. C.; Lee, W. L.; Wu, K. K.; Kuo, Y. K.; Chen, B. H.; Chou, F. C.


    Single crystals of Bi2-xPbxSr2Co2Oy (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.55) have been grown using optical floating-zone method. The chemical compositions were determined using combined electron probe microanalysis and iodometric titration. Physical properties including electrical resistivity (ρ), Seebeck coefficient (S), and thermal conductivity (κ) were measured using single crystal specimens. Successful hole doping through Pb substitution is confirmed through combined iodometry titration, electrical transport, and Seebeck coefficient measurements. Significant reduction on both in-plane resistivity and thermal conductivity was found as a result of Pb substitution to the Bi site. The thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT for x ˜ 0.55 is raised 20 folds from the undoped sample at room temperature.

  14. 29 CFR 1918.24 - Fixed and portable ladders. (United States)


    ... combination ladders, self-supporting ladders shall not be used as single straight ladders. (4) Unless intended for cantilever operation, non-self-supporting ladders shall not be used to climb above the top support... manufactured portable ladders obtained before January 21, 1998 shall be capable of supporting a 200-pound (890...

  15. Low-Field Bi-Skyrmion Formation in a Noncentrosymmetric Chimney Ladder Ferromagnet. (United States)

    Takagi, R; Yu, X Z; White, J S; Shibata, K; Kaneko, Y; Tatara, G; Rønnow, H M; Tokura, Y; Seki, S


    The real-space spin texture and the relevant magnetic parameters were investigated for an easy-axis noncentrosymmetric ferromagnet Cr_{11}Ge_{19} with Nowotny chimney ladder structure. Using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, we report the formation of bi-Skyrmions, i.e., pairs of spin vortices with opposite magnetic helicities. The quantitative evaluation of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) proves that the magnetic dipolar interaction plays a more important role than the DMI on the observed bi-Skyrmion formation. Notably, the critical magnetic field value required for the formation of bi-Skyrmions turned out to be extremely small in this system, which is ascribed to strong easy-axis anisotropy associated with the characteristic helix crystal structure. The family of Nowotny chimney ladder compounds may offer a unique material platform where two distinctive Skyrmion formation mechanisms favoring different topological spin textures can become simultaneously active.

  16. Low-Field Bi-Skyrmion Formation in a Noncentrosymmetric Chimney Ladder Ferromagnet (United States)

    Takagi, R.; Yu, X. Z.; White, J. S.; Shibata, K.; Kaneko, Y.; Tatara, G.; Rønnow, H. M.; Tokura, Y.; Seki, S.


    The real-space spin texture and the relevant magnetic parameters were investigated for an easy-axis noncentrosymmetric ferromagnet Cr11 Ge19 with Nowotny chimney ladder structure. Using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, we report the formation of bi-Skyrmions, i.e., pairs of spin vortices with opposite magnetic helicities. The quantitative evaluation of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) proves that the magnetic dipolar interaction plays a more important role than the DMI on the observed bi-Skyrmion formation. Notably, the critical magnetic field value required for the formation of bi-Skyrmions turned out to be extremely small in this system, which is ascribed to strong easy-axis anisotropy associated with the characteristic helix crystal structure. The family of Nowotny chimney ladder compounds may offer a unique material platform where two distinctive Skyrmion formation mechanisms favoring different topological spin textures can become simultaneously active.

  17. Understanding the Behaviour of Infinite Ladder Circuits (United States)

    Ucak, C.; Yegin, K.


    Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does…

  18. 29 CFR 1917.118 - Fixed ladders. (United States)


    ... tubular scaffold framing; and (4) Ladders used only for fire-fighting or emergency purposes. (b... distance, not less than 41/2 inches (11.43 cm), necessary. (5) When a ladder passes through an opening or... width of 10 inches (25.4 cm) and projecting at least 41/2 inches (11.43 cm) from the wall; (3) Be so...

  19. Hole induced spin polarons in LaCoO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsov, A.; Kataev, V.; Buechner, B. [IFW Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Vavilova, E. [IFW Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Zavoisky Physical Technical Institute, RAS, 420029 Kazan (Russian Federation); Podlesnyak, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. BOX 2008 MS6494, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6494 (United States); Khomskii, D.I. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany)


    We report a comparative high field electron spin- (ESR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and static magnetization study of lightly hole-doped samples of La{sub 0.998}Sr{sub 0.002}CoO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.998}Ca{sub 0.002}CoO{sub 3}. We have shown before that small Sr doping of LaCoO{sub 3} yields the spin-state polaron with a big spin value and large spin orbital coupling. The Ca{sup 2+} ion, in contrast to the Sr{sup 2+} ion, has almost the same ionic radii as the La{sup 3+} ion. Therefore, the substitution of Ca for La provides mainly a hole to the system without creating a sizeable crystal field distortion around the substituted Ca ion. This difference enables us to ascertain the roles of the introduced hole and the created crystal field distortion in the formation of the spin polarons. The data obtained on Ca and Sr doped LaCoO{sub 3} samples provide experimental evidence that the introduced hole indeed plays the main role. We discuss a model of the formation of big spin polarons in LaCoO{sub 3} due to a very small hole doping.

  20. Laddering em pesquisa de marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Modesto Veludo-de-Oliveira

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a técnica de pesquisa laddering em marketing, considerando a proposta de renovação de conhecimentos sobre metodologia na área. Para isso investiga diversos estudos, artigos e pesquisas que tratam do assunto em nível nacional e internacional. O conceito de cadeias meios-fins é abordado pela estrutura teórica que fundamenta a técnica, ligando atributos, conseqüências percebidas do consumo e valores pessoais relativos a um produto. O artigo segue com a explicação dos procedimentos de campo, como a entrevista e a análise dos dados. A laddering é um instrumento de pesquisa qualitativa bastante útil e poderoso, mas ainda pouco utilizado tanto por acadêmicos como por profissionais de mercado, no Brasil, provavelmente por desconhecimento e pouca divulgação. Cabe, portanto, uma maior disseminação de seu uso.

  1. Hidden Order and Symmetry Protected Topological States in Quantum Link Ladders (United States)

    Cardarelli, L.; Greschner, S.; Santos, L.


    We show that, whereas spin-1 /2 one-dimensional U(1) quantum-link models (QLMs) are topologically trivial, when implemented in ladderlike lattices these models may present an intriguing ground-state phase diagram, which includes a symmetry protected topological (SPT) phase that may be readily revealed by analyzing long-range string spin correlations along the ladder legs. We propose a simple scheme for the realization of spin-1 /2 U(1) QLMs based on single-component fermions loaded in an optical lattice with s and p bands, showing that the SPT phase may be experimentally realized by adiabatic preparation.

  2. Effects of magnetization on hole localization and MnO{sub 6} octahedra disorder in hole-doped lanthanum manganese perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, C.H.; Brosha, E.L.; Kwei, G.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bridges, F. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Physics Dept.; Neumeier, J.J. [Florida Atlanta Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States). Physics Dept.


    The authors review the distortions of the MnO{sub 6} octahedra reduced by magnetization in hole-doped lanthanum manganese perovskites. The systems they consider include the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) samples La{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x = 0.21, 0.25, 0.30), La{sub 0.76}Ba{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3}, and a poorer quality La{sub 0.76}Pb{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} sample. They also report preliminary work on three samples of oxygen-doped LaMnO{sub 3+{delta}} and a lanthanum-deficient La{sub 0.9}MnO{sub 3} sample. They find the same exponential relationship between the removal of the distortion and the sample magnetization in the Ba- and Pb-doped CMR samples as was found previously for the Ca doped samples. The MnO{sub 6} distortion in the oxygen-doped materials is found to slightly reduce below the magnetic transition, although much less so than in the CMR samples. Above T{sub C}, the antiferromagnetic LaMnO{sub 3.006} sample shows a softer temperature dependence of the Mn-O bond length distribution broadening. Surprisingly, even this sample shows deviations from thermal (Debye) behavior near T{sub N}, possibly due to FM coupling within MnO planes.

  3. Mass ladder operators from spacetime conformal symmetry (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Houri, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Masashi


    Ladder operators can be useful constructs, allowing for unique insight and intuition. In fact, they have played a special role in the development of quantum mechanics and field theory. Here, we introduce a novel type of ladder operators, which map a scalar field onto another massive scalar field. We construct such operators, in arbitrary dimensions, from closed conformal Killing vector fields, eigenvectors of the Ricci tensor. As an example, we explicitly construct these objects in anti-de Sitter (A d S ) spacetime and show that they exist for masses above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. Starting from a regular seed solution of the massive Klein-Gordon equation, mass ladder operators in AdS allow one to build a variety of regular solutions with varying boundary condition at spatial infinity. We also discuss mass ladder operator in the context of spherical harmonics, and the relation between supersymmetric quantum mechanics and so-called Aretakis constants in an extremal black hole.

  4. Spin-wave-induced spin torque in Rashba ferromagnets (United States)

    Umetsu, Nobuyuki; Miura, Daisuke; Sakuma, Akimasa


    We study the effects of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin torque induced by spin waves, which are the plane-wave dynamics of magnetization. The spin torque is derived from linear-response theory, and we calculate the dynamic spin torque by considering the impurity-ladder-sum vertex corrections. This dynamic spin torque is divided into three terms: a damping term, a distortion term, and a correction term for the equation of motion. The distorting torque describes a phenomenon unique to the Rashba spin-orbit coupling system, where the distorted motion of magnetization precession is subjected to the anisotropic force from the Rashba coupling. The oscillation mode of the precession exhibits an elliptical trajectory, and the ellipticity depends on the strength of the nesting effects, which could be reduced by decreasing the electron lifetime.

  5. Spin-orbit-based device for electron spin polarization (United States)

    Avishai, Y.; Band, Y. B.


    We propose quantum devices having spin-orbit coupling (but no magnetic fields or magnetic materials) that, when attached to leads, yield a high degree of transmitted electron polarization. An example of such a simple device is treated within a tight binding model composed of two one-dimensional chains coupled by several consecutive rungs (i.e., a ladder) and subject to a gate voltage. The ensuing scattering problem (with Rashba spin-orbit coupling) is solved, and a sizable polarization is predicted. When the ladder is twisted into a helix (as in DNA), the curvature energy augments the polarization. For a system with random spin-orbit coupling, the distribution of polarization is broad; hence a high degree of polarization can be obtained in a measurement of a given disorder realization. When disorder occurs in a double helix structure then, depending on scattering energy, the variance of the polarization distribution can increase even further due to helix curvature.

  6. Vortex Fractionalization in a Josephson Ladder (United States)

    Stroud, David; Tornes, Ivan


    We show numerically that in a Josephson ladder with periodic boundary conditions and subject to a suitable transverse magnetic field, a vortex excitation can break up into two or more fractional excitations. If the ladder has N plaquettes, and N is divisible by an integer q, then in an applied field of 1/q flux quanta per plaquette, the ground state is a regular lattice of one fluxon every q plaquettes. When an additional fluxon is added, it spontaneously breaks up into q fractional fluxons, each carrying 1/q units of vorticity. The fractional fluxons are basically walls between different domains of the underlying 1/q lattice. The fractional fluxons are all depinned at the same applied current and move as a unit. For certain applied fields and ladder lengths, we show that there are isolated fractional fluxons. The fractional fluxons produce a time-averaged voltage related in a characteristic way to the ac voltage frequency.

  7. 29 CFR 1910.26 - Portable metal ladders. (United States)


    ... and taken out of service until repaired by either maintenance department or the manufacturer. (3) Use... are designed as a one-man working ladder based on a 200-pound load. (iii) The ladder base section must...

  8. Spin ladders and quantum simulators for Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids. (United States)

    Ward, S; Bouillot, P; Ryll, H; Kiefer, K; Krämer, K W; Rüegg, Ch; Kollath, C; Giamarchi, T


    Magnetic insulators have proven to be usable as quantum simulators for itinerant interacting quantum systems. In particular the compound (C(5)H(12)N)(2)CuBr(4) (for short: (Hpip)(2)CuBr(4)) was shown to be a remarkable realization of a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) and allowed us to quantitatively test the TLL theory. Substitution weakly disorders this class of compounds and thus allows us to use them to tackle questions pertaining to the effect of disorder in TLL as well, such as that of the formation of the Bose glass. In this paper we present, as a first step in this direction, a study of the properties of the related (Hpip)(2)CuCl(4) compound. We determine the exchange couplings and compute the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the specific heat, using a finite temperature density matrix renormalization group procedure. Comparison with the measured specific heat at zero magnetic field confirms the exchange parameters and Hamiltonian for the (Hpip)(2)CuCl(4) compound, giving the basis needed to begin studying the disorder effects.

  9. Pressure-induced superconductivity in the iron-based ladder material BaFe2S3 (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Sugimoto, Akira; Nambu, Yusuke; Yamauchi, Touru; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Kawakami, Takateru; Avdeev, Maxim; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Du, Fei; Kawashima, Chizuru; Soeda, Hideto; Nakano, Satoshi; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Ueda, Yutaka; Sato, Taku J.; Ohgushi, Kenya


    All the iron-based superconductors identified so far share a square lattice composed of Fe atoms as a common feature, despite having different crystal structures. In copper-based materials, the superconducting phase emerges not only in square-lattice structures but also in ladder structures. Yet iron-based superconductors without a square-lattice motif have not been found, despite being actively sought out. Here, we report the discovery of pressure-induced superconductivity in the iron-based spin-ladder material BaFe2S3, a Mott insulator with striped-type magnetic ordering below ~120 K. On the application of pressure this compound exhibits a metal-insulator transition at about 11 GPa, followed by the appearance of superconductivity below Tc = 14 K, right after the onset of the metallic phase. Our findings indicate that iron-based ladder compounds represent promising material platforms, in particular for studying the fundamentals of iron-based superconductivity.

  10. Quantifying Ladder Fuels: A New Approach Using LiDAR (United States)

    Heather Kramer; Brandon Collins; Maggi Kelly; Scott Stephens


    We investigated the relationship between LiDAR and ladder fuels in the northern Sierra Nevada, California USA. Ladder fuels are often targeted in hazardous fuel reduction treatments due to their role in propagating fire from the forest floor to tree crowns. Despite their importance, ladder fuels are difficult to quantify. One common approach is to calculate canopy base...

  11. 46 CFR 197.320 - Diving ladder and stage. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diving ladder and stage. 197.320 Section 197.320... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.320 Diving ladder and stage. (a) Each diving ladder must— (1) Be capable of supporting the weight of at least two divers; (2) Extend 3...

  12. 30 CFR 56.11007 - Wooden components of ladders. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wooden components of ladders. 56.11007 Section 56.11007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... § 56.11007 Wooden components of ladders. Wooden components of ladders shall not be painted except with...

  13. 30 CFR 77.206 - Ladders; construction; installation and maintenance. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ladders; construction; installation and maintenance. 77.206 Section 77.206 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... members of ladders shall not be painted. (c) Steep or vertical ladders which are used regularly at fixed...

  14. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of record...

  15. The Static Ladder Problem with Two Sources of Friction (United States)

    Bennett, Jonathan; Mauney, Alex


    The problem of a ladder leaning against a wall in static equilibrium is a classic example encountered in introductory mechanics texts. Most discussions of this problem assume that the static frictional force between the ladder and wall can be ignored. A few authors consider the case where the static friction coefficients between ladder/wall…

  16. The laddering method in service innovation research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe


    to guide marketers to understand what to innovate, how to innovate, how to plan and efficiently communicate changes, how to sell the innovations in the market place and how to implement organizational changes that innovations might cause. Furthermore, the laddering methodology has been applied across many...

  17. Hadron structure in the ladder model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soper, D.E.


    The (flavor non-singlet) Green's function to find a far-off-shell quark in a hadron is obtained in the renormalization group improved ladder model for QCD in the space-like axial gauge. Particular attention is paid to the role of the singularity in the gluon propagator. 4 figures.

  18. Dipoles on a Two-leg Ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas


    of lattice filling fractions, perpendicular hopping between the legs, and dipole interaction strength. We show that the system exhibits zig-zag ordering when the dipolar interactions are predominantly repulsive. As a function of dipole moment orientation with respect to the ladder, we find...

  19. Box ladders in a noninteger dimension (United States)

    Gonzalez, I.; Kondrashuk, I. N.


    We construct a family of triangle-ladder diagrams that can be calculated using the Belokurov-Usyukina loop reduction technique in d= 4-2ɛ dimensions. The main idea of the approach we propose is to generalize this loop reduction technique existing in d= 4 dimensions. We derive a recurrence relation between the result for an L-loop triangle-ladder diagram of this family and the result for an (L- 1)-loop triangleladder diagram of the same family. Because the proposed method combines analytic and dimensional regularizations, we must remove the analytic regularization at the end of the calculation by taking the double uniform limit in which the parameters of the analytic regularization vanish. In the position space, we obtain a diagram in the left-hand side of the recurrence relations in which the rung indices are 1 and all other indices are 1 - ɛ in this limit. Fourier transforms of diagrams of this type give momentum space diagrams with rung indices 1 - ɛ and all other indices 1. By a conformal transformation of the dual space image of this momentum space representation, we relate such a family of triangle-ladder momentum diagrams to a family of box-ladder momentum diagrams with rung indices 1 - ɛ and all other indices 1. Because any diagram from this family is reducible to a one-loop diagram, the proposed generalization of the Belokurov-Usyukina loop reduction technique to a noninteger number of dimensions allows calculating this family of box-ladder diagrams in the momentum space explicitly in terms of Appell's hypergeometric function F 4 without expanding in powers of the parameter ɛ in an arbitrary kinematic region in the momentum space.

  20. Career ladder program for registered nurses in ambulatory care. (United States)

    Nelson, Joan; Sassaman, Becky; Phillips, Alison


    RN ladder programs are designed to inspire and reward clinical excellence. Kaiser Permanente Colorado's (KPCO) career ladder program emerged as a result of a labor-management partnership. Career ladder point assignments are reflective of the organization's priorities and values. KPCO's career ladder point tool awards RNs for formal and continuing education, professional presentations, organizational experience and experience as an RN, certifications and active professional memberships, leadership activities, research and publications, and nursing-related volunteer work. Participation in the RN career ladder requires that the nurse achieve a self-determined, manager-approved, measurable goal that will improve patient care. Career ladder nurses at KPCO were significantly more involved in leadership and interdisciplinary activities, quality improvement projects, and preceptorship.

  1. Thermal Transport and Magnetotransport Properties of CuCr1-xMgxO2 with a Spin-3/2 Antiferromagnetic Triangular Lattice (United States)

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Oozono, Satoshi; Kihara, Takumi; Tokunaga, Masashi


    We have investigated the thermal conductivity (κ) and magnetoresistance (MR) of non-doped and hole-doped delafossite CuCrO2 with a spin-3/2 antiferromagnetic (AF) triangular sublattice. The phonon mean free path above the Néel temperature (TN) deduced from κ and lattice specific heat is almost identical to the magnetic correlation length, which indicates that, for both compounds, spin fluctuation enhanced in a geometrically frustrated lattice is strongly coupled with acoustic phonon above TN. κ below TN is significantly suppressed by Mg substitution, suggesting the introduction of some disorder into the 120° Néel state. For the hole-doped CuCr0.97Mg0.03O2, a negative MR is observed above TN, which is enhanced with a decrease in T toward TN, while a component of positive MR appears below TN and the residual negative MR component is observed in a high magnetic field, indicating that spin fluctuation coupled with electrical conductivity is critically enhanced above TN and remains below TN. These results evidence that the 120° Néel state is partially disordered by a doped itinerant hole coupled with spin fluctuation, although AF transition is certainly promoted. The dynamic partial disorder may stabilize the Néel order through an order-by-disorder mechanism.

  2. 30 CFR 57.11007 - Wooden components of ladders. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wooden components of ladders. 57.11007 Section 57.11007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... components of ladders shall not be painted except with a transparent finish. ...

  3. A Career Ladder's Effect on Teacher Career and Work Attitudes. (United States)

    Hart, Ann Weaver


    A career ladder affecting the work structure and career opportunities of teachers was studied to determine effects on teacher attitudes. Responses of 389 elementary through high school teachers to career ladder work efforts, work of schools, peer supervision, and career growth opportunities and stability were affected by the design. (TJH)

  4. 29 CFR 1926.851 - Stairs, passageways, and ladders. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stairs, passageways, and ladders. 1926.851 Section 1926.851..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Demolition § 1926.851 Stairs.... (b) All stairs, passageways, ladders and incidental equipment thereto, which are covered by this...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable wood ladders. 1910.25 Section 1910.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.25 Portable wood ladders. (a) Application of requirements. This section i...

  6. A balanced intervention ladder: promoting autonomy through public health action. (United States)

    Griffiths, P E; West, C


    The widely cited Nuffield Council on Bioethics 'Intervention Ladder' structurally embodies the assumption that personal autonomy is maximized by non-intervention. Consequently, the Intervention Ladder encourages an extreme 'negative liberty' view of autonomy. Yet there are several alternative accounts of autonomy that are both arguably superior as accounts of autonomy and better suited to the issues facing public health ethics. We propose to replace the one-sided ladder, which has any intervention coming at a cost to autonomy, with a two-sided 'Balanced Intervention Ladder,' where intervention can either enhance or diminish autonomy. We show that not only the alternative, richer accounts of autonomy but even Mill's classic version of negative liberty puts some interventions on the positive side of the ladder. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Climbing the Ladder: Experience with Developing a Large Group Genetic Counselor Career Ladder at Children's National Health System. (United States)

    Kofman, Laura; Seprish, Mary Beth; Summar, Marshall


    Children's National Health System (CNHS) is a not-for-profit pediatric hospital that employs around twenty genetic counselors in a range of specialties, including clinical pediatric, neurology, fetal medicine, research, and laboratory. CNHS lacked a structured system of advancement for their genetic counselors; therefore, a formal career ladder was proposed by the genetic counselors based on years of experience, responsibility, and job performance. This career ladder utilized monetary, academic, and seniority incentives to encourage advancement and continue employment at CNHS. The creation and ultimate approval of the career ladder required direct input from genetic counselors, Department Chairs, and Human Resource personnel. The establishment of a genetic counselor career ladder at CNHS will hopefully benefit the profession of genetic counselors as a whole and allow other facilities to create and maintain their own career ladder to meet the needs of the growing, competitive, field of genetic counseling.

  8. Selectivity of fish ladders: a bottleneck in Neotropical fish movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sérgio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Although dozens of fish ladders have been constructed at dams of Brazilian reservoirs, there are few studies evaluating their efficiency as a tool for the conservation of Neotropical ichthyofauna, especially for migratory species. Therefore, the present study evaluated the selectivity of the species that entered and ascended the fish ladder located next to Lajeado Dam (Luis Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Tocantins River. Samples were taken monthly from November, 2002 through October, 2003, in the resting pools of the ladder, using cast nets, and in the downstream stretch, using gillnets. The selectivity of the ladder in attracting fish was evaluated by comparing the occurrence, relative abundance, dominance and the congruence of abundance ranks of migratory and non-migratory species in the ladder and in the stretch of river immediately downstream. Species richness and fish abundance in the resting pools were used to evaluate selectivity along the ladder. The effects on selectivity by temporal variations in water level downriver and maximum flow velocity in the fish ladder were also analyzed. Out of the 130 species recorded downriver, 62.3% were caught in the ladder, and migratory species were clearly favored. However, more than 2/3 of the catch belonged to only three species (Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Psectrogaster amazonica and Oxydoras niger. Although the majority of the species that entered the ladder were able to reach its top, there was a sharp reduction in abundance of individuals towards the top. Temporal variations in the water level below the dam influenced richness and abundance of fish concentrated downstream and in the ladder, with lower values during periods of low water. In the ladder, a maximum flow velocity of 2.3 m/s, although also selective, proved to be more appropriate for fish ascension than a velocity of 2.8 m/s. It was concluded that the entry and ascension of the fish in the ladder were not congruent with

  9. Quantifying Ladder Fuels: A New Approach Using LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Kramer


    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between LiDAR and ladder fuels in the northern Sierra Nevada, California USA. Ladder fuels are often targeted in hazardous fuel reduction treatments due to their role in propagating fire from the forest floor to tree crowns. Despite their importance, ladder fuels are difficult to quantify. One common approach is to calculate canopy base height, but this has many potential sources of error. LiDAR may be a way forward to better characterize ladder fuels, but has only been used to address this question peripherally and in only a few instances. After establishing that landscape fuel treatments reduced canopy and ladder fuels at our site, we tested which LiDAR-derived metrics best differentiated treated from untreated areas. The percent cover between 2 and 4 m had the most explanatory power to distinguish treated from untreated pixels across a range of spatial scales. When compared to independent plot-based measures of ladder fuel classes, this metric differentiated between high and low levels of ladder fuels. These findings point to several immediate applications for land managers and suggest new avenues of study that could lead to possible improvements in the way that we model wildfire behavior across forested landscapes in the US.

  10. Spin-state blockade in Te6+-substituted electron-doped LaCoO3 (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Keisuke; Koyama, Shun-Ichi; Watahiki, Masanori; Sato, Mika; Nishihara, Kazuki; Onodera, Mitsugi; Iwasa, Kazuaki; Nojima, Tsutomu; Yamasaki, Yuuichi; Nakao, Hironori; Murakami, Youichi


    Perovskite-type LaCoO3 (Co3+: d6) is a rare inorganic material with sensitive and characteristic responses among low, intermediate, and high spin states. For example, in insulating nonmagnetic low-spin states below about 20 K, light hole doping (Ni substitution) induces much larger magnetization than expected; over net 10μB/hole (5μB/Ni) for 1μB/hole (1μB/Ni), in which the nearly isolated dopants locally change the surrounding Co low-spin states to magnetic ones and form spin molecules with larger total spin. Further, the former is isotropic, whereas the latter exhibits characteristic anisotropy probably because of Jahn-Teller distortion. In contrast, for electron doping, relatively insensitive spin-state responses were reported, as in LaCo(Ti4+) O3, but are not clarified, and are somewhat controversial. Here, we present macroscopic measurement data of another electron-doped system LaCo(Te6+) O3 and discuss the spin-state responses. This study was financially supported by Grants-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) (No. 22740209 and 26800174) from the MEXT of Japan.

  11. Spin and Valley Physics in Two Dimensional Systems: Graphene and Superconducting Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (United States)

    Sosenko, Evan Boyd

    Recent focus on two dimensional materials and spin-coupled phenomena holds future potential for fast, efficient, flexible, and transparent devices. The fundamental operation of a spintronic device depends on the injection, transmission, and detection of spins in a conducting channel. Long spin lifetimes during transit are critical for realizing this technology. An attractive platform for this purpose is graphene, which has high mobilities and low spin-orbit coupling. Unfortunately, measured spin lifetimes are orders of magnitude smaller than theoretically expected. A source of spin loss is the resistance mismatch between the ferromagnetic electrodes and graphene. While this has been studied numerically, here we provide a closed form expression for Hanle spin precession which is the standard method of measuring spin lifetimes. This allows for a detailed characterization of the nonlocal spin valve device. Strong spin-orbit interaction has the potential to engender unconventional superconducting states. A cousin to graphene, two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides entwine interaction, spin-orbit coupling, and topology. The noninteracting electronic states have multiple valleys in the energy dispersion and are topologically nontrivial. We report on the possible superconducting states of hole-doped systems, and analyze to what extent the correlated phase inherits the topological aspects of the parent crystal. We find that local attractive interactions or proximal coupling to s-wave superconductors lead to a pairing which is an equal mixture of a spin singlet and the m = 0 spin triplet. Its topology allows quasiparticle excitations of net nonzero Berry curvature via pair-breaking by circularly polarized light. The valley contrasting optical response, where oppositely circularly polarized light couples to different valleys, is present even in the superconducting state, though with smaller magnitude.

  12. Implementation of a pharmacist career ladder program. (United States)

    Heavner, Mojdeh S; Tichy, Eric M; Yazdi, Marina


    The implementation and outcomes of a pharmacist career ladder program (PCLP) at a tertiary care, academic medical center are described. A PCLP was developed at Yale-New Haven Hospital to guide career development, motivate staff to perform beyond their daily tasks and responsibilities, and recognize and retain high performers through professional advancement. The PCLP advancement criteria include specific requirements for excellence in five categories: level of training and experience, pharmacy practice, drug information, education and scholarship, and leadership. The PCLP is designed with four distinct tiers: clinical pharmacist, clinical pharmacist II, clinical pharmacy specialist, and clinical pharmacy specialist II. The specific criteria are increasingly challenging to achieve when moving up the ladder. Pharmacists may apply voluntarily each year for advancement. A PCLP review committee consisting of pharmacist peers and managers meets annually to discuss and vote on career advancement decisions. Since PCLP implementation, we have observed an increasing success rate for advancement (50% in 2013, 85% in 2014, and 100% in 2015) and a considerable increase in pharmacist participation in clinical and process improvement projects, as well as intervention and medication-use variance documentation. The implementation of a PCLP at a tertiary care, academic medical center provided an opportunity for frontline pharmacists to advance professionally and increased their participation and leadership in clinical and process improvement projects and drug-use policy and medication safety initiatives; the program also increased the number of pharmacists with specialty board certification and peer-reviewed publications. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Straightforward Procedure for Laboratory Production of DNA Ladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vo Thi Thuong Lan


    Full Text Available DNA ladder is commonly used to determine the size of DNA fragments by electrophoresis in routine molecular biology laboratories. In this study, we report a new procedure to prepare a DNA ladder that consists of 10 fragments from 100 to 1000 bp. This protocol is a combination of routinely employed methods: cloning, PCR, and partial digestion with restriction enzymes. DNA fragments of 100 bp with unique restriction site at both ends were self-ligated to create a tandem repeat. Once being cloned, the tandem repeat was rapidly amplified by PCR and partially digested by restriction enzymes to produce a ladder containing multimers of the repeated DNA fragments. Our procedure for production of DNA ladder could be simple, time saving, and inexpensive in comparison with current ones widely used in most laboratories.

  14. Moving up the career ladder: staff nurses writing for publication. (United States)

    Bechtel, Gregory A; Davidhizar, Ruth


    Facilitating the knowledge and abilities of staff nurses interested in climbing an organization's career ladder helps the nurse, the profession, and patients. Strategies to overcome obstacles and promote collaboration in writing for publication are addressed.

  15. LOFT 3C cable tray and ladder seismic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosby, W.R.


    The LOFT 3C cable tray and ladder were analyzed for LOCE and Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) seismic loads by using equivalent static loads. Design changes were recommended to alleviate overstress conditions.

  16. Fish ladders: safe fish passage or hotspot for predation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Fish ladders are a strategy for conserving biodiversity, as they can provide connectivity between fragmented habitats and reduce predation on shoals that accumulate immediately below dams. Although the impact of predation downstream of reservoirs has been investigated, especially in juvenile salmonids during their downstream movements, nothing is known about predation on Neotropical fish in the attraction and containment areas commonly found in translocation facilities. This study analysed predation in a fish passage system at the Lajeado Dam on the Tocantins River in Brazil. The abundance, distribution, and the permanence (time spent of large predatory fish along the ladder, the injuries imposed by piranhas during passage and the presence of other vertebrate predators were investigated. From December 2002 to October 2003, sampling was conducted in four regions (downstream, along the ladder, in the forebay, and upstream of the reservoir using gillnets, cast nets and counts or visual observations. The captured fish were tagged with thread and beads, and any mutilations were registered. Fish, birds and dolphins were the main predator groups observed, with a predominance of the first two groups. The entrance to the ladder, in the downstream region, was the area with the highest number of large predators and was the only region with relevant non-fish vertebrates. The main predatory fish species were Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus, and Serrasalmus rhombeus. Tagged individuals were detected predating along the ladder for up to 90 days. Mutilations caused by Serrasalmus attacks were noted in 36% of species and 4% of individuals at the top of the ladder. Our results suggested that the high density of fish in the restricted ladder environment, which is associated with injuries suffered along the ladder course and the presence of multiple predator groups with different predation strategies, transformed the fish corridor into a hotspot for

  17. Persistent high-energy spin excitations in iron-pnictide superconductors. (United States)

    Zhou, Ke-Jin; Huang, Yao-Bo; Monney, Claude; Dai, Xi; Strocov, Vladimir N; Wang, Nan-Lin; Chen, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Chenglin; Dai, Pengcheng; Patthey, Luc; van den Brink, Jeroen; Ding, Hong; Schmitt, Thorsten


    Motivated by the premise that superconductivity in iron-based superconductors is unconventional and mediated by spin fluctuations, an intense research effort has been focused on characterizing the spin-excitation spectrum in the magnetically ordered parent phases of the Fe pnictides and chalcogenides. For these undoped materials, it is well established that the spin-excitation spectrum consists of sharp, highly dispersive magnons. The fate of these high-energy magnetic modes upon sizable doping with holes is hitherto unresolved. Here we demonstrate, using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, that optimally hole-doped superconducting Ba(0.6)K(0.4)Fe(2)As(2) retains well-defined, dispersive high-energy modes of magnetic origin. These paramagnon modes are softer than, though as intense as, the magnons of undoped antiferromagnetic BaFe(2)As(2). The persistence of spin excitations well into the superconducting phase suggests that the spin fluctuations in Fe-pnictide superconductors originate from a distinctly correlated spin state. This connects Fe pnictides to cuprates, for which, in spite of fundamental electronic structure differences, similar paramagnons are present.

  18. Valley- and spin-switch effects in molybdenum disulfide superconducting spin valve (United States)

    Majidi, Leyla; Asgari, Reza


    We propose a hole-doped molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) superconducting spin valve (F/S/F) hybrid structure in which the Andreev reflection process is suppressed for all incoming waves with a determined range of the chemical potential in ferromagnetic (F) region and the cross-conductance in the right F region depends crucially on the configuration of magnetizations in the two F regions. Using the scattering formalism, we find that the transport is mediated purely by elastic electron cotunneling (CT) process in a parallel configuration and changes to the pure crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) process in the low-energy regime, without fixing of a unique parameter, by reversing the direction of magnetization in the right F region. This suggests both valley- and spin-switch effects between the perfect elastic CT and perfect CAR processes and makes the nonlocal charge current to be fully valley- and spin-polarized inside the right F region where the type of the polarizations can be changed by reversing the magnetization direction in the right F region. We further demonstrate that the presence of the strong spin-orbit interaction λ and an additional topological term (β ) in the Hamiltonian of MoS2 result in an enhancement of the charge conductance of the CT and CAR processes and make them to be present for long lengths of the superconducting region. Besides, we find that the thermal conductance of the structure with a small length of the highly doped superconducting region exhibits linear dependence on the temperature at low temperatures, whereas it enhances exponentially at higher temperatures. In particular, we demonstrate that the thermal conductance versus the strength of the exchange field (h ) in F region displays a maximum value at h <λ , which moves towards larger exchange fields by increasing the temperature.

  19. Effects of ladder parameters on asymmetric patterns of force exertion during below-knee amputees climbing ladders. (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Li, Shiqi; Fu, Yan; Chen, Jacon


    Different from walking, ladder climbing requires four-limb coordination and more energy exertion for below-knee amputees (BKAs). We hypothesized that functional deficiency of a disabled limb shall be compensated by the other three intact limbs, showing an asymmetry pattern among limbs. Hand and foot forces of six below-knee amputees and six able-bodied people were collected. Hand, foot and hand/foot sum force variances between groups (non-BKA, intact side and prosthetic side) were carefully examined. Our hypothesis was validated that there is asymmetry between prosthetic and intact side. Results further showed that the ipsilateral hand of the prosthetic leg is stronger than the hand on the intact side, compensating weakness of the prosthetic leg. Effects of ladder rung separations and ladder slant on asymmetric force distribution of BKAs were evaluated, indicating that rung separation has a more significant interactive effect on hand/foot force of BKAs than ladder slant.

  20. Effects of disorder on the intrinsically hole-doped iron-based superconductor KC a2F e4A s4F2 by cobalt substitution (United States)

    Ishida, Junichi; Iimura, Soshi; Hosono, Hideo


    In this paper, the effects of cobalt substitution on the transport and electronic properties of the recently discovered iron-based superconductor KC a2F e4A s4F2 , with Tc=33 K , are reported. This material is an unusual superconductor showing intrinsic hole conduction (0.25 holes /F e2 + ). Upon doping of Co, the Tc of KC a2(Fe1-xC ox) 4A s4F2 gradually decreased, and bulk superconductivity disappeared when x ≥0.25 . Conversion of the primary carrier from p type to n type upon Co-doping was clearly confirmed by Hall measurements, and our results are consistent with the change in the calculated Fermi surface. Nevertheless, neither spin density wave (SDW) nor an orthorhombic phase, which are commonly observed for nondoped iron-based superconductors, was observed in the nondoped or electron-doped samples. The electron count in the 3 d orbitals and structural parameters were compared with those of other iron-based superconductors to show that the physical properties can be primarily ascribed to the effects of disorder.

  1. Laddering: Unveiling data Gathering an Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Akemi Ikeda


    Full Text Available Laddering is a research technique very appropriate when there is a focus on customer value and personal value understanding. It is an in deep one to one interview with content analysis used to develop knowledge on how the attributes of products can be translated to meaningful associations related to it. It is followed by the means-end chains theory, which is a construction of attributes, that take to consequences there are moved by ones personal value. Although it is opportune in marketing studies when investigating human behavior, there is a limited number of publications using it because the practical application may discourage researches. Thus, this study aims to light the marketing activity to discuss the technique and describe the main stages of the research (interviews, data collection and analysis. The description of this process was taken from a real research using the technique. It was found that even exploratory, the technique provides valuable information to support decisions in Marketing. 

  2. Phenomenological approach to spin fluctuations in itinerant magnets and superconductors from ab initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortenzi, Luciano


    In this thesis I study the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in itinerant magnets and superconductors. I do this by applying a semiphenomenological method to four representative compounds. In particular I use the discrepancies (whenever present) between density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the experiments in order to construct phenomenological models which explain the magnetic, superconducting and optical properties of four representative systems. I focus my attention on the superconducting and normal state properties of the recently discovered APt3P superconductors, on superconducting hole-doped CuBiSO, on the optical properties of LaFePO and finally on the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition of Ni3Al under pressure. At the end I present a new method which aims to describe the effect of spin fluctuations in itinerant magnets and superconductors that can be used to monitor the evolution of the electronic structure from non magnetic to magnetic in systems close to a quantum critical point.

  3. Doping dependence of collective spin states in LaCoO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsov, A.; Kataev, V.; Buechner, B. [IFW Dresden (Germany); Vavilova, E. [IFW Dresden (Germany); Zavoisky Physical Technical Institute, RAS, Kazan (Russian Federation); Podlesnyak, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Pomjakushina, E. [ETH Zurich, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)


    We have shown recently that a small Sr doping of LaCoO{sub 3} yields the spin-state polaron with a big spin value and substantial spin orbital coupling. The Sr for La substitution provides the hole doping due to different valency of Sr and La. In addition, it gives rise to a distortion of the crystal field around the doped ion due to the mismatch of ionic radii. The present work is aimed to discriminate between the effect of the charge (hole- or electron) doping and the effect of structural distortion. For that we have carried out a comparative high field electron spin- (ESR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and static magnetization study of lightly doped samples of La{sub 0.998}A{sub 0.002}CoO{sub 3} (A=Sr,Ca,Y,Sn,Ce). We discuss the role of the heterovalent hole- (Sr{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}) and electron doping (Sn{sup 4+}, Ce{sup 4+}) as well as the homovalent doping with Y{sup 3+} (r{sup ion}{sub Y{sup 3+}}<< r{sup ion}{sub La{sup 3+}}) for the formation of the spin-state polaron in LaCoO{sub 3}.

  4. PT-symmetric ladders with a scattering core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ambroise, J. [Department of Mathematics, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002-5000 (United States); Lepri, S. [CNR – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, via Madonna del piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Malomed, B.A. [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Kevrekidis, P.G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States)


    We consider a PT-symmetric chain (ladder-shaped) system governed by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation where the cubic nonlinearity is carried solely by two central “rungs” of the ladder. Two branches of scattering solutions for incident plane waves are found. We systematically construct these solutions, analyze their stability, and discuss non-reciprocity of the transmission associated with them. To relate the results to finite-size wavepacket dynamics, we also perform direct simulations of the evolution of the wavepackets, which confirm that the transmission is indeed asymmetric in this nonlinear system with the mutually balanced gain and loss. - Highlights: • We model a PT-symmetric ladder system with cubic nonlinearity on two central rungs. • We examine non-reciprocity and stability of incident plane waves. • Simulations of wavepackets confirm our results.

  5. A Review and Modern Approach to LC Ladder Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Casson


    Full Text Available Ultra low power circuits require robust and reliable operation despite the unavoidable use of low currents and the weak inversion transistor operation region. For analogue domain filtering doubly terminated LC ladder based filter topologies are thus highly desirable as they have very low sensitivities to component values: non-exact component values have a minimal effect on the realised transfer function. However, not all transfer functions are suitable for implementation via a LC ladder prototype, and even when the transfer function is suitable the synthesis procedure is not trivial. The modern circuit designer can thus benefit from an updated treatment of this synthesis procedure. This paper presents a methodology for the design of doubly terminated LC ladder structures making use of the symbolic maths engines in programs such as MATLAB and MAPLE. The methodology is explained through the detailed synthesis of an example 7th order bandpass filter transfer function for use in electroencephalogram (EEG analysis.

  6. Certification and clinical ladder as the impetus for professional development. (United States)

    Watts, Misty D


    With today's healthcare challenges of nursing shortages and financial instability, it is imperative that healthcare organizations retain clinically competent nurses at the bedside. Professional development and recognition are key motivators to increase nursing job satisfaction, thus reducing shortages and turnover. Implementation of specialty certification and clinical advancement programs is of benefit to the public, employers, and nurses alike. Clinical ladder and Magnet recognition are often the impetus for specialty nursing certification in healthcare institutions. Clinical ladder history, purpose, models, perceptions, and satisfiers are discussed. Certification statistics, types, impetus, benefits, incentives, and barriers are highlighted, as well as a facility's innovative strategy to increase specialty certification. Certification and clinical ladder programs demonstrate commitment of healthcare organizations and nursing staff to provide high-quality care and professional nursing development, an investment that hospitals cannot afford to overlook.

  7. Competency based career ladders for project managers in a large research & development organisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, W


    Full Text Available ladder instruments across various fields and that specialisation is required to adequately differentiate between pay-grade levels of employees. Career ladder instruments for project managers, scientist and engineers require different competency metrics...

  8. Longitudinal and transverse Zeeman ladders in the Ising-like chain antiferromagnet BaCo(2)V(2)O(8). (United States)

    Grenier, B; Petit, S; Simonet, V; Canévet, E; Regnault, L-P; Raymond, S; Canals, B; Berthier, C; Lejay, P


    We explore the spin dynamics emerging from the Néel phase of the chain compound antiferromagnet BaCo(2)V(2)O(8). Our inelastic neutron scattering study reveals unconventional discrete spin excitations, so-called Zeeman ladders, understood in terms of spinon confinement, due to the interchain attractive linear potential. These excitations consist of two interlaced series of modes, respectively, with transverse and longitudinal polarization. The latter, which correspond to a longitudinal fluctuation of the ordered moment, have no classical counterpart and are related to the zero-point fluctuations that weaken the ordered moment in weakly coupled quantum chains. Our analysis reveals that BaCo(2)V(2)O(8), with moderate Ising anisotropy and sizable interchain interactions, remarkably fulfills the conditions necessary for the observation of discrete long-lived longitudinal excitations.

  9. Longitudinal and Transverse Zeeman Ladders in the Ising-Like Chain Antiferromagnet BaCo2V2O8 (United States)

    Grenier, B.; Petit, S.; Simonet, V.; Canévet, E.; Regnault, L.-P.; Raymond, S.; Canals, B.; Berthier, C.; Lejay, P.


    We explore the spin dynamics emerging from the Néel phase of the chain compound antiferromagnet BaCo2V2O8 . Our inelastic neutron scattering study reveals unconventional discrete spin excitations, so-called Zeeman ladders, understood in terms of spinon confinement, due to the interchain attractive linear potential. These excitations consist of two interlaced series of modes, respectively, with transverse and longitudinal polarization. The latter, which correspond to a longitudinal fluctuation of the ordered moment, have no classical counterpart and are related to the zero-point fluctuations that weaken the ordered moment in weakly coupled quantum chains. Our analysis reveals that BaCo2V2O8 , with moderate Ising anisotropy and sizable interchain interactions, remarkably fulfills the conditions necessary for the observation of discrete long-lived longitudinal excitations.

  10. Competencies within a professional clinical ladder: differences in understanding between nurse managers and staff nurses. (United States)

    Knoche, Erin L; Meucci, Joanne H


    Clinical ladders provide a framework for professional nursing development and have shown increased personal and professional satisfaction. This article describes a standardized approach for clinical ladder implementation. Managers' and staff nurses' knowledge of the model must align for important stakeholders to perceive the clinical ladder as valuable. Understanding differences and perspectives can be useful as the basis for education and further clinical ladder refinement augmenting the potential for increased nursing satisfaction and professional development.

  11. Triptycene-based ladder monomers and polymers, methods of making each, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Pinnau, Ingo


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a triptycene-based A-B monomer, a method of making a triptycene-based A-B monomer, a triptycene-based ladder polymer, a method of making a triptycene-based ladder polymers, a method of using triptycene-based ladder polymers, a structure incorporating triptycene-based ladder polymers, a method of gas separation, and the like.

  12. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi


    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  13. DUNDRUM Restriction-Intrusion of Liberty Ladders (DRILL) Audit Toolkit

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Harry G


    This series of rating \\'ladders\\' is intended to allow a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the use of restrictive and intrusive interventions as part of the therapeutic management of violence and aggression in psychiatric hospital settings. This is an evolving handbook. The ladders are currently organised to facilitate a behavioural analysis. Context, antecedents, behaviour, interventions, consequences are conceptualised as a series of events organised in temporal sequence so that causes, interactions and effects can be considered. The complexity of analysis possible is limited by the statistical power of the numbers of cases and events available. \\r\

  14. Ladder Arrangement Method for Stealth Design of Vivaldi Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiaoXiang He


    Full Text Available A novel stealth design method for X-band Vivaldi antenna arrays is proposed in this paper by ladder arrangement along radiation direction. Two-element array, eight-element array, and 3 × 7-element array are investigated in this paper. S parameters, RCSs, and radiation patterns are studied, respectively. According to the ladder arrangement of Vivaldi antennas presented, 16.3 dBsm maximal RCS reduction is achieved with satisfied radiation performance. As simulated and measured, results demonstrate that the effectiveness of the presented low RCS design method is validated.

  15. Combining a clinical ladder and performance appraisal system as a reward strategy: the EXCEL clinical ladder program. (United States)

    Moe, J K; Lonowski, L R; Yancer, D A


    In response to the dramatic changes occurring in health care today and a desire to reward professional nurses for clinical behaviors that would be valued in the future, Bergan Mercy Medical Center (BMMC) has developed an innovative clinical ladder/performance appraisal system. The BMMC EXCEL Clinical Ladder program, which is based on the developmental model of Patricia Benner, is a competency-based system that uniquely combines a clinical ladder and performance appraisal system. The program is clinically focused and contains optional components in which registered nurses (RNs) can receive additional credit for participation in professional growth and leadership activities. Nurses document examples of their practice through nursing narratives that describe actual clinical situations. The development and implementation processes, challenges encountered, and recommendations for alternative approaches to the implementation of such a unique system are discussed.

  16. Corrosion Control Specialist Career Ladder AFSC 53530, 53550, 53570, and 53690. Occupational Survey Report. (United States)

    Air Force Occupational Measurement Center, Lackland AFB, TX.

    The report describes the results of a detailed occupational survey of the corrosion control career ladder. Responses to a 457-task, time rating inventory from 1,015 personnel (representing 64 percent of the career field) were analyzed to produce seven specific findings and the career ladder structure. The career ladder includes a variety of jobs…

  17. Topological Phases of a Su-Schrieffer-Heeger ladder system (United States)

    Hegde, Suraj; Padavic, Karmela; Degottardi, Wade; Vishveshwara, Smitha

    We study a ladder system whose legs are comprised of two Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) dimer chains. The parameters are chosen so that the system exhibits particle-hole symmetry and has a Z x Z topological invariant . In the parameter space of the ladder system, we employ a transfer matrix approach to chart out the topological phase diagram identifying two distinct topological phases and a trivial phase. Each topological phase is marked by the existence of two zero energy edge-modes on either the top or bottom legs of the ladder. We consider the effect of disorder and (quasi-)periodicity on the system; in the latter case, we show that the phase diagram is reminiscent of Hofstadter's butterfly diagram. In addition, we consider the effect of finite size on the edge-mode wave functions, the lifting of degeneracy of the zero modes and the phase boundaries. We briefly discuss the realization of the SSH ladder system in cold atomic systems and its connections to Majorana wires.

  18. Breathers in Josephson junction ladders: Resonances and electromagnetic wave spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnichenko, A. E.; Flach, S.; Fistul, M.


    We present a theoretical study of the resonant interaction between dynamical localized states (discrete breathers) and linear electromagnetic excitations (EE's) in Josephson junction ladders. By making use of direct numerical simulations we find that such an interaction manifests itself by resonant...

  19. Effects of the Missouri Career Ladder Program on Teacher Mobility.


    Kevin Booker; Steven Glazerman


    This report presents evidence suggesting that a school district’s participation in the Missouri Career Ladder Program would tend to increase retention in the district and the profession, especially for mid-career teachers. The report notes that small bonuses can affect behavior but not necessarily lead to large effects.

  20. A robustification of the chain-ladder method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, T.; van Wouwe, M.; Dhaene, J.


    In a non-life insurance business an insurer often needs to build up a reserve to able to meet his or her future obligations arising from incurred but not reported completely claims. To forecast these claims reserves, a simple but generally accepted algorithm is the classical chain-ladder method.

  1. Towards flavored bound states beyond rainbows and ladders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bennich, B.; Rojas, E.; Melo, J. P. B. C. de [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, São Paulo 01506-000 SP (Brazil); Paracha, M. A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo 01506-000 SP, Brazil and Centre for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)


    We give a snapshot of recent progress in solving the Dyson-Schwinger equation with a beyond rainbow-ladder ansatz for the dressed quark-gluon vertex which includes ghost contributions. We discuss the motivations for this approach with regard to heavy-flavored bound states and form factors and briefly describe future steps to be taken.

  2. Education for Sustainability: A Snakes and Ladders Game?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Tilbury


    Full Text Available How to reference this articleTilbury, D. (2015. Education for Sustainability: A Snakes and Ladders Game?. Foro de Educación, 13(19, 7-10. doi:

  3. Effects of foot placement, hand positioning, age and climbing biodynamics on ladder slip outcomes. (United States)

    Pliner, Erika M; Campbell-Kyureghyan, Naira H; Beschorner, Kurt E


    Ladder falls frequently cause severe injuries; yet the factors that influence ladder slips/falls are not well understood. This study aimed to quantify (1) the effects of restricted foot placement, hand positioning, climbing direction and age on slip outcomes, and (2) differences in climbing styles leading to slips versus styles leading to non-slips. Thirty-two occupational ladder users from three age groups (18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years) were unexpectedly slipped climbing a vertical ladder, while being assigned to different foot placement conditions (unrestricted vs. restricted toe clearance) and different hand positions (rails vs. rungs). Constraining foot placement increased the climber's likelihood of slipping (p climbing techniques and individuals at risk of falling. The results suggest that ladders with unrestricted toe clearance and ladder climbing training programmes, particularly for younger and older workers, may reduce ladder slipping risk.

  4. Spin and charge fluctuations in the Hubbard model (United States)

    Sherman, A.


    Using the strong coupling diagram technique for calculating the electron Green's function of the two-dimensional Hubbard model we have summed infinite sequences of ladder diagrams, which describe interactions of electrons with spin and charge fluctuations. For sufficiently low temperatures and doping a pronounced four-band structure is observed in spectral functions. Its appearance is related to the proximity of the transition to the long-range antiferromagnetic order.

  5. Spin-orbit coupling, electron transport and pairing instabilities in two-dimensional square structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocharian, Armen N. [Department of Physics, California State University, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Fernando, Gayanath W.; Fang, Kun [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Palandage, Kalum [Department of Physics, Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut 06106 (United States); Balatsky, Alexander V. [AlbaNova University Center Nordita, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)


    Rashba spin-orbit effects and electron correlations in the two-dimensional cylindrical lattices of square geometries are assessed using mesoscopic two-, three- and four-leg ladder structures. Here the electron transport properties are systematically calculated by including the spin-orbit coupling in tight binding and Hubbard models threaded by a magnetic flux. These results highlight important aspects of possible symmetry breaking mechanisms in square ladder geometries driven by the combined effect of a magnetic gauge field spin-orbit interaction and temperature. The observed persistent current, spin and charge polarizations in the presence of spin-orbit coupling are driven by separation of electron and hole charges and opposite spins in real-space. The modeled spin-flip processes on the pairing mechanism induced by the spin-orbit coupling in assembled nanostructures (as arrays of clusters) engineered in various two-dimensional multi-leg structures provide an ideal playground for understanding spatial charge and spin density inhomogeneities leading to electron pairing and spontaneous phase separation instabilities in unconventional superconductors. Such studies also fall under the scope of current challenging problems in superconductivity and magnetism, topological insulators and spin dependent transport associated with numerous interfaces and heterostructures.

  6. Spin-orbit coupling, electron transport and pairing instabilities in two-dimensional square structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen N. Kocharian


    Full Text Available Rashba spin-orbit effects and electron correlations in the two-dimensional cylindrical lattices of square geometries are assessed using mesoscopic two-, three- and four-leg ladder structures. Here the electron transport properties are systematically calculated by including the spin-orbit coupling in tight binding and Hubbard models threaded by a magnetic flux. These results highlight important aspects of possible symmetry breaking mechanisms in square ladder geometries driven by the combined effect of a magnetic gauge field spin-orbit interaction and temperature. The observed persistent current, spin and charge polarizations in the presence of spin-orbit coupling are driven by separation of electron and hole charges and opposite spins in real-space. The modeled spin-flip processes on the pairing mechanism induced by the spin-orbit coupling in assembled nanostructures (as arrays of clusters engineered in various two-dimensional multi-leg structures provide an ideal playground for understanding spatial charge and spin density inhomogeneities leading to electron pairing and spontaneous phase separation instabilities in unconventional superconductors. Such studies also fall under the scope of current challenging problems in superconductivity and magnetism, topological insulators and spin dependent transport associated with numerous interfaces and heterostructures.

  7. Plantar reconstruction using a step-ladder advancement flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Furubayashi


    Full Text Available A medial plantar flap is superior as a sensory flap with regard to tissue wear, prevention of ulcer recurrence, and other such factors. However, a wound at a plantar weight-bearing site is likely to lead to abnormal hyperkeratosis that can cause pain and fissures. In addition, the development of a scar contracture in infant patients can cause failure of normal foot development. To overcome these issues, we developed a method in which an island flap from a non-weight-bearing site is used as a step-ladder advancement plantar flap for moderate-sized tissue loss at a plantar weight-bearing site, followed by primary closure of the flap donor site with suturing to prevent scar contracture and abnormal hyperkeratosis. This technique showed good functional and cosmetic outcomes, as the step-ladder-like suture lines were unlikely to cause scar contracture and abnormal hyperkeratosis owing to the staggered scar, leading to pain prevention.

  8. Surgical Services Career Ladder, AFSC 902X2. (United States)


    musculoskeletal areas. They assist the physician in preparing, applying, and removing cast and other orthopedic appliances . They order standard procedure radiograph...Personnel; ENT and Urology Clinic Personnel; NCOIC, Surgical Services; Orthopedic Clinic Personnel; Clinic NCOICs; Surgical ENT Personnel; Sterile...Otorhinolaryngology Surgical, Urology Surgical, Orthopedic Clinic, and Optome- try career ladders (AFSCs 902X2, 912X0, 912X1, 912X3, and 912X5). The current

  9. Nondestructive Inspection Career Ladder AFSC 427X2. (United States)


    417£ 609 NONDESTRUCTIVE I SPECTION CAEER LADDER MSC 427X2U0 M AIR FORCE OCCUPATIONAL NEASUREMENT CENTER RANDOLPH WB TX JAN 87 UNCLASSIFIED F/ 5/9 L...personnel in PCS, student , or hospital status, or with less than 6 weeks on the job . Less than .5 percent .4, 4 TABLE 2 PAYGRADE DISTRIBUTION OF...or scoring tests evaluating progress of resident course students demonstrating how to locate technical information writing test questions VI. SHOP/LAB

  10. Metals Processing Career Ladder, AFSC 427X4. (United States)


    ARD-AISB 602 NETALS PROCESSING CAREER LADDER AFSC 42?X4(U) AIR FORCE 1/1 OCCUPATIONAL HERSUREMENT CENTER RANDOLPH AFD TX R L ALTON RUG 05 N...fabrication, repair, and surface treatment of metal parts and components. Meeting these requirements involves the performance of tasks pertaining to welding...IL - Location of the ABR technical train- ing course. Eglin AFB - Heavy mobility commitment; operates under COMO; hosts TAC and AFSC units. Research

  11. Medical humanities in Nepal--snakes and ladders. (United States)

    Shankar, P Ravi; Piryani, R M; Morgan, Huw; Thapa, T P


    In the last decade there has been a quantitative growth in medical schools in Nepal, a developing country in South Asia. Medical Humanities (MH) uses disciplines traditionally termed as the humanities in the pursuit of medical educational goals. The subject is slowly developing in Nepal. Sessions have been conducted at Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara and KIST Medical College, Lalitpur. In this article the authors examine inhibitory factors (snakes) and facilitating factors (ladders) for the development of the subject in Nepal.

  12. Superconductivity in three-dimensional spin-orbit coupled semimetals (United States)

    Savary, Lucile; Ruhman, Jonathan; Venderbos, Jörn W. F.; Fu, Liang; Lee, Patrick A.


    Motivated by the experimental detection of superconductivity in the low-carrier density half-Heusler compound YPtBi, we study the pairing instabilities of three-dimensional strongly spin-orbit coupled semimetals with a quadratic band touching point. In these semimetals the electronic structure at the Fermi energy is described by spin j =3/2 quasiparticles, which are fundamentally different from those in ordinary metals with spin j =1/2 . For both local and nonlocal pairing channels in j =3/2 materials we develop a general approach to analyzing pairing instabilities, thereby providing the computational tools needed to investigate the physics of these systems beyond phenomenological considerations. Furthermore, applying our method to a generic density-density interaction, we establish that: (i) The pairing strengths in the different symmetry channels uniquely encode the j =3/2 nature of the Fermi surface band structure—a manifestation of the fundamental difference with ordinary metals. (ii) The leading odd-parity pairing instabilities are different for electron doping and hole doping. Finally, we argue that polar phonons, i.e., Coulomb interactions mediated by the long-ranged electric polarization of the optical phonon modes, provide a coupling strength large enough to account for a Kelvin-range transition temperature in the s -wave channel, and are likely to play an important role in the overall attraction in non-s -wave channels. Moreover, the explicit calculation of the coupling strengths allows us to conclude that the two largest non-s -wave contributions occur in nonlocal channels, in contrast with what has been commonly assumed.

  13. Spin excitation anisotropy in the optimally isovalent-doped superconductor BaFe2(As0.7P0.3)2 (United States)

    Hu, Ding; Zhang, Wenliang; Wei, Yuan; Roessli, Bertrand; Skoulatos, Markos; Regnault, Louis Pierre; Chen, Genfu; Song, Yu; Luo, Huiqian; Li, Shiliang; Dai, Pengcheng


    We use neutron polarization analysis to study spin excitation anisotropy in the optimally isovalent-doped superconductor BaFe2(As0.7P0.3 )2 (Tc=30 K). Different from optimally hole- and electron-doped BaFe2As2 , where there is a clear spin excitation anisotropy in the paramagnetic tetragonal state well above Tc, we find no spin excitation anisotropy for energies above 2 meV in the normal state of BaFe2(As0.7P0.3 )2. Upon entering the superconducting state, significant spin excitation anisotropy develops at the antiferromagnetic (AF) zone center QAF=(1 ,0 ,L =odd ) , while the magnetic spectrum is isotropic at the zone boundary Q =(1 ,0 ,L =even ) . By comparing the temperature, wave vector, and polarization dependence of the spin excitation anisotropy in BaFe2(As0.7P0.3 )2 and hole-doped Ba0.67K0.33Fe2As2 (Tc=38 K), we conclude that such anisotropy arises from spin-orbit coupling and is associated with the nearby AF order and superconductivity.

  14. On the impedance of infinite LC ladder networks (United States)

    Klimo, Paul


    The subject of electrical impedance is on the syllabi of most undergraduate courses in physics and electrical engineering. For example, Richard Feynman in his famous undergraduate text Lectures on Physics shows how to calculate the impedance of an infinite LC ladder. However, the formula he obtains has no useful physical interpretation if considered in the steady state frequency domain. In fact the value of this impedance becomes infinite unless one assumes that the energy flow along the infinite LC ladder is spatially uniform and in one direction only. This ad-hoc assumption, which renders the solution non-causal, is entirely unnecessary if the problem is considered in the time domain. It is important for students to appreciate that the concept of impedance works well only in dissipative circuits where the effects of transients are largely short lived. The purpose of this paper is to show that the same problem treated in the time domain by the Laplace transform method provides a qualitatively different and more satisfying explanation. We show that the current response of an infinite LC ladder, which is in the zero state before a causal harmonic driving voltage is applied, contains a significant non-harmonic component. This component, which is present in addition to the forced harmonic waveform, decays only very slowly and extracts an infinite amount of energy from the source.

  15. Field-induced magnetic order in quantum spin liquids. (United States)

    Wessel, S; Olshanii, M; Haas, S


    We study magnetic-field-induced three-dimensional ordering transitions in low-dimensional quantum spin liquids, such as weakly coupled, antiferromagnetic spin- 1/2 Heisenberg dimers and ladders. Using stochastic series expansion quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we obtain the critical scaling exponents which dictate the power-law dependence of the transition temperature on the magnetic field. These are compared with recent experiments on candidate materials and with predictions for the Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons. The critical exponents deviate from isotropic mean-field theory and exhibit different scaling behavior at the lower and upper critical magnetic fields.

  16. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi


    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  17. Spin multiplicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtright, T.L., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); Van Kortryk, T.S., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4815 (United States); Zachos, C.K., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4815 (United States)


    The number of times spin s appears in the Kronecker product of n spin j representations is computed, and the large n asymptotic behavior of the result is obtained. Applications are briefly sketched. - Highlights: • We give a self-contained derivation of the spin multiplicities that occur in n-fold tensor products of spin-j representations. • We make use of group characters, properties of special functions, and asymptotic analysis of integrals. • We emphasize patterns that arise when comparing different values of j, and asymptotic behavior for large n. • Our methods and results should be useful for various statistical and quantum information theory calculations.

  18. Passage and behaviour of cultured Lake Sturgeon in a prototype side-baffle fish ladder: I. Ladder hydraulics and fish ascent (United States)

    Kynard, B.; Pugh, D.; Parker, T.


    Research and development of a fish ladder for sturgeons requires understanding ladder hydraulics and sturgeon behaviour in the ladder to insure the ladder is safe and provides effective passage. After years of research and development, we designed and constructed a full-scale prototype side-baffle ladder inside a spiral flume (38.3m long??1m wide??1m high) on a 6% (1:16.5) slope with a 1.92-m rise in elevation (bottom to top) to test use by sturgeons. Twenty-eight triangular side baffles, each extending part way across the flume, alternated from inside wall to outside wall down the ladder creating two major flow habitats: a continuous, sinusoidal flow down the ladder through the vertical openings of side-baffles and an eddy below each side baffle. Ascent and behaviour was observed on 22 cultured Lake Sturgeon=LS (Acipenser fulvescens) repeatedly tested in groups as juveniles (as small as 105.1cm TL, mean) or as adults (mean TL, 118cm) during four periods (fall 2002 and 2003; spring 2003 and 2007). Percent of juveniles entering the ladder that ascended to the top was greater in spring (72.7%) than in fall (40.9-45.5%) and 90.9% of 11 adults, which ascended as juveniles, ascended to the top. Six LS (27.3%) never swam to the top and seven (31.8%) swam to the top in all tests, indicating great variability among individuals for ascent drive. Some LS swam directly to the top in channel walls, abundant eddies for resting, an acceptable water depth, and a water velocity fish could ascend swimming 2bls-1. A side-baffle ladder passes LS and other moderate-swimming fishes. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  19. Spin Electronics (United States)


    spin resonance of rare earth and transition metal impurities in chalcopyrite semiconductors. They also have worked in diluted magnetic...past, the ferromagnetic injector had been a ferromagnetic metal or alloy containing 3d transition elements with fractional spin polarization of the...polarized carriers. There have been numerous attempts to inject transition metals or their alloys into semiconductors, either directly (Johnson and

  20. Spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton


    Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.

  1. Azygos ladder and looped thoracic duct – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar N


    Full Text Available Knowledge of variations in the posterior mediastinum close to the vertebral column is important for cardiothoracic surgeons, radiologists and orthopedic surgeons. We report variations of azygos veins and thoracic duct. The azygos system of veins showed a ladder pattern. The hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos veins communicated with the azygos vein through six transverse channels across the vertebral column. The accessory hemiazygos and hemiazygos veins joined to form a common channel which opened into the azygos vein. The thoracic duct gave two branches in the posterior mediastinum and these branches joined to form a loop.

  2. Estimating ladder fuels: a new approach combining field photography with LiDAR (United States)

    Heather Kramer; Brandon Collins; Frank Lake; Marek Jakubowski; Scott Stephens; Maggi Kelly


    Forests historically associated with frequent fire have changed dramatically due to fire suppression and past harvesting over the last century. The buildup of ladder fuels, which carry fire from the surface of the forest floor to tree crowns, is one of the critical changes, and it has contributed to uncharacteristically large and severe fires. The abundance of ladder...

  3. Means-end chains and laddering: An inventory of problems and an agenda for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Sørensen, Elin

    to elicit the product attributes the laddering is to start with, the integration of a usage situation in the interview, and the basic decision on how much direct the respondent. 4. Concerning the coding of laddering data, a higher degree of transparency of the coding process would be desirable. 5...

  4. Measuring subjective meaning structures by the laddering method: Theoretical considerations and methodological problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.


    and applied, which refer to data collection, coding, and analysis. These criteria are evaluated using examples from a laddering study where additional data was collected to shed light on respondents' subj interpretation of the laddering task as well as interviewers' experiences with it. Several possible...

  5. Dissipation, Voltage Profile and Levy Dragon in a Special Ladder Network (United States)

    Ucak, C.


    A ladder network constructed by an elementary two-terminal network consisting of a parallel resistor-inductor block in series with a parallel resistor-capacitor block sometimes is said to have a non-dispersive dissipative response. This special ladder network is created iteratively by replacing the elementary two-terminal network in place of the…

  6. Assessing the potential impact of the CO2 performance ladder on CO2 emission reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis Blok; dr. Martijn Rietbergen


    The aim of this research is to assess the potential impact of the CO2 Performance Ladder on CO2 emission reduction. The CO2 Performance Ladder is a new green procurement scheme that has been adopted by several public authorities in the Netherlands; it is a staged certification scheme for energy and

  7. Climbing the goal ladder: how upcoming actions increase level of aspiration. (United States)

    Koo, Minjung; Fishbach, Ayelet


    Pursuing a series of progressive (e.g., professional) goals that form a goal ladder often leads to a trade-off between moving up to a more advanced level and repeating the same goal level. This article investigates how monitoring one's current goal in terms of remaining actions versus completed actions influences the desire to move up the goal ladder. The authors propose that a focus on remaining (vs. completed) actions increases the motivation to move up to a more advanced level, whereas the focus on completed (vs. remaining) actions increases the satisfaction derived from the present level. They find support for these predictions across several goal ladders, ranging from academic and professional ladders to simple, experimental tasks. They further find that individuals strategically attend to information about remaining (vs. completed) actions to prepare to move up the goal ladder.

  8. Topological phases in frustrated synthetic ladders with an odd number of legs (United States)

    Barbarino, Simone; Dalmonte, Marcello; Fazio, Rosario; Santoro, Giuseppe E.


    The realization of the Hofstadter model in a strongly anisotropic ladder geometry has now become possible in one-dimensional optical lattices with a synthetic dimension. In this work, we show how the Hofstadter Hamiltonian in such ladder configurations hosts a topological phase of matter which is radically different from its two-dimensional counterpart. This topological phase stems directly from the hybrid nature of the ladder geometry and is protected by a properly defined inversion symmetry. We start our analysis by considering the paradigmatic case of a three-leg ladder which supports a topological phase exhibiting the typical features of topological states in one dimension: robust fermionic edge modes, a degenerate entanglement spectrum, and a nonzero Zak phase; then, we generalize our findings—addressable in the state-of-the-art cold-atom experiments—to ladders with a higher number of legs.

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Spin current, spin accumulation and spin Hall effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saburo Takahashi and Sadamichi Maekawa


    Full Text Available Nonlocal spin transport in nanostructured devices with ferromagnetic injector (F1 and detector (F2 electrodes connected to a normal conductor (N is studied. We reveal how the spin transport depends on interface resistance, electrode resistance, spin polarization and spin diffusion length, and obtain the conditions for efficient spin injection, spin accumulation and spin current in the device. It is demonstrated that the spin Hall effect is caused by spin–orbit scattering in nonmagnetic conductors and gives rise to the conversion between spin and charge currents in a nonlocal device. A method of evaluating spin–orbit coupling in nonmagnetic metals is proposed.

  10. SUSY’s Ladder: reframing sequestering at Large Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, Matthew [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    Theories with approximate no-scale structure, such as the Large Volume Scenario, have a distinctive hierarchy of multiple mass scales in between TeV gaugino masses and the Planck scale, which we call SUSY’s Ladder. This is a particular realization of Split Supersymmetry in which the same small parameter suppresses gaugino masses relative to scalar soft masses, scalar soft masses relative to the gravitino mass, and the UV cutoff or string scale relative to the Planck scale. This scenario has many phenomenologically interesting properties, and can avoid dangers including the gravitino problem, flavor problems, and the moduli-induced LSP problem that plague other supersymmetric theories. We study SUSY’s Ladder using a superspace formalism that makes the mysterious cancelations in previous computations manifest. This opens the possibility of a consistent effective field theory understanding of the phenomenology of these scenarios, based on power-counting in the small ratio of string to Planck scales. We also show that four-dimensional theories with approximate no-scale structure enforced by a single volume modulus arise only from two special higher-dimensional theories: five-dimensional supergravity and ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity. This gives a phenomenological argument in favor of ten dimensional ultraviolet physics which is different from standard arguments based on the consistency of superstring theory.

  11. Action–angle variables, ladder operators and coherent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R., E-mail: [Departamento de Geometría y Topología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gadella, M., E-mail: [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47071 Valladolid (Spain); Kuru, Ş., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Negro, J., E-mail: [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47071 Valladolid (Spain)


    This Letter is devoted to the building of coherent states from arguments based on classical action–angle variables. First, we show how these classical variables are associated to an algebraic structure in terms of Poisson brackets. In the quantum context these considerations are implemented by ladder type operators and a structure known as spectrum generating algebra. All this allows to generate coherent states and thereby the correspondence of classical–quantum properties by means of the aforementioned underlying structure. This approach is illustrated with the example of the one-dimensional Pöschl–Teller potential system. -- Highlights: ► We study the building of coherent states from classical action–angle variables arguments. ► The classical variables are associated to an algebraic structure in terms of Poisson brackets. ► In the quantum context these considerations are implemented by ladder type operators. ► All this allows to formulate coherent states and the correspondence of classical–quantum properties.

  12. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael


    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  13. 49 CFR 214.519 - Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track... SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.519 Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines. Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway...

  14. Structure of spin excitations in heavily electron-doped Li0.8Fe0.2ODFeSe superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Bingying; Shen, Yao; Hu, Die; Feng, Yu; Park, J. T.; Christianson, A. D.; Wang, Qisi; Hao, Yiqing; Wo, Hongliang; Yin, Zhiping; Maier, T. A.; Zhao, Jun


    Heavily electron-doped iron-selenide high-transition-temperature (high-Tc) superconductors, which have no hole Fermi pockets, but have a notably high Tc, have challenged the prevailing s± pairing scenario originally proposed for iron pnictides containing both electron and hole pockets. The microscopic mechanism underlying the enhanced superconductivity in heavily electron-doped iron-selenide remains unclear. Here, we used neutron scattering to study the spin excitations of the heavily electron-doped iron-selenide material Li0.8Fe0.2ODFeSe (Tc = 41 K). Our data revealed nearly ring-shaped magnetic resonant excitations surrounding (π, π) at ~21 meV. As the energy increased, the spin excitations assumed a diamond shape, and they dispersed outward until the energy reached ~60 meV and then inward at higher energies. The observed energy-dependent momentum structure and twisted dispersion of spin excitations near (π, π) are analogous to those of hole-doped cuprates in several aspects, thus implying that such spin excitations are essential for the remarkably high Tc in these materials.

  15. Measuring a Country's Product Ladder and Technology Level based on Trade Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-il Kim


    Full Text Available This study tries to quantify the technology level of products based on the concept of product ladder. While many studies on country technology competitiveness use the aggregate indices such as total factor productivity and revealed comparative advantage, this study estimates the ranking of about 2000 products in product ladder by using SITC 5 digit level export data. Based on the product ladder, this study measures the country and industry ranking and explores the characteristics of the ranking. It provides the international comparison of inter-industry and intra-industry ranking differences in product ladder. The statistical relationships between the ranking in product ladder and the determinants of technology level such as R&D and physical capital investment and wage, confirms that the measured ranking in product ladder could be regarded as an indirect indicator of technology level. The product ladder is applied to the estimation of production function to see the effect of the product differentiation on labor productivity.

  16. Breathers in Josephson junction ladders: resonances and electromagnetic wave spectroscopy. (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, A E; Flach, S; Fistul, M V; Zolotaryuk, Y; Page, J B


    We present a theoretical study of the resonant interaction between dynamical localized states (discrete breathers) and linear electromagnetic excitations (EE's) in Josephson junction ladders. By making use of direct numerical simulations we find that such an interaction manifests itself by resonant steps and various sharp switchings (voltage jumps) in the current-voltage characteristics. Moreover, the power of ac oscillations away from the breather center (the breather tail) displays singularities as the externally applied dc bias decreases. All these features may be mapped to the spectrum of EE's that has been derived analytically and numerically. Using an improved analysis of the breather tail, a spectroscopy of the EE's is developed. The nature of breather instability driven by localized EE's is established.

  17. Low-frequency current fluctuations in doped ladders (United States)

    Tsutsui, Kenji; Poilblanc, Didier; Capponi, Sylvain


    Charge current static and dynamical correlations are computed by exact diagonalization methods on a two-leg t-t'-J ladder which exhibits a sharp transition between a Luther-Emery (LE) phase of hole pairs and a phase with deconfined holes. In the LE phase, we find short-range low-energy incommensurate current fluctuations which are intrinsically connected to the internal charge dynamics within each hole pair. When hole pairs break up, the maximum of the current susceptibility moves to the commensurate wave vector π. These results support the existence of short-range low-energy fluctuating staggered currents which extend spatially on the scale of the average hole-hole separation.

  18. Diameter constrained reliability of ladders and Spanish fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cancela Héctor


    Full Text Available We are given a graph G = (V, E, terminal set K  V and diameter d > 0. Links fail stochastically and independently with known probabilities. The diameter-constrained reliability (DCR for short, is the probability that the K-diameter is not greater than d in the subgraph induced by non-failed links. The contributions of this paper are two-fold. First, the computational complexity of DCR-subproblems is discussed in terms of the number of terminals k = jKj and diameter d. Here, we prove that when d > 2 the problem is NP-Hard when K = V. Second, we compute the DCR efficiently for Ladders and Spanish Fans. Open problems and trends for future work are discussed in the conclusions.

  19. Performance of Long Ladders for the LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Agari, M; Blouw, J; Hofmann, W; Knöpfle, K T; Löchner, S; Maciuc, F; Schmelling, M; Smale, N J; Schwingenheuer, B; Voss, H; Pugatch, V; Pylypchenko, Y; Bay, A; Bettler, M O; Carron, B; Fauland, P; Frei, R; Jiménez-Otero, S; Nicolas, L; Perrin, A; Schneider, O; Tran, MT; Van Hunen, J J; Vervink, K; Vollhardt, A; Adeva, B; Esperante-Pereira, D; Lois, C; Pérez-Trigo, E; Pló-Casasus, M; Vázquez, P; Bernhard, R P; Bernet, R; Gassner, J; Köstner, S; Lehner, F; Needham, M; Sakhelashvili, T M; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; Volyanskyy, D; Wenger, A


    The LHCb Silicon Tracker uses detector ladders with readout strips with an effective length of up to 36,cm. Kapton interconnect cables of up to 54,cm in length are employed in between silicon sensors and front-end readout hybrids. Fast front-end readout electronics with a shaping time of around 25,ns are employed to avoid pile-up of events from consecutive LHC bunch crossings. An extensive measurement program as well as simulations have been carried out to study the expected noise performance of these detectors. Presented at the 14th International Workshop on Vertex Detectors, Chuzenji Lake, Nikko, Japan, November 7-11, 2005 Proceedings submitted for publication in Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A

  20. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Ritchey, Alan D.


    In 1992, the Northwest Power Planning Council approved the Hood River and Pelton ladder master plans within the framework of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The master plans define an approach for implementing a hatchery supplementation program in the Hood River subbasin. The hatchery program as defined in the master plans is called the Hood River Hatchery Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP will be phased in over several years and will be jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs (CTWS) Reservation. In December 1991, a monitoring and evaluation program was implemented in the Hood River subbasin to collect life history and production information on stocks of anadromous salmonids returning to the Hood River subbasin. The program was implemented to provide the baseline information needed to: (1) evaluate various management options for implementing the HRPP and (2) determine any post-project impacts the HRPP has on indigenous populations of resident fish. Information collected during the 1992-94 fiscal years will also be used to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluating the program`s impact on the human environment. To begin construction on project facilities, it was proposed that the HRPP be implemented in two phases. Phase I would include work that would fall under a {open_quotes}categorical exclusion{close_quotes} from NEPA, and Phase II would include work requiring an EIS prior to implementation. This report summarizes the life history and escapement data collected in the Hood River subbasin and the status work of implemented under Phase I of the HR Life history and escapement data will be used to: (1) test the assumptions on which harvest and escapement goals for the Hood River and Pelton ladder master plans are based and (2) develop biologically based management recommendations for implementing the HRPP.

  1. Spin ejector (United States)

    Andersen, John A.; Flanigan, John J.; Kindley, Robert J.


    The disclosure relates to an apparatus for spin ejecting a body having a flat plate base containing bosses. The apparatus has a base plate and a main ejection shaft extending perpendicularly from the base plate. A compressible cylindrical spring is disposed about the shaft. Bearings are located between the shaft and the spring. A housing containing a helical aperture releasably engages the base plate and surrounds the shaft bearings and the spring. A piston having an aperture follower disposed in the housing aperture is seated on the spring and is guided by the shaft and the aperture. The spring is compressed and when released causes the piston to spin eject the body.

  2. Chiral spin condensation in a one-dimensional optical lattice (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Hai; Li, Xiaopeng; Das Sarma, S.


    We study a spinor (two-component) Bose gas confined in a one-dimensional double-valley optical lattice which has a double-well structure in momentum space. Based on field theory analysis, it is found that spinor bosons in the double-valley band may form a spin-charge mixed chiral spin quasicondensate under certain conditions. Our numerical calculations in a concrete π -flux triangular ladder system confirm the robustness of the chiral spin order against interactions and quantum fluctuations. This exotic atomic Bose-Einstein condensate exhibits spatially staggered spin loop currents without any charge dynamics despite the complete absence of spin-orbit coupling in the system, creating an interesting approach to atom spintronics. The entanglement entropy scaling allows us to extract conformal-field-theory central charge and establish the low-energy effective field theory for the chiral spin condensate as a two-component Luttinger liquid. Our predictions should be detectable in atomic experiments through spin-resolved time-of-flight techniques.

  3. Spinning worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, H.


    The thesis "Spinning Worlds" is about the characterisation of two types of gas-giant exoplanets: Hot Jupiters, with orbital periods of fewer than five days, and young, wide-orbit gas giants, with orbital periods as long as thousands of years. The thesis is based on near-infrared observations of 1

  4. Spin currents, spin torques, and the concept of spin superfluidity


    Rückriegel, Andreas; Kopietz, Peter


    In magnets with non-collinear spin configuration the expectation value of the conventionally defined spin current operator contains a contribution which renormalizes an external magnetic field and hence affects only the precessional motion of the spin polarization. This term, which has been named angular spin current by Sun and Xie [Phys. Rev B 72, 245305 (2005)], does not describe the translational motion of magnetic moments. We give a prescription how to separate these two types of spin tra...

  5. Experimental ladder proof of Hardy's nonlocality for high-dimensional quantum systems (United States)

    Chen, Lixiang; Zhang, Wuhong; Wu, Ziwen; Wang, Jikang; Fickler, Robert; Karimi, Ebrahim


    Recent years have witnessed a rapidly growing interest in high-dimensional quantum entanglement for fundamental studies as well as towards novel applications. Therefore, the ability to verify entanglement between physical qudits, d -dimensional quantum systems, is of crucial importance. To show nonclassicality, Hardy's paradox represents "the best version of Bell's theorem" without using inequalities. However, so far it has only been tested experimentally for bidimensional vector spaces. Here, we formulate a theoretical framework to demonstrate the ladder proof of Hardy's paradox for arbitrary high-dimensional systems. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate the ladder proof by taking advantage of the orbital angular momentum of high-dimensionally entangled photon pairs. We perform the ladder proof of Hardy's paradox for dimensions 3 and 4, both with the ladder up to the third step. Our paper paves the way towards a deeper understanding of the nature of high-dimensionally entangled quantum states and may find applications in quantum information science.

  6. Straight ladder inclined angle in a field environment: the relationship among actual angle, method of set-up and knowledge (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Chi; Brunette, Christopher; Fallentin, Nils


    Abstract Ladder inclined angle is a critical factor that could lead to a slip at the base of portable straight ladders, a major cause of falls from heights. Despite several methods established to help workers achieve the recommended 75.5° angle for ladder set-up, it remains unclear if these methods are used in practice. This study explored ladder set-up behaviours in a field environment. Professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for ladder set-up at their worksites. The results showed that the actual angles of 265 ladder set-ups by 67 participants averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°. Although all the participants had training on recommended ladder set-up methods, only 3 out of 67 participants applied these methods in their daily work and even they failed to achieve the desired 75.5° angle. Therefore, ladder set-up remains problematic in real-world situations. Practitioner Summary: Professional installers of a cable company were observed for portable straight ladder set-up at their worksites. The ladder inclined angle averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°, while the recommended angle is 75.5°. Only a few participants used the methods that they learned during training in their daily work. PMID:26672809

  7. A clinical ladder for milieu counselors. An opportunity to contribute to self-esteem. (United States)

    Reardon, J A


    1. Self-esteem affects motivation, achievement, and job satisfaction. 2. Access to a clinical ladder for milieu counselors rewards their achievements in a visible and tangible way, thereby increasing their self-esteem with positive effects on their job satisfaction and quality of patient care. 3. Since the implementation of the clinical ladder program for milieu counselors, there has been documented evidence of increased retention and higher levels of job performance on work evaluations.

  8. Ladder-Climbing Training Prevents Bone Loss and Microarchitecture Deterioration in Diet-Induced Obese Rats. (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Gao, Xiaohang; Yang, Xiaoying; Liu, Chentao; Wang, Xudan; Han, Yanqi; Zhao, Xinjuan; Chi, Aiping; Sun, Lijun


    Resistance exercise has been proved to be effective in improving bone quality in both animal and human studies. However, the issue about whether resistance exercise can inhibit obesity-induced bone loss has not been previously investigated. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of ladder-climbing training, one of the resistance exercises, on bone mechanical properties and microarchitecture in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese rats. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to the Control, HF + sedentary (HF-S) and HF + ladder-climbing training (HF-LCT) groups. Rats in the HF-LCT group performed ladder-climbing training for 8 weeks. The results showed that ladder-climbing training significantly reduced body and fat weight, and increased muscle mass along with a trend toward enhanced muscle strength in diet-induced obese rats. MicroCT analysis demonstrated that obesity-induced bone loss and architecture deterioration were significantly mitigated by ladder-climbing training, as evidenced by increased trabecular bone mineral density, bone volume over total volume, trabecular number and thickness, and decreased trabecular separation and structure model index. However, neither HF diet nor ladder-climbing training had an impact on femoral biomechanical properties. Moreover, ladder-climbing training significantly increased serum adiponectin, decreased serum leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 levels, and downregulated myostatin (MSTN) expression in diet-induced obese rats. Taken together, ladder-climbing training prevents bone loss and microarchitecture deterioration in diet-induced obese rats through multiple mechanisms including increasing mechanical loading on bone due to improved skeletal muscle mass and strength, regulating the levels of myokines and adipokines, and suppressing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It indicates that resistance exercise may be a promising therapy for treating obesity-induced bone loss.

  9. Energy-efficient hydrogen separation by AB-type ladder-polymer molecular sieves. (United States)

    Ghanem, Bader S; Swaidan, Raja; Ma, Xiaohua; Litwiller, Eric; Pinnau, Ingo


    Increases in hydrogen selectivity of more than 100% compared with the most selective ladder polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) reported to date are achieved with self-polymerized A-B-type ladder monomers comprising rigid and three-dimensional 9,10-dialkyl-substituted triptycene moieties. The selectivities match those of materials commercially employed in hydrogen separation, but the gas permeabilities are 150-fold higher. This new polymer molecular sieve is also the most selective PIM for air separation.

  10. spin coating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Intense UV photoluminescence is observed for intrinsic ZnO film. Keywords : thin films, oxidize zinc doped aluminium (ZnO:Al), sol-gel, spin coating, structural analysis, electric and optical properties. 1. Introduction. Depuis ces vingt dernières années les couches minces d'oxyde de zinc ont connu un intérêt croissant dans ...

  11. Spin-Circuit Representation of Spin Pumping (United States)

    Roy, Kuntal


    Circuit theory has been tremendously successful in translating physical equations into circuit elements in an organized form for further analysis and proposing creative designs for applications. With the advent of new materials and phenomena in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics, it is imperative to construct the spin-circuit representations for different materials and phenomena. Spin pumping is a phenomenon by which a pure spin current can be injected into the adjacent layers. If the adjacent layer is a material with a high spin-orbit coupling, a considerable amount of charge voltage can be generated via the inverse spin Hall effect allowing spin detection. Here we develop the spin-circuit representation of spin pumping. We then combine it with the spin-circuit representation for the materials having spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces the standard results as in the literature. We further show how complex multilayers can be analyzed by simply writing a netlist.

  12. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Performs Ladder Practice (United States)


    In preparation of the nation's first Lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training activities to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, Neil Armstrong, donned in his space suit, practices getting back to the first rung of the ladder on the Lunar Module (LM). The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  13. Kinetic simulations of ladder climbing by electron plasma waves (United States)

    Hara, Kentaro; Barth, Ido; Kaminski, Erez; Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.


    The energy of plasma waves can be moved up and down the spectrum using chirped modulations of plasma parameters, which can be driven by external fields. Depending on whether the wave spectrum is discrete (bounded plasma) or continuous (boundless plasma), this phenomenon is called ladder climbing (LC) or autoresonant acceleration of plasmons. It was first proposed by Barth et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 075001 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.075001] based on a linear fluid model. In this paper, LC of electron plasma waves is investigated using fully nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations of collisionless bounded plasma. It is shown that, in agreement with the basic theory, plasmons survive substantial transformations of the spectrum and are destroyed only when their wave numbers become large enough to trigger Landau damping. Since nonlinear effects decrease the damping rate, LC is even more efficient when practiced on structures like quasiperiodic Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) waves rather than on Langmuir waves per se.

  14. Ladder Operators for Lamé Spheroconal Harmonic Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Méndez-Fragoso


    Full Text Available Three sets of ladder operators in spheroconal coordinates and their respective actions on Lamé spheroconal harmonic polynomials are presented in this article. The polynomials are common eigenfunctions of the square of the angular momentum operator and of the asymmetry distribution Hamiltonian for the rotations of asymmetric molecules, in the body-fixed frame with principal axes. The first set of operators for Lamé polynomials of a given species and a fixed value of the square of the angular momentum raise and lower and lower and raise in complementary ways the quantum numbers $n_1$ and $n_2$ counting the respective nodal elliptical cones. The second set of operators consisting of the cartesian components $hat L_x$, $hat L_y$, $hat L_z$ of the angular momentum connect pairs of the four species of polynomials of a chosen kind and angular momentum. The third set of operators, the cartesian components $hat p_x$, $hat p_y$, $hat p_z$ of the linear momentum, connect pairs of the polynomials differing in one unit in their angular momentum and in their parities. Relationships among spheroconal harmonics at the levels of the three sets of operators are illustrated.

  15. Extended Hamiltonians and shift, ladder functions and operators (United States)

    Chanu, Claudia Maria; Rastelli, Giovanni


    In recent years, many natural Hamiltonian systems, classical and quantum, with constants of motion of high degree, or symmetry operators of high order, have been found and studied. Most of these Hamiltonians, in the classical case, can be included in the family of extended Hamiltonians, geometrically characterized by the structure of warped manifold of their configuration manifold. For the extended Hamiltonians, the characteristic constants of motion of high degree are polynomial in the momenta of determined form. We consider here a different form of the constants of motion, based on the factorization procedure developed for systems of two degrees of freedom by S. Kuru, J. Negro and others. We show that an important subclass of the extended Hamiltonians, with arbitrary dimension, admits factorized constants of motion and we determine their expression. The classical constants can be polynomial or non-polynomial in the momenta, but the factorization procedure allows, in a type of extended Hamiltonians, their quantization via shift and ladder operators, for systems of any finite dimension.

  16. Spin currents, spin torques, and the concept of spin superfluidity (United States)

    Rückriegel, Andreas; Kopietz, Peter


    In magnets with noncollinear spin configuration the expectation value of the conventionally defined spin current operator contains a contribution which renormalizes an external magnetic field and hence affects only the precessional motion of the spin polarization. This term, which has been named angular spin current by Sun and Xie [Phys. Rev. B 72, 245305 (2005)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.72.245305, does not describe the translational motion of magnetic moments. We give a prescription for how to separate these two types of spin transport and show that the translational movement of the spin is always polarized along the direction of the local magnetization. We also show that at vanishing temperature the classical magnetic order parameter in magnetic insulators cannot carry a translational spin current and elucidate how this affects the interpretation of spin supercurrents.

  17. spin coating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dans ce travail nous avons préparé des couches minces de l'oxyde de zinc ZnO dopées à l'aluminium et non dopées par la technique Sol-Gel associée au « spin coating » sur des substrats en verre « pyrex » à partir de l'acétate de zinc dissous dans une solution de l'éthanol. Nous avons ensuite effectué des analyses ...

  18. Asparagine and glutamine ladders promote cross-species prion conversion. (United States)

    Kurt, Timothy D; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Jiang, Lin; Rodriguez, José A; Alderson, Nazilla; Eisenberg, David S; Sigurdson, Christina J


    Prion transmission between species is governed in part by primary sequence similarity between the infectious prion aggregate, PrPSc, and the cellular prion protein of the host, PrPC A puzzling feature of prion formation is that certain PrPC sequences, such as that of bank vole, can be converted by a remarkably broad array of different mammalian prions, whereas others, such as rabbit, show robust resistance to cross-species prion conversion. To examine the structural determinants that confer susceptibility or resistance to prion conversion, we systematically tested over 40 PrPC variants of susceptible and resistant PrPC sequences in a prion conversion assay. Five key residue positions markedly impacted prion conversion, four of which were in steric zipper segments where side chains from amino acids tightly interdigitate in a dry interface. Strikingly, all 5 residue substitutions modulating prion conversion involved the gain or loss of an asparagine or glutamine residue. For 2 of 4 positions, N and Q residues were not interchangeable, revealing a strict requirement for either an N or Q residue. Bank voles have a high number of N and Q residues and a high N:Q ratio. These findings suggest that a high number of N and Q residues at specific positions may stabilize β-sheets and lower the energy barrier for crossspecies prion transmission, potentially due to hydrogen bond networks from side chain amides forming extended N/Q ladders. These data also suggest that multiple PrPC segments containing N/Q residues may act in concert along a replicative interface to promote prion conversion. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. Model Comparison Exercise Circuit Training Game and Circuit Ladder Drills to Improve Agility and Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilaturochman Hendrawan Koestanto


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare: (1 the effect of circuit training game and circuit ladder drill for the agility; (2 the effect of circuit training game and circuit ladder drill on speed; (3 the difference effect of circuit training game and circuit ladder drill for the speed (4 the difference effect of circuit training game and circuit ladder drill on agility. The type of this research was quantitative with quasi-experimental methods. The design of this research was Factorial Design, with analysing data using ANOVA. The process of data collection was done by using 30 meters sprint speed test and shuttle run test during the pretest and posttest. Furthermore, the data was analyzed by using SPSS 22.0 series. Result: The circuit training game exercise program and circuit ladder drill were significant to increase agility and speed (sig 0.000 < α = 0.005 Group I, II, III had significant differences (sig 0.000 < α = 0.005. The mean of increase in speed of group I = 0.20 seconds, group II = 0.31 seconds, and group III = 0.11 seconds. The average increase agility to group I = 0.34 seconds group II = 0.60 seconds, group III = 0.13 seconds. Based on the analysis above, it could be concluded that there was an increase in the speed and agility of each group after being given a training.

  20. Edge state magnetism in zigzag-interfaced graphene via spin susceptibility measurements. (United States)

    Makarova, T L; Shelankov, A L; Zyrianova, A A; Veinger, A I; Tisnek, T V; Lähderanta, E; Shames, A I; Okotrub, A V; Bulusheva, L G; Chekhova, G N; Pinakov, D V; Asanov, I P; Šljivančanin, Ž


    Development of graphene spintronic devices relies on transforming it into a material with a spin order. Attempts to make graphene magnetic by introducing zigzag edge states have failed due to energetically unstable structure of torn zigzag edges. Here, we report on the formation of nanoridges, i.e., stable crystallographically oriented fluorine monoatomic chains, and provide experimental evidence for strongly coupled magnetic states at the graphene-fluorographene interfaces. From the first principle calculations, the spins at the localized edge states are ferromagnetically ordered within each of the zigzag interface whereas the spin interaction across a nanoridge is antiferromagnetic. Magnetic susceptibility data agree with this physical picture and exhibit behaviour typical of quantum spin-ladder system with ferromagnetic legs and antiferromagnetic rungs. The exchange coupling constant along the rungs is measured to be 450 K. The coupling is strong enough to consider graphene with fluorine nanoridges as a candidate for a room temperature spintronics material.

  1. Dynamic Covalent Assembly of Peptoid-Based Ladder Oligomers by Vernier Templating. (United States)

    Wei, Tao; Jung, Jae Hwan; Scott, Timothy F


    Dynamic covalent chemistry, in conjunction with template-directed assembly, enables the fabrication of extended nanostructures that are both precise and tough. Here we demonstrate the dynamic covalent assembly of peptoid-based molecular ladders with up to 12 rungs via scandium(III)-catalyzed imine metathesis by employing the principle of Vernier templating, where small precursor units with mismatched numbers of complementary functional groups are coreacted to yield larger structures with sizes determined by the respective precursor functionalities. Owing to their monomer diversity and synthetic accessibility, sequence-specific oligopeptoids bearing dynamic covalent pendant groups were employed as precursors for molecular ladder fabrication. The generated structures were characterized using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and gel permeation chromatography, confirming successful molecular ladder fabrication.

  2. Trees and ladders: A critique of the theory of human cognitive and behavioural evolution in Palaeolithic archaeology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langbroek, M.


    The modern biological model of (human) evolution is that of a branching tree. By contrast, prevailing models for human cognitive evolution remain unilinear in character, representing a ladder. The linear ladder model is the result of the opposition of an ethnographic and a primate reference frame

  3. Spin Dynamics and Optical Nonlinearities in Layered GaSe and Colloidal CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots (United States)

    Tang, Yanhao

    In this thesis, we studied spin dynamics, optical nonlinearity and the optical Stark effect in bulk GaSe, mono- and few-layer GaSe, and colloidal CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs), respectively. Control of the spin has been a long-term goal due to its potential applications in quantum information processing. Candidates for spintronics should have a long spin lifetime and allow for generation of a high initial spin polarization. GaSe caught our attention due to its orbitally nondegenerate valence bands, which are in contrast to the degenerate heavy and light hole valence bands in conventional III-V and II-VI semiconductors, like GaAs and CdSe. With time- and polarization-resolved photoluminescence, we demonstrated the generation of initial spin polarization as high as 0.9 followed by bi-exponential spin relaxation at 10 K (˜30 ps and ≥300 ps), owing to such orbitally nondegenerate valence bands in GaSe. We also directly revealed the initial spin and population relaxation as transitions from triplet excitons to singlet excitions via spin-flip of the electron or hole. Contrary to semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides, MX2 (M=Mo,W; X=S,Se,Te), GaSe is a direct band gap semiconductor in bulk, but transforms to an indirect band gap semiconductor in a monolayer as the maximum of the valence band is shifted away from the Gamma point. Associated with such a valence band in monolayer GaSe, ferromagnetism has been predicted upon hole doping due to a strong electronic exchange field. To study the electronic structure of GaSe in mono- and few-layer GaSe, we measured layer- and frequency-dependent second-harmonic generation (SHG) in GaSe from monolayer to ≥100 layers and determined a second-order optical nonlinearity chi(2) in the multi-slab system. We found reduced a chi(2) in GaSe with thickness thesis, I will first introduce the background for all the optical studies, and then talk about the optical techniques before discussing the three projects mentioned

  4. Simulation of TunneLadder Traveling-Wave Tube Input/Output Coupler Characteristics Using MAFIA (United States)

    Kory, Carol L.; Qureshi, A. Haq


    RF input/output coupler characteristics for the TunneLadder traveling-wave tube have been calculated using the three-dimensional computer code, MAFIA and compared to experimental data with good agreement. Theory behind coupling of the TunneLadder interaction circuit to input and output waveguides is presented and VSWR data is calculated for variations on principal coupler dimensions to provide insight into manufacturing tolerances necessary for acceptable performance. Accuracy of results using MAFIA demonstrates how experimental hardware testing of three-dimensional coupler designs can be reduced.

  5. "Ladder" structure in tonal noise generated by laminar flow around an airfoil. (United States)

    Chong, Tze Pei; Joseph, Phillip


    The presence of a "ladder" structure in the airfoil tonal noise was discovered in the 1970s, but its mechanism hitherto remains a subject of continual investigation in the research community. Based on the measured noise results and some numerical analysis presented in this letter, the variations of four types of airfoil tonal noise frequencies with the flow velocity were analyzed individually. The ladder structure is proposed to be caused by the acoustic/hydrodynamic frequency lag between the scattering of the boundary layer instability noise and the discrete noise produced by an aeroacoustic feedback loop.

  6. Computer Aided Design Of Relay Ladder Logic Via State Transition Diagram (United States)

    Devanathan, R.; Kuan, Foo Y.; Jun, Chang C.; Aun, Choo S.


    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are commonly programmed using relay ladder logic. There are many disadvantages to this approach. The state transition diagram affords a systematic means of providing precise and unambiguous specification while at the same time yielding a good system overview for ease of troubleshooting and maintenance. Computer aided logic design techniques help to automate the process of relay logic design for the state transition diagram. A software package which runs on an IBM PC/compatible machine has been developed to automatically transform the state diagram specification into relay ladder logic and the associated (PLC dependent) source code.

  7. A simple case of d(x2-y2 pairing: Hubbard ladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulut N.


    Full Text Available We study the strength and the temperature scale of the d(x2-y2 pairing correlations in the Hubbard model on a ladder lattice using Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC simulations. In particular, we present QMC results on the particle-particle interaction and the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the d(x2-y2-wave BCS channel. These data show that there are strong d(x2-y2 pairing correlations in the Hubbard ladder for certain values of the model parameters.

  8. General first-order mass ladder operators for Klein–Gordon fields (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Houri, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Masashi


    We study the ladder operator on scalar fields, mapping a solution of the Klein–Gordon equation onto another solution with a different mass, when the operator is at most first order in derivatives. Imposing the commutation relation between the d’Alembertian, we obtain the general condition for the ladder operator, which contains a non-trivial case which was not discussed in the previous work (Cardoso et al 2017 Phys. Rev. D 96 024044). We also discuss the relation with supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  9. Magnetic Nanostructures Spin Dynamics and Spin Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Farle, Michael


    Nanomagnetism and spintronics is a rapidly expanding and increasingly important field of research with many applications already on the market and many more to be expected in the near future. This field started in the mid-1980s with the discovery of the GMR effect, recently awarded with the Nobel prize to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg. The present volume covers the most important and most timely aspects of magnetic heterostructures, including spin torque effects, spin injection, spin transport, spin fluctuations, proximity effects, and electrical control of spin valves. The chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields and provide an overview of the latest status.

  10. Work-related falls from ladders--a follow-back study of US emergency department cases. (United States)

    Lombardi, David A; Smith, Gordon S; Courtney, Theodore K; Brennan, Melanye J; Kim, Jae Young; Perry, Melissa J


    Ladder falls comprise 16% of all US workplace fall-related fatalities, and ladder use may be particularly hazardous among older workers. This follow-back study of injured workers from a nationally representative sample of US emergency departments (ED) focused on factors related to ladder falls in three domains of the work environment: work equipment, work practices, and worker-related factors. Risk factors for fractures, the most frequent and severe outcome, were also evaluated. Workers injured from a ladder fall, treated in one of the 65 participating ED in the occupational National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) were asked to participate. The questionnaire included worker demographics, injury, ladder and work equipment and environment characteristics, work tasks, and activities. Multivariate logistic regression models estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of a work-related fracture. Three-hundred and six workers experiencing an injury from an--on average--7.5-foot-fall from a step, extension, or straight ladder were interviewed primarily from construction, installation, maintenance, and repair professions. Injuries were most frequently to the arm, elbow or shoulder; head, neck, or face with diagnoses were primarily fracture, strain, sprain, contusion or abrasion. Workers were most frequently standing or sitting on the ladder while installing, hanging an item, or performing a repair when they fell. Ladder movement was the mechanism in 40% of falls. Environmental conditions played a role in cases. There was a significant association between fracture risk and fall height while working on the ladder that was also influenced by older work age. This study advances knowledge of falls from ladders to support those who specify means and methods, select equipment, and plan, supervise, or manage the performance of employees working at heights.

  11. Utilization of the fish ladder at the Engenheiro Sergio Motta Dam, Brazil, by long distance migrating potamodromous species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Makrakis

    Full Text Available Utilization of the fish ladder installed at the Engenheiro Sergio Motta Dam (also known as Porto Primavera on the Paraná River, Southern Brazil, by long-distance migrating potamodromous species (sampling Protocol I, and ascending and descending movements (Protocol II were evaluated. Three pools along the fish ladder (designated as lower, middle, and upper were sampled monthly between December, 2004 and March, 2005 to determine the abundance of species in the ladder. The ascending and descending movements of the species in the ladder were also analyzed in the same period. In the samples for both protocols, 37 species representing 17 families and 5 orders (Characiformes, Siluriformes, Perciformes, Gymnotiformes, and Myliobatiformes were recorded. Characiformes were represented by 21 species. Long- distance migratory species (11 species predominated in the ladder (60% of the total number of individuals, with high abundance of Rhinelepis aspera (5645 individuals. For protocol I, mean abundance varied greatly among the months and pools, with lowest values in December and March for all pools, and highest in January for the lower pool due to high capture of R. aspera. Fish abundance declined from the lower to the upper pool, especially for R. aspera and Rhaphiodon vulpinus. For Protocol II, 17 species were recorded ascending the ladder, where Astyanax altiparanae and Leporinus friderici were the most abundant species (684 and 111 individuals, respectively. However, 18 species showed descending movements, with high captures of Metynnis maculatus and A. altiparanae (339 and 319 individuals, respectively. Twelve species (52% moved in both directions, and among the seven migratory species sampled, four were recorded ascending and descending, and three species only ascending the ladder. The fish ladder appears to selectively favor species with high swimming capabilities. A discussion is presented on the requirements for future research on attraction to the


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAI,M.; ROSER, T.


    This paper proposes a new design of spin flipper for RHIC to obtain full spin flip with the spin tune staying at half integer. The traditional technique of using an rf dipole or solenoid as spin flipper to achieve full spin flip in the presence of full Siberian snake requires one to change the snake configuration to move the spin tune away from half integer. This is not practical for an operational high energy polarized proton collider like RHIC where beam lifetime is sensitive to small betatron tune change. The design of the new spin flipper as well as numerical simulations are presented.

  13. Decoherence dynamics of a single spin versus spin ensemble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrovitski, V.V.; Feiguin, A.E.; Awschalom, D.D.; Hanson, R.


    We study decoherence of central spins by a spin bath, focusing on the difference between measurement of a single central spin and measurement of a large number of central spins (as found in typical spin-resonance experiments). For a dilute spin bath, the single spin demonstrates Gaussian

  14. Means-end chains and laddering: An inventory of problems and an agenda for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Sørensen, Elin


    to the collection and analysis of laddering data. However, many of these also point at problems of a more theoretical nature. In this chapter presented are some of the issues regarded as unresolved and suggested research that could help in solving these problems. The mayor part of this chapter deals...

  15. The climate learning ladder. A pragmatic procedure to support climate adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, S.E.; Tabara, J.D.; Gensuo, J.; McEvoy, D.; Dai, X.Q.; Neufeldt, H.; West, J.; Serra, A.


    We introduce a new pragmatic procedure called the climate learning ladder to structure policy analysis, support reflection and identify critical decisions to support climate adaptation. This tool is the result of the reflexive learning process that occurred while developing innovative appraisal

  16. Entrepreneurial Progress: Climbing The Entrepreneurial Ladder in Europe and The US

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. van der Zwan (Peter); I. Verheul (Ingrid); A.R. Thurik (Roy); I. Grilo (Isabel)


    textabstractWe investigate which countries have the highest potential to achieve entrepreneurial progress. This progress is defined using an entrepreneurial ladder with five successive steps: “never thought about starting a business”, “thinking about starting a business”, “taking steps to start a

  17. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin descends steps of Lunar Module ladder to walk on moon (United States)


    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descends the steps of the Lunar Module (LM) ladder as he prepares to walk on the Moon. He had just egressed the LM. This picture was taken by Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

  18. Laughlin-like States in Bosonic and Fermionic Atomic Synthetic Ladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Calvanese Strinati


    Full Text Available The combination of interactions and static gauge fields plays a pivotal role in our understanding of strongly correlated quantum matter. Cold atomic gases endowed with a synthetic dimension are emerging as an ideal platform to experimentally address this interplay in quasi-one-dimensional systems. A fundamental question is whether these setups can give access to pristine two-dimensional phenomena, such as the fractional quantum Hall effect, and how. We show that unambiguous signatures of bosonic and fermionic Laughlin-like states can be observed and characterized in synthetic ladders. We theoretically diagnose these Laughlin-like states focusing on the chiral current flowing in the ladder, on the central charge of the low-energy theory, and on the properties of the entanglement entropy. Remarkably, Laughlin-like states are separated from conventional liquids by Lifschitz-type transitions, characterized by sharp discontinuities in the current profiles, which we address using extensive simulations based on matrix-product states. Our work provides a qualitative and quantitative guideline towards the observability and understanding of strongly correlated states of matter in synthetic ladders. In particular, we unveil how state-of-the-art experimental settings constitute an ideal starting point to progressively tackle two-dimensional strongly interacting systems from a ladder viewpoint, opening a new perspective for the observation of non-Abelian states of matter.

  19. Healthcare organization-education partnerships and career ladder programs for health care workers. (United States)

    Dill, Janette S; Chuang, Emmeline; Morgan, Jennifer C


    Increasing concerns about quality of care and workforce shortages have motivated health care organizations and educational institutions to partner to create career ladders for frontline health care workers. Career ladders reward workers for gains in skills and knowledge and may reduce the costs associated with turnover, improve patient care, and/or address projected shortages of certain nursing and allied health professions. This study examines partnerships between health care and educational organizations in the United States during the design and implementation of career ladder training programs for low-skill workers in health care settings, referred to as frontline health care workers. Mixed methods data from 291 frontline health care workers and 347 key informants (e.g., administrators, instructors, managers) collected between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed using both regression and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). Results suggest that different combinations of partner characteristics, including having an education leader, employer leader, frontline management support, partnership history, community need, and educational policies, were necessary for high worker career self-efficacy and program satisfaction. Whether a worker received a wage increase, however, was primarily dependent on leadership within the health care organization, including having an employer leader and employer implementation policies. Findings suggest that strong partnerships between health care and educational organizations can contribute to the successful implementation of career ladder programs, but workers' ability to earn monetary rewards for program participation depends on the strength of leadership support within the health care organization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 29 CFR 1910.29 - Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers). (United States)


    ... shall be locked together vertically by pins or other equivalent means. (5) Erection. Only the... erection of scaffolds exceeding 50 feet in height above the base, unless such structure is approved in... a ten-foot (10′) long unit. (6) End frames. The end frames of sectional ladder and stairway...

  1. Climbing the "Agricultural Ladder": Social Mobility and Motivations for Migration in an Ecuadorian Colonist Community (United States)

    Bates, Diane C.; Rudel, Thomas K.


    During the early decades of the 20th century in the American Midwest young farming families achieved social mobility by moving up an 'agricultural ladder' through a series of rungs, from unpaid family work, to wage labor, to tenant farming, to a mortgaged farm, and, finally, to full ownership of a farm. In this paper we use the concept of an…

  2. Evaluating the contributions of the CO2 Performance Ladder to improved energy management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, M.G.


    The CO2 Performance Ladder is a certifiable scheme for energy management and carbon reporting that is used by several Dutch public authorities as a tool for green public procurement. Achieving certification gives companies a competitive advantage in awarding contracts. This paper aims at evaluating

  3. The physiological effect of a 'climb assist' device on vertical ladder climbing. (United States)

    Barron, Peter James; Burgess, Katherine; Cooper, Kay; Stewart, Arthur D


    'Climb assist' claims to reduce strain when climbing ladders; however, no research has yet substantiated this. The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological and psychophysical effects of climb assist on 30 m ladder climbing at a minimum acceptable speed. Eight participants (six male and two female) climbed a 30 m ladder at 24 rungs per minute with and without climb assist, and were monitored for heart rate (HR), [Formula: see text]O2 and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). All three variables decreased significantly (p climb assist with [Formula: see text]O2 decreasing by 22.5%, HR by 14.8% and RPE decreasing by a mean of 2.3 units on the 10-point Borg scale. When descending the ladder [Formula: see text]O2 decreased by a mean of 42% compared to that ascending. At the minimal acceptable climbing speed climb assist decreases the physiological strain on climbers, as demonstrated by reduced [Formula: see text]O2, HR and perceived exertion. Practitioner Summary: 'Climb assist' systems claim to reduce strain when climbing, however; no research has yet been published to substantiate this. A crossover study compared [Formula: see text]O2, HR and RPE at a minimal acceptable climbing speed with and without climb assist. Climb assist significantly reduced all variables confirming it reduces strain when climbing.

  4. South Dakota Statewide Core Curriculum, Career Ladder, and Challenge System. A Case History. (United States)

    Brekke, Donald G.; Gildseth, Wayne M.

    The South Dakota Core Curriculum Project involving the career ladder approach to health manpower training, which began in 1970, had seven objectives including the following: (1) To organize a Health Manpower Council for the entire State; (2) to define the areas of basic commonality among the various training programs; and (3) to develop a core…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Pra Setiawati


    Full Text Available Vocabulary is an essential component in learning English. It influences four English skills; they are listening, speaking, reading, and writing, for getting a good result in English. In teaching learning process, the teacher often implements the less interesting method, technique, or even media of vocabulary mastery in teaching and learning process which make the students to be bored, inactive, an uniterested in memorizing English vocabulary. Some media can be interested as the solutions in vocabulary mastery, they are Snake Ladders media and Scrabble media. The investigation was undergone by quantitative research. The researcher applied experimental research. This research underwent pre-test post-test control group design. To analyze data, t-test formula is used to measure the result of collected data. From the t-test measurement, it showed that t-test is 3.15 and t-table is 2.66. It means that t-hit > t-table. Based on the collected data, there is different result of using Snake Ladders from Scrabble media toward students’ vocabulary mastery. It was found that the students who are taught by using Snake Ladders resulted significant outcome than those are instructed by Scrabble media. It means that Snake Ladders is effective to improve the students’ vocabulary mastery.

  6. Thermoelectric Properties of Solution-Processed n-Doped Ladder-Type Conducting Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Suhao; Sun, Hengda; Ail, Ujwala


    Ladder-type "torsion-free" conducting polymers (e.g., polybenzimidazobenzophenanthroline (BBL)) can outperform "structurally distorted" donor-acceptor polymers (e.g., P(NDI2OD-T2)), in terms of conductivity and thermoelectric power factor. The polaron delocalization length is larger in BBL than i...

  7. Career Ladders and Core Curriculum in Human Services. Phase II Final Report. (United States)

    Soong, Robert K.

    This portion of Phase II of the Social Service Aide Project, a program of exemplary education for the career development of paraprofessionals in social and/or human services, represented an attempt to broaden the career ladders developed during Phase I and to extend the core curriculum above and below the Associate in Arts degree. The scheme of…

  8. Spin-Mechatronics (United States)

    Matsuo, Mamoru; Saitoh, Eiji; Maekawa, Sadamichi


    We investigate the interconversion phenomena between spin and mechanical angular momentum in moving objects. In particular, the recent results on spin manipulation and spin-current generation by mechanical motion are examined. In accelerating systems, spin-dependent gauge fields emerge, which enable the conversion from mechanical angular momentum into spins. Such a spin-mechanical effect is predicted by quantum theory in a non-inertial frame. Experiments which confirm the effect, i.e., the resonance frequency shift in nuclear magnetic resonance, the stray field measurement of rotating metals, and electric voltage generation in liquid metals, are discussed.

  9. Higher spin black holes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutperle, Michael; Kraus, Per


    .... We find solutions that generalize the BTZ black hole and carry spin-3 charge. The black hole entropy formula yields a result for the asymptotic growth of the partition function at finite spin-3 chemical potential...

  10. Summary: symmetries and spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, W.C. (Institute for Nuclear Theory, Department of Physcis, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (US))


    I discuss a number of the themes of the Symmetries and Spin session of the 8th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics: parity non-conservation, CP/T nonconservation, and tests of charge symmetry and charge independence.

  11. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)


    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  12. The anomalous optical conductivity in hole-doped cuprate superconductors (United States)

    Gao, He; Yuan, Feng; Chen, Shaou; Zhao, Huaisong


    Based on the renormalized t- J model and self-consistent mean field theory, the doping and energy dependence of optical conductivity and effective electron number in cuprate superconductors are discussed. As the result of the presence of the pseudogap in normal state, the optical conductivity exhibits two main components from underdoping to overdoping, a narrow band peaked around zero energy and a broadband centered in the mid-infrared region which deviates the Drude formula. With increasing the doping concentration, the spectral weight of the optical conductivity suppressed strongly in underdoped region increases quickly, and the peak position of the mid-infrared band moves towards to the lower energy region, then incorporates into the narrow band centered in zero energy in the heavily overdoped region. By virtue of the integral, the effective electron number is obtained, and it increases monotonically from zero energy to mid-infrared characteristic energy with increasing energy, then shows a plateau feature when the energy is larger. In particular, the mid-infrared characteristic energy scales with the pseudogap, reflecting the presence of the mid-infrared band is the result of the pseudogap effect.

  13. Effective magnetic correlations in hole-doped graphene nanoflakes (United States)

    Valli, A.; Amaricci, A.; Toschi, A.; Saha-Dasgupta, T.; Held, K.; Capone, M.


    The magnetic properties of zigzag graphene nanoflakes (ZGNFs) are investigated within the framework of inhomogeneous dynamical mean-field theory. At half-filling and for realistic values of the local interaction, the ZGNF is in a fully compensated antiferromagnetic (AF) state, which is found to be robust against temperature fluctuations. Introducing charge carriers in the AF background drives the ZGNF metallic and stabilizes a magnetic state with a net uncompensated moment at low temperatures. The change in magnetism is ascribed to the delocalization of the doped holes in the proximity of the edges, which mediate ferromagnetic correlations between the localized magnetic moments. Depending on the hole concentration, the magnetic transition may display a pronounced hysteresis over a wide range of temperatures, indicating the coexistence of magnetic states with different symmetries. This suggests the possibility of achieving electrostatic control of the magnetic state of ZGNFs to realize a switchable spintronic device.

  14. Quantum Spin Liquids


    Savary, Lucile; Balents, Leon


    Quantum spin liquids may be considered "quantum disordered" ground states of spin systems, in which zero point fluctuations are so strong that they prevent conventional magnetic long range order. More interestingly, quantum spin liquids are prototypical examples of ground states with massive many-body entanglement, of a degree sufficient to render these states distinct phases of matter. Their highly entangled nature imbues quantum spin liquids with unique physical aspects, such as non-local e...

  15. Spinning eggs and ballerinas (United States)

    Cross, Rod


    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction between the egg and the surface on which it spins.

  16. Spin-Caloritronic Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xiao-Qin; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Su, Gang


    The thermoelectric performance of a topological energy converter is analyzed. The H-shaped device is based on a combination of transverse topological effects involving the spin: the inverse spin Hall effect and the spin Nernst effect. The device can convert a temperature drop in one arm into an e...

  17. Frozen spin targets

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, A S L


    Describes six projects which use the frozen-spin principle: Helium-3 R.M.S. and longitudinally polarized frozen spin targets at Rutherford Laboratory, and the frozen spin targets at KEK, Saclay and the one used by the CERN-Helsinki collaboration. (7 refs).

  18. Concepts in spin electronics

    CERN Document Server


    A new branch of physics and nanotechnology called spin electronics has emerged, which aims at simultaneously exploiting the charge and spin of electrons in the same device. The aim of this book is to present new directions in the development of spin electronics in both the basic physics and the future electronics.

  19. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas (United States)

    Cross, Rod


    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  20. The split ladder of participation: A diagnostic, strategic, and evaluation tool to assess when participation is necessary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurlbert, M.; Gupta, J.


    The mainstream literature sees participation as critical to deepening democracy and solving complex environmental issues. An explosion of literature on public participation has occurred since Arnstein's ladder of participation in (1969). However, the literature does not address the conditions under

  1. Gauge theory description of spin ladders. Corrigendum. J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. v. 30 p. L757-64

    CERN Document Server

    Hosotani, Y


    There was a factor 2 error in the evaluation of the mean-field energy on page L758, which affects various factors in the paper. Above equation (4) on page L758, the mean-field energy should be E sub m sub e sub a sub n = J left brace 1/2N U sup 2 - 2U cot(pi/N)+1/4N right brace and equation (4) should read U sub n =2/pi e sup i sup l sup A sup sub n. On page L759, above equation (9), mu c sup 2 =2kJ/pi approx 0.637kJ. In equation (20), kappa is given by kappa=...=e sup 2 supgamma/8 vertical bar J' vertical bar/J approx 0.397 vertical bar J' vertical bar/J. In equation (21) DELTA sub s sub p sub i sub n =...=e sup 2 supgamma k/4 pi vertical bar J' vertical bar = 0.25k vertical bar J' vertical bar. (author)

  2. Crystalline Kitaev spin liquids (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiko G.; Dwivedi, Vatsal; Hermanns, Maria


    Frustrated magnetic systems exhibit many fascinating phases. Prime among them are quantum spin liquids, where the magnetic moments do not order even at zero temperature. A subclass of quantum spin liquids called Kitaev spin liquids are particularly interesting, because they are exactly solvable, can be realized in certain materials, and show a large variety of gapless and gapped phases. Here we show that nonsymmorphic symmetries can enrich spin liquid phases, such that the low-energy spinon degrees of freedom form three-dimensional Dirac cones or nodal chains. In addition, we suggest a realization of such Kitaev spin liquids in metal-organic frameworks.

  3. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server


    This book offers an extensive introduction to the extremely rich and intriguing field of spin-related phenomena in semiconductors. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated to include the latest experimental and theoretical research. Furthermore, it covers the entire field: bulk semiconductors, two-dimensional semiconductor structures, quantum dots, optical and electric effects, spin-related effects, electron-nuclei spin interactions, Spin Hall effect, spin torques, etc. Thanks to its self-contained style, the book is ideally suited for graduate students and researchers new to the field.

  4. Tree thinking for all biology: the problem with reading phylogenies as ladders of progress. (United States)

    Omland, Kevin E; Cook, Lyn G; Crisp, Michael D


    Phylogenies are increasingly prominent across all of biology, especially as DNA sequencing makes more and more trees available. However, their utility is compromised by widespread misconceptions about what phylogenies can tell us, and improved "tree thinking" is crucial. The most-serious problem comes from reading trees as ladders from "left to right"--many biologists assume that species-poor lineages that appear "early branching" or "basal" are ancestral--we call this the "primitive lineage fallacy". This mistake causes misleading inferences about changes in individual characteristics and leads to misrepresentation of the evolutionary process. The problem can be rectified by considering that modern phylogenies of present-day species and genes show relationships among evolutionary cousins. Emphasizing that these are extant entities in the 21(st) century will help correct inferences about ancestral characteristics, and will enable us to leave behind 19(th) century notions about the ladder of progress driving evolution.

  5. Resonances and antibound states for the Pöschl–Teller potential: Ladder operators and SUSY partners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çevik, D., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Gadella, M., E-mail: [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica and IMUVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Kuru, Ş., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Negro, J., E-mail: [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica and IMUVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)


    We analyze the one dimensional scattering produced by all variations of the Pöschl–Teller potential, i.e., potential well, low and high barriers. The transmission coefficients of Pöschl–Teller well and low barrier potentials have an infinite number of simple poles corresponding to bound and antibound states. However, the Pöschl–Teller high barrier potential shows an infinite number of resonance poles. We have constructed ladder operators connecting wave functions for bound and antibound states as well as for resonance states. Finally, using wave functions of these states, we provide some examples of supersymmetric partners of the Pöschl–Teller Hamiltonian. - Highlights: • Poles of the scattering matrix of Pöschl–Teller potentials are obtained. • These poles are associated to bound, antibound and resonance states. • Ladder operators connecting these states are constructed. • Susy partners using antibound and resonance states are computed.

  6. Hole-density evolution of the one-particle spectral function in doped ladders (United States)

    Martins, George B.; Gazza, Claudio; Dagotto, Elbio


    The spectral function A(q,ω) of doped t-J ladders is presented on clusters with up to 2×20 sites at zero temperature applying a recently developed technique that uses up to ~6×106 rung-basis states. Similarities with photoemission results for the two-dimensional cuprates are observed, such as the existence of a gap at (π,0) near half-filling (caused by hole pair formation) and flat bands in its vicinity. These features should be observable in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments on ladders. The main result of the paper is the nontrivial evolution of the spectral function from a narrow band at x=0, to a quasinoninteracting band at x>=0.5. It was also observed that the low-energy peaks of a cluster spectra acquire finite linewidths as their energies move away from the chemical potential.

  7. Significance of decay mechanism into continuum in dynamical Wannier-Stark ladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Yuya [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8573 (Japan); Maeshima, Nobuya; Hino, Ken-ichi [Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573, Japan and Center for computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan)


    We examine the resonance structure of photodressed electron states of laser-driven Wannier-Stark ladder, namely, dynamic Wannier-Stark ladder, in terms of the excess density of states (DOS) closely related to a lifetime of the state of concern. It is revealed that the resonance structure in the strong laser-field region shows clear dependence on the ratio, η, of a Bloch-frequency to a laser frequency. As the laser strength increases, for η = 1, the excess DOS becomes involved with a lot of newly-growing resonance peaks. This result would be understood from the viewpoint of a Fano-like decay-mechanism caused by a multichannel continuum effect, in marked contrast to the cases of larger η’s; for η = 3, the excess DOS just is found to show a pronounced red-shift of a single dominant peak caused by a single-channel continuum effect.

  8. Trait anxiety and goal difficulty on learning to climb the Bachman ladder. (United States)

    Neiva, Jaqueline F O; Barros, Joao A C; Meira, Cassio M


    This study examined the effects of trait anxiety and goal setting on learning of the Bachman ladder. It was hypothesized that easy goals would increase learning for individuals with high trait anxiety while hard goals would increase learning for individuals with low trait anxiety. 80 high school students (40 boys, 40 girls; M age = 15 yr., SD = 1.0) filled out the Brazilian State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for trait anxiety. The experiment was divided into four phases: acquisition, immediate transfer (after 5 min.), delayed transfer, and retention (after 24 hr.). On the transfer phases, the participants started climbing the ladder with the foot opposite of that used in acquisition. Participants were assigned to one of four experimental groups combining high and low anxiety traits and hard and easy goals. Variances were analyzed with repeated measurements on the last factor of all phases. The results showed the performance increased during the acquisition phase and no effects were observed in any phases.

  9. 4-bit digital to analog converter using R-2R ladder and binary weighted resistors (United States)

    Diosanto, J.; Batac, M. L.; Pereda, K. J.; Caldo, R.


    The use of a 4-bit digital-to-analog converter using two methods; Binary Weighted Resistors and R-2R Ladder is designed and presented in this paper. The main components that were used in constructing both circuits were different resistor values, operational amplifier (LM741) and single pole double throw switches. Both circuits were designed using MULTISIM software to be able to test the circuit for its ideal application and FRITZING software for the layout designing and fabrication to the printed circuit board. The implementation of both systems in an actual circuit benefits in determining and comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each. It was realized that the binary weighted circuit is more efficient DAC, having lower percentage error of 0.267% compared to R-2R ladder circuit which has a minimum of percentage error of 4.16%.

  10. Telecast of Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin by the Lunar Module ladder (United States)


    Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (on left), commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, are seen standing by the Lunar Module ladder in this black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface television camera during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. This picture was made from a televised image received at the Deep Space Network tracking station at Goldstone, California.

  11. Telecast of Astronaut Neil Armstrong descending ladder to surface of the moon (United States)


    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, descends the ladder of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module prior to making the first step by man on the moon. This view is a black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface camera during extravehicular activity. The black bar running through the center of the picture is an anamoly in the television ground data system at the Goldstone Tracking Station.

  12. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Spin Hall Effects of Dirac Electrons (United States)

    Fukazawa, Takaaki; Kohno, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Junji


    We investigate the spin Hall effect (SHE) of electrons described by the Dirac equation, which is used as an effective model near the L-points in bismuth. By considering short-range nonmagnetic impurities, we calculate the extrinsic as well as intrinsic contributions on an equal footing. The vertex corrections are taken into account within the ladder type and the so-called skew-scattering type. The intrinsic SHE which we obtain is consistent with that of Fuseya et al. [" xlink:type="simple">J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81, 093704 (2012)]. It is found that the extrinsic contribution dominates the intrinsic one when the system is metallic. The extrinsic SHE due to the skew scattering is proportional to Δ/niu, where 2Δ is the band gap, ni is the impurity concentration, and u is the strength of the impurity potential.

  13. “Why Caipirinha?”- The Online via Chat Laddering Technique CAN Answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bordeaux-Rego


    Full Text Available As customers are becoming increasingly connected to the internet, this means that they are available for online interviews, thus opening up a space for investigating research methods, especially qualitative research, in an attempt to identify how to adapt data collecting instruments to the so-called “connected customer era”. In this context, the focus of this article is on the application viability analysis of the laddering technique used online and in real-time chat by asking the following question: “Why caipirinha?”. Conducting online in-depth interviews through the MSN Messenger and Skype (the most commonly used chat tools in Brazil, 23 attributes, 22 consequences and 13 values were identified, resulting in 133 ladders, 71 of which reached the value level. Along with friends/mates, Integration, Entertainment and Fun, in addition to Alcohol, Insouciance/ relaxation and Pleasure constitute the most frequent ladders. Concerning the application itself, the participants gave positive feedback, even though some of them did not feel satisfied because they became tired. Convenience, objectivity, disinhibition, easy scheduling and flexibility were identified. The viability of online in-depth interviewing via real-time chats was confirmed, raising the question of the possibility of it achieving other qualitative research techniques.

  14. Effect of Ladder Drill Exercise on Speed, Surrounding, and Power Leg Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Chandra Adinata Kusuma


    Full Text Available This study aimed at finding the effect of ladder drill training upon: (1 run speed, (2 agility, and (2 power of leg muscle. This study is an experimental research. This study utilized one group pre test-post test design. There were total people as the subject of this research. Data collection technique used 30-meter sprint test to measure run speed, Illinois agility test to measure agility, and vertical jump test to measure power of leg muscle. Data analysis technique which was used for normality test, homogeneity test/F-test, and T-test with significant level 5% by using SPSS 16.0.0. Based on the finding, there was effect of ladder drill training upon run speed with sig value=0.007, agility and power of leg muscle with sig value=0.000. Based on the data analysis, it could be concluded that there was significant effect of ladder drill training upon run speed, agility and power of leg muscle.

  15. The snakes and ladders of National Health Service management in England. (United States)

    Powell, Martin


    This article explores managerial careers in the National Health Service (NHS) through the lens of talent management, particularly focusing on how managers view barriers (snakes) and facilitators (ladders) to career progression. There is a significant literature on enablers and barriers to career progression, but much of this focuses on specific groups such as black and minority ethnic and female workers, and there is relatively little material on the general workforce of the NHS. The research design is a mixed method quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interview and focus group) approach consisting of a quasi-probability element that focuses on a maximum variety sample and a purposive element that seeks policy views at central and strategic health authority level, and examines talent management in high-performing NHS organisations. Ladders are identified as follows: volunteering, secondment, networking, mentoring, academic qualifications, development, good role models/managers and appraisal/personal development plan. Snakes are identified as managing expectations; identity and cognitive diversity; location; sector; NHS toxic and favouritism culture; poor talent spotting; credentialism; exclusive approach to talent; and sustainability. It concludes that while previous conceptual and empirical work is fairly clear on any ladders, it is less clear on snakes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Explaining match outcome and ladder position in the National Rugby League using team performance indicators. (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Sinclair, Wade; Robertson, Sam


    To examine the extent at which match outcome and ladder position could be explained using team performance indicators in the National Rugby League (NRL). The dataset consisted of 13 performance indicators acquired from each NRL team across the 2016 season (n=376 observations). Data was sorted according to apriori match outcome (win/loss) and ladder position (one to 16). Given the binary and categorical nature of the response variables, two analysis approaches were used; a conditional interference classification tree and ordinal regression. Five performance indicators ('try assists', 'all run meters', 'offloads', 'line breaks' and 'dummy half runs') were retained within the classification tree, detecting 66% of the losses and 91% of the wins. A significant negative relationship was noted between ladder position and 'kick metres' (β (SE)=-0.002 (coaches and analysts as a basis for the development of practice conditions and game strategies that may increase their teams' likelihood of success. Beyond rugby league, this study presents analytical techniques that could be applied to other sports when examining the relationships between performance indicators and match derivatives. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Topic Order in Introductory Physics and its Impact on the STEM Curricular Ladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa L Larkin


    Full Text Available Introductory physics courses are an important rung on the curricular ladder in STEM. These courses help to strengthen students critical thinking and problem solving skills while simultaneously introducing them to many topics they will explore in more detail in later courses in physics and engineering. For these reasons, introductory physics is a required element on the curricular ladder. Most often, introductory physics is offered as a two-semester sequence with basic mechanics being taught in the first semester and electricity and magnetism in the second. In fact, this curricular sequence has not been altered in decades. Is there a reason for this? There are many other enduring questions that arise pertaining to these foundation courses in physics. These questions include: Does taking the introductory course sequence “out of order” have an impact on student learning in physics? What topics should be taught? When should these topics be taught? What topics could be left out? The list of questions is essentially endless. This paper will address some of these questions in part, through a brief discussion on student learning in a second-semester algebra-based physics course. Connections will also be made to the broader curricular ladder in STEM. To this end, an illustration that makes connections to an engineering statics course will be presented. This discussion will conclude by presenting some broader implications for the larger STEM communities.

  18. Higher Spin Matrix Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Valenzuela


    Full Text Available We propose a hybrid class of theories for higher spin gravity and matrix models, i.e., which handle simultaneously higher spin gravity fields and matrix models. The construction is similar to Vasiliev’s higher spin gravity, but part of the equations of motion are provided by the action principle of a matrix model. In particular, we construct a higher spin (gravity matrix model related to type IIB matrix models/string theory that have a well defined classical limit, and which is compatible with higher spin gravity in A d S space. As it has been suggested that higher spin gravity should be related to string theory in a high energy (tensionless regime, and, therefore to M-Theory, we expect that our construction will be useful to explore concrete connections.

  19. Spin caloritronics in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Angsula; Frota, H. O. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Amazonas, Av. Rodrigo Octavio 3000-Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil)


    Spin caloritronics, the combination of spintronics with thermoelectrics, exploiting both the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment in addition to its fundamental electronic charge and temperature, is an emerging technology mainly in the development of low-power-consumption technology. In this work, we study the thermoelectric properties of a Rashba dot attached to two single layer/bilayer graphene sheets as leads. The temperature difference on the two graphene leads induces a spin current, which depends on the temperature and chemical potential. We demonstrate that the Rashba dot behaves as a spin filter for selected values of the chemical potential and is able to filter electrons by their spin orientation. The spin thermopower has also been studied where the effects of the chemical potential, temperature, and also the Rashba term have been observed.

  20. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A


    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  1. Silicon spin communication


    Dery, Hanan; Song, Yang; Li, Pengke; Zutic, Igor


    Recent experimental breakthroughs have demonstrated that the electron spin in silicon can be reliably injected and detected as well as transferred over distances exceeding 1 mm. We propose an on-chip communication paradigm which is based on modulating spin polarization of a constant current in silicon wires. We provide figures of merit for this scheme by studying spin relaxation and drift-diffusion models in silicon.

  2. Spin coating apparatus (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.


    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  3. Local Noncollinear Spin Analysis. (United States)

    Abate, Bayileyegn A; Joshi, Rajendra P; Peralta, Juan E


    In this work, we generalize the local spin analysis of Clark and Davidson [J. Chem. Phys. 2001 115 (16), 7382] for the partitioning of the expectation value of the molecular spin square operator, ⟨Ŝ 2 ⟩, into atomic contributions, ⟨Ŝ A ·Ŝ B ⟩, to the noncollinear spin case in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). We derive the working equations, and we show applications to the analysis of the noncollinear spin solutions of typical spin-frustrated systems and to the calculation of magnetic exchange couplings. In the former case, we employ the triangular H 3 He 3 test molecule and a Mn 3 complex to show that the local spin analysis provides additional information that complements the standard one-particle spin population analysis. For the calculation of magnetic exchange couplings, J AB , we employ the local spin partitioning to extract ⟨Ŝ A ·Ŝ B ⟩ as a function of the interatomic spin orientation given by the angle θ. This, combined with the dependence of the electronic energy with θ, provides a methodology to extract J AB from DFT calculations that, in contrast to conventional energy differences based methods, does not require the use of ad hoc S A and S B values.

  4. Spin Waves in Terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Bjerrum Møller, Hans


    The energies of spin waves propagating in the c direction of Tb have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering, as a function of a magnetic field applied along the easy and hard directions in the basal plane, and as a function of temperature. From a general spin Hamiltonian, consistent...... with the symmetry, we deduce the dispersion relation for the spin waves in a basal-plane ferromagnet. This phenomenological spin-wave theory accounts for the observed behavior of the magnon energies in Tb. The two q⃗-dependent Bogoliubov components of the magnon energies are derived from the experimental results...

  5. PREFACE: Spin Electronics (United States)

    Dieny, B.; Sousa, R.; Prejbeanu, L.


    Conventional electronics has in the past ignored the spin on the electron, however things began to change in 1988 with the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in metallic thin film stacks which led to the development of a new research area, so called spin-electronics. In the last 10 years, spin-electronics has achieved a number of breakthroughs from the point of view of both basic science and application. Materials research has led to several major discoveries: very large tunnel magnetoresistance effects in tunnel junctions with crystalline barriers due to a new spin-filtering mechanism associated with the spin-dependent symmetry of the electron wave functions new magnetic tunnelling barriers leading to spin-dependent tunnelling barrier heights and acting as spin-filters magnetic semiconductors with increasingly high ordering temperature. New phenomena have been predicted and observed: the possibility of acting on the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure with a spin-polarized current. This effect, due to a transfer of angular momentum between the spin polarized conduction electrons and the local magnetization, can be viewed as the reciprocal of giant or tunnel magnetoresistance. It can be used to switch the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure or to generate steady magnetic excitations in the system. the possibility of generating and manipulating spin current without charge current by creating non-equilibrium local accumulation of spin up or spin down electrons. The range of applications of spin electronics materials and phenomena is expanding: the first devices based on giant magnetoresistance were the magnetoresistive read-heads for computer disk drives. These heads, introduced in 1998 with current-in plane spin-valves, have evolved towards low resistance tunnel magnetoresistice heads in 2005. Besides magnetic recording technology, these very sensitive magnetoresistive sensors are finding applications in other areas, in particular in biology. magnetic

  6. Spin Current Noise of the Spin Seebeck Effect and Spin Pumping. (United States)

    Matsuo, M; Ohnuma, Y; Kato, T; Maekawa, S


    We theoretically investigate the fluctuation of a pure spin current induced by the spin Seebeck effect and spin pumping in a normal-metal-(NM-)ferromagnet(FM) bilayer system. Starting with a simple ferromagnet-insulator-(FI-)NM interface model with both spin-conserving and non-spin-conserving processes, we derive general expressions of the spin current and the spin-current noise at the interface within second-order perturbation of the FI-NM coupling strength, and estimate them for a yttrium-iron-garnet-platinum interface. We show that the spin-current noise can be used to determine the effective spin carried by a magnon modified by the non-spin-conserving process at the interface. In addition, we show that it provides information on the effective spin of a magnon, heating at the interface under spin pumping, and spin Hall angle of the NM.

  7. New insights into the origin of ladder dikes: Implications for punctuated growth and crystal accumulation in the Cathedral Peak granodiorite (United States)

    Wiebe, R. A.; Jellinek, A. M.; Hodge, K. F.


    Ladder dikes are steep tabular bodies, typically a meter or less thick, composed of moderately dipping, concave upward, alternating dark (i.e. schlieren) and light bands oriented roughly perpendicular to the ladder dike margins. These structures occur widely but sparsely in granitic rocks and are found prominently in the Cathedral Peak granodiorite (CPG) of the Tuolumne Intrusive suite. Previous studies have interpreted that ladder dikes form as a result of processes including the downward flow of crystal mush in cracks within strong crystal mush or by upward flow in steep tubes that migrate within a strong crystal mush. Our new observations indicate that ladder dikes formed by downward flow of crystal mush in troughs or valleys, in a manner potentially comparable to trough bands in mafic layered intrusions. Extensions of the schlieren outward and upward away from the ladder dike margins into the host granite demonstrate that the host granite was deposited as mounds on both sides at the same time as the ladder dikes. Ladder dikes, therefore, record lateral flows of crystal mush on a magma chamber floor. Vertical exposures suggest these flows are on the order of ten meters thick. Some steep exposures on granite domes indicate multiple ladder dikes (and flows) over a stratigraphic height of 80-100 m. Later (stratigraphically higher) flows commonly deform and erode the top of an earlier flow, and granitic material rich in K-feldspar megacrysts has locally engulfed large blocks of ladder dikes, demonstrating that the megacrysts were also transported in flows. Flows in the CPG are directed away from the center of the pluton toward the western and eastern margins and apparently spread along a strong crystal mush floor and into a rheologically complex CPG magma. Whereas established dynamical models for spreading (single phase) gravity currents with simple and complex rheologies explain the elongate geometry, spacing and orientation of the tabular bodies, the origin and

  8. Quantum spin liquid states (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Kanoda, Kazushi; Ng, Tai-Kai


    This is an introductory review of the physics of quantum spin liquid states. Quantum magnetism is a rapidly evolving field, and recent developments reveal that the ground states and low-energy physics of frustrated spin systems may develop many exotic behaviors once we leave the regime of semiclassical approaches. The purpose of this article is to introduce these developments. The article begins by explaining how semiclassical approaches fail once quantum mechanics become important and then describe the alternative approaches for addressing the problem. Mainly spin-1 /2 systems are discussed, and most of the time is spent in this article on one particular set of plausible spin liquid states in which spins are represented by fermions. These states are spin-singlet states and may be viewed as an extension of Fermi liquid states to Mott insulators, and they are usually classified in the category of so-called S U (2 ), U (1 ), or Z2 spin liquid states. A review is given of the basic theory regarding these states and the extensions of these states to include the effect of spin-orbit coupling and to higher spin (S >1 /2 ) systems. Two other important approaches with strong influences on the understanding of spin liquid states are also introduced: (i) matrix product states and projected entangled pair states and (ii) the Kitaev honeycomb model. Experimental progress concerning spin liquid states in realistic materials, including anisotropic triangular-lattice systems [κ -(ET )2Cu2(CN )3 and EtMe3Sb [Pd (dmit )2]2 ], kagome-lattice system [ZnCu3(OH )6Cl2 ], and hyperkagome lattice system (Na4 Ir3 O8 ), is reviewed and compared against the corresponding theories.

  9. Component processes in contour integration: a direct comparison between snakes and ladders in a detection and a shape discrimination task. (United States)

    Vancleef, Kathleen; Wagemans, Johan


    In contour integration, a relevant question is whether snakes and ladders are processed similarly. Higher presentation time thresholds for ladders in detection tasks indicate this is not the case. However, in a detection task only processing differences at the level of element linking and possibly contour localization might be picked up, while differences at the shape encoding level cannot be noticed. In this study, we make a direct comparison of detection and shape discrimination tasks to investigate if processing differences in the visual system between snakes and ladders are limited to contour detection or extend to higher level contour processing, like shape encoding. Stimuli consisted of elements that were oriented collinearly (snakes) or orthogonally (ladders) to the contour path and were surrounded by randomly oriented background elements. In two tasks, six experienced subjects either detected the contour when presented with a contour and a completely random stimulus or performed a shape discrimination task when presented with two contours with different curvature. Presentation time was varied in 9 steps between 8 and 492 ms. By applying a generalized linear mixed model we found that differences in snake and ladder processing are not limited to a detection stage but are also apparent at a shape encoding stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Spin-spin correlations in ferromagnetic nanosystems (United States)

    Vedmedenko, E. Y.; Mikuszeit, N.; Stapelfeldt, T.; Wieser, R.; Potthoff, M.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Wiesendanger, R.


    Using exact diagonalization, Monte-Carlo, and mean-field techniques, characteristic temperature scales for ferromagnetic order are discussed for the Ising and the classical anisotropic Heisenberg model on finite lattices in one and two dimensions. The interplay between nearest-neighbor exchange, anisotropy and the presence of surfaces leads, as a function of temperature, to a complex behavior of the distance-dependent spin-spin correlation function, which is very different from what is commonly expected. A finite experimental observation time is considered in addition, which is simulated within the Monte-Carlo approach by an incomplete statistical average. We find strong surface effects for small nanoparticles, which cannot be explained within a simple Landau or mean-field concept and which give rise to characteristic trends of the spin-correlation function in different temperature regimes. Unambiguous definitions of crossover temperatures for finite systems and an effective method to estimate the critical temperature of corresponding infinite systems are given.

  11. Equivalent spin-orbit interaction in the two-polariton Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model. (United States)

    Li, C; Zhang, X Z; Song, Z


    A cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity-QED) system combines two or more distinct quantum components, exhibiting features not seen in the individual systems. In this work, we study the one-dimensional Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model in the two-excitation (two-polariton) subspace. We find that the centre momentum of two-excitation induces a magnetic flux piercing the equivalent Hamiltonian Hk in the invariant subspace with momentum k, which can be described as a 4-leg ladder in the auxiliary space. Furthermore, it is shown that the system in π-centre-momentum subspace is equivalent to a lattice system for spin-1 particle with spin-orbit coupling. On the basis of this concise description, a series of bound-pair eigenstates which display long-range polaritonic entanglement is presented as a simple application.

  12. Unconventional quantum Hall effects in two-dimensional massive spin-1 fermion systems (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Duan, L.-M.


    Unconventional fermions with high degeneracies in three dimensions beyond Weyl and Dirac fermions have sparked tremendous interest in condensed matter physics. Here, we study quantum Hall effects (QHEs) in a two-dimensional unconventional fermion system with a pair of gapped spin-1 fermions. We find that the original unlimited number of zero-energy Landau levels in the gapless case develops into a series of bands, leading to a novel QHE phenomenon where the Hall conductance first decreases (or increases) to 0 and then revives as an infinite ladder of fine staircase when the Fermi surface is moved toward zero energy, and it suddenly reverses, with its sign being flipped, due to a Van Hove singularity when the Fermi surface is moved across 0. We further investigate the peculiar QHEs in a dice model with a pair of spin-1 fermions, which agree well with the results of the continuous model.

  13. Spin Switching via Quantum Dot Spin Valves (United States)

    Gergs, N. M.; Bender, S. A.; Duine, R. A.; Schuricht, D.


    We develop a theory for spin transport and magnetization dynamics in a quantum dot spin valve, i.e., two magnetic reservoirs coupled to a quantum dot. Our theory is able to take into account effects of strong correlations. We demonstrate that, as a result of these strong correlations, the dot gate voltage enables control over the current-induced torques on the magnets and, in particular, enables voltage-controlled magnetic switching. The electrical resistance of the structure can be used to read out the magnetic state. Our model may be realized by a number of experimental systems, including magnetic scanning-tunneling microscope tips and artificial quantum dot systems.

  14. Two-component relativistic coupled-cluster methods using mean-field spin-orbit integrals (United States)

    Liu, Junzi; Shen, Yue; Asthana, Ayush; Cheng, Lan


    A novel implementation of the two-component spin-orbit (SO) coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) method and the CCSD augmented with the perturbative inclusion of triple excitations [CCSD(T)] method using mean-field SO integrals is reported. The new formulation of SO-CCSD(T) features an atomic-orbital-based algorithm for the particle-particle ladder term in the CCSD equation, which not only removes the computational bottleneck associated with the large molecular-orbital integral file but also accelerates the evaluation of the particle-particle ladder term by around a factor of 4 by taking advantage of the spin-free nature of the instantaneous electron-electron Coulomb interaction. Benchmark calculations of the SO splittings for the thallium atom and a set of diatomic 2Π radicals as well as of the bond lengths and harmonic frequencies for a set of closed-shell diatomic molecules are presented. The basis-set and core-correlation effects in the calculations of these properties have been carefully analyzed.

  15. Antiferromagnetic spin Seebeck effect.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand


    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2(110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2–80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9T) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.

  16. Spin, mass, and symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deeper question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics.

  17. Spin coating of electrolytes (United States)

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan


    Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

  18. Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect. (United States)

    Wu, Stephen M; Zhang, Wei; Kc, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E; Jiang, J Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand


    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF_{2}. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF_{2} (110) (30  nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF_{2} (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF_{2} through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9  T) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF_{2} thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.

  19. Physics lab in spin

    CERN Multimedia

    Hawkes, N


    RAL is fostering commerical exploitation of its research and facilities in two main ways : spin-out companies exploit work done at the lab, spin-in companies work on site taking advantage of the facilities and the expertise available (1/2 page).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Engelman


    Full Text Available A pesquisa visou identificar valores dos empreendedores sociais com base na técnica Laddering, bem como a relação com o marketing social. Os principais atributos se referem ao engajamento social, ser proprietário de negócio e ter poder de decisão sobre sua própria vida. As principais consequências são autonomia, reconhecimento e transformação da sociedade. Entre os principais valores estão satisfação pessoal, bem-estar social e felicidade. As oportunidades estão relacionadas ao envolvimento prévio com a causa social, área de formação do empreendedor e suas redes de relacionamentos. As principais formas utilizadas para a comunicação e mobilização das pessoas são as mídias sociais. O estudo se mostrou importante para contribuir com maior conhecimento sobre as características peculiares do empreendedor social. Sobre a técnica Laddering, apesar de comumente ser utilizada para compreender relações de consumo, também se mostrou extremamente útil para compreender os valores mais íntimos que levam as pessoas a empreender socialmente, ao invés de empreender em negócios tradicionais ou se tornarem voluntários em uma organização social já constituída. Palavras-chave: Marketing Social. Empreendedorismo social. Laddering.

  1. Donor-acceptor conjugated polymers based on multifused ladder-type arenes for organic solar cells. (United States)

    Wu, Jhong-Sian; Cheng, Sheng-Wen; Cheng, Yen-Ju; Hsu, Chain-Shu


    Harvesting solar energy from sunlight to generate electricity is considered as one of the most important technologies to address the future sustainability of humans. Polymer solar cells (PSCs) have attracted tremendous interest and attention over the past two decades due to their potential advantage to be fabricated onto large area and light-weight flexible substrates by solution processing at a lower cost. PSCs based on the concept of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) configuration where an active layer comprises a composite of a p-type (donor) and an n-type (acceptor) material represents the most useful strategy to maximize the internal donor-acceptor interfacial area allowing for efficient charge separation. Fullerene derivatives such as [6,6]-phenyl-C61 or 71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) are the ideal n-type materials ubiquitously used for BHJ solar cells. The major effort to develop photoactive materials is numerously focused on the p-type conjugated polymers which are generally synthesized by polymerization of electron-rich donor and electron-deficient acceptor monomers. Compared to the development of electron-deficient comonomers (acceptor segments), the development of electron-rich donor materials is considerably flourishing. Forced planarization by covalently fastening adjacent aromatic and heteroaromatic subunits leads to the formation of ladder-type conjugated structures which are capable of elongating effective conjugation, reducing the optical bandgap, promoting intermolecular π-π interactions and enhancing intrinsic charge mobility. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on the development of various well-defined new ladder-type conjugated materials. These materials serve as the superb donor monomers to prepare a range of donor-acceptor semi-ladder copolymers with sufficient solution-processability for solar cell applications.

  2. Correlations in two-dimensional electron gas: Random-phase approximation with exchange and ladder results (United States)

    Pederiva, F.; Lipparini, E.; Takayanagi, K.


    We have evaluated the density-density response of the two-dimensional electron gas at zero temperature by solving the Dyson equation for the particle-hole Green's function, including exchange Coulomb matrix elements and short-range contributions in the ladder approximation. We study the effect of these correlations on the total energy, compressibility per particle, local field factor G(q), static structure factor and pair-correlation function. Results are compared with the normal random-phase approximation, local field theories and quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

  3. Bifurcation in Ground-state Fidelity and Quantum Criticality in Two-leg Potts Ladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hao LI


    Full Text Available We have investigated an intriguing connection between bifurcations, reduced fidelity per lattice site, local order parameter, universal order parameter, entropy and quantum phase transitions in the ground state for quantum three-state Potts model with two coupled infinite-size ladder system, in the context of the tensor network algorithm. The tensor network algorithm produces degenerate symmetry-breaking ground-state wave functions arising from the Z3 symmetry breaking, each of results from a randomly chosen initial state. We expect that our approach might provide further insights into critical phenomena in quantum many-body infinite lattice systems in condensed matter physics.

  4. Optimum design of low-pass switched-capacitor ladder filters (United States)

    Davis, R. D.; Trick, T. N.


    A general technique for realizing Bruton's LDI transformation in low-pass switched-capacitor ladder filters is presented, which results in switched-capacitor integrators that are insensitive to parasitic capacitances. It is shown that the correct filter response may be obtained by realizing only the stable poles of the LDI transformed LC network. Realization of these 'stable' poles is reduced to the problem of solving a system of nonlinear equations. The design of a third-order Chebyshev low-pass filter is presented as an example.

  5. Explaining choice option attractiveness by beliefs elicited by the laddering method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino


    It is a common approach to explain choice option attractiveness by beliefs about the choice option. The means'end chain model is used to distinguish between various types of beliefs, depending on whether the belief links the choice option to attributes, consequences, or values related to the choice...... option. The laddering method is used to elicit beliefs of all three types for a choice between conventional and organic pork. As a benchmark, beliefs were also elicited in the traditional way advocated by Ajzen and Fishbein. Using both sets of beliefs in a subsequent survey, it was shown that the beliefs...

  6. Spin Hall and spin swapping torques in diffusive ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Pauyac, C. O.


    A complete set of the generalized drift-diffusion equations for a coupled charge and spin dynamics in ferromagnets in the presence of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling is derived from the quantum kinetic approach, covering major transport phenomena, such as the spin and anomalous Hall effects, spin swapping, spin precession and relaxation processes. We argue that the spin swapping effect in ferromagnets is enhanced due to spin polarization, while the overall spin texture induced by the interplay of spin-orbital and spin precessional effects displays a complex spatial dependence that can be exploited to generate torques and nucleate/propagate domain walls in centrosymmetric geometries without use of external polarizers, as opposed to the conventional understanding of spin-orbit mediated torques.

  7. The Deadlock Recovery Problem in the AGV System with the Ladder Guidepath Layout and its Computational Complexity (United States)

    Koizumi, Kenji; Masuyama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes the minimum time deadlock recovery problem in the AGV system with the ladder guidepath layout(DRPL, for short) and analyzes its computational complexity. In order to analyze the computational complexity, this paper introduces the decision problem version of DRPL to ask whether all deadlocks in the AGV system are recoverable within predetermined time, and NP-hardness in a special case of the problem is proved. Moreover, the condition by which the problem becomes NP-hard when the AGV system has a ladder guidepath layout is clarified, and we propose a polynomial time algorithm that solves the optimization problem version of this problem whenever the problem in the ladder guidepath layout is not NP-hard.

  8. Improving energy and carbon management in construction and civil engineering companies—evaluating the impacts of the CO2 Performance Ladder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, Martijn G.; Opstelten, Ivo J.; Blok, Kornelis

    In the Netherlands, the CO2 Performance Ladder has been introduced as an energy management programme to facilitate continuous energy efficiency and carbon performance improvement in non-industrial sectors. This paper addresses the question: ‘What is the impact of the CO2 Performance Ladder on

  9. Magnetic-field-induced spin crossover of Y-doped Pr0.7Ca0.3CoO3 (United States)

    Ikeda, Akihiko; Lee, Suyeon; Terashima, Taku T.; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Tokunaga, Masashi; Naito, Tomoyuki


    The family of hole-doped Pr-based perovskite cobaltites, Pr0.5Ca0.5CoO3 and (Pr1-yREy) 0.3Ca0.7CoO3 (where RE is rare earth), has recently been found to exhibit simultaneous metal-insulator, spin-state, and valence transitions. We have investigated magnetic-field-induced phase transitions of (Pr1-yYy) 0.7Ca0.3CoO3 by means of magnetization measurements at 4.2-100 K up to an ultrahigh magnetic field of 140 T with the chemical pressure varied by y =0.0625 , 0.075, 0.1. The observed magnetic-field-induced transitions were found to occur simultaneously with the metal-insulator transitions up to 100 T. The obtained magnetic-field-temperature (B -T ) phase diagram and magnetization curves are well analyzed by a spin-crossover model of a single ion with interion interactions. On the other hand, the chemical pressure dependence of the experimentally obtained magnetization change during the phase transition disagrees with the single-ion model when approaching low temperatures. The significant y dependence of the magnetization change at low temperatures may arise from the itinerant magnetism of Co3 + in the paramagnetic metallic phase, where the chemical pressure enhances the exchange splitting by promoting the double-exchange interaction. The observed B -T phase diagrams of (Pr1-yYy) 0.7Ca0.3CoO3 are quite contrary to that of LaCoO3, indicating that in (Pr1-yYy) 0.7Ca0.3CoO3 the high-field phase possesses higher entropy than the low-field phase, whereas it is the other way around in LaCoO3.

  10. Higher spins and holography (United States)

    Kraus, Per; Ross, Simon F.


    The principles of quantum mechanics and relativity impose rigid constraints on theories of massless particles with nonzero spin. Indeed, Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity are the unique solution in the case of spin-1 and spin-2. In asymptotically flat spacetime, there are fundamental obstacles to formulating fully consistent interacting theories of particles of spin greater than 2. However, indications are that such theories are just barely possible in asymptotically anti-de Sitter or de Sitter spacetimes, where the non-existence of an S-matrix provides an escape from the theorems restricting theories in Minkowski spacetime. These higher spin gravity theories are therefore of great intrinsic interest, since they, along with supergravity, provide the only known field theories generalizing the local invariance principles of Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity. While work on higher spin gravity goes back several decades, the subject has gained broader appeal in recent years due to its appearance in the AdS/CFT correspondence. In three and four spacetime dimensions, there exist duality proposals linking higher spin gravity theories to specific conformal field theories living in two and three dimensions respectively. The enlarged symmetry algebra of the conformal field theories renders them exactly soluble, which makes them excellent laboratories for understanding in detail the holographic mechanism behind AdS/CFT duality. Steady progress is also being made on better understanding the space of possible higher spin gravity theories and their physical content. This work includes classifying the possible field multiplets and their interactions, constructing exact solutions of the nonlinear field equations, and relating higher spin theories to string theory. A full understanding of these theories will involve coming to grips with the novel symmetry principles that enlarge those of General Relativity and Yang-Mills theory, and one can hope that this will provide

  11. Quark-gluon vertex dressing and meson masses beyond ladder-rainbow truncation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrayr Matevosyan; Anthony Thomas; Peter Tandy


    We include a generalized infinite class of quark-gluon vertex dressing diagrams in a study of how dynamics beyond the ladder-rainbow truncation influences the Bethe-Salpeter description of light quark pseudoscalar and vector mesons. The diagrammatic specification of the vertex is mapped into a corresponding specification of the Bethe-Salpeter kernel, which preserves chiral symmetry. This study adopts the algebraic format afforded by the simple interaction kernel used in previous work on this topic. The new feature of the present work is that in every diagram summed for the vertex and the corresponding Bethe-Salpeter kernel, each quark-gluon vertex is required to be the self-consistent vertex solution. We also adopt from previous work the effective accounting for the role of the explicitly non-Abelian three gluon coupling in a global manner through one parameter determined from recent lattice-QCD data for the vertex. With the more consistent vertex used here, the error in ladder-rainbow truncation for vector mesons is never more than 10% as the current quark mass is varied from the u/d region to the b region.

  12. Energy-efficient hydrogen separation by AB-type ladder-polymer molecular sieves

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bader


    The synthesis, microstructures, and exceptional gas transport properties of two new soluble ladder polymers, polymers of intrinsic microporosity (TPIM-1 and TPIM-2) containing triptycene moieties substituted with branched isopropyl and linear propyl chains at the 9,10-bridgeheads were reported. The precursor A-B monomers were modified with an o -difluoride functionality for enhanced activation for nucleophilic aromatic substitution. In a Schlenk tube, a mixture of the A-B monomer, 18-crown-6, anhydrous DMF and anhydrous potassium carbonate was stirred at 155 °C under nitrogen atmosphere for 20 min followed by the addition of toluene. The reaction was continued for another 45 min and more toluene was added. After another 45 min the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and poured into methanol. Slow evaporation of filtered, dilute 3-5 wt% chloroform solutions from a leveled glass plate yielded isotropic polymer films. Dry membranes were soaked in methanol for 24 h, air-dried, and then heated at 120°C for 24 h under high vacuum to remove any traces of residual solvent. TPIM-1 exhibits simultaneous boosts in permeability and selectivity, which highlights the significant potential of an isopropyl-substituted triptycene moiety as a contortion center for ladder PIMs.

  13. Optimization of Vibration Reduction Ability of Ladder Tracks by FEM Coupled with ACO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jin


    Full Text Available Ladder track, which has drawn increased attention in scientific communities, is an effective method for reducing vibrations from underground railways. In order to optimize the vibration reduction ability of ladder track, a new method, that is, the finite element method (FEM coupled with ant colony optimization (ACO, has been proposed in this paper. We describe how to build the FEM model verified by the vibration tests in the Track Vibration Abatement and Control Laboratory and how to couple the FEM with ACO. The density and elasticity modulus of the sleeper pad are optimized using this method. After optimization, the vibration acceleration level of the supporting platform in the 1–200 Hz range was reduced from 102.8 dB to 94.4 dB. The optimized density of the sleeper pad is 620 kg/m3, and the optimized elasticity modulus of the sleeper pad is 6.25 × 106 N/m2.

  14. Control of Porosity in Ladder Polymers by Solvent-induced Aggregation (United States)

    Brady, Michael; Gamo, Eri; Wang, Cheng; Xia, Yan

    Porous polymers hold promise as materials for gas absorption, membranes, and organic electronics. In all of these applications, attaining in-plane ordering of backbones and thus porous free volume impacts the ability to adsorb gas, selectively filter molecules, and conduct charges. In this work, hard and soft x-ray scattering and soft x-ray spectroscopy are of focus to study the pore structure, induced by the solution-driven aggregation of ladder polymer thin films made of LP-1 and LP-2. Using GISAXS and AFM it is shown that thermal annealing drives the growth of crystallites in thin films. Due to the completely sp2nature of the ladder polymer backbones, it is expected that backbones are extremely stiff and thus preventing them from packing once left in a metastable state following casting. Therefore, the combination of GIWAXS and GISAXS will be shown to be critical in correctly understanding how pores develop in this 700 m2/g sorbent (N2). Finally, application in CO2/N2 separation membranes towards carbon sequestration will be presented that show gas selectivity is achieved through heteroatom incorporation and polymer blending. In this talk, focus will be placed on state-of-the-art x-ray scattering and spectroscopy, highlighting the importance of chemically sensitive structural information enabled by the combination of spectroscopy and scattering at play with the use of resonant soft x-rays.

  15. The effect of pitched and vertical ladder ergometer climbing on cardiorespiratory and psychophysical variables. (United States)

    Barron, P J; Burgess, K; Cooper, K; Stewart, A D


    This study aimed to assess whether modifying the pitch of a 75° ladder ergometer to vertical had a cardiorespiratory or psychophysical effect on climbing. Nine male participants climbed a ladder ergometer at 75° and subsequently at 90°, adjusted for an equivalent vertical climb rate, completing three climbing bouts at different vertical speeds. One participant dropped out being unable to complete the climb under the 90° condition. Each was monitored for heart rate (HR), V˙O2 and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Results showed vertical climbing induced higher V˙O2 (mean increase 17.3%), higher HR (mean increase 15.8%), and higher RPE at all speeds and that moving from 75°to vertical exacerbates the effect of speed on the cardiorespiratory response to climbing. This may be explained by increased force production required to maintain balance in a vertical climbing position when the body's centre of mass is not above the feet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stark-induced adiabatic Raman ladder for preparing highly vibrationally excited quantum states of molecular hydrogen (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nandini; Perreault, William E.; Zare, Richard N.


    We present a multi-color ladder excitation scheme that exploits Stark-induced adiabatic Raman passage to selectively populate a highly excited vibrational level of a molecule. We suggest that this multi-color coherent ladder excitation provides a practical way of accessing levels near the vibrational dissociation limit as well as the dissociative continuum, which would allow the generation of an entangled pair of fragments with near-zero relative kinetic energy. Specifically, we consider four- and six-photon coherent excitation of molecular hydrogen to high vibrational levels via intermediate vibrational levels, which are pairwise coupled by two-photon resonant interaction. Using a sequence of three partially overlapping, single-mode, nanosecond laser pulses we show that the sixth vibrational level of H2, which is too weakly coupled to be easily accessed by direct two-photon Raman excitation from the ground vibrational level, can be efficiently populated without leaving any population stranded in the intermediate level. Furthermore, we show that the fourteenth vibrational level of H2, which is the highest vibrational level in the ground electronic state with a binding energy of 22 meV, can be efficiently and selectively populated using a sequence of four pulses. The present technique offers the unique possibility of preparing entangled quantum states of H atoms without resorting to an ultracold system.

  17. Spin transfer torque with spin diffusion in magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien


    Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of spin diffusion is considered theoretically. Combining ballistic tunneling across the barrier and diffusive transport in the electrodes, we solve the spin dynamics equation in the metallic layers. We show that spin diffusion mixes the transverse spin current components and dramatically modifies the bias dependence of the effective spin transfer torque. This leads to a significant linear bias dependence of the out-of-plane torque, as well as a nonconventional thickness dependence of both spin torque components.

  18. Spin transverse force on spin current in an electric field. (United States)

    Shen, Shun-Qing


    As a relativistic quantum mechanical effect, it is shown that the electron field exerts a transverse force on an electron spin 1/2 only if the electron is moving. The spin force, analogue to the Lorentz for an electron charge in a magnetic field, is perpendicular to the electric field and the spin current whose spin polarization is projected along the electric field. This spin-dependent force can be used to understand the Zitterbewegung of the electron wave packet with spin-orbit coupling and is relevant to the generation of the charge Hall effect driven by the spin current in semiconductors.

  19. Spins in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy


    Originally delivered as a series of lectures, this volume systematically traces the evolution of the ""spin"" concept from its role in quantum mechanics to its assimilation into the field of chemistry. Author Roy McWeeny presents an in-depth illustration of the deductive methods of quantum theory and their application to spins in chemistry, following the path from the earliest concepts to the sophisticated physical methods employed in the investigation of molecular structure and properties. Starting with the origin and development of the spin concept, the text advances to an examination of sp

  20. Quantum Spin Hall Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.


    The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2 e/4{pi}. The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.

  1. Quantum spin liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mila, Frederic [Institut de Physique Theorique, Universite de Lausanne, BSP, Lausanne (Switzerland)


    This paper presents an overview of the properties of magnetic insulators, with emphasis on quantum effects. In particular, the consequences of strong quantum fluctuations on the low-energy properties of a number of systems are reviewed: the occurrence of a spin gap in spin-1 chains and other low-dimensional magnets; the presence of low-lying singlet excitations in several frustrated magnets; the interplay of orbital and spin fluctuations in orbitally degenerate Mott insulators. This review is intended as a pedagogical introduction to the field, and the formalism has been kept at a minimal level. (author)

  2. Frustrated spin systems

    CERN Document Server


    This book covers all principal aspects of currently investigated frustrated systems, from exactly solved frustrated models to real experimental frustrated systems, going through renormalization group treatment, Monte Carlo investigation of frustrated classical Ising and vector spin models, low-dimensional systems, spin ice and quantum spin glass. The reader can - within a single book - obtain a global view of the current research development in the field of frustrated systems.This new edition is updated with recent theoretical, numerical and experimental developments in the field of frustrated

  3. Method for estimating spin-spin interactions from magnetization curves (United States)

    Tamura, Ryo; Hukushima, Koji


    We develop a method to estimate the spin-spin interactions in the Hamiltonian from the observed magnetization curve by machine learning based on Bayesian inference. In our method, plausible spin-spin interactions are determined by maximizing the posterior distribution, which is the conditional probability of the spin-spin interactions in the Hamiltonian for a given magnetization curve with observation noise. The conditional probability is obtained with the Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations combined with an exchange Monte Carlo method. The efficiency of our method is tested using synthetic magnetization curve data, and the results show that spin-spin interactions are estimated with a high accuracy. In particular, the relevant terms of the spin-spin interactions are successfully selected from the redundant interaction candidates by the l1 regularization in the prior distribution.

  4. Radiation reaction for spinning bodies in effective field theory. II. Spin-spin effects (United States)

    Maia, Natália T.; Galley, Chad R.; Leibovich, Adam K.; Porto, Rafael A.


    We compute the leading post-Newtonian (PN) contributions at quadratic order in the spins to the radiation-reaction acceleration and spin evolution for binary systems, entering at four-and-a-half PN order. Our calculation includes the backreaction from finite-size spin effects, which is presented for the first time. The computation is carried out, from first principles, using the effective field theory framework for spinning extended objects. At this order, nonconservative effects in the spin-spin sector are independent of the spin supplementary conditions. A nontrivial consistency check is performed by showing that the energy loss induced by the resulting radiation-reaction force is equivalent to the total emitted power in the far zone. We find that, in contrast to the spin-orbit contributions (reported in a companion paper), the radiation reaction affects the evolution of the spin vectors once spin-spin effects are incorporated.

  5. Estimating the spin diffusion length and the spin Hall angle from spin pumping induced inverse spin Hall voltages (United States)

    Roy, Kuntal


    There exists considerable confusion in estimating the spin diffusion length of materials with high spin-orbit coupling from spin pumping experiments. For designing functional devices, it is important to determine the spin diffusion length with sufficient accuracy from experimental results. An inaccurate estimation of spin diffusion length also affects the estimation of other parameters (e.g., spin mixing conductance, spin Hall angle) concomitantly. The spin diffusion length for platinum (Pt) has been reported in the literature in a wide range of 0.5-14 nm, and in particular it is a constant value independent of Pt's thickness. Here, the key reasonings behind such a wide range of reported values of spin diffusion length have been identified comprehensively. In particular, it is shown here that a thickness-dependent conductivity and spin diffusion length is necessary to simultaneously match the experimental results of effective spin mixing conductance and inverse spin Hall voltage due to spin pumping. Such a thickness-dependent spin diffusion length is tantamount to the Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism, which bodes well for transitional metals. This conclusion is not altered even when there is significant interfacial spin memory loss. Furthermore, the variations in the estimated parameters are also studied, which is important for technological applications.

  6. Vacuum spin squeezing (United States)

    Hu, Jiazhong; Chen, Wenlan; Vendeiro, Zachary; Urvoy, Alban; Braverman, Boris; Vuletić, Vladan


    We investigate the generation of entanglement (spin squeezing) in an optical-transition atomic clock through the coupling to an optical cavity in its vacuum state. We show that if each atom is prepared in a superposition of the ground state and a long-lived electronic excited state, and viewed as a spin-1/2 system, then the collective vacuum light shift entangles the atoms, resulting in a squeezed distribution of the ensemble collective spin, without any light applied. This scheme reveals that even an electromagnetic vacuum can constitute a useful resource for entanglement and quantum manipulation. By rotating the spin direction while coupling to the vacuum, the scheme can be extended to implement two-axis twisting resulting in stronger squeezing.

  7. Silicon takes a spin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.

    An efficient way to transport electron spins from a ferromagnet into silicon essentially makes silicon magnetic, and provides an exciting step towards integration of magnetism and mainstream semiconductor electronics.

  8. Compact photonic spin filters (United States)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Zhenxing; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Shu, Weixing; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun


    In this letter, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a compact photonic spin filter formed by integrating a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens (focal length of ±f ) into a conventional plano-concave lens (focal length of -f). By choosing the input port of the filter, photons with a desired spin state, such as the right-handed component or the left-handed one, propagate alone its original propagation direction, while the unwanted spin component is quickly diverged after passing through the filter. One application of the filter, sorting the spin-dependent components of vector vortex beams on higher-order Poincaré sphere, is also demonstrated. Our scheme provides a simple method to manipulate light, and thereby enables potential applications for photonic devices.

  9. Spin Physics at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Schill, C


    The COMPASS experiment is a fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS using muon and hadron beams for the investigation of the spin structure of the nucleon and hadron spectroscopy. The main objective of the muon physics program is the study of the spin of the nucleon in terms of its constituents, quarks and gluons. COMPASS has accumulated data during 6 years scattering polarized muons off a longitudinally or a transversely polarized deuteron (6LiD) or proton (NH3) target. Results for the gluon polarization are obtained from longitudinal double spin cross section asymmetries using two different channels, open charm production and high transverse momentum hadron pairs, both proceeding through the photon-gluon fusion process. Also, the longitudinal spin structure functions of the proton and the deuteron were measured in parallel as well as the helicity distributions for the three lightest quark flavors. With a transversely polarized target, results were obtained with proton and deuteron targets for the Collins an...

  10. Picosecond Spin Seebeck Effect. (United States)

    Kimling, Johannes; Choi, Gyung-Min; Brangham, Jack T; Matalla-Wagner, Tristan; Huebner, Torsten; Kuschel, Timo; Yang, Fengyuan; Cahill, David G


    We report time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in normal metal/Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} bilayers driven by an interfacial temperature difference between electrons and magnons. The measured time evolution of spin accumulation induced by laser excitation indicates transfer of angular momentum across normal metal/Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} interfaces on a picosecond time scale, too short for contributions from a bulk temperature gradient in an yttrium iron garnet. The product of spin-mixing conductance and the interfacial spin Seebeck coefficient determined is of the order of 10^{8}  A m^{-2} K^{-1}.

  11. Itinerant spin ice (United States)

    Udagawa, Masafumi


    Spin ice is a prototypical frustrated magnet defined on a pyrochlore lattice. The ground state of spin ice is described by a simple rule called ``ice rule'': out of four spins on a tetrahedron, two spins point inward, while the other two outward. This simple rule is not sufficient to determine the spin configuration uniquely, but it leaves macroscopic degeneracy in the ground state. Despite the macroscopic degeneracy, however, the ground state is not completely disordered, but it exhibits algebraic spatial correlation, which characterizes this state as ``Coulomb phase'' where various exotic properties, such as monopole excitations and unusual magnetic responses are observed. Given the peculiar spatial correlation, it is interesting to ask what happens if itinerant electrons coexist and interact with spin ice. Indeed, this setting is relevant to several metallic Ir pyrochlore oxides, such as Ln2Ir2O7 (Ln=Pr, Nd), where Ir 5d itinerant electrons interact with Ln 4f localized moments. In these compounds, anomalous transport phenomena have been reported, such as non-monotonic magnetic field dependence of Hall conductivity and low-temperature resistivity upturn. To address these issues, we adopt a spin-ice-type Ising Kondo lattice model on a pyrochlore lattice, and solve this model by applying the cluster dynamical mean-field theory and the perturbation expansion in terms of the spin-electron coupling. As a result, we found that (i) the resistivity shows a minimum at a characteristic temperature below which spin ice correlation sets in. Moreover, (ii) the Hall conductivity shows anisotropic and non-monotonic magnetic field dependence due to the scattering from the spatially extended spin scalar chirality incorporated in spin ice manifold. These results give unified understanding to the thermodynamic and transport properties of Ln2Ir2O7 (Ln=Pr, Nd), and give new insights into the role of geometrical frustration in itinerant systems. This work has been done in

  12. Higher Spins & Strings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The conjectured relation between higher spin theories on anti de-Sitter (AdS) spaces and weakly coupled conformal field theories is reviewed. I shall then outline the evidence in favour of a concrete duality of this kind, relating a specific higher spin theory on AdS3 to a family of 2d minimal model CFTs. Finally, I shall explain how this relation fits into the framework of the familiar stringy AdS/CFT correspondence.

  13. Quantum Spin Gyroscope (United States)


    Progress Report (ONR Award No. N00014-14-1-0804) Quantum Spin Gyroscope August 2014-July 2015 Report Type: Annual Report Primary Contact E-mail...Quantum Spin Gyroscope Grant/Contract Number: N00014-14-1-0804 Principal Investigator Name: Paola Cappellaro Program Manager: Richard Tommy Willis...Abstract Gyroscopes find wide application in everyday life, from navigation to rotation sensors in hand-held devices and automobiles. In addition, they can

  14. Massive spin-2 theories

    CERN Document Server

    Folkerts, Sarah; Wintergerst, Nico


    We give an introduction to massive spin-2 theories (including massive gravity) and the problem of their non-linear completion. We review the Boulware-Deser ghost problem and two ways to circumvent classic no-go theorems. In turn, massive spin-2 theories are not uniquely defined. In the case of truncated theories, we show that the Boulware-Deser ghost may only be avoided if the derivative structure of the theory is not tuned to be Einsteinian.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianti Iman Sari


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research were to describe: (1 the study result of arithmetic addition operation for fourth grade student with mentally retarded in SDLB before playing the Snake and Ladder activity (2 the study result of arithmetic addition operation for fourth grade student with mentally retarded in SDLB after playing the Snake and Ladder activity (3 the effect of Snake and Ladder playing toward the result study of arithmetic addition for fourth grade student with mentally retarded SDLB. This research used SSR (Single Subject Research with A-B-A design. Collecting the data was done by using assessment instrument, tests and observations. The result of this research showed that playing Snake and Ladder affected the study result of arithmetic addition operation for fourth-grade children with mentally retarded student in SDLB. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendeskripsikan (1 Hasil belajar penjumlahan siswa kelas 4 SDLB sebelum melakukan kegiatan bermain Ular Tangga (2 Hasil belajar penjumlahan siswa kelas 4 SDLB sesudah melakukan kegiatan bermain Ular Tangga (3 Pengaruh bermain Ular Tangga terhadap hasil belajar penjumlahan siswa kelas 4 SDLB. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan penelitian SSR (Single Subject Research dengan desain A-B-A. Pengumpulan data menggunakan instrumen assesmen, tes dan observasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bermain ular tangga berpengaruh terhadap hasil belajar penjumlahan siswa tunagrahita kelas 4 SDLB.

  16. A Study of Career Ladders and Manpower Development for Non-Management Personnel in the Food Service Industry. (United States)

    State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. School of Hotel Administration at Cornell Univ.

    Because of its failure to provide career ladders for non-management employees, the food service industry is facing increasingly severe manpower shortages and labor turnover. Unnecessary requirements bar entry workers from many jobs, and training opportunities leave much to be desired. This report identifies the problem areas and develops a model…

  17. Development of Curriculum Content for a Unique Career Ladder Multi-Entry/Multi-Exit Nursing Program. Final Report. (United States)

    Rosbach, Ellen M.

    A project was undertaken to develop the curriculum content for a unique career ladder multi-entry/multi-exit nursing program that would provide training for nurse aides, practical nurses, and registered nurses. The major objectives of the project were to conduct a review of the literature on curriculum materials presently in use, to develop 11…

  18. Aromatic Cross-Strand Ladders Control the Structure and Stability of [beta]-Rich Peptide Self-Assembly Mimics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biancalana, Matthew; Makabe, Koki; Koide, Akiko; Koide, Shohei (UC)


    Though {beta}-rich self-assemblies comprise a major structural class of polypeptides, a detailed understanding of the determinants of their structure and stability is lacking. In particular, the roles of repetitive stretches of side chains running the long axis of these {beta}-sheets, termed 'cross-strand ladders,' remain poorly characterized due to the inherently insoluble and heterogeneous nature of self-assemblies. To overcome these experimental challenges, we have established a complementary experimental system termed 'peptide self-assembly mimics' (PSAMs). The PSAMs capture a defined number of self-assembly-like peptide repeats within a soluble {beta}-rich protein, making structural and energetic studies possible. In this work, we investigated the role of cross-strand ladders containing aromatic residues, which are prominent in self-assembling peptides. A combination of solution data and high-resolution crystal structures revealed that a single cross-strand ladder consisting solely of Tyr significantly stabilized, rigidified, and flattened the PSAM {beta}-sheet. These characteristics would stabilize each {beta}-sheet layer of a self-assembly and direct sheet conformations compatible with lamination. Our results therefore provide a rationale for the abundance of aromatic amino acids in fibril-forming peptides and establish important roles of cross-strand Tyr ladders in the structure and stability of {beta}-rich peptide self-assemblies.

  19. Knowing One's Lot in Life versus Climbing the Social Ladder: The Formation of Redistributive Preferences in Urban China (United States)

    Smyth, Russell; Mishra, Vinod; Qian, Xiaolei


    This paper examines, how individual preferences for redistribution in general and redistribution to improve access to education, improve social protection for the poor, reduce income inequality and reduce unemployment depend on beliefs about what determines one's lot in life and self-assessed prospects for climbing the social ladder in urban…

  20. Spiro-bridged ladder-type poly(p-phenylene)s: towards structurally perfect light-emitting materials. (United States)

    Wu, Yonggang; Zhang, Jianyuan; Fei, Zhuping; Bo, Zhishan


    Structurally perfect spiro-bridged ladder-type poly(p-phenylene)s, which show blue fluorescence in the photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) emission spectra, are prepared by Suzuki-Miyaura polycondensation and Friedel-Crafts cyclization. The polymers are free of ketonic defects, exhibiting excellent thermal and color stability upon annealing in air at 110 degrees C for 24 h.

  1. Spin-Current and Spin-Splitting in Helicoidal Molecules Due to Spin-Orbit Coupling (United States)

    Caetano, R. A.


    The use of organic materials in spintronic devices has been seriously considered after recent experimental works have shown unexpected spin-dependent electrical properties. The basis for the confection of any spintronic device is ability of selecting the appropriated spin polarization. In this direction, DNA has been pointed out as a potential candidate for spin selection due to the spin-orbit coupling originating from the electric field generated by accumulated electrical charges along the helix. Here, we demonstrate that spin-orbit coupling is the minimum ingredient necessary to promote a spatial spin separation and the generation of spin-current. We show that the up and down spin components have different velocities that give rise to a spin-current. By using a simple situation where spin-orbit coupling is present, we provide qualitative justifications to our results that clearly point to helicoidal molecules as serious candidates to integrate spintronic devices.

  2. Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Ortiz Pauyac, Christian


    In the present thesis we introduce the reader to the field of spintronics and explore new phenomena, such as spin transfer torques, spin filtering, and three types of spin-orbit torques, Rashba, spin Hall, and spin swapping, which have emerged very recently and are promising candidates for a new generation of memory devices in computer technology. A general overview of these phenomena is presented in Chap. 1. In Chap. 2 we study spin transfer torques in tunnel junctions in the presence of spin filtering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic films, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall effect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic films, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives are summarized in Chap. 5.

  3. The transport dynamics of chloride and sodium in a ladder fen during a continuous wastewater polishing experiment (United States)

    McCarter, Colin P. R.; Price, Jonathan S.


    Ladder fen peatlands have excellent potential for wastewater polishing as they naturally contain both open water (pools) and subsurface (peat) treatment landforms; however, there is a poor understanding of solute transport in ladder fens with and without the increased hydrological load imposed by wastewater discharge. To better understand solute transport in ladder fens under wastewater polishing conditions a continuous solute (NaCl) tracer experiment (38 m3 day-1 of water, chloride - 47.2 mg L-1, and sodium - 25.3 mg L-1) was conducted during the summer of 2014 (day of year 192-243) in a small ladder fen in the James Bay Lowland. The transmissivity distribution and effective porosity (average 0.5) of the peat ribs were determined through repeated bail tests and the drainable porosity of 18 peat cores at -100 mb, respectively. Water samples were taken at least every 7 days to capture the solute (sodium and chloride) plumes. Both solute plumes never reached the site outflow (∼250 m downgradient) and displayed complex plume morphology, typically following the patterns of higher hydraulic conductivity within the upper 0.1 m of the saturated peat, rather than the microtopography. Based on the 50% breakthrough isotherms, sodium and chloride were transported at an average solute velocity of 1.9 and 1.1 m day-1, respectively (average linear groundwater velocity = 2.1 m day-1); thus, the solutes were retarded by a factor of 2.1 and 1.2 for sodium and chloride, respectively. Due to the inherent retardation of solutes into inactive pores and relatively high solute residence times, this study demonstrates the potential for wastewater polishing in ladder fens.

  4. Measurements of nuclear spin dynamics by spin-noise spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhov, I. I.; Poltavtsev, S. V.; Kozlov, G. G.; Zapasskii, V. S. [Spin Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 1 Ul' anovskaya, Peterhof, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Kavokin, K. V.; Glazov, M. M. [Spin Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 1 Ul' anovskaya, Peterhof, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 Polytechnicheskaya, St.-Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Vladimirova, M.; Scalbert, D.; Cronenberger, S. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221 CNRS/Université de Montpellier, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Kavokin, A. V. [Spin Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 1 Ul' anovskaya, Peterhof, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1NJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Lemaître, A.; Bloch, J. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, UPR CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France)


    We exploit the potential of the spin noise spectroscopy (SNS) for studies of nuclear spin dynamics in n-GaAs. The SNS experiments were performed on bulk n-type GaAs layers embedded into a high-finesse microcavity at negative detuning. In our experiments, nuclear spin polarisation initially prepared by optical pumping is monitored in real time via a shift of the peak position in the electron spin noise spectrum. We demonstrate that this shift is a direct measure of the Overhauser field acting on the electron spin. The dynamics of nuclear spin is shown to be strongly dependent on the electron concentration.

  5. Open Mess Management Career Ladder AFS 742X0 and CEM Code 74200. (United States)


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  6. Trichromatic π-Pulse for Ultrafast Total Inversion of a Four-Level Ladder System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Serrat


    Full Text Available We present a numerical solution for complete population inversion in a four-level ladder system obtained by using a full π-pulse illumination scheme with resonant ultrashort phase-locked Gaussian laser pulses. We find that a set of pulse areas such as √3π , √2π , and √3π completely inverts the four-level system considering identical effective dipole coupling coefficients. The solution is consistent provided the involved electric fields are not too strong and it is amply accurate also in the case of diverse transition dipole moments. We study the effect of detuning and chirp of the laser pulses on the complete population inversion using the level structure of atomic sodium interacting with ps and fs pulses as an example. Our result opens the door for multiple applications such as efficient ultrashort pulse lasing in the UV or the engineering of quantum states for quantum computing.

  7. Vlasov Simulations of Ladder Climbing and Autoresonant Acceleration of Langmuir Waves (United States)

    Hara, Kentaro; Barth, Ido; Kaminski, Erez; Dodin, Ilya; Fisch, Nathaniel


    The energy of plasma waves can be moved up and down the spectrum using chirped modulations of plasma parameters, which can be driven by external fields. Depending on the discreteness of the wave spectrum, this phenomenon is called ladder climbing (LC) or autroresonant acceleration (AR) of plasmons, and was first proposed by Barth et al. based on a linear fluid model. Here, we report a demonstration of LC/AR from first principles using fully nonlinear Vlasov simulations of collisionless bounded plasma. We show that, in agreement to the basic theory, plasmons survive substantial transformations of the spectrum and are destroyed only when their wave numbers become large enough to trigger Landau damping. The work was supported by the NNSA SSAA Program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-NA0002948 and the DTRA Grant No. HDTRA1-11-1-0037.

  8. The Wheel and the Ladder: Freudian and Loewaldian Accounts of Individuation. (United States)

    Recht, Linus


    In this paper, I use comparisons of Freud, Loewald, and Plato to explore what it means to individuate and to desire in a world of frustration, pain, and loss. The metaphors of the "wheel" versus the "ladder" present basic images for Freud's tragic conception of a person's emerging into a world of pain, transience and loss, in contrast to Loewald's sense of individuation as an increasing attainment of individual ego and world enrichment, constructed from metabolized grieved objects. I then argue that Plato's Symposium offers comparable visions of the possibilities of love, and that the juxtaposition of Freud and Loewald can be connected to ancient philosophical considerations. The paper begins by examining the implications of the two thinkers' treatments of the "oceanic state" (primary narcissism), then compares these to the speeches of Aristophanes and Socrates/Diotima. The conclusion touches on the relevance of the juxtaposition to the Platonic distinction between philosophy and poetry.

  9. Phase separation induced by ladder-like polymer-polymer complexation. (United States)

    Nakamura, Issei; Shi, An-Chang


    Polymer-polymer complexation in solvent is studied using an extension of the self-consistent field theory. The model polymers are capable of forming ladder-like duplex structures. The duplex formation occurs with an abrupt change of entropy, resulting in a first-order transition. Moreover, the complexation can be stabilized by solvent-polymer interactions, instead of the usual specific binding interactions. Various types of unconventional phase diagrams are predicted. For example, phase separation with decreasing χ-parameter between duplex polymer and solvent can be induced, leading to a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior. Multiphase coexistence points at which two, three, or four phases coexist are also obtained. Under certain conditions a homogeneous phase becomes unstable when the polymer chain length is decreased, in contrast to the standard Flory-Huggins theory.

  10. Dimensional renormalization in {phi}{sup 3} theory: Ladders and rainbows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbourgo, R.; Elliott, D. [University of Tasmania, GPO Box 252-21, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); McAnally, D.S. [University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4067 (Australia)


    The sum of all the ladder and rainbow diagrams in {phi}{sup 3} theory near six dimensions leads to self-consistent higher order differential equations in coordinate space which are not particularly simple for arbitrary dimension D. We have now succeeded in solving these equations, expressing the results in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions; the expansion and representation of these functions can then be used to prove the absence of renormalization factors which are transcendental for this theory and this topology to all orders in perturbation theory. The correct anomalous scaling dimensions of the Green functions are also obtained in the six-dimensional limit. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Optical bistability and multistability in an open ladder-type atomic system (United States)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Hamedi, Hamid Reza; Rahimpour Soleimani, Hamid


    A novel scheme is proposed for controlling the optical bistability and multistability in an atomic system. In an open ladder-type three-level atomic system, it is shown that, by adjusting the ratio between atomic injections and exit rates from the cavity, the intensity threshold of optical bistability can be controlled. The effect of incoherent pumping field and spontaneously generated coherence (SGC) on optical bistability for different values of exit rates is also discussed. It is found that SGC makes the medium phase dependent, so the optical bistability and multistability threshold can be controlled via relative phase between applied fields. Moreover, it is shown that the optical bistability can be switched to optical multistability, which is favorable for the next generation of all-optical systems and quantum networks.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tatomir


    Full Text Available In this paper we assess the evolution of Romania’s economic convergence with the European Union (EU and Euro area, during the period 2000-2010. In order to determine the number of years required to reach the EU and Euro area average, we employ an economic convergence index, made up of real and structural convergence indexes. The analysis shows that Romania has been climbing the ladder in the process of catching-up with the EU and the Euro area until 2008 when, because of the international crisis, the economic convergence index started decreasing. We report that Romania will reach the EU average in April 2056 and the Euro area average in September 2062.As revealed by the analysis, it will take decadesto attain the European levels of economic convergence, this being the most important challenge for Romania on the long term.

  13. Three-loop master integrals for ladder-box diagrams with one massive leg (United States)

    Di Vita, Stefano; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo; Schubert, Ulrich; Yundin, Valery


    The three-loop master integrals for ladder-box diagrams with one massive leg are computed from an eighty-five by eighty-five system of differential equations, solved by means of Magnus exponential. The results of the considered box-type integrals, as well as of the tower of vertex- and bubble-type master integrals associated to subtopologies, are given as a Taylor series expansion in the dimensional regulator parameter ɛ = (4 - d)/2. The coefficients of the series are expressed in terms of uniform weight combinations of multiple polylogarithms and transcendental constants up to weight six. The considered integrals enter the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order virtual corrections to scattering processes like the three-jet production mediated by vector boson decay, V * → jjj, as well as the Higgs plus one-jet production in gluon fusion, pp → Hj.

  14. A renormalization approach to describe charge transport in quasiperiodic dangling backbone ladder (DBL)-DNA molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, R.G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Fulco, U.L. [Departamento de Biofisica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Albuquerque, E.L., E-mail: [Departamento de Biofisica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Caetano, E.W.S. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Ceara, 60040-531 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Freire, V.N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)


    Highlights: → One-step renormalization approach to describe the DBL-DNA molecule. → Electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian model. → A quasiperiodic sequence to mimic the DNA nucleotides arrangement. → Electronic transmission spectra. → I-V characteristics. -- Abstract: We study the charge transport properties of a dangling backbone ladder (DBL)-DNA molecule focusing on a quasiperiodic arrangement of its constituent nucleotides forming a Rudin-Shapiro (RS) and Fibonacci (FB) Poly (CG) sequences, as well as a natural DNA sequence (Ch22) for the sake of comparison. Making use of a one-step renormalization process, the DBL-DNA molecule is modeled in terms of a one-dimensional tight-binding Hamiltonian to investigate its transmissivity and current-voltage (I-V) profiles. Beyond the semiconductor I-V characteristics, a striking similarity between the electronic transport properties of the RS quasiperiodic structure and the natural DNA sequence was found.

  15. Chemodiversity of Ladder-Frame Prymnesin Polyethers in Prymnesium parvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Silas Anselm; Meier, Sebastian; Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted


    Blooms of the microalga Prymnesium parvum cause devastating fish kills worldwide, which are suspected to be caused by the supersized ladder-frame polyether toxins prymnesin-1 and -2. These toxins have, however, only been detected from P. parvum in rare cases since they were originally described two...... compared to the structure of the original prymnesins. Comparison of the bioactivity of prymnesin-2 with prymnesin-B1 in an RTgill-W1 cell line assay identified both compounds as toxic in the low nanomolar range. Chemical investigations by liquid chromatography highresolution mass spectrometry (LC...... be tentatively detected by LC-MS/HRMS, including a likely C-type prymnesin in five strains. Altogether, our work indicates that evolution of prymnesins has yielded a diverse family of fish-killing toxins that occurs around the globe and has significant ecological and economic impact....

  16. Surprises from the resummation of ladders in the ABJ(M) cusp anomalous dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonini, Marisa; Griguolo, Luca; Preti, Michelangelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Parma andINFN - Gruppo Collegato di Parma,Viale G.P. Usberti 7/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Seminara, Domenico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenze andINFN - Sezione di Firenze,via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)


    We study the cusp anomalous dimension in N=6 ABJ(M) theory, identifying a scaling limit in which the ladder diagrams dominate. The resummation is encoded into a Bethe-Salpeter equation that is mapped to a Schroedinger problem, exactly solvable due to the surprising supersymmetry of the effective Hamiltonian. In the ABJ case the solution implies the diagonalization of the U(N) and U(M) building blocks, suggesting the existence of two independent cusp anomalous dimensions and an unexpected exponentiation structure for the related Wilson loops. While consistent with previous perturbative analysis, the strong coupling limit of our result does not agree with the string theory computation, emphasizing a difference with the analogous resummation in the N=4 case.

  17. The Design and Redesign of a Clinical Ladder Program: Thinking Big and Overcoming Challenges. (United States)

    Warman, Geri-Anne; Williams, Faye; Herrero, Ashlea; Fazeli, Pariya; White-Williams, Connie

    Clinical Ladder Programs or Clinical Advancement Programs (CAPs) are an essential component of staff nurse professional development, satisfaction, and retention. There is a need for more evidence regarding developing CAPs. CAP initially launched in 2004. Nurses accomplished tasks in four main areas: clinical, education, leadership, and research, which reflected and incorporated the 14 Forces of Magnetism. In February 2012, the newly revised program was launched and renamed Professional Nursing Development Program. The new program was based on the 5 Magnet® model components, the Synergy Professional Practice Model, and a point system which enabled nurses to utilize activities in many areas, thereby allowing them to capitalize on their strengths. The purpose of this article is to discuss the development, revision, implementation, and lessons learned in creating and revising CAP.

  18. On the cusp anomalous dimension in the ladder limit of N=4 SYM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Fachechi, Alberto; Macorini, Guido [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)


    We analyze the cusp anomalous dimension in the (leading) ladder limit of N=4 SYM and present new results for its higher-order perturbative expansion. We study two different limits with respect to the cusp angle ϕ. The first is the light-like regime where x=e{sup i} {sup ϕ}→0. This limit is characterised by a non-trivial expansion of the cusp anomaly as a sum of powers of log x, where the maximum exponent increases with the loop order. The coefficients of this expansion have remarkable transcendentality features and can be expressed by products of single zeta values. We show that the whole logarithmic expansion is fully captured by a solvable Woods-Saxon like one-dimensional potential. From the exact solution, we extract generating functions for the cusp anomaly as well as for the various specific transcendental structures appearing therein. The second limit that we discuss is the regime of small cusp angle. In this somewhat simpler case, we show how to organise the quantum mechanical perturbation theory in a novel efficient way by means of a suitable all-order Ansatz for the ground state of the associated Schrödinger problem. Our perturbative setup allows to systematically derive higher-order perturbative corrections in powers of the cusp angle as explicit non-perturbative functions of the effective coupling. This series approximation is compared with the numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation to show that we can achieve very good accuracy over the whole range of coupling and cusp angle. Our results have been obtained by relatively simple techniques. Nevertheless, they provide several non-trivial tests useful to check the application of Quantum Spectral Curve methods to the ladder approximation at non zero ϕ, in the two limits we studied.

  19. Cocaine is low on the value ladder of rats: possible evidence for resilience to addiction. (United States)

    Cantin, Lauriane; Lenoir, Magalie; Augier, Eric; Vanhille, Nathalie; Dubreucq, Sarah; Serre, Fuschia; Vouillac, Caroline; Ahmed, Serge H


    Assessing the relative value of cocaine and how it changes with chronic drug use represents a long-standing goal in addiction research. Surprisingly, recent experiments in rats--by far the most frequently used animal model in this field--suggest that the value of cocaine is lower than previously thought. Here we report a series of choice experiments that better define the relative position of cocaine on the value ladder of rats (i.e., preference rank-ordering of different rewards). Rats were allowed to choose either taking cocaine or drinking water sweetened with saccharin--a nondrug alternative that is not biologically essential. By systematically varying the cost and concentration of sweet water, we found that cocaine is low on the value ladder of the large majority of rats, near the lowest concentrations of sweet water. In addition, a retrospective analysis of all experiments over the past 5 years revealed that no matter how heavy was past cocaine use most rats readily give up cocaine use in favor of the nondrug alternative. Only a minority, fewer than 15% at the heaviest level of past cocaine use, continued to take cocaine, even when hungry and offered a natural sugar that could relieve their need of calories. This pattern of results (cocaine abstinence in most rats; cocaine preference in few rats) maps well onto the epidemiology of human cocaine addiction and suggests that only a minority of rats would be vulnerable to cocaine addiction while the large majority would be resilient despite extensive drug use. Resilience to drug addiction has long been suspected in humans but could not be firmly established, mostly because it is difficult to control retrospectively for differences in drug self-exposure and/or availability in human drug users. This conclusion has important implications for preclinical research on the neurobiology of cocaine addiction and for future medication development.

  20. Cocaine is low on the value ladder of rats: possible evidence for resilience to addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauriane Cantin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assessing the relative value of cocaine and how it changes with chronic drug use represents a long-standing goal in addiction research. Surprisingly, recent experiments in rats--by far the most frequently used animal model in this field--suggest that the value of cocaine is lower than previously thought. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report a series of choice experiments that better define the relative position of cocaine on the value ladder of rats (i.e., preference rank-ordering of different rewards. Rats were allowed to choose either taking cocaine or drinking water sweetened with saccharin--a nondrug alternative that is not biologically essential. By systematically varying the cost and concentration of sweet water, we found that cocaine is low on the value ladder of the large majority of rats, near the lowest concentrations of sweet water. In addition, a retrospective analysis of all experiments over the past 5 years revealed that no matter how heavy was past cocaine use most rats readily give up cocaine use in favor of the nondrug alternative. Only a minority, fewer than 15% at the heaviest level of past cocaine use, continued to take cocaine, even when hungry and offered a natural sugar that could relieve their need of calories. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This pattern of results (cocaine abstinence in most rats; cocaine preference in few rats maps well onto the epidemiology of human cocaine addiction and suggests that only a minority of rats would be vulnerable to cocaine addiction while the large majority would be resilient despite extensive drug use. Resilience to drug addiction has long been suspected in humans but could not be firmly established, mostly because it is difficult to control retrospectively for differences in drug self-exposure and/or availability in human drug users. This conclusion has important implications for preclinical research on the neurobiology of cocaine addiction and for future medication

  1. Cocaine Is Low on the Value Ladder of Rats: Possible Evidence for Resilience to Addiction (United States)

    Dubreucq, Sarah; Serre, Fuschia; Vouillac, Caroline; Ahmed, Serge H.


    Background Assessing the relative value of cocaine and how it changes with chronic drug use represents a long-standing goal in addiction research. Surprisingly, recent experiments in rats – by far the most frequently used animal model in this field – suggest that the value of cocaine is lower than previously thought. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a series of choice experiments that better define the relative position of cocaine on the value ladder of rats (i.e., preference rank-ordering of different rewards). Rats were allowed to choose either taking cocaine or drinking water sweetened with saccharin – a nondrug alternative that is not biologically essential. By systematically varying the cost and concentration of sweet water, we found that cocaine is low on the value ladder of the large majority of rats, near the lowest concentrations of sweet water. In addition, a retrospective analysis of all experiments over the past 5 years revealed that no matter how heavy was past cocaine use most rats readily give up cocaine use in favor of the nondrug alternative. Only a minority, fewer than 15% at the heaviest level of past cocaine use, continued to take cocaine, even when hungry and offered a natural sugar that could relieve their need of calories. Conclusions/Significance This pattern of results (cocaine abstinence in most rats; cocaine preference in few rats) maps well onto the epidemiology of human cocaine addiction and suggests that only a minority of rats would be vulnerable to cocaine addiction while the large majority would be resilient despite extensive drug use. Resilience to drug addiction has long been suspected in humans but could not be firmly established, mostly because it is difficult to control retrospectively for differences in drug self-exposure and/or availability in human drug users. This conclusion has important implications for preclinical research on the neurobiology of cocaine addiction and for future medication development

  2. Giant Spin Accumulation in Silicon Nonlocal Spin-Transport Devices (United States)

    Spiesser, A.; Saito, H.; Fujita, Y.; Yamada, S.; Hamaya, K.; Yuasa, S.; Jansen, R.


    Although the electrical injection, transport, and detection of spins in silicon have been achieved, the induced spin accumulation is much smaller than expected and desired, limiting the potential impact of Si-based spintronic devices. Here, using nonlocal spin-transport devices with an n -type Si channel and Fe /MgO magnetic tunnel contacts, we demonstrate that it is possible to create a giant spin accumulation in Si, with the spin splitting reaching 13 meV at 10 K and 3.5 meV at room temperature. The nonlocal spin signals are in good agreement with a numerical evaluation of spin injection and diffusion that explicitly takes the size of the injector contact into account. The giant spin accumulation originates from the large tunnel spin polarization of the Fe /MgO contacts (53% at 10 K and 18% at 300 K) and from the spin-density enhancement that is achieved by using a spin injector with a size comparable to the spin-diffusion length of the Si. The ability to induce a giant spin accumulation enables the development of Si spintronic devices with a large magnetic response.

  3. Spin Structures in Magnetic Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Brok, Erik; Frandsen, Cathrine


    Spin structures in nanoparticles of ferrimagnetic materials may deviate locally in a nontrivial way from ideal collinear spin structures. For instance, magnetic frustration due to the reduced numbers of magnetic neighbors at the particle surface or around defects in the interior can lead to spin...... canting and hence a reduced magnetization. Moreover, relaxation between almost degenerate canted spin states can lead to anomalous temperature dependences of the magnetization at low temperatures. In ensembles of nanoparticles, interparticle exchange interactions can also result in spin reorientation....... Here, we give a short review of anomalous spin structures in nanoparticles....

  4. Spinning Them Off: Entrepreneuring practices in Corporate Spin-Offs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hydle, Katja Maria; Meland, Kjersti Vikse; Haus-Reve, Silje


    .... We uncover the enacted aspects of knowledge, called knowing, through theories from seven cases of incumbent-backed spin-offs and find that the management of the parent firms are highly involved in the spin-offs...

  5. Quantum spin transistor with a Heisenberg spin chain (United States)

    Marchukov, O. V.; Volosniev, A. G.; Valiente, M.; Petrosyan, D.; Zinner, N. T.


    Spin chains are paradigmatic systems for the studies of quantum phases and phase transitions, and for quantum information applications, including quantum computation and short-distance quantum communication. Here we propose and analyse a scheme for conditional state transfer in a Heisenberg XXZ spin chain which realizes a quantum spin transistor. In our scheme, the absence or presence of a control spin excitation in the central gate part of the spin chain results in either perfect transfer of an arbitrary state of a target spin between the weakly coupled input and output ports, or its complete blockade at the input port. We also discuss a possible proof-of-concept realization of the corresponding spin chain with a one-dimensional ensemble of cold atoms with strong contact interactions. Our scheme is generally applicable to various implementations of tunable spin chains, and it paves the way for the realization of integrated quantum logic elements. PMID:27721438

  6. Mechanisms of Spin-Dependent Heat Generation in Spin Valves (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xue; Zhu, Yao-Hui; He, Pei-Song; Li, Bao-He


    The extra heat generation in spin transport is usually interpreted in terms of the spin relaxation. By reformulating the heat generation rate, we found alternative current-force pairs without cross effects, which enable us to interpret the product of each pair as a distinct mechanism of heat generation. The results show that the spin-dependent part of the heat generation includes two terms. One of them is proportional to the square of the spin accumulation and arises from the spin relaxation. However, the other is proportional to the square of the spin-accumulation gradient and should be attributed to another mechanism, the spin diffusion. We illustrated the characteristics of the two mechanisms in a typical spin valve with a finite nonmagnetic spacer layer.

  7. Demonstration of the spin solar cell and spin photodiode effect (United States)

    Endres, B.; Ciorga, M.; Schmid, M.; Utz, M.; Bougeard, D.; Weiss, D.; Bayreuther, G.; Back, C.H.


    Spin injection and extraction are at the core of semiconductor spintronics. Electrical injection is one method of choice for the creation of a sizeable spin polarization in a semiconductor, requiring especially tailored tunnel or Schottky barriers. Alternatively, optical orientation can be used to generate spins in semiconductors with significant spin-orbit interaction, if optical selection rules are obeyed, typically by using circularly polarized light at a well-defined wavelength. Here we introduce a novel concept for spin injection/extraction that combines the principle of a solar cell with the creation of spin accumulation. We demonstrate that efficient optical spin injection can be achieved with unpolarized light by illuminating a p-n junction where the p-type region consists of a ferromagnet. The discovered mechanism opens the window for the optical generation of a sizeable spin accumulation also in semiconductors without direct band gap such as Si or Ge. PMID:23820766

  8. Chiral higher spin gravity (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash


    We construct a candidate for the most general chiral higher spin theory with AdS3 boundary conditions. In the Chern-Simons language, on the left it has the Drinfeld-Sokolov reduced form, but on the right all charges and chemical potentials are turned on. Altogether (for the spin-3 case) these are 19 functions. Despite this, we show that the resulting metric has the form of the "most general" AdS3 boundary conditions discussed by Grumiller and Riegler. The asymptotic symmetry algebra is a product of a W3 algebra on the left and an affine s l (3 )k current algebra on the right, as desired. The metric and higher spin fields depend on all the 19 functions. We compare our work with previous results in the literature.

  9. Spinning fluids reactor (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert


    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  10. SPIN-selling

    CERN Document Server

    Rackham, Neil


    True or false? In selling high-value products or services: "closing" increases your chance of success; it is essential to describe the benefits of your product or service to the customer; objection handling is an important skill; and open questions are more effective than closed questions. All false, says Neil Rackham. He and his team studied more than 35,000 sales calls made by 10,000 sales people in 23 countries over 12 years. Their findings revealed that many of the methods developed for selling low-value goods just don't work for major sales. Rackham went on to introduce his SPIN-selling method, where SPIN describes the whole selling process - Situation questions, Problem questions, Implication questions, Need-payoff questions. SPIN-selling provides you with a set of simple and practical techniques which have been tried in many of today's leading companies with dramatic improvements to their sales performance.

  11. Perspectives on spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Contucci, Pierluigi


    Presenting and developing the theory of spin glasses as a prototype for complex systems, this book is a rigorous and up-to-date introduction to their properties. The book combines a mathematical description with a physical insight of spin glass models. Topics covered include the physical origins of those models and their treatment with replica theory; mathematical properties like correlation inequalities and their use in the thermodynamic limit theory; main exact solutions of the mean field models and their probabilistic structures; and the theory of the structural properties of the spin glass phase such as stochastic stability and the overlap identities. Finally, a detailed account is given of the recent numerical simulation results and properties, including overlap equivalence, ultrametricity and decay of correlations. The book is ideal for mathematical physicists and probabilists working in disordered systems.

  12. Paramagnetic spin seebeck effect. (United States)

    Wu, Stephen M; Pearson, John E; Bhattacharya, Anand


    We report the observation of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in paramagnetic insulators. By using a microscale on-chip local heater, we generate a large thermal gradient confined to the chip surface without a large increase in the total sample temperature. Using this technique at low temperatures (Seebeck effect in the insulating paramagnets Gd3Ga5O12 (gadolinium gallium garnet) and DyScO3 (DSO), using either W or Pt as the spin detector layer. By taking advantage of the strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy of DSO, we eliminate contributions from the Nernst effect in W or Pt, which produces a phenomenologically similar signal.

  13. Spin injection and perpendicular spin transport in graphite nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, T.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Jansen, R.


    Organic- and carbon-based materials are attractive for spintronics because their small spin-orbit coupling and low hyperfine interaction is expected to give rise to large spin-relaxation times. However, the corresponding spin-relaxation length is not necessarily large when transport is via weakly

  14. Aspects of spin polarised transport

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, W D


    Spin electronics is the emerging discipline which seeks to exploit the spin of the electron in the pursuit of new areas of physics and of novel devices and applications. It can be broadly defined as the technology which differentially manipulates the two families of electronic carriers, the up and down spins. The technical basis for Spin Electronics resides in the transport properties of metallic ferromagnets which are central to the discipline and are used as sources and analysers of spin-polarised currents. We have developed a totally new model for domain wall resistance in the framework of the two spin channel model which invokes spin mixing which derives from the deviation of spin direction from the local magnetisation direction in passage through the wall

  15. Spin-flipping polarized electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Morozov


    Full Text Available We recently used a prototype rf dipole magnet to study the spin flipping of a 669 MeV horizontally polarized electron beam stored in the presence of a nearly full Siberian snake in the new MIT-Bates storage ring. We flipped the spin by ramping the rf dipole's frequency through an rf-induced depolarizing resonance. After optimizing the frequency ramp parameters, we used multiple spin flipping to measure a spin-flip efficiency of 94.5±2.5%. The spin-flip efficiency was apparently limited by the field strength in the air-core prototype rf dipole magnet. This unexpectedly high efficiency indicates that very efficient spin flipping of the ring's stored polarized electron beam should be possible using the much stronger ferrite spin flipper, which is now being built by the University of Michigan's Spin Physics Center.

  16. Selection of an experimental fish ladder located at the dam of the Itaipu Binacional, Paraná River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Rodriguez Fernandez


    Full Text Available The specific selection of a weir and orifice type experimental fish ladder in the dam of the Itaipu Reservoir (Paraná River was evaluated by samplings in the river downstream and at two points along the ladder (at heights of 10 m and 27 m during 28 months. Among the 65 species recorded in the river (immediate downstream of the dam, 27 were captured on the ladder. The species that showed highest density on the ladder, the majority migratory, were moderately, or only slightly, abundant downstream. Among the most abundant species downstream, only one, non-migratory, was recorded in the ladder. The structure presented a negative selection in relation to large migratory pimelodids that might be overcome by enlarging the scale of its design. The sampling demonstrated a moderate selection of species along the ladder and its hydraulic model proved satisfactory regarding the attraction and efficient ascent of the fishes.A seleção específica de uma escada de peixes do tipo seqüência de tanques, com passagem de fundo (tipo weir and orifice, na barragem da hidrelétrica de Itaipu (rio Paraná, foi avaliada através de amostragens no rio a jusante (amostragem trimestral em 1997 e em dois pontos ao longo da escada (10 e 27m de altura; nov/94 a jan/97 e nov/94 a fev/97, respectivamente. Das 65 espécies registradas no rio imediatamente a jusante da barragem, 27 foram capturadas na escada. As espécies com maior densidade na escada, em sua maioria migradoras, tiveram abundância moderada ou baixa a jusante. Entre as mais abundantes a jusante, apenas uma, não migradora, foi registrada na escada. A escada apresentou seleção negativa aos grandes pimelodídeos migradores que pode ser superada com a ampliação na escala do projeto. As amostragens evidenciaram baixa seletividade específica ao longo da escada, sendo seu modelo hidráulico satisfatório na atração e eficiente na ascensão de peixes.

  17. Bidirectional resonant tunneling spin pump


    Ting, David Z. -Y.; Cartoixà Soler, Xavier


    We propose a mechanism for achieving bidirectional spin pumping in conventional nonmagnetic semiconductorresonant tunnelingheterostructures under zero magnetic field. The device is designed specifically to take advantage of the special spin configuration described by the Rashba effect in asymmetric quantum wells. It induces the simultaneous flow of oppositely spin-polarized current components in opposite directions through spin-dependent resonant tunneling, and can thus generate significant l...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The theoretical aspects of two leading twist transversity single spin asymmetries, one arising from the Collins effect and one from the interference fragmentation functions, are reviewed. Issues of factorization, evolution and Sudakov factors for the relevant observables are discussed. These theoretical considerations pinpoint the most realistic scenarios towards measurements of transversity.

  19. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Dyakonov, Mikhail I


    This book describes beautiful optical and transport phenomena related to the electron and nuclear spins in semiconductors with emphasis on a clear presentation of the physics involved. Recent results on quantum wells and quantum dots are reviewed. The book is intended for students and researchers in the fields of semiconductor physics and nanoelectronics.

  20. Antiferromagnetic spin-orbitronics

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien


    Antiferromagnets have long remained an intriguing and exotic state of matter, whose application has been restricted to enabling interfacial exchange bias in metallic and tunneling spin-valves [1]. Their role in the expanding field of applied spintronics has been mostly passive and the in-depth investigation of their basic properties mostly considered from a fundamental perspective.

  1. High spin states in Cu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    up of high-spin configurations outlined above, a detailed and careful study of the medium spin, near yrast states in this nucleus is important for reliable assignments of spins and parities to states in superdeformed bands [1,6] in mass region 60. Also, the observation of direct proton decay from excited states in Cu nuclei [14] ...

  2. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson


    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  3. Spin diffusion in Fermi gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Georg


    We examine spin diffusion in a two-component homogeneous Fermi gas in the normal phase. Using a variational approach, analytical results are presented for the spin diffusion coefficient and the related spin relaxation time as a function of temperature and interaction strength. For low temperatures...

  4. Mechanical generation of spin current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoru eMatsuo


    Full Text Available We focus the recent results on spin-current generation from mechanical motion such as rigid rotation and elastic deformations. Spin transport theory in accelerating frames is constructed by using the low energy expansion of the generally covariant Dirac equation. Related issues on spin-manipulation by mechanical rotation are also discussed.

  5. Spin dynamics in general relativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saravanan, S.


    Since all astrophysical objects spin, it is important to study the dynamics of spinning objects in curved space-time. The dynamics of spinning particles are described with a covariant Hamiltonian formalism. In this formalism, the closed set of equations of motion are obtained from Poisson-Dirac

  6. Spinning Them Off: Entrepreneuring Practices in Corporate Spin-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Maria Hydle


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the practices between parent and child firms in corporate spinoffs. We uncover the enacted aspects of knowledge, called knowing, through theories from seven cases of incumbent-backed spin-offs and find that the management of the parent firms are highly involved in the spin-offs. The practices associated with spinning off are solving problems, involving multidisciplinary expertise and entrepreneuring management at the parent firm. We contribute to the spin-off literature by discussing the knowledge required for successfully spinning off child firms and to practice theory by empirically uncovering the practical understanding involved in the origin and perpetuation of an organization.

  7. Microwave generation by spin Hall nanooscillators with nanopatterned spin injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholud, A., E-mail:; Urazhdin, S. [Department of Physics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)


    We experimentally study spin Hall nano-oscillators based on Pt/ferromagnet bilayers with nanopatterned Pt spin injection layer. We demonstrate that both the spectral characteristics and the electrical current requirements can be simultaneously improved by reducing the spin injection area. Moreover, devices with nanopatterned Pt spin injector exhibit microwave generation over a wide temperature range that extends to room temperature. Studies of devices with additional Pt spacers under the device electrodes show that the oscillation characteristics are affected not only by the spin injection geometry but also by the effects of Pt/ferromagnet interface on the dynamical properties of the ferromagnet.

  8. Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics. (United States)

    Shitrit, Nir; Yulevich, Igor; Maguid, Elhanan; Ozeri, Dror; Veksler, Dekel; Kleiner, Vladimir; Hasman, Erez


    Spin optics provides a route to control light, whereby the photon helicity (spin angular momentum) degeneracy is removed due to a geometric gradient onto a metasurface. The alliance of spin optics and metamaterials offers the dispersion engineering of a structured matter in a polarization helicity-dependent manner. We show that polarization-controlled optical modes of metamaterials arise where the spatial inversion symmetry is violated. The emerged spin-split dispersion of spontaneous emission originates from the spin-orbit interaction of light, generating a selection rule based on symmetry restrictions in a spin-optical metamaterial. The inversion asymmetric metasurface is obtained via anisotropic optical antenna patterns. This type of metamaterial provides a route for spin-controlled nanophotonic applications based on the design of the metasurface symmetry properties.

  9. New phenazine-containing ladder polymer of intrinsic microporosity from a spirobisindane-based AB-type monomer

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bader


    A new solution-processable ladder polymer (PSBI-AB) of intrinsic microporosity with dibenzodioxane linkages and bis(phenazine) units was designed and synthesized by self-polymerization of an AB-type monomer containing both catechol and aromatic dichloride groups. Such polymerization is an effective way to synthesize high molecular weight polymers and has a significant advantage over AA-BB polycondensation due to the lack of the requirement for strict control over stoichiometric balance. This protocol can be used to prepare a variety of phenazine-containing ladder type PIMs from their aromatic tetramethoxy precursors. The obtained polymer had high average molecular mass, excellent thermal stability, a high BET surface area of 705 m(2) g(-1) and good solubility in some organic solvents such as chloroform, m-cresol and dichlorobenzene. Gas permeation measurements showed comparable results to the previously reported analogous PIM-7 for films made under the same formation protocol.

  10. RHIC spin flipper commissioning results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai M.; Roser, T.; Dawson, C.; Kewisch, J.; Makdisi, Y.; Oddo, P.; Pai, C.; Pile, P.


    The five AC dipole RHIC spin flipper design in the RHIC Blue ring was first tested during the RHIC 2012 polarized proton operation. The advantage of this design is to eliminate the vertical coherent betatron oscillations outside the spin flipper. The closure of each ac dipole vertical bump was measured with orbital response as well as spin. The effect of the rotating field on the spin motion by the spin flipper was also confirmed by measuring the suppressed resonance at Q{sub s} = 1 - Q{sub osc}.

  11. Knowledge translation: a Nurse Practitioner Clinical Ladder Advancement Program in a university-affiliated, integrated medical center. (United States)

    Paplanus, Lisa M; Bartley-Daniele, Patricia; Mitra, Kathryn S


    A Nurse Practitioner Clinical Ladder (NPCL) Advancement Program was designed to recognize and reward advanced nursing practice and promote nurse practitioner (NP) retention at New York University Hospitals Center (NYUHC). Search of published and gray literature was conducted. Electronic databases included CINAHL, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, and the Joanna Briggs Institute. The NYUHC NPCL Advancement Program incorporated its current Staff Nurse Clinical Ladder, previous NP promotional program literature, and NP role competencies to support the Advanced Practice Nursing Clinical Ladder Program. The NPCL is supportive of professional development, performance evaluation, clinical practice excellence, job satisfaction, and NP retention. Program outgrowths include a progressive model of NP clinical practice, a formal NP mentoring program, NP leadership, and research opportunities. Organizational commitment to a structured NPCL Advancement Program is critical for NP professional development, evolving role responsibilities, and job satisfaction. The NPCL Advancement Program provides requisite structures and processes supportive of clinical excellence. The development of the NPCL has highlighted the need for structured NP orientation and mentorship, knowledge translation, and leadership programs to meet the professional needs of NPs in diverse clinical settings. ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  12. Programación de Controladores Lógicos (PLC mediante Ladder y Lenguaje de Control Estructurado (SCL en MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyder David Páez-Logreira


    Full Text Available Existen diferentes lenguajes de programación de Controladores Lógicos Programables (PLC, el más común de ellos es el lenguaje de programación gráfico para autómatas programables llamado LADDER. Sin embargo, el lenguaje LADDER no es amigable en programas que requieren de cálculos de ecuaciones matemáticas, por ejemplo, el cálculo del volumen de un tanque en un control de nivel. Lenguajes alternativos como el Lenguaje de Control Estructurado (SCL son menos estudiados dada su complejidad y poca popularidad en la pequeña y mediana industria. En este artículo se compara los resultados del lenguaje de programación LADDER y el lenguaje SCL generado mediante la herramienta Simulink® PLC Coder de MATLAB® tomando como caso de estudio el cálculo de volumen de un tanque. Finalmente, este trabajo demuestra que la herramienta Simulink® PLC Coder presenta una alternativa de desarrollo más eficiente.

  13. A high-temperature quantum spin liquid with polaron spins (United States)

    Klanjšek, Martin; Zorko, Andrej; Žitko, Rok; Mravlje, Jernej; Jagličić, Zvonko; Biswas, Pabitra Kumar; Prelovšek, Peter; Mihailovic, Dragan; Arčon, Denis


    The existence of a quantum spin liquid (QSL) in which quantum fluctuations of spins are sufficiently strong to preclude spin ordering down to zero temperature was originally proposed theoretically more than 40 years ago, but its experimental realization turned out to be very elusive. Here we report on an almost ideal spin liquid state that appears to be realized by atomic-cluster spins on the triangular lattice of a charge-density wave state of 1T-TaS2. In this system, the charge excitations have a well-defined gap of ~0.3 eV, while nuclear quadrupole resonance and muon-spin-relaxation experiments reveal that the spins show gapless QSL dynamics and no long-range magnetic order at least down to 70 mK. Canonical T2 power-law temperature dependence of the spin relaxation dynamics characteristic of a QSL is observed from 200 K to Tf = 55 K. Below this temperature, we observe a new gapless state with reduced density of spin excitations and high degree of local disorder signifying new quantum spin order emerging from the QSL.

  14. Spin Funneling for Enhanced Spin Injection into Ferromagnets (United States)

    Sayed, Shehrin; Diep, Vinh Q.; Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Datta, Supriyo


    It is well-established that high spin-orbit coupling (SOC) materials convert a charge current density into a spin current density which can be used to switch a magnet efficiently and there is increasing interest in identifying materials with large spin Hall angle for lower switching current. Using experimentally benchmarked models, we show that composite structures can be designed using existing spin Hall materials such that the effective spin Hall angle is larger by an order of magnitude. The basic idea is to funnel spins from a large area of spin Hall material into a small area of ferromagnet using a normal metal with large spin diffusion length and low resistivity like Cu or Al. We show that this approach is increasingly effective as magnets get smaller. We avoid unwanted charge current shunting by the low resistive NM layer utilizing the newly discovered phenomenon of pure spin conduction in ferromagnetic insulators via magnon diffusion. We provide a spin circuit model for magnon diffusion in FMI that is benchmarked against recent experiments and theory.

  15. Spin diffusion length of Permalloy using spin absorption in lateral spin valves (United States)

    Sagasta, Edurne; Omori, Yasutomo; Isasa, Miren; Otani, YoshiChika; Hueso, Luis E.; Casanova, Fèlix


    We employ the spin absorption technique in lateral spin valves to extract the spin diffusion length of Permalloy (Py) as a function of temperature and resistivity. A linear dependence of the spin diffusion length with the conductivity of Py is observed, evidencing that the Elliott-Yafet mechanism is the dominant spin relaxation mechanism in Permalloy. Completing the dataset with additional data found in the literature, we obtain λPy = (0.91 ± 0.04) (fΩm2)/ρPy.

  16. Weyl spin liquids. (United States)

    Hermanns, M; O'Brien, K; Trebst, S


    The fractionalization of quantum numbers in interacting quantum many-body systems is a central motif in condensed-matter physics with prominent examples including the fractionalization of the electron in quantum Hall liquids or the emergence of magnetic monopoles in spin-ice materials. Here, we discuss the fractionalization of magnetic moments in three-dimensional Kitaev models into Majorana fermions (and a Z_{2} gauge field) and their emergent collective behavior. We analytically demonstrate that the Majorana fermions form a Weyl superconductor for the Kitaev model on the recently synthesized hyperhoneycomb structure of β-Li_{2}IrO_{3} when applying a magnetic field. We characterize the topologically protected bulk and surface features of this state, which we dub a Weyl spin liquid, including thermodynamic and transport signatures.

  17. Spin Glass Patch Planting (United States)

    Wang, Wenlong; Mandra, Salvatore; Katzgraber, Helmut G.


    In this paper, we propose a patch planting method for creating arbitrarily large spin glass instances with known ground states. The scaling of the computational complexity of these instances with various block numbers and sizes is investigated and compared with random instances using population annealing Monte Carlo and the quantum annealing DW2X machine. The method can be useful for benchmarking tests for future generation quantum annealing machines, classical and quantum mechanical optimization algorithms.

  18. Spin and gravitation (United States)

    Ray, J. R.


    The fundamental variational principle for a perfect fluid in general relativity is extended so that it applies to the metric-torsion Einstein-Cartan theory. Field equations for a perfect fluid in the Einstein-Cartan theory are deduced. In addition, the equations of motion for a fluid with intrinsic spin in general relativity are deduced from a special relativistic variational principle. The theory is a direct extension of the theory of nonspinning fluids in special relativity.

  19. Spinning out a star. (United States)

    Lord, Michael D; Mandel, Stanley W; Wager, Jeffrey D


    Spinouts rarely take off; most, in fact, fall into one or more of four traps that doom them from the start. Some companies spin out ventures that are too close to the core of their businesses, in effect selling off their crown jewels. Sometimes, a parent company uses the spinout primarily to pawn off debt or expenses or to quickly raise external capital for itself. Other times, a company may try to spin out an area of its business that lacks one or more of the critical legs of a successful company--a coherent business model, say, or a solid financial base. And in many cases, parent companies can't bring themselves to sever their ownership ties and give up control of their spinouts. R.J. Reynolds, the tobacco giant, managed to avoid these traps when it successfully spun out a most unlikely venture, the pharmaceutical company Targacept. As the story illustrates, the problem with spinouts is similar to the problem of rich children. Their parents have the wherewithal to spoil them or shelter them or cling to them, but what they need is tough love and discipline--much the same discipline that characterizes successful start-ups. R.J. Reynolds recognized that it didn't know that much about the pharmaceutical business and couldn't merely try to spin out a small clone of itself. It had to treat the venture as if it were essentially starting from scratch, with a passionate entrepreneurial leader, a solid business plan, help from outside partners in the industry, and ultimately substantial venture backing. That these lessons are less obvious to executives contemplating spinning out ventures closer to their core businesses may be why so many spinouts fail.

  20. Automated Translation of Safety Critical Application Software Specifications into PLC Ladder Logic (United States)

    Leucht, Kurt W.; Semmel, Glenn S.


    The numerous benefits of automatic application code generation are widely accepted within the software engineering community. A few of these benefits include raising the abstraction level of application programming, shorter product development time, lower maintenance costs, and increased code quality and consistency. Surprisingly, code generation concepts have not yet found wide acceptance and use in the field of programmable logic controller (PLC) software development. Software engineers at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recognized the need for PLC code generation while developing their new ground checkout and launch processing system. They developed a process and a prototype software tool that automatically translates a high-level representation or specification of safety critical application software into ladder logic that executes on a PLC. This process and tool are expected to increase the reliability of the PLC code over that which is written manually, and may even lower life-cycle costs and shorten the development schedule of the new control system at KSC. This paper examines the problem domain and discusses the process and software tool that were prototyped by the KSC software engineers.

  1. Sequenced allelic ladders and population genetics of a new STR multiplex system. (United States)

    Watson, S; Allsop, R; Foreman, L; Kelsey, Z; Gill, P


    The advent of PCR technology and use of short tandem repeat (STR) loci improves throughput and reduces costs whilst a high level of discrimination can be achieved. A new system, comprising seven STRs, was developed to compliment the existing systems. This paper describes the preparation of allelic ladders of the most commonly observed alleles of a new STR multiplex system (third generation; TGM multiplex); all alleles have been sequenced. Meioses studies estimated a mutation rate of 0-0.4% across loci. Statistical independence was investigated by employing exact tests; chi(2)-tests and excess homozygosity tests. The results demonstrated that the allele proportions do not differ from those expected and that there was no consequential dependence between loci. The discriminating power of the system was examined using 295 Caucasian, 140 Afro-Caribbean and 212 Asian unrelated samples, and was found to be approximately 1 in 50 million, 1 in 85 million and 1 in 20 million for each of these groups, respectively.

  2. Precursor of the Laughlin state of hard-core bosons on a two-leg ladder (United States)

    Petrescu, Alexandru; Piraud, Marie; Roux, Guillaume; McCulloch, I. P.; Le Hur, Karyn


    We study hard core bosons on a two-leg ladder lattice under the orbital effect of a uniform magnetic field. At densities which are incommensurate with flux, the ground state is a Meissner state, or a vortex state, depending on the strength of the flux. When the density is commensurate with the flux, analytical arguments predict the possibility to stabilize a ground state of central charge c =1 , which is a precursor of the two-dimensional Laughlin state at ν =1 /2 . This differs from the coupled wire construction of the Laughlin state in that there exists a nonzero backscattering term in the edge Hamiltonian. By using a combination of bosonization and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations, we construct a phase diagram versus density and flux from local observables and central charge. We delimit the region where the finite-size ground state displays signatures compatible with this precursor to the Laughlin state. We show how bipartite charge fluctuations allow access to the Luttinger parameter for the edge Luttinger liquid corresponding to the precursor Laughlin state. The properties studied with local observables are confirmed by the long distance behavior of correlation functions. Our findings are consistent with an exact-diagonalization calculation of the many body ground state transverse conductivity in a thin torus geometry for parameters corresponding to the precursor Laughlin state. The model considered is simple enough such that the precursor to the Laughlin state could be realized in current ultracold atom, Josephson junction array, and quantum circuit experiments.

  3. Resonant two-photon absorption and electromagnetically induced transparency in open ladder-type atomic system. (United States)

    Moon, Han Seb; Noh, Heung-Ryoul


    We have experimentally and theoretically studied resonant two-photon absorption (TPA) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the open ladder-type atomic system of the 5S(1/2) (F = 1)-5P(3/2) (F' = 0, 1, 2)-5D(5/2) (F″ = 1, 2, 3) transitions in (87)Rb atoms. As the coupling laser intensity was increased, the resonant TPA was transformed to EIT for the 5S(1/2) (F = 1)-5P(3/2) (F' = 2)-5D(5/2) (F″ = 3) transition. The transformation of resonant TPA into EIT was numerically calculated for various coupling laser intensities, considering all the degenerate magnetic sublevels of the 5S(1/2)-5P(3/2)-5D(5/2) transition. From the numerical results, the crossover from TPA to EIT could be understood by the decomposition of the spectrum into an EIT component owing to the pure two-photon coherence and a TPA component caused by the mixed term.

  4. Interaction-induced chiral trajectories in a ladder governed by the Harper-Hofstadter Model (United States)

    Rispoli, Matthew; Tai, M. Eric; Lukin, Alexander; Schittko, Robert; Menke, Tim; Borgnia, Dan; Preiss, Philipp M.; Grusdt, Fabian; Kaufman, Adam M.; Greiner, Markus


    The combination of interacting charged particles and magnetic fields can to lead to exotic physics that exhibit both spatial entanglement and topological order. Using optical fields, ultracold neutral atoms can simulate the behavior of charged particles in magnetic fields. This capability has been used to study effects such as edge states, topological band structures, and the quantum hall effect. Thus far, however, these experiments have not yet incorporated inter-particle interactions. I will describe recent experimental results in which we apply microscopy to interacting atoms exposed to a synthetic magnetic field and are confined to a 2xN real-space ladder. We observe the chiral dynamics of both single-particle and two-particle systems with strong, finite interactions. We show the interactions for the two-particle system enable chiral dynamics where they would otherwise be absent. Our observation of a novel form of interaction-induced chirality illustrates the rich physics that can emerge with these ingredients even in the few particle limit. Realizing this combination of elements is essential to advance into the regime of fractional quantum hall physics, as well as to drive explorations for new phenomena with the microscopic tools of AMO systems. Support from: NSF, Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation's EPiQS, ARO MURI, AFOSR MURI, and NSF GRFP (MNR).

  5. Spinning particle approach to higher spin field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Olindo, E-mail: [Centro de Estudios en Fisica y Matematicas Basicas y Aplicadas Universidad Autonoma de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy)


    We shortly review on the connection between higher-spin gauge field theories and supersymmetric spinning particle models. In such approach the higher spin equations of motion are linked to the first-class constraint algebra associated with the quantization of particle models. Here we consider a class of spinning particle models characterized by local O(N)-extended supersymmetry since these models are known to provide an alternative approach to the geometric formulation of higher spin field theory. We describe the canonical quantization of the models in curved target space and discuss the obstructions that appear in presence of an arbitrarily curved background. We then point out the special role that conformally flat spaces appear to have in such models and present a derivation of the higher-spin curvatures for maximally symmetric spaces.

  6. Quantum annealing with manufactured spins. (United States)

    Johnson, M W; Amin, M H S; Gildert, S; Lanting, T; Hamze, F; Dickson, N; Harris, R; Berkley, A J; Johansson, J; Bunyk, P; Chapple, E M; Enderud, C; Hilton, J P; Karimi, K; Ladizinsky, E; Ladizinsky, N; Oh, T; Perminov, I; Rich, C; Thom, M C; Tolkacheva, E; Truncik, C J S; Uchaikin, S; Wang, J; Wilson, B; Rose, G


    Many interesting but practically intractable problems can be reduced to that of finding the ground state of a system of interacting spins; however, finding such a ground state remains computationally difficult. It is believed that the ground state of some naturally occurring spin systems can be effectively attained through a process called quantum annealing. If it could be harnessed, quantum annealing might improve on known methods for solving certain types of problem. However, physical investigation of quantum annealing has been largely confined to microscopic spins in condensed-matter systems. Here we use quantum annealing to find the ground state of an artificial Ising spin system comprising an array of eight superconducting flux quantum bits with programmable spin-spin couplings. We observe a clear signature of quantum annealing, distinguishable from classical thermal annealing through the temperature dependence of the time at which the system dynamics freezes. Our implementation can be configured in situ to realize a wide variety of different spin networks, each of which can be monitored as it moves towards a low-energy configuration. This programmable artificial spin network bridges the gap between the theoretical study of ideal isolated spin networks and the experimental investigation of bulk magnetic samples. Moreover, with an increased number of spins, such a system may provide a practical physical means to implement a quantum algorithm, possibly allowing more-effective approaches to solving certain classes of hard combinatorial optimization problems.

  7. Entanglement in a Spin-$s$ Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chain


    Hao, Xiang; Zhu, Shiqun


    The entanglement in a general Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain of arbitrary spin-$s$ is investigated. The entanglement is witnessed by the thermal energy which equals to the minimum energy of any separable state. There is a characteristic temperature below that an entangled thermal state exists. The characteristic temperature for thermal entanglement is increased with spin $s$. When the total number of lattice is increased, the characteristic temperature decreases and then approaches a cons...

  8. Diffusion equation and spin drag in spin-polarized transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensberg, Karsten; Jensen, Thomas Stibius; Mortensen, Asger


    We study the role of electron-electron interactions for spin-polarized transport using the Boltzmann equation, and derive a set of coupled transport equations. For spin-polarized transport the electron-electron interactions are important, because they tend to equilibrate the momentum of the two......: it equilibrates the spin density imbalance and, provided it has a non-s-wave component, also a current imbalance....

  9. Spin injection and spin transport in paramagnetic insulators


    Okamoto, Satoshi


    We investigate the spin injection and the spin transport in paramagnetic insulators described by simple Heisenberg interactions using auxiliary particle methods. Some of these methods allow access to both paramagnetic states above magnetic transition temperatures and magnetic states at low temperatures. It is predicted that the spin injection at an interface with a normal metal is rather insensitive to temperatures above the magnetic transition temperature. On the other hand below the transit...

  10. Spin sensitive bleaching and monopolar spin orientation in quantum wells


    Ganichev, Sergey; Danilov, Sergey; Belkov, Vassilij; Ivchenko, Eougenious; Bichler, Max; Wegscheider, Werner; Weiss, Dieter; Prettl, Wilhelm


    Spin sensitive bleaching of the absorption of far-infrared radiation has been observed in $p$-type GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well structures. The absorption of circularly polarized radiation saturates at lower intensities than that of linearly polarized light due to monopolar spin orientation in the first heavy hole subband. Spin relaxation times of holes in $p$-type material in the range of tens of ps were derived from the intensity dependence of the absorption.

  11. High-field spin dynamics of antiferromagnetic quantum spin chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enderle, M.; Regnault, L.P.; Broholm, C.


    The characteristic internal order of macroscopic quantum ground states in one-dimensional spin systems is usually not directly accessible, but reflected in the spin dynamics and the field dependence of the magnetic excitations. In high magnetic fields quantum phase transitions are expected. We...... present recent work on the high-field spin dynamics of the S = I antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains NENP (Haldane ground state) and CsNiCl3 (quasi-1D HAF close to the quantum critical point), the uniform S = 1/2 chain CTS, and the spin-Peierls system CuGeO3. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B,V. All rights...

  12. Spin-seebeck effect: a phonon driven spin distribution. (United States)

    Jaworski, C M; Yang, J; Mack, S; Awschalom, D D; Myers, R C; Heremans, J P


    Here we report on measurements of the spin-Seebeck effect in GaMnAs over an extended temperature range alongside the thermal conductivity, specific heat, magnetization, and thermoelectric power. The amplitude of the spin-Seebeck effect in GaMnAs scales with the thermal conductivity of the GaAs substrate and the phonon-drag contribution to the thermoelectric power of the GaMnAs, demonstrating that phonons drive the spin redistribution. A phenomenological model involving phonon-magnon drag explains the spatial and temperature dependence of the measured spin distribution.

  13. Spin-orbit mediated control of spin qubits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A.S; Flensberg, Karsten


    We propose to use the spin-orbit interaction as a means to control electron spins in quantum dots, enabling both single-qubit and two-qubit operations. Very fast single-qubit operations may be achieved by temporarily displacing the electrons. For two-qubit operations the coupling mechanism is based...... on a combination of the spin-orbit coupling and the mutual long-ranged Coulomb interaction. Compared to existing schemes using the exchange coupling, the spin-orbit induced coupling is less sensitive to random electrical fluctuations in the electrodes defining the quantum dots....

  14. Spin Polarization Oscillations without Spin Precession: Spin-Orbit Entangled Resonances in Quasi-One-Dimensional Spin Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Berman


    Full Text Available Resonant behavior involving spin-orbit entangled states occurs for spin transport along a narrow channel defined in a two-dimensional electron gas, including an apparent rapid relaxation of the spin polarization for special values of the channel width and applied magnetic field (so-called ballistic spin resonance. A fully quantum-mechanical theory for transport using multiple subbands of the one-dimensional system provides the dependence of the spin density on the applied magnetic field and channel width and position along the channel. We show how the spatially nonoscillating part of the spin density vanishes when the Zeeman energy matches the subband energy splittings. The resonance phenomenon persists in the presence of disorder.

  15. Multiferroics with spiral spin orders. (United States)

    Tokura, Yoshinori; Seki, Shinichiro


    Cross correlation between magnetism and electricity in a solid can host magnetoelectric effects, such as magnetic (electric) induction of polarization (magnetization). A key to attain the gigantic magnetoelectric response is to find the efficient magnetism-electricity coupling mechanisms. Among those, recently the emergence of spontaneous (ferroelectric) polarization in the insulating helimagnet or spiral-spin structure was unraveled, as mediated by the spin-exchange and spin-orbit interactions. The sign of the polarization depends on the helicity (spin rotation sense), while the polarization direction itself depends on further details of the mechanism and the underlying lattice symmetry. Here, we describe some prototypical examples of the spiral-spin multiferroics, which enable some unconventional magnetoelectric control such as the magnetic-field-induced change of the polarization direction and magnitude as well as the electric-field-induced change of the spin helicity and magnetic domain.

  16. Vaporization of Kitaev spin liquids. (United States)

    Nasu, Joji; Udagawa, Masafumi; Motome, Yukitoshi


    The quantum spin liquid is an exotic quantum state of matter in magnets. This state is a spin analog of liquid helium that does not solidify down to the lowest temperature due to strong quantum fluctuations. In conventional fluids, the liquid and gas possess the same symmetry and adiabatically connect to each other by bypassing the critical end point. We find that the situation is qualitatively different in quantum spin liquids realized in a three-dimensional Kitaev model; both gapless and gapped quantum spin liquid phases at low temperatures are always distinguished from the high-temperature paramagnet (spin gas) by a phase transition. The results challenge the common belief that the absence of thermodynamic singularity down to the lowest temperature is a symptom of a quantum spin liquid.

  17. Spin liquids in frustrated magnets. (United States)

    Balents, Leon


    Frustrated magnets are materials in which localized magnetic moments, or spins, interact through competing exchange interactions that cannot be simultaneously satisfied, giving rise to a large degeneracy of the system ground state. Under certain conditions, this can lead to the formation of fluid-like states of matter, so-called spin liquids, in which the constituent spins are highly correlated but still fluctuate strongly down to a temperature of absolute zero. The fluctuations of the spins in a spin liquid can be classical or quantum and show remarkable collective phenomena such as emergent gauge fields and fractional particle excitations. This exotic behaviour is now being uncovered in the laboratory, providing insight into the properties of spin liquids and challenges to the theoretical description of these materials.

  18. Observation of the spin Nernst effect (United States)

    Meyer, S.; Chen, Y.-T.; Wimmer, S.; Althammer, M.; Wimmer, T.; Schlitz, R.; Geprägs, S.; Huebl, H.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Ebert, H.; Bauer, G. E. W.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.


    The observation of the spin Hall effect triggered intense research on pure spin current transport. With the spin Hall effect, the spin Seebeck effect and the spin Peltier effect already observed, our picture of pure spin current transport is almost complete. The only missing piece is the spin Nernst (-Ettingshausen) effect, which so far has been discussed only on theoretical grounds. Here, we report the observation of the spin Nernst effect. By applying a longitudinal temperature gradient, we generate a pure transverse spin current in a Pt thin film. For readout, we exploit the magnetization-orientation-dependent spin transfer to an adjacent yttrium iron garnet layer, converting the spin Nernst current in Pt into a controlled change of the longitudinal and transverse thermopower voltage. Our experiments show that the spin Nernst and the spin Hall effect in Pt are of comparable magnitude, but differ in sign, as corroborated by first-principles calculations.

  19. Spin currents in metallic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czeschka, Franz Dominik


    A pure spin current, i.e., a flow of angular momentum without accompanying net charge current, is a key ingredient in the field of spintronics. In this thesis, we experimentally investigated two different concepts for pure spin current sources suggested by theory. The first is based on a time-dependent magnetization precession which ''pumps'' a pure spin current into an adjacent non-magnetic conductor. Our experiments quantitatively corroborated important predictions expected theoretically for this approach, including the dependence of the spin current on the sample geometry and the microwave power. Even more important, we could show for the first time that the spin pumping concept is viable in a large variety of ferromagnetic materials and that it only depends on the magnetization damping. Therefore, our experiments established spin pumping as generic phenomenon and demonstrated that it is a powerful way to generate pure spin currents. The second theoretical concept is based on the conversion of charge currents into spin currents in non-magnetic nanostructures via the spin Hall effect. We experimentally investigated this approach in H-shaped, metallic nanodevices, and found that the predictions are linked to requirements not realizable with the present experimental techniques, neither in sample fabrication nor in measurement technique. Indeed, our experimental data could be consistently understood by a spin-independent transport model describing the transition from diffusive to ballistic transport. In addition, the implementation of advanced fabrication and measurement techniques allowed to discover a new non-local phenomenon, the non-local anisotropic magnetoresistance. Finally, we also studied spin-polarized supercurrents carried by spin-triplet Cooper pairs. We found that low resistance interfaces are a key requirement for further experiments in this direction. (orig.)

  20. Spin-photon entangling diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A. S.; Lukin, M. D.


    We propose a semiconductor device that can electrically generate entangled electron spin-photon states, providing a building block for entanglement of distant spins. The device consists of a p-i-n diode structure that incorporates a coupled double quantum dot. We show that electronic control...... of the diode bias and local gating allow for the generation of single photons that are entangled with a robust quantum memory based on the electron spins. Practical performance of this approach to controlled spin-photon entanglement is analyzed....

  1. Towards spin injection into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, S.P.


    Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

  2. Spin superconductor in ferromagnetic graphene


    Sun, Qing-feng; Jiang, Zhao-tan; Yu, Yue; Xie, X. C.


    We show a spin superconductor (SSC) in ferromagnetic graphene as the counterpart to the charge superconductor, in which a spin-polarized electron-hole pair plays the role of the spin $2 (\\hbar/2)$ `Cooper pair' with a neutral charge. We present a BCS-type theory for the SSC. With the `London-type equations' of the super-spin-current density, we show the existence of an electric `Meissner effect' against a spatial varying electric field. We further study a SSC/normal conductor/SSC junction and...

  3. Spinning particles coupled to gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hojman, Sergio A


    Recent experimental work has determined that free falling $^{87}$Rb atoms on Earth, with vertically aligned spins, follow geodesics, thus apparently ruling out spin--gravitation interactions. It is showed that while some spinning matter models coupled to gravitation referenced to in that work seem to be ruled out by the experiment, those same experimental results confirm theoretical results derived from a Lagrangian description of spinning particles coupled to gravity constructed over forty years ago. A proposal to carry out (similar but) different experiments which will help to test the validity of the Universality of Free Fall as opposed to the correctness of the aforementioned Lagrangian theory, is presented.

  4. Elements of spin motion (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshio; Ishizaki, Hideharu


    For use in numerical studies of rotational motion, a set of elements is introduced for the torque-free rotational motion of a rigid body around its barycenter. The elements are defined as the initial values of a modification of the Andoyer canonical variables. A computational procedure is obtained for determining these elements from the combination of the spin angular momentum vector and a triad defining the orientation of the rigid body. A numerical experiment shows that the errors of transformation between the elements and variables are sufficiently small. The errors increase linearly with time for some elements and quadratically for some others.

  5. Walking on the ladder: 125 GeV technidilaton, or Conformal Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Shinya [Institute for Advanced Research, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Yamawaki, Koichi [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)


    The walking technicolor based on the ladder Schwinger-Dyson gap equation is studied, with the scale-invariant coupling being an idealization of the Caswell-Banks-Zaks infrared fixed point in the “anti-Veneziano limit”, such that N{sub C}→∞ with N{sub C}⋅α(μ{sup 2})= fixed andN{sub F}/N{sub C}= fixed (≫1), of the SU(N{sub C}) gauge theory with massless N{sub F} flavors near criticality. We show that the 125 GeV Higgs can be naturally identified with the technidilaton (TD) predicted in the walking technicolor, a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone (NG) boson of the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the approximate scale symmetry. Ladder calculations yield the TD mass M{sub ϕ} from the trace anomaly as M{sub ϕ}{sup 2}F{sub ϕ}{sup 2}=−4〈θ{sub μ}{sup μ}〉=−((β(α(μ{sup 2})))/(α(μ{sup 2}))) 〈G{sub λν}{sup 2}(μ{sup 2})〉≃N{sub C}N{sub F}(16/(π{sup 4}))m{sub F}{sup 4}, independently of the renormalization point μ, where m{sub F} is the dynamical mass of the technifermion, and F{sub ϕ}=O(√(N{sub F}N{sub C}) m{sub F}) the TD decay constant. It reads M{sub ϕ}{sup 2}≃(((v{sub EW})/2)⋅((5v{sub EW})/(F{sub ϕ}))){sup 2}⋅[(8/(N{sub F}))(4/(N{sub C}))], (v{sub EW}=246 GeV), which implies F{sub ϕ}≃5 v{sub EW} for M{sub ϕ}≃125 GeV≃(1/2)v{sub EW} in the one-family model (N{sub C}=4,N{sub F}=8), in good agreement with the current LHC Higgs data. The result reflects a generic scaling M{sub ϕ}{sup 2}/v{sub EW}{sup 2}∼M{sub ϕ}{sup 2}/F{sub ϕ}{sup 2}∼m{sub F}{sup 2}/F{sub ϕ}{sup 2}∼1/(N{sub F}N{sub C})→0 as a vanishing trace anomaly, namely the TD has a mass vanishing in the anti-Veneziano limit, similarly to η{sup ′} meson as a pseudo-NG boson of the ordinary QCD with vanishing U(1){sub A} anomaly in the Veneziano limit (N{sub F}/N{sub C}≪1).

  6. Conventional versus single-ladder-splitting contributions to double parton scattering production of two quarkonia, two Higgs bosons, and cc xAFcc xAF (United States)

    Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Maciuła, Rafał; Szczurek, Antoni


    The double parton distributions (dPDF), both conventional (i.e. double ladder) and those corresponding to 1→2 ladder splitting, are calculated and compared for different two-parton combinations. The conventional and splitting dPDFs have very similar shape in x1 and x2. We make a first quantitative evaluation of the single-ladder-splitting contribution to double parton scattering (DPS) production of two S- or P-wave quarkonia, two Higgs bosons and cc ¯cc ¯. The ratio of the single-ladder-splitting to conventional (i.e. double ladder against double ladder) contributions is discussed as a function of center-of-mass energy, mass of the produced system and other kinematical variables. Using a simple model for the dependence of the conventional two-parton distribution on transverse parton separation (Gaussian and independent of xi and scales), we find that the single-ladder-splitting (or 2v1) contribution is as big as the conventional (or 2v2) contribution discussed in recent years in the literature. In many experimental studies of DPS, one extracts the quantity 1/σeff=σDPS/(σSPS ,1σSPS,2), with σSPS ,1 and σSPS ,2 being the single scattering cross sections for the two subprocesses in the DPS process. Many past phenomenological studies of DPS have only considered the conventional contribution and have obtained values a factor of ˜2 too small for 1/σeff. Our analysis shows that it is important also to consider the ladder-splitting mechanism, and that this might resolve the discrepancy (this was also pointed out in a recent study by Blok et al.). The differential distributions in rapidity and transverse momenta calculated for conventional and single-ladder-splitting DPS processes are however very similar which causes their experimental separation to be rather difficult, if not impossible. The direct consequence of the existence of the two components (conventional and splitting) is the energy and process dependence of the empirical parameter σeff. This is

  7. Using the decision ladder to understand road user decision making at actively controlled rail level crossings. (United States)

    Mulvihill, Christine M; Salmon, Paul M; Beanland, Vanessa; Lenné, Michael G; Read, Gemma J M; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A


    Rail level crossings (RLXs) represent a key strategic risk for railways worldwide. Despite enforcement and engineering countermeasures, user behaviour at RLXs can often confound expectations and erode safety. Research in this area is limited by a relative absence of insights into actual decision making processes and a focus on only a subset of road user types. One-hundred and sixty-six road users (drivers, motorcyclists, cyclists and pedestrians) completed a diary entry for each of 457 naturalistic encounters with RLXs when a train was approaching. The final eligible sample comprised 94 participants and 248 encounters at actively controlled crossings where a violation of the active warnings was possible. The diary incorporated Critical Decision Method probe questions, which enabled user responses to be mapped onto Rasmussen's decision ladder. Twelve percent of crossing events were non-compliant. The underlying decision making was compared to compliant events and a reference decision model to reveal important differences in the structure and type of decision making within and between road user groups. The findings show that engineering countermeasures intended to improve decision making (e.g. flashing lights), may have the opposite effect for some users because the system permits a high level of flexibility for circumvention. Non-motorised users were more likely to access information outside of the warning signals because of their ability to achieve greater proximity to the train tracks and the train itself. The major conundrum in resolving these issues is whether to restrict the amount of time and information available to users so that it cannot be used for circumventing the system or provide more information to help users make safe decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Angular dependence of spin-orbit spin-transfer torques

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Ki-Seung


    In ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayers, an in-plane current gives rise to spin-orbit spin-transfer torque, which is usually decomposed into fieldlike and dampinglike torques. For two-dimensional free-electron and tight-binding models with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the fieldlike torque acquires nontrivial dependence on the magnetization direction when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling becomes comparable to the exchange interaction. This nontrivial angular dependence of the fieldlike torque is related to the Fermi surface distortion, determined by the ratio of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the exchange interaction. On the other hand, the dampinglike torque acquires nontrivial angular dependence when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is comparable to or stronger than the exchange interaction. It is related to the combined effects of the Fermi surface distortion and the Fermi sea contribution. The angular dependence is consistent with experimental observations and can be important to understand magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit spin-transfer torques.

  9. Designing Electron Spin Textures and Spin Interferometers by Shape Deformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ying, Zu-Jian; Gentile, Paola; Ortix, Carmine; Cuoco, Mario


    We demonstrate that the spin orientation of an electron propagating in a one-dimensional nanostructure with Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling can be manipulated on demand by changing the geometry of the nanosystem. Shape deformations that result in a non-uniform curvature give rise to complex

  10. Robust spin current generated by the spin Seebeck effect (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Jen; Lin, Jauyn Grace; Huang, Ssu-Yen


    Spin pumping (SP) and the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), two of the most common methods for generating a pure spin current from ferromagnetic insulators, are considered to share similar physical mechanisms. However, a systematic study of the fundamental difference of their working principle is missing. In this Rapid Communication, we present experimental evidence of the contrast in a pure spin current generated by SP and SSE, based on results from yttrium iron garnet (YIG) with various crystalline properties. It is shown that while the SP-induced spin current could be two-orders-of-magnitude different between the polycrystalline and epitaxial films, the SSE-excited spin current is surprisingly insensitive to the different crystal structures. Our results clearly distinguish the coherent mechanism of SP from the noncoherent mechanism of the SSE. Consequently, the robust SSE voltage against poor crystallinity proves that the SSE is a powerful tool to explore pure spin current physics, and suggests that polycrystalline YIG films are a promising candidate for spin caloritronic applications.

  11. Bias-dependent spin relaxation in a Spin-LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, C.A. C. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)]. E-mail:; Snouck, D. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Van Dorpe, P. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van Roy, W. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Koopmans, B. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    We have investigated the bias-dependent spin relaxation in Cu-CoFe-AlO{sub x}-GaAs/AlGaAs-type of Spin-LEDs using microscopic time-resolved magnetization modulation spectroscopy (TIMMS). We observed a significant dependence of the electron spin relaxation time (effects as large as 40%) as a function of applied bias. The additional spin relaxation at non-zero bias is found to scale almost linearly with the injection current, and thereby with the current-induced hole density in the active region. This observation is indicative for a dominant contribution by Bir-Aronov-Pikus (BAP) electron-hole spin-flip scattering. In agreement with this observation, a similar BAP-enhanced spin relaxation shows up at increased laser fluence. From spatio-temporal imaging of spin relaxation, scanning pump and probe beams across the {approx}50{mu} m outside of optical window, we found a significant position dependence (lateral effects) of the spin dynamics.

  12. Indirect effects of impoundment on migrating fish: temperature gradients in fish ladders slow dam passage by adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Caudill

    Full Text Available Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp. often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species.

  13. Spin-spin correlation functions of the q-VBS state of an integer spin model


    Arita, Chikashi; Motegi, Kohei


    We consider the valence-bond-solid ground state of the q-deformed higher-spin AKLT model (q-VBS state). We investigate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix (G matrix), which is constructed from the matrix product representation of the q-VBS state. We compute the longitudinal and transverse spin-spin correlation functions, and determine the correlation amplitudes and correlation lengths for real q.

  14. Spin caloritronics, origin and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Haiming, E-mail: [Fert Beijing Institute, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, BDBC, Beihang University (China); Brechet, Sylvain D. [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland); Ansermet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland)


    Spin caloritronics refers to research efforts in spintronics when a heat current plays a role. In this review, we start out by reviewing the predictions that can be drawn from the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. This serves as a conceptual framework in which to analyze the interplay of charge, spin and heat transport. This formalism predicts tensorial relations between vectorial quantities such as currents and gradients of chemical potentials or of temperature. Transverse effects such as the Nernst or Hall effects are predicted on the basis that these tensors can include an anti-symmetric contribution, which can be written with a vectorial cross-product. The local symmetry of the system may determine the direction of the vector defining such transverse effects, such as the surface of an isotropic medium. By including magnetization as state field in the thermodynamic description, spin currents appear naturally from the continuity equation for the magnetization, and dissipative spin torques are derived, which are charge-driven or heat-driven. Thermodynamics does not give the strength of these effects, but may provide relationships between them. Based on this framework, the review proceeds by showing how these effects have been observed in various systems. Spintronics has become a vast field of research, and the experiments highlighted in this review pertain only to heat effects on transport and magnetization dynamics, such as magneto-thermoelectric power, or the spin-dependence of the Seebeck effect, the spin-dependence of the Peltier effect, the spin Seebeck effect, the magnetic Seebeck effect, or the Nernst effect. The review concludes by pointing out predicted effects that are yet to be verified experimentally, and in what novel materials the standard thermal spin effects could be investigated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic description of transport: three-current model. • Magneto-thermoelectric power and spin-dependent Peltier effects. • Thermal

  15. Spin independent magnetoresistance effects in vertical graphene spin valves (United States)

    Bodepudi, Srikrishna; Pratap Singh, Abhay; Pramanik, Sandipan


    Vertical spin valve device configuration with multilayer graphene (MLG) as spacer has drawn significant attention in recent years because of its potential to produce large magnetoresistance (MR) effect due to perfect spin filtering. However, demonstration of this effect has remained elusive so far. Here we consider MLG vertical spin valve structures and show that they exhibit spin independent MR effects, which are orders of magnitude stronger than the spin dependent effects reported to date. These effects manifest within a moderate field range of 10 kG and depend on various factors such as hybridization near the top graphene surface, doping, defects and interlayer coupling. These effects highlight the rich spectrum of physical phenomena that manifest in such systems, which could be exploited in low to moderate magnetic field sensing applications.

  16. Electron-spin resonance, nuclear polarization, and spin relaxation of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statt, B.W.; Berlinsky, A.J.; Hardy, W.N.


    Electron-spin-resonance measurements of spin-polarized hydrogen are presented. Excellent signal-to-noise ratio, previously obtainable only in pressure studies, allows quantitative fits to the separate a and b (proton up and down) decays of the nuclear-spin-polarized samples, yielding separate temperature dependences of the recombination rate constants K/sub a/a and K/sub a/b. Spin relaxation due to magnetic particles in the substrate is studied for different thicknesses of solid H/sub 2/ wall coating, and the results are compared with a new theoretical model.

  17. Extremal Higher Spin Black Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bañados, M.; Castro, A.; Faraggi, A.; Jottar, J.I.

    The gauge sector of three-dimensional higher spin gravities can be formulated as a Chern-Simons theory. In this context, a higher spin black hole corresponds to a flat connection with suitable holonomy (smoothness) conditions which are consistent with the properties of a generalized thermal

  18. Decoherence in quantum spin systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H; Dobrovitski, VV; Landau, DP; Lewis, SP; Schuttler, HB


    Computer simulations of decoherence in quantum spin systems require the solution of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for interacting quantum spin systems over extended periods of time. We use exact diagonalization, the Chebyshev polynomial technique, four Suzuki-formula algorithms, and the

  19. Hybrid spin-crossover nanostructures. (United States)

    Quintero, Carlos M; Félix, Gautier; Suleimanov, Iurii; Sánchez Costa, José; Molnár, Gábor; Salmon, Lionel; Nicolazzi, William; Bousseksou, Azzedine


    This review reports on the recent progress in the synthesis, modelling and application of hybrid spin-crossover materials, including core-shell nanoparticles and multilayer thin films or nanopatterns. These systems combine, often in synergy, different physical properties (optical, magnetic, mechanical and electrical) of their constituents with the switching properties of spin-crossover complexes, providing access to materials with unprecedented capabilities.

  20. Hybrid spin-crossover nanostructures


    Quintero, Carlos M; Gautier Félix; Iurii Suleimanov; José Sánchez Costa; Gábor Molnár; Lionel Salmon; William Nicolazzi; Azzedine Bousseksou


    Summary This review reports on the recent progress in the synthesis, modelling and application of hybrid spin-crossover materials, including core?shell nanoparticles and multilayer thin films or nanopatterns. These systems combine, often in synergy, different physical properties (optical, magnetic, mechanical and electrical) of their constituents with the switching properties of spin-crossover complexes, providing access to materials with unprecedented capabilities.

  1. Black Hole Spin Measurement Uncertainty (United States)

    Salvesen, Greg; Begelman, Mitchell C.


    Angular momentum, or spin, is one of only two fundamental properties of astrophysical black holes, and measuring its value has numerous applications. For instance, obtaining reliable spin measurements could constrain the growth history of supermassive black holes and reveal whether relativistic jets are powered by tapping into the black hole spin reservoir. The two well-established techniques for measuring black hole spin can both be applied to X-ray binaries, but are in disagreement for cases of non-maximal spin. This discrepancy must be resolved if either technique is to be deemed robust. We show that the technique based on disc continuum fitting is sensitive to uncertainties regarding the disc atmosphere, which are observationally unconstrained. By incorporating reasonable uncertainties into black hole spin probability density functions, we demonstrate that the spin measured by disc continuum fitting can become highly uncertain. Future work toward understanding how the observed disc continuum is altered by atmospheric physics, particularly magnetic fields, will further strengthen black hole spin measurement techniques.

  2. The spin-valve transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anil Kumar, P.S.; Lodder, J.C.


    The spin-valve transistor is a magnetoelectronic device that can be used as a magnetic field sensor. It has a ferromagnet-semiconductor hybrid structure. Using a vacuum metal bonding technique, the spin-valve transistor structure Si/Pt/NiFe/Au/Co/Au/Si is obtained. It employs hot electron transport

  3. Spin conversion on the nanoscale (United States)

    Otani, Yoshichika; Shiraishi, Masashi; Oiwa, Akira; Saitoh, Eiji; Murakami, Shuichi


    Spins can act as mediators to interconvert electricity, light, sound, vibration and heat. Here, we give an overview of the recent advances in different sub-disciplines of spintronics that can be associated with the developing field of spin conversion, and discuss future prospects.

  4. Nuclear Spins in Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erlingsson, S.I.


    The main theme of this thesis is the hyperfine interaction between the many lattice nuclear spins and electron spins localized in GaAs quantum dots. This interaction is an intrinsic property of the material. Despite the fact that this interaction is rather weak, it can, as shown in this thesis,

  5. Josephson spin current in triplet superconductor junctions


    Asano, Yasuhiro


    This paper theoretically discusses the spin current in spin-triplet superconductor / insulator / spin-triplet superconductor junctions. At low temperatures, a midgap Andreev resonant state anomalously enhances not only the charge current but also the spin current. The coupling between the Cooper pairs and the electromagnetic fields leads to the Frounhofer pattern in the direct current spin flow in magnetic fields and the alternative spin current under applied bias-voltages.

  6. Disorder and Quantum Spin Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Martin


    Full Text Available We report on diffuse neutron scattering experiments providing evidence for the presence of random strains in the quantum spin-ice candidate Pr_{2}Zr_{2}O_{7}. Since Pr^{3+} is a non-Kramers ion, the strain deeply modifies the picture of Ising magnetic moments governing the low-temperature properties of this material. It is shown that the derived strain distribution accounts for the temperature dependence of the specific heat and of the spin-excitation spectra. Taking advantage of mean-field and spin-dynamics simulations, we argue that the randomness in Pr_{2}Zr_{2}O_{7} promotes a new state of matter, which is disordered yet characterized by short-range antiferroquadrupolar correlations, and from which emerge spin-ice-like excitations. Thus, this study gives an original research route in the field of quantum spin ice.

  7. Disorder and Quantum Spin Ice (United States)

    Martin, N.; Bonville, P.; Lhotel, E.; Guitteny, S.; Wildes, A.; Decorse, C.; Ciomaga Hatnean, M.; Balakrishnan, G.; Mirebeau, I.; Petit, S.


    We report on diffuse neutron scattering experiments providing evidence for the presence of random strains in the quantum spin-ice candidate Pr2Zr2O7 . Since Pr3 + is a non-Kramers ion, the strain deeply modifies the picture of Ising magnetic moments governing the low-temperature properties of this material. It is shown that the derived strain distribution accounts for the temperature dependence of the specific heat and of the spin-excitation spectra. Taking advantage of mean-field and spin-dynamics simulations, we argue that the randomness in Pr2Zr2O7 promotes a new state of matter, which is disordered yet characterized by short-range antiferroquadrupolar correlations, and from which emerge spin-ice-like excitations. Thus, this study gives an original research route in the field of quantum spin ice.

  8. Spin Foams and Canonical Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Alexandrov


    Full Text Available This review is devoted to the analysis of the mutual consistency of the spin foam and canonical loop quantizations in three and four spacetime dimensions. In the three-dimensional context, where the two approaches are in good agreement, we show how the canonical quantization à la Witten of Riemannian gravity with a positive cosmological constant is related to the Turaev-Viro spin foam model, and how the Ponzano-Regge amplitudes are related to the physical scalar product of Riemannian loop quantum gravity without cosmological constant. In the four-dimensional case, we recall a Lorentz-covariant formulation of loop quantum gravity using projected spin networks, compare it with the new spin foam models, and identify interesting relations and their pitfalls. Finally, we discuss the properties which a spin foam model is expected to possess in order to be consistent with the canonical quantization, and suggest a new model illustrating these results.

  9. Ground states, magnetization plateaus and bipartite entanglement of frustrated spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg and Heisenberg triangular tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alécio, Raphael C.; Lyra, Marcelo L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072–970 Maceió-AL (Brazil); Strečka, Jozef [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia)


    The ground-state phase diagram, magnetization process and bipartite entanglement of the frustrated spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg and Heisenberg triangular tube (three-leg ladder) are investigated in a non-zero external magnetic field. The exact ground-state phase diagram of the spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg tube with Heisenberg intra-rung and Ising inter-rung couplings consists of six distinct gapped phases, which manifest themselves in a magnetization curve as intermediate plateaus at zero, one-third and two-thirds of the saturation magnetization. Four out of six available ground states exhibit quantum entanglement between two spins from the same triangular unit evidenced by a non-zero concurrence. Density-matrix renormalization group calculations are used in order to construct the ground-state phase diagram of the analogous but purely quantum spin-1/2 Heisenberg tube with Heisenberg intra- and inter-rung couplings, which consists of four gapped and three gapless phases. The Heisenberg tube shows a continuous change of the magnetization instead of a plateau at zero magnetization, while the intermediate one-third and two-thirds plateaus may be present or not in the zero-temperature magnetization curve. - Highlights: • Ground-state properties of Ising-Heisenberg and full Heisenberg spin tubes are studied. • Phases with 1/3 and 2/3 magnetization plateaus are present in both models. • We unveil the region in the parameter space on which inter-rung quantum fluctuations are relevant. • The full Heisenberg tube exhibits quantum bipartite entanglement between intra- as well as inter-rung spins.

  10. Spin Hanle effect in mesoscopic superconductors (United States)

    Silaev, M.; Virtanen, P.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Bergeret, F. S.


    We present a theoretical study of spin transport in a superconducting mesoscopic spin valve under the action of a magnetic field misaligned with respect to the injected spin. We demonstrate that superconductivity can either strongly enhance or suppress the coherent spin rotation, depending on the type of spin relaxation mechanism being dominated either by spin-orbit coupling or spin-flip scattering at impurities. We also predict a subgap contribution to the nonlocal conductance in multiterminal superconducting hybrid structures which completely eliminates the effect of spin rotation at sufficiently low temperatures.

  11. Theory of the spin Seebeck effect. (United States)

    Adachi, Hiroto; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Saitoh, Eiji; Maekawa, Sadamichi


    The spin Seebeck effect refers to the generation of a spin voltage caused by a temperature gradient in a ferromagnet, which enables the thermal injection of spin currents from the ferromagnet into an attached nonmagnetic metal over a macroscopic scale of several millimeters. The inverse spin Hall effect converts the injected spin current into a transverse charge voltage, thereby producing electromotive force as in the conventional charge Seebeck device. Recent theoretical and experimental efforts have shown that the magnon and phonon degrees of freedom play crucial roles in the spin Seebeck effect. In this paper, we present the theoretical basis for understanding the spin Seebeck effect and briefly discuss other thermal spin effects.

  12. Spin flexoelectricity and chiral spin structures in magnetic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyatakov, A.P., E-mail: [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gori, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Sergeev, A.S. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gori, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Mikailzade, F.A. [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, Gebze, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey); Zvezdin, A.K. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilova St., 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)


    In this short review a broad range of chiral phenomena observed in magnetic films (spin cycloid and skyrmion structures formation as well as chirality dependent domain wall motion) is considered under the perspective of spin flexoelectricity, i.e. the relation between bending of magnetization pattern and electric polarization. The similarity and the difference between the spin flexoelectricity and the newly emerged notion of spin flexomagnetism are discussed. The phenomenological arguments based on the geometrical idea of curvature-induced effects are supported by analysis of the microscopic mechanisms of spin flexoelectricity based on three-site ion indirect exchange and twisted RKKY interaction models. - Highlights: • Magnetic structure formation in thin films is analogous to flexoelectric phenomena in crystals. • The microscopic mechanism of spin flexoelectricity is the antisymmetric exchange. • Spin cycloid in thin film of metals can be the result of Rashba interaction in 2DEG. • The chirality-dependent Néel-type magnetic domain wall motion is observed in electric field.

  13. Quantum Spin Liquids in Frustrated Spin-1 Diamond Antiferromagnets (United States)

    Buessen, Finn Lasse; Hering, Max; Reuther, Johannes; Trebst, Simon


    Motivated by the recent synthesis of the spin-1 A -site spinel NiRh2 O4 , we investigate the classical to quantum crossover of a frustrated J1-J2 Heisenberg model on the diamond lattice upon varying the spin length S . Applying a recently developed pseudospin functional renormalization group approach for arbitrary spin-S magnets, we find that systems with S ≥3 /2 reside in the classical regime, where the low-temperature physics is dominated by the formation of coplanar spirals and a thermal (order-by-disorder) transition. For smaller local moments S =1 or S =1 /2 , we find that the system evades a thermal ordering transition and forms a quantum spiral spin liquid where the fluctuations are restricted to characteristic momentum-space surfaces. For the tetragonal phase of NiRh2 O4 , a modified J1-J2--J2⊥ exchange model is found to favor a conventionally ordered Néel state (for arbitrary spin S ), even in the presence of a strong local single-ion spin anisotropy, and it requires additional sources of frustration to explain the experimentally observed absence of a thermal ordering transition.

  14. Spin Orbit Interaction Engineering for beyond Spin Transfer Torque memory (United States)

    Wang, Kang L.

    Spin transfer torque memory uses electron current to transfer the spin torque of electrons to switch a magnetic free layer. This talk will address an alternative approach to energy efficient non-volatile spintronics through engineering of spin orbit interaction (SOC) and the use of spin orbit torque (SOT) by the use of electric field to improve further the energy efficiency of switching. I will first discuss the engineering of interface SOC, which results in the electric field control of magnetic moment or magneto-electric (ME) effect. Magnetic memory bits based on this ME effect, referred to as magnetoelectric RAM (MeRAM), is shown to have orders of magnitude lower energy dissipation compared with spin transfer torque memory (STTRAM). Likewise, interests in spin Hall as a result of SOC have led to many advances. Recent demonstrations of magnetization switching induced by in-plane current in heavy metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures have been shown to arise from the large SOC. The large SOC is also shown to give rise to the large SOT. Due to the presence of an intrinsic extraordinarily strong SOC and spin-momentum lock, topological insulators (TIs) are expected to be promising candidates for exploring spin-orbit torque (SOT)-related physics. In particular, we will show the magnetization switching in a chromium-doped magnetic TI bilayer heterostructure by charge current. A giant SOT of more than three orders of magnitude larger than those reported in heavy metals is also obtained. This large SOT is shown to come from the spin-momentum locked surface states of TI, which may further lead to innovative low power applications. I will also describe other related physics of SOC at the interface of anti-ferromagnetism/ferromagnetic structure and show the control exchange bias by electric field for high speed memory switching. The work was in part supported by ERFC-SHINES, NSF, ARO, TANMS, and FAME.

  15. Metal-biradical chains from a high-spin ligand and bis(hexafluoroacetylacetonato)copper(II). (United States)

    Rajadurai, Chandrasekar; Enkelmann, Volker; Ikorskii, Vladimir; Ovcharenko, Victor I; Baumgarten, Martin


    The synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, and magnetic studies of a rare example of organic/inorganic spin hybrid clusters extended in infinite ladder-type chain [Cu(C5F6HO2)2]7(C35H35N5O4)2 ([Cu(hfac)2]7(pyacbisNN)2, 2) formed by the reaction of a high spin nitronylnitroxide biradical C35H35N5O4 (pyacbisNN, 1) and bis(hexafluroacetylacetonate)copper(II) = Cu(hfac)2 are described. Single-crystal X-ray structure analysis revealed the triclinic P1 space group of 2 with the following parameters: a = 10.6191(4) A, b = 19.6384(7) A, c = 21.941(9) A, alpha = 107.111(7) degrees, beta = 95.107(8) degrees, gamma = 94.208(0) degrees , Z = 2. Each repeating unit in 2 carries a centrosymmetric cyclic six spin and a linear five spin cluster with four different copper coordination environments having octahedral and square planar geometries. These clusters are interconnected to form infinite chains which are running along the crystallographic b axis. The magnetic measurements show nearly paramagnetic behavior with very small variations over a large temperature range. The magnetic properties are thus result of complex competitions of many weak ferro- and antiferromagnetic interactions, which appear as small deviations from quite linear mu(eff) vs T dependence at low temperature. At high temperature (300-14 K), antiferromagnetic behavior dominates a little, while at very low temperature (14-2 K), a small increase of mu(eff) was observed. The magnetic susceptibility data are described by the Curie-Weiss law [chi = C/(T - theta)] with the optimal parameters C = 4.32 +/- 0.01 emuK/mol and theta = - 0.6 +/- 0.3 K, where C is the Curie constant and theta is the Weiss temperature.

  16. Spin fluctuations and the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Loktev


    Full Text Available We analyze the spectral properties of a phenomenological model for a weakly doped two-dimensional antiferromagnet, in which the carriers move within one of the two sublattices where they were introduced. Such a constraint results in the free carrier spectra with the maxima at k=(± π/2 , ± π/2 observed in some cuprates. We consider the spectral properties of the model by taking into account fluctuations of the spins in the antiferromagnetic background. We show that such fluctuations lead to a non-pole-like structure of the single-hole Green's function and these fluctuations can be responsible for some anomalous "strange metal" properties of underdoped cuprates in the nonsuperconducting regime.

  17. Competing Spin Liquids and Hidden Spin-Nematic Order in Spin Ice with Frustrated Transverse Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Taillefumier


    Full Text Available Frustration in magnetic interactions can give rise to disordered ground states with subtle and beautiful properties. The spin ices Ho_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7} and Dy_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7} exemplify this phenomenon, displaying a classical spin-liquid state, with fractionalized magnetic-monopole excitations. Recently, there has been great interest in closely related “quantum spin-ice” materials, following the realization that anisotropic exchange interactions could convert spin ice into a massively entangled, quantum spin liquid, where magnetic monopoles become the charges of an emergent quantum electrodynamics. Here we show that even the simplest model of a quantum spin ice, the XXZ model on the pyrochlore lattice, can realize a still-richer scenario. Using a combination of classical Monte Carlo simulation, semiclassical molecular-dynamics simulation, and analytic field theory, we explore the properties of this model for frustrated transverse exchange. We find not one, but three competing forms of spin liquid, as well as a phase with hidden, spin-nematic order. We explore the experimental signatures of each of these different states, making explicit predictions for inelastic neutron scattering. These results show an intriguing similarity to experiments on a range of pyrochlore oxides.

  18. Spin Splitting and Spin Current in Strained Bulk Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.


    We present a theory for two recent experiments in bulk strained semiconductors and show that a new, previously overlooked, strain spin-orbit coupling term may play a fundamental role. We propose simple experiments that could clarify the origin of strain-induced spin-orbit coupling terms in inversion asymmetric semiconductors. We predict that a uniform magnetization parallel to the electric field will be induced in the samples studied in for specific directions of the applied electric field. We also propose special geometries to detect spin currents in strained semiconductors.

  19. Tröger’s Base Ladder Polymer for Membrane-Based Hydrocarbon Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Alhazmi, Abdulrahman


    The use of polymeric membranes for natural gas separation has rapidly increased during the past three decades, particularly for carbon dioxide separation from natural gas. Another valuable application is the separation of heavy hydrocarbons from methane (fuel gas conditioning), more importantly for remote area and off-shore applications. A new potential polymeric membrane that might be utilized for natural gas separations is a Tröger’s base ladder polymer (PIM-Trip-TB-2). This glassy polymeric membrane was synthesized by the polymerization reaction of 9, 10-dimethyl-2,6 (7) diaminotriptycene with dimethoxymethane. In this research, the polymer was selected due to its high surface area and highly interconnected microporous structure. Sorption isotherms of nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O¬2), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), and n-butane (n-C4H10) were measured at 35 °C over a range of pressures using a Hiden Intelligent Gravimetric Analyzer, IGA. The more condensable gases (C2H6, CO2, C3H8, and n-C4H10) showed high solubility due to their high affinity to the polymer matrix. The permeation coefficients were determined for various gases at 35 °C and pressure difference of 5 bar via the constant-pressure/variable-volume method. The PIM-Trip-TB-2 film exhibited high performance for several high-impact applications, such as O2/N2, H2/N2 and H2/CH4. Also, physical aging for several gases was examined by measuring the permeability coefficients at different periods of time. Moreover, a series of mixed-gas permeation tests was performed using 2 vol.% n-C4H10/98 vol.% CH4 and the results showed similar transport characteristics to other microporous polymers with pores of less than 2 nm. The work performed in this research suggested that PIM-Trip-TB-2 is suitable for the separation of: (i) higher hydrocarbons from methane and (ii) small, non-condensable gases such as O2/N2 and H2/CH4.

  20. Designing and constructing an 100 bp DNA Ladder by combining PCR and enzyme digestion methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidijam M


    forward and reverse primers at the flanking region of pTZ57R multiple cloning site."n"nConclusion: The highest advantage of this cost-benefit approach is to produce different types of molecular weight markers by using an effective and short protocol."n"nKeywords: DNA markers, DNA Ladder, agarose gel electrophoresis, molecular weight.

  1. Changing How Schools and the Profession Are Organized: Building a Foundation for a National System of Teacher Career Ladders at the National Center on Education and the Economy


    Yang Keo, Seng-Dao


    This capstone examines the National Center on Education and the Economy’s (NCEE) efforts in its initial planning stage to lead the design of and build support for a proposed national system of teacher career ladders. In this career ladder system, teachers can voluntarily seek advanced certification leading up to the role of Master Teacher, and states can volunteer to use the system and determine how to use it. I describe my role in strengthening NCEE’s relationship with the National Board for...

  2. Constructing a ladder of transnational partnership working in support of marine spatial planning: thoughts from the Irish Sea. (United States)

    Kidd, Sue; McGowan, Lynne


    This paper adds to the growing body of literature on partnerships and Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) by constructing a ladder of transnational partnership working which can act as an aid to partnership development. The first part draws upon partnership working and co-management literature and identifies 5 levels of transnational partnership working: Information Sharing; Administration Sharing; Agreed Joint Rules; Combined Organisation; and Combined Constitution and illustrates what these might entail with reference to established maritime partnerships. The second part of the paper then explores how these generic levels may be used to structure transnational partnership development in a particular marine setting. This draws upon the outputs of two Irish Sea Transnational Partnership Working events which were funded by the UK's Economic and Social Research Council, and in particular on the exploration of motivations for collaboration which was a key point of discussion. In conclusion the paper considers the strengths and weaknesses of the ladder and how it may be enhanced and used more widely to better understand and analyse existing transnational partnership activity and guide the development of new transnational partnerships in support of MSP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A decision ladder analysis of eco-driving: the first step towards fuel-efficient driving behaviour. (United States)

    McIlroy, Rich C; Stanton, Neville A


    This paper provides a decision ladder analysis of eco-driving, and a discussion of the resultant models in terms of the skills, rules and knowledge taxonomy of human behaviour and how this can inform the design of an in-vehicle, eco-driving support system. In order to understand the types of behaviours that characterise fuel-efficient driving, a review was conducted of the academic literature and of more publicly available resources, such as governmental, car manufacturers' and specific eco-driving organisations' websites. The review identified four largely distinct driving activities that play a central role in the use of fuel in the private road vehicle. A focus group involving four researchers in the transport ergonomics field, followed by a series of five interviews with eco-driving experts, served to validate, supplement and further specify the models. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents a decision ladder analysis of eco-driving. A four-member focus group and five interviews with eco-driving experts were conducted; the resultant models are discussed in terms of supporting fuel-efficient driving behaviours in the novice eco-driver through their potential to inform the design of an in-vehicle eco-driving support system.

  4. Interplay of magnetism and superconductivity in the compressed Fe-ladder compound BaFe2Se3 (United States)

    Ying, Jianjun; Lei, Hechang; Petrovic, Cedomir; Xiao, Yuming; Struzhkin, Viktor V.


    High pressure resistance, susceptibility, and Fe K β x-ray emission spectroscopy measurements were performed on Fe-ladder compound BaFe2Se3 . Pressure-induced superconductivity was observed which is similar to the previously reported superconductivity in the BaFe2S3 samples. The slope of local magnetic moment versus pressure shows an anomaly across the insulator-metal transition pressure in the BaFe2Se3 samples. The local magnetic moment is continuously decreasing with increasing pressure, and the superconductivity appears only when the local magnetic moment value is comparable to the one in the iron-pnictide superconductors. Our results indicate that the compressed BaFe2C h3 (C h =S , Se) is a new family of iron-based superconductors. Despite the crystal structures completely different from the known iron-based superconducting materials, the magnetism in this Fe-ladder material plays a critical role in superconductivity. This behavior is similar to the other members of iron-based superconducting materials.

  5. Quantum spin liquids: a review. (United States)

    Savary, Lucile; Balents, Leon


    Quantum spin liquids may be considered 'quantum disordered' ground states of spin systems, in which zero-point fluctuations are so strong that they prevent conventional magnetic long-range order. More interestingly, quantum spin liquids are prototypical examples of ground states with massive many-body entanglement, which is of a degree sufficient to render these states distinct phases of matter. Their highly entangled nature imbues quantum spin liquids with unique physical aspects, such as non-local excitations, topological properties, and more. In this review, we discuss the nature of such phases and their properties based on paradigmatic models and general arguments, and introduce theoretical technology such as gauge theory and partons, which are conveniently used in the study of quantum spin liquids. An overview is given of the different types of quantum spin liquids and the models and theories used to describe them. We also provide a guide to the current status of experiments in relation to study quantum spin liquids, and to the diverse probes used therein.

  6. Quantum spin liquids: a review (United States)

    Savary, Lucile; Balents, Leon


    Quantum spin liquids may be considered ‘quantum disordered’ ground states of spin systems, in which zero-point fluctuations are so strong that they prevent conventional magnetic long-range order. More interestingly, quantum spin liquids are prototypical examples of ground states with massive many-body entanglement, which is of a degree sufficient to render these states distinct phases of matter. Their highly entangled nature imbues quantum spin liquids with unique physical aspects, such as non-local excitations, topological properties, and more. In this review, we discuss the nature of such phases and their properties based on paradigmatic models and general arguments, and introduce theoretical technology such as gauge theory and partons, which are conveniently used in the study of quantum spin liquids. An overview is given of the different types of quantum spin liquids and the models and theories used to describe them. We also provide a guide to the current status of experiments in relation to study quantum spin liquids, and to the diverse probes used therein.

  7. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik


    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded the development of two master plans which outline the rationale, and general approach, for implementing a defined group of projects that are an integral part of a comprehensive watershed goal to 'Protect, enhance and restore wild and natural populations of anadromous and resident fish within the Hood River Subbasin'. The Hood River Production Master Plan and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1992. Action items identified in the two master plans, as well as in a later document entitled 'Hood River/Pelton Ladder Master Agreement' (ODFW and CTWSRO Undated), are designed to achieve two biological fish objectives: (1) to increase production of wild summer and winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to levels commensurate with the subbasins current carrying capacity and (2) re-establishing a self-sustaining population of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Numerical fish objectives for subbasin escapement, spawner escapement, and subbasin harvest are defined for each of these species in Coccoli (2000). Several projects are presently funded by the BPA to achieve the Hood River subbasin's numerical fish objectives for summer and winter steelhead and spring chinook salmon. They include BPA project numbers 1998-021-00 (Hood River Fish Habitat), 1998-053-03 (Hood River Production Program - CTWSRO: M&E), 1998-053-07 (Parkdale Fish Facility), 1998-053-08 (Powerdale/Oak Springs O&M), and 1998-053-12 (Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study). Collectively, they are implemented under the umbrella of what has come to be defined as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP is jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO). Strategies for achieving the HRPP's biological fish objectives for the Hood

  8. Spin Hall effect-driven spin torque in magnetic textures

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien


    Current-induced spin torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin Hall effect in magnetic textures is studied theoretically. The local deviation of the charge current gives rise to a current-induced spin torque of the form (1 - ΒM) × [(u 0 + αH u 0 M) ∇] M, where u0 is the direction of the injected current, H is the Hall angle and is the non-adiabaticity parameter due to spin relaxation. Since αH and ×can have a comparable order of magnitude, we show that this torque can significantly modify the current-induced dynamics of both transverse and vortex walls. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Spin precession in anisotropic cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenshchik, A.Yu. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Teryaev, O.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We consider the precession of a Dirac particle spin in some anisotropic Bianchi universes. This effect is present already in the Bianchi-I universe. We discuss in some detail the geodesics and the spin precession for both the Kasner and the Heckmann-Schucking solutions. In the Bianchi-IX universe the spin precession acquires the chaotic character due to the stochasticity of the oscillatory approach to the cosmological singularity. The related helicity flip of fermions in the very early universe may produce the sterile particles contributing to dark matter. (orig.)

  10. Ferroelectric control of spin polarization. (United States)

    Garcia, V; Bibes, M; Bocher, L; Valencia, S; Kronast, F; Crassous, A; Moya, X; Enouz-Vedrenne, S; Gloter, A; Imhoff, D; Deranlot, C; Mathur, N D; Fusil, S; Bouzehouane, K; Barthélémy, A


    A current drawback of spintronics is the large power that is usually required for magnetic writing, in contrast with nanoelectronics, which relies on "zero-current," gate-controlled operations. Efforts have been made to control the spin-relaxation rate, the Curie temperature, or the magnetic anisotropy with a gate voltage, but these effects are usually small and volatile. We used ferroelectric tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic electrodes to demonstrate local, large, and nonvolatile control of carrier spin polarization by electrically switching ferroelectric polarization. Our results represent a giant type of interfacial magnetoelectric coupling and suggest a low-power approach for spin-based information control.

  11. Spin and torsion in gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    De Sabbata, Venzo


    This book gives an exposition of both the old and new results of spin and torsion effects on gravitational interactions with implications for particle physics, cosmology etc. Physical aspects are stressed and measurable effects in relation to other areas of physics are discussed.Among the topics discussed are: alternative ways of unifying gravity with electroweak and strong interactions by an energy dependent spin torsion coupling constant; the idea that all interactions can be understood as originating from spin curvature coupling; the possibility of cosmological models with torsion providing

  12. Spin superfluid Josephson quantum devices (United States)

    Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Mohseni, Masoud


    A macroscopic spintronic qubit based on spin superfluidity and spin Hall phenomena is proposed. This magnetic quantum information processing device realizes the spin-supercurrent analog of the superconducting phase qubit and allows for full electrical control and readout. We also show that an array of interacting magnetic phase qubits can realize a quantum annealer. These devices can be built through standard solid-state fabrication technology, allowing for scalability. However, the upper bound for the operational temperature can, in principle, be higher than the superconducting counterpart, as it is ultimately governed by the magnetic ordering temperatures, which could be much higher than the critical temperatures of the conventional superconducting devices.

  13. Exploring spin-orbit coupling in a non-degenerate optical lattice clock (United States)

    Wall, Michael L.; Koller, Andrew P.; Li, Shuming; Rey, Ana Maria


    Optical lattice clocks have progressed in recent years to become not only precise timekeepers, but also sensitive probes of many-body physics. We consider a 1D optical lattice clock in which the wavelength of the laser that interrogates the clock transition is comparable to the optical lattice spacing. This light-matter coupling imprints a spatially dependent phase on the atomic internal state superposition, and this phase can be interpreted as a spin-orbit coupling. We show that this spin-orbit coupling manifests itself in Ramsey spectroscopy as an s-wave density shift in otherwise identically prepared fermions, even at temperatures significantly larger than the tunneling. Further, we show that Rabi spectroscopy can be mapped to a Hofstadter model on a two-leg ladder with chiral eigenstates. Using a modified Rabi procedure, we show how to extract momentum-resolved signatures of chirality solely by spectroscopic means. The effects of finite temperature, gaussian transverse confinement, and non-separability between transverse and axial degrees of freedom are discussed. This work has been financially supported by JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF-1211914, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI, NDSEG, and NRC.

  14. Some recent developments in spin glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I give some experimental and theoretical background to spin glasses, and then discuss the nature of the phase transition in spin glasses with vector spins. Results of Monte Carlo simulations of the Heisenberg spin glass model in three dimensions are presented. A finite-size scaling analysis of the correlation length of the ...

  15. Some recent developments in spin glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. I give some experimental and theoretical background to spin glasses, and then discuss the nature of the phase transition in spin glasses with vector spins. Results of Monte Carlo simulations of the Heisenberg spin glass model in three dimensions are presented. A finite-size scaling analysis of the correlation length ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In this report we present the research plan for the RHIC spin program. The report covers (1) the science of the RHIC spin program in a world-wide context; (2) the collider performance requirements for the RHIC spin program; (3) the detector upgrades required, including timelines; (4) time evolution of the spin program.

  17. Spin Physics with the PHENIX Detector System


    Saito, N.; Collaboration, for the PHENIX


    The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has extended its scope to cover spin physics using polarized proton beams. The major goals of the spin physics at RHIC are elucidation of the spin structure of the nucleon and precision tests of the symmetries. Sensitivities of the spin physics measurements with the PHENIX detector system are reviewed.

  18. Magnetoelectric control of spin currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, J. E.; Vargas, J. M.; Avilés-Félix, L.; Butera, A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Instituto de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CNEA) and Conicet, 8400 Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina)


    The ability to control the spin current injection has been explored on a hybrid magnetoelectric system consisting of a (011)-cut ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMNT) single crystal, a ferromagnetic FePt alloy, and a metallic Pt. With this PMNT/FePt/Pt structure we have been able to control the magnetic field position or the microwave excitation frequency at which the spin pumping phenomenon between FePt and Pt occurs. We demonstrate that the magnetoelectric heterostructure operating in the L-T (longitudinal magnetized-transverse polarized) mode couples the PMNT crystal to the magnetostrictive FePt/Pt bilayer, displaying a strong magnetoelectric coefficient of ∼140 Oe cm kV{sup −1}. Our results show that this mechanism can be effectively exploited as a tunable spin current intensity emitter and open the possibility to create an oscillating or a bistable switch to effectively manipulate spin currents.

  19. Hybrid spin-crossover nanostructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quintero, Carlos M; Félix, Gautier; Suleimanov, Iurii; Sánchez Costa, José; Molnár, Gábor; Salmon, Lionel; Nicolazzi, William; Bousseksou, Azzedine


    This review reports on the recent progress in the synthesis, modelling and application of hybrid spin-crossover materials, including core-shell nanoparticles and multilayer thin films or nanopatterns...

  20. Putting a spin on photons (United States)

    Burk, S.; Fedder, H.; Wrachtrup, J.


    We demonstrate the voltage induced switching of single defect centers between its charge states. The individual charge states do show different emission wavelengths and are identified by their ground state spin properties.

  1. Spin and exotic Galilean symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, C.; Horvathy, P.A


    A slightly modified and regularized version of the non-relativistic limit of the relativistic anyon model considered by Jackiw and Nair yields particles associated with the twofold central extension of the Galilei group, with independent spin and exotic structure.

  2. Electrical and thermal spin accumulation in germanium (United States)

    Jain, A.; Vergnaud, C.; Peiro, J.; Le Breton, J. C.; Prestat, E.; Louahadj, L.; Portemont, C.; Ducruet, C.; Baltz, V.; Marty, A.; Barski, A.; Bayle-Guillemaud, P.; Vila, L.; Attané, J.-P.; Augendre, E.; Jaffrès, H.; George, J.-M.; Jamet, M.


    In this letter, we first show electrical spin injection in the germanium conduction band at room temperature and modulate the spin signal by applying a gate voltage to the channel. The corresponding signal modulation agrees well with the predictions of spin diffusion models. Then, by setting a temperature gradient between germanium and the ferromagnet, we create a thermal spin accumulation in germanium without any charge current. We show that temperature gradients yield larger spin accumulations than electrical spin injection but, due to competing microscopic effects, the thermal spin accumulation remains surprisingly unchanged under the application of a gate voltage.

  3. Spin current swapping and Hanle spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, K.; Raimondi, R.; Vignale, G.


    We analyze the effect known as “spin current swapping” (SCS) due to electron-impurity scattering in a uniform spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas. In this effect a primary spin current Jai (lower index for spatial direction, upper index for spin direction) generates a secondary spin current

  4. Spin Hall effect by surface roughness

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lingjun


    The spin Hall and its inverse effects, driven by the spin orbit interaction, provide an interconversion mechanism between spin and charge currents. Since the spin Hall effect generates and manipulates spin current electrically, to achieve a large effect is becoming an important topic in both academia and industries. So far, materials with heavy elements carrying a strong spin orbit interaction, provide the only option. We propose here a new mechanism, using the surface roughness in ultrathin films, to enhance the spin Hall effect without heavy elements. Our analysis based on Cu and Al thin films suggests that surface roughness is capable of driving a spin Hall angle that is comparable to that in bulk Au. We also demonstrate that the spin Hall effect induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.

  5. Hybrid spin-crossover nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Quintero


    Full Text Available This review reports on the recent progress in the synthesis, modelling and application of hybrid spin-crossover materials, including core–shell nanoparticles and multilayer thin films or nanopatterns. These systems combine, often in synergy, different physical properties (optical, magnetic, mechanical and electrical of their constituents with the switching properties of spin-crossover complexes, providing access to materials with unprecedented capabilities.

  6. Tailoring spin defects in diamond


    F?varo de Oliveira, Felipe; Antonov, Denis; Wang, Ya; Neumann, Philipp; Momenzadeh, Seyed Ali; H?u?ermann, Timo; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Denisenko, Andrej; Wrachtrup, J?rg


    Atomic-size spin defects in solids are unique quantum systems. Most applications require nanometer positioning accuracy, which is typically achieved by low energy ion implantation. So far, a drawback of this technique is the significant residual implantation-induced damage to the lattice, which strongly degrades the performance of spins in quantum applications. In this letter we show that the charge state of implantation-induced defects drastically influences the formation of lattice defects ...

  7. Analytic definition of spin structure (United States)

    Avetisyan, Zhirayr; Fang, Yan-Long; Saveliev, Nikolai; Vassiliev, Dmitri


    We work on a parallelizable time-orientable Lorentzian 4-manifold and prove that in this case, the notion of spin structure can be equivalently defined in a purely analytic fashion. Our analytic definition relies on the use of the concept of a non-degenerate two-by-two formally self-adjoint first order linear differential operator and gauge transformations of such operators. We also give an analytic definition of spin structure for the 3-dimensional Riemannian case.

  8. Spin dynamics of bilayer manganites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the spin wave dispersion in La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7 shows softening close to .... The dispersion of the optic spin-wave branch along [100] has also been measured. Figure 4 shows the dispersions of both the branches along [100]. The continuous ... However, it has been realized that the population of the dz2−3r2 and ...

  9. Spin qubits in antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger


    We suggest and study designed defects in an otherwise periodic potential modulation of a two-dimensional electron gas as an alternative approach to electron spin based quantum information processing in the solid-state using conventional gate-defined quantum dots. We calculate the band structure...... electron transport between distant defect states in the lattice, and for a tunnel coupling of neighboring defect states with corresponding electrostatically controllable exchange coupling between different electron spins....

  10. Spin photocurrents in quantum wells

    CERN Document Server

    Ganichev, S D


    Spin photocurrents generated by homogeneous optical excitation with circularly polarized radiation in quantum wells (QWs) are reviewed. The absorption of circularly polarized light results in optical spin orientation due to the transfer of the angular momentum of photons to electrons of a two-dimensional electron gas. It is shown that in QWs belonging to one of the gyrotropic crystal classes a non-equilibrium spin polarization of uniformly distributed electrons causes a directed motion of electrons in the plane of the QW. A characteristic feature of this electric current, which occurs in unbiased samples, is that it reverses its direction upon changing the radiation helicity from left-handed to right-handed and vice versa. Two microscopic mechanisms are responsible for the occurrence of an electric current linked to a uniform spin polarization in a QW: the spin polarization-induced circular photogalvanic effect and the spin-galvanic effect. In both effects the current flow is driven by an asymmetric distribut...

  11. Entanglement and magnetism in high-spin graphene nanodisks (United States)

    Hagymási, I.; Legeza, Ö.


    We investigate the ground-state properties of triangular graphene nanoflakes with zigzag edge configurations. The description of zero-dimensional nanostructures requires accurate many-body techniques since the widely used density-functional theory with local density approximation or Hartree-Fock methods cannot handle the strong quantum fluctuations. Applying the unbiased density-matrix renormalization group algorithm we calculate the magnetization and entanglement patterns with high accuracy for different interaction strengths and compare them to the mean-field results. With the help of quantum information analysis and subsystem density matrices we reveal that the edges are strongly entangled with each other. We also address the effect of electron and hole doping and demonstrate that the magnetic properties of triangular nanoflakes can be controlled by an electric field, which reveals features of flat-band ferromagnetism. This may open up new avenues in graphene based spintronics.

  12. Quantum Spin Glasses, Annealing and Computation (United States)

    Tanaka, Shu; Tamura, Ryo; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.


    List of tables; List of figures, Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. Quantum Spin Glass, Annealing and Computation: 2. Classical spin models from ferromagnetic spin systems to spin glasses; 3. Simulated annealing; 4. Quantum spin glass; 5. Quantum dynamics; 6. Quantum annealing; Part II. Additional Notes: 7. Notes on adiabatic quantum computers; 8. Quantum information and quenching dynamics; 9. A brief historical note on the studies of quantum glass, annealing and computation.

  13. The effective potential of squeezed spin states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilge Ocak, S.; Altanhan, T


    Coherent spin states are considered through the spin operator representation in differential equation, which give quantum mechanical potentials. Squeezed spin states are defined through a canonical transformation. The defined concept of squeezed spin states has been applied to a spin system describing a magnetic system with S=1. The effective Schroedinger equation is obtained and the squeezed potential has been constructed for the model Hamiltonian. It is found that squeezing acts as a symmetry breaking process.

  14. Spin selective filtering of polariton condensate flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, T. [FORTH-IESL, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Antón, C.; Martín, M. D. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales “Nicolás Cabrera,” Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Liew, T. C. H. [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Hatzopoulos, Z. [FORTH-IESL, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Viña, L. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales “Nicolás Cabrera,” Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Instituto de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Eldridge, P. S., E-mail: [FORTH-IESL, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Savvidis, P. G., E-mail: [FORTH-IESL, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)


    Spin-selective spatial filtering of propagating polariton condensates, using a controllable spin-dependent gating barrier, in a one-dimensional semiconductor microcavity ridge waveguide is reported. A nonresonant laser beam provides the source of propagating polaritons, while a second circularly polarized weak beam imprints a spin dependent potential barrier, which gates the polariton flow and generates polariton spin currents. A complete spin-based control over the blocked and transmitted polaritons is obtained by varying the gate polarization.

  15. Theory of the Spin Seebeck Effect


    Adachi, Hiroto; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Saitoh, Eiji; Maekawa, Sadamichi


    The spin Seebeck effect refers to the generation of a spin voltage caused by a temperature gradient in a ferromagnet, which enables the thermal injection of spin currents from the ferromagnet into an attached nonmagnetic metal over a macroscopic scale of several millimeters. The inverse spin Hall effect converts the injected spin current into a transverse charge voltage, thereby producing electromotive force as in the conventional charge Seebeck device. Recent theoretical and experimental eff...

  16. Quantum spin transport in semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Christoph


    In this work, we study and quantitatively predict the quantum spin Hall effect, the spin-orbit interaction induced intrinsic spin-Hall effect, spin-orbit induced magnetizations, and spin-polarized electric currents in nanostructured two-dimensional electron or hole gases with and without the presence of magnetic fields. We propose concrete device geometries for the generation, detection, and manipulation of spin polarization and spin-polarized currents. To this end a novel multi-band quantum transport theory, that we termed the multi-scattering Buettiker probe model, is developed. The method treats quantum interference and coherence in open quantum devices on the same footing as incoherent scattering and incorporates inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a gauge-invariant and nonperturbative manner. The spin-orbit interaction parameters that control effects such as band energy spin splittings, g-factors, and spin relaxations are calculated microscopically in terms of an atomistic relativistic tight-binding model. We calculate the transverse electron focusing in external magnetic and electric fields. We have performed detailed studies of the intrinsic spin-Hall effect and its inverse effect in various material systems and geometries. We find a geometry dependent threshold value for the spin-orbit interaction for the inverse intrinsic spin-Hall effect that cannot be met by n-type GaAs structures. We propose geometries that spin polarize electric current in zero magnetic field and analyze the out-of-plane spin polarization by all electrical means. We predict unexpectedly large spin-orbit induced spin-polarization effects in zero magnetic fields that are caused by resonant enhancements of the spin-orbit interaction in specially band engineered and geometrically designed p-type nanostructures. We propose a concrete realization of a spin transistor in HgTe quantum wells, that employs the helical edge channel in the quantum spin Hall effect.

  17. Experimental Realization of a Quantum Spin Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Susan; Potok, R.; M. Marcus, C.


    We demonstrate the operation of a quantum spin pump based on cyclic radio-frequency excitation of a GaAs quantum dot, including the ability to pump pure spin without pumping charge. The device takes advantage of bidirectional mesoscopic fluctuations of pumped current, made spin......-dependent by the application of an in-plane Zeeman field. Spin currents are measured by placing the pump in a focusing geometry with a spin-selective collector....

  18. A Phenomenological Examination of Virtual Game Developers' Experiences Using Jacob's Ladder Pre-Production Design Tactic (United States)

    Brown-Turner, Jasmine


    Edutainment refers to curriculum and instruction designed with a clear educational purpose, including multi-faceted virtual learning game design. Tools such as the Jacob's Ladder pre-production design tactic have been developed to ensure that voices of both engineers and educators are heard. However, it is unclear how development team members…

  19. Evaluation of a Multiplex PCR Assay (Bruce-ladder) for Molecular Typing of All Brucella Species, Including the Vaccine Strains▿ † (United States)

    López-Goñi, I.; García-Yoldi, D.; Marín, C. M.; de Miguel, M. J.; Muñoz, P. M.; Blasco, J. M.; Jacques, I.; Grayon, M.; Cloeckaert, A.; Ferreira, A. C.; Cardoso, R.; Corrêa de Sá, M. I.; Walravens, K.; Albert, D.; Garin-Bastuji, B.


    An evaluation of a multiplex PCR assay (Bruce-ladder) was performed in seven laboratories using 625 Brucella strains from different animal and geographical origins. This robust test can differentiate in a single step all of the classical Brucella species, including those found in marine mammals and the S19, RB51, and Rev.1 vaccine strains. PMID:18716225

  20. Spin-inversion in nanoscale graphene sheets with a Rashba spin-orbit barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaieh Ahmadi


    Full Text Available Spin-inversion properties of an electron in nanoscale graphene sheets with a Rashba spin-orbit barrier is studied using transfer matrix method. It is found that for proper values of Rashba spin-orbit strength, perfect spin-inversion can occur in a wide range of electron incident angle near the normal incident. In this case, the graphene sheet with Rashba spin-orbit barrier can be considered as an electron spin-inverter. The efficiency of spin-inverter can increase up to a very high value by increasing the length of Rashba spin-orbit barrier. The effect of intrinsic spin-orbit interaction on electron spin inversion is then studied. It is shown that the efficiency of spin-inverter decreases slightly in the presence of intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The present study can be used to design graphene-based spintronic devices.