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Sample records for hole transporting material

  1. Simulation of perovskite solar cells with inorganic hole transporting materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan; Xia, Zhonggao; Liu, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Device modeling organolead halide perovskite solar cells with planar architecture based on inorganic hole transporting materials (HTMs) were performed. A thorough understanding of the role of the inorganic HTMs and the effect of band offset between HTM/absorber layers is indispensable for further...... improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE). Here, we investigated the effect of band offset between inorganic HTM/absorber layers. The solar cell simulation program adopted in this work is named wxAMPS, an updated version of the AMPS tool (Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structure)....

  2. Influence of hole transport material/metal contact interface on perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Zhang, Shude; Yang, Songwang; Li, Xiaomin; Yu, Yu; Wei, Qingzhu; Ni, Zhichun; Li, Ming

    2018-06-01

    Interfaces have a significant impact on the performance of perovskite solar cells. This work investigated the influence of hole transport material/metal contact interface on photovoltaic behaviours of perovskite solar devices. Different hole material/metal contact interfaces were obtained by depositing the metal under different conditions. High incident kinetic energy metal particles were proved to penetrate and embed into the hole transport material. These isolated metal particles in hole transport materials capture holes and increase the apparent carrier transport resistance of the hole transport layer. Sample temperature was found to be of great significance in metal deposition. Since metal vapour has a high temperature, the deposition process accumulated a large amount of heat. The heat evaporated the additives in the hole transport layer and decreased the hole conductivity. On the other hand, high temperature may cause iodization of the metal contact.

  3. Hole-Transporting Materials for Printable Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vivo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite solar cells (PSCs represent undoubtedly the most significant breakthrough in photovoltaic technology since the 1970s, with an increase in their power conversion efficiency from less than 5% to over 22% in just a few years. Hole-transporting materials (HTMs are an essential building block of PSC architectures. Currently, 2,2’,7,7’-tetrakis-(N,N’-di-p-methoxyphenylamine-9,9’-spirobifluorene, better known as spiro-OMeTAD, is the most widely-used HTM to obtain high-efficiency devices. However, it is a tremendously expensive material with mediocre hole carrier mobility. To ensure wide-scale application of PSC-based technologies, alternative HTMs are being proposed. Solution-processable HTMs are crucial to develop inexpensive, high-throughput and printable large-area PSCs. In this review, we present the most recent advances in the design and development of different types of HTMs, with a particular focus on mesoscopic PSCs. Finally, we outline possible future research directions for further optimization of the HTMs to achieve low-cost, stable and large-area PSCs.

  4. Hole-Transporting Materials for Printable Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Jagadish K.; Priimagi, Arri

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) represent undoubtedly the most significant breakthrough in photovoltaic technology since the 1970s, with an increase in their power conversion efficiency from less than 5% to over 22% in just a few years. Hole-transporting materials (HTMs) are an essential building block of PSC architectures. Currently, 2,2’,7,7’-tetrakis-(N,N’-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9’-spirobifluorene), better known as spiro-OMeTAD, is the most widely-used HTM to obtain high-efficiency devices. However, it is a tremendously expensive material with mediocre hole carrier mobility. To ensure wide-scale application of PSC-based technologies, alternative HTMs are being proposed. Solution-processable HTMs are crucial to develop inexpensive, high-throughput and printable large-area PSCs. In this review, we present the most recent advances in the design and development of different types of HTMs, with a particular focus on mesoscopic PSCs. Finally, we outline possible future research directions for further optimization of the HTMs to achieve low-cost, stable and large-area PSCs. PMID:28914823

  5. Spirobifluorene Core-Based Novel Hole Transporting Materials for Red Phosphorescence OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanaskanda Braveenth

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new hole transporting materials, named HTM 1A and HTM 1B, were designed and synthesized in significant yields using the well-known Buchwald Hartwig and Suzuki cross- coupling reactions. Both materials showed higher decomposition temperatures (over 450 °C at 5% weight reduction and HTM 1B exhibited a higher glass transition temperature of 180 °C. Red phosphorescence-based OLED devices were fabricated to analyze the device performances compared to Spiro-NPB and NPB as reference hole transporting materials. Devices consist of hole transporting material as HTM 1B showed better maximum current and power efficiencies of 16.16 cd/A and 11.17 lm/W, at the same time it revealed an improved external quantum efficiency of 13.64%. This efficiency is considerably higher than that of Spiro-NPB and NPB-based reference devices.

  6. Synthesis and properties of a spirobifluorene-based hole-transporting material containingtert-butyl group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Ning

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A spirobifluorene-based compound SPF-BMO was developed as hole transporters for green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes(PhOLEDs.The synthesized material showed sufficient HOMO/LUMO bandgap and triplet energy for green emitting bis[2-(2-pyridinyl-Nphenyl-C] (acetylacetonato iridium(III [Ir (ppy2(acac].The addition of a thin layer of 4,4′,4″-tri(N-carbazolyltriphenylamine (TCTAwith a high triplet energy as an exciton-blockinglayer at hole transporter/emitter interface seems to be unnecessary.SPF-BMO showed high thermal stability due to its spiro-annulated structure.Compared with the standard green PhOLEDs,organic light-emitting diodes with SPF-BMO as the hole-transport material have improved performances such as enhanced device power efficiency andlonger stability.These results clearly demonstrate that SPF-BMO is among the best hole-transporting materials reported for green PhOLEDs and utilizing anappropriate hole transporter to construct a simplified device is a promising method to enhance the power efficiency of PhOLEDs.

  7. Characterisation of different hole transport materials as used in organic p-i-n solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfuetzner, Steffen; Petrich, Annette; Koch, Maik; Riede, Moritz; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Malbrich, Christine [Leibniz-Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung, Dresden (Germany); Hildebrandt, Dirk; Pfeiffer, Martin [Heliatek GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    This work focuses on the replacement of hole transport material MeO-TPD, which has been used so far in organic p-i-n- solar cells despite its has unfavourable behaviour at elevated temperatures. For this reason, different characterisation and investigations of the hole transport materials PV-TPD, PV-TPDoM, Di-NPB and MeO-Spiro-TPD were done, i.e. dopability, hole mobility, absorption, reflection, cyclic voltametry and glass transition temperature were measured. With simplified structures, e.g. m-i-p diodes, and simplified solar cells, consisting of the blue absorbing fullerene C{sub 60} as acceptor and the transparent donor material 4P-TPD, further specific material properties were determined.

  8. Material Exchange Property of Organo Lead Halide Perovskite with Hole-Transporting Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Using X-ray diffraction (XRD, it was confirmed that the deposition of hole-transporting materials (HTM on a CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite layer changed the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite crystal, which was due to the material exchanging phenomena between the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite and HTM layers. The solvent for HTM also changed the perovskite crystal. In order to suppress the crystal change, doping by chloride ion, bromide ion and 5-aminovaleric acid was attempted. However, the doping was unable to stabilize the perovskite crystal against HTM deposition. It can be concluded that the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite crystal is too soft and flexible to stabilize against HTM deposition.

  9. Oxasmaragdyrins as New and Efficient Hole-Transporting Materials for High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Sandeep B; Sutanto, Albertus Adrian; Cheng, Chih-Fu; Xie, Meng-Yu; Chen, Chieh-I; Leonardus, Mario; Yeh, Shih-Chieh; Beyene, Belete Bedemo; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Chen, Chin-Ti; Hung, Chen-Hsiung

    2017-09-20

    The high performance of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs) cannot be achieved without a layer of efficient hole-transporting materials (HTMs) to retard the charge recombination and transport the photogenerated hole to the counterelectrode. Herein, we report the use of boryl oxasmaragdyrins (SM01, SM09, and SM13), a family of aromatic core-modified expanded porphyrins, as efficient hole-transporting materials (HTMs) for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). These oxasmaragdyrins demonstrated complementary absorption spectra in the low-energy region, good redox reversibility, good thermal stability, suitable energy levels with CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite, and high hole mobility. A remarkable power conversion efficiency of 16.5% (V oc = 1.09 V, J sc = 20.9 mA cm -2 , fill factor (FF) = 72%) is achieved using SM09 on the optimized PSCs device employing a planar structure, which is close to that of the state-of-the-art hole-transporting materials (HTMs), spiro-OMeTAD of 18.2% (V oc = 1.07 V, J sc = 22.9 mA cm -2 , FF = 74%). In contrast, a poor photovoltaic performance of PSCs using SM01 is observed due to the interactions of terminal carboxylic acid functional group with CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 .

  10. Enhanced bulk conductivity and bipolar transport in mixtures of MoOx and organic hole transport materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Baolin; Ban, Dayan; Aziz, Hany

    2013-01-01

    We study the conductivity of thin films of molybdenum oxide (MoO x ) mixed with an organic hole transport material, such as N,N′-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N′-bis (phenyl)benzidine or 4′,4″-tri(N-carbazolyl)triphenylamine, in lateral test devices. Contrary to previous reports, the conductivity of the mixture is found to exceed that of neat MoO x , exhibiting ∼ 5 orders of magnitude higher conductivity in comparison to the neat films. Studies also show that the mixing enhances both hole and electron transport. The higher conductivity may be attributed to a higher concentration of “free” carriers in the mixture, as a result of the formation of a charge transfer complex between the MoO x and the hole transport material. The findings shed light on the potential of hybrid composites of inorganic and organic materials in realizing enhanced conductivity. - Highlights: • We investigate the conductivity of mixtures of MoO x and hole transport material (HTM). • Materials are studied in lateral devices instead of conventional vertical devices. • Mixing MoO x with HTM brings > 5 orders of magnitude increase in bulk conductivity. • The mixture of MoO x and HTM enhances both hole and electron transport

  11. Thermally Cross-Linkable Hole Transport Materials for Solution Processed Phosphorescent OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Ohyoung; Chin, Byung Doo; Lee, Chil Won

    2018-04-01

    Materials for unique fabrication of a solution-processed, multi-layered organic light-emitting diode (OLED) were developed. Preparation of a hole transport layer with a thermally cross-linkable chemical structure, which can be processed to form a thin film and then transformed into an insoluble film by using an amine-alcohol condensation reaction with heat treatment, was investigated. Functional groups, such as triplenylamine linked with phenylcarbazole or biphenyl, were employed in the chemical structure of the hole transport layer in order to maintain high triplet energy properties. When phenylcarbazole or biphenyl compounds continuously react with triphenylamine under acid catalysis, a chemically stable thin film material with desirable energy-level properties for a blue OLED could be obtained. The prepared hole transport materials showed excellent surface roughness and thermal stability in comparison with the commercial reference material. On the solution-processed model hole transport layer, we fabricated a device with a blue phosphorescent OLED by using sequential vacuum deposition. The maximum external quantum, 19.3%, was improved by more than 40% over devices with the commercial reference material (11.4%).

  12. Ultrathin Cu2O as an efficient inorganic hole transporting material for perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Weili; Li, Feng; Wang, Hong; Alarousu, Erkki; Chen, Yin; Lin, Bin; Wang, Lingfei; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Li, Yangyang; Wu, Kewei; Wang, Xianbin; Mohammed, Omar F.; Wu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that ultrathin P-type Cu2O thin films fabricated by a facile thermal oxidation method can serve as a promising hole-transporting material in perovskite solar cells. Following a two-step method, inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite

  13. Hole-transport material variation in fully vacuum deposited perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polander, Lauren E.; Pahner, Paul; Schwarze, Martin; Saalfrank, Matthias; Koerner, Christian; Leo, Karl, E-mail: karl.leo@iapp.de [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    This work addresses the effect of energy level alignment between the hole-transporting material and the active layer in vacuum deposited, planar-heterojunction CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub x−3}Cl{sub x} perovskite solar cells. Through a series of hole-transport materials, with conductivity values set using controlled p-doping of the layer, we correlate their ionization potentials with the open-circuit voltage of the device. With ionization potentials beyond 5.3 eV, a substantial decrease in both current density and voltage is observed, which highlights the delicate energetic balance between driving force for hole-extraction and maximizing the photovoltage. In contrast, when an optimal ionization potential match is found, the open-circuit voltage can be maximized, leading to power conversion efficiencies of up to 10.9%. These values are obtained with hole-transport materials that differ from the commonly used Spiro-MeO-TAD and correspond to a 40% performance increase versus this reference.

  14. Hole-transport material variation in fully vacuum deposited perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Polander

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the effect of energy level alignment between the hole-transporting material and the active layer in vacuum deposited, planar-heterojunction CH3NH3PbIx−3Clx perovskite solar cells. Through a series of hole-transport materials, with conductivity values set using controlled p-doping of the layer, we correlate their ionization potentials with the open-circuit voltage of the device. With ionization potentials beyond 5.3 eV, a substantial decrease in both current density and voltage is observed, which highlights the delicate energetic balance between driving force for hole-extraction and maximizing the photovoltage. In contrast, when an optimal ionization potential match is found, the open-circuit voltage can be maximized, leading to power conversion efficiencies of up to 10.9%. These values are obtained with hole-transport materials that differ from the commonly used Spiro-MeO-TAD and correspond to a 40% performance increase versus this reference.

  15. One-Step Facile Synthesis of a Simple Hole Transport Material for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hu

    2016-04-04

    A hole transporting material was designed for use in perovskite solar cells, with a facile one-step synthesis from inexpensive, com-mercially available reagents. The molecule comprises a central fluorinated phenyl core with pendant aryl amines, namely, 3,6-difluoro-N1,N1,N2,N2,N4,N4,N5,N5-octakis(4-methoxyphenyl)benzene-1,2,4,5-tetraamine (DFTAB). A power conversion efficiency of up to 10.4% was achieved in a mesoporous perovskite device architecture. The merits of a simple and potentially low cost syn-thetic route as well as promising performance in perovskite devices, encourages further development of this materials class as new low-cost hole transporting materials for the scale up of perovskite solar cells.

  16. One-Step Facile Synthesis of a Simple Hole Transport Material for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hu; Bryant, Daniel; Troughton, Joel; Kirkus, Mindaugas; Neophytou, Marios; Miao, Xiaohe; Durrant, James R.; McCulloch, Iain

    2016-01-01

    A hole transporting material was designed for use in perovskite solar cells, with a facile one-step synthesis from inexpensive, com-mercially available reagents. The molecule comprises a central fluorinated phenyl core with pendant aryl amines, namely, 3,6-difluoro-N1,N1,N2,N2,N4,N4,N5,N5-octakis(4-methoxyphenyl)benzene-1,2,4,5-tetraamine (DFTAB). A power conversion efficiency of up to 10.4% was achieved in a mesoporous perovskite device architecture. The merits of a simple and potentially low cost syn-thetic route as well as promising performance in perovskite devices, encourages further development of this materials class as new low-cost hole transporting materials for the scale up of perovskite solar cells.

  17. Perovskite Solar Cells: Influence of Hole Transporting Materials on Power Conversion Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Sadia; Rub, Malik Abdul; Kosa, Samia A; Alamry, Khalid A; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Shin, Hyung-Shik; Seo, Hyung-Kee; Asiri, Abdullah M; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-01-08

    The recent advances in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) created a tsunami effect in the photovoltaic community. PSCs are newfangled high-performance photovoltaic devices with low cost that are solution processable for large-scale energy production. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of such devices experienced an unprecedented increase from 3.8 % to a certified value exceeding 20 %, demonstrating exceptional properties of perovskites as solar cell materials. A key advancement in perovskite solar cells, compared with dye-sensitized solar cells, occurred with the replacement of liquid electrolytes with solid-state hole-transporting materials (HTMs) such as 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD), which contributed to enhanced PCE values and improved the cell stability. Following improvements in the perovskite crystallinity to produce a smooth, uniform morphology, the selective and efficient extraction of positive and negative charges in the device dictated the PCE of PSCs. In this Review, we focus mainly on the HTMs responsible for hole transport and extraction in PSCs, which is one of the essential components for efficient devices. Here, we describe the current state-of-the-art in molecular engineering of hole-transporting materials that are used in PSCs and highlight the requisites for market-viability of this technology. Finally, we include an outlook on molecular engineering of new functional HTMs for high efficiency PSCs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Ultrathin Cu2O as an efficient inorganic hole transporting material for perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Weili

    2016-02-18

    We demonstrate that ultrathin P-type Cu2O thin films fabricated by a facile thermal oxidation method can serve as a promising hole-transporting material in perovskite solar cells. Following a two-step method, inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells were fabricated and a power conversion efficiency of 11.0% was achieved. We find that the thickness and properties of Cu2O layers must be precisely tuned in order to achieve the optimal solar cell performance. The good performance of such perovskite solar cells can be attributed to the unique properties of ultrathin Cu2O, including high hole mobility, good energy level alignment with CH3NH3PbI3, and longer lifetime of photo-excited carriers. Combining merits of low cost, facile synthesis, and high device performance, ultrathin Cu2O films fabricated via thermal oxidation hold promise for facilitating the developments of industrial-scale perovskite solar cells.

  19. Liquid electrolyte-free, solid-state solar cells with inorganic hole transport materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Chung, In; Lee, Byunghong; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2017-10-31

    Photovoltaic cells incorporating the compounds A/M/X compounds as hole transport materials are provide. The A/M/X compounds comprise one or more A moieties, one or more M atoms and one or more X atoms. The A moieties are selected from organic cations and elements from Group 1 of the periodic table, the M atoms are selected from elements from at least one of Groups 3, 4, 5, 13, 14 or 15 of the periodic table, and the X atoms are selected from elements from Group 17 of the periodic table.

  20. 3,4-Phenylenedioxythiophene (PheDOT) Based Hole-Transporting Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Chen, Bai-Xue; Zhang, Fang-Shuai; Yu, Hui-Juan; Ma, Shuang; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Shao, Guang; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-04-05

    Two new electron-rich molecules based on 3,4-phenylenedioxythiophene (PheDOT) were synthesized and successfully adopted as hole-transporting materials (HTMs) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). X-ray diffraction, absorption spectra, photoluminescence spectra, electrochemical properties, thermal stabilities, hole mobilities, conductivities, and photovoltaic parameters of PSCs based on these two HTMs were compared with each other. By introducing methoxy substituents into the main skeleton, the energy levels of PheDOT-core HTM were tuned to match with the perovskite, and its hole mobility was also improved (1.33×10(-4)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) , being higher than that of spiro-OMeTAD, 2.34×10(-5)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1)). The PSC based on MeO-PheDOT as HTM exhibits a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 18.31 mA cm(-2) , an open-circuit potential (Voc ) of 0.914 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.636, yielding an encouraging power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.64 % under AM 1.5G illumination. These results give some insight into how the molecular structures of HTMs affect their performances and pave the way for developing high-efficiency and low-cost HTMs for PSCs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A discotic triphenylene dimer as organic hole transporting material for electroluminescence devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Huaxiang; He Zhiqun; Wang Junling; Zhang Chunxiu; Xie, Ping; Zhang Rongben

    2007-01-01

    A triphenylene dimer, an intermediate between a discotic triphenylene molecule and the macromolecule, had been prepared by linking together two triphenylene units via phenylene carbamate linkages, which was formed through a reaction between one 1,4-phenylene diisocyanate and two hydroxyl end groups on flexible substituents of triphenylenes. The dimer exhibited good film-forming property. Its temperature-dependent phase transitions were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy. Room temperature microstructure of the dimer was analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Charge mobility of the triphenylene dimer was also measured. Our preliminary result using the materials in a sandwich light-emitting device is reported here. It demonstrates that the triphenylene dimer is a promising candidate as a hole transporting material

  2. Application of dopant-free hole transport materials for perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franckevincius, M.; Gulbinas, V.; Gratzel, M.; Zakeeruddin, S.; Pauerle, P.; Mishra, A.; Steck, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present the synthesis, characterization and application of a series of additive and dopant free hole transport materials (HTM) for solid-state perovskite-based solar cells. Newly synthesized HTMs showed strong absorption in the visible spectral range and suitable HOMO-LUMO energy levels for the application for methylammonium lead(II) iodide (CH_3NH_3PbI_3) perovskite. Dopant-free perovskite solar cells have been fabricated using CH_3NH_3PbI_3 perovskite and the newly synthesized HTMs following sequential deposition method, which allows us to reach power conversion efficiencies as high as 11.4 %. The easy of synthesis, low cost and relatively high performance of newly synthesized HTMs has great prospects for commercial applications in the near-future. (authors)

  3. Electronic structure and molecular orbital study of hole-transport material triphenylamine derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.-C.; Liao, H.-R.; Chang, J.-C.; Chen Likey; Yeh, J.-T.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, triphenylamine (TPA), 4,4'-bis(phenyl-m-tolylamino)biphenyl (TPD), 4,4'-bis(1-naphthylphenylamino)biphenyl (NPB) and their derivatives are widely used in the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices as a hole-transporting material (HTM) layer. We have optimized twenty different structures of HTM materials by using density functional theory (DFT), B3LYP/6-31G method. All these different structures contain mono-amine and diamine TPA derivatives. The energies of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) along with molecular orbitals for these HTMs are also determined. We have found that the central amine nitrogen atom and the phenyl ring, which is next to the central amine nitrogen atom, show significant contribution to the HOMO and LUMO, respectively. The sum of the calculated bond angles (α+β+γ) of the central amine nitrogen atom has been applied to describe the bonding and the energy difference for HOMO and LUMO in these TPA derivatives. Electronic structure calculations have been performed for these TPA derivatives. Again, the LCAO-MO patterns of HOMO and LUMO levels of these derivatives are used to investigate their electron density. A series of electron-transporting steps are predicted for these compounds employing these calculated results

  4. Deposition of hole-transport materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by doctor-blading

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang; Melas-Kyriazi, John; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Le; Chittibabu, Kethinni G.; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Grä tzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    We report using doctor-blading to replace conventional spin coating for the deposition of the hole-transport material spiro-OMeTAD (2,20,7,70-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)- 9,90-spirobifluorene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

  5. Development of organic-inorganic double hole-transporting material for high performance perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jea Woong; Seo, Myung-Seok; Jung, Jae Woong; Park, Joon-Suh; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok; Ko, Min Jae; Son, Hae Jung

    2018-02-01

    The control of the optoelectronic properties of the interlayers of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is crucial for achieving high photovoltaic performances. Of the solution-processable interlayer candidates, NiOx is considered one of the best inorganic hole-transporting layer (HTL) materials. However, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of NiOx-based PSCs are limited by the unfavorable contact between perovskite layers and NiOx HTLs, the high density of surface trap sites, and the inefficient charge extraction from perovskite photoactive layers to anodes. Here, we introduce a new organic-inorganic double HTL consisting of a Cu:NiOx thin film passivated by a conjugated polyelectrolyte (PhNa-1T) film. This double HTL has a significantly lower pinhole density and forms better contact with perovskite films, which results in enhanced charge extraction. As a result, the PCEs of PSCs fabricated with the double HTL are impressively improved up to 17.0%, which is more than 25% higher than that of the corresponding PSC with a Cu:NiOx HTL. Moreover, PSCs with the double HTLs exhibit similar stabilities under ambient conditions to devices using inorganic Cu:NiOx. Therefore, this organic-inorganic double HTL is a promising interlayer material for high performance PSCs with high air stability.

  6. Electroabsorption in triphenylamine-based hole-transporting materials for organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stampor, Waldemar; Mroz, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    Electric-field modulated absorption (EA) spectra have been studied in solid films of triphenylamine (TPA)-based compounds, commonly used as hole-transporting materials in organic light-emitting diodes. The electroabsorption spectra of triphenyldiamine derivatives (TPD and TAPC) and a starburst amine dendrimer m-MTDATA are compared with those of TPA which is the building block of the molecules. The EA results indicate that properties of excited states of m-MTDATA and TAPC can be qualitatively rationalized in the terms of exciton interaction between TPA constituents. The lowest energy electronic excitations of m-MTDATA dendrimer are strongly delocalized within the area of the whole molecule. In contrast to m-MTDATA and TAPC, the TPD behavior in the electric field shows individual features that can not be derived from the optical properties of TPA monomers alone. The influence of excited state degeneracy on EA spectra is discussed. The consistent qualitative interpretation of EA spectra for compounds under investigation has been reached assuming that the second derivative lineshapes of EA signal originate from degenerate (in TPA and m-MTDATA) and possible quasi-degenerate states (in TAPC and TPD)

  7. Rational Design of Molecular Hole-Transporting Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells: Direct versus Inverted Device Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisorio, Roberto; Iacobellis, Rosabianca; Listorti, Andrea; De Marco, Luisa; Cipolla, Maria Pia; Manca, Michele; Rizzo, Aurora; Abate, Antonio; Gigli, Giuseppe; Suranna, Gian Paolo

    2017-07-26

    Due to a still limited understanding of the reasons making 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) the state-of-the-art hole-transporting material (HTM) for emerging photovoltaic applications, the molecular tailoring of organic components for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) lacks in solid design criteria. Charge delocalization in radical cationic states can undoubtedly be considered as one of the essential prerequisites for an HTM, but this aspect has been investigated to a relatively minor extent. In marked contrast with the 3-D structure of Spiro-OMeTAD, truxene-based HTMs Trux1 and Trux2 have been employed for the first time in PSCs fabricated with a direct (n-i-p) or inverted (p-i-n) architecture, exhibiting a peculiar behavior with respect to the referential HTM. Notwithstanding the efficient hole extraction from the perovskite layer exhibited by Trux1 and Trux2 in direct configuration devices, their photovoltaic performances were detrimentally affected by their poor hole transport. Conversely, an outstanding improvement of the photovoltaic performances in dopant-free inverted configuration devices compared to Spiro-OMeTAD was recorded, ascribable to the use of thinner HTM layers. The rationalization of the photovoltaic performances exhibited by different configuration devices discussed in this paper can provide new and unexpected prospects for engineering the interface between the active layer of perovskite-based solar cells and the hole transporters.

  8. Potential application of CuSbS2 as the hole transport material in perovskite solar cell: A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimouri, R.; Mohammadpour, R.

    2018-06-01

    CH3 NH3 PbI3 (MAPbI3) thin film solar cells, which are reported at laboratory efficiency scale of nearly 22%, are the subject of much attention by energy researchers due to their low cost buildup, acceptable efficiency, high absorption coefficient and diffusion length. The main purpose of this research is to simulate the structure of thin film perovskite solar cells through numerical simulation of SCAPS based on the empirical data for different hole transport layers. After simulating the initial structure of FTO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3/Spiro-OMeTAD solar cell, the hole transport layer Spiro-OMeTAD thickness was optimized on a small scale using modeling. The researchers also sought to reduce the amount of this material and the cost of construction. Ultimately, an optimum thickness of 140 nm was obtained for this cell with efficiency of 22.88%. The effect of employing alternative inorganic hole transport layer was investigated as a substitute for Spiro-OMeTAD; Copper antimony sulphide (CuSbS2) was selected due to abundant and available material and high open circuit voltage of about 988 mV. Thickness variations were also performed on a MAPbI3/CuSbS2 solar cell. Finally, It has obtained that perovskite solar cell with 120 nm-thick of CuSbS2 has 23.14% conversion efficiency with acceptable VOC and JSC values.

  9. Thermally and electrochemically stable amorphous hole-transporting materials based on carbazole dendrimers for electroluminescent devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promarak, Vinich; Ichikawa, Musubu; Sudyoadsuk, Taweesak; Saengsuwan, Sayant; Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn; Keawin, Tinnagon

    2008-01-01

    Amorphous hole-transporting carbazole dendrimers, 1,4-bis[3,6-di(carbazol-9-yl)carbazol-9-yl]-2,6-di(2-ethylhexyloxy)benzene (G2CB) and 1,4-bis[3,6-di(carbazol-9-yl)carbazol-9-yl]-9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole (G2CC), were synthesized by a divergent approach involving bromination and Ullmann coupling reactions. Compounds G2CB and G2CC showed high thermal stability (T g = 206 to 245 deg. C) and excellent electrochemical reversibility. Double-layer organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated by using G2CB and G2CC as hole-transporting layers (HTLs) and tris(8-quinolinato)aluminum (Alq 3 ) as light-emissive layer with the device configuration of indium tin oxide/HTL/Alq 3 /LiF:Al. Both devices exhibited bright green emission from Alq 3 . The device using G2CC as HTL has the best performance with a maximum brightness of 8900 cd/m 2 at 14 V and a low turn-on voltage of 3.5 V

  10. Recent advances in small molecular, non-polymeric organic hole transporting materials for solid-state DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thanh-Tuan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Issue from thin-film technologies, dye-sensitized solar cells have become one of the most promising technologies in the field of renewable energies. Their success is not only due to their low weight, the possibility of making large flexible surfaces, but also to their photovoltaic efficiency which are found to be more and more significant (>12% with a liquid electrolyte, >7% with a solid organic hole conductor. This short review highlights recent advances in the characteristics and use of low-molecular-weight glass-forming organic materials as hole transporters in all solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. These materials must feature specific physical and chemical properties that will ensure both the operation of a photovoltaic cell and the easy implementation. This review is an english extended version based on our recent article published in Matériaux & Techniques 101, 102 (2013.

  11. High Mobility, Hole Transport Materials for Highly Efficient PEDOT:PSS Replacement in Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios

    2017-04-24

    Perovskite solar cells are one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies, due to their rapid increase in power conversion efficiency (3.8% to 21.1%) in a very short period of time and the relative ease of their fabrication compared to traditional inorganic solar cells. One of the drawbacks of perovskite solar cells is their limited stability in non-inert atmospheres. In the inverted device configuration this lack of stability can be attributed to the inclusion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate(PEDOT:PSS) as the hole transporting layer. Herein we report the synthesis of two new triarylamine based hole transporting materials, synthesised from readily available starting materials. These new materials show increased power conversion efficiencies, of 13.0% and 12.1%, compared to PEDOT:PSS (10.9%) and exhibit increased stability achieving lifetimes in excess of 500 hours. Both molecules are solution processible at low temperatures and offer potential for low cost, scalable production on flexible substrates for large scale perovskite solar cells.

  12. High Mobility, Hole Transport Materials for Highly Efficient PEDOT:PSS Replacement in Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios; Griffiths, Jack; Fraser, James; Kirkus, Mindaugas; Chen, Hu; Nielsen, Christian; McCulloch, Iain

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells are one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies, due to their rapid increase in power conversion efficiency (3.8% to 21.1%) in a very short period of time and the relative ease of their fabrication compared to traditional inorganic solar cells. One of the drawbacks of perovskite solar cells is their limited stability in non-inert atmospheres. In the inverted device configuration this lack of stability can be attributed to the inclusion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate(PEDOT:PSS) as the hole transporting layer. Herein we report the synthesis of two new triarylamine based hole transporting materials, synthesised from readily available starting materials. These new materials show increased power conversion efficiencies, of 13.0% and 12.1%, compared to PEDOT:PSS (10.9%) and exhibit increased stability achieving lifetimes in excess of 500 hours. Both molecules are solution processible at low temperatures and offer potential for low cost, scalable production on flexible substrates for large scale perovskite solar cells.

  13. Cuprous Oxide as a Potential Low-Cost Hole-Transport Material for Stable Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejand, Bahram Abdollahi; Ahmadi, Vahid; Gharibzadeh, Saba; Shahverdi, Hamid Reza

    2016-02-08

    Inorganic hole-transport materials are commercially desired to decrease the fabrication cost of perovskite solar cells. Here, Cu2O is introduced as a potential hole-transport material for stable, low-cost devices. Considering that Cu2O formation is highly sensitive to the underlying mixture of perovskite precursors and their solvents, we proposed and engineered a technique for reactive magnetron sputtering. The rotational angular deposition of Cu2O yields high surface coverage of the perovskite layer for high rate of charge extraction. Deposition of this Cu2O layer on the pinhole-free perovskite layer produces devices with power conversion efficiency values of up to 8.93%. The engineered Cu2O layers showed uniform, compact, and crack-free surfaces on the perovskite layer without affecting the perovskite structure, which is desired for deposition of the top metal contact and for surface shielding against moisture and mechanical damages. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The Effect of Hole Transport Material Pore Filling on Photovoltaic Performance in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Melas-Kyriazi, John

    2011-04-05

    A detailed investigation of the effect of hole transport material (HTM) pore filling on the photovoltaic performance of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSCs) and the specific mechanisms involved is reported. It is demonstrated that the efficiency and photovoltaic characteristics of ss-DSCs improve with the pore filling fraction (PFF) of the HTM, 2,2\\',7,7\\'-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9,9\\'-spirobifluorene(spiro-OMeTAD). The mechanisms through which the improvement of photovoltaic characteristics takes place were studied with transient absorption spectroscopy and transient photovoltage/photocurrent measurements. It is shown that as the spiro-OMeTAD PFF is increased from 26% to 65%, there is a higher hole injection efficiency from dye cations to spiro-OMeTAD because more dye molecules are covered with spiro-OMeTAD, an order-of-magnitude slower recombination rate because holes can diffuse further away from the dye/HTM interface, and a 50% higher ambipolar diffusion coefficient due to an improved percolation network. Device simulations predict that if 100% PFF could be achieved for thicker devices, the efficiency of ss-DSCs using a conventional rutheniumdye would increase by 25% beyond its current value. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The Effect of Hole Transport Material Pore Filling on Photovoltaic Performance in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Melas-Kyriazi, John; Ding, I-Kang; Marchioro, Arianna; Punzi, Angela; Hardin, Brian E.; Burkhard, George F.; Té treault, Nicolas; Grä tzel, Michael; Moser, Jacques-E.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the effect of hole transport material (HTM) pore filling on the photovoltaic performance of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSCs) and the specific mechanisms involved is reported. It is demonstrated that the efficiency and photovoltaic characteristics of ss-DSCs improve with the pore filling fraction (PFF) of the HTM, 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9,9'-spirobifluorene(spiro-OMeTAD). The mechanisms through which the improvement of photovoltaic characteristics takes place were studied with transient absorption spectroscopy and transient photovoltage/photocurrent measurements. It is shown that as the spiro-OMeTAD PFF is increased from 26% to 65%, there is a higher hole injection efficiency from dye cations to spiro-OMeTAD because more dye molecules are covered with spiro-OMeTAD, an order-of-magnitude slower recombination rate because holes can diffuse further away from the dye/HTM interface, and a 50% higher ambipolar diffusion coefficient due to an improved percolation network. Device simulations predict that if 100% PFF could be achieved for thicker devices, the efficiency of ss-DSCs using a conventional rutheniumdye would increase by 25% beyond its current value. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Deposition of hole-transport materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by doctor-blading

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2010-07-01

    We report using doctor-blading to replace conventional spin coating for the deposition of the hole-transport material spiro-OMeTAD (2,20,7,70-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)- 9,90-spirobifluorene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Doctor-blading is a roll-to-roll compatible, large-area coating technique, is capable of achieving the same spiro-OMeTAD pore filling fraction as spin coating, and uses much less material. The average power conversion efficiency of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells made from doctorblading is 3.0% for 2-lm thick films and 2.0% for 5-lm thick films, on par with devices made with spin coating. Directions to further improve the filling fraction are also suggested. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Facile Synthesis and High performance of a New Carbazole-Based Hole Transporting Material for Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2015-06-26

    Perovskite solar cells are very promising for practical applications owing to their rapidly rising power conversion efficiency and low cost of solution-based processing. 2,2’,7,7’-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine) 9,9’-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) is most widely used as hole transporting material (HTM) in perovskite solar cells. However, the tedious synthesis and high cost of Spiro-OMeTAD inhibit its commercial-scale application in the photovoltaic industry. In this article, we report a carbazole-based compound (R01) as a new HTM in efficient perovskite solar cells. R01 is synthesized via a facile route consisting of only two steps from inexpensive commercially available materials. Furthermore, R01 exhibits higher hole mobility and conductivity than the state-of-the-art Spiro-OMeTAD. Perovskite solar cells fabricated with R01 produce a power conversion efficiency of 12.03%, comparable to that obtained in devices using Spiro-OMeTAD in this study. Our findings underscore R01 as a highly promising HTM with high performance, and its facile synthesis and low cost may facilitate the large-scale applications of perovskite solar cells.

  18. Facile Synthesis and High performance of a New Carbazole-Based Hole Transporting Material for Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong; Sheikh, Arif D.; Feng, Quanyou; Li, Feng; Chen, Yin; Yu, Weili; Alarousu, Erkki; Ma, Chun; Haque, Mohammed; Shi, Dong; Wang, Zhong-Sheng; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman; Wu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells are very promising for practical applications owing to their rapidly rising power conversion efficiency and low cost of solution-based processing. 2,2’,7,7’-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine) 9,9’-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) is most widely used as hole transporting material (HTM) in perovskite solar cells. However, the tedious synthesis and high cost of Spiro-OMeTAD inhibit its commercial-scale application in the photovoltaic industry. In this article, we report a carbazole-based compound (R01) as a new HTM in efficient perovskite solar cells. R01 is synthesized via a facile route consisting of only two steps from inexpensive commercially available materials. Furthermore, R01 exhibits higher hole mobility and conductivity than the state-of-the-art Spiro-OMeTAD. Perovskite solar cells fabricated with R01 produce a power conversion efficiency of 12.03%, comparable to that obtained in devices using Spiro-OMeTAD in this study. Our findings underscore R01 as a highly promising HTM with high performance, and its facile synthesis and low cost may facilitate the large-scale applications of perovskite solar cells.

  19. Alternative p-doped hole transport material for low operating voltage and high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murawski, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.murawski@iapp.de; Fuchs, Cornelius; Hofmann, Simone; Leo, Karl [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Gather, Malte C. [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    We investigate the properties of N,N′-[(Diphenyl-N,N′-bis)9,9,-dimethyl-fluoren-2-yl]-benzidine (BF-DPB) as hole transport material (HTL) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and compare BF-DPB to the commonly used HTLs N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD), 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p-methylphenylamino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (Spiro-TTB), and N,N′-di(naphtalene-1-yl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine (NPB). The influence of 2,2′-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile (F6-TCNNQ p-dopant) concentration in BF-DPB on the operation voltage and efficiency of red and green phosphorescent OLEDs is studied; best results are achieved at 4 wt. % doping. Without any light extraction structure, BF-DPB based red (green) OLEDs achieve a luminous efficacy of 35 .1 lm/W (74 .0 lm/W) at 1000 cd/m{sup 2} and reach a very high brightness of 10 000 cd/m{sup 2} at a very low voltage of 3.2 V (3.1 V). We attribute this exceptionally low driving voltage to the high ionization potential of BF-DPB which enables more efficient hole injection from BF-DPB to the adjacent electron blocking layer. The high efficiency and low driving voltage lead to a significantly lower luminous efficacy roll-off compared to the other compounds and render BF-DPB an excellent HTL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

  20. Utilizing a Spiro Core with Acridine- and Phenothiazine-Based New Hole Transporting Materials for Highly Efficient Green Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanaskanda Braveenth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new hole transporting materials, 2,7-bis(9,9-diphenylacridin-10(9H-yl-9,9′ spirobi[fluorene] (SP1 and 2,7-di(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl-9,9′-spirobi[fluorene] (SP2, were designed and synthesized by using the Buchwald–Hartwig coupling reaction with a high yield percentage of over 84%. Both of the materials exhibited high glass transition temperatures of over 150 °C. In order to understand the device performances, we have fabricated green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs with SP1 and SP2 as hole transporting materials. Both of the materials revealed improved device properties, in particular, the SP2-based device showed excellent power (34.47 lm/W and current (38.41 cd/A efficiencies when compare with the 4,4′-bis(N-phenyl-1-naphthylaminobiphenyl (NPB-based reference device (30.33 lm/W and 32.83 cd/A. The external quantum efficiency (EQE of SP2 was 13.43%, which was higher than SP1 (13.27% and the reference material (11.45% with a similar device structure. The SP2 hole transporting material provides an effective charge transporting path from anode to emission layer, which is explained by the device efficiencies.

  1. Strategy to Boost the Efficiency of Mixed-Ion Perovskite Solar Cells: Changing Geometry of the Hole Transporting Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinbao; Xu, Bo; Johansson, Malin B; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Boschloo, Gerrit; Sun, Licheng; Johansson, Erik M J; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2016-07-26

    The hole transporting material (HTM) is an essential component in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) for efficient extraction and collection of the photoinduced charges. Triphenylamine- and carbazole-based derivatives have extensively been explored as alternative and economical HTMs for PSCs. However, the improvement of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), as well as further investigation of the relationship between the chemical structure of the HTMs and the photovoltaic performance, is imperatively needed. In this respect, a simple carbazole-based HTM X25 was designed on the basis of a reference HTM, triphenylamine-based X2, by simply linking two neighboring phenyl groups in a triphenylamine unit through a carbon-carbon single bond. It was found that a lowered highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level was obtained for X25 compared to that of X2. Besides, the carbazole moiety in X25 improved the molecular planarity as well as conductivity property in comparison with the triphenylamine unit in X2. Utilizing the HTM X25 in a solar cell with mixed-ion perovskite [HC(NH2)2]0.85(CH3NH3)0.15Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3, a highest reported PCE of 17.4% at 1 sun (18.9% under 0.46 sun) for carbazole-based HTM in PSCs was achieved, in comparison of a PCE of 14.7% for triphenylamine-based HTM X2. From the steady-state photoluminescence and transient photocurrent/photovoltage measurements, we conclude that (1) the lowered HOMO level for X25 compared to X2 favored a higher open-circuit voltage (Voc) in PSCs; (2) a more uniform formation of X25 capping layer than X2 on the surface of perovskite resulted in more efficient hole transport and charge extraction in the devices. In addition, the long-term stability of PSCs with X25 is significantly enhanced compared to X2 due to its good uniformity of HTM layer and thus complete coverage on the perovskite. The results provide important information to further develop simple and efficient small molecular HTMs applied in solar cells.

  2. Novel Hole Transporting Materials Based on 4-(9H-Carbazol-9-yltriphenylamine Derivatives for OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh Pham Bao Nguyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs have been increasingly studied due to their emerging applicability. However, some of the properties of existing OLEDs could be improved, such as their overall efficiency and durability; these aspects have been addressed in the current study. A series of novel hole-transporting materials (HTMs 3a–c based on 4-(9H-carbazol-9-yltriphenylamine conjugated with different carbazole or triphenylamine derivatives have been readily synthesized by Suzuki coupling reactions. The resulting compounds showed good thermal stabilities with high glass transition temperatures between 148 and 165 °C. The introduction of HTMs 3b and 3c into the standard devices ITO/HATCN/NPB/HTMs 3 (indium tin oxide/dipyrazino(2,3-f:2ꞌ,3ꞌ-hquinoxaline 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexacarbonitrile/N,Nꞌ-bis(naphthalen-1-yl-N,Nꞌ-bis(phenyl-benzidine/HTMs/CBP (4,4ꞌ-Bis(N-carbazolyl-1,1ꞌ-biphenyl: 5% Ir(ppy3/Bphen/LiF/Al (tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline/LiF/Al resulted in significantly enhanced current, power, and external quantum efficiencies (EQE as compared to the reference device without any layers of HTMs 3.

  3. Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage Containing a Supramolecular Iron Complex as Hole Transport Material Dopant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygili, Yasemin; Turren-Cruz, Silver-Hamill; Olthof, Selina; Saes, Bartholomeus Wilhelmus Henricus; Pehlivan, Ilknur Bayrak; Saliba, Michael; Meerholz, Klaus; Edvinsson, Tomas; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Hagfeldt, Anders; Freitag, Marina; Tress, Wolfgang

    2018-04-26

    In perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the most commonly used hole transport material (HTM) is spiro-OMeTAD, which is typically doped by metalorganic complexes, for example, based on Co, to improve charge transport properties and thereby enhance the photovoltaic performance of the device. In this study, we report a new hemicage-structured iron complex, 1,3,5-tris(5'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridin-5-yl)ethylbenzene Fe(III)-tris(bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide), as a p-type dopant for spiro-OMeTAD. The formal redox potential of this compound was measured as 1.29 V vs. the standard hydrogen electrode, which is slightly (20 mV) more positive than that of the commercial cobalt dopant FK209. Photoelectron spectroscopy measurements confirm that the iron complex acts as an efficient p-dopant, as evidenced in an increase of the spiro-OMeTAD work function. When fabricating planar PSCs with the HTM spiro-OMeTAD doped by 5 mol % of the iron complex, a power conversion efficiency of 19.5 % (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm -2 ) is achieved, compared to 19.3 % for reference devices with FK209. Open circuit voltages exceeding 1.2 V at 1 sun and reaching 1.27 V at 3 suns indicate that recombination at the perovskite/HTM interface is low when employing this iron complex. This work contributes to recent endeavors to reduce recombination losses in perovskite solar cells. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Optoelectronic device with nanoparticle embedded hole injection/transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingwu [Chelmsford, MA; Li, Wenguang [Andover, MA; Jiang, Hua [Methuen, MA

    2012-01-03

    An optoelectronic device is disclosed that can function as an emitter of optical radiation, such as a light-emitting diode (LED), or as a photovoltaic (PV) device that can be used to convert optical radiation into electrical current, such as a photovoltaic solar cell. The optoelectronic device comprises an anode, a hole injection/transport layer, an active layer, and a cathode, where the hole injection/transport layer includes transparent conductive nanoparticles in a hole transport material.

  5. Direct C-H Arylation Meets Perovskite Solar Cells: Sn-Free Synthesis Shortcut to High Performance Hole-Transporting Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chieh; Lee, Kun-Mu; Lai, Chia-Hsin; Liu, Ching-Yuan

    2018-03-30

    In contrast to the traditional multistep synthesis, we demonstrate herein a two-step synthesis-shortcut to triphenylamine-based hole-transporting materials (HTMs) through sequential direct C-H arylations. These hole-transporting molecules are fabricated in perovskite-based solar cells (PSCs), exhibiting promising efficiencies up to 17.69%, which is comparable to PSCs utilizing the commercially available spiro-OMeTAD as HTM. This is the first report describing the use of step-saving C-H activations/arylations in the facile synthesis of small-molecule HTMs for perovskite solar cells. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Advances in the Synthesis of Small Molecules as Hole Transport Materials for Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Seco, Cristina; Cabau, Lydia; Vidal-Ferran, Anton; Palomares, Emilio

    2018-04-17

    Over hundreds of new organic semiconductor molecules have been synthesized as hole transport materials (HTMs) for perovskite solar cells. However, to date, the well-known N 2 , N 2 , N 2' , N 2' , N 7 , N 7 , N 7' , octakis-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9,9-spirobi-[9,9'-spirobi[9 H-fluorene]-2,2',7,7'-tetramine (spiro-OMeTAD) is still the best choice for the best perovskite device performance. Nevertheless, there is a consensus that spiro-OMeTAD by itself is not stable enough for long-term stable devices, and its market price makes its use in large-scale production costly. Novel synthetic routes for new HTMs have to be sought that can be carried out in fewer synthetic steps and can be easily scaled up for commercial purposes. On the one hand, synthetic chemists have taken, as a first approach, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels of the spiro-OMeTAD molecule as a reference to synthesize molecules with similar energy levels, although these HOMO and LUMO energy levels often have been measured indirectly in solution using cyclic voltammetry. On the other hand, the "spiro" chemical core has also been studied as a structural motif for novel HTMs. However, only a few molecules incorporated as HTMs in complete functional perovskite solar cells have been capable of matching the performance of the best-performing perovskite solar cells made using spiro-OMeTAD. In this Account, we describe the advances in the synthesis of HTMs that have been tested in perovskite solar cells. The comparison of solar cell efficiencies is of course very challenging because the solar cell preparation conditions may differ from laboratory to laboratory. To extract valuable information about the HTM molecular structure-device function relationship, we describe those examples that always have used spiro-OMeTAD as a control device and have always used identical experimental conditions (e.g., the use of the same chemical dopant for the HTM or

  7. 3,6-Carbazole vs 2,7-carbazole: A comparative study of hole-transporting polymeric materials for inorganic–organic hybrid perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing demand for clean energy has encouraged researchers to intensively investigate environmentally friendly photovoltaic devices. Inorganic–organic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs are very promising due to their potentials of easy fabrication processes and high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs. Designing hole-transporting materials (HTMs is one of the key factors in achieving the high PCEs of PSCs. We now report the synthesis of two types of carbazole-based polymers, namely 3,6-Cbz-EDOT and 2,7-Cbz-EDOT, by Stille polycondensation. Despite the same chemical composition, 3,6-Cbz-EDOT and 2,7-Cbz-EDOT displayed different optical and electrochemical properties due to the different connectivity mode of the carbazole unit. Therefore, their performances as hole-transporting polymeric materials in the PSCs were also different. The device based on 2,7-Cbz-EDOT showed better photovoltaic properties with the PCE of 4.47% than that based on 3,6-Cbz-EDOT. This could be due to its more suitable highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO level and higher hole mobility.

  8. 3,6-Carbazole vs 2,7-carbazole: A comparative study of hole-transporting polymeric materials for inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Otsuka, Munechika; Kato, Takehito; Wang, Yang; Mori, Takehiko; Michinobu, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for clean energy has encouraged researchers to intensively investigate environmentally friendly photovoltaic devices. Inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are very promising due to their potentials of easy fabrication processes and high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Designing hole-transporting materials (HTMs) is one of the key factors in achieving the high PCEs of PSCs. We now report the synthesis of two types of carbazole-based polymers, namely 3,6-Cbz-EDOT and 2,7-Cbz-EDOT, by Stille polycondensation. Despite the same chemical composition, 3,6-Cbz-EDOT and 2,7-Cbz-EDOT displayed different optical and electrochemical properties due to the different connectivity mode of the carbazole unit. Therefore, their performances as hole-transporting polymeric materials in the PSCs were also different. The device based on 2,7-Cbz-EDOT showed better photovoltaic properties with the PCE of 4.47% than that based on 3,6-Cbz-EDOT. This could be due to its more suitable highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and higher hole mobility.

  9. Polyethers containing 4-(carbazol-2-yl)-7-arylbenzo[c]-1,2,5-thiadiazole chromophores as solution processed materials for hole transporting layers of OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krucaite, G.; Tavgeniene, D.; Xie, Z.; Lin, X.; Zhang, B.; Grigalevicius, S.

    2018-02-01

    Two polyethers containing electroactive pendent 4-(carbazol-2-yl)-7-arylbenzo[c]-1,2,5-thiadiazole moieties have been synthesized by the multi-step synthetic route. Full characterization of their structures is presented. The polymers represent derivatives of very high thermal stability with initial thermal degradation temperatures of 425 °C and 431 °C. Glass transition temperatures of the amorphous materials were also very high and reached values of 154 °C and 163 °C. The electron photoemission spectra of thin layers of the polymers showed ionization potentials of 5.84 eV and 5.93 eV. Hole-transporting properties of the polymeric materials were tested in the structures of organic light emitting diodes with Alq3 as the green emitter and electron transporting material. An electroluminescent device containing hole-transporting layer (HTL) of the polymer with electroactive 4-carbazolyl-7-phenylbenzo[c]-1,2,5-thiadiazole moieties exhibited turn on voltage of 6.2 V, maximum photometric efficiency of 2.5 cd/A and maximum brightness exceeding 300 cd/m2. The device containing HTL of the polymer with 4-carbazolyl-7-(1-naphtyl)benzo[c]-1,2,5-thiadiazole moieties demonstrated turn on voltage of 5.2 V, maximum photometric efficiency of 1.6 cd/A and maximum brightness exceeding 1500 cd/m2. The efficiencies were about 30-90% higher than that of the device containing widely used hole transporting layers of poly(9-vinylcarbazole).

  10. MoS2: a two-dimensional hole-transporting material for high-efficiency, low-cost perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnehpoushi, Saman; Nazari, Pariya; Abdollahi Nejand, Bahram; Eskandari, Mehdi

    2018-05-01

    In this work MoS2 thin film was studied as a potential two-dimensional (2D) hole-transporting material for fabrication of low-cost, durable and efficient perovskite solar cells. The thickness of MoS2 was studied as a potential factor in reaching high power conversion efficiency in perovskite solar cells. The thickness of the perovskite layer and the different metal back contacts gave distinct photovoltaic properties to the designed cells. The results show that a single sheet of MoS2 could considerably improve the power conversion efficacy of the device from 10.41% for a hole transport material (HTM)-free device to 20.43% for a device prepared with a 0.67 nm thick MoS2 layer as a HTM. On the back, Ag and Al collected the carriers more efficiently than Au due to the value of their metal contact work function with the TiO2 conduction band. The present work proposes a new architecture for the fabrication of low-cost, durable and efficient perovskite solar cells made from a low-cost and robust inorganic HTM and electron transport material.

  11. Effect of hole-transporting materials on the photovoltaic performance and stability of all-ambient-processed perovskite solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nanaji Islavath; S Saroja; K Srinivas Reddy; P C Harikesh; G Veerappan; Shrikant V Joshi; Easwaramoorthi Ramasamy

    2017-01-01

    High-efficiency perovskite solar cells (PSCs) reported hitherto have been mostly prepared in a moisture and oxygen-free glove-box atmosphere,which hampers upscaling and real-time performance assessment of this exciting photovoltaic technology.In this work,we have systematically studied the feasibility of allambient-processing of PSCs and evaluated their photovoltaic performance.It has been shown that phasepure crystalline tetragonal MAPbI3 perovskite films are instantly formed in ambient air at room temperature by a two-step spin coating process,undermining the need for dry atmosphere and post-annealing.All-ambient-processed PSCs with a configuration of FTO/TiO2/MAPbI3/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au achieve opencircuit voltage (990 mV) and short-circuit current density (20.31 mA/cm2) comparable to those of best reported glove-box processed devices.Nevertheless,device power conversion efficiency is still constrained at 5% by the unusually low fill-factor of 0.25.Dark current-voltage characteristics reveal poor conductivity of hole-transporting layer caused by lack of oxidized spiro-OMeTAD species,resulting in high seriesresistance and decreased fill-factor,The study also establishes that the above limitations can be readily overcome by employing an inorganic p-type semiconductor,copper thiocyanate,as ambient-processable hole-transporting layer to yield a fill-factor of 0.54 and a power conversion efficiency of 7.19%.The present findings can have important implications in industrially viable fabrication of large-area PSCs.

  12. Influence of Nonfused Cores on the Photovoltaic Performance of Linear Triphenylamine-Based Hole-Transporting Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yungen; Wang, Zhihui; Liang, Mao; Cheng, Hua; Li, Mengyuan; Liu, Liyuan; Wang, Baiyue; Wu, Jinhua; Prasad Ghimire, Raju; Wang, Xuda; Sun, Zhe; Xue, Song; Qiao, Qiquan

    2018-05-18

    The core plays a crucial role in achieving high performance of linear hole transport materials (HTMs) toward the perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Most studies focused on the development of fused heterocycles as cores for HTMs. Nevertheless, nonfused heterocycles deserve to be studied since they can be easily synthesized. In this work, we reported a series of low-cost triphenylamine HTMs (M101-M106) with different nonfused cores. Results concluded that the introduced core has a significant influence on conductivity, hole mobility, energy level, and solubility of linear HTMs. M103 and M104 with nonfused oligothiophene cores are superior to other HTMs in terms of conductivity, hole mobility, and surface morphology. PSCs based on M104 exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 16.50% under AM 1.5 sun, which is comparable to that of spiro-OMeTAD (16.67%) under the same conditions. Importantly, the employment of M104 is highly economical in terms of the cost of synthesis as compared to that of spiro-OMeTAD. This work demonstrated that nonfused heterocycles, such as oligothiophene, are promising cores for high performance of linear HTMs toward PSCs.

  13. Low band gap S,N-heteroacene-based oligothiophenes as hole-transporting and light absorbing materials for efficient perovskite-based solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Qin, Peng

    2014-07-15

    Novel low band gap oligothiophenes incorporating S,N-heteropentacene central units were developed and used as hole-transport materials (HTMs) in solid-state perovskite-based solar cells. In addition to appropriate electronic energy levels, these materials show high photo-absorptivity in the low energy region, and thus can contribute to the light harvesting of the solar spectrum. Solution-processed CH3NH3PbI3-based devices using these HTMs achieved power conversion efficiencies of 9.5-10.5% in comparison with 7.6% obtained by reference devices without HTMs. Photoinduced absorption spectroscopy gave further insight into the charge transfer behavior between photoexcited perovskites and the HTMs. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  14. Low band gap S,N-heteroacene-based oligothiophenes as hole-transporting and light absorbing materials for efficient perovskite-based solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Qin, Peng; Kast, Hannelore; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K.; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Mishra, Amaresh; Bä uerle, Peter; Grä tzel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Novel low band gap oligothiophenes incorporating S,N-heteropentacene central units were developed and used as hole-transport materials (HTMs) in solid-state perovskite-based solar cells. In addition to appropriate electronic energy levels, these materials show high photo-absorptivity in the low energy region, and thus can contribute to the light harvesting of the solar spectrum. Solution-processed CH3NH3PbI3-based devices using these HTMs achieved power conversion efficiencies of 9.5-10.5% in comparison with 7.6% obtained by reference devices without HTMs. Photoinduced absorption spectroscopy gave further insight into the charge transfer behavior between photoexcited perovskites and the HTMs. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  15. Hybrid UV-Ozone-Treated rGO-PEDOT:PSS as an Efficient Hole Transport Material in Inverted Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuying; Huang, Xiaona; Sun, Haoxuan; Wu, Chunyang

    2017-12-01

    Inverted planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs), which are regarded as promising devices for new generation of photovoltaic systems, show many advantages, such as low-temperature film formation, low-cost fabrication, and smaller hysteresis compared with those of traditional n-i-p PSCs. As an important carrier transport layer in PSCs, the hole transport layer (HTL) considerably affects the device performance. Therefore, HTL modification becomes one of the most critical issues in improving the performance of PSCs. In this paper, we report an effective and environmentally friendly UV-ozone treatment method to enhance the hydrophilia of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with its excellent electrical performance. The treated rGO was applied to doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as HTL material of PSCs. Consequently, the performance of rGO/PEDOT:PSS-doped PSCs was improved significantly, with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.7%, Jsc of 16.75 mA/cm2, Voc of 0.87 V, and FF of 75%. The PCE of this doped PSCs was 27% higher than that of the PSCs with pristine PEDOT:PSS as HTL. This performance was attributed to the excellent surface morphology and optimized hole mobility of the solution-processable rGO-modified PEDOT:PSS.

  16. Efficient Carbon-Based CsPbBr3 Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells by Using Cu-Phthalocyanine as Hole Transport Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Sun, Bo; Liu, Xingyue; Han, Jinghui; Ye, Haibo; Shi, Tielin; Tang, Zirong; Liao, Guanglan

    2018-06-01

    Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted extensive research interest for next-generation solution-processed photovoltaic devices because of their high solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) and low fabrication cost. Although the world's best PSC successfully achieves a considerable PCE of over 20% within a very limited timeframe after intensive efforts, the stability, high cost, and up-scaling of PSCs still remain issues. Recently, inorganic perovskite material, CsPbBr3, is emerging as a promising photo-sensitizer with excellent durability and thermal stability, but the efficiency is still embarrassing. In this work, we intend to address these issues by exploiting CsPbBr3 as light absorber, accompanied by using Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) as hole transport material (HTM) and carbon as counter electrode. The optimal device acquires a decent PCE of 6.21%, over 60% higher than those of the HTM-free devices. The systematic characterization and analysis reveal a more effective charge transfer process and a suppressed charge recombination in PSCs after introducing CuPc as hole transfer layer. More importantly, our devices exhibit an outstanding durability and a promising thermal stability, making it rather meaningful in future fabrication and application of PSCs.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Interfacial Engineering of Perovskite Solar Cells by Employing a Hydrophobic Copper Phthalocyanine Derivative as Hole-Transporting Material with Improved Performance and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoqing; Yu, Ze; Lai, Jianbo; Zhang, Yuchen; Hu, Maowei; Lei, Ning; Wang, Dongping; Yang, Xichuan; Sun, Licheng

    2017-04-22

    In high-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs), hole-transporting materials (HTMs) play an important role in extracting and transporting the photo-generated holes from the perovskite absorber to the cathode, thus reducing unwanted recombination losses and enhancing the photovoltaic performance. Herein, solution-processable tetra-4-(bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)amino)phenoxy-substituted copper phthalocyanine (CuPc-OTPAtBu) was synthesized and explored as a HTM in PSCs. The optical, electrochemical, and thermal properties were fully characterized for this organic metal complex. The photovoltaic performance of PSCs employing this CuPc derivative as a HTM was further investigated, in combination with a mixed-ion perovskite as a light absorber and a low-cost vacuum-free carbon as cathode. The optimized devices [doped with 6 % (w/w) tetrafluoro-tetracyano-quinodimethane (F4TCNQ)] showed a decent power conversion efficiency of 15.0 %, with an open-circuit voltage of 1.01 V, a short-circuit current density of 21.9 mA cm -2 , and a fill factor of 0.68. Notably, the PSC devices studied also exhibited excellent long-term durability under ambient condition for 720 h, mainly owing to the introduction of the hydrophobic HTM interlayer, which prevents moisture penetration into the perovskite film. The present work emphasizes that solution-processable CuPc holds a great promise as a class of alternative HTMs that can be further explored for efficient and stable PSCs in the future. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Ultraviolet-ozone surface modification for non-wetting hole transport materials based inverted planar perovskite solar cells with efficiency exceeding 18%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiuwen; Ma, Chunqing; Cheng, Yuanhang; Xie, Yue-Min; Yi, Xueping; Gautam, Bhoj; Chen, Shengmei; Li, Ho-Wa; Lee, Chun-Sing; So, Franky; Tsang, Sai-Wing

    2017-08-01

    Non-wetting hole transport materials (HTMs) have great potential in facilitating large-sized perovskite crystal growth and enhancing device stability by opposing moisture ingress, However, the severe non-wetting issue limits the wide application of these materials in low-temperature solution-processed inverted planar perovskite solar cells (PVSCs), and corresponding devices are rarely reported. Here, a facile ultraviolet-ozone (UVO) modification method is demonstrated to overcome this issue. By carefully controlling the UVO modification time, the surface wettability of poly-TPD can be tuned without affecting the bulk properties of the film, hence perovskite films with desired grain size and excellent coverage can be deposited via a one-step spin-coating method. Benefiting from the high-quality perovskite, well-matched energy level alignment and hydrophobic property of poly-TPD, the resulting PVSCs show a champion power conversion efficiency of 18.19% with significantly enhanced stability as compared to the PEDOT:PSS counterparts. Moreover, the UVO modification approach also demonstrates its validity when being extended to other hydrophobic HTMs. This work not only provides a general strategy to broaden the selection pool of HTMs for solution-processed inverted planar PVSCs, but also may triggers the exploration of more advanced strategies to make non-wetting HTMs applicable in solution-processed inverted planar PVSCs.

  19. Infiltration of Spiro-MeOTAD hole transporting material into nanotubular TiO{sub 2} electrode for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmych, Oleksandr, E-mail: alexkuzmych@gmail.com [Faculty of Chemistry, Laboratory of Electrochemistry, University of Warsaw, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Johansson, Erik M.J.; Nonomura, Kazuteru [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 259, 751 05 Uppsala (Sweden); Nyberg, Tomas [The Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Skompska, Magdalena [Faculty of Chemistry, Laboratory of Electrochemistry, University of Warsaw, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Hagfeldt, Anders [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 259, 751 05 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We report infiltration of Spiro-MeOTAD into pores of TiO{sub 2} nanotube (TNT) arrays. • Surface amount of D35 is diffusion limited for TiO{sub 2} mesoporous film but not for TNTs. • Performance of liquid and solid-state solar cells based on TNTs is compared. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanotubes grown by anodic oxidation of Ti thin film deposited on conducting transparent fluoride-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate were used as a unique geometrically organized template to study the infiltration of Spiro-MeOTAD hole transporting material (HTM) inside straight pores. The TiO{sub 2} nanotube (TNT) array electrode was compared with a mesoporous one in terms of loading with an organic dye of high extinction coefficient. It was shown that it is possible to build a working solid state dye sensitized solar cell device with such a combination of materials and its performance was compared with a device in which the solid state HTM was replaced by a liquid state electrolyte.

  20. White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Two Phosphorescence Materials in a Starburst Hole-Transporting Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Inden

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated two kinds of white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs; one consisted of two emissive materials of red and blue, and the other of three emissive materials of red, green, and blue. The red and blue emissive materials were phosphorescent. We evaluated the thickness dependence of the CIE coordinate, the external quantum efficiency (EQE, and the luminance by changing the thicknesses of the Ir(btp2acac and FIrpic layers. Samples consisting of three emissive materials revealed the best CIE coordinate and the best EQE in the same sample structure. On the other hand, the samples consisting of two emissive materials revealed the best CIE coordinate and the best EQE in different structures. The best CIE coordinate of (0.33, 0.36 was observed by changing the thicknesses of the stacked active layers. The best EQE was 9.73%, which was observed in the sample consisting of different thickness of stacked active layers.

  1. Nanostructured TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells employing spiro-OMeTAD/Co-complex as hole-transporting material

    KAUST Repository

    Noh, Jun Hong; Jeon, Nam Joong; Choi, Yong Chan; Nazeeruddin, Md. K.; Grä tzel, Michael; Seok, Sang Il

    2013-01-01

    For using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p- methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as a hole conductor in solar cells, it is necessary to improve its charge-transport properties through electrochemical doping. With the aim

  2. Study of the pore filling fraction of carbazole-based hole-transporting materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Ben Manaa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbazole-based molecular glasses have emerged as a promising alternative to the widely used hole-transporting materials (HTM spiro-OMeTAD in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The pore filling fraction (PFF of the mesoporous TiO2 layer by the HTM appears as a key parameter determining the final efficiency of a DSSC. In this work, the pore-filling properties of a family of carbazole-based HTMs are investigated for the first time and the photovoltaic behavior of DSSC devices (fabricated using the D102 dye is discussed in light of the present findings. It is found that N-aryl substituted 3,6-bis(diphenylaminyl-carbazole derivatives exhibit relatively low PFF of ca. 60%. Methoxy groups on the diphenylamine moieties have little influence on the PFF, indicating that the strong enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE is not related to an improved filling of the pores by the HTM. N-alkylated HTMs lead to higher PFF, increasing with the alkyl chain length, up to 78%.

  3. Materials and mechanisms of hole superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, J.E., E-mail: jhirsch@ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0319 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We study the applicability of the model of hole superconductivity to materials. Both conventional and unconventional materials are considered. Many different classes of materials are discussed. The theory is found suitable to describe all of them. No other theory of superconductivity can describe all these classes of materials. The theory of hole superconductivity proposes that there is a single mechanism of superconductivity that applies to all superconducting materials. This paper discusses several material families where superconductivity occurs and how they can be understood within this theory. Materials discussed include the elements, transition metal alloys, high T{sub c} cuprates both hole-doped and electron-doped, MgB{sub 2}, iron pnictides and iron chalcogenides, doped semiconductors, and elements under high pressure.

  4. Topological transport from a black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Melnikov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the low temperature zero-frequency transport in a 2+1-dimensional theory dual to a dyonic black hole is discussed. It is shown that transport exhibits topological features: the transverse electric and heat conductivities satisfy the Wiedemann–Franz law of free electrons; the direct heat conductivity is measured in units of the central charge of CFT2+1, while the direct electric conductivity vanishes; the thermoelectric conductivity is non-zero at vanishing temperature, while the O(T behavior, controlled by the Mott relation, is subleading. Provided that the entropy of the black hole, and the dual system, is non-vanishing at T=0, the observations indicate that the dyonic black hole describes a ħ→0 limit of a highly degenerate topological state, in which the black hole charge measures the density of excited non-abelian quasiparticles. The holographic description gives further evidence that non-abelian nature of quasiparticles can be determined by the low temperature behavior of the thermoelectric transport.

  5. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  6. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material

  7. Transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During november and december 2001, 2 events concerning nuclear transport were reported and classified on the first grade (grade 1) of the INES scale. The first event concerns a hole in a transport cask of contaminated tools. The hole seems to have been made by the fork of a handling equipment. The second event concerns the loss of a parcel containing a technetium generator, this generator represented an activity of about 141 G Becquerel of 99 Mo the day it left the premises of CIS-bio in Saclay. (A.C.)

  8. Radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbi, B.

    1996-01-01

    The development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy results in the increase of transport operations of radioactive materials. Therefore strong regulations on transport of radioactive materials turns out to be a necessity in Tunisia. This report presents the different axes of regulations which include the means of transport involved, the radiation protection of the carriers, the technical criteria of security in transport, the emergency measures in case of accidents and penalties in case of infringement. (TEC). 12 refs., 1 fig

  9. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1984-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials is dependent of transport regulations. In practice integrated doses for personnel during transport are very low but are more important during loading or unloading a facility (reactor, plant, laboratory, ...). Risks occur also if packagings are used outside specifications. Recommendations to avoid these risks are given [fr

  10. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  11. Nanostructured TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells employing spiro-OMeTAD/Co-complex as hole-transporting material

    KAUST Repository

    Noh, Jun Hong

    2013-01-01

    For using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p- methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as a hole conductor in solar cells, it is necessary to improve its charge-transport properties through electrochemical doping. With the aim of fabricating efficient mesoscopic TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells, we used tris[2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-4-tert- butylpyridine)cobalt(iii) tris(bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide)] (FK209) as a p-dopant for spiro-OMeTAD. The mixture of spiro-OMeTAD, FK209, lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Li-TFSI), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) exhibited significantly higher performance than mixtures of pristine spiro-OMeTAD, spiro-OMeTAD, and FK209, and spiro-OMeTAD, Li-TFSI, and TBP. Such a synergistic effect between the Co-complex and Li-TFSI in conjunction with spiro-OMeTAD effectively improved the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the fabricated solar cells. As a result, we achieved PCE of 10.4%, measured under standard solar conditions (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm-2). © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  13. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The norm which establishes the requirements of radiation protection and safety related to the transport of radioactive materials, aiming to keep a suitable control level of eventual exposure of personnels, materials and environment of ionizing radiation, including: specifications on radioactive materials for transport, selection of package type; specification of requirements of the design and assays of acceptance of packages; disposal related to the transport; and liability and administrative requirements, are presented. This norm is applied to: truckage, water carriage and air service; design, fabrication, assays and mantenaince of packages; preparation, despatching, handling, loading storage in transition and reception in the ultimate storage of packages; and transport of void packages which have been contained radioactive materials. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Nuclear materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushakov, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Various methods of nuclear materials transportation at different stages of the fuel cycle (U 3 O 8 , UF 6 production enrichment, fuel element manufacturing, storage) are considered. The advantages and drawbacks of railway, automobile, maritime and air transport are analyzed. Some types of containers are characterized

  15. Efficient Long-Range Hole Transport Through G-Quadruplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingyuan; Meng, Zhenyu; Lu, Yunpeng; Shao, Fangwei

    2017-10-09

    DNA offers a means of long-range charge transport for biology and electric nanodevices. Here, a series of tetra-stranded G-quadruplexes were assembled within a dendritic DNA architecture to explore oxidative charge transport (hole transport) through the G-quadruplex. Efficient charge transport was achieved over 28 Å upon UV irradiation. Over a longer G-quadruplex bridge, hole transport was escalated to a higher efficiency, which resulted in a higher yield than that of the optimal duplex DNA for charge transport, that is, the adenine tract. Efficient long-range hole transport suggests tetra-stranded G-quadruplexes, instead of an oxidation hotspot, hold better potential as an electron conduit than duplex DNA. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    The increasing use of radioactive substances, not only in reactor operations but also in medicine, industry and other fields, is making the movement of these materials progressively wider, more frequent and larger in volume. Although regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials have been in existence for many years, it has now become necessary to modify or supplement the existing provisions on an international basis. It is essential that the regulations should be applied uniformly by all countries. It is also desirable that the basic regulations should be uniform for all modes of transport so as to simplify the procedures to be complied with by shippers and carriers

  17. Transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brobst, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty years of almost accident-free transport of nuclear materials is pointed to as evidence of a fundamentally correct approach to the problems involved. The increased volume and new technical problems in the future will require extension of these good practices in both regulations and packaging. The general principles of safety in the transport of radioactive materials are discussed first, followed by the transport of spent fuel and of radioactive waste. The security and physical protection of nuclear shipments is then treated. In discussing future problems, the question of public understanding and acceptance is taken first, thereafter transport safeguards and the technical bases for the safety regulations. There is also said to be a need for a new technology for spent fuel casks, while a re-examination of the IAEA transport standards for radiation doses is recommended. The IAEA regulations regarding quality assurance are said to be incomplete, and more information is required on correlations between engineering analysis, scale model testing and full scale crash testing. Transport stresses on contents need to be considered while administrative controls have been neglected. (JIW)

  18. Design, synthesis, thin film deposition and characterization of new indium tin oxide anode functionalization/hole transport organic materials and their application to high performance organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinglan

    The primary goals of this dissertation were to understand the physical and chemical aspects of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) fundamentals, develop new materials as well as device structures, and enhance OLED electroluminescent (EL) response. Accordingly, this dissertation analyzes the relative effects of indium tin oxide (ITO) anode-hole transporting layer (HTL) contact vs. the intrinsic HTL material properties on OLED EL response. Two siloxane-based HTL materials, 4,4'-bis[(4″ -trichlorosilylpropyl-1″-naphthylphenylamino)biphenyl (NPB-Si2) and 4,4'-bis[(p-trichlorosilylpropylphenyl)phenylamino]biphenyl (TPD-Si2) have thereby been designed, synthesized and covalently bound to ITO surface. They afford a 250% increase in luminance and ˜50% reduction in turn-on voltage vs. comparable 4,4'-bis(1-naphthylphenylamino)biphenyl (NPB) HTL-based devices. These results suggest new strategies for developing OLED HTL structures, with focus on the anode-HTL contact. Furthermore, archetypical OLED device structures have been refined by simultaneously incorporating the TPD-Si2 layer and a hole- and exciton-blocking/electron transport layer (2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) in tris(8-hydroxyquinolato)aluminum(III) and tetrakis(2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)borate-based OLEDs. The refined device structures lead to high performance OLEDs such as green-emitting OLEDs with maximum luminance (Lmax) ˜ 85,000 cd/m2, power and forward external quantum efficiencies (eta p and etaext) as high as 15.2 lm/W and 4.4 +/- 0.5%, respectively, and blue-emitting OLEDs with Lmax 30,000 cd/m 2, and ˜5.0 lm/W and 1.6 +/- 0.2% etap and eta ext, respectively. The high performance is attributed to synergistically enhanced hole/electron injection and recombination efficiency. In addition, molecule-scale structure effects at ITO anode-HTL interfaces have been systematically probed via a self-assembly approach. A series of silyltriarylamine precursors differing in aryl group and

  19. Nuclear materials transport worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellpflug, J.

    1987-01-01

    This Greenpeace report shows: nuclear materials transport is an extremely hazardous business. There is no safe protection against accidents, kidnapping, or sabotage. Any moment of a day, at any place, a nuclear transport accident may bring the world to disaster, releasing plutonium or radioactive fission products to the environment. Such an event is not less probable than the MCA at Chernobyl. The author of the book in hand follows the secret track of radioactive materials around the world, from uranium mines to the nuclear power plants, from reprocessing facilities to the waste repositories. He explores the routes of transport and the risks involved, he gives the names of transport firms and discloses incidents and carelessness, tells about damaged waste drums and plutonium that 'disappeared'. He also tells about worldwide, organised resistance to such nuclear transports, explaining the Greenpeace missions on the open sea, or the 'day X' operation at the Gorleben site, informing the reader about protests and actions for a world freed from the threat of nuclear energy. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Radiation transport around Kerr black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy David

    This Thesis describes the basic framework of a relativistic ray-tracing code for analyzing accretion processes around Kerr black holes. We begin in Chapter 1 with a brief historical summary of the major advances in black hole astrophysics over the past few decades. In Chapter 2 we present a detailed description of the ray-tracing code, which can be used to calculate the transfer function between the plane of the accretion disk and the detector plane, an important tool for modeling relativistically broadened emission lines. Observations from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer have shown the existence of high frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) in a number of black hole binary systems. In Chapter 3, we employ a simple "hot spot" model to explain the position and amplitude of these HFQPO peaks. The power spectrum of the periodic X-ray light curve consists of multiple peaks located at integral combinations of the black hole coordinate frequencies, with the relative amplitude of each peak determined by the orbital inclination, eccentricity, and hot spot arc length. In Chapter 4, we introduce additional features to the model to explain the broadening of the QPO peaks as well as the damping of higher frequency harmonics in the power spectrum. The complete model is used to fit the power spectra observed in XTE J1550-564, giving confidence limits on each of the model parameters. In Chapter 5 we present a description of the structure of a relativistic alpha- disk around a Kerr black hole. Given the surface temperature of the disk, the observed spectrum is calculated using the transfer function mentioned above. The features of this modified thermal spectrum may be used to infer the physical properties of the accretion disk and the central black hole. In Chapter 6 we develop a Monte Carlo code to calculate the detailed propagation of photons from a hot spot emitter scattering through a corona surrounding the black hole. The coronal scattering has two major observable

  1. Transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the transport of radioactive materials. The associated hazards and potential hazards are at first described and shows the necessity to define specific safety regulations. The basic principles of radiological protection and of the IAEA regulations are given. The different types of authorized packages and of package labelling are explained. The revision, updating and the monitoring of the regulations effectiveness is the subject of the last part of this conference. (O.M.)

  2. Radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.C.

    1979-10-01

    All movements of radioactive materials in Canada are governed by a comprehensive body of regqlations, both national and international. These regulations are designed to maximize shielding to the public and transport workers, allow for heat dissipation, and to prevent criticality accidents, by prescribing specific packaging arrangements, administrative controls, labelling and storage measures. This report describes in some detail specific requirements and summarizes some incidents that occurred between 1974 and 1978

  3. Substituted polyfluorene-based hole transport layer with tunable solubility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craciun, N.I.; Wildeman, J.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the synthesis and electrical characterization of polyfluorene-triarylamine-based hole transport layers (HTLs). The solubility of the HTL can be tuned by adjustment of the chemical structure without loss of the charge transport properties. Double-layer polymer light-emitting diodes are

  4. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, W.

    1992-01-01

    The book presents a systematic survey of the legal provisions governing the transport of radioactive materials, placing emphasis on the nuclear licensing provisions of sections 4, 4b of the Atomic Energy, Act (AtG) and sections 8-10 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV), also considering the provisions of the traffic law governing the carriage of hazardous goods. The author's goal is to establish a systematic basis by comparative analysis of the licensing regulations under atomic energy law, for the purpose of formulating a proposed amendment to the law, for the sake of clarity. The author furthermore looks for and develops criteria that can be of help in distinguishing the regulations governing the carriage of hazardous goods from the nuclear regulatory provisions. He also examines whether such a differentiation is detectable, particularly in those amendments to the StrlSchV which came after the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The regulations governing the transport of radioactive materials under the AtG meet with the problem of different classification systems being applied, to radioactive materials in the supervisory regulations on the one hand, and to nuclear materials in Annex 1 to the AtG on the other hand. A classification of natural, non-nuclear grade uranium e.g. by the financial security provisions is difficult as a result of these differences in the laws. The author shows that the transport regulations of the StrlSchV represent an isolated supervisory instrument that has no connecting factor to the sections 28 ff StrlSchV, as radiation protection is provided for by the regulations of the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The author suggests an amendment of existing law incorporating the legal intent of sections 8-10 StrlSchV and of sections 4, 4b AtG into two sections, and abolishing the supervisory provisions of the StrlSchV altogether. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Effective exciton blocking by the hole-transporting material 5,10,15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3′,2′-c]-carbazole (TBDI) in the tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) based organic photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Fang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, P.O. Box 143, 149 Yanchang Rd., Shanghai 200072 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Applications, Ministry of Education, Shanghai University, P.O. Box 143, 149 Yanchang Rd., Shanghai 200072 (China); Zheng, Yanqiong, E-mail: zhengyanqiong@shu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Applications, Ministry of Education, Shanghai University, P.O. Box 143, 149 Yanchang Rd., Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Flat Panel Display, Shanghai University, P.O. Box 143, 149 Yanchang Rd., Shanghai 200072 (China); Wei, Bin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Applications, Ministry of Education, Shanghai University, P.O. Box 143, 149 Yanchang Rd., Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Flat Panel Display, Shanghai University, P.O. Box 143, 149 Yanchang Rd., Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhang, Xiaowen [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, 1 Jinji Road, Guilin 541004 (China); Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zixing [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Applications, Ministry of Education, Shanghai University, P.O. Box 143, 149 Yanchang Rd., Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Flat Panel Display, Shanghai University, P.O. Box 143, 149 Yanchang Rd., Shanghai 200072 (China); Pu, Wenhong; Yang, Changzhu [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: The hole-transporting materials of TBDI, NPB and TAPC were used as exciton blocking layer (EBL) in DBP based PHJs for successfully blocking the misdirected electrons. PHJ cell with TBDI showed an improvement of 36% in η{sub PCE} relative to the reference cell without any EBL, owing to enhanced optical electric field, stronger prevention of exciton quenching, and a smoother TBDI/DBP surface. - Highlights: • TBDI, NPB, and TAPC as exciton blocking layers (EBLs) all successfully improved the performance of DBP PHJs. • A highest η{sub PCE} improvement of 36% is obtained by TBDI EBL among the three EBLs. • Optical electric fields for the wavelength of 610 nm are significantly enhanced via inserting 10-nm EBLs. • PL spectra indicated stronger prevention of exciton quenching by TBDI. • AFM images suggested smoother donor/acceptor interface with TBDI EBL. - Abstract: To explore the novel application of the hole-transporting material (HTM) as exciton blocking layer (EBL) in small molecule organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, we introduce a recently reported HTM, 5,10,15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3′,2′-c]-carbazole (TBDI), and the other two traditional HTMs, N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine (NPB) and 1,1′-bis(di-4-tolylaminophenyl) cyclohexane (TAPC), to serve as EBLs in the tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) based planar heterojunction cells. Due to the large band gap of these materials, the EBLs successfully block the misdirected electrons. The optimized devices including the EBLs of TBDI, NPB and TAPC achieve power conversion efficiency (η{sub PCE}) of 1.70%, 1.33%, and 1.33%, respectively, whereas the control device without any EBL shows a η{sub PCE} of only 1.25%. The optical simulation indicates that the maximum optical electric fields for the PHJs including 10-nm EBLs at the wavelength of 610 nm are significantly enhanced relative to that for the 20-nm DBP based control device. By impedance

  6. Transport regulation for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong.

    1986-01-01

    Taking into account the specific dangers associated with the transport of radioactive materials (contamination, irradiation, heat, criticality), IAEA regulations concerning technical specifications and administrative procedures to ward off these dangers are presented. The international agreements related to the land transport, maritime transport and air transport of radioactive materials are also briefly reviewed

  7. Effect of hole injection layer/hole transport layer polymer and device structure on the properties of white OLED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ho Young; Park, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin-Hoo; Park, Lee Soon

    2008-10-01

    Copolymers containing carbazole and aromatic amine unit were synthesized by using Pd-catalyzed polycondensation reaction. The polymers were characterized in terms of their molecular weight and thermal stability and their UV and PL properties in solution and film state. The band gap energy of the polymers was also determined by the UV absorption and HOMO energy level data. The polymers had high HOMO energy level of 5.19-5.25 eV and work function close to that of ITO. The polymers were thus tested as hole injection/transport layer in the white organic light emitting diodes (OLED) by using 4,4'-bis(2,2-diphenyl-ethen-1-yl)diphenyl (DPVBi) as blue emitting material and 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (Rubrene) as orange emitting dopant. The synthesized polymer, poly bis[6-bromo-N-(2-ethylhexyl)-carbazole-3-yl] was found to be useful as hole injection layer/hole transport layer (HIL/HTL) multifunctional material with high luminance efficiency and stable white color coordinate in the wide range of applied voltage.

  8. Electron and hole transport in ambipolar, thin film pentacene transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudari, Sangameshwar R.; Kagan, Cherie R.

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed, ambipolar, thin-film pentacene field-effect transistors were employed to study both electron and hole transport simultaneously in a single, organic solid-state device. Electron and hole mobilities were extracted from the respective unipolar saturation regimes and show thermally activated behavior and gate voltage dependence. We fit the gate voltage dependent saturation mobility to a power law to extract the characteristic Meyer-Neldel (MN) energy, a measure of the width of the exponential distribution of localized states extending into the energy gap of the organic semiconductor. The MN energy is ∼78 and ∼28 meV for electrons and holes, respectively, which reflects a greater density of localized tail states for electrons than holes. This is consistent with the lower measured electron than hole mobility. For holes, the well-behaved linear regime allows for four-point probe measurement of the contact resistance independent mobility and separate characterization of the width of the localized density of states, yielding a consistent MN energy of 28 meV

  9. Electron and hole transport in ambipolar, thin film pentacene transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saudari, Sangameshwar R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Kagan, Cherie R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-01-21

    Solution-processed, ambipolar, thin-film pentacene field-effect transistors were employed to study both electron and hole transport simultaneously in a single, organic solid-state device. Electron and hole mobilities were extracted from the respective unipolar saturation regimes and show thermally activated behavior and gate voltage dependence. We fit the gate voltage dependent saturation mobility to a power law to extract the characteristic Meyer-Neldel (MN) energy, a measure of the width of the exponential distribution of localized states extending into the energy gap of the organic semiconductor. The MN energy is ∼78 and ∼28 meV for electrons and holes, respectively, which reflects a greater density of localized tail states for electrons than holes. This is consistent with the lower measured electron than hole mobility. For holes, the well-behaved linear regime allows for four-point probe measurement of the contact resistance independent mobility and separate characterization of the width of the localized density of states, yielding a consistent MN energy of 28 meV.

  10. Transports of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Yves

    1982-01-01

    Transport safety depends on the packaging, and the degree of safety must be adapted to the potential hazards of the substance carried. The various kinds of packagings and their strength are examined and the transport of irradiated fuels from the safety angle is taken as example and a comparison is made with the transport of conventional dangerous substances [fr

  11. Qubit transport model for unitary black hole evaporation without firewalls*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, Kento; Page, Don N.

    2018-03-01

    We give an explicit toy qubit transport model for transferring information from the gravitational field of a black hole to the Hawking radiation by a continuous unitary transformation of the outgoing radiation and the black hole gravitational field. The model has no firewalls or other drama at the event horizon, and it avoids a counterargument that has been raised for subsystem transfer models as resolutions of the firewall paradox. Furthermore, it fits the set of six physical constraints that Giddings has proposed for models of black hole evaporation. It does utilize nonlocal qubits for the gravitational field but assumes that the radiation interacts locally with these nonlocal qubits, so in some sense the nonlocality is confined to the gravitational sector. Although the qubit model is too crude to be quantitatively correct for the detailed spectrum of Hawking radiation, it fits qualitatively with what is expected.

  12. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Delivering radioactive material to where it is needed is a vital service to industry and medicine. Millions of packages are shipped all over the world by all modes of transport. The shipments pass through public places and must meet stringent safety requirements. This video explains how radioactive material is safely transported and describes the rules that carriers and handlers must follow

  13. Anisotropic surface hole-transport property of triphenylamine-derivative single crystal prepared by solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: mumeda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Katagiri, Mitsuhiko; Shironita, Sayoko [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Nagayama, Norio [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Ricoh Company, Ltd., Nishisawada, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0007 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • A hole transport molecule was investigated based on its electrochemical redox characteristics. • The solubility and supersolubility curves of the molecule were measured in order to prepare a large crystal. • The polarization micrograph and XRD results revealed that a single crystal was obtained. • An anisotropic surface conduction, in which the long-axis direction exceeds that of the amorphous layer, was observed. • The anisotropic surface conduction was well explained by the molecular stacked structure. - Abstract: This paper reports the anisotropic hole transport at the triphenylamine-derivative single crystal surface prepared by a solution method. Triphenylamine derivatives are commonly used in a hole-transport material for organic photoconductors of laser-beam printers, in which the materials are used as an amorphous form. For developing organic photovoltaics using the photoconductor’s technology, preparation of a single crystal seems to be a specific way by realizing the high mobility of an organic semiconductor. In this study, a single crystal of 4-(2,2-diphenylethenyl)-N,N-bis(4-methylphenyl)-benzenamine (TPA) was prepared and its anisotropic hole-transport property measured. First, the hole-transport property of the TPA was investigated based on its chemical structure and electrochemical redox characteristics. Next, a large-scale single crystal formation at a high rate was developed by employing a solution method based on its solubility and supersolubility curves. The grown TPA was found to be a single crystal based on the polarization micrograph observation and crystallographic analysis. For the TPA single crystal, an anisotropic surface conduction was found, which was well explained by its molecular stack structure. The measured current in the long-axis direction is one order of magnitude greater than that of amorphous TPA.

  14. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  15. Radioactive material transporting container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    As a supporting member of a sealing container for containing spent fuels, etc., a straight pipe or a cylinder has been used. However, upon dropping test, the supporting member is buckled toward the central axis of a transporting container and a shock absorber is crushed in the axial direction to prevent its pushing force to the outer side, which may possibly hinder normal shock moderating function. Then, at least more than one-half of the supporting member is protruded radially to the outer side of the sealing container beyond the fixed portion with the sealed container, so that the member has a portion extended in the radial outside of the transporting container with an angle greater than the angle formed between a line connecting the outer circumference at the bottom of an outer cylinder with the gravitational center of the transporting container and the central axis of the transporting container. As a result, buckling of the supporting member toward the central axis of the transporting container upon dropping test can be prevented and the deformation of the shock absorber is neither not prevented to exhibit normal shock absorbing effect. This can improve the reliability and reduce the amount of shock absorbers. (N.H.)

  16. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  17. Radioactive materials transport experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langhaar, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the kinds of packaging suitable for different types of waste, the roles of highway and rail transport, restrictions imposed by political entities and carriers, and safety. The U. S. accident record is described, with some statistics given

  18. Safe transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-12-31

    The film shows the widespread use of radioactive materials in industry, medicine and research and explains the need for transporting nuclear material from producer to user. It shows the way in which packages containing radioactive materials are handled during transport and explains the most important provisions of the IAEA transport regulations, safety series no. 6, such as packaging design criteria and testing requirements, illustrated by various tests carried out, specimen packages and package and freight container labelling. Also illustrated are practical measures to be taken in case of an accident

  19. Dossier: transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignon, H.; Brachet, Y.; Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Mauny, G.; Robine, F.; Plantet, F.; Pestel Lefevre, O.; Hennenhofer, G.; Bonnemains, J.

    1997-01-01

    This dossier is entirely devoted to the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials of civil use. It comprises 9 papers dealing with: the organization of the control of the radioactive materials transport safety (safety and security aspects, safety regulations, safety analysis and inspection, emergency plans, public information), the technical aspects of the regulation concerning the transport of radioactive materials (elaboration of regulations and IAEA recommendations, risk assessments, defense in depth philosophy and containers, future IAEA recommendations, expertise-research interaction), the qualification of containers (regulations, test facilities), the Transnucleaire company (presentation, activity, containers for spent fuels), the packages of radioactive sources for medical use (flux, qualification, safety and transport), an example of accident during radioactive materials transportation: the Apach train derailment (February 4, 1997), the sea transport of radioactive materials (international maritime organization (OMI), international maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) code, irradiated nuclear fuel (INF) safety rules), the transport of radioactive materials in Germany, and the point of view from an external observer. (J.S.)

  20. Overview of nuclear materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grella, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of transportation as it relates to one specific type of material, low specific activity (LSA) material. It is the predominant type of material that fits into the low-level waste category. An attempt is made to discuss how LSA is regulated, setting forth the requirements. First the general scheme of regulations are reviewed. In addition future changes in the regulations which will affect transportation of LSA materials and, which quite likely, will have an impact on R and D needs in this area are presented

  1. The transport of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemmel, F.

    1987-01-01

    The rapid development of all kinds of transports has been leading to a continuously increasing number of accidents involving the release and escape of hazardous materials. The risks involved for men and the environment have to be realized and reduced to a minimum. Efforts in this field have meanwhile been accumulating an enormous quantity of rules, recommendations and regulations. They comprise, among others, both national and international rail transport, maritime transport, inland shipping, air and road transport regulations adding up to a total of about 5000 pages. The publication discusses the necessity and justification of the existing quantity of regulations, it deals with their possible simplification and modified user-oriented arrangement as well as with a possible international harmonization of regulations. Apart from giving a general survey of the transport of hazardous materials the author reviews the intensive efforts which are going into the safety of the transport of hazardous materials and points out technical and legal problems which have remained unsolved so far. The publication essentially contributes to clearing up the background, perspectives and prospects of the complex regulations controlling the transport of hazardous materials. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.E.

    In Canada, large numbers of packages containing radioactive materials are shipped for industrial, medical and commercial purposes. The nature of the hazards and the associated risks are examined; the protection measures and regulatory requirements are indicated. The result of a survey on the number of packages being shipped is presented; a number of incidents are analyzed as a function of their consequences. Measures to be applied in the event of an emergency and the responsibility for the preparation of contingency plans are considered. (author) [fr

  3. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  4. Towards printed perovskite solar cells with cuprous oxide hole transporting layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan; Xia, Zhonggao; Liang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed p-type metal oxide materials have shown great promise in improving the stability of perovskite-based solar cells and offering the feasibility for a low cost printing fabrication process. Herein, we performed a device modeling study on planar perovskite solar cells with cuprous...... oxide (Cu2O) hole transporting layers (HTLs) by using a solar cell simulation program, wxAMPS. The performance of a Cu2O/perovskite solar cell was correlated to the material properties of the Cu2O HTL, such as thickness, carrier mobility, mid-gap defect, and doping...

  5. Improved performance of organic solar cells with solution processed hole transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Ranoo; Gairola, S. P.; Patra, Asit; Naqvi, Samya; Dhawan, S. K.

    2018-06-01

    This work is based on Cobalt Oxide as solution processed, inexpensive and effective hole transport layer (HTL) for efficient organic photovoltaic applications (OPVs). In Organic solar cell (OSC) devices ITO coated glass substrate used as a transparent anode electrode for light incident, HTL material Co3O4 dissolve in DMF solvent deposited on anode electrode, after that active layer material (donor/acceptor) deposited on to HTL and finally Al were deposited by thermal evaporation used as cathode electrode. These devices were fabricated with PCDTBT well known low band gap donor material in OSCs and blended with PC71BM as an acceptor material using simplest device structure ITO/Co3O4/active layer/Al at ambient conditions. The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) based on Co3O4 and PEDOT:PSS have been achieved to up to 3.21% and 1.47% with PCDTBT respectively. In this study we reported that the devices fabricated with Co3O4 showed better performance as compare to the devices fabricated with well known and most studied solution processed HTL material PEDOT:PSS under identical environmental conditions. The surface morphology of the HTL film was characterized by (AFM). Lastly, we have provided Co3O4 as an efficient hole transport material HTL for solution processed organic photovoltaic applications.

  6. Solution-processed inorganic copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) hole transporting layers for efficient p–i–n perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui; Munir, Rahim; Yan, Buyi; Yang, Yang; Kim, Taesoo; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    CuSCN is a highly transparent, highly stable, low cost and easy to solution process HTL that is proposed as a low cost replacement to existing organic and inorganic metal oxide hole transporting materials. Here, we demonstrate hybrid organic

  7. Status of radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueny, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    As about 900.000 parcels containing radioactive materials are transported every year in France, the author recalls the main risks and safety principles associated with such transport. He indicates the different types of parcels defined by the regulation: excepted parcels, industrial non fissile parcels (type A), type B and fissile parcels, and highly radioactive type C parcels. He briefly presents the Q-system which is used to classify the parcels. He describes the role of the ASN in the control of transport safety, and indicates the different contracts existing between France or Areva and different countries (Germany, Japan, Netherlands, etc.) for the processing of used fuels in La Hague

  8. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Recently the Agency redefined its policy for education and training in radiation safety. The emphasis is now on long-term strategic planning of general education and training programmes. In line with this general policy the Agency's Standing Advisory Group for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) in its 7th meeting (April 1989) agreed that increased training activity should be deployed in the area of transport. SAGSTRAM specifically recommended the development of a standard training programme on this subject area, including audio-visual aids, in order to assist Member States in the implementation of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. This training programme should be substantiated by a biennial training course which is thought to be held either as an Interregional or a Regional Course depending on demand. This training manual, issued as a first publication in the Training Course Series, represents the basic text material for future training courses in transport safety. The topic areas covered by this training manual and most of the texts have been developed from the course material used for the 1987 Bristol Interregional Course on Transport Safety. The training manual is intended to give guidance to the lecturers of a course and will be provided to the participants for retention. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  10. Quasilinear Carbon Transport In An Impurity Hole Plasma In LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, David R. [PPPL; Tanaka, K. [NIFS; Nunami, M. [NIFS; Watanabe, T-H. [Nagoya University; Sugama, H. [NIFS; Yoshinuma, M. [NIFS; Suzuki, Y. [NIFS; Goto, M. [NIFS; Morita, S. [NIFS; Wieland, B. [NIFS; Yamada, I. [NIFS; Yashura, R. [NIFS; Akiyama, T. [NIFS; Pablant, Novimir A. [PPPL

    2014-04-01

    Comprehensive electrostatic gyrokinetic linear stability calculations for ion-scale microinstabilities in an LHD plasma with an ion-ITB and carbon "impurity hole" are used to make quasilinear estimates of particle flux to explore whether microturbulence can explain the observed outward carbon fluxes that flow "up" the impurity density gradient. The ion temperature is not stationary in the ion-ITB phase of the simulated discharge, during which the core carbon density decreases continuously. To fully sample these varying conditions the calculations are carried out at three radial locations and four times. The plasma parameter inputs are based on experimentally measured profiles of electron and ion temperature, as well as electron and carbon density. The spectroscopic line-average ratio of hydrogen and helium densities is used to set the density of these species. Three ion species (H,He,C) and the electrons are treated kinetically, including collisions. Electron instability drive does enhance the growth rate significantly, but the most unstable modes have characteristics of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes in all cases. As the carbon density gradient is scanned between the measured value and zero, the quasilinear carbon flux is invariably inward when the carbon density profile is hollow, so turbulent transport due to the instabilities considered here does not explain the observed outward flux of impurities in impurity hole plasmas. The stiffness of the quasilinear ion heat flux is found to be 1.7-2.3, which is lower than several estimates in tokamaks.

  11. Polyethers with pendent phenylvinyl substituted carbazole rings as polymers for hole transporting layers of OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griniene, R.; Liu, L.; Tavgeniene, D.; Sipaviciute, D.; Volyniuk, D.; Grazulevicius, J. V.; Xie, Z.; Zhang, B.; Leduskrasts, K.; Grigalevicius, S.

    2016-01-01

    Polyethers containing pendent 3-(2-phenylvinyl)carbazole moieties have been synthesized by the multi-step synthetic routes. Full characterization of their structures is presented. The polymers represent materials of high thermal stability with initial thermal degradation temperatures exceeding 370 °C. The glass transition temperatures of the amorphous materials were in the range of 56-658 °C. The electron photoemission spectra of thin layers of the polymers showed ionization potentials of about 5.6 eV. Hole-transporting properties of the polymeric materials were tested in the structures of organic light emitting diodes with Alq3 as the green emitter and electron transporting layer. The device containing hole-transporting layers of poly{9-[6-(3-methyloxetan-3-ylmethoxy)hexyl]-3-(2-phenylvinyl)carbazole} exhibited the best overall performance with a maximum photometric efficiency of about 4.0 cd/A and maximum brightness exceeding 6430 cd/m2.

  12. Truck transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.; Wilmot, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical models in RADTRAN II are used to calculate risks to population subgroups such as people along transport routes, people at stops, and crewman. The stops model, which calculates the dose to persons adjacent to the transport vehicle while it is stopped, frequently provides the largest contribution to incident-free radiological impacts. Components such as distances from the vehicle containing radioactive material to nearby people at stops, stop duration, and number of crew members are required for the stops model as well as other incident-free models. To provide supporting data for RADTRAN II based on operational experience, selected truck shipments of radioactive material were observed from origin to destination. Other important aspects of this program were to correlate package size to effective shipment transport index (TI) using radiological surveys and to characterize population distributions and proximities of people to the shipment at a generic truck stop

  13. Uncontrolled transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassermann, U.

    1985-01-01

    An account is given of international transport of plutonium, uranium oxides, uranium hexafluoride, enriched uranium and irradiated fuel for reprocessing. Referring to the sinking of the 'Mont Louis', it is stated that the International Maritime Organization has been asked by the National Union of Seamen and 'Greenpeace' to bar shipment of radioactive material until stricter international safety regulations are introduced. (U.K.)

  14. Optimal thickness of hole transport layer in doped OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.C.; Zhou, J.; Zhao, J.M.; Zhang, S.T.; Zhan, Y.Q.; Wang, X.Z.; Wu, Y.; Ding, X.M.; Hou, X.Y. [Fudan University, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory), Shanghai (China)

    2006-06-15

    Current-voltage (I-V) and electroluminescence (EL) characteristics of organic light-emitting devices with N,N'-Di-[(1-naphthalenyl)-N,N'-diphenyl]-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) of various thicknesses as the hole transport layer, and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) selectively doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) as the electron transport layer, have been investigated. A trapped charge induced band bend model is proposed to explain the I-V characteristics. It is suggested that space charge changes the injection barrier and therefore influences the electron injection process in addition to the carrier transport process. Enhanced external quantum efficiency of the devices due to the electron blocking effect of an inserted NPB layer is observed. The optimal thickness of the NPB layer is experimentally determined to be 12{+-}3 nm in doped devices, a value different from that for undoped devices, which is attributed to the electron trap effect of DCM molecules. This is consistent with the result that the proportion of Alq{sub 3} luminescence in the total electroluminescence (EL) spectra increases with NPB thickness up to 12 nm under a fixed bias. (orig.)

  15. Auditors of safety in hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manas Lahoz, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The author describes the methodology for safety auditory and control, prevention, risks of hazardous materials transport through ship, airplane, rail, etc. In this way, The author presents the classification of damage materials transport, characteristic damage and different transport methods

  16. Solution processed metal oxide thin film hole transport layers for high performance organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steirer, K. Xerxes; Berry, Joseph J.; Chesin, Jordan P.; Lloyd, Matthew T.; Widjonarko, Nicodemus Edwin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.; Olson, Dana C.

    2017-01-10

    A method for the application of solution processed metal oxide hole transport layers in organic photovoltaic devices and related organic electronics devices is disclosed. The metal oxide may be derived from a metal-organic precursor enabling solution processing of an amorphous, p-type metal oxide. An organic photovoltaic device having solution processed, metal oxide, thin-film hole transport layer.

  17. Perspective on transporting nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the material flow to be expected up to the year 2000 to and from the various steps in the nuclear cycle. These include the reactors, reprocessing plants, enrichment plants, U mills, U conversion plants, and fuel fabrication plants. A somewhat more-detailed discussion is given of the safety engineering that goes into the design of containers and packages and the selection of the mode of transportation. The relationship of shipping to siting and transportation accidents is considered briefly

  18. Optical Hole Burning of Materials for Frequency Domain Optical Storage and Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorokhovsky, Anshel

    2002-01-01

    .... Hole burning parameters were determined for eight materials; in particular, the hole burning kinetics was analyzed and the quantum efficiencies were determined to be between 0.1% and 1%. Holograms (data pages...

  19. The transportation of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    The increasing use of dangerous chemicals and petroleum products by S.A. industry makes it necessary for some form of control to be introduced to regulate the transport of these materials before a major disaster occurs, such as has occurred overseas. This report examines all the aspects that could increase the likelihood of such a disaster occurring, including the preparedness of emergency services. It also recommends the improvements or changes required to minimize this possibility. It is apparent that the training and ability of vehicle drivers are key areas in this respect and they are discussed at length. Forthcoming regulations under the Hazardous Substances Act No. 15 of 1973 are examined and the effects of over-restrictive legislation considered. The report concludes that legislation promulgated gradually to reinforce voluntary industrial practices will ultimately restrict this type of transport to the safety-conscious and competent operator, therefore minimizing the risk as much as possible

  20. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R

    1966-01-01

    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  1. Transport containers for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroszlai, P.; Ferroni, F.

    1984-01-01

    A cylindrical container for the transportation of radioactive reactor elements includes a top end, a bottom end and a pair of removable outwardly curved shock absorbers, each including a double-shelled construction having an internal shell with a convex intrados configuration and an external shell with a convex extrados configuration, the shock absorbers being filled with a low density energy-absorbing material and mounted at the top end and the bottom end of the container, respectively, and each of the shock absorbers having a toroidal configuration, and deformable tubes disposed within the shock absorbers and extending in the axial direction of the container

  2. Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yang; Liu, Jianping, E-mail: jpliu2010@sinano.ac.cn; Tian, Aiqin; Zhang, Feng; Feng, Meixin; Hu, Weiwei; Zhang, Shuming; Ikeda, Masao; Li, Deyao; Zhang, Liqun; Yang, Hui [Key Lab of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); School of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics, University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2016-08-29

    Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes (LDs) has been investigated by both simulations and experiments. It is found that holes can overflow from the green double quantum wells (DQWs) at high current density, which reduces carrier injection efficiency of c-plane InGaN-based green LDs. A heavily silicon-doped layer right below the green DQWs can effectively suppress hole overflow from the green DQWs.

  3. Hole-Transfer Dependence on Blend Morphology and Energy Level Alignment in Polymer: ITIC Photovoltaic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Nicholas D; Logsdon, Jenna L; Manley, Eric F; Aldrich, Thomas J; Leonardi, Matthew J; Wang, Gang; Powers-Riggs, Natalia E; Young, Ryan M; Chen, Lin X; Wasielewski, Michael R; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S; Chang, Robert P H; Marks, Tobin J

    2018-01-01

    Bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic materials containing nonfullerene acceptors (NFAs) have seen remarkable advances in the past year, finally surpassing fullerenes in performance. Indeed, acceptors based on indacenodithiophene (IDT) have become synonymous with high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Nevertheless, NFAs have yet to achieve fill factors (FFs) comparable to those of the highest-performing fullerene-based materials. To address this seeming anomaly, this study examines a high efficiency IDT-based acceptor, ITIC, paired with three donor polymers known to achieve high FFs with fullerenes, PTPD3T, PBTI3T, and PBTSA3T. Excellent PCEs up to 8.43% are achieved from PTPD3T:ITIC blends, reflecting good charge transport, optimal morphology, and efficient ITIC to PTPD3T hole-transfer, as observed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Hole-transfer is observed from ITIC to PBTI3T and PBTSA3T, but less efficiently, reflecting measurably inferior morphology and nonoptimal energy level alignment, resulting in PCEs of 5.34% and 4.65%, respectively. This work demonstrates the importance of proper morphology and kinetics of ITIC → donor polymer hole-transfer in boosting the performance of polymer:ITIC photovoltaic bulk heterojunction blends. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Transportation of radioactive materials. Safety and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niel, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This engineering-oriented publication first presents fluxes and risks related to the transportation of radioactive materials: fluxes, risks, in-depth defence, and parcel typology. The author then describes the elaboration process for transportation regulations: IAEA recommendations for the transportation of radioactive materials and their review process, IAEA recommendations for modal regulations. He presents the French transportation regulation framework: evolutions of IAEA recommendations, case of aerial transport, and case of maritime transport. The next part addresses the specific case of the transportation of uranium hexafluoride. The last part addresses incidents and accidents occurring during transportation: declarations to be made, brief presentations of several examples of incidents and accidents

  5. Post-merger evolution of a neutron star-black hole binary with neutrino transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, Francois; O'Connor, Evan; Roberts, Luke; Duez, Matthew D.; Haas, Roland; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Ott, Christian D.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela

    2015-06-01

    We present a first simulation of the post-merger evolution of a black hole-neutron star binary in full general relativity using an energy-integrated general-relativistic truncated moment formalism for neutrino transport. We describe our implementation of the moment formalism and important tests of our code, before studying the formation phase of an accretion disk after a black hole-neutron star merger. We use as initial data an existing general-relativistic simulation of the merger of a neutron star of mass 1.4 M⊙ with a black hole of mass 7 M⊙ and dimensionless spin χBH=0.8 . Comparing with a simpler leakage scheme for the treatment of the neutrinos, we find noticeable differences in the neutron-to-proton ratio in and around the disk, and in the neutrino luminosity. We find that the electron neutrino luminosity is much lower in the transport simulations, and that both the disk and the disk outflows are less neutron rich. The spatial distribution of the neutrinos is significantly affected by relativistic effects, due to large velocities and curvature in the regions of strongest emission. Over the short time scale evolved, we do not observe purely neutrino-driven outflows. However, a small amount of material (3 ×10-4M⊙ ) is ejected in the polar region during the circularization of the disk. Most of that material is ejected early in the formation of the disk, and is fairly neutron rich (electron fraction Ye˜0.15 - 0.25 ). Through r-process nucleosynthesis, that material should produce high-opacity lanthanides in the polar region, and could thus affect the light curve of radioactively powered electromagnetic transients. We also show that by the end of the simulation, while the bulk of the disk remains neutron rich (Ye˜0.15 - 0.2 and decreasing), its outer layers have a higher electron fraction: 10% of the remaining mass has Ye>0.3 . As that material would be the first to be unbound by disk outflows on longer time scales, and as composition evolution is

  6. The effects of electron and hole transport layer with the electrode work function on perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Quanrong; Li, Yiqi; Chen, Lian; Wang, Shenggao; Wang, Geming; Sheng, Yonglong; Shao, Guosheng

    2016-09-01

    The effects of electron and hole transport layer with the electrode work function on perovskite solar cells with the interface defects were simulated by using analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures-one-dimensional (AMPS-1D) software. The simulation results suggest that TiO2 electron transport layer provides best device performance with conversion efficiency of 25.9% compared with ZnO and CdS. The threshold value of back electrode work function for Spiro-OMeTAD, NiO, CuI and Cu2O hole transport layer are calculated to be 4.9, 4.8, 4.7 and 4.9 eV, respectively, to reach the highest conversion efficiency. The mechanisms of device physics with various electron and hole transport materials are discussed in details. The device performance deteriorates gradually as the increased density of interface defects located at ETM/absorber or absorber/HTM. This research results can provide helpful guidance for materials and metal electrode choice for perovskite solar cells.

  7. Prospects of e-beam evaporated molybdenum oxide as a hole transport layer for perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, F.; Khoshsirat, N.; Duffin, J. L.; Wang, H.; Ostrikov, K.; Bell, J. M.; Tesfamichael, T.

    2017-09-01

    Perovskite solar cells have emerged as one of the most efficient and low cost technologies for delivering of solar electricity due to their exceptional optical and electrical properties. Commercialization of the perovskite solar cells is, however, limited because of the higher cost and environmentally sensitive organic hole transport materials such as spiro-OMETAD and PEDOT:PSS. In this study, an empirical simulation was performed using the Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator software to explore the MoOx thin film as an alternative hole transport material for perovskite solar cells. In the simulation, properties of MoOx thin films deposited by the electron beam evaporation technique from high purity (99.99%) MoO3 pellets at different substrate temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C and 200 °C) were used as input parameters. The films were highly transparent (>80%) and have low surface roughness (≤2 nm) with bandgap energy ranging between 3.75 eV and 3.45 eV. Device simulation has shown that the MoOx deposited at room temperature can work in both the regular and inverted structures of the perovskite solar cell with a promising efficiency of 18.25%. Manufacturing of the full device is planned in order to utilize the MoOx as an alternative hole transport material for improved performance, good stability, and low cost of the perovskite solar cell.

  8. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messenger, W. de L.M.

    1979-02-01

    The hazards of radioactive materials in transport are surveyed. The system whereby they are safely transported between nuclear establishments in the United Kingdom and overseas is outlined. Several popular misconceptions are dealt with. (author)

  9. Emergency Response to Radioactive Material Transport Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-shinawy, R.M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Although transport regulations issued by IAEA is providing a high degree of safety during transport opertions,transport accidents involving packages containing radioactive material have occurred and will occur at any time. Whenever a transport accident involving radioactive material accurs, and many will pose no radiation safety problems, emergency respnose actioms are meeded to ensure that radiation safety is maintained. In case of transport accident that result in a significant relesae of radioactive material , loss of shielding or loss of criticality control , that consequences should be controlled or mitigated by proper emergency response actions safety guide, Emergency Response Plamming and Prepardness for transport accidents involving radioactive material, was published by IAEA. This guide reflected all requirememts of IAEA, regulations for safe transport of radioactive material this guide provide guidance to the publicauthorites and other interested organziation who are responsible for establishing such emergency arrangements

  10. Brief communication "Stratospheric winds, transport barriers and the 2011 Arctic ozone hole"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Olascoaga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic stratosphere throughout the late winter and early spring of 2011 was characterized by an unusually severe ozone loss, resulting in what has been described as an ozone hole. The 2011 ozone loss was made possible by unusually cold temperatures throughout the Arctic stratosphere. Here we consider the issue of what constitutes suitable environmental conditions for the formation and maintenance of a polar ozone hole. Our discussion focuses on the importance of the stratospheric wind field and, in particular, the importance of a high latitude zonal jet, which serves as a meridional transport barrier both prior to ozone hole formation and during the ozone hole maintenance phase. It is argued that stratospheric conditions in the boreal winter/spring of 2011 were highly unusual inasmuch as in that year Antarctic-like Lagrangian dynamics led to the formation of a boreal ozone hole.

  11. Radioactive material accidents in the transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, D.L.; Magalhaes, M.H.; Sanches, M.P.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transport is an important part of the worldwide nuclear industry and the safety record for nuclear transport across the world is excellent. The increase in the use of radioactive materials in our country requires that these materials be moved from production sites to the end user. Despite the number of packages transported, the number of incidents and accidents in which they are involved is low. In Brazil, do not be records of victims of the radiation as a result of the transport of radioactive materials and either due to the accidents happened during the transports. The absence of victims of the radiation as result of accidents during the transports is a highly significant fact, mainly to consider that annually approximately two hundred a thousand packages containing radioactive material are consigned for transport throughout the country, of which eighty a thousand are for a medical use. This is due to well-founded regulations developed by governmental and intergovernmental organizations and to the professionalism of those in the industry. In this paper, an overview is presented of the activities related to the transport of radioactive material in the state of Sao Paulo. The applicable legislation, the responsibilities and tasks of the competent authorities are discussed. The categories of radioactive materials transported and the packaging requirements for the safe transport of these radioactive materials are also described. It also presents the packages amounts of carried and the accidents occurred during the transport of radioactive materials, in the last five years. The main occurred events are argued, demonstrating that the demanded requirements of security for any transport of radioactive material are enough to guarantee the necessary control of ionizing radiation expositions to transport workers, members of general public and the environment. (author)

  12. Nuclear materials transport in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korycanek, J.

    1990-01-01

    About 1.5 million tons of uranium ore, 8000 tons of uranium concentrate, 1000 tons of UF 6 , 340 spent fuel containers, and 30 000 m 3 of nuclear wastes are transported annually by trucks, trains and ships in France. Annual costs of this transportation amount to 500-600 million FRF, and about 200 employees are engaged in this activity. Transportation of spent fuel to the La Hague and Marcoule fuel reprocessing plants, and the transport of plutonium are dealt with in detail. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 1 ref

  13. Accidents during transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive materials are a part of modern technology and life. They are used in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and electrical power generation. Tens of millions of packages containing radioactive materials are consigned for transport each year throughout the world. In India, about 80000 packages containing radioactive material are transported every year. The amount of radioactive material in these packages varies from negligible amounts used in consumer products to very large amounts in shipment of irradiator sources and spent nuclear fuel

  14. Effect of organic small-molecule hole injection materials on the performance of inverted organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zheng, Yifan; Zheng, Ding; Yu, Junsheng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the influence of small-molecule organic hole injection materials on the performance of organic solar cells (OSCs) as the hole transport layer (HTL) with an architecture of ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PC71BM/HTL/Ag has been investigated. A significant enhancement on the performance of OSCs from 1.06% to 2.63% is obtained by using N, N‧-bis(1-naphthalenyl)-N, N‧-bis-phenyl-(1, 1‧-biphenyl)-4, 4‧-diamine (NPB) HTL. Through the resistance simulation and space-charge limited current analysis, we found that NPB HTL cannot merely improve the hole mobility of the device but also form the Ohmic contact between the active layer and anode. Besides, when we apply mix HTL by depositing the NPB on the surface of molybdenum oxide, the power conversion efficiency of OSC are able to be further improved to 2.96%.

  15. Safe and secure: transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, D.

    2015-01-01

    Western Waste Management Facility is Central Transportation Facility for Low and Intermediate waste materials. Transportation support for Stations: Reactor inspection tools and heavy water between stations and reactor components and single bundles of irradiated fuel to AECL-Chalk River for examination. Safety Track Record: 3.2 million kilometres safely travelled and no transportation accident - resulting in a radioactive release.

  16. Safe transport of radioactive material. 3. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training as a means of helping Member States to implement the Transport Regulations. The training manual is an anchor of this standardized approach to training: it contains all the topics presented in the sequential order recommended by the IAEA for the student to gain a thorough understanding of the body of knowledge that is needed to ensure that radioactive material ranked as Class 7 in the United Nations' nomenclature for dangerous goods - is transported safely. The explanations in the text refer, where needed, to the appropriate requirements in the IAEA's Transport Regulations; additional useful information is also provided. Thus, the training manual in addition to the Transport Regulations and their supporting documents is used by the IAEA as the basis for delivering all of its training courses on the safe transport of radioactive material. Enclosed with the training manual is a CD-ROM that contains the text of the manual as well as the visual aids that are used at the IAEA's training courses. The following topics are covered: review of radioactivity and radiation; review of radiation protection principles; regulatory terminology; basic safety concepts: materials and packages; activity limits and material restrictions; selection of optimal package type; test procedures: material and packages; requirements for transport; control of material in transport; fissile material: regulatory requirements and operational aspects; quality assurance; national competent authority; additional regulatory constraints for transport; international liability and insurance; emergency planning and preparedness; training; services provided by the IAEA

  17. Safe transport of radioactive material. 3. ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    The IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training as a means of helping Member States to implement the Transport Regulations. The training manual is an anchor of this standardized approach to training: it contains all the topics presented in the sequential order recommended by the IAEA for the student to gain a thorough understanding of the body of knowledge that is needed to ensure that radioactive material ranked as Class 7 in the United Nations' nomenclature for dangerous goods - is transported safely. The explanations in the text refer, where needed, to the appropriate requirements in the IAEA's Transport Regulations; additional useful information is also provided. Thus, the training manual in addition to the Transport Regulations and their supporting documents is used by the IAEA as the basis for delivering all of its training courses on the safe transport of radioactive material. Enclosed with the training manual is a CD-ROM that contains the text of the manual as well as the visual aids that are used at the IAEA's training courses. The following topics are covered: review of radioactivity and radiation; review of radiation protection principles; regulatory terminology; basic safety concepts: materials and packages; activity limits and material restrictions; selection of optimal package type; test procedures: material and packages; requirements for transport; control of material in transport; fissile material: regulatory requirements and operational aspects; quality assurance; national competent authority; additional regulatory constraints for transport; international liability and insurance; emergency planning and preparedness; training; services provided by the IAEA.

  18. Transportation of radioactive materials - a utility view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futter, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Local restrictions to transportation of radioactive materials have proliferated, and the reasons for this are described. Some of the measures which could be undertaken to counteract this trend are discussed. People should speak out on the need for nuclear power in general and for transportation of nuclear materials in particular

  19. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items. (DC)

  20. The safety of radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niel, J.Ch.

    1997-01-01

    Five accidents in radioactive materials transport have been studied; One transport accident by road, one by ship, one by rail, and the two last in handling materials from ships in Cherbourg port and Le Havre port. All these accidents were without any important consequences in term of radiation protection, but they were sources of lessons to improve the safety. (N.C.)

  1. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items

  2. Transport containers for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibby, D.

    1978-01-01

    A transport container for transporting irradiated nuclear fuel is described comprising a steel flask with detachable cover and having external heat exchange fins. The flask contains a solid annular shield comprised of discrete bodies of Pb or Fe bonded together by a solid matrix, for attenuating gamma rays and neutron emission. This may comprise lead shot bonded together by concrete or polyethylene, or alternatively iron shot bonded by concrete. (UK)

  3. Bipolar Alq3-based complexes: Effect of hole-transporting substituent on the properties of Alq3-center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jianxin; Lu Mangeng; Yang Chaolong; Tong Bihai; Liang Liyan

    2012-01-01

    Two bipolar Alq 3 -based complexes, tris{5-[(carbazole-9'-yl)methyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline} aluminum (Al(CzHQ) 3 ) and tris{5-[(phenothiazine-9'-yl)methyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline} aluminum (Al(PHQ) 3 ), involving an Alq 3 -center and three hole-transporting substituents (carbazole or phenothiazine), were prepared and characterized. Effects of hole-transporting substituent on the properties of Alq 3 -center were investigated in detail. It is found that the two complexes have improved hole-transporting performance and appropriate thermal stability (the 5%-weight-loss temperatures T 5% >260 °C). Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that both energy transfer and electron transfer can take place simultaneously in the PL process of these complexes. Both thermodynamics and dynamics of the electron transfer were studied and corresponding parameters were calculated. Energy transfer is favorable for the PL of Alq 3 -center, while electron transfer is unfavorable for the PL of Alq 3 -center. These results will be useful to explore novel OLEDs material with increased efficiency. - Highlights: ► Effects of substituent on the properties of Alq 3 -center were investigated. ► Energy transfer and electron transfer can transfer from substituent to Alq 3 -center. ► The thermodynamics and dynamics of electron transfer were studied. ► The mechanisms of PL and EL of Al(CzHQ) 3 were studied and compared with each other.

  4. Perovskite Thin Film Solar Cells Based on Inorganic Hole Conducting Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Pan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites have recently shown great potential for application, due to their advantages of low-cost, excellent photoelectric properties and high power conversion efficiency. Perovskite-based thin film solar cells have achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE of up to 20%. Hole transport materials (HTMs are one of the most important components of perovskite solar cells (PSCs, having functions of optimizing interface, adjusting the energy match, and helping to obtain higher PCE. Inorganic p-type semiconductors are alternative HTMs due to their chemical stability, higher mobility, high transparency in the visible region, and applicable valence band (VB energy level. This review analyzed the advantages, disadvantages, and development prospects of several popular inorganic HTMs in PSCs.

  5. Legal aspects of radioactice materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejman, Eh.S.

    1986-01-01

    The main statements of the Safety rules for radioactive materials transport PBTRV-73 applied in the USSR are considered. The rules cover the whole complex of security measures at all the stages of radioactive materials transprt including requirements to packaging, radiation monitoring, measures of individual protection and personal hygiene, measures at accidents and fires. Separate rules for radioactive materials handling when using rail, air, maritime and road transports are developed on the basis of this document

  6. Single photon transport by a moving atom through sub-wavelength hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasiev, A.E.; Melentiev, P.N.; Kuzin, A.A.; Kalatskiy, A.Yu.; Balykin, V.I.

    2017-01-01

    The results of investigation of photon transport through the subwavelength hole in the opaque screen by using single neutral atom are represented. The basis of the proposed and implemented method is the absorption of a photon by a neutral atom immediately before the subwavelength aperture, traveling of the atoms through the hole and emission of a photon on the other side of the screen. Realized method is the alternative approach to existing for photon transport through a subwavelength aperture: 1) self-sustained transmittance of a photon through the aperture according to the Bethe’s model; 2) extra ordinary transmission because of surface-plasmon excitation.

  7. Ontario hydro radioactive material transportation field guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, W.

    1987-01-01

    The recent introduction of both the AECB Transport Packaging of Radioactive Material Regulations and Transport Canada's Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations have significantly altered the requirements for transporting radioactive material in Canada. Extensive additional training as well as certification of several hundred Ontario Hydro employees has been necessary to ensure compliance with the additional and revised regulatory requirements. To assist in the training of personnel, an 'active' corporate Ontario Hydro Field Guide for Radioactive Material Transport document has been developed and published. The contents of this Field Guide identify current Ontario Hydro equipment and procedures as well as the updated relevant regulatory requirements within Canada. In addition, to satisfying Ontario Hydro requirements for this type of information over two thousand of these Field Guides have been provided to key emergency response personnel throughout the province of Ontario to assist in their transportation accident response training

  8. Physical protection of radioactive material in transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Safety in the transport of radioactive material is ensured by enclosing the material, when necessary, in packaging which prevents its dispersal and which absorbs to any adequate extent any radiation emitted by the material. Transport workers, the general public and the environment are thus protected against the harmful effects of the radioactive material. The packaging also serves the purpose of protecting its contents against the effects of rough handling and mishaps under normal transport conditions, and against the severe stresses and high temperatures that could be encountered in accidents accompanied by fires. If the radioactive material is also fissile, special design features are incorporated to prevent any possibility of criticality under normal transport conditions and in accidents. The safe transport requirements are designed to afford protection against unintentional opening of packages in normal handling and transport conditions and against damage in severe accident conditions; whereas the physical protection requirements are designed to prevent intentional opening of packages and deliberate damage. This clearly illustrates the difference in philosophical approach underlying the requirements for safe transport and for physical protection during transport. This difference in approach is, perhaps, most easily seen in the differing requirements for marking of consignments. While safety considerations dictate that packages be clearly labelled, physical protection considerations urge restraint in the use of special labels. Careful consideration must be given to such differences in approach in any attempt to harmonize the safety and physical protection aspects of transport. (author)

  9. All-solution processed composite hole transport layer for quantum dot light emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoli [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin (China); Dai, Haitao, E-mail: htdai@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Junliang; Wang, Shuguo [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Sun, Xiaowei [Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Tangchang Road 1088, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China)

    2016-03-31

    In the present work, poly-TPD and TCTA composite hole transport layer (HTL) was employed in solution processed CdSe/ZnS quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs). As the doping level of TCTA can determine the carriers transport efficiency of HTL, the proper mixing ratio of TCTA and poly-TPD should be found to optimize the performance of composite HTL for QLEDs. The doping of poly-TPD by low TCTA content can make its HOMO level lower and then reduce the energy barrier height from HTL to quantum dots (QDs), whereas the doping of poly-TPD by the concentrated TCTA results in the degraded performance of QLEDs due to its decreased hole transport mobility. By using the optimized composition with poly-TPD:TCTA (3:1) as the hole transport layer, the luminescence of the device exhibits about double enhancement compared with that of poly-TPD based device. The improvement of luminescence is mainly attributed to the lower energy barrier of hole injection. The Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) mechanism in the devices was investigated through theoretical and experimental analysis and the results indicate that the TCTA doping makes no difference on FRET. Therefore, the charge injection mechanism dominates the improved performance of the devices. - Highlights: • Quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs) were fabricated by all solution method. • The performance of QLEDs was optimized by varying the composite hole transport layer. • The blend HTL could promote hole injection by optimizing HOMO levels. • The energy transfer mechanism was analyzed by studying Förster resonant energy transfer process.

  10. Improved organic light-emitting device with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium inserted between hole-injection layer and hole-transporting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divayana, Y [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore (Singapore); Sun, X W [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore (Singapore); Chen, B J [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore (Singapore); Sarma, K R [Aerospace Electronic Systems, Honeywell, 21111 N 19th Avenue, Phoenix, AZ 85027 (United States)

    2007-01-07

    A layer of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq{sub 3}), which is normally used as an electron-transporting and emissive layer, was incorporated between the hole-transporting layer and the hole-injection layer to balance the electron-hole injection. The Alq{sub 3} layer performed to block the hole current which is a majority carrier in a typical organic light-emitting device. An increase in current efficiency by almost 30%, from 3.1 to 4.0 cd A{sup -1}, with a minimum voltage shift was achieved with a 2 nm Alq{sub 3} layer as a hole-blocking layer. A reduction in HTL thickness was observed to reduce the efficiency due to electron leakage to the HIL, whereby an inefficient exciplex emission was observed.

  11. Characterization of nitride hole lateral transport in a charge trap flash memory by using a random telegraph signal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Heng; Jiang, Cheng-Min; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Wang, Tahui; Tsai, Wen-Jer; Lu, Tao-Cheng; Chen, Kuang-Chao; Lu, Chih-Yuan

    2017-07-01

    We use a random telegraph signal method to investigate nitride trapped hole lateral transport in a charge trap flash memory. The concept of this method is to utilize an interface oxide trap and its associated random telegraph signal as an internal probe to detect a local channel potential change resulting from nitride charge lateral movement. We apply different voltages to the drain of a memory cell and vary a bake temperature in retention to study the electric field and temperature dependence of hole lateral movement in a nitride. Thermal energy absorption by trapped holes in lateral transport is characterized. Mechanisms of hole lateral transport in retention are investigated. From the measured and modeled results, we find that thermally assisted trap-to-band tunneling is a major trapped hole emission mechanism in nitride hole lateral transport.

  12. The Safe Transportation of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megrahi, Abdulhafeed; Abu-Ali, Giuma; Enhaba; Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present the essential conditions that should be required for transporting the radioactive materials. We demonstrate the procedure for transporting the radioactive iodine-131 from the Centre of Renewable Energies and Desalination of Water in Tajoura, Libya to Tripoli Medical Center. The safe measures were taken during the process of the transportation of the isotope produced in the centre including dosimetry analysis and the thickness of the container. (author)

  13. Transport packages for nuclear material and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The regulations and responsibilities concerning the transport packages of nuclear materials and waste are given in the guide. The approval procedure, control of manufacturing, commissioning of the packaging and the control of use are specified. (13 refs.)

  14. Solution-Grown Monocrystalline Hybrid Perovskite Films for Hole-Transporter-Free Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Wei; Wang, Lingfei; Banavoth, Murali; Ho, Kang-Ting; Bera, Ashok; Cho, Nam Chul; Kang, Chen-Fang; Burlakov, Victor M.; Pan, Jun; Sinatra, Lutfan; Ma, Chun; Xu, Wei; Shi, Dong; Alarousu, Erkki; Goriely, Alain; He, Jr-Hau; Mohammed, Omar F.; Wu, Tao; Bakr, Osman

    2016-01-01

    conversion efficiencies (PCEs) >5%, and superior stability for prototype cells. Furthermore, the monocrystalline devices using a hole-transporter-free structure yield PCEs ≈6.5%, the highest among other similar-structured CH3NH3PbBr3 solar cells to date.

  15. Giant electron-hole transport asymmetry in ultra-short quantum transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, A. C.; Tayari, V.; Porter, J. M.; Champagne, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Making use of bipolar transport in single-wall carbon nanotube quantum transistors would permit a single device to operate as both a quantum dot and a ballistic conductor or as two quantum dots with different charging energies. Here we report ultra-clean 10 to 100 nm scale suspended nanotube transistors with a large electron-hole transport asymmetry. The devices consist of naked nanotube channels contacted with sections of tube under annealed gold. The annealed gold acts as an n-doping top gate, allowing coherent quantum transport, and can create nanometre-sharp barriers. These tunnel barriers define a single quantum dot whose charging energies to add an electron or a hole are vastly different (e−h charging energy asymmetry). We parameterize the e−h transport asymmetry by the ratio of the hole and electron charging energies ηe−h. This asymmetry is maximized for short channels and small band gap tubes. In a small band gap device, we demonstrate the fabrication of a dual functionality quantum device acting as a quantum dot for holes and a much longer quantum bus for electrons. In a 14 nm-long channel, ηe−h reaches up to 2.6 for a device with a band gap of 270 meV. The charging energies in this device exceed 100 meV. PMID:28561024

  16. Gas transport in graphitic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoinkis, E.

    1995-02-01

    The characterization of the gas transport properties of porous solids is of interest in several fields of science and technology. Many catalysts, adsorbents, soils, graphites and carbons are porous. The gas transport through most porous solids can be well described by the dusty gas model invented by Evans, Watson and Mason. This model includes all modes of gas tranport under steady-state conditions, which are Knudsen diffusion, combined Knudsen/continuum diffusion and continuum diffusion, both for gas pairs with equal and different molecular weights. In the absence of a pressure difference gas transport in a pore system can be described by the combined Knudsen/continuum diffusion coefficient D 1 for component 1 in the pores, the Knudsen diffusion coefficient D 1K in the pores, and the continuum diffusion coefficient D 12 for a binary mixture in the pores. The resistance to stationary continuum diffusion of the pores is characterized by a geometrical factor (ε/τ) 12 = (ε/τ)D 12 , were D 12 is the continuum diffusion coefficient for a binary mixture in free space. The Wicke-Kallenbach method was often used to measure D 1 as function of pressure. D 12 and D 1K can be derived from a plot 1/D 1 νs P, and ε/τcan be calculated since D 12 is known. D 1K and the volume of dead end pores can be derived from transient measurements of the diffusional flux at low pressures. From D 1K the expression (ε/τ c ) anti l por may be calculated, which characterizes the pore system for molecular diffusion, where collisions with the pore walls are predominant. (orig.)

  17. Effects of model approximations for electron, hole, and photon transport in swift heavy ion tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rymzhanov, R.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Medvedev, N.A., E-mail: nikita.medvedev@fzu.cz [Department of Radiation and Chemical Physics, Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Laser Plasma Department, Institute of Plasma Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Volkov, A.E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Sq. 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskij pr., 53,119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskij pr., 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoye sh., 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-01

    The event-by-event Monte Carlo code, TREKIS, was recently developed to describe excitation of the electron subsystems of solids in the nanometric vicinity of a trajectory of a nonrelativistic swift heavy ion (SHI) decelerated in the electronic stopping regime. The complex dielectric function (CDF) formalism was applied in the used cross sections to account for collective response of a matter to excitation. Using this model we investigate effects of the basic assumptions on the modeled kinetics of the electronic subsystem which ultimately determine parameters of an excited material in an SHI track. In particular, (a) effects of different momentum dependencies of the CDF on scattering of projectiles on the electron subsystem are investigated. The ‘effective one-band’ approximation for target electrons produces good coincidence of the calculated electron mean free paths with those obtained in experiments in metals. (b) Effects of collective response of a lattice appeared to dominate in randomization of electron motion. We study how sensitive these effects are to the target temperature. We also compare results of applications of different model forms of (quasi-) elastic cross sections in simulations of the ion track kinetics, e.g. those calculated taking into account optical phonons in the CDF form vs. Mott’s atomic cross sections. (c) It is demonstrated that the kinetics of valence holes significantly affects redistribution of the excess electronic energy in the vicinity of an SHI trajectory as well as its conversion into lattice excitation in dielectrics and semiconductors. (d) It is also shown that induced transport of photons originated from radiative decay of core holes brings the excess energy faster and farther away from the track core, however, the amount of this energy is relatively small.

  18. Electron-hole collision limited transport in charge-neutral bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Youngwoo; Ki, Dong-Keun; Soler-Delgado, David; Morpurgo, Alberto F.

    2017-12-01

    Ballistic transport occurs whenever electrons propagate without collisions deflecting their trajectory. It is normally observed in conductors with a negligible concentration of impurities, at low temperature, to avoid electron-phonon scattering. Here, we use suspended bilayer graphene devices to reveal a new regime, in which ballistic transport is not limited by scattering with phonons or impurities, but by electron-hole collisions. The phenomenon manifests itself in a negative four-terminal resistance that becomes visible when the density of holes (electrons) is suppressed by gate-shifting the Fermi level in the conduction (valence) band, above the thermal energy. For smaller densities, transport is diffusive, and the measured conductivity is reproduced quantitatively, with no fitting parameters, by including electron-hole scattering as the only process causing velocity relaxation. Experiments on a trilayer device show that the phenomenon is robust and that transport at charge neutrality is governed by the same physics. Our results provide a textbook illustration of a transport regime that had not been observed previously and clarify the nature of conduction through charge-neutral graphene under conditions in which carrier density inhomogeneity is immaterial. They also demonstrate that transport can be limited by a fully electronic mechanism, originating from the same microscopic processes that govern the physics of Dirac-like plasmas.

  19. Alternative materials for sustainable transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    A shortage of asphalt and polymers is creating opportunities for engineers to utilize alternative pavement materials. Three types of bio oil, untreated bio oil (UTB), treated bio oil (TB) and polymer-modified bio oil (PMB) were studied in this resear...

  20. Plasma transport near material boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.E.

    1985-06-01

    The fluid theory of two-dimensional (2-d) plasma transport in axisymmetric devices is reviewed. The forces which produce flow across the magnetic field in a collisional plasma are described. These flows may lead to up-down asymmetries in the poloidal rotation and radial fluxes. Emphasis is placed on understanding the conditions under which the known 2-d plasma fluid equations provide a valid description of these processes. Attempts to extend the fluid treatment to less collisional, turbulent plasmas are discussed. A reduction to the 1-d fluid equations used in many computer simulations is possible when sources or boundary conditions provide a large enough radial scale length. The complete 1-d fluid equations are given in the text, and 2-d fluid equations are given in the Appendix

  1. Radioactive Material (Road Transport) Act 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Act came into force on 27 August 1991. It replaces earlier legislation dating from 1948 and enables the United Kingdom to give effect to the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) latest recommended Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. The new Act clarifies and extends the power of the Secretary of State to make regulations regarding, among other things, the design, labelling, handling, transport and delivery of packages containing radioactive material and the placarding of vehicles transporting such packages. The Act gives the Secretary of State the power to appoint inspectors to assist him in enforcing the regulations. (NEA)

  2. Institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, R.T.; Luna, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials in the United States represent significant barriers to meeting future needs in the transport of radioactive waste materials to their ultimate repository. While technological problems which must be overcome to perform such movements seem to be within the state-of-the-art, the timely resolution of these institutional issues seems less assured. However, the definition of these issues, as attempted in this paper, together with systematic analysis of cause and possible solutions are the essential elements of the Transportation Technology Center's Institutional Issues Program

  3. Storage and transport of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, P.; Haferkamp, K.

    1986-01-01

    The attempt has been made to characterise the present risk scenario, and to set out approaches or methods for remedy and risk control. For this purpose, a retrospective analysis has been made of accidents, damage and consequential damage that occurred in the past either during storage of hazardous materials, or during road transport. A risk-benefit model facilitates assessment of accident frequency. The history of accidents during storage or transport allows assessment of the dangerousness of various materials. Another important aspect discussed is the property and behaviour of containers used for storage or transport. (DG) [de

  4. Finger-gate manipulated quantum transport in Dirac materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleftogiannis, Ioannis; Cheng, Shun-Jen; Tang, Chi-Shung

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the quantum transport properties of multichannel nanoribbons made of materials described by the Dirac equation, under an in-plane magnetic field. In the low energy regime, positive and negative finger-gate potentials allow the electrons to make intra-subband transitions via hole-like or electron-like quasibound states (QBS), respectively, resulting in dips in the conductance. In the high energy regime, double dip structures in the conductance are found, attributed to spin-flip or spin-nonflip inter-subband transitions through the QBSs. Inverting the finger-gate polarity offers the possibility to manipulate the spin polarized electronic transport to achieve a controlled spin-switch. (paper)

  5. Efficient and Air-Stable Planar Perovskite Solar Cells Formed on Graphene-Oxide-Modified PEDOT:PSS Hole Transport Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui; Lin, Xuanhuai; Hou, Xian; Pan, Likun; Huang, Sumei; Chen, Xiaohong

    2017-10-01

    As a hole transport layer, PEDOT:PSS usually limits the stability and efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) due to its hygroscopic nature and inability to block electrons. Here, a graphene-oxide (GO)-modified PEDOT:PSS hole transport layer was fabricated by spin-coating a GO solution onto the PEDOT:PSS surface. PSCs fabricated on a GO-modified PEDOT:PSS layer exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.34%, which is higher than 11.90% of PSCs with the PEDOT:PSS layer. Furthermore, the stability of the PSCs was significantly improved, with the PCE remaining at 83.5% of the initial PCE values after aging for 39 days in air. The hygroscopic PSS material at the PEDOT:PSS surface was partly removed during spin-coating with the GO solution, which improves the moisture resistance and decreases the contact barrier between the hole transport layer and perovskite layer. The scattered distribution of the GO at the PEDOT:PSS surface exhibits superior wettability, which helps to form a high-quality perovskite layer with better crystallinity and fewer pin holes. Furthermore, the hole extraction selectivity of the GO further inhibits the carrier recombination at the interface between the perovskite and PEDOT:PSS layers. Therefore, the cooperative interactions of these factors greatly improve the light absorption of the perovskite layer, the carrier transport and collection abilities of the PSCs, and especially the stability of the cells.

  6. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1975-01-01

    In the course of transport by road, rail, sea and air, consignments of radioactive material are in close proximity to ordinary members of the public and in most cases they are loaded and unloaded by transport workers who have no special training or experience in the handling of radioactive substances. The materials being transported cover a wide variety - ranging from small batches of short-lived radionuclides used in medical practice which can be transported in small sealed lead pots in cardboard boxes, to large, extremely radioactive consignments of irradiated nuclear fuel in flasks weighing many tons. With the growing development of nuclear power programmes the transport of irradiated fuel is likely to increase markedly. It is clear that unless adequate regulations concerning the design and assembly of the packages containing these materials are precisely set down and strictly carried out, there would be a high probability that some of the radioactive contents would be released, leading to contamination of other transported goods and the general environment, and to the delivery of a radiation dose to the transport workers and the public. An additional requirement is that the transport should proceed smoothly and without delay. This is particularly important for radioactive materials of short half-life, which would lose significant amounts of their total activity in unnecessary delays at international boundaries. Therefore, it is essential that the regulations are also enforced, to ensure that the radioactive material is contained and the surrounding radiation level reduced to a value which poses no threat to other sensitive goods such as photographic film, or to transport workers and other passengers. These regulations should be as uniform as possible on an international basis, so that consignments can move freely from one country to another with as little delay as possible at the frontiers. (author)

  7. INES- French application to radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowinski, S.; Strawa, S.; Aguilar, J.

    2004-01-01

    After gaining control of radioactive material transport in June 1997, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) decided to apply the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES scale) to transport events. The Directorate General for Nuclear Safety and Radioprotection (DGSNR) requests that radioactive material package consignors declare any event occurring during transport, and has introduced the use of the INES scale adapted to classify transport events in order to inform the public and to have feedback. The INES scale is applicable to events arising in nuclear installations associated with the civil nuclear industry and events occurring during the transport of radioactive materials to and from them. The INES scale consists of seven levels. It is based on the successive application of three types of criterion (off-site impact, on-site impact and degradation of defence in depth) and uses the maximum level to determine the rating of an accident. As the transport in question takes place on public thoroughfares, only the off-site impact criteria and degradation of defence in-depth criteria apply. This paper deals with DGSNR's feedback during the past 7 years concerning the French application of the INES scale. Significant events that occurred during transport are presented. The French experience was used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to develop a draft guide in 2002 and the IAEA asked countries to use a new draft for a trial period in July 2004. (author)

  8. The transport of radioactive materials - Future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, TS-R-1, set the standards for the packages used in the transport of radioactive materials under both normal and accident conditions. Transport organisations are also required to implement Radiation Protection Programmes to control radiation dose exposure to both workers and the public. The industry has now operated under this regulatory regime safely and efficiently for nearly 50 years. It is vital that this record be maintained in the future when the demands on the transport industry are increasing. Nuclear power is being called upon more and more to satisfy the world's growing need for sustainable, clean and affordable electricity and there will be a corresponding demand for nuclear fuel cycle services. There will also be a growing need for other radioactive materials, notably large sources such as Cobalt 60 sources for a range of important medical and industrial uses, as well as radio-pharmaceuticals. A reliable transport infrastructure is essential to support all these industry sectors and the challenge will be to ensure that this can be maintained safely and securely in a changing world where public and political concerns are increasing. This paper will discuss the main issues which need to be addressed. The demand for uranium has led to increased exploration and the development of mines in new locations far removed from the demand centres. This inevitably leads to more transport, sometimes from areas potentially lacking in transport infrastructure, service providers, and experience. The demand for sources for medical applications will also increase, particularly from the rapidly developing regions and this will also involve new transport routes and increased traffic. This raises a variety of issues concerning the ability of the transport infrastructure to meet the future challenge, particularly in an environment where there already exists reluctance on

  9. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The transport of radioactive material embraces the carriage of radioisotopes for industrial, medical and research uses, and the movement of waste, in addition to consignments of nuclear fuel cycle material. It has been estimated that between eighteen and thirty-eight million package shipments take place each year. On the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), which enjoys wide representations from the Agency's Member States and international organizations, the Secretariat is preparing a training kit comprising this training manual and complementary visual aids. The kit is intended to be the basis for an extensive course on the subject and can be used in whole or in part for inter-regional, regional and even national training purposes. Member States can thus benefit from the material either through training courses sponsored by the Agency, or, alternatively, organized by themselves. As a step towards achieving that goal, the current training manual was compiled using material from the first Inter-Regional Training Course on the Safe Transport of Radioactive material that was held in co-operation with the Nuclear Power Training Centre of the then Central Electricity Generating Board at Bristol, United Kingdom. This Manual was initially published in 1990. On the recommendation of the Agency's Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), the Manual has since been expanded and updated in time for the second Inter-Regional Training Course, that will in 1991 similarly be held in Bristol. Refs, figs, tabs

  10. Layered bismuth selenide utilized as hole transporting layer for highly stable organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Zhongcheng

    2015-11-01

    Abstract Layered bismuth selenide (L-Bi2Se3) nanoplates were implemented as hole transporting layers (HTLs) for inverted organic solar cells. Device based on L-Bi2Se3 showed increasing power conversion efficiency (PCE) during ambient condition storage process. A PCE of 4.37% was finally obtained after 5 days storage, which outperformed the ones with evaporated-MoO3 using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as donor material and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as acceptor. The improved device efficiency can be attributed to the high conductivity and increasing work function of L-Bi2Se3. The work function of L-Bi2Se3 increased with the storage time in ambient condition due to the oxygen atom doping. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were conducted to verify the increased work function, which originated from the p-type doping process. The device based on L-Bi2Se3 exhibited excellent stability in ambient condition up to 4 months, which was much improved compared to the device based on traditional HTLs. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Instability, Turbulence, and Enhanced Transport in Collisionless Black-Hole Accretion Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Matthew

    Many astrophysical plasmas are so hot and diffuse that the collisional mean free path is larger than the system size. Perhaps the best examples of such systems are lowluminosity accretion flows onto black holes such as Sgr A* at the center of our own Galaxy, or M87 in the Virgo cluster. To date, theoretical models of these accretion flows are based on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), a collisional fluid theory, sometimes (but rarely) extended with non-MHD features such as anisotropic (i.e. magnetic-field-aligned) viscosity and thermal conduction. While these extensions have been recognized as crucial, they require ad hoc assumptions about the role of microscopic kinetic instabilities (namely, firehose and mirror) in regulating the transport properties. These assumptions strongly affect the outcome of the calculations, and yet they have never been tested using more fundamental (i.e. kinetic) models. This proposal outlines a comprehensive first-principles study of the plasma physics of collisionless accretion flows using both analytic and state-of-the-art numerical models. The latter will utilize a new hybrid-kinetic particle-in-cell code, Pegasus, developed by the PI and Co-I specifically to study this problem. A comprehensive kinetic study of the 3D saturation of the magnetorotational instability in a collisionless plasma will be performed, in order to understand the interplay between turbulence, transport, and Larmor-scale kinetic instabilities such as firehose and mirror. Whether such instabilities alter the macroscopic saturated state, for example by limiting the transport of angular momentum by anisotropic pressure, will be addressed. Using these results, an appropriate "fluid" closure will be developed that can capture the multi-scale effects of plasma kinetics on magnetorotational turbulence, for use by the astrophysics community in building evolutionary models of accretion disks. The PI has already successfully performed the first three-dimensional kinetic

  12. Development of a Device for a Material Irradiation Test in the OR Test Hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G.; Choo, K. N.; Sohn, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.; Seo, C. K

    2008-05-15

    To develop a technology and a device for the irradiation test for utilization of the OR/IP holes according to the various requirements of users, the properties of the OR/IP holes were investigated and an irradiation device for the OR hole was designed and fabricated. The OR-4, 5 and the IP-9, 10, 11 holes were selected as those suitable to irradiation tests among the test holes located in the out core area. The conceptual design was performed to design a device to irradiate materials using the OR and IP holes. The capsule for the OR holes is fixed by pressing the protection tube using a clamping device, on the other hand the IP capsule is inserted in the hole without a special clamping device. In the basic design of the irradiation device for the OR hole, the capsules having the outside diameter of 50, 52, 54, 56mm were reviewed theoretically to investigate if they meet the hydraulic and vibration conditions required in the HANARO. The results of the pressure drop test showed that the 3 kinds of capsules having diameter of 52, 54, 56mm satisfied the requirement for the pressure difference and flow rate in HANARO. The capsule of {phi}56mm out of the above three satisfied the vibration condition and was finally selected giving consideration of a capacity of specimens. The capsule having a diameter of {phi}56mm was fabricated and the flow rate was measured. Using the velocity data measured at the out-core facility, the heat transfer coefficient, and the temperature on the surface of the capsule was evaluated to confirm it less than the ONB temperature. As a result, the capsule of {phi}56mm was selected for the irradiation test at the OR holes.

  13. Basic transport phenomena in materials engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the basic theory and experimental techniques of transport phenomena in materials processing operations. Such fundamental knowledge is highly useful for researchers and engineers in the field to improve the efficiency of conventional processes or develop novel technology. Divided into four parts, the book comprises 11 chapters describing the principles of momentum transfer, heat transfer, and mass transfer in single phase and multiphase systems. Each chapter includes examples with solutions and exercises to facilitate students’ learning. Diagnostic problems are also provided at the end of each part to assess students’ comprehension of the material.  The book is aimed primarily at students in materials science and engineering. However, it can also serve as a useful reference text in chemical engineering as well as an introductory transport phenomena text in mechanical engineering. In addition, researchers and engineers engaged in materials processing operations will find the material use...

  14. Transport of radioactive material in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    In this report, the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) presents the results of its study on how the system of the transport of radioactive material (TRM) in Canada is regulated, how it operates, and how it performs. The report deals with the transport of packages, including Type B packages which are used to carry large quantities of radioactive material, but not with the transport of spent nuclear fuel or with the transport of low-level historical waste. The ACNS has examined the Canadian experience in the TRM area, the regulatory framework in Canada with respect to the TRM some relevant aspects of training workers and monitoring compliance with regulatory requirements, the state of the emergency preparedness of organizations involved in the TRM and the process of updating present regulations by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). As a result of this study, the ACNS concludes that the current Canadian regulatory system in the TRM is sound and that the TRM is, for the most part, conducted safely. However, improvements can be made in a number of areas, such as: determining the exposures of workers who transport radioactive material; rewording the proposed Transport Regulations in plain language; training all appropriate personnel regarding the AECB and Transport Canada (TC) Regulations; enforcing compliance with the regulations; and increasing the level of cooperation between the federal agencies and provincial authorities involved in the inspection and emergency preparedness aspects of the TRM. It is also noted that Bill C-23, the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, imposes a new requirement, subject to the Regulations, for a licence for a carrier to transport some types of radioactive material

  15. Transport of radioactive material in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    In this report, the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) presents the results of its study on how the system of the transport of radioactive material (TRM) in Canada is regulated, how it operates, and how it performs. The report deals with the transport of packages, including Type B packages which are used to carry large quantities of radioactive material, but not with the transport of spent nuclear fuel or with the transport of low-level historical waste. The ACNS has examined the Canadian experience in the TRM area, the regulatory framework in Canada with respect to the TRM some relevant aspects of training workers and monitoring compliance with regulatory requirements, the state of the emergency preparedness of organizations involved in the TRM and the process of updating present regulations by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). As a result of this study, the ACNS concludes that the current Canadian regulatory system in the TRM is sound and that the TRM is, for the most part, conducted safely. However, improvements can be made in a number of areas, such as: determining the exposures of workers who transport radioactive material; rewording the proposed Transport Regulations in plain language; training all appropriate personnel regarding the AECB and Transport Canada (TC) Regulations; enforcing compliance with the regulations; and increasing the level of cooperation between the federal agencies and provincial authorities involved in the inspection and emergency preparedness aspects of the TRM. It is also noted that Bill C-23, the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, imposes a new requirement, subject to the Regulations, for a licence for a carrier to transport some types of radioactive material.

  16. Safe transport of radioactive material. 4. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA has been publishing Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material since 1961. Meeting its statutory obligation to foster the exchange and training of scientists and experts in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy, the IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training. This training manual is an anchor of the standardized approach to training. It is a compendium of training modules for courses related to the different aspects of safety of transport of radioactive material. Keeping in view the specific needs of the potential users, the manual includes material that can be used for a variety of training programmes of duration ranging from half-a-day to ten days, for specific audiences such as competent authority personnel, public authorities, emergency response personnel and cargo handlers

  17. Current trends in nuclear material transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenscroft, Norman; Oshinowo, Franchone

    1997-01-01

    The business of radioactive material transportation has evolved considerably in the past 40 years. Current practices reflect extensive international experience in handling radioactive cargo within a mature and tested regulatory framework. Nevertheless, new developments continue to have an impact on how shipments of nuclear material are planned and carried out. Entities involved in the transport of radioactive materials must keep abreast of these developments and work together to find innovative solutions to ensure that safe, smooth transport activities may continue. Several recent trends in the regulatory environment and political atmosphere require attention. There are four key trends that we'll be examining today: 1) the reduction in the pool of available commercial carriers; 2) routing restrictions; 3) package validation issues; and 4) increasing political sensitivities. Careful planning and cooperative measures are necessary to alleviate problems in each of these areas. (author)

  18. Safe transport of radioactive materials in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    1994-01-01

    In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the gained experience. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the canal from 1963 and 1991 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. A review of the present situation of the radioactive wastes storage facilities at the Atomic Energy site at Inshas is given along with the regulation for safe transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. (Author)

  19. Radioactive materials transporting container and vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, S.L.

    1980-01-01

    A container and vehicle therefor for transporting radioactive materials is provided. The container utilizes a removable system of heat conducting fins made of a light weight highly heat conductive metal, such as aluminum or aluminum alloys. This permits a substantial reduction in the weight of the container during transport, increases the heat dissipation capability of the container and substantially reduces the scrubbing operation after loading and before unloading the radioactive material from the container. The vehicle utilizes only a pair of horizontal side beams interconnecting a pair of yoke members to support the container and provide the necessary strength and safety with a minimum of weight

  20. Perception of risks in transporting radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, E.W.; Reese, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    A framework for relating the variables involved in the public perception of hazardous materials transportation is presented in which perceived risk was described in six basic terms: technical feasibility, political palatability, social responsibility, benefit assessment, media interpretation, and familiarity as a function of time. Scientists, the media and public officials contribute to the discussion of risks but ultimately people will decide for themselves how they feel and what they think. It is not sufficient to consider the public of not being enlightened enough to participate in the formulation of radioactive material transport policy. The framework provides the technologist with an initial formulation to better inform the public and to understand public perception

  1. Instructions for safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This entrance includes 5 chapters and tables and supplement. Chapter I contains the definitions and general provisions contained 5 materials. Chapter II contains radioactive materials packaging and permissible limits and it contains 8 materials. The provisions of Chapter III contains descriptions Missionaries. Chapter IV describes shipping instructions. As for the separation of V It contains Final provisions. The entrance contains number of tables speaks of the basic values of radioactive isotopes and radiation also limits activity and the requirements of industrial parcels and limits transactions to transport freight containers, as well as the International Classification of hazardous materials. This also includes entrance to the Supplement to some forms and Alohat

  2. Electronic Transport in Two-Dimensional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Vinod K.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have captured the attention of the scientific community due to the wide range of unique properties at nanometer-scale thicknesses. While significant exploratory research in 2D materials has been achieved, the understanding of 2D electronic transport and carrier dynamics remains in a nascent stage. Furthermore, because prior review articles have provided general overviews of 2D materials or specifically focused on charge transport in graphene, here we instead highlight charge transport mechanisms in post-graphene 2D materials, with particular emphasis on transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. For these systems, we delineate the intricacies of electronic transport, including band structure control with thickness and external fields, valley polarization, scattering mechanisms, electrical contacts, and doping. In addition, electronic interactions between 2D materials are considered in the form of van der Waals heterojunctions and composite films. This review concludes with a perspective on the most promising future directions in this fast-evolving field.

  3. Transport of radioactive materials by post

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    The objective of the Seminar was to encourage safe and efficient carriage of radioactive material by post. Adequate, up-to-date regulations for international and domestic shipment of radioactive material by all modes of transport, including by mail, have been published by the IAEA. UPU, ICAO, IATA and other international organizations as well as a majority of the countries of the world have adopted most sections of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Although there is an apparent need for shipping radioactive material by mail, some countries allow only domestic shipments and the postal regulations applied in these countries often differs from the international regulations. Only about 25 countries are known to allow international (as well as domestic) shipments. From the discussions and comments at the Seminar, it appears that the option of shipment by post would be advantageous to enhance both the safety and economy of transporting, as well as to increase availability of, radioactive materials. The Agency's Regulations for transport by post as adopted by the UPU and ICAO are considered to provide a high level of safety and ensure a negligible element of risk. A more uniform application of these regulations within UPU Member States should be encouraged. The competent authority for implementation of the other parts of the Agency's Regulations in each of the Member States should be invited to advise the Postal Administrators and assist in applying the requirements to national as well as international postal shipments

  4. Transportation of hazardous and nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boryczka, M.; Shaver, D.

    1989-01-01

    Transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials is a vital part of the nation's economy. In recent years public concern over the relative safety of transporting hazardous materials has risen sharply. The United States has a long history of transporting hazardous and radioactive material; rocket propellants, commercial spent fuel, low-level and high-level radioactive waste has been shipped for years. While the track record for shipping these materials is excellent, the knowledge that hazardous materials are passing through communities raises the ire of citizens and local governments. Public outcry over shipments containing hazardous cargo has been especially prominent when shippers have attempted to transport rocket propellants or spent nuclear fuel. Studies of recent shipments have provided insight into the difficulties of shipping in a politically charged environment, the major issues of concern to citizens, and some of the more successful methods of dealing with public concerns. This paper focuses on lessons learned from these studies which include interviews with shippers, carriers, and regulators

  5. RADTRAN3, Risk of Radioactive Material Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.; Taylor, J.M.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Reardon, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RADTRAN3 is a flexible analytical tool for calculating both the incident-free and accident impacts of transporting radioactive materials. The consequences from incident-free shipments are apportioned among eight population sub- groups and can be calculated for several transport modes. The radiological accident risk (probability times consequence summed over all postulated accidents) is calculated in terms of early fatalities, early morbidities, latent cancer fatalities, genetic effects, and economic impacts. Ground-shine, ingestion, inhalation, direct exposure, resuspension, and cloud-shine dose pathways are modeled to calculate the radiological health risks from accidents. Economic impacts are evaluated based on costs for emergency response, cleanup, evacuation, income loss, and land use. RADTRAN3 can be applied to specific scenario evaluations (individual transport modes or specified combinations), to compare alternative modes or to evaluate generic radioactive material shipments. Unit-risk factors can easily be evaluated to aid in performing generic analyses when several options must be compared with the amount of travel as the only variable. RADTRAN4 offers advances in the handling of route-related data and in the treatment of multiple-isotope materials. 2 - Method of solution: There are several modes used in the transporting of radioactive material such as trucks, passenger vans, passenger airplanes, rail and others. With these modes of transport come several shipment scenarios. The RADTRAN4 methodology uses material, transportation, population distribution, and health effects models to treat the incident-free case. To handle the vehicle accident impacts, accident severity and package release, meteorological dispersion, and economic models are also employed. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: There are no apparent limitations due to programming dimensions

  6. A Monte Carlo Code for Relativistic Radiation Transport Around Kerr Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy David; Krolik, Julian H.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new code for radiation transport around Kerr black holes, including arbitrary emission and absorption mechanisms, as well as electron scattering and polarization. The code is particularly useful for analyzing accretion flows made up of optically thick disks and optically thin coronae. We give a detailed description of the methods employed in the code and also present results from a number of numerical tests to assess its accuracy and convergence.

  7. Electron and Hole Transport Layers: Their Use in Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Lattante

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (BHJ PSCs are very promising organic-based devices for low-cost solar energy conversion, compatible with roll-to-roll or general printing methods for mass production. Nevertheless, to date, many issues should still be addressed, one of these being the poor stability in ambient conditions. One elegant way to overcome such an issue is the so-called “inverted” BHJ PSC, a device geometry in which the charge collection is reverted in comparison with the standard geometry device, i.e., the electrons are collected by the bottom electrode and the holes by the top electrode (in contact with air. This reverted geometry allows one to use a high work function top metal electrode, like silver or gold (thus avoiding its fast oxidation and degradation, and eliminates the need of a polymeric hole transport layer, typically of an acidic nature, on top of the transparent metal oxide bottom electrode. Moreover, this geometry is fully compatible with standard roll-to-roll manufacturing in air and is less demanding for a good post-production encapsulation process. To date, the external power conversion efficiencies of the inverted devices are generally comparable to their standard analogues, once both the electron transport layer and the hole transport layer are fully optimized for the particular device. Here, the most recent results on this particular optimization process will be reviewed, and a general outlook regarding the inverted BHJ PSC will be depicted.

  8. Legal aspects of transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, Mans.

    The Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention are briefly discussed and other conventions in the field of civil liability for nuclear damage are mentioned: the Vienna Convention, the Nuclear Ships Convention and the 1971 Convention relating to civil liability in the field of maritime carriage of nuclear material. Legislation on civil liability in the Nordic countries, which is based on the Paris Convention and the Supplementary Convention is discussed, notably the principle of channelling of liability and exceptions from that principle due to rules of liability in older transport conventions and certain problems due to the limited geographical scope of the Paris Convention and the Supplementary Convention. Insurance problems arising in connection with transport of nuclear materials are surveyed and an outline is given of the administrative provisions concerning transport (based on the IAEA transport regulations) which govern transport of radioactive materials by different means: road, rail, sea and air. Finally, the 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is discussed. (NEA) [fr

  9. Regulations of safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.J.; Sumathi, E.

    2017-01-01

    BARC is a multi-disciplinary nuclear research organisation with facilities located at various parts of the country. The nuclear and radiological facilities in BARC include fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear research reactors, radiological laboratories, nuclear recycle facilities, waste management facilities and other associated facilities. RAdioactive Material (RAM) such as fresh nuclear fuel, irradiated fuel, radioactive sources, vitrified high level wastes, special nuclear material etc., are transported between these facilities either within the controlled premises or in public domain. In BARC the regulatory approval for the packages used for transport of RAM is issued by BARC Safety Council (BSC). Competent Authority for issuing the design approval for the BARC packages in public domain is Director, BARC. In this aspect BSC is assisted by Safety Review Committee-Transport of Radioactive Material (SRC-TRM) constituted by BSC entrusted with the mandate to ensure the packages are designed, manufactured and transported in accordance with the current regulations. This article summarizes the regulatory requirements for transport of RAM and experience in BARC facilities

  10. Radioactive material (road transport) bill. [Third reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishburn, D.; Walley, J.; Currie, E.

    1991-01-01

    This is a private members Bill which will enable new rules to be set out that will govern the way in the which nearly 500,000 shipments of radioactive and nuclear material go by road in the United Kingdom every year. It would give the Department of Transport, which would become the enforcing authority, the powers of entry and inspection and allows penalties to be exacted from those breaking the rules. The present regulations for transport by road are those set out in 1947 and these need to be updated to comply with International Atomic Energy Authority Standards. The debate which lasted over one and a half hours is reported verbatim. The main points raised were about which emergency services if any should be notified on the transport of nuclear materials, with particular reference to Derbyshire. Nuclear power in general was also discussed. (UK)

  11. GIS risk analysis of hazardous materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, C.; Olsten, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess the risks and vulnerability of transporting hazardous materials and wastes (such as gasoline, explosives, poisons, etc) on the Arizona highway system. This paper discusses the methodology that was utilized, and the application of GIS systems to risk analysis problems

  12. International transport of uranium materials from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chizhi; Long Xiuaowei; Achilles, G.

    1993-01-01

    An example of international cooperation is given on the transport of frontend materials from China to Europe. With the assistance of NCS, CNEIC entered into discussions and negotiations with COSCO, the national Chinese shipping line in order to make much cheaper sea transport possible. One of the difficulties to overcome was the passage through the Suez canal but CNEIC, NCS and the port authorities were present to assure smooth operation, during the first passage through the canal, CNEIC key personnels had training at the NCS office in Germany in relation to transport regulations and practice on the job. In turn, NCS personnels were introduced into site specific conditions in China by CNEIC. In the meantime, about 150 containers loaded with yellow cake and about 120 cylinders with low enriched UF6 have been smoothly transported by sea from Shanghai through the Suez canal to European ports. (E.Y.)

  13. Questions raised on transport of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubinska, A.

    1984-01-01

    Public opinion is demanding safer rules for the shipment of radioactive materials since the recent collision and sinking of a French freighter carrying uranium hexafluoride. At issue is the secrecy of the cargo, the delay in releasing information to the public and salvage crews, and the use of unmarked trucks. The nuclear industry points out that no recent incidents have led to the loss of human life, but there is concern among European Community members that a number of countries have yet to ratify international conventions and agreements on hazardous materials transport, that none of these agreements are mandatory, and that none address the transfrontier movement of waste materials

  14. Molecular Doping of the Hole-Transporting Layer for Efficient, Single-Step Deposited Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Garcia de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Fan, James Z.; Khan, Jafar Iqbal; Walters, Grant; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Wehbe, Nimer; Said, Marcel M.; Barlow, Stephen; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Marder, Seth R.; Sargent, Edward H.; Amassian, Aram

    2017-01-01

    solar cells. These promising architectures employ a QD hole-transporting layer (HTL) whose intrinsically shallow Fermi level (EF) restricts band-bending at maximum power-point during solar cell operation limiting charge collection. Here, we demonstrate a

  15. Carbon materials for enhancing charge transport in the advancements of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruiyuan; Chu, Liang; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xing'ao; Huang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have become a new favorite in the photovoltaic field, due to the boosted efficiency up to 22.1%. Despite a flow of achievements, there are certain challenges to simultaneously meet high efficiency, large scale, low cost and high stability. Due to the low cost, extensive sources, high electrical conductivity and chemical stability, carbon materials have made undeniable contributions to play positive roles in developing PSCs. Carbon materials not only have the favorable conductivity but also bipolar advantage, which can transfer both electrons and holes. In this review, we will discuss how the carbon materials transfer charge or accelerate charge transport by incorporation in PSCs. Carbon materials can replace transparent conductive oxide layers, and enhance electron transport in electron transport layers. Moreover, carbon materials with continuous structure, especially carbon nanotubes and graphene, can provide direct charge transport channel that make them suitable additives or even substitutes in hole transport layers. Especially, the successful application of carbon materials as counter electrodes makes the devices full-printable, low temperature and high stability. Finally, a brief outlook is provided on the future development of carbon materials for PSCs, which are expected to devote more contributions in the future photovoltaic market.

  16. Relative consequences of transporting hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Rhyne, W.R.; Simmons, J.A.; Reese, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss methods under study at Transportation Technology Center to develop a perspective on how technical measures of hazard and risk relate to perception of hazards, harm, and risks associated with transporting hazardous materials. This paper is concerned with two major aspects of the relative hazards problem. The first aspect is the analyses of the possible effects associated with exposure to hazardous materials as contained in the following two parts: outlines of possible problems and controversies that could be encountered in the evaluation and comparisons of hazards and risks; and description of the various measures of harm (hazards or dangers) and subsequent comparisons thereof. The second aspect of this paper leads into a presentation of the results of a study which had the following purposes: to develop analytical techniques for a consistent treatment of the phenomenology of the consequences of a release of hazardous materials; to reduce the number of variables in the consequence analyses by development of transportation accident scenarios which have the same meteorological conditions, demography, traffic and population densities, geographical features and other appropriate conditions and to develop consistent methods for presenting the results of studies and analyses that describe the phenomenology and compare hazards. The results of the study are intended to provide a bridge between analytical certainty and perception of the hazards involved. Understanding the differences in perception of hazards resulting from transport of various hazardous materials is fraught with difficulties in isolating the qualitative and quantitative features of the problem. By relating the quantitative impacts of material hazards under identical conditions, it is hoped that the perceived differences in material hazards can be delineated and evaluated

  17. Perceptions, perspectives, proportions: Radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Nearly a hundred years ago in 1893 - when railroads still monopolized land transport, the first set of international rules governing shipments of hazardous materials were issued to cover their movement by rail. Since then, more than a dozen international bodies, and scores of national regulatory agencies, have published regulations directed at the carriage of dangerous goods by road, sea, air, as well as rail. The regulatory network today covers virtually all kinds of substances and commodities that are used for beneficial purposes, but that under certain conditions are potentially harmful to people and the environment. 'The Problems Encountered by International Road Transport in Multimodal Transport Operations', by M. Marmy, paper presented at the 8th International Symposium on the Transport and Handling of Dangerous Goods by Sea and Associated Modes, Havana, Cuba, 1984. These include the chemical fertilizers farmers spread on their fields, the nuclear fuel now powering electricity plants in some two dozen countries, the drugs physicians use to diagnose and treat illnesses, and the fossil fuels, such as gasoline, routinely used in transport vehicles. All told today, about 21 different international labels are required to identify separate classes of dangerous goods among them, explosives, corrosives, and flammables. Another separate class radioactive materials is the specific subject of feature articles in this issue of the IAEA Bulletin. The evolving regulatory system reflects at once the growth in traffic of hazardous materials, essentially a post-World War II trend. Since the mid-1940s, for example, the transport of all dangerous goods just on the seas has grown 1000%. based on reports at a recent international conference. Overall, years ahead will see further increases

  18. Transport of radioactive materials. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, H.W.; Falkhof, W.; Heibach, K.; Ungermann, N.; Hungenberg, H.

    1991-01-01

    With the last changes in the Ordinance Concerning the Transport of Hazardous Goods two regulations which are important for the carrying trade were introduced: 1. The conveyer must train the driver. He must only employ reliable drivers. 2. The driver must participate in a training course (as of July 1, 1991). These obligations, which already existed in the past in regard to the transport of nuclear fuel, have been extended to include the transport of other radioactive materials. In part I the book deals with basic training courses for parcelled goods, and part II goes into the special knowledge which is required of drivers of radioactive materials. The parts consist of the following sections: 1. General regulations, 2, Responsibility when transporting hazardous goods, 3. General danger features, 4. Information on dangers and their designation, 5. The vehicle's equipment and carrying out the transport, 6. Measures for avoiding accidents. At the end of each section the participant in the course finds a series of questions which pertain to the subject matter just treated so that he can test his own learning performance. So as to make things easier for the trainee, the corect answers are listed in the appendix. As a supplementary section on radioactive materials, part II offers additional detailed explanations by experts in the field on the features of radioactive materials and the dangers they pose. In the margin - next to the instructory text - the key words are given so that the right place in the text of the instruction manual can be readily found. These key words are compiled in the appendix to form an index. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Levitation, coating, and transport of particulate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Several processes in various fields require uniformly thick coatings and layers on small particles. The particles may be used as carriers of catalytic materials (platinum or other coatings), as laser fusion targets (various polymer or metallic coatings), or for biological or other tracer or interactive processes. We have devised both molecular beam and electro-dynamic techniques for levitation of the particles during coating and electrodynamic methods of controlling and transporting the particles between coating steps and to final use locations. Both molecular beam and electrodynamic techniques are described and several advantages and limitations of each will be discussed. A short movie of an operating electrodynamic levitation and transport apparatus will be shown

  20. Low-cost copper complexes as p-dopants in solution processable hole transport layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellermann, Renate [Department for Materials Science and Engineering, Chair for Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Siemens AG – Corporate Technology, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Taroata, Dan; Maltenberger, Anna; Hartmann, David; Schmid, Guenter [Siemens AG – Corporate Technology, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Brabec, Christoph J. [Department for Materials Science and Engineering, Chair for Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91058 (Germany)

    2015-09-07

    We demonstrate the usage of the Lewis-acidic copper(II)hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Cu(hfac){sub 2}) and copper(II)trifluoroacetylacetonate (Cu(tfac){sub 2}) as low-cost p-dopants for conductivity enhancement of solution processable hole transport layers based on small molecules in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The materials were clearly soluble in mixtures of environmentally friendly anisole and xylene and spin-coated under ambient atmosphere. Enhancements of two and four orders of magnitude, reaching 4.0 × 10{sup −11} S/cm with a dopant concentration of only 2 mol% Cu(hfac){sub 2} and 1.5 × 10{sup −9} S/cm with 5 mol% Cu(tfac){sub 2} in 2,2′,7,7′-tetra(N,N-ditolyl)amino-9,9-spiro-bifluorene (spiro-TTB), respectively, were achieved. Red light emitting diodes were fabricated with reduced driving voltages and enhanced current and power efficiencies (8.6 lm/W with Cu(hfac){sub 2} and 5.6 lm/W with Cu(tfac){sub 2}) compared to the OLED with undoped spiro-TTB (3.9 lm/W). The OLED with Cu(hfac){sub 2} doped spiro-TTB showed an over 8 times improved LT{sub 50} lifetime of 70 h at a starting luminance of 5000 cd/m{sup 2}. The LT{sub 50} lifetime of the reference OLED with PEDOT:PSS was only 8 h. Both non-optimized OLEDs were operated at similar driving voltage and power efficiency.

  1. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, the International Atomic Energy Agency published Training Course Series No. 1 (TCS-1), a training manual that provides in 20 chapters a detailed discussion of the background, philosophy, technical bases and requirements and implementation aspects of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. The Transport Regulations are widely implemented by the IAEA's Member States and are also used as the bases for radioactive material transport requirements of modal organisations such as the International Maritime Organization and the International Civil Aviation Organization. This document is a supplement of TCS-1 to provide additional material in the form of learning aids and new exercises, that have been developed with the use of TCS-1 at succeeding IAEA training courses. The learning aids in the first part of the supplement are hitherto unpublished material that provide detailed guidance useful in solving the exercises presented in the second part. Solutions to the exercises are on field at the IAEA Secretariat and are available by arrangement to lectures presenting IAEA training courses. 4 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  2. Test for radioactive material transport package safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoqiang; Zhao Bing; Zhang Jiangang; Wang Xuexin; Ma Anping

    2012-01-01

    Regulations on radioactive material transport in China were introduced. Test facilities and data acquiring instruments for radioactive material package in China Institute for Radiation Protection were also introduced in this paper, which were used in drop test and thermal test. Test facilities were constructed according to the requirements of IAEA's 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material' (TS-R-l) and Chinese 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material' (GB 11806-2004). Drop test facilities were used in free drop test, penetration test, mechanical test (free drop test Ⅰ, free drop test Ⅱ and free drop test Ⅲ) of type A and type B packages weighing less than thirteen tons. Thermal test of type B packages can be carried out in the thermal test facilities. Certification tests of type FCo70-YQ package, type 30A-HB-01 package, type SY-I package and type XAYT-I package according to regulations were done using these facilities. (authors)

  3. Effects of bedrock fractures on radionuclide transport near a vertical deposition hole for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkanen, V.-M.; Nordman, H.

    2011-12-01

    Effects of bedrock fractures on radionuclide transport near a vertical deposition hole for spent nuclear fuel are studied computationally. The studied fractures are both natural and excavation damage fractures. The emphasis is on the detailed modelling of geometry in 3D in contrast to the traditional radionuclide transport studies that often concentrate on chain decays, sorption, and precipitation at the expense of the geometry. The built computer model is used to assess the significance of components near a deposition hole for radionuclide transport and to estimate the quality of previously used modelling techniques. The results show nearly exponential decrease of radionuclide mass in the bentonite buffer when the release route is a thin natural fracture. The results also imply that size is the most important property of the tunnel section for radionuclide transport. In addition, the results demonstrate that the boundary layer theory can be used to approximate the release of radionuclides with certain accuracy and that a thin fracture in rock can be modelled, at least to a certain limit, by using a fracture with wider aperture but with same flow rate as the thin fracture. (orig.)

  4. Determining the nature of transported material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wykes, J.S.; Surzyn, P.M.; Croke, G.M.; Adsley, I.

    1980-01-01

    An improved method is described of determining the nature of a coal/stone mixture, transported on a conveyor, by measuring the relative transmission of two different energy x-ray beams. Details are given of the collimation, scintillation counters and shielding required to obtain the necessary accuracy to obtain information on the mass and the nature of the material being monitored. Compensation is provided for background radioactivity. (U.K.)

  5. Provision of transport packaging for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The safe transport of radioactive materials is governed by various regulations based on International Atomic Energy Agency Regulations. This code of practice is a supplement to the regulations, its objects being (a) to advise designers of packaging on the technical features necessary to conform to the regulations, and (b) to outline the requirements for obtaining approval of package designs from the competent authority. (U.K.)

  6. Perceived safety of transporting hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, R.T.; Shepherd, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    A framework for relating the variables involved in the public perception of hazardous materials transportation was presented. The framework consisted of a conditional mathematical equation in which perceived safety was described by six basic terms (technical feasibility, political palatability, social responsibility, utility assessment, media interpretation, and familiarity as a function of time). The resulting framework provides the technologist with an initial formulation to better understand public perception

  7. 10 CFR 71.5 - Transportation of licensed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transportation of licensed material. 71.5 Section 71.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General Provisions § 71.5 Transportation of licensed material. (a) Each licensee who transports licensed...

  8. Radioactive materials transportation life-cycle cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, P.C.; Donovan, K.S.; Spooner, O.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses factors that should be considered when estimating the life-cycle cost of shipping radioactive materials and the development of a working model that has been successfully used. Today's environmental concerns have produced an increased emphasis on cleanup and restoration of production plants and interim storage sites for radioactive materials. The need to transport these radioactive materials to processing facilities or permanent repositories is offset by the reality of limited resources and ever-tightening budgets. Obtaining the true cost of transportation is often difficult because of the many direct and indirect costs involved and the variety of methods used to account for fixed and variable expenses. In order to make valid comparisons between the cost of alternate transportation systems for new and/or existing programs, one should consider more than just the cost of capital equipment or freight cost per mile. Of special interest is the cost of design, fabrication, use, and maintenance of shipping containers in accordance with the requirements of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A spread sheet model was developed to compare the life-cycle costs of alternate fleet configurations of TRUPACT-II, which will be used to ship transuranic waste from U.S. Department of Energy sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico

  9. Radioactive materials' transportation main routes in Brazil. Radiation protection aspects about radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Solange dos Reis e; Andrade, Fernando de Menezes; Aleixo, Luiz Claudio Martins

    2007-01-01

    The heavy transportation in Brazil is generally done by highways. The radioactive material transportation follow this same rule. Whenever a radioactive material is carried by the road, by the sea or by the air, in some cases, a kind of combination of those transportation ways, the transport manager has to create a Transportation Plan and submit it to CNEN. Only after CNEN's approval, the transportation can be done. The plan must have the main action on Radiation Protection, giving responsibilities and showing all the directing that will be take. Although, the Brazilian's highways are not in good conditions, one could say that some of them are not good enough for any kind of transportation. But we are facing radioactive material use increase but the hospitals and industries, that the reason it's much more common that kind of transportation nowadays. So, because of that, a special attention by the governments must be provide to those activities. This paper goal is to show the real conditions of some important highways in Brazil in a radioactive protection's perspective and give some suggestions to adjust some of those roads to this new reality. (author)

  10. Radioactive materials transportation emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmali, N.

    1987-05-01

    Ontario Hydro transports radioactive material between its nuclear facilities, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at Chalk River Laboratories and Radiochemical Company in Kanata, on a regular basis. Ontario Hydro also occasionally transports to Whiteshell Laboratories, Hydro-Quebec and New Brunswick Electric Power Commission. Although there are stringent packaging and procedural requirements for these shipments, Ontario Hydro has developed a Radioactive Materials Transportation Emergency Response Plan in the event that there is an accident. The Transportation Emergency Response plan is based on six concepts: 1) the Province id divided into three response areas with each station (Pickering, Darlington, Bruce) having identified response areas; 2) response is activated via a toll-free number. A shift supervisor at Pickering will answer the call, determine the hazards involved from the central shipment log and provide on-line advice to the emergency worker. At the same time he will notify the nearest Ontario Hydro area office to provide initial corporate response, and will request the nearest nuclear station to provide response assistance; 3) all stations have capability in terms of trained personnel and equipment to respond to an accident; 4) all Ontario Hydro shipments are logged with Pickering NGS. Present capability is based on computerized logging with the computer located in the shift office at Pickering to allow quick access to information on the shipment; 5) there is a three tier structure for emergency public information. The local Area Manager is the first Ontario Hydro person at the scene of the accident. The responding facility technical spokesperson is the second line of Corporate presence and the Ontario Hydro Corporate spokesperson is notified in case the accident is a media event; and 6) Ontario Hydro will respond to non-Hydro shipments of radioactive materials in terms of providing assistance, guidance and capability. However, the shipper is responsible

  11. Solution-Grown Monocrystalline Hybrid Perovskite Films for Hole-Transporter-Free Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Wei

    2016-03-02

    High-quality perovskite monocrystalline films are successfully grown through cavitation-triggered asymmetric crystallization. These films enable a simple cell structure, ITO/CH3NH3PbBr3/Au, with near 100% internal quantum efficiency, promising power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) >5%, and superior stability for prototype cells. Furthermore, the monocrystalline devices using a hole-transporter-free structure yield PCEs ≈6.5%, the highest among other similar-structured CH3NH3PbBr3 solar cells to date.

  12. Determination of charge carrier mobility of hole transporting polytriarylamine-based diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barea, Eva M.; Garcia-Belmonte, Germa; Sommer, Michael; Huettner, Sven; Bolink, Henk J.; Thelakkat, Mukundan

    2010-01-01

    Hole transport properties of three different side chain poly(triarylamines) have been determined by means of the analysis of steady-state current-voltage characteristics using co-planar diode structures. The interpretation is based on space-charge limited models with field-dependent mobility. Mobilities between ∼ 10 -8 and 10 -6 cm 2 V -1 s -1 are obtained. The highest mobility is achieved for poly(tetraphenylbenzidine) devices and the lowest for poly(triphenylamine) devices. Electron-rich methoxy substituents increase the mobility of poly(triphenylamine)s. A comparison of the mobility values with those obtained using organic field-effect transistors is also given.

  13. Organic n-type materials for charge transport and charge storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolar, Monika; Baumgartner, Thomas

    2013-06-21

    Conjugated materials have attracted much attention toward applications in organic electronics in recent years. These organic species offer many advantages as potential replacement for conventional materials (i.e., silicon and metals) in terms of cheap fabrication and environmentally benign devices. While p-type (electron-donating or hole-conducting) materials have been extensively reviewed and researched, their counterpart n-type (electron-accepting or electron-conducting) materials have seen much less popularity despite the greater need for improvement. In addition to developing efficient charge transport materials, it is equally important to provide a means of charge storage, where energy can be used on an on-demand basis. This perspective is focused on discussing a selection of representative n-type materials and the efforts toward improving their charge-transport efficiencies. Additionally, this perspective will also highlight recent organic materials for battery components and the efforts that have been made to improve their environmental appeal.

  14. Power budget analysis of image-plane storage in spectral hole-burning materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neifeld, M.A.; Randall Babbitt, W.; Krishna Mohan, R.; Craig, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the power requirements of a volumetric storage system based on hole-burning materials. We consider an image-plane architecture that uses ultra-fine wavelength addressing. We perform an optimization study in which hole-depth, material thickness, and spot size are selected to minimize the system power budget. We find that a data rate of 10 Gbps and a latency of 10 μs can be achieved in a read-once system based on Eu-YSO with a total power budget of only 23 mW. The same material system designed to tolerate 1000 read cycles would require only a factor of 15 increase in power

  15. Effect of arylamine hole-transport units on the performance of blue polyspirobifulorene light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbaszadeh, D.; Nicolai, H.T.; Crəciun, N.I.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    The operation of blue light-emitting diodes based on polyspirobifluorene with a varying number of N,N,N′,N′ tetraaryldiamino biphenyl (TAD) hole-transport units (HTUs) is investigated. Assuming that the electron transport is not affected by the incorporation of TAD units, model calculations predict

  16. Colloid transport in model fracture filling materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, S.; Garcia-Garcia, S.; Jonsson, M.

    2010-12-01

    Colloid transport in model fracture filling materials Susanna Wold*, Sandra García-García and Mats Jonsson KTH Chemical Science and Engineering Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden *Corresponding author: E-mail: wold@kth.se Phone: +46 8 790 6295 In colloid transport in water-bearing fractures, the retardation depends on interactions with the fracture surface by sorption or filtration. These mechanisms are difficult to separate. A rougher surface will give a larger area available for sorption, and also when a particle is physically hindered, it approaches the surface and enables further sorption. Sorption can be explained by electrostatics were the strongest sorption on minerals always is observed at pH below pHpzc (Filby et al., 2008). The adhesion of colloids to mineral surfaces is related to the surface roughness according to a recent study (Darbha et al., 2010). There is a large variation in the characteristics of water-bearing fractures in bedrock in terms of aperture distribution, flow velocity, surface roughness, mineral distributions, presence of fracture filling material, and biological and organic material, which is hard to implement in modeling. The aim of this work was to study the transport of negatively charged colloids in model fracture filling material in relation to flow, porosity, mineral type, colloid size, and surface charge distribution. In addition, the impact on transport of colloids of mixing model fracture filling materials with different retention and immobilization capacities, determined by batch sorption experiments, was investigated. The transport of Na-montmorillonite colloids and well-defined negatively charged latex microspheres of 50, 100, and 200 nm diameter were studied in either columns containing quartz or quartz mixed with biotite. The ionic strength in the solution was exclusively 0.001 and pH 6 or 8.5. The flow rates used were 0.002, 0.03, and 0.6 mL min-1. Sorption of the colloids on the model fracture

  17. Lithium mass transport in ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, P.E.; Johnson, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this activity is to measure the lithium vaporization from lithium oxide breeder material under differing temperature and moisture partial pressure conditions. Lithium ceramics are being investigated for use as tritium breeding materials. The lithium is readily converted to tritium after reacting with a neutron. With the addition of 1000 ppM H 2 to the He purge gas, the bred tritium is readily recovered from the blanket as HT and HTO above 400 degree C. Within the solid, tritium may also be found as LiOT which may transport lithium to cooler parts of the blanket. The pressure of LiOT(g), HTO(g), or T 2 O(g) above Li 2 O(s) is the same as that for reactions involving hydrogen. In our experiments we were limited to the use of hydrogen. The purpose of this work is to investigate the transport of LiOH(g) from the blanket material. 8 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. Emergence of high-mobility minority holes in the electrical transport of the Ba (Fe1 -xMnxAs )2 iron pnictides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, T.; Tanabe, Y.; Huynh, K. K.; Heguri, S.; Oguro, H.; Watanabe, K.; Tanigaki, K.

    2015-05-01

    In Fe pnictide (Pn) superconducting materials, neither Mn nor Cr doping to the Fe site induces superconductivity, even though hole carriers are generated. This is in strong contrast with the superconductivity appearing when holes are introduced by alkali-metal substitution on the insulating blocking layers. We investigate in detail the effects of Mn doping on magnetotransport properties in Ba (Fe1 -xMnxAs )2 for elucidating the intrinsic reason. The negative Hall coefficient for x =0 estimated in the low magnetic field (B ) regime gradually increases as x increases, and its sign changes to a positive one at x =0.020 . Hall resistivities as well as simultaneous interpretation using the magnetoconductivity tensor including both longitudinal and transverse transport components clarify that minority holes with high mobility are generated by the Mn doping via spin-density wave transition at low temperatures, while original majority electrons and holes residing in the paraboliclike Fermi surfaces of the semimetallic Ba (FeAs )2 are negligibly affected. Present results indicate that the mechanism of hole doping in Ba (Fe1 -xMnxAs )2 is greatly different from that of the other superconducting FePn family.

  19. Efficient organic solar cells using copper(I) iodide (CuI) hole transport layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ying [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Yaacobi-Gross, Nir; Perumal, Ajay K.; Faber, Hendrik A.; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D., E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: t.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Vourlias, George; Patsalas, Panos A. [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Applied Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); He, Zhiqun, E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: t.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2015-06-15

    We report the fabrication of high power conversion efficiency (PCE) polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic cells using solution-processed Copper (I) Iodide (CuI) as hole transport layer (HTL). Our devices exhibit a PCE value of ∼5.5% which is equivalent to that obtained for control devices based on the commonly used conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate as HTL. Inverted cells with PCE >3% were also demonstrated using solution-processed metal oxide electron transport layers, with a CuI HTL evaporated on top of the BHJ. The high optical transparency and suitable energetics of CuI make it attractive for application in a range of inexpensive large-area optoelectronic devices.

  20. Efficient organic solar cells using copper(I) iodide (CuI) hole transport layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Ying; Yaacobi-Gross, Nir; Perumal, Ajay K.; Faber, Hendrik A.; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Vourlias, George; Patsalas, Panos A.; He, Zhiqun

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of high power conversion efficiency (PCE) polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic cells using solution-processed Copper (I) Iodide (CuI) as hole transport layer (HTL). Our devices exhibit a PCE value of ∼5.5% which is equivalent to that obtained for control devices based on the commonly used conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate as HTL. Inverted cells with PCE >3% were also demonstrated using solution-processed metal oxide electron transport layers, with a CuI HTL evaporated on top of the BHJ. The high optical transparency and suitable energetics of CuI make it attractive for application in a range of inexpensive large-area optoelectronic devices

  1. Transport Properties of an Electron-Hole Bilayer in Contact with a Superconductor Hybrid Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercioux, D.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Bergeret, F. S.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the transport properties of a junction consisting of an electron-hole bilayer in contact with normal and superconducting leads. The electron-hole bilayer is considered as a semimetal with two electronic bands. We assume that in the region between the contacts the system hosts an exciton condensate described by a BCS-like model with a gap Γ in the quasiparticle density of states. We first discuss how the subgap electronic transport through the junction is mainly governed by the interplay between two kinds of reflection processes at the interfaces: the standard Andreev reflection at the interface between the superconductor and the exciton condensate, and a coherent crossed reflection at the semimetal-exciton-condensate interface that converts electrons from one layer into the other. We show that the differential conductance of the junction shows a minimum at voltages of the order of Γ /e . Such a minimum can be seen as a direct hallmark of the existence of the gapped excitonic state.

  2. Evaluation of issues around road materials for sustainable transport

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJVDM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to a number of other factors (social, economic, etc) sustainable transport requires the sustainable supply and use of construction materials. This includes the use of marginal materials, waste materials, novel / innovative materials...

  3. Transportation of ions through cement based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterji, S.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation of ions, both anions and cations, through cement based materials is one of the important processes in their durability and as such has been studied very extensively. It has been studied from the point of view of the reinforcement corrosion, alkali-silica reaction, sulfate attack on cement and concrete, as well as in the context of the use of the cement based materials in the disposal of nuclear waste. In this paper the fundamental equations of diffusion, i.e. Fick's two equations, Nernst and Nernst-Planck equations have been collected. Attention has been drawn to the fact that Fick's two equations are valid for non-ionic diffusants and that for ions the relevant equations are those of Nernst and Nernst-Planck. The basic measurement techniques have also been commented upon

  4. Effects of Collisionality on the Nonlinear Characteristics of Boundary Turbulence and Blob/hole Transport in Tokamak Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Yasuaki, K., E-mail: lijq@energy.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Cheng, J.; Longwen, Y.; Jiaqi, D. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Blob/hole dynamics near tokamak separatrix is of striking importance in determining the boundary transport. Based on simulations using an extended 2-region (edge/SOL) fluid model, we found that blob/hole dynamics are sensitively influenced by the plasma collisionality, i.e., ion-electron and ion-neutral collisions. Namely, the holes are enhanced in highly collisional edge whereas the blobs are weakened at the SOL, causing larger particle convection. These blob/hole dynamics are closely correlated with potential dipoles. The trends are experimentally evidenced on the HL-2A tokamak. Moreover, as the neutral-ion collision increases, the blobs at the SOL tend to develop into streamers propagating outwards with reduced amplitude while the holes inwards are suppressed, showing a key role in nonlinear structure regulation and resultant transport suppression. Results suggest that adjusting the plasma collisionality by fueling, e.g., gas puffing, could serve as a method to nonlinearly select turbulent structures, i.e., blobs, holes or streamers, to access the control of boundary transport. (author)

  5. The safe transport of radioactive material in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jutle, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    An overview is presented of the activities related to the transport of radioactive material in South Africa. In particular, the applicable legislation, the scope of authority and regulatory functions of the Competent Authority are discussed. The categories of radioactive materials transported and the packaging requirements for the safe transport of these radioactive materials are also described. (Author)

  6. The safe transport of radioactive material in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jutle, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    An overview is presented of the activities related to the transport of radioactive material in South Africa. In particular, the applicable legislation, the scope of authority and the regulatory functions of the Competent Authority are discussed. The categories of radioactive materials transported and the packaging requirements for the safe transport of these radioactive materials are also described. (author)

  7. Regulation on the transport of nuclear fuel materials by vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The regulations applying to the transport of nuclear fuel materials by vehicles, mentioned in the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The transport is for outside of the factories and the site of enterprises by such modes of transport as rail, trucks, etc. Covered are the following: definitions of terms, places of fuel materials handling, loading methods, limitations on mix loading with other cargo, radiation dose rates concerning the containers and the vehicles, transport indexes, signs and indications, limitations on train linkage during transport by rail, security guards, transport of empty containers, etc. together with ordinary rail cargo and so on. (Mori, K.)

  8. Quantum Transport Simulations of Nanoscale Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Obodo, Tobechukwu Joshua

    2016-01-07

    Nanoscale materials have many potential advantages because of their quantum confinement, cost and producibility by low-temperature chemical methods. Advancement of theoretical methods as well as the availability of modern high-performance supercomputers allow us to control and exploit their microscopic properties at the atomic scale, hence making it possible to design novel nanoscale molecular devices with interesting features (e.g switches, rectifiers, negative differential conductance, and high magnetoresistance). In this thesis, state-of-the-art theoretical calculations have been performed for the quantum transport properties of nano-structured materials within the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT) and the Nonequilibrium Green\\'s Function (NEGF) formalism. The switching behavior of a dithiolated phenylene-vinylene oligomer sandwiched between Au(111) electrodes is investigated. The molecule presents a configurational bistability, which can be exploited in constructing molecular memories, switches, and sensors. We find that protonation of the terminating thiol groups is at the origin of the change in conductance. H bonding at the thiol group weakens the S-Au bond, and thus lowers the conductance. Our results allow us to re-interpret the experimental data originally attributing the conductance reduction to H dissociation. Also examined is current-induced migration of atoms in nanoscale devices that plays an important role for device operation and breakdown. We studied the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes under finite bias. We demonstrate that current-induced forces within DFT are non-conservative, which so far has only been shown for model systems, and can lower migration barrier heights. Further, we investigated the quantum transport behavior of an experimentally observed diblock molecule by varying the amounts of phenyl (donor) and pyrimidinyl (acceptor) rings under finite bias. We show that a tandem configuration of

  9. Quantum transport through 3D Dirac materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehi, M. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, S.A., E-mail: jafari@physics.sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Complex Systems and Condensed Matter (CSCM), Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 1458889694 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Bismuth and its alloys provide a paradigm to realize three dimensional materials whose low-energy effective theory is given by Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions. We study the quantum transport properties of three dimensional Dirac materials within the framework of Landauer–Büttiker formalism. Charge carriers in normal metal satisfying the Schrödinger equation, can be split into four-component with appropriate matching conditions at the boundary with the three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM). We calculate the conductance and the Fano factor of an interface separating 3DDM from a normal metal, as well as the conductance through a slab of 3DDM. Under certain circumstances the 3DDM appears transparent to electrons hitting the 3DDM. We find that electrons hitting the metal-3DDM interface from metallic side can enter 3DDM in a reversed spin state as soon as their angle of incidence deviates from the direction perpendicular to interface. However the presence of a second interface completely cancels this effect.

  10. Quantum transport through 3D Dirac materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, M.; Jafari, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Bismuth and its alloys provide a paradigm to realize three dimensional materials whose low-energy effective theory is given by Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions. We study the quantum transport properties of three dimensional Dirac materials within the framework of Landauer–Büttiker formalism. Charge carriers in normal metal satisfying the Schrödinger equation, can be split into four-component with appropriate matching conditions at the boundary with the three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM). We calculate the conductance and the Fano factor of an interface separating 3DDM from a normal metal, as well as the conductance through a slab of 3DDM. Under certain circumstances the 3DDM appears transparent to electrons hitting the 3DDM. We find that electrons hitting the metal-3DDM interface from metallic side can enter 3DDM in a reversed spin state as soon as their angle of incidence deviates from the direction perpendicular to interface. However the presence of a second interface completely cancels this effect

  11. Transport of radioactive material in Bangladesh: a regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive material is transported in Bangladesh in various types of packages and by different modes of transport. The transport of radioactive materials involves a risk both for the workers and members of the public. The safe transport of radioactive material is ensured in Bangladesh by compliance with Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NSRC) Act-93 and NSRC Rules-97. The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the competent authority for the enforcement of the NSRC act and rules. The competent authority has established regulatory control at each stage to ensure radiation safety to transport workers, members of general public and the environment. An overview is presented of the activities related to the transport of radioactive material in Bangladesh. In particular, the applicable legislation, the scope of authority and the regulatory functions of the competent authority are discussed. The categories of radioactive materials transported and the packaging requirements for the safe transport of these radioactive materials are also described. (author)

  12. Copper (I) Selenocyanate (CuSeCN) as a Novel Hole-Transport Layer for Transistors, Organic Solar Cells, and Light-Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wijeyasinghe, Nilushi; Tsetseris, Leonidas; Regoutz, Anna; Sit, Wai-Yu; Fei, Zhuping; Du, Tian; Wang, Xuhua; McLachlan, Martyn A.; Vourlias, George; Patsalas, Panos A.; Payne, David J.; Heeney, Martin; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2018-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of copper (I) selenocyanate (CuSeCN) and its application as a solution-processable hole-transport layer (HTL) material in transistors, organic light-emitting diodes, and solar cells are reported. Density-functional theory calculations combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to elucidate the electronic band structure, density of states, and microstructure of CuSeCN. Solution-processed layers are found to be nanocrystalline and optically transparent (>94%), due to the large bandgap of ≥3.1 eV, with a valence band maximum located at −5.1 eV. Hole-transport analysis performed using field-effect measurements confirms the p-type character of CuSeCN yielding a hole mobility of 0.002 cm2 V−1 s−1. When CuSeCN is incorporated as the HTL material in organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells, the resulting devices exhibit comparable or improved performance to control devices based on commercially available poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate as the HTL. This is the first report on the semiconducting character of CuSeCN and it highlights the tremendous potential for further developments in the area of metal pseudohalides.

  13. Copper (I) Selenocyanate (CuSeCN) as a Novel Hole-Transport Layer for Transistors, Organic Solar Cells, and Light-Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wijeyasinghe, Nilushi

    2018-02-01

    The synthesis and characterization of copper (I) selenocyanate (CuSeCN) and its application as a solution-processable hole-transport layer (HTL) material in transistors, organic light-emitting diodes, and solar cells are reported. Density-functional theory calculations combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to elucidate the electronic band structure, density of states, and microstructure of CuSeCN. Solution-processed layers are found to be nanocrystalline and optically transparent (>94%), due to the large bandgap of ≥3.1 eV, with a valence band maximum located at −5.1 eV. Hole-transport analysis performed using field-effect measurements confirms the p-type character of CuSeCN yielding a hole mobility of 0.002 cm2 V−1 s−1. When CuSeCN is incorporated as the HTL material in organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells, the resulting devices exhibit comparable or improved performance to control devices based on commercially available poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate as the HTL. This is the first report on the semiconducting character of CuSeCN and it highlights the tremendous potential for further developments in the area of metal pseudohalides.

  14. Transportation of hazardous materials (hazmat) a literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    Zafer YILMAZ; Serpil EROL; Hakan Soner APLAK

    2016-01-01

    ransportation has a great role in logistics. Many researchers have studied on transportation and vehicle routing problems. Transportation of hazardous materials (hazmat) is a special subject for logistics. Causalities due to the accidents caused by trucks carrying hazardous materials will be intolerable. Many researchers have studied on risk assessment of hazmat transportation to find ways for reducing hazardous material transportation risks. Some researchers have studied routing of hazmat tr...

  15. Modeling of the effect of intentionally introduced traps on hole transport in single-crystal rubrene

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuñ a, Javier; Desai, Amit; Xie, Wei; Salleo, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Defects have been intentionally introduced in a rubrene single crystal by means of two different mechanisms: ultraviolet ozone (UVO) exposure and x-ray irradiation. A complete drift-diffusion model based on the mobility edge (ME) concept, which takes into account asymmetries and nonuniformities in the semiconductor, is used to estimate the energetic and spatial distribution of trap states. The trap distribution for pristine devices can be decomposed into two well defined regions: a shallow region ascribed to structural disorder and a deeper region ascribed to defects. UVO and x ray increase the hole trap concentration in the semiconductor with different energetic and spatial signatures. The former creates traps near the top surface in the 0.3-0.4 eV region, while the latter induces a wider distribution of traps extending from the band edge with a spatial distribution that peaks near the top and bottom interfaces. In addition to inducing hole trap states in the transport gap, both processes are shown to reduce the mobility with respect to a pristine crystal. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  16. Modeling of the effect of intentionally introduced traps on hole transport in single-crystal rubrene

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuña, Javier

    2014-06-05

    Defects have been intentionally introduced in a rubrene single crystal by means of two different mechanisms: ultraviolet ozone (UVO) exposure and x-ray irradiation. A complete drift-diffusion model based on the mobility edge (ME) concept, which takes into account asymmetries and nonuniformities in the semiconductor, is used to estimate the energetic and spatial distribution of trap states. The trap distribution for pristine devices can be decomposed into two well defined regions: a shallow region ascribed to structural disorder and a deeper region ascribed to defects. UVO and x ray increase the hole trap concentration in the semiconductor with different energetic and spatial signatures. The former creates traps near the top surface in the 0.3-0.4 eV region, while the latter induces a wider distribution of traps extending from the band edge with a spatial distribution that peaks near the top and bottom interfaces. In addition to inducing hole trap states in the transport gap, both processes are shown to reduce the mobility with respect to a pristine crystal. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  17. Characterization of the hole transport and electrical properties in poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.G.; Zhang, H.W.; Tang, X.L.; Song, Y.Q.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic study of the hole transport and electrical properties in blue-emitting polymers as poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) has been performed. We show that the temperature dependent and thickness dependent current density versus voltage characteristics of PFO hole-only devices can be accurately described using our recently introduced improved mobility model based on both the Arrhenius temperature dependence and non-Arrhenius temperature dependence. Within the improved model, the mobility depends on three important physical quantities: temperature, carrier density, and electric field. For the polymer studied, we find the width of the density of states σ=0.115 eV and the lattice constant a=1.2 nm. Furthermore, we show that the boundary carrier density has an important effect on the current density versus voltage characteristics. Too large or too small values of the boundary carrier density lead to incorrect current density versus voltage characteristics. The numerically calculated carrier density is a decreasing function of distance from the interface. The numerically calculated electric field is an increasing function of distance. Both the maximum of carrier density and minimum of electric field appear near the interface.

  18. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...

  19. Observation of Enhanced Hole Extraction in Br Concentration Gradient Perovskite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Byeong Jo; Son, Dae-Yong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Jung, Hyun Suk; Choi, Mansoo

    2016-09-14

    Enhancing hole extraction inside the perovskite layer is the key factor for boosting photovoltaic performance. Realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials has been expected to exhibit rapid hole extraction due to the precise bandgap tuning. Moreover, a formation of Br-rich region on the tri-iodide perovskite layer is expected to enhance moisture stability without a loss of current density. However, conventional synthetic techniques of perovskite materials such as the solution process have not achieved the realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials. In this report, we demonstrate the fabrication of Br concentration gradient mixed halide perovskite materials using a novel and facile halide conversion method based on vaporized hydrobromic acid. Accelerated hole extraction and enhanced lifetime due to Br gradient was verified by observing photoluminescence properties. Through the combination of secondary ion mass spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, the diffusion behavior of Br ions in perovskite materials was investigated. The Br-gradient was found to be eventually converted into a homogeneous mixed halide layer after undergoing an intermixing process. Br-substituted perovskite solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 18.94% due to an increase in open circuit voltage from 1.08 to 1.11 V and an advance in fill-factor from 0.71 to 0.74. Long-term stability was also dramatically enhanced after the conversion process, i.e., the power conversion efficiency of the post-treated device has remained over 97% of the initial value under high humid conditions (40-90%) without any encapsulation for 4 weeks.

  20. Transportation of radioactive materials in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, A.M.

    1979-06-01

    This report is designed to calculate the total risk due to shipping radioactive materials in Sweden. The base case developed is the shipment model that is used now or the best estimate for expected shipments. The model for the calculations and the computer program used has been developed at the Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., USA and is the same that was used for the NUREG-0170 study. The results from the calculations show an annual expected population dose of 30 person-rem due to normal transport conditions. The annual expected dose from accidents were calculated to be between 2.3-20.8 person rem. The higher figure represents the case where plutonium is shipped back to Sweden from reprocessing plants abroad in the form of PuO2 and the lower figure represent the case when plutonium is shipped back in the form of mixed oxide fuel. The total additional population dose in Sweden due to both normal and accident conditions in the transportation of radioactive materials will be 30 - 50 person rem/year. Compared to the natural background radiation that is 8x10 5 person rem per year in Sweden, this figure is very low. If converted to latent cancer fatalities this population dose will add approximately 3.5x10 3 cancers each year. The consequences due to accidents have been calculated and are discussed separately from their probabilities. The most severe accident that was found was an accident involving PuO 2 . This accident would give 82 400 rem as a maximum individual dose and 8.1x10 5 person rem as a population dose. (Auth.)

  1. Transport properties of diazonium functionalized graphene: chiral two-dimensional hole gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ping; Jing Long; Zhu Huarui; Gao Xueyun

    2012-01-01

    The electric transport properties of diazonium functionalized graphene (DFG) were investigated. The temperature dependence of the resistivity (ρ-T) and the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation of the DFG revealed two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) behaviors. The DFGs exhibited unusual weak localization behaviors in which both inelastic and chirality-breaking elastic scattering processes should be taken into account, meaning that graphene chirality was maintained. Because of the giant decrease in the diffusion coefficient, the scattering rates remained relatively low in the presence of suppression of the scattering lengths. The decreases of both the mean free path and the Fermi velocity were responsible for the suppression of the diffusion coefficient and hence the charge mobility. (paper)

  2. Determination of charge carrier mobility of hole transporting polytriarylamine-based diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barea, Eva M. [Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castello (Spain); Garcia-Belmonte, Germa, E-mail: garciag@uji.e [Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castello (Spain); Sommer, Michael; Huettner, Sven [Applied Functional Polymers, Universitaet Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Bolink, Henk J. [Molecular Science Institute-Universitat de Valencia, Poligon La Coma s/n, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Thelakkat, Mukundan, E-mail: mukundan.thelakkat@uni-bayreuth.d [Applied Functional Polymers, Universitaet Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2010-04-02

    Hole transport properties of three different side chain poly(triarylamines) have been determined by means of the analysis of steady-state current-voltage characteristics using co-planar diode structures. The interpretation is based on space-charge limited models with field-dependent mobility. Mobilities between {approx} 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} are obtained. The highest mobility is achieved for poly(tetraphenylbenzidine) devices and the lowest for poly(triphenylamine) devices. Electron-rich methoxy substituents increase the mobility of poly(triphenylamine)s. A comparison of the mobility values with those obtained using organic field-effect transistors is also given.

  3. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kgogo, Obonye

    2016-04-01

    The report provides insight and investigates whether Transport Regulations in Botswana follow international standards for transport of radioactive material. Radioactive materials are very useful in most of our activities and are manufactured in different countries, therefore end up traversing from one country to another and being transported in national roads .The IAEA regulation for the Transport of radioactive material is used as the reference guideline in this study. The current Regulations for Transport of radioactive material in Botswana do not cover all factors which need to be considered when transporting radioactive although they refer to IAEA regulations. Basing on an inadequacy of the regulations and category of radioactive materials in the country recommendations were made concerning security, packaging and worker training's. The regulations for the Transport of radioactive material in Botswana need to be reviewed and updated so that they can relate to international standard. (au)

  4. Radiological impact of radioactive materials transport in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation doses of personnel and populations are estimated between 1983 and 1985 during road transport of radiopharmaceuticals, spent fuels, wastes and other radioactive materials. Dose equivalent received by air transport and others are difficult to know. Results are summed up in 8 tables. Radioactive materials transport represents less than 1% of exposures related to the fuel cycle [fr

  5. Electrical transport in crystalline phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woda, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the electrical transport properties of crystalline phase change materials are discussed. Phase change materials (PCM) are a special class of semiconducting and metallic thin film alloys, typically with a high amount of the group five element antimony or the group six element tellurium, such as Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 . The unique property portfolio of this material class makes it suitable for memory applications. PCMs reveal fast switching between two stable room-temperature phases (amorphous and crystalline) realized by optical laser or electrical current pulses in memory devices. Additionally, a pronounced property contrast in form of optical reflectivity and electrical conductivity between the amorphous and crystalline phase is the characteristic fingerprint of PCMs. The emerging electrical solid state memory PCRAM is a very promising candidate to replace Flash memory in the near future or to even become a universal memory, which is non-volatile and shows the speed and cyclability of DRAM. One of the main technological challenges is the switching process into the amorphous state, which is the most power demanding step. In order to reduce the switching power, the crystalline resistivity needs to be increased at a given voltage. Thus understanding and tayloring of this property is mandatory. In this work, first the technological relevance, i.e. optical and electrical memory concepts based on PCMs are introduced. Subsequently a description of the physical properties of PCMs in four categories is given. Namely, structure, kinetics, optical properties and electrical properties are discussed. Then important recent developments such as the identification of resonant bonding in crystalline PCMs and a property predicting coordination scheme are briefly reviewed. The following chapter deals with the theoretical background of electrical transport, while the next chapter introduces the experimental techniques: Sputtering, XRR, XRD, DSC, thermal annealing

  6. Electrical transport in crystalline phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woda, Michael

    2012-01-06

    In this thesis, the electrical transport properties of crystalline phase change materials are discussed. Phase change materials (PCM) are a special class of semiconducting and metallic thin film alloys, typically with a high amount of the group five element antimony or the group six element tellurium, such as Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}. The unique property portfolio of this material class makes it suitable for memory applications. PCMs reveal fast switching between two stable room-temperature phases (amorphous and crystalline) realized by optical laser or electrical current pulses in memory devices. Additionally, a pronounced property contrast in form of optical reflectivity and electrical conductivity between the amorphous and crystalline phase is the characteristic fingerprint of PCMs. The emerging electrical solid state memory PCRAM is a very promising candidate to replace Flash memory in the near future or to even become a universal memory, which is non-volatile and shows the speed and cyclability of DRAM. One of the main technological challenges is the switching process into the amorphous state, which is the most power demanding step. In order to reduce the switching power, the crystalline resistivity needs to be increased at a given voltage. Thus understanding and tayloring of this property is mandatory. In this work, first the technological relevance, i.e. optical and electrical memory concepts based on PCMs are introduced. Subsequently a description of the physical properties of PCMs in four categories is given. Namely, structure, kinetics, optical properties and electrical properties are discussed. Then important recent developments such as the identification of resonant bonding in crystalline PCMs and a property predicting coordination scheme are briefly reviewed. The following chapter deals with the theoretical background of electrical transport, while the next chapter introduces the experimental techniques: Sputtering, XRR, XRD, DSC, thermal annealing

  7. Some issues on environmental impact report of radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiaming

    2001-01-01

    The author puts forward some issues which should be paid attention to when compiling a environmental impact report of radioactive material transport. The main issues discussed are as follows: (1) Optimization analysis for transport routes. (2) Source terms under accident conditions in transport. (3) Precautions against accidents and emergency preparedness. (4) Quality assurance of transport, etc

  8. Slot-Die-Coated V2O5 as Hole Transport Layer for Flexible Organic Solar Cells and Optoelectronic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliatis, Michail; Helgesen, Martin; Garcia Valverde, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Vanadium pentoxide has been proposed as a good alternative hole transport layer for improving device lifetime of organic photovoltaics. The article presents a study on the optimization of slot-die-coated vanadium oxide films produced with a roll coating machine with the aim of achieving scalable ...

  9. Planar perovskite solar cells employing copper(I) thiocyanate/N,N‧-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N‧-diphenyl-(1,1‧-biphenyl)-4,4‧-diamine bilayer structure as hole transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Zong-Liang; Chen, Lung-Chien

    2018-02-01

    Organic hole transport materials, such as N 2,N 2,N 2‧,N 2‧,N 7,N 7,N 7‧,N 7‧-octakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-9,9‧-spirobi[9H-fluorene]-2,2‧,7,7‧-tetramine (Spiro-OMeTAD), are commonly used as the hole transport materials in efficient perovskite solar cells, but the chemical synthetic procedure may increase the cost of the photovoltaic devices. On the other hand, inorganic hole transport materials, such as copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) or copper(I) iodide (CuI), have potential for the manufacture of efficient and low-cost perovskite solar cells, but the performance of these devices is still imperfect. In this study, we demonstrate the use of an inorganic CuSCN and organic N,N‧-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N‧-diphenyl-(1,1‧-biphenyl)-4,4‧-diamine (NPB) hybrid bilayer as an alternative hole transport layer for planar CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. The electronic behavior of the bilayer and the performance of the corresponding devices were discussed. As a result, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) for the best cells at AM1.5G illumination with a shadow mask was 12.3%.

  10. Structure and transport properties of nanostructured materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwane, C G; Li, Q

    2005-03-31

    In the present manuscript, we have presented the simulation of nanoporous aluminum oxide using a molecular-dynamics approach with recently developed dynamic charge transfer potential using serial/parallel programming techniques (Streitz and Mintmire Phys. Rev. B 1994, 50, 11996). The structures resembling recently invented ordered nanoporous crystalline material, MCM-41/SBA-15 (Kresge et al. Nature 1992, 359, 710), and inverted porous solids (hollow nanospheres) with up to 10 000 atoms were fabricated and studied in the present work. These materials have been used for separation of gases and catalysis. On several occasions including the design of the reactor, the knowledge of surface diffusion is necessary. In the present work, a new method for estimating surface transport of gases based on a hybrid Monte Carlo method with unbiased random walk of tracer atom on the pore surface has been introduced. The nonoverlapping packings used in the present work were fabricated using an algorithm of very slowly settling rigid spheres from a dilute suspension into a randomly packed bed. The algorithm was modified to obtain unimodal, homogeneous Gaussian and segregated bimodal porous solids. The porosity of these solids was varied by densification using an arbitrary function or by coarsening from a highly densified pellet. The surface tortuosity for the densified solids indicated an inverted bell shape curve consistent with the fact that at very high porosities there is a reduction in the connectivity while at low porosities the pores become inaccessible or dead-end. The first passage time distribution approach was found to be more efficient in terms of computation time (fewer tracer atoms needed for the linearity of Einstein's plot). Results by hybrid discrete-continuum simulations were close to the discrete simulations for a boundary layer thickness of 5lambda.

  11. Investigation on photoluminescence quenching of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots by organic charge transporting materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiu Qu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different organic charge transporting materials on the photoluminescence of CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots has been studied by means of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. With an increase in concentration of the organic charge transporting material in the quantum dots solutions, the photoluminescence intensity of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots was quenched greatly and the fluorescence lifetime was shortened gradually. The quenching efficiency of CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots decreased with increasing the oxidation potential of organic charge transporting materials. Based on the analysis, two pathways in the photoluminescence quenching process have been defined: static quenching and dynamic quenching. The dynamic quenching is correlated with hole transporting from quantum dots to the charge transporting materials.

  12. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in this volume: shielding and criticality; transportation accidents; physical security in transit; transport forecasting and logistics; transportation experience, operations and planning; regulation; standards and quality assurance; risk analysis; and environmental impacts. Separate abstracts are prepared for individual items

  13. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in this volume: shielding and criticality; transportation accidents; physical security in transit; transport forecasting and logistics; transportation experience, operations and planning; regulation; standards and quality assurance; risk analysis; and environmental impacts. Separate abstracts are prepared for individual items. (DC)

  14. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A.; Sanches, Matias P.

    2001-01-01

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  15. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A. [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: atomo@atomo.com.br; Sanches, Matias P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: msanches@net.ipen.br

    2001-07-01

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  16. Three-dimensional hole transport in nickel oxide by alloying with MgO or ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidoust, Nima; Carter, Emily A.

    2015-11-01

    It has been shown previously that the movement of a hole in nickel oxide is confined to two dimensions, along a single ferromagnetic plane. Such confinement may hamper hole transport when NiO is used as a p-type transparent conductor in various solar energy conversion technologies. Here, we use the small polaron model, along with unrestricted Hartree-Fock and complete active space self-consistent field calculations to show that forming substitutional MxNi1-xO alloys with M = Mg or Zn reduces the barrier for movement of a hole away from the ferromagnetic plane to which it is confined. Such reduction occurs for hole transfer alongside one or two M ions that have been substituted for Ni ions. Furthermore, the Mg and Zn ions do not trap holes on O sites in their vicinity, and NiO's transparency is preserved upon forming the alloys. Thus, forming MxNi1-xO alloys with M = Mg or Zn may enhance NiO's potential as a p-type transparent conducting oxide, by disrupting the two-dimensional confinement of holes in pure NiO.

  17. Transport and storage container for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelstaedter, R.; Henning, E.; Storch, S.

    1987-01-01

    The container consists of a reinforced concrete wall, which is lined on the outsinde with a steel sheet and on the inside by a steel sheet several times thicker than this steel sheet. A front container opening can be closed by a reinforced concrete lid, which consists of a concrete core. This is surrounded by a lining, a covering and a lost shell. The cover projects beyond the reinforced concrete lid, so that bolts can be introduced in holes equally distributed over the extent of the cover, which can be turned in the threaded holes of threaded anchors, which are fixed on the steel sheet on the side towards the reinforced conrete wall. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Radiation doses from the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, K.B.; Holyoak, B.

    1983-01-01

    A summary is given of a study on radiation exposure resulting from the transport of radioactive materials within the United Kingdom. It was concluded that the transport of technetium generators for hospital use accounts for about 49% of the occupational exposure for the normal transport of radioactive materials. Other isotopes for medical and industrial use contribute about 38% of the occupational exposure and the remainder can be attributed to transportation as a result of the nuclear fuel cycle including the transport of irradiated nuclear fuel. The occupational collective dose for all modes of transport is estimated at 1 man Sv y -1 . (UK)

  19. Procedures for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Lyul; Chung, K. K.; Lee, J. I.; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, T. Y

    2007-11-15

    This technical report describes the procedure and work responsibility along with the regulation and standard necessary for the safe transport of radioactive or contaminated materials. This report, therefore, can be effectively used to secure the public safety as well as to prevent the disastrous event which might be resulted from the transport process of radioactive materials by establishing a procedure and method on the safe packing, handling and transport of radioactive materials.

  20. Transportation of hazardous materials (hazmat a literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer YILMAZ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ransportation has a great role in logistics. Many researchers have studied on transportation and vehicle routing problems. Transportation of hazardous materials (hazmat is a special subject for logistics. Causalities due to the accidents caused by trucks carrying hazardous materials will be intolerable. Many researchers have studied on risk assessment of hazmat transportation to find ways for reducing hazardous material transportation risks. Some researchers have studied routing of hazmat trucks. The emergency response models and network design problems for hazmat transportation were also studied by some researchers. The transportation of hazmats can also be classified according to the mode of transport. Mainly roads are used for hazmat transportation but some shipments are intermodal. There has been a great amount of effort spent to find convenient ways for hazmat transportation. In this study, a literature survey for the articles about hazmat transportation is prepared. After pointing out the importance of hazmat transportation by the example of US hazmat transportation data, the studies on hazmat transportation since 2005 have been examined. Totally 88 articles are classified as risk, routing, routing and scheduling, emergency response, network design and accident analysis. What can be studied in future researches is pointed out.Keywords: Hazardous materials, Network design, Transportation, Routing, Risk assessment

  1. Charge transport in organic molecular semiconductors from first principles: The bandlike hole mobility in a naphthalene crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nien-En; Zhou, Jin-Jian; Agapito, Luis A.; Bernardi, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Predicting charge transport in organic molecular crystals is notoriously challenging. Carrier mobility calculations in organic semiconductors are dominated by quantum chemistry methods based on charge hopping, which are laborious and only moderately accurate. We compute from first principles the electron-phonon scattering and the phonon-limited hole mobility of naphthalene crystal in the framework of ab initio band theory. Our calculations combine GW electronic bandstructures, ab initio electron-phonon scattering, and the Boltzmann transport equation. The calculated hole mobility is in very good agreement with experiment between 100 -300 K , and we can predict its temperature dependence with high accuracy. We show that scattering between intermolecular phonons and holes regulates the mobility, though intramolecular phonons possess the strongest coupling with holes. We revisit the common belief that only rigid molecular motions affect carrier dynamics in organic molecular crystals. Our paper provides a quantitative and rigorous framework to compute charge transport in organic crystals and is a first step toward reconciling band theory and carrier hopping computational methods.

  2. Safety of transport of radioactive material. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Radioactive material has been transported for decades within and between countries as the use of radioactive material to benefit mankind has expanded. The transport can involve many types of materials (radionuclides and radiation sources for applications in agriculture, energy production, industry, and medicine) and all modes of transport (road, rail, sea and waterways, and air). Among the organizations in the United Nations system, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the statutory function to establish or adopt standards of safety for protection of health against exposure to ionizing radiation. Within its statutory mandate and pursuant to this request, in 1961, the IAEA issued Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (the IAEA Transport Regulations). The Transport Regulations were periodically reviewed and, as appropriate, have been amended or revised. The latest version of the Transport Regulations was issued in 2000 by the IAEA as Publication TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised). In addition, the IAEA is entrusted by its Statute to provide for the application of its standards at the request of States. The objective of the Conference is to foster the exchange of information on issues related to the safety of transport of radioactive material by providing an opportunity for representatives from sponsoring international organizations and their Member States and from other co-operating and participating organizations to discuss critical issues relating to the safety of transport of radioactive material by all modes and to formulate recommendations, as appropriate, regarding further international co-operation in this area. The following topics have been identified by the Technical Programme Committee as the subjects to be covered in the background briefing sessions: History and Status of the IAEA Transport Regulation Development; Experience in adoption of the IAEA Transport Regulations at the international level; Implementation of the IAEA Transport

  3. A performance test of a capsule for a material irradiation in the OR holes of HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M. S.; Choo, K. N.; Shin, Y. T.; Sohn, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G.

    2008-01-01

    A test for a pressure drop and a vibration was performed to develop a material capsule for an irradiation at the OR hole in HANARO. It was analyzed before the test that a diameter of a material capsule for the OR holes should be more than 49mm by an evaluation of a flow rate and pressure drop in theory. According to this estimation, 3 kinds of mock-up capsules with a diameter of 52, 54, 56 mm were made and applied to a pressure drop test. As a result of the pressure drop test, the requirement for a pressure and a flow rate in HANARO was confirmed to be satisfied for the 3 kinds of diameters. The capsules with diameters of 54, 56mm were applied to a vibration test by taking into consideration a receptive capacity of the specimens. The capsule with a diameter of 56mm satisfied the requirement for an allowable limit of the vibration acceleration applied in HANARO. The heat transfer coefficient and the temperature on the surface of a capsule were estimated. As the temperature on the surface of the capsule was calculated to be 43.7 .deg. C, the ONB condition in HANARO was satisfied

  4. Integral management of hazardous materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, M.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of outsourcing transport operations and complementary services on the part of the producers and shippers, there is a growing demand for global services that integrate the whole external logistics value chain, the latter being understood to signify the process that includes the storage, transport (monomodal or bi-multi-modal) and delivery to destination. This circumstance has obliged transport firms to undertake a process of internal transformation: from offering an activity purely of transport to becoming logistics operators. Express Truck, S. a. (hereinafter ETSA) could not ignore this market requirement. We will explain the evolutionary process of ETSA in this sense. (Author)

  5. Transport of radioactive materials: the need for radiation protection programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masinza, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The increase in the use of radioactive materials worldwide requires that these materials be moved from production sites to the end user or in the case of radioactive waste, from the waste generator to the repository. Tens of millions of packages containing radioactive material are consigned for transport each year throughout the world. The amount of radioactive material in these packages varies from negligible quantities in shipments of consumer products to very large quantities of shipments of irradiated nuclear fuel. Transport is the main way in which the radioactive materials being moved get into the public domain. The public is generally unaware of the lurking danger when transporting these hazardous goods. Thus radiation protection programmes are important to assure the public of the certainty of their safety during conveyance of these materials. Radioactive material is transported by land (road and rail), inland waterways, sea/ocean and air. These modes of transport are regulated by international 'modal' regulations. The international community has formulated controls to reduce the number of accidents and mitigate their consequences should they happen. When accidents involving the transport of radioactive material occur, it could result in injury, loss of life and pollution of the environment. In order to ensure the safety of people, property and the environment, national and international transport regulations have been developed. The appropriate authorities in each state utilise them to control the transport of radioactive material. Stringent measures are required in these regulations to ensure adequate containment, shielding and the prevention of criticality in all spheres of transport, i.e. routine, minor incidents and accident conditions. Despite the extensive application of these stringent safety controls, transport accidents involving packages containing radioactive material have occurred and will continue to occur. When a transport accident occurs, it

  6. Role of 4-tert-Butylpyridine as a Hole Transport Layer Morphological Controller in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shen; Sina, Mahsa; Parikh, Pritesh; Uekert, Taylor; Shahbazian, Brian; Devaraj, Arun; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-09-14

    Hybrid organic-inorganic materials for high-efficiency, low-cost photovoltaic devices have seen rapid progress since the introduction of lead based perovskites and solid-state hole transport layers. Although majority of the materials used for perovskite solar cells (PSC) are introduced from dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the presence of a perovskite capping layer as opposed to a single dye molecule (in DSSCs) changes the interactions between the various layers in perovskite solar cells. 4-tert-Butylpyridine (tBP), commonly used in PSCs, is assumed to function as a charge recombination inhibitor, similar to DSSCs. However, the presence of a perovskite capping layer calls for a re-evaluation of its function in PSCs. Using TEM (transmission electron microscopy), we first confirm the role of tBP as a HTL morphology controller in PSCs. Our observations suggest that tBP significantly improves the uniformity of the HTL and avoids accumulation of Li salt. We also study degradation pathways by using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and APT (atom probe tomography) to investigate and visualize in 3-dimensions the moisture content associated with the Li salt. Long-term effects, over 1000 h, due to evaporation of tBP have also been studied. Based on our findings, a PSC failure mechanism associated with the morphological change of the HTL is proposed. tBP, the morphology controller in HTL, plays a key role in this process, and thus this study highlights the need for additive materials with higher boiling points for consistent long-term performance of PSCs.

  7. Onsite transportation of radioactive materials at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, R.

    2015-03-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Transportation Safety Document (TSD) defines the onsite packaging and transportation safety program at SRS and demonstrates its compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) transportation safety requirements, to include DOE Order 460.1C, DOE Order 461.2, Onsite Packaging and Transfer of Materials of National Security Interest, and 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management (Subpart B).

  8. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, N.; Yanagi, H.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured

  9. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, N. [National Maritime Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, H. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured.

  10. Transportation legislative data base : state radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-30

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United...

  11. US perspective of transporting radioactive materials by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitwood, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    The reason for the US interest in transportation of radioactive materials by sea is discussed. The national and international institutional considerations related to this subject are covered. Some economic aspects in transporting these materials, particularly spent fuels, by sea are also presented

  12. Framework for assessing the effects of radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoller, J.N.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive materials transport may result in environmental effects during both incident-free and accident conditions. These effects may be caused by radiation exposure, pollutants, or physical trauma. Recent environmental impact analyses involving the transportation of radioactive materials are cited to provide examples of the types of activities which may be involved as well as the environmental effects which can be estimated

  13. State summary of radioactive material transport sector in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Xavier, A.M.

    1991-07-01

    The main aim of this work is the scientific cooperation with the CNEA (Argentina) in the area of safe transport of radioactive materials, intending to find solutions to some rural problems and, also, to standardize the transport of radioactive materials between Brazil and Argentina. (E.O.)

  14. International regulatory control of the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the IAEA regulations on the transport of radioactive materials and the background for the adoption of these regulations by the various international organizations responsible for regulating the different modes of international transport of hazardous materials is briefly discussed

  15. Zinc chlorophyll aggregates as hole transporters for biocompatible, natural-photosynthesis-inspired solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Sasaki, Shin-ichi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Liu, Cheng-Liang; Song, Jiaxing; Tian, Wenjing; Zheng, Enqiang; Wei, Yingjin; Chen, Gang; Fu, Xueqi; Wang, Xiao-Feng

    2015-11-01

    The intriguing properties of extremely efficient delocalization and migration of excitons in chlorophyll (Chl) J-type aggregates have inspired intense research activities toward their structural understanding, functional interpretation and mimicry synthesis. Herein, we demonstrated the J-aggregates of zinc methyl 3-devinyl-3-hydroxymethyl-pyropheophorbide a (ZnChl-1) generated by spin-coating method for the application as a hole transporter in titania-based solar cells using methyl trans-32-carboxypyropheophorbide a (H2Chl-2) or its zinc complex (ZnChl-2) as the sensitizer. The effective carrier mobility of the J-aggregates films was determined by the organic field-effect transistor to be 6.2 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1. Solar cells sharing the architecture of FTO/H2Chl-2 or ZnChl-2 on TiO2/(ZnChl-1)n/Ag were fabricated and the factors that presumably determine their photovoltaic performances were discussed. The photovoltaic devices studied herein employing inexpensive and pollution-free biomaterials provide a unique solution of utilizing solar energy with a care of the important environmental issue.

  16. The new context for transport of radioactive and nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, C.; Galtier, J.

    2002-01-01

    The transportation of radioactive and nuclear materials involves all modes of transportation with a predominance for road and for air. It is but a minute fraction dangerous good transportation. Around 10 millions of radioactive packages are shipped annually all over the world of which ninety percent total corresponds to shipments of radioisotopes. In spite of the small volume transported, experience, evolution of transport means and technologies, the trend to constantly improve security and safety and public acceptance have modified the transport environment. During the last few years, new evolutions have applied to the transport of radioactive and nuclear materials in various fields and especially: - Safety - Security - Logistics means - Public acceptance - Quality Assurance. We propose to examine the evolution of these different fields and their impact on transportation methods and means. (authors)

  17. Transport of nuclear material (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staake, Theo; Schmidt, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Providing a complete back-end service for MTR reactors is one of the fundamental and traditional tasks of TRANSNUKLEAR GmbH (TN). TN's services in this field cover everything from supplying the ideal transport cask, providing technical assistance during the loading operation, obtaining the necessary package approval and transport licenses, providing the required insurance cover, carrying out the transport, right thru to settling the reprocessing contract. Up until 1976, TN carried out transports of MTR fuel elements to the European reprocessing plants at Mol in Belgium and Marcoule in France. In all, some 1000 fuel elements were transported in this p e ri od. However, following the decision by these plants not to reprocess these elements anymore, subsequent transports had to be made to the US-DOE reprocessing plants. TN pooled together the interests of all her MTR customers and signed a reprocessing contract with the US-DOE, which ensured a complete back-end service for these reactors well into the future. In close cooperation with our associated company, Transnuclear Inc. in New York and Washington, a new transport concept was developed, which proved itself to be both economic and reliable. Up to now, a total of about 2050 MTR fuel elements have been transported by TN-Germany to the USA in 65 separate shipments. The total number of shipments performed by the TN group is 165 shipments. All shipments were carried out routinely without any incident. In March this year, the US-DOE made use of a clause in the contract, in which 90 days' notice was given of a change in reprocessing plant. Whereas previously all elements had been taken to the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in South Carolina, in future all elements have to go to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) near Idaho Falls. This change presented TN with the not inconsiderable problem of finding a suitable transport route. Due to the large number of influencing factors, the TN-group carried out a special

  18. Highly efficient organic solar Cells based on a robust room-temperature solution-processed copper iodide hole transporter

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui

    2015-07-30

    Achieving high performance and reliable organic solar cells hinges on the development of stable and energetically suitable hole transporting buffer layers in tune with the electrode and photoactive materials of the solar cell stack. Here we have identified solution-processed copper(I) iodide (CuI) thin films with low-temperature processing conditions as an effective hole–transporting layer (HTL) for a wide range of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) systems. The solar cells using CuI HTL show higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) in standard device structure for polymer blends, up to PCE of 8.8%, as compared with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) HTL, for a broad range of polymer:fullerene systems. The CuI layer properties and solar cell device behavior are shown to be remarkably robust and insensitive to a wide range of processing conditions of the HTL, including processing solvent, annealing temperature (room temperature up to 200 °C), and film thickness. CuI is also shown to improve the overall lifetime of solar cells in the standard architecture as compared to PEDOT:PSS. We further demonstrate promising solar cell performance when using CuI as top HTL in an inverted device architecture. The observation of uncommon properties, such as photoconductivity of CuI and templating effects on the BHJ layer formation, are also discussed. This study points to CuI as being a good candidate to replace PEDOT:PSS in solution-processed solar cells thanks to the facile implementation and demonstrated robustness of CuI thin films.

  19. Highly efficient organic solar Cells based on a robust room-temperature solution-processed copper iodide hole transporter

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui; Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy Olivier; Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan; El Labban, Abdulrahman; Hu, Hanlin; Wang, Qingxiao; Li, Ruipeng; Abdelsamie, Maged; Beaujuge, Pierre; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Achieving high performance and reliable organic solar cells hinges on the development of stable and energetically suitable hole transporting buffer layers in tune with the electrode and photoactive materials of the solar cell stack. Here we have identified solution-processed copper(I) iodide (CuI) thin films with low-temperature processing conditions as an effective hole–transporting layer (HTL) for a wide range of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) systems. The solar cells using CuI HTL show higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) in standard device structure for polymer blends, up to PCE of 8.8%, as compared with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) HTL, for a broad range of polymer:fullerene systems. The CuI layer properties and solar cell device behavior are shown to be remarkably robust and insensitive to a wide range of processing conditions of the HTL, including processing solvent, annealing temperature (room temperature up to 200 °C), and film thickness. CuI is also shown to improve the overall lifetime of solar cells in the standard architecture as compared to PEDOT:PSS. We further demonstrate promising solar cell performance when using CuI as top HTL in an inverted device architecture. The observation of uncommon properties, such as photoconductivity of CuI and templating effects on the BHJ layer formation, are also discussed. This study points to CuI as being a good candidate to replace PEDOT:PSS in solution-processed solar cells thanks to the facile implementation and demonstrated robustness of CuI thin films.

  20. RADTRAN: a computer code to analyze transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.; Daniel, S.L.

    1977-04-01

    A computer code is presented which predicts the environmental impact of any specific scheme of radioactive material transportation. Results are presented in terms of annual latent cancer fatalities and annual early fatility probability resulting from exposure, during normal transportation or transport accidents. The code is developed in a generalized format to permit wide application including normal transportation analysis; consideration of alternatives; and detailed consideration of specific sectors of industry

  1. Radioactive materials transportation; Pengangkutan bahan radioaktif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: packaging and it`s procedures and requirements, extra requirement for large sources, rules and guides of packaging and transportation, classification of packages before delivery.

  2. State statutes and regulations on radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.

    1981-11-01

    The transport of radioactive material is controlled by numerous legislative and regulatory actions at the federal, state, and local levels. This document is a compilation of the state level laws and regulations. The collected material is abstracted and indexed by states. Each state section contains three divisions: (1) abstracts of major statutes, (2) legislative rules, and (3) photocopies of relevant paragraphs from the law or regulation. This document was prepared for use by individuals who are involved in the radioactive material transportation process. This document will not be updated. The legislative rules section contains the name of the state agency primarily responsible for monitoring the transport of radioactive materials

  3. Transportation accidents/incidents involving radioactive materials (1971--1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, C.E.; McClure, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database contains information on transportation-related accidents and incidents involving radioactive materials that have occurred in the United States. The RMIR was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to support its research and development program efforts for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper will address the following topics: background information on the regulations and process for reporting a hazardous materials transportation incident, overview data of radioactive materials transportation accidents and incidents, and additional information and summary data on how packagings have performed in accident conditions

  4. Polymers Containing Diphenylvinyl-Substituted Indole Rings as Charge-Transporting Materials for OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigalevicius, S.; Zostautiene, R.; Sipaviciute, D.; Stulpinaite, B.; Volyniuk, D.; Grazulevicius, J. V.; Liu, L.; Xie, Z.; Zhang, B.

    2016-02-01

    Monomers and polymers containing electronically isolated diphenylvinyl-substituted indole rings were synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopies as well as by gel permeation chromatography. The polymers represent amorphous materials with glass transition temperatures of 91-109°C and thermal decomposition starting above 307°C. Electron photoemission spectra of thin films of the synthesized polymers revealed ionization potentials of 5.54-5.58 eV. The synthesized polymers were tested as hole-transporting materials in simple electroluminescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices with tris(quinolin-8-olato)aluminium (Alq3) as an emitter as well as an electron-transporting layer. A green OLED device containing a hole-transporting layer of poly[1-(2,3-epithiopropyl)-2-methyl-3-(2,2-diphenylvinyl)índole] exhibited the best overall performance with a driving voltage of 4.0 V, maximum photometric efficiency of 2.8 cd/A and maximum brightness of about 4200 cd/m2.

  5. Risks in U.S. energy material transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, A.L.; Rhoads, R.E.; Andrews, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    For the past five years, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been conducting a programme to study the safety of transporting energy materials. The overall objectives of the programme are to develop information on the safety of transporting hazardous materials required to support the major energy cycles in the USA. This information was developed for use in making energy policy decisions; in designing and developing new or improved transportation systems for these materials; to help establish research priorities; and as an aid in developing effective transportation safety regulations. Risk analysis was selected as the methodology for performing these studies. This methodology has been applied to rail and highway shipments of nuclear fuel cycle materials and liquid and gaseous fossil fuels. Studies of the risks of transporting spent nuclear fuel by train and uranium ore concentrates (yellow cake) by truck were expected to be issued early in 1981. Analyses of the risks of transporting reactor waste and transuranic wastes are in progress. The work completed to date for nuclear material transportation makes it possible to estimate the transportation risks for the entire fuel cycle in the USA. Results of the assessment are presented in this paper. Because the risk analysis studies for the transportation of gasoline, propane and chlorine have been performed using a methodology, basic assumptions and data that are consistent with the studies that have been performed for nuclear materials, comparisons between the risks for nuclear materials and these materials can also be made. It should be noted that it is not the intention of these comparisons to judge the safety of one industry in comparison with another. These comparisons can, however, provide some insights into the regulatory philosophy for hazardous materials transportation. The remaining sections of the paper briefly review the risk-analysis methodology used in these studies, provide an overview of the systems

  6. HA and MAVL technical dialogue - Seminar - Transports of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charron, Sylvie; Eckert, Benoit; Lizot, Marie-Therese; Moutarde, Marianne; Mermaz, Frederic; Brisson, Nicolas; Sene, Monique; Demet, Michel; Jacquet, Benoit; Tran-Thien, Vivien; Ferran, Ghislain; Michel, Maurice; Barbey, Pierre; Miquel, Thierry-Paul; Monot, Bernard; Syren, Julien; Quintin, Christophe; Gilbert, Alain; Lhuillier, Daniel; Domeneghetti, Bertrand; LOURTIE, Guy; Manessier, Joffray

    2016-03-01

    This document gathers the content of a debate and Power Point presentations as contributions to this seminar on transports of nuclear materials. After an introduction, the different sessions addressed the actors of the transport of nuclear materials (regulation, parcel design, organisation on the shipper side and on the transporter side), transport safety and radiation protection (returns on experience by different actors and on event follow-up), the follow-up and safety of transports of nuclear materials (protection against malevolent acts, operational follow-up, case of rail transport), and issues related to crisis management (organisation in case of crisis, means of intervention implemented by the IRSN, return on experience for two accidents)

  7. Active Galactic Nuclei: the Shape of Material Around Black Holes and the Witch of Agnesi Function. Asymmetry of Neutrino Particle Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezzoli G. C.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical representation is given and physically described for the shape of the very hot material that immediately surrounds a black hole and the warm material located at a greater distance from the black hole, as related to active galactic nuclei. The shape of the material surrounding the black hole is interpreted in terms of asymmetry of the neutrino flux. Detailed experimental measurements on radioactive decay influenced by astrophysical events are given to support this interpretation.

  8. Transportation of nuclear material in France: regulatory and technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flory, D.; Renard, C.

    1995-01-01

    Legislative and regulatory documentation define responsibilities in the field of security and physical protection for transportation of nuclear material. Any transportation activity has to conform to an advance authorization regime delivered by the Ministry of Industry. Responsibility for physical protection of nuclear material rests with the carrier under control of the public authority. Penalties reinforce this administrative regime. Operational responsibility for management and control of transport operations has been entrusted by the ministry to the operational transport unit (Echelon Operationnel des Transports - EOT) of IPSN (Institute for Nuclear Protection and Safety). To guarantee en efficient protection of transport operations, the various following means are provided for: -specialized transport means; - devices for real time tracking of road vehicles; - administrative authorization and declaration procedures; -intervention capacities in case of sabotage... This set of technical means and administrative measures is completed by the existence of a body of inspectors who may control every step of the operations. (authors). 3 tabs

  9. Transport of proximity nuclear radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This brief publication gives an overview of the international and national regulatory framework for the transport of radioactive substances, outlines progress orientations identified by the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), indicates the parcel classification and shipment radiological criteria, and how to declare events occurring during the transport of radioactive substances, which number to phone in case of a radiological incident. Finally, the role of the ASN and its field of activity in matters of control are briefly presented with a table of its office addresses in France

  10. Pyridine substituted spirofluorene derivative as an electron transport material for high efficiency in blue organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Soon Ok; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob, E-mail: leej17@dankook.ac.k

    2010-11-01

    The quantum efficiency of blue fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes was enhanced by 20% using a pyridine substituted spirofluorene-benzofluorene derivative as an electron transport material. 2',7'-Di(pyridin-3-yl)spiro[benzofluorene-7,9'-fluorene] (SPBP) was synthesized and it was used as the electron transport material to block the hole leakage from the emitting layer. The improvement of the quantum efficiency and power efficiency of the blue fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes using the SPBP was investigated.

  11. Transport of radioactive material in Sudan practice and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, M. K. E.

    2010-12-01

    In the last couple of decades there has been an impressive increase in applications of radioactive material. Such an extensive and widely spread usage of radioactive materials demands safe transportation of radioactive material from the production site to the application location, as well as quick and effective response in a case of an unexpected transportation event according to Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) regulation. The thesis described the local practice for transport of radioactive material as compared to the international standards for radiation protection, and also discussed the emergency procedures that must be follow in case of accident during transport of radioactive material. Furthermore, the objective of this study was also to set proposals for how to cope in the event of a radiological accident. The study methods included survey of current literature on safe transport of radioactive material, survey of national regulations on the subjects in additional to case studies aimed at investigating the practical issues pertinent to transport of radioactive materials in Sudan. A comprehensive review was presented on how to classification of radioactive packages and general requirement for all packaging and packages according to international standard. transport of number of radioactive sources from Khartoum airport to the field was evaluated with regard transport index, category of source, type of package, dose rate around the source, time to destination and means of transport of doses to public, worker are be made. All results were within the limit specified in the national as well as international regulation. The study has addressed for the first time the practice of transport of radioactive material in Sudan. It is anticipated that the results will encourage national organizational and professional bodies to enhance radiation protection and safety of radioactive sources. (Author)

  12. Regulations relevant to the transport of radioactive materials in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.

    1996-01-01

    As is the case in many countries, the transport of radioactive materials in Switzerland is primarily regulated by the national regulations for the transport of dangerous goods. Currently these regulations, in the case of radioactive material, incorporate the 1985 IAEA Safety Series 6 Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (As amended 1990). However, as is also the case in some other countries, consignors, shippers and carriers of radioactive materials must also comply with additional laws when shipping radioactive materials. The most important of these other laws and their accompanying regulations are those concerned with radiation protection (import, export and carriers licences) and nuclear power (import, export, inland transport and transit licences). This paper sets out to describe the collective requirements resulting from all three of these sets of regulations. (Author)

  13. Architecture of the Interface between the Perovskite and Hole-Transport Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Masahiro; Hirotani, Daisuke; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Ogomi, Yuhei; Shen, Qing; Ripolles, Teresa S; Yoshino, Kenji; Toyoda, Taro; Minemoto, Takashi; Hayase, Shuzi

    2016-09-22

    The interface between the perovskite (PVK, CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 ) and hole-transport layers in perovskite solar cells is discussed. The device architecture studied is as follows: F-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass/compact TiO 2 /mesoporous TiO 2 /PVK/2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-MeOTAD)/Au. After a thin layer of 4,4,4-trifluorobutylammonium iodide (TFBA) was inserted at the interface between PVK and Spiro-MeOTAD, the photovoltaic efficiency increased from 11.6-14.5 % to 15.1-17.6 %. TFBA (10 ppm) was added in the PVK solution before coating. Owing to the low surface tension of TFBA, TFBA rose to the surface of the PVK layer spontaneously during spin-coating to make a thin organic layer. The PVK grain boundaries also seemed to be passivated with the addition of TFBA. However, large differences in Urbach energies and valence band energy level were not observed for the PVK layer with and without the addition of TFBA. The charge recombination time constant between the PVK and the Spiro-MeOTAD became slower (from 8.4 to 280 μsec) after 10 ppm of TFBA was added in the PVK. The experimental results using TFBA conclude that insertion of a very thin layer at the interface between PVK and Spiro-MeOTAD is effective for suppressing charge recombination and increasing photovoltaic performances. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Photo-Crosslinking of Pendent Uracil Units Provides Supramolecular Hole Injection/Transport Conducting Polymers for Highly Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Kang Shih

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new process for modifying a polymeric material for use as a hole injection transport layer in organic light-emitting diodes has been studied, which is through 2π + 2π photodimerization of a DNA-mimetic π-conjugated poly(triphenylamine-carbazole presenting pendent uracil groups (PTC-U under 1 h of UV irradiation. Multilayer florescence OLED (Organic light-emitting diodes device with the PTC-U-1hr as a hole injection/transport layer (ITO (Indium tin oxide/HITL (hole-injection/transport layer (15 nm/N,N'-di(1-naphthyl- N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB (15 nm/Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3 (60 nm/LiF (1 nm/Al (100 nm is fabricated, a remarkable improvement in performance (Qmax (external quantum efficiency = 2.65%, Bmax (maximum brightness = 56,704 cd/m2, and LE (luminance efficiencymax = 8.9 cd/A relative to the control PTC-U (Qmax = 2.40%, Bmax = 40,490 cd/m2, and LEmax = 8.0 cd/A. Multilayer phosphorescence OLED device with the PTC-U-1hr as a hole injection/transport layer (ITO/HITL (15 nm/Ir(ppy3:PVK (40 nm/BCP (10nm/Alq3 (40 nm/LiF (1 nm/Al (100 nm is fabricated by successive spin-coating processes, a remarkable improvement in performance (Qmax = 9.68%, Bmax = 41,466 cd/m2, and LEmax = 36.6 cd/A relative to the control PTC-U (Qmax = 8.35%, Bmax = 34,978 cd/m2, and LEmax = 30.8 cd/A and the commercial product (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate PEDOT:PSS (Qmax = 4.29%, Bmax = 15,678 cd/m2, and LEmax = 16.2 cd/A has been achieved.

  15. Experience of air transport of nuclear fuel material in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, T.; Toguri, D.; Kawasaki, M.

    2004-01-01

    Certified Reference Materials (hereafter called as to CRMs), which are indispensable for Quality Assurance and Material Accountability in nuclear fuel plants, are being provided by overseas suppliers to Japanese nuclear entities as Type A package (non-fissile) through air transport. However, after the criticality accident at JCO in Japan, special law defining nuclear disaster countermeasures (hereafter called as to the LAW) has been newly enforced in June 2000. Thereafter, nuclear fuel materials must meet not only to the existing transport regulations but also to the LAW for its transport

  16. Radiological environmental impacts from transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuai Zhengqing

    1994-01-01

    The author describes radiological impacts from transportation of nuclear materials. RADTRAN 4.0 supplied by IAEA was adopted to evaluate radiological consequence of incident-free transportation as well as the radiological risks from vehicular accidents occurring during transportation. The results of calculation show that the collective effective dose equivalent of incident-free transportation to the public and transportation workers is 7.94 x 10 -4 man·Sv. The calculated data suggest that the environmental impacts under normal and assumed accidental conditions are acceptable

  17. Transport of biologically active material in laser cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz, M; Mathezloic, F; Stoffel, M H; Zweig, A D; Romano, V; Weber, H P

    1988-01-01

    The transport of biologically active material during laser cutting with CO2 and Er lasers is demonstrated. This transport mechanism removes particles from the surface of gelatin, agar, and liver samples into the depth of the laser-formed craters. The transport phenomenon is explained by a contraction and condensation of enclosed hot water vapor. We show by cultivating transported bacteria in agar that biological particles can survive the shock of the transport. Determination of the numbers of active cells evidences a more pronounced activity of the cultivated bacteria after impact with an Er laser than with a CO2 laser.

  18. International Regulations for Transport of Radioactive Materials, History and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2013-01-01

    International Regulations for the transport of radioactive materials have been published by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1961. These Regulations have been widely adopted into national Regulations. Also adopted into different modal Regulations such as International Air Transport Association (IATA) and International Martime Organization (IMO). These Regulations provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of general public, transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination, criticality hazard and thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive wastes and materials. Several reviews conducted in consultation with Member States (MS) and concerned international organizations, resulted in comprehensive revisions till now. Radioactive materials are generally transported by specialized transport companies and experts. Shippers and carriers have designed their transport operations to comply with these international Regulations. About 20 million consignments of radioactive materials take place around the world each year. These materials were used in different fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, research, consumer product and electric power generation. After September 11,2001, the IAEA and MS have worked together to develop a new guidance document concerning the security in the transport of radioactive materials. IAEA have initiated activities to assist MS in addressing the need for transport security in a comprehensive manner. The security guidance and measures were mentioned and discussed. The transport security becomes more developed and integrated into national Regulations of many countries beside the safety Regulations. IAEA and other International organizations are working with MS to implement transport security programs such as guidance, training, security assessments and upgrade assistance in these fields.

  19. Regulatory requirements for the transport of radioactive materials in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, R. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Canada is a major producer and shipper of radioactive material. Each year more than a million packages are transported in Canada. The safety record with the transport of RAM in Canada has historically been excellent. There have never been any serious injuries, overexposure or fatality or environmental consequences attributable to the radioactive nature of such material being transported or being involved in a transport accident. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the prime agency of the federal government entrusted with regulating all activities related to the use of nuclear energy and nuclear substances including the packaging and transport of nuclear substances. The mission of the CNSC is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of the person and the environment and to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The division of responsibility for the regulation of transport of radioactive material has been split between Transport Canada and the CNSC. The governing Transport Canada's regulations are Transport of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Regulations and the CNSC regulations are Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations (PTNSR). Canada has actively participated in the development of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material since 1960. As an IAEA member state, Canada generally follows the requirements of IAEA regulations with few deviations. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) strongly supports Canada's international obligations to ensure safe packaging, transport, storage and disposal of nuclear substances, prescribed equipment and prescribed information. Prescribed equipment and prescribed information are defined in the CNSC General Nuclear Safety and Control Regulations. This paper presents the current CNSC regulatory requirements and initiatives taken by the CNSC to improve its effectiveness and

  20. Regulatory requirements for the transport of radioactive materials in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, R.

    2004-01-01

    Canada is a major producer and shipper of radioactive material. Each year more than a million packages are transported in Canada. The safety record with the transport of RAM in Canada has historically been excellent. There have never been any serious injuries, overexposure or fatality or environmental consequences attributable to the radioactive nature of such material being transported or being involved in a transport accident. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the prime agency of the federal government entrusted with regulating all activities related to the use of nuclear energy and nuclear substances including the packaging and transport of nuclear substances. The mission of the CNSC is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of the person and the environment and to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The division of responsibility for the regulation of transport of radioactive material has been split between Transport Canada and the CNSC. The governing Transport Canada's regulations are Transport of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Regulations and the CNSC regulations are Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations (PTNSR). Canada has actively participated in the development of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material since 1960. As an IAEA member state, Canada generally follows the requirements of IAEA regulations with few deviations. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) strongly supports Canada's international obligations to ensure safe packaging, transport, storage and disposal of nuclear substances, prescribed equipment and prescribed information. Prescribed equipment and prescribed information are defined in the CNSC General Nuclear Safety and Control Regulations. This paper presents the current CNSC regulatory requirements and initiatives taken by the CNSC to improve its effectiveness and efficiency

  1. The regulation concerning transportation of radioactive materials by vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Regulation is established on the basis of The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Law for the prevention of radiation injuries due to radioisotopes.'' The prescriptions cover the transport of radioactive materials by railway, street rail way, ropeway, trolley buses, motorcars and light vehicles. Terms are explained, such as nuclear fuel materials, radioisotopes, radioactive substances, transported radioactive things, transported fissile things, vehicles, containers, exclusive loading, surrounding inspection area. Four types of transported radioactive things are specified, L and A types being less dangerous and BM and BU being more dangerous. Transported fissile things are classified to three kinds according to the safety to criticality of such things. Transported radioactive things except those of L type and containers with transported fissile things shall not be loaded or unloaded at the places where persons other than those concerned come in usually. Loading and unloading of such things shall be carried out so that the safety of such things is not injured. The maximum dose rate of radiation of the containers with transported radioactive things shall not be more than 200 millirem per hour on the surface and 10 millirem per hour at the distance of 1 meter. Specified transported radioactive things shall be particularly marked by the letter of ''radioactive'' or other signs indicating as such. (Okada, K.)

  2. Emergency preparedness and response in transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takani, Michio

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power has been providing clean, affordable electricity in many parts of the world for nearly half a century. The national and international transport of nuclear fuel cycle materials is essential to support this activity. To sustain the nuclear power industry, fuel cycle materials have to be transported safely and efficiently. The nature of the industry is such that most countries with large-scale nuclear power industries cannot provide all the necessary fuel services themselves and consequently nuclear fuel cycle transport activities are international. The radioactive material transport industry has an outstanding safety record spanning over 45 years; however the transport of radioactive materials cannot and most not be taken for granted. Efficient emergency preparedness and response in the transport of radioactive material is an important element to ensure the maximum safety in accident conditions. The World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), founded by International Nuclear Services (INS) of the United Kingdom, AREVA of France an the Federation of Electric Power Companies (FEPC) of Japan, represents the collective interest of the radioactive material transport sector, and those who rely on safe, effective and reliable transport. As part of its activities, WNTI has conducted two surveys through its members on emergency preparedness and response in the transport of radioactive material and emergency exercises. After recalling the International Atomic Energy Agency approach on emergency response, this paper will be discussing the main conclusion of surveys, in particular the national variations in emergency response and preparedness on the national and local levels of regulations, the emergency preparedness in place, the emergency response organisation (who and how), communication and exercises. (author)

  3. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, September 1993--June 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthley, J.A.; Reed, J.B.; Cummins, J.

    1994-07-01

    This is the eighth report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the September 1993 report on Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation and describes activities for the period September 1, 1993--June 30, 1994. NCSL currently is updating an on-line data base that contains abstracts of federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of August 1994. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. This report contains the current status of legislation introduced in the 1993 and 1994 state legislative sessions, not previously reviewed in past reports. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness are described. (General nuclear waste legislation with no transportation element is no longer tracked.) Also included are Federal Register notices and changes in federal regulations pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation

  4. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, April 1993--August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.B.; Cummins, J.

    1993-09-01

    This is the seventh report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the April 1993 report on Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation and describes activities for the period April 1, 1993--August 31, 1993. NCSL currently is updating an on-line data base that contains abstracts of federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Limited availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of 1993. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. A copy of any legislation listed in this report can be obtained by contacting the people listed below. This report contains the current status of legislation introduced in the 1993 state legislative sessions, not previously reviewed in past reports. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness are described. (General nuclear waste legislation with no transportation element is no longer tracked.) Also included are Federal Register notices pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation

  5. Hazardous materials transportation and emergency response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Fore, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    This presentation consists of the following visual aids; (1) detailed routing capabilities of truck, rail, barge; (2) legislative data base for hazardous materials; and (3) emergency response of accident site Eddyville, Kentucky (airports in vicinity of Eddyville, KY)

  6. Effects of electron blocking and hole trapping of the red guest emitter materials on hybrid white organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Lin-Ann; Vu, Hoang-Tuan; Juang, Fuh-Shyang; Lai, Yun-Jr; Yeh, Pei-Hsun; Tsai, Yu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid white organic light emitting diodes (HWOLEDs) with fluorescence and phosphorescence hybrid structures are studied in this work. HWOLEDs were fabricated with blue/red emitting layers: fluorescent host material doped with sky blue material, and bipolar phosphorescent host emitting material doped with red dopant material. An electron blocking layer is applied that provides hole red guest emitter hole trapping effects, increases the charge carrier injection quantity into the emitting layers and controls the recombination zone (RZ) that helps balance the device color. Spacer layers were also inserted to expand the RZ, increase efficiency and reduce energy quenching along with roll-off effects. The resulting high efficiency warm white OLED device has the lower highest occupied molecule orbital level red guest material, current efficiency of 15.9 cd/A at current density of 20 mA/cm 2 , and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates of (0.34, 0.39)

  7. Effects of electron blocking and hole trapping of the red guest emitter materials on hybrid white organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Lin-Ann; Vu, Hoang-Tuan [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China); Juang, Fuh-Shyang, E-mail: fsjuang@seed.net.tw [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yun-Jr [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Pei-Hsun [Raystar Optronics, Inc., 5F No. 25, Keya Rd. Daya Township, Taichung County, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Yu-Sheng [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid white organic light emitting diodes (HWOLEDs) with fluorescence and phosphorescence hybrid structures are studied in this work. HWOLEDs were fabricated with blue/red emitting layers: fluorescent host material doped with sky blue material, and bipolar phosphorescent host emitting material doped with red dopant material. An electron blocking layer is applied that provides hole red guest emitter hole trapping effects, increases the charge carrier injection quantity into the emitting layers and controls the recombination zone (RZ) that helps balance the device color. Spacer layers were also inserted to expand the RZ, increase efficiency and reduce energy quenching along with roll-off effects. The resulting high efficiency warm white OLED device has the lower highest occupied molecule orbital level red guest material, current efficiency of 15.9 cd/A at current density of 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates of (0.34, 0.39)

  8. Quality assurance for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    All activities related to the safe transport of radioactive material should be covered by a quality assurance programme. This publication recognizes that a single transport operation often involves several different organizations, each having specific responsibilities. Hence, it is unlikely that the operation will be covered by a single quality assurance programme. Each quality assurance programme should be tailored to the specific organizational structure for which the programme is prepared, with account taken of the particular transport activities of that organization and the interfaces with other organizations. The aim of this publication is to give a detailed interpretation of what must be done by whom to produce a quality assurance programme for radioactive material transport. This publication provides guidance on methods and practical examples to develop QA programmes for the safe transport of radioactive material. It provides information on how to develop the programme, the standards and the common features of a QA programme

  9. Sea transport of radioactive materials in Egypt (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.; Gomaa, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the experience gained. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the Canal from 1963 to 1996 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. (author)

  10. Competent authority regulatory control of the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of this guide is to assist competent authorities in regulating the transport of radioactive materials and to assist users of transport regulations in their interactions with competent authorities. The guide should assist specifically those countries which are establishing their regulatory framework and further assist countries with established procedures to harmonize their application and implementation of the IAEA Regulations. This guide specifically covers various aspects of the competent authority implementation of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. In addition, physical protection and safeguards control of the transport of nuclear materials as well as third party liability aspects are briefly discussed. This is because they have to be taken into account in overall transport regulatory activities, especially when establishing the regulatory framework

  11. Solution-processed inorganic copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) hole transporting layers for efficient p–i–n perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui

    2015-08-27

    CuSCN is a highly transparent, highly stable, low cost and easy to solution process HTL that is proposed as a low cost replacement to existing organic and inorganic metal oxide hole transporting materials. Here, we demonstrate hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite-based p-i-n planar heterojunction solar cells using a solution-processed copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) bottom hole transporting layer (HTL). CuSCN, with its high workfunction, increases the open circuit voltage (Voc) by 0.23 V to 1.06 V as compared with devices based on the well-known poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) (0.83 V), resulting in a superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.8% without any notable hysteresis. Photoluminescence measurements suggest a similar efficiency of charge transfer at HTL/perovskite interface as PEDOT:PSS. However, we observe more efficient light harvesting in the presence of CuSCN at shorter wavelengths despite PEDOT:PSS being more transparent. Further investigation of the microstructure and morphology reveals differences in the crystallographic texture of the polycrystalline perovskite film, suggesting somewhat modified perovskite growth on the surface of CuSCN. The successful demonstration of the solution-processed inorganic HTL using simple and low temperature processing routes bodes well for the development of reliable and efficient flexible p-i-n perovskite modules or for integration as a front cell in hybrid tandem solar cells.

  12. High-performance inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells based on a solution-processed CuOx hole transport layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weihai; Li, Yunlong; Ye, Senyun; Rao, Haixia; Yan, Weibo; Peng, Haitao; Li, Yu; Liu, Zhiwei; Wang, Shufeng; Chen, Zhijian; Xiao, Lixin; Bian, Zuqiang; Huang, Chunhui

    2016-05-19

    During the past several years, methylammonium lead halide perovskites have been widely investigated as light absorbers for thin-film photovoltaic cells. Among the various device architectures, the inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells have attracted special attention for their relatively simple fabrication and high efficiencies. Although promising efficiencies have been obtained in the inverted planar geometry based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) sulfonic acid ( PSS) as the hole transport material (HTM), the hydrophilicity of the PSS is a critical factor for long-term stability. In this paper, a CuOx hole transport layer from a facile solution-processed method was introduced into the inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. After the optimization of the devices, a champion PCE of 17.1% was obtained with an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.99 V, a short-circuit current (Jsc) of 23.2 mA cm(-2) and a fill factor (FF) of 74.4%. Furthermore, the unencapsulated device cooperating with the CuOx film exhibited superior performance in the stability test, compared to the device involving the PSS layer, indicating that CuOx could be a promising HTM for replacing PSS in inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells.

  13. Anticipated development in radioactive materials packaging and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.D.; Rhoads, R.E.; Hall, R.J.

    1976-07-01

    Closing the light water reactor fuel cycle and the use of mixed oxide fuels will produce materials such as solidified high level waste, cladding hulls and plutonium from Pu recycle fuel that have not been transported extensively in the past. Changes in allowable gaseous emissions from fuel cycle facilities may require the collection and transportation of radioactive noble gases and tritium. Although all of these materials could be transported in existing radioactive material packaging, economic considerations will make it desirable to develop new packaging specifically designed for each material. Conceptual package designs for these materials are reviewed. Special Nuclear Material transportation safeguards are expected to have a significant impact on future fuel cycle transportation. This subject is reviewed briefly. Other factors that could affect fuel cycle transportation are also discussed. Development of new packaging for radioactive materials is not believed to require the development of new technologies. New package designs will be primarily an adaptation of existing technology to fit the changing needs of a growing nuclear power industry. 23 references

  14. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Regulations and rules for the safe transport of radioactive materials by all kinds of conveyance are offered. Different types of packages and the conditions associated with the methods of safe packaging are given

  15. Furthering the good safety record in materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.

    1983-01-01

    Topics raised by the international symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials (Patram), held in New Orleans in May 1983, including risk analysis, seals and leakage and the effects of increased traffic are discussed. (U.K.)

  16. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials: summary program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This document contains summaries or abstracts of reports presented at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. Separate indexing has been performed on individual items presented at this conference. (DC)

  17. Environmental effects associated with the transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.; Pope, R.B.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1979-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper has been to describe some of the background information concerning nuclear materials transportation systems, accident statistics, accident severities, and test information - all of which when combined yield an environmental statement of the risks associated with the transportation of radioactive materials. The results of the ultimate risk analysis are expressed in terms of numbers of fatalities and, in that sense at least, tend to be an absolute measure of risk. When these risks are compared with other accepted societal risks, the relative risks associated with radioactive material transportation can be established. This information can be used to make decisions at the governmental level and to inform an interested public about these risks. It can be concluded that the risks associated with the transportation of radioactive material are low relative to the other risks that society has already accepted

  18. Transport of radioactive materials and equipment. Requirements. (Provisional)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This standard is aimed at establishing the procedures that must be followed when transporting radioactive materials and equipment in Venezuelan Territory. The ''Consejo Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Industria Nuclear'' is responsible for their fulfillment and control

  19. Quality management in the regulation of radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenghi, Leonardo; Capadona, Nancy M.; Lopez Vietri, Jorge R.; Panzino, Marina; Ceballos, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the quality management procedure used by the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority to establish the regulations concerning the safe transport of radioactive materials. The quality management system is based on the family of the ISO 9000 norms [es

  20. Packaging requirements and procedures for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Canadian regulations on the transportation of radioactive materials are based on those formulated by the IAEA. A synopsis of these regulations is presented, and the background to certain key provisions is explained. (LL)

  1. An optimization model for transportation of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyed-Hosseini, M.; Kheirkhah, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal routing problem for transportation of hazardous materials is studied. Routing for the purpose of reducing the risk of transportation of hazardous materials has been studied and formulated by many researcher and several routing models have been presented up to now. These models can be classified into the categories: the models for routing a single movement and the models for routing multiple movements. In this paper, according to the current rules and regulations of road transportations of hazardous materials in Iran, a routing problem is designed. In this problem, the routs for several independent movements are simultaneously determined. To examine the model, the problem the transportations of two different dangerous materials in the road network of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran is formulated and solved by applying Integer programming model

  2. Handbook for structural analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takeshi

    1991-04-01

    This paper described structural analysis method of radioactive material transport casks for use of a handbook of safety analysis and evaluation. Safety analysis conditions, computer codes for analyses and stress evaluation method are also involved in the handbook. (author)

  3. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1996 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication is the revised version of the IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials as approved by the Board of Governors in September 1996. It establishes standards of safety which provide an acceptable level of control of the radiation, criticality and thermal hazards to persons, property and the environment that are associated with the transport of radioactive material. After an introductory section, the publication is structured as follows: Section 2 defines the terms that are required for the purposes of the Regulations; Section 3 provides general provisions; Section 4 gives the activity limits and material restrictions used throughout these Regulations; Section 5 provides requirements and controls for transport; Section 6 provides requirements for radioactive materials and for packagings and packages; Section 7 provides requirements for test procedures; Section 8 provides approval and administrative requirements. The requirements for the transport of specified types of consignments are included in an abbreviated form as Schedules. Refs, figs, tabs

  4. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials: summary program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This document contains summaries or abstracts of reports presented at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. Separate indexing has been performed on individual items presented at this conference

  5. Raising students and educators awareness of radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, J.; Sandoz, C.; Dickenson, J.; Lee, J.C.; Smith, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The public is concerned about how the shipping and handling of radioactive materials affects them and their environment. Through exhibit showings doing professional education conferences and smaller, focussed workshops, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has found teachers and students to be an especially interested audience for hazardous and radioactive materials transportation information. DOE recognizes the importance of presenting educational opportunities to students about scientific and societal issues associated with planning for and safely transporting these types of materials. Raising students' and educators' awareness of hazardous and radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits may help them make informed decisions as adults about this often controversial and difficult issue

  6. The new context for transport of radioactive nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, Catherine; Galtier, Jerome

    2001-01-01

    The transportation of radioactive and nuclear materials, involves all modes of transportation (road, air, sea, rail) with predominance for road and for air (air for radioisotopes). In this paper we examine the impact of new evolutions in the fields of safety, security, logistics means, public acceptance and quality assurance

  7. Radioactive materials transport: a story of steady technical improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.

    1991-01-01

    The transport of radioactive material is a fundamental part of the nuclear industry and equally vital to the use of radioisotopes in medical diagnosis and therapy. The safety record is impressively good and this aids open discussion of the subject. An independent consultant formerly with Atomic Energy Authority Technology reports on the Second International Conference on Transportation for the Nuclear Industry. (Author)

  8. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  9. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananiev, V.V.; Ershov, V.N.; Shvedov, M.O.

    2004-01-01

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well

  10. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  11. 77 FR 21714 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ...: Transportation of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... cells and batteries that have been adopted into the 2013-2014 International Civil Aviation Organization...) to address the air transportation risks posed by lithium cells and batteries. Some of the proposals...

  12. 75 FR 9147 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ...: Transportation of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... transport of lithium cells and batteries. PHMSA and FAA will hold a public meeting on March 5, 2010, in... will be attending the Lithium Battery Public Meeting and wait to be escorted to the Conference Center...

  13. 78 FR 1119 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...: Transportation of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... lithium cells and batteries that have been adopted into the 2013-2014 International Civil Aviation... edition, when transporting batteries domestically by air. Incorporation by reference of the 2013-2014...

  14. Growth of molybdenum disulphide using iodine as transport material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper an attempt has been made to describe the chemical vapor transport (CVT) technique used for the growth of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) single crystals. Iodine (I2) is used as transporting material for this purpose. The energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX) confirmed the stoichiometry of the ...

  15. Transportation of hazardous materials emergency preparedness hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  16. The Transport of Radioactive Materials under special arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaggio, A.L.; Vietri, J.R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material rule the international transport of these materials and provide the basis of national and regional regulations. The Regulations establish the technical, operational and administrative requirements which shall be accomplished to carry out the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). They also allow the transport in different conditions of those currently applicable and, in such cases, establish that the transport shall be made under special arrangement. To approve a transport under special arrangement the involved Competent Authority shall be satisfied that the alternative provisions are adequate to ensure that the overall level of safety in transport and in-transit storage is at least equivalent to that which would be provided if all the applicable requirements had been met (para. 2ll of the International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series No. 6). This paper explains some difficulties the Argentine Competent. Authority has experienced trying by comparing the equivalence between the level of safety resulting from the compliance with current requirements and the overall level of safety which is provided by the application of alternative provisions. As most of the experience gained come from the transport of RAM by road, only this mode of transport is considered. (J.P.N.)

  17. Implications for the management of R A materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, I.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper attempts to describe some Exclusions and Exemptions from the current and proposed transport regulations and describes those requirements applicable to low active material. It concludes that Clearance is the dominant issue and that within the UK nuclear sector, the current (1985 as amended 1990) transport regulations have no significant impact on the management of low active materials. Nor will the proposed (1996) Regulations. (author)

  18. Regional risk associated with the transport of hazardous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Nardini, L.; Aparicio, L.; Bandoni, A.; Tonelli, S. M.

    2003-01-01

    An increasing concern over the level of risk associated with hazardous materials transportation has led international efforts to focus on risk assessment at regional level. Following this trend, the aim of this work is to review the latest procedures for analysing the regional risks resulting from hazardous materials transportation by means of road and rail. In particular, two methodologies are reviewed and discussed, a method recently developed at Swiss Federal Institute of Technology [1] an...

  19. Transportation incidents involving Canadian shipments of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, J.M.

    1979-06-01

    This paper gives a brief statement of the legislation governing the transportation of radioactive materials in Canada, reviews the types of shipments made in Canada in 1977, and surveys the transportation incidents that have been reported to the Atomic Energy Control Board over the period 1947-1978. Some of the more significant incidents are described in detail. A totAl of 135 incidents occurred from 1947 to 1978, during which time there were 644750 shipments of radioactive material in Canada

  20. Complex quantum transport in a modulation doped strained Ge quantum well heterostructure with a high mobility 2D hole gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, C., E-mail: c.morrison.2@warwick.ac.uk; Casteleiro, C.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-05

    The complex quantum transport of a strained Ge quantum well (QW) modulation doped heterostructure with two types of mobile carriers has been observed. The two dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in the Ge QW exhibits an exceptionally high mobility of 780 000 cm{sup 2}/Vs at temperatures below 10 K. Through analysis of Shubnikov de-Haas oscillations in the magnetoresistance of this 2DHG below 2 K, the hole effective mass is found to be 0.065 m{sub 0}. Anomalous conductance peaks are observed at higher fields which deviate from standard Shubnikov de-Haas and quantum Hall effect behaviour due to conduction via multiple carrier types. Despite this complex behaviour, analysis using a transport model with two conductive channels explains this behaviour and allows key physical parameters such as the carrier effective mass, transport, and quantum lifetimes and conductivity of the electrically active layers to be extracted. This finding is important for electronic device applications, since inclusion of highly doped interlayers which are electrically active, for enhancement of, for example, room temperature carrier mobility, does not prevent analysis of quantum transport in a QW.

  1. Complex quantum transport in a modulation doped strained Ge quantum well heterostructure with a high mobility 2D hole gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, C.; Casteleiro, C.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M.

    2016-09-01

    The complex quantum transport of a strained Ge quantum well (QW) modulation doped heterostructure with two types of mobile carriers has been observed. The two dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in the Ge QW exhibits an exceptionally high mobility of 780 000 cm2/Vs at temperatures below 10 K. Through analysis of Shubnikov de-Haas oscillations in the magnetoresistance of this 2DHG below 2 K, the hole effective mass is found to be 0.065 m0. Anomalous conductance peaks are observed at higher fields which deviate from standard Shubnikov de-Haas and quantum Hall effect behaviour due to conduction via multiple carrier types. Despite this complex behaviour, analysis using a transport model with two conductive channels explains this behaviour and allows key physical parameters such as the carrier effective mass, transport, and quantum lifetimes and conductivity of the electrically active layers to be extracted. This finding is important for electronic device applications, since inclusion of highly doped interlayers which are electrically active, for enhancement of, for example, room temperature carrier mobility, does not prevent analysis of quantum transport in a QW.

  2. Transport phenomena in materials processing---1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, B.J.; Lior, N.; Lavine, A.; Flik, M.; Karwe, M.V.; Bergman, T.L.; Beckermann, C.; Charmchi, M.

    1990-01-01

    The papers contained in this volume represent a wide range of current research interests in processes such as food and polymer processing, casting, welding, machining, laser cutting, and superconductor processing. This volume includes papers presented in four sessions: Heat Transfer in Materials Processing; Thermal Phenomena in Superconductor Processing; Heat Transfer in Food and Polymer Processing; Heat Transfer in CAsting and Welding

  3. Battery Materials Synthesis | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    thin-film. NREL's development of inexpensive, high-energy-density electrode materials is challenging introduction of metal oxide and hybrid inorganic-organic surface modification via atomic layer deposition has method for applying conformal thin film coatings to highly textured surfaces. These coatings have been

  4. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  5. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  6. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, November 1992--March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.B.; Cummins, J.

    1993-04-01

    This is the sixth report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the November 1992 Legislative and Legal Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation report and describes activities for the period November 1, 1992--March 31, 1993. NCSL is working to bring on-line a data base that contains abstracts of state laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Limited availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of July 1993. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. Hard copy of any legislation listed in this report can be obtained by contacting the people listed below. This report contains summaries of legislation introduced in the 1993 state legislative sessions. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness and general nuclear waste issues are described. Also included are Federal Register notices pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation. A recent court decision is also summarized

  7. Efficient and ultraviolet durable planar perovskite solar cells via a ferrocenecarboxylic acid modified nickel oxide hole transport layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankai; Luo, Hui; Xie, Weijia; Lin, Xuanhuai; Hou, Xian; Zhou, Jianping; Huang, Sumei; Ou-Yang, Wei; Sun, Zhuo; Chen, Xiaohong

    2018-03-28

    Planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) that use nickel oxide (NiO x ) as a hole transport layer have recently attracted tremendous attention because of their excellent photovoltaic efficiencies and simple fabrication. However, the electrical conductivity of NiO x and the interface contact properties of the NiO x /perovskite layer are always limited for the NiO x layer fabricated at a relatively low annealing temperature. Ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (FDA) was firstly introduced to modify a p-type NiO x hole transport layer in PSCs, which obviously improves the crystallization of the perovskite layer and hole transport and collection abilities and reduces carrier recombination. PSCs with a FDA modified NiO x layer reached a PCE of 18.20%, which is much higher than the PCE (15.13%) of reference PSCs. Furthermore, PSCs with a FDA interfacial modification layer show better UV durability and a hysteresis-free effect and still maintain the original PCE value of 49.8%after being exposed to UV for 24 h. The enhanced performance of the PSCs is attributed to better crystallization of the perovskite layer, the passivation effect of FDA, superior interface contact at the NiO x /perovskite layers and enhancement of the electrical conductivity of the FDA modified NiO x layer. In addition, PSCs with FDA inserted at the interface of the perovskite/PCBM layers can also improve the PCE to 16.62%, indicating that FDA have dual functions to modify p-type and n-type carrier transporting layers.

  8. Development of an expert system for radioactive material transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamanoi, K.; Ishitobi, M.; Shinohara, Y.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system to deal with radioactive material transportation was developed. This expert system is based on 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material' by IAEA issued 1985. IAEA published the regulations under such environments that safety transportation has become increasingly being focused as uses of radioactive materials are more pervasive, not only in nuclear field but also in non-nuclear purposes. Attentions are payed for operators and environment to establish safety in handling radioactive materials. In the 1985 regulations, detailed categorization of radioactive materials and, correspondingly, new classification of packages are introduced. This categorization is more complicated than old regulations, leading us to develop an expert system to evaluate easily the packages categorization. (author)

  9. 75 FR 38168 - Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may also provide contact information, such as a telephone number and/or e-mail address. PHMSA and the.... PHMSA-2010-0130 (Notice No.10-2)] Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport... (IAEA) ``Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' (TS-R-1), which is scheduled for...

  10. Lessons learned by southern states in transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report has been prepared under a cooperative agreement with DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and is a summary of the lessons learned by southern states regarding the transportation of radioactive materials including High-Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) and Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). Sources used in this publication include interviews of state radiological health and public safety officials that are members of the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) Advisory Committee on Radioactive Materials Transportation, as well as the Board's Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transportation Working Group. Other sources include letters written by the above mentioned committees concerning various aspects of DOE shipment campaigns

  11. Vulnerability Analysis Considerations for the Transportation of Special Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, Lary G.; Purvis, James W.

    1999-01-01

    The vulnerability analysis methodology developed for fixed nuclear material sites has proven to be extremely effective in assessing associated transportation issues. The basic methods and techniques used are directly applicable to conducting a transportation vulnerability analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the same physical protection elements (detection, delay, and response) are present, although the response force plays a dominant role in preventing the theft or sabotage of material. Transportation systems are continuously exposed to the general public whereas the fixed site location by its very nature restricts general public access

  12. Safety in transport and storage of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezrahi, A.; Xavier, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The increasing utilization of radioisotopes in Industrial, Medical and Research Facilities as well as the processing of Nuclear Materials involve transport activities in a routine basis. The present work has the following main objectives: I) the identification of the safety aspects related to handling, transport and storage of radioactive materials; II) the orientation of the personnel responsible for the radiological safety of Radioactive Installations viewing the elaboration and implementation of procedures to minimize accidents; III) the report of case-examples of accidents that have occured in Brazil due to non-compliance with Transport Regulations. (author) [pt

  13. Transportation accidents/incidents involving radioactive materials (1971-1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, C.E.; McClure, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1981, Sandia National Laboratories developed the Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database to support its research and development activities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The RMIR database contains information on transportation accidents/incidents with radioactive materials that have occurred since 1971. The RMIR classifies a transportation accident/incident in one of six ways: as a transportation accident, a handling accident, a reported incident, missing or stolen, cask weeping, or other. This paper will define these terms and provide detailed examples of each. (J.P.N.)

  14. Transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon area; Transporte de produtos perigosos na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Wallace de Castro [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Elton; Nassi, Carlos David [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Amongst several exploratory sources of the subject 'hazardous materials transport', it is distinguished: 'the threat to the environment'. This paper presents an exploratory investigation of this subject line in the Amazon region. In view of the diversity of 'existing hazardous materials' and the raised dimension of the oil transport and its derivatives in this context, this paper focused in these products. Regarding to the geographic region, the approach was given to the State of Amazon, considering the amplitude of this State in the Amazon region and the availability of data. Therefore, this work explores and analyzes macro aspects inherent to the State of Amazon pertinent to the oil transport and its derivatives. In the macro context, it is observed the necessity of a higher control in the transport of hazardous materials in the region. The absence of registered data and the unfamiliarity on the risks related to the transport of hazardous materials by authorities and transporters indicate a relative absence of qualification in the region to deal with the monitoring of the transport of hazardous materials. So far, it is not possible up till now to make any evaluation of the environment threats of accidents with transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon region.(author)

  15. Transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon area; Transporte de produtos perigosos na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Wallace de Castro [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Elton; Nassi, Carlos David [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Amongst several exploratory sources of the subject 'hazardous materials transport', it is distinguished: 'the threat to the environment'. This paper presents an exploratory investigation of this subject line in the Amazon region. In view of the diversity of 'existing hazardous materials' and the raised dimension of the oil transport and its derivatives in this context, this paper focused in these products. Regarding to the geographic region, the approach was given to the State of Amazon, considering the amplitude of this State in the Amazon region and the availability of data. Therefore, this work explores and analyzes macro aspects inherent to the State of Amazon pertinent to the oil transport and its derivatives. In the macro context, it is observed the necessity of a higher control in the transport of hazardous materials in the region. The absence of registered data and the unfamiliarity on the risks related to the transport of hazardous materials by authorities and transporters indicate a relative absence of qualification in the region to deal with the monitoring of the transport of hazardous materials. So far, it is not possible up till now to make any evaluation of the environment threats of accidents with transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon region.(author)

  16. Education and training in transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Bruno Natanael; Pastura, Valeria da Fonseca e Silva; Mattar, Patricia; Dias, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the approach adopted by the Department of Transportation of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN, in the creation of the course of education and training distance for transport companies, as well as for national institutions directly involved with the theme transportation of radioactive materials. The course will consist of 20 modules containing exercises and further assessment of learning, and enable participants to understand the regulatory terminology, assimilating the philosophy of nuclear and radiation safety, prepare the shipment and identify and fill the complete documents required in an operation transport

  17. Liability and insurance aspects of international transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Gijn, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Paris and Vienna Conventions do not affect the application of any international transport agreement already in force. However, in certain circumstances both the nuclear operator and the carrier may be held liable for nuclear damage which arises during international transports of nuclear materials. The ensuing cumulation of liabilities under the Nuclear and Transport Conventions may cause serious problems in obtaining adequate insurance cover for such transports. The 1971 Brussels Convention seeks to solve this problem by exonerating any person who might be held liable for nuclear damage under an international maritime convention or national law. Similar difficulties are encountered in the case of transports of nuclear materials between states which have and states which have not ratified the Paris and Vienna Conventions. (NEA) [fr

  18. Specialized equipment needs for the transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condrey, D.; Lambert, M.

    1998-01-01

    To ensure the safe and reliable transportation of radioactive materials and components, from both the front and back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, a transport management company needs three key elements: specialized knowledge, training and specialized equipment. These three elements result, in part, from national and international regulations which require specialized handling of all radioactive shipments. While the reasons behind the first two elements are readily apparent, the role of specialized equipment is often not considered until too late shipment process even though it plays an integral part of any radioactive material transport. This paper will describe the specialized equipment needed to transport three of the major commodities comprising the bulk of international nuclear transports: natural uranium (UF6), low enriched uranium (UF6) and fresh nuclear fuel. (authors)

  19. Control of radioactive material transport in sodium-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, W.F.

    1980-03-01

    The Radioactivity Control Technology (RCT) program was established by the Department of Energy to develop and demonstrate methods to control radionuclide transport to ex-core regions of sodium-cooled reactors. This radioactive material is contained within the reactor heat transport system with any release to the environment well below limits established by regulations. However, maintenance, repair, decontamination, and disposal operations potentially expose plant workers to radiation fields arising from radionuclides transported to primary system components. This paper deals with radioactive material generated and transported during steady-state operation, which remains after 24 Na decay. Potential release of radioactivity during postulated accident conditions is not discussed. The control methods for radionuclide transport, with emphasis on new information obtained since the last Environmental Control Symposium, are described. Development of control methods is an achievable goal

  20. INES scale: French application to radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowinski, S.; Strawa, S.; Aguilar, J.

    2004-01-01

    After getting the control of radioactive material transport in June 1997, the French safety Authority (ASN) decided to apply the INES scale to transport events. DGSNR (Directorate General for Nuclear Safety and Radioprotection) requests that radioactive material package consignors declare any event occurring during transportation, and has introduced the use of the INES scale adapted to classify transport events in order to inform the public and to have feedback. This paper deals with DGSNR's feedback during the past seven years concerning the french application of the INES scale. Significant events that occurred during transportation are presented. The French experience was used by IAEA to develop a draft guide in 2002 and IAEA asked countries to use a new draft for a trial period in July 2004

  1. Strain effect on the heat transport properties of bismuth telluride nanofilms with a hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Te-Hua; Chang, Win-Jin; Wang, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Chao-Chun

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the mechanical behavior of bismuth telluride nanofilms with holes by using an equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) approach. The holes had diameters of 20, 30, 40, and 50 Å. The thermal conductivity values of the nanofilms were calculated under different strains at different temperatures using a nonequilibrium MD simulation. The simulation revealed that the thermal conductivity of a bismuth telluride nanofilm with a hole decreases with an increase in hole diameter at different strains. For a film with a perfect structure at 300 K, a 48% reduction (from 0.33 to 0.17 W/m K) in the thermal conductivity was observed at a 7% tensile strain. In addition, the thermal conductivity increased by approximately 39% (from 0.33 to 0.46 W/m K) at a 7% compressive strain. A very low value (0.11 W/m K) of thermal conductivity is obtained for the nanofilm with a hole diameter of 50 Å at a 7% tensile strain at 300 K.

  2. Development of hotcell transportation system technology for high radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, K. S.; Seo, C. S.; Lee, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    In the first stage of the research, the transportation and storage characteristics analysis of the pyroprocess materials, the development of horizontal type hot cell transportation system, and the design of interim storage system for the pyroprocess material are conducted. The optimized capacity, transportation frequency and operation period of pyroprocess facility are found using the logistics analysis program developed in this project. A new hot cell transportation system was designed. Through the safety analysis and test for the hot cell transportation system, the design license has been approved. A new type hot cell docking system with superior performance has been developed with a patented rotating lid system. We have reached to a unique concept of interim storage of pyroprocess materials and selected a system through a comparative evaluation of existing ones. In the second stage of the research, transportation/storage/sealing devices for PRIDE recovered material/wastes were developed. And test model for the devices in engineering scale facility were also developed. The design requirements for a vertical docking system were evaluated and the performance assessment using a scaled mock-up was conducted. Integrated storage management technology was evaluated for an efficient management of process materials. A heat transfer simulation and characteristics analysis for the storage system were conducted. The derivation of design requirements, design and fabrication of a canister test model, and preliminary safety assessment were conducted

  3. 30 years of experience in safe transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, K.

    2004-01-01

    In April 2003, Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd. (NFT) marked the 30 th anniversary of its founding. NFT was established in 1973 and in 1978, commenced SF transport to the reprocessing plant in Tokai-mura. And then, after making preparations to transport nuclear materials to the various facilities at the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Center in Rokkasho-mura, NFT successfully started transportation of LLW (low level waste) to Rokksho-mura's LLW disposal center in 1992, domestic land transportation of HLW returned from overseas to the HLW storage center in 1995, domestic land transportation of natural hexafluoride delivered from overseas to the uranium enrichment plant in 1996, and transportation of SF to the reprocessing plant in 2000. NFT has realized an annual SF transportation capacity of 300 MTU and is currently making great company wide efforts to meet the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant's future SF annual reprocessing capacity of 800MTU. At the end of FY2003, NFT had successfully transported 560 casks (about 1,730 MTU) of SF in more than 200 voyages in total, about 160,000 drums of LLW in around 100 voyages in total. This paper introduces the record of safe transport and its experience over the past 30 years and prospect for future transport business

  4. 30 years of experience in safe transportation of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, K. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    In April 2003, Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd. (NFT) marked the 30{sup th} anniversary of its founding. NFT was established in 1973 and in 1978, commenced SF transport to the reprocessing plant in Tokai-mura. And then, after making preparations to transport nuclear materials to the various facilities at the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Center in Rokkasho-mura, NFT successfully started transportation of LLW (low level waste) to Rokksho-mura's LLW disposal center in 1992, domestic land transportation of HLW returned from overseas to the HLW storage center in 1995, domestic land transportation of natural hexafluoride delivered from overseas to the uranium enrichment plant in 1996, and transportation of SF to the reprocessing plant in 2000. NFT has realized an annual SF transportation capacity of 300 MTU and is currently making great company wide efforts to meet the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant's future SF annual reprocessing capacity of 800MTU. At the end of FY2003, NFT had successfully transported 560 casks (about 1,730 MTU) of SF in more than 200 voyages in total, about 160,000 drums of LLW in around 100 voyages in total. This paper introduces the record of safe transport and its experience over the past 30 years and prospect for future transport business.

  5. Assessment of Transportation Risk of Radioactive Materials in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Menya; Kim, Jonghyun

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive materials refer to any materials that spontaneously emit ionizing radiation and of which the radioactivity per gram is greater than 0.002 micro-curie. They include: spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes, medical sources i.e. Co-60, industrial sources i.e. Cs-137, Am-241:Be, Ra-226, and sources for research. In view of the rising reported cancer cases in Uganda, which might be as a result of radiation exposure due to constant transportation of radioactive materials i.e. industrial sources, a risk analysis was thought of and undertaken for the country's safety evaluation and improvement. It was therefore important to undertake a risk assessment of the actual and potential radiation exposure during the transportation process. This paper explains a study undertaken for transport risk assessment of the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the industrial sources in Uganda. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with visualized transport scenarios for the highway transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of the sources along Busia transport route to Hoima. Busia is the entry port for the sources whilst Hoima, where various industrial practices that utilize sources like oil explorations are centered. During the study, a computer code RADTRAN-6 was used. The overall collective dose for population and package transport crew are 3.72E-4 and 1.69E-4 person-sievert respectively. These are less than the exemption value recommended by the IAEA and Uganda Regulatory Authority for public implying that no health effects like cancer are to be expected. Hence the rising cancer cases in the country are not as a result of increased transportation of radioactive materials in the Industrial sector

  6. Assessment of Transportation Risk of Radioactive Materials in Uganda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Menya; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Radioactive materials refer to any materials that spontaneously emit ionizing radiation and of which the radioactivity per gram is greater than 0.002 micro-curie. They include: spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes, medical sources i.e. Co-60, industrial sources i.e. Cs-137, Am-241:Be, Ra-226, and sources for research. In view of the rising reported cancer cases in Uganda, which might be as a result of radiation exposure due to constant transportation of radioactive materials i.e. industrial sources, a risk analysis was thought of and undertaken for the country's safety evaluation and improvement. It was therefore important to undertake a risk assessment of the actual and potential radiation exposure during the transportation process. This paper explains a study undertaken for transport risk assessment of the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the industrial sources in Uganda. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with visualized transport scenarios for the highway transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of the sources along Busia transport route to Hoima. Busia is the entry port for the sources whilst Hoima, where various industrial practices that utilize sources like oil explorations are centered. During the study, a computer code RADTRAN-6 was used. The overall collective dose for population and package transport crew are 3.72E-4 and 1.69E-4 person-sievert respectively. These are less than the exemption value recommended by the IAEA and Uganda Regulatory Authority for public implying that no health effects like cancer are to be expected. Hence the rising cancer cases in the country are not as a result of increased transportation of radioactive materials in the Industrial sector.

  7. Neutron transport in Eulerian coordinates with bulk material motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Randal S., E-mail: rsb@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Computational Physics Group, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dahl, Jon A., E-mail: dahl@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Computational Physics Group, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fichtl, Erin J., E-mail: efichtl@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Computational Physics Group, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morel, Jim E., E-mail: morel@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-12-15

    A consistent, numerically stable algorithm for the solution of the neutron transport equation in the presence of a moving material background is presented for one-dimensional spherical geometry. Manufactured solutions are used to demonstrate the correctness and stability of our numerical algorithm. The importance of including moving material corrections is shown for the r-process in proto-neutron stars.

  8. Regulation of Transportation of Radioactive Material in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirwono, Muttaqin Margo; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2011-01-01

    1.1. Background Indonesia is a biggest archipelago country with 17,508 islands in 33 provinces. In transportation Indonesia has large number of airports, railways, roadways, waterways, and merchant marines. Since nuclear and radiation utilizations are expanding on whole country, the mobilization of these is usually placed outside of controlled facilities, in the public domain, and often entails movement between countries. The Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) is responsible for supervision and also authorization of the transport of radioactive material (TRM). TRM is the specific movement of a radioactive material consignment from origin to destination by public transportation (road or rail, water and air). This study aims to determine whether national regulation is harmonized with international practice in ensuring safety and security of TRM. The finding of this study will provide recommendation for enhancement of regulation on TRM. 1.2. Regulation of TRM in Indonesia Government Regulation (GR) No. 26, 2002 on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material is implemented pursuant to Act 10, 1997 on Nuclear Energy. This GR was repealed GR 13, 1975 on TRM. The GR 26 consist of 16 chapters and 39 articles, included licensing: authority and responsibilities: packaging: radiation protection programme; training: quality assurance programme: type and activity limit of radioactive materials: radioactive materials with other dangerous properties: emergency preparedness: administrative sanction: and penal provisions. Principally, this GR adopted IAEA-TS-R-1, 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material', 1996's Edition

  9. Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Philosophy and Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EL-Shinawy, R M.K. [Radiation Protection Dept., Nuclear Rasearch Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    Safe transport of radioactive material regulations issued by IAEA since 1961, provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of people,transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of the radioactive wastes and material. The history ,development, philosophy and scope of these international and national regulations were mentioned as well as the different supporting documents to the regulations for safe transport of radioactive material were identified.The first supporting document , namely TS - G-1.1(ST-2) ,Advisory material is also issued by the IAEA.It contains both the advisory and explanatory materials previously published in safety series Nos 7and 37 and therefore TS-G-1.1 (ST-2) will supersede safety series Nos 7 and 37. The second supporting document namely TS-G-1.2 (ST-3), planning and preparing for emergency response to transport accidents involving radioactive material ,which will supersede safety series No 87. In addition to quality assurance (SS no.113), compliance assurance (SS no. 112), the training manual and others.

  10. Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Philosophy and Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Safe transport of radioactive material regulations issued by IAEA since 1961, provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of people,transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of the radioactive wastes and material. The history ,development, philosophy and scope of these international and national regulations were mentioned as well as the different supporting documents to the regulations for safe transport of radioactive material were identified.The first supporting document , namely TS - G-1.1(ST-2) ,Advisory material is also issued by the IAEA.It contains both the advisory and explanatory materials previously published in safety series Nos 7and 37 and therefore TS-G-1.1 (ST-2) will supersede safety series Nos 7 and 37. The second supporting document namely TS-G-1.2 (ST-3), planning and preparing for emergency response to transport accidents involving radioactive material ,which will supersede safety series No 87. In addition to quality assurance (SS no.113), compliance assurance (SS no. 112), the training manual and others

  11. Impact of carbonation on water transport properties of cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auroy, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Carbonation is a very well-known cementitious materials pathology. It is the major cause of reinforced concrete structures degradation. It leads to rebar corrosion and consequent concrete cover cracking. In the framework of radioactive waste management, cement-based materials used as building materials for structures or containers would be simultaneously submitted to drying and atmospheric carbonation. Although scientific literature regarding carbonating is vast, it is clearly lacking information about the influence of carbonation on water transport properties. This work then aimed at studying and understanding the change in water transport properties induced by carbonation. Simultaneously, the representativeness of accelerated carbonation (in the laboratory) was also studied. (author) [fr

  12. Study on tracking system for radioactive material transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, F.; Igarashi, M.; Nomura, T. [Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Nakagome, Y. [Research Reactor Inst., Kyoto Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    When a transportation accident occurs, all entities including the shipper, the transportation organization, local governments, and emergency response organizations must have organized and planned for civil safety, property, and environmental protection. When a transportation accident occurs, many related organizations will be involved, and their cooperation determines the success or failure of the response. The point where the accident happens cannot be pinpointed in advance. Nuclear fuel transportation also requires a quick response from a viewpoint of security. A tracking system for radioactive material transport is being developed for use in Japan. The objective of this system is, in the rare event of an accident, for communication capabilities to share specific information among relevant organizations, the transporter, and so on.

  13. Study on tracking system for radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, F.; Igarashi, M.; Nomura, T.; Nakagome, Y.

    2004-01-01

    When a transportation accident occurs, all entities including the shipper, the transportation organization, local governments, and emergency response organizations must have organized and planned for civil safety, property, and environmental protection. When a transportation accident occurs, many related organizations will be involved, and their cooperation determines the success or failure of the response. The point where the accident happens cannot be pinpointed in advance. Nuclear fuel transportation also requires a quick response from a viewpoint of security. A tracking system for radioactive material transport is being developed for use in Japan. The objective of this system is, in the rare event of an accident, for communication capabilities to share specific information among relevant organizations, the transporter, and so on

  14. The recent international situation on the transport of radioactive material and IAEA 2003 transport conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Since the creation of the United Nations, the international community initiated efforts to harmonize international practices for the safe transport of hazardous goods, including radioactive material. And, IAEA is playing a key role in fostering the establishment of transport regulations on radioactive material. This current worldwide system of regulatory control has achieved an excellent safety record. However, some concerns still remain regarding the transport of radioactive material, as the discussion of this topic at IAEA General Conferences in the last few years. IAEA Transport conference planed as a forum in which to better understand these concerns, and to answer relevant underlying questions. At the same time, outside these technical areas, discussions also covered related issues such as liability resulting from an accident during the transport and communication between concerned governments, and between these governments and the public at large. The International Conference on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Material took place in Vienna, Austria, from 7 to 11 July 2003. There were 534 nominated participants from 82 States, 9 intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), and 5 non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and there were 132 contributed and invited papers. By this report, I report the recent international situation on the transport of radioactive material and result of the IAEA 2003 Transport Conference. (author)

  15. A contribution to problems of clean transport of bulk materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedora Jaroslav

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The lecture analyses the problem of development of the pipe conveyor with a rubber belt, the facitities of its application in the practice and environmental aspects resulting from its application. The pipe conveyor is a new perspective transport system. It enables ransporting bulk materials (coal, crushed, rock, coke, plant ash, fertilisers, limestones, time in a specific operations (power plants, heating plants.cellulose, salt, sugar, wheat and other materials with a minimum effect on the environment. The transported material is enclosed in the pipeline so that there is no escape of dust, smell or of the transported material itself. The lecture is aimed at: - the short description of the operating principle and design of the pipe conveyor which was developed in the firm Matador Púchov in cooperation with the firm TEDO, - the analysis of experiencie in working some pipe conveyors which were under operation for a certain

  16. Electron-Hole Asymmetry of Spin Injection and Transport in Single-Layer Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Wei; Wang, W. H.; Pi, K.; McCreary, K. M.; Bao, W.; Li, Yan; Miao, F.; Lau, C. N.; Kawakami, R. K.

    2009-01-01

    Spin-dependent properties of single-layer graphene (SLG) have been studied by non-local spin valve measurements at room temperature. Gate voltage dependence shows that the non-local magnetoresistance (MR) is proportional to the conductivity of the SLG, which is the predicted behavior for transparent ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic contacts. While the electron and hole bands in SLG are symmetric, gate voltage and bias dependence of the non-local MR reveal an electron-hole asymmetry in which the non-...

  17. Dossier: transport of radioactive materials; Dossier: le transport des matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignon, H. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction du Cycle du Combustible; Niel, J.Ch. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Canton, H. [CEA Cesta, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Brachet, Y. [Transnucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Mauny, G. [CIS bio international, France (France); Robine, F.; Plantet, F. [Prefecture de la Moselle (France); Pestel Lefevre, O. [Ministere de l`Equipement, des transports et du logement, (France); Hennenhofer, G. [BMU, Ministere de l`environnement, de la protection de la nature et de la surete des reacteurs (Germany); Bonnemains, J. [Association Robin des Bois (France)

    1997-12-01

    This dossier is entirely devoted to the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials of civil use. It comprises 9 papers dealing with: the organization of the control of the radioactive materials transport safety (safety and security aspects, safety regulations, safety analysis and inspection, emergency plans, public information), the technical aspects of the regulation concerning the transport of radioactive materials (elaboration of regulations and IAEA recommendations, risk assessments, defense in depth philosophy and containers, future IAEA recommendations, expertise-research interaction), the qualification of containers (regulations, test facilities), the Transnucleaire company (presentation, activity, containers for spent fuels), the packages of radioactive sources for medical use (flux, qualification, safety and transport), an example of accident during radioactive materials transportation: the Apach train derailment (February 4, 1997), the sea transport of radioactive materials (international maritime organization (OMI), international maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) code, irradiated nuclear fuel (INF) safety rules), the transport of radioactive materials in Germany, and the point of view from an external observer. (J.S.)

  18. Risk management of onsite transportation of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.; Field, J.G.

    1992-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site has recently undergone a significant change in its mission. The focus of site-wide operations has been shifted from production to environmental restoration. As a result, there is a significant increase in quantities of the radioactive wastes and other hazardous materials to be packaged and transported onsite. In response to the elevated transportation activities, the operations and engineering contractor for the Hanford Site, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), is proposing an integrated risk assessment methodology and risk management strategy to further enhance the safe operations of the onsite packaging and transportation activities involving radioactive and other hazardous materials. This paper summarizes Westinghouse Hanford's proposed risk assessment and risk management methodology for onsite transportation of hazardous materials. The proposed Westinghouse Hanford risk assessment and management methodology for onsite packaging and transportation has three integral parts: risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria, and risk minimization process. The purposes are to ensure that the risk for each ongoing transportation activity is acceptable, and to further reduce the overall risk for current and future onsite transportation activities

  19. Training of personnel in the field of radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasten, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    Training of personnel in the whole nuclear fuel cycle and also in the other fields of the use of radioactivity is one of the essentials with respect to compliance assurance. The transport of radioactive material is the only activity that takes place outside a facility: on roads, on railways, on the sea or in the air. A high level of safety is therefore an absolute requirement for all transport operations. To ensure this high level the training of the personnel involved in these activities plays an important role. Many studies show that most of the incidents in radioactive materials transport are caused by man-made errors: even so there have been no events with serious radiological consequences anywhere worldwide. There are many requirements in the various national and international regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material with regard to training. An overview is given of the special regulations, e.g. for road transport drivers, for safety advisers in the whole field of the transport of dangerous goods, for specially educated personnel in sea and air transports. In addition, the newest developments in the European Community in this field are discussed. An evaluation of the present regulations and proposals for further rules are also given. (Author)

  20. Ordinance concerning the filing of transport of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The ordinance is defined under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and the order for execution of the law. Any person who reports the transport of nuclear fuel materials shall file four copies of a notification according to the form attached to the public safety commission of the prefecture in charge of the dispatching place. When the transportation extends over the area in charge of another public safety commission, the commission which has received the notice shall report without delay date and route of the transport, kind and quantity of nuclear fuel materials and other necessary matters to the commission concerned and hear from the latter opinions on the items informed. The designation by the ordinance includes speed of the vehicle loaded with nuclear fuel materials, disposition of an accompanying car, arrangement of the line of the loaded vehicle and accompanying and other escorting cars, location of the parking, place of unloading and temporary storage, etc. Reports concerning troubles and measures taken shall be filed in ten days to the public safety commission which has received the notification, when accidents occur on the way, such as: theft or loss of nuclear fuel materials; traffic accident; irregular leaking of nuclear fuel materials and personal trouble by the transport. (Okada, K.)

  1. Hole-transport limited S-shaped I-V curves in planar heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minlu; Wang, Hui; Tang, C. W.

    2011-11-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of planar heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells based on N',N'-Di-[(1-naphthyl)-N',N'-diphenyl]-1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) and C60 are investigated. Through variation of the layer thickness and composition, specifically chemical doping NPB with MoOx, we show that the hole-transport limitation in the NPB layer is the determining factor in shaping the I-V characteristics of NPB/C60 cells.

  2. Technical regulations for road transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juul-Jensen, P.; Ulbak, K.

    1990-01-01

    The technical regulations for the transport of radioactive materials in Denmark are set down by the (Danish) National Board of Health in collaboration with the (Danish) National Institute for Radiation Hygiene in accordance with paragraph 3 of the Danish Ministry of Justice's Executive Order no. 2 of 2, January 1985 on the national road transport of dangerous goods by road, as amended by exutive order no. 251 of April 29th 1987 and no. 704 of November 1989. These regulations are presented here. They are almost identical, with only very few exceptions indicated in the publication, with the rules for Class 7 of the European convention on international transport of dangerous goods by road (ADR). In addition to the aforementioned regulations for national road transport of radioactive materials the general rules for the transport of radioactive materials found in the National Board of Health's executive order no. 721 of November 27th 1989 on the transport of radioactive materials are valid. The abovementioned executive orders, with the exception of certain supplements which are not part of the technical regulations, are also contained in this publication. (AB)

  3. The transport of fuel assemblies. New containers for transport the used nuclear material in Juzbado factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Juzbado Manufacturing Facility is designed to be versatile and flexible. It is manufactured different kind of fuel assemblies PWR, BWR and VVER, beginning by the uranium oxide coming from the conversion facilities. The transport of these products (radioactive material fissile) requires the availability of different kind of packages; our models variety is similar to the big manufacturers. It is required a depth knowledge of the licensing process, approvals, manufacturing and handling instruction to be confident. Moreover, the recently changes on the Transport Regulations and the demands for the approval by the Competent Authorities have required the renovation of most of the package designs for the transport of radioactive material fissile worldwide. ENUSA assumed time ago this renovation and it is nowadays in the pick moment of this process. If we also consider the complexity on the management of multimodal international transportations, the Logistic task for the transport of nuclear material associated to the Juzbado factory results in a real changeling area. (Author)

  4. Containers for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochard, C.

    1975-01-01

    The container for heat evolving radioactive materials has a metallic outer casing formed with outwardly projecting heat dissipating or cooling members, such as pins or fins, while each of its ends is formed with a flat flange which extends radially beyond the outer ends of the cooling members. A perforated wall extends between the flanges to define with same and with the periphery of the outer casing an annular space within which the cooling members are enclosed. This perforated wall is adapted to support a flexible covering sleeve the ends of which are clamped by inflatable seals between the periphery of the flanges and outer rings removably secured to the latter. Spraying means are provided within the aforesaid space to permit of projecting an uncontaminated liquid on the cooling members to cool the container before and/or while the latter is immersed in a loading and unloading pond with the sleeve mounted in position. The lower flange is provided with liquid collecting and evacuating means and compressed air may be injected into the said space to force the collected liquid outwardly. (auth)

  5. Transport of bundles and equipment which contain radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This norm settles down: 1) The requirements that should be completed in relation to safety precautions and protection against ionizing radiations during the transport radioactive material and/or equipment containing it, in order to avoid risks to the collective and the environment. 2) The basic information on procedures that will be completed in the event of happening accidents during the transport or the transit storage of radioactive material and/or equipment that contain it. 3) The measures of security and physical protection during the transport of radioactive material and/or equipment containing it. This norm is applied: 1) To all the ways of transport (by air, by ground and by ship, fluvial and marine) of radioactive material and/or equipment that contain it. 2) To all natural or legal, public or private person, devoted to install, produce, trade, market, import or export radioactive materials and/or equipment containing it, and that needs to transport them as main or secondary activity [es

  6. Brittle fracture tests at low temperature for transport cask materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaki, Akio; Ito, Chihiro; Arai, Taku; Saegusa, Toshiari

    1993-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material were revised in 1985, and brittle fracture assessment at low temperature for transport packages are now required. This report discusses the applicability of the actual method for brittle fracture assessment of type-B transport cask materials used in JAPAN. The necessity of brittle fracture assessment at low temperature was estimated for each material of type-B transport casks used in Japan and the applicability was investigated. Dynamic fracture toughness values, K Id (J Id ), and RT NDT values of Low-Mn Carbon Steels, that are SA 350 Gr.LF1 Modify and SA 516 Gr.70 material which used in type-B transport cask body, were also obtained to check whether or not an easier and conventional test method, that prescribed in ASME CODE SECTION III, can be substituted for the dynamic fracture test method. And for bolt materials, which include 1.8Ni-0.8Cr-0.3Mo Carbon Steel and type 630 H Stainless Steel, toughness data were obtained for reference. (J.P.N.)

  7. Application of radiation protection programmes to transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vietri, Jorge; Capadona, Nancy; Barenghi, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The principles for implementing radiation protection programmes (RPP) are detailed in the draft IAEA safety guide TS-G-1.5 'Radiation protection programmes for transport of radioactive material'. The document is described in this paper and analysis is made for typical applications to current operations carried out by consignors, carriers and consignees. Systematic establishment and application of RPPs is a way to control radiological protection during different steps of transport activity. The most widely transported packages in the world are radiopharmaceuticals by road. It is described an application of RPP for an organization involved in road transport of Type A packages containing radiopharmaceuticals. Considerations based on the radionuclides, quantities and activities transported are the basis to design and establish the scope of the RPP for the organizations involved in transport. Next stage is the determination of roles and responsibilities for each activity related to transport of radioactive materials. An approach to the dose received by workers is evaluated considering the type, category and quantity of packages, the radionuclides, the frequency of consignments and how long are the storages. The average of transports made in the last years must be taken into account and special measures intended to optimize the protection are evaluated. Tasks like monitoring, control of surface contamination and segregation measures, are designed based on the dose evaluation and optimization. The RPP also indicates main measures to follow in case of emergency during transport taking account of radionuclides, activities and category of packages for different accident scenarios. Basis for training personnel involved in handling of radioactive materials to insure they have appropriate knowledge about preparing packages, measuring dose rates, calculating transport index, labelling, marking and placarding, transport documents, etc, are considered. The RPP is a part

  8. Test facilities for radioactive materials transport packages (Transportation Technology Center Inc., Pueblo, Colorado, USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, P.C.L.

    2001-01-01

    Transportation Technology Center, Inc. is capable of conducting tests on rail vehicle systems designed for transporting radioactive materials including low level waste debris, transuranic waste, and spent nuclear fuel and high level waste. Services include rail vehicle dynamics modelling, on-track performance testing, full scale structural fatigue testing, rail vehicle impact tests, engineering design and technology consulting, and emergency response training. (author)

  9. The safety of radioactive materials transport; La surete des transports de matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The rule of the radioactive materials transport contains two different objectives: the safety, or physical protection, consists in preventing the losses, the disappearances, the thefts and the diversions of the nuclear materials (useful materials for weapons); the high civil servant of defence near the Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry is the responsible authority; the safety consists in mastering the risks of irradiation, contamination and criticality presented by the radioactive and fissile materials transport, in order that man and environment do not undergo the nuisances. The control of the safety is within the competence of the Asn. (N.C.)

  10. Calculations on safe storage and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathout, A M; El-Messiry, A M; Amin, E [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control and AEA, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    In this work the safe storage and transportation of fresh fuel as a radioactive material studied. Egypt planned ET RR 2 reactor which is of relatively high power and would require adequate handling and transportation. Therefore, the present work is initiated to develop a procedure for safe handling and transportation of radioactive materials. The possibility of reducing the magnitude of radiation transmitted on the exterior of the packages is investigated. Neutron absorbers are used to decrease the neutron flux. Criticality calculations are carried out to ensure the achievement of subcriticality so that the inherent safety can be verified. The discrete ordinate transport code ANISN was used. The results show good agreement with other techniques. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Permissible state permit/fee systems for radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friel, L.

    1987-01-01

    Many state permit/fee systems for radioactive materials transportation have been ruled inconsistent with federal law invalidated by the courts. As the date for repository operation, and its associated transportation, draws near, more states can be expected to adopt permit/fee systems. Examination of the U.S. Department of Transportation's advisory rulings and federal court cases on previous permit/fee systems gives general guidance on the type of permit/fee systems most likely to withstand challenges. Such a system would: have a simplified permit application with minimal information requirements; address a federally-defined class of hazardous or radioactive materials; allow access to all shipments conducted in compliance with federal law; charge a fee reasonably related to the costs imposed on the state by the transportation; and minimize the potential for re-directing shipments to other jurisdictions

  12. Radiological transport aspects of radioactive materials in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta, C.M.A.; Guimaraes, C.A.; Meldonian, N.L.

    1986-01-01

    Many different types of radioactive materials are transported annually throughout the country, mainly those related with the nuclear fuel cycle and with the use in medicine, industry, agriculture and research fields. Considering the high number of packages that are transported by air and road a study is presented in order to assess their radiological aspects. For this purpose, data concerning the most significant radioisotopes are pointed out, including their activities and doses incurred by workers. (Author) [pt

  13. UK experience of managing a radioactive materials transport event database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, N.J.; Barrett, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    A description is given of the transport event database RAMTED and the related annual accident and incident reports. This database covers accidents and incidents involving the transport of radioactive material in the UK from 1958 to the present day. The paper discusses the history and content of the database, the origin of event data contained in it, the criteria for inclusion and future developments. (author)

  14. Revised legislation affecting the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    The revised edition of the model Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials (1973, Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series no.6) has acted as the basis for the conditions of carriage and regulatory requirements in Great Britain. The changes introduced in this revised edition are discussed, and the current Regulations and Codes of Practice covering U.K. and international transport by road, sea, rail and air reviewed. (U.K.)

  15. Improving the efficiency and environmental stability of inverted planar perovskite solar cells via silver-doped nickel oxide hole-transporting layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ying; Yao, Kai; Wang, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Yihua; Liu, Xueyuan; Zhou, Naigen; Li, Fan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the high-performance inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) based on the novel inorganic hole-transporting layer (HTL) of silver (Ag)-doped NiOx (Ag:NiOx). Density-functional theory (DFT) calculation reveals that Ag prefers to occupy the substitutional Ni site (AgNi) and behaves as an acceptor in NiO lattice. Compared with the pristine NiOx films, appropriate Ag doping can increase the optical transparency, work function, electrical conductivity and hole mobility of NiOx films. Moreover, the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films grown on Ag:NiOx exhibit better crystallinity, higher coverage and smoother surface with densely packed larger grains than those grown on the pristine NiOx film. Consequently, the Ag:NiOx HTL boosts the efficiency of the inverted planar heterojunction PeSCs from 13.46% (for the pristine NiOx-based device) to 16.86% (for the 2 at.% Ag:NiOx-based device). Furthermore, the environmental stability of PeSCs based on Ag:NiOx HTL is dramatically improved compared to devices based on organic HTLs and pristine NiOx HTLs. This work provides a simple and effective HTL material system for high-efficient and stable PeSCs.

  16. Two-Step Physical Deposition of a Compact CuI Hole-Transport Layer and the Formation of an Interfacial Species in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibzadeh, Saba; Nejand, Bahram Abdollahi; Moshaii, Ahmad; Mohammadian, Nasim; Alizadeh, Amir Hossein; Mohammadpour, Rahele; Ahmadi, Vahid; Alizadeh, Abdolali

    2016-08-09

    A simple and practical approach is introduced for the deposition of CuI as an inexpensive inorganic hole-transport material (HTM) for the fabrication of low cost perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by gas-solid phase transformation of Cu to CuI. The method provides a uniform and well-controlled CuI layer with large grains and good compactness that prevents the direct connection between the contact electrodes. Solar cells prepared with CuI as the HTM with Au electrodes displays an exceptionally high short-circuit current density of 32 mA cm(-2) , owing to an interfacial species formed between the perovskite and the Cu resulting in a long wavelength contribution to the incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE), and an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.4 %. The growth of crystalline and uniform CuI on a low roughness perovskite layer leads to remarkably high charge extraction in the cells, which originates from the high hole mobility of CuI in addition to a large number of contact points between CuI and the perovskite layer. In addition, the solvent-free method has no damaging side effect on the perovskite layer, which makes it an appropriate method for large scale applications of CuI in perovskite solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Public and media acceptance of nuclear materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeman, E.

    1999-01-01

    Transport is absolutely essential to the continued existence of a nuclear industry that includes large-scale power generation, sophisticated research, and medicine. Indeed, transport of nuclear materials is hardly a new business. What is new is the public's awareness and distrust of this transport - a distrust fuelled by the well-funded and skilled manipulation of the nuclear industry's detractors. The nuclear industry itself has only recently begun to acknowledge the importance and the implications of transport. This paper looks at the public and media response to the European-Japanese and the US Department of Energy's transport campaigns and quotes from several telling newspaper articles. It emphasizes the need for the nuclear industry to continue to be vigilant in its efforts to reach the public, media and governments with good science, openness and well-communicated facts. (author)

  18. Radiation doses arising from the air transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelder, R.; Shaw, K.B.; Wilson, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    There is a compelling need for the transport of radioactive material by air because of the requirement by hospitals throughout the world for urgent delivery for medical purposes. Many countries have no radionuclide-producing capabilities and depend on imports: a range of such products is supplied from the United Kingdom. Many of these are short lived, which explains the need for urgent delivery. The only satisfactory method of delivery on a particular day to a particular destination is often by the use of scheduled passenger air service. The International Civil Aviation Organization's Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO 1987-1988), prescribe the detailed requirements applicable to the international transport of dangerous goods by air. Radioactive materials are required to be separated from persons and from undeveloped photographic films or plates: minimum distances as a function of the total sum of transport indexes are given in the Instructions. A study, which included the measurement and assessment of the radiation doses resulting from the transport of radioactive materials by air from the UK, has been performed by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) on behalf of the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the Department of Transport (DTp)

  19. Investigation of transport properties of colossal magnetoresistive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurav, Netram

    2006-01-01

    The transport properties, i.e. resistivity, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and optical conductivity have been theoretically analysed for colossal magnetoresistive materials within the framework of double exchange mechanism. Following an effective interaction potential, we deduce acoustic (optical) phonon modes, coupling strength for electron-phonon and phonon-impurities, the phonon (magnon) scattering rate and constants characterise the scattering of charge and heat carriers with various disorders in the crystal. The theoretical models have been developed to account the anomalies observed in the transport phenomenon. It is noticed that electron-electron, electron-phonon and electron-magnon interactions are essential in discussing the transport behaviour of doped magnetites. (author)

  20. All-inorganic quantum-dot light-emitting-diodes with vertical nickel oxide nanosheets as hole transport layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available All-inorganic quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs have gained great attention as a result of their high stability under oxygen-rich, humid and high current working conditions. In this work, we have fabricated an all-inorganic QLED device (FTO/NiO/QDs/AZO/Ag with sandwich-structure, wherein the inorganic metal oxides thin films of NiO and AZO were employed as hole and electron transport layers, respectively. The porous NiO layer with vertical lamellar nanosheets interconnected microstructure have been directly synthesized on the substrate of conductive FTO glass and increased the wettability of CdSe@ZnS QDs, which result in an enhancement of current transport performance of the QLED.

  1. A numerical study of transient mass transport through a circular hole connecting two semi-infinite media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Scott, T.C.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical model of transient diffusive mass transfer through a circular hole that connects two semi-infinite media was used as a means of determining potential effects of waste container penetrations on the release of immobilized contaminants into the environment. The finite difference model as developed necessarily includes treatment of mass transport in both the waste and surrounding medium and allows calculation of release rates for cases with and without preferential adsorption and differing diffusivities of the two media. The dimensionless contaminant release rate was found to vary over several orders of magnitude depending on the product of the ratio of the distribution coefficient and the media diffusivities only. As would be intuitively expected, partitioning favoring the surrounding medium and higher relative waste medium diffusivity cause higher transport rates. There was definitely no unexpected enhancement in the release rate in the case of perforations over that of an uncontained waste form

  2. Powder Materials and Energy Efficiency in Transportation: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Fernand D. S.

    2012-03-01

    The transportation industry accounts for one quarter of global energy use and has by far the largest share of global oil consumption. It used 51.5% of the oil worldwide in 2003. Mobility projections show that it is expected to triple by 2050 with associated energy use. Considerable achievements recently have been obtained in the development of powder and powder-processed metallic alloys, metal matrix composites, intermetallics, and carbon fiber composites. These achievements have resulted in their introduction to the transportation industry in a wide variety of transportation components with significant impact on energy efficiency. A significant number of nano, nanostructured, and nanohybrid materials systems have been deployed. Others, some of them incorporating carbon nanotubes and graphene, are under research and development and exhibit considerable potential. Airplane redesign using a materials and functional systems integration approach was used resulting in considerable system improvements and energy efficiency. It is expected that this materials and functional systems integration soon will be adopted in the design and manufacture of other advanced aircrafts and extended to the automotive industry and then to the marine transportation industry. The opportunities for the development and application of new powder materials in the transportation industry are extensive, with considerable potential to impact energy utilization. However, significant challenges need to be overcome in several critical areas.

  3. Considerations concerning the secure transport of radioactive materials in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, Gheorghe

    2002-01-01

    As UNO member and founding member of the IAEA, Romania has implemented national regulations concerning the transport of radioactive materials in complete safety, complying with recommendations by IAEA and other international organizations. Accordingly, the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, CNCAN, issued the Directive no. 374/October 2001 which provides the rules for secure radioactive material transport in Romania on roads, rail ways, sea/fluvial and air ways. The paper presents the main sources of producing radioactive materials focussing the following: mining of natural uranium ore, nuclear fuel fabrication plants, nuclear power plants operation, nuclear research reactors, industrial use of radioactive sources (as gamma radiography), use of radioisotope in scientific, educational or medical units. The paper pays attention to the special routes and containers adopted for most secure transport of radioactive waste. Finally, one presents specific issues relating to identification and evaluation of the risk factors occurring at the transport of radioactive waste, as well as the potential radiological consequences upon population and environment. Estimated are the collective risk doses for different categories of populations from areas adjacent to the routes of radioactive materials transportation. It is stressed that the annual collective dose which the population is exposed to in case of accident is comparable with the dose from the natural (cosmic radiation background)

  4. Quality assurance in the transport and packaging of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, J.

    1995-01-01

    Quality Assurance (QA) is a requirement of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6 ''Regulations for Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials.'' It is also, increasingly, a customer requirement. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Transport Division has established an integrated management system (including quality and safety) which is being extended to cover environmental aspects. The management system covers the design, procurement, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance, inspection and decommissioning of all packages used for the transport of radioactive materials and for interim storage. It also covers planning, programming and transport operations. These arrangements cover all modes of transport by road, rail, sea and air. The QA arrangements developed enable Transport Division to demonstrate to Competent Authorities, customers and the general public that the systems in place meet all regulatory requirements. This paper discusses what quality assurance is, why QA arrangements should be introduced and how they were established within Transport Division. Finally, the further developments in the Division's quality arrangements using the tools and techniques of Total Quality Management (TQM) and the European Foundation for Quality Management Model for Self Assessment are described

  5. The issue of safety in the transports of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallier, Lucien

    1961-01-01

    This report addresses and discusses the various hazards associated with transports of radioactive materials, their prevention, intervention measures, and precautions to be taken by rescuers, notably how these issues are addressed in regulations. For each of these issues, this report proposes guidelines, good practices, or procedures to handle the situation. The author first addresses hazards related to a transport of radioactive products: multiplicity of hazards, different hazards due to radioactivity, hazards due to transport modes, scale of dangerous doses. The second part addresses precautionary measures: for road transports, for air transports, for maritime transports, control procedures. The third part addresses the intervention in case of accident: case of a road accident with an unhurt or not vehicle crew, role of the first official rescuers, other kinds of accidents. The fourth part briefly addresses the case of transport of fissile materials. The fifth part discusses the implications of safety measures. Appendices indicate standards, and give guidelines for the construction of a storage building for radioactive products, for the control and storage of parcels containing radioactive products, and for the establishment of instructions for the first aid personnel

  6. Multipurpose containers for the transport of nuclear material: The example of transport flask CF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualdrini, G.F.; Borgia, M.G.

    1989-03-01

    The present paper summarizes the design and licensing activity carried out in the frame work of an ENEA working group which was set up with the aim of developing transport flasks for radioactive and non radioactive dangerous materials. In particular the nuclear design of the multipurpose transport flask CF6 is described. The paper was presented at the seminar on 'Nuclear wastes and transport of radioactive materials' held in Bologna on June 4th and 5th 1987 under the aegis of the Department of Physics of the University of Bologna. (author)

  7. An update on Lab Rover: A hospital material transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattaboni, Paul

    1994-01-01

    The development of a hospital material transporter, 'Lab Rover', is described. Conventional material transport now utilizes people power, push carts, pneumatic tubes and tracked vehicles. Hospitals are faced with enormous pressure to reduce operating costs. Cyberotics, Inc. developed an Autonomous Intelligent Vehicle (AIV). This battery operated service robot was designed specifically for health care institutions. Applications for the AIV include distribution of clinical lab samples, pharmacy drugs, administrative records, x-ray distribution, meal tray delivery, and certain emergency room applications. The first AIV was installed at Lahey Clinic in Burlington, Mass. Lab Rover was beta tested for one year and has been 'on line' for an additional 2 years.

  8. Aspects of safety in the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz C, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The transport of radioactive materials behaves to the equal that other chemical products, certain risks that its are necessary to know how to evaluate and to minimize, adopting all kinds of measures technician-administrative, with object of being able to guarantee that this risks stay in an acceptable level for the population potentially affected for the workers of the one sector and for the environment. To be able to evaluate the risk acceptable it is a difficult task, for that, national and international organizations have established a commitment to develop standards of radiological protection, to make every day but sure the transport of radioactive materials

  9. Carbazole/triarylamine based polymers as a hole injection/transport layer in organic light emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Ryu, Jeong-Tak; Kwon, Younghwan

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the influence of the charge injection barriers on the performance of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) using polymers with a stepwise tuned ionization potential (I(p) approximately -5.01 - -5.29 eV) between the indium tin oxide (ITO) (phi approximately -4.8 eV) anode and tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminium (Alq3) (I(p) approximately -5.7 eV) layer. The energy levels of the polymers were tuned by structural modification. Double layer devices were fabricated with a configuration of ITO/polymer/Alq3/LiF/Al, where the polymers, Alq3, and LiF/Al were used as the hole injection/transport layer, emissive electron transport layer, and electron injection/cathode, respectively. Using the current density-voltage (J-V), luminescence-voltage (L-V) and efficiencies in these double layer devices, the device performance was evaluated in terms of the energy level alignments at the interfaces, such as the hole injection barriers (phi(h)(iTO/polymer) and phi(h)(polymer/Alq3)) from ITO through the polymers into the Alq3 layer, and the electron injection barrier (phi(e)(polymer/Alq3) or electron/exciton blocking barrier) at the polymer/Alq3 interface.

  10. Enhancing Photovoltaic Performance of Inverted Planar Perovskite Solar Cells by Cobalt-Doped Nickel Oxide Hole Transport Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yulin; Lu, Kai; Duan, Jiashun; Jiang, Youyu; Hu, Lin; Liu, Tiefeng; Zhou, Yinhua; Hu, Bin

    2018-04-25

    Electron and hole transport layers have critical impacts on the overall performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Herein, for the first time, a solution-processed cobalt (Co)-doped NiO X film was fabricated as the hole transport layer in inverted planar PSCs, and the solar cells exhibit 18.6% power conversion efficiency. It has been found that an appropriate Co-doping can significantly adjust the work function and enhance electrical conductivity of the NiO X film. Capacitance-voltage ( C- V) spectra and time-resolved photoluminescence spectra indicate clearly that the charge accumulation becomes more pronounced in the Co-doped NiO X -based photovoltaic devices; it, as a consequence, prevents the nonradiative recombination at the interface between the Co-doped NiO X and the photoactive perovskite layers. Moreover, field-dependent photoluminescence measurements indicate that Co-doped NiO X -based devices can also effectively inhibit the radiative recombination process in the perovskite layer and finally facilitate the generation of photocurrent. Our work indicates that Co-doped NiO X film is an excellent candidate for high-performance inverted planar PSCs.

  11. Molecular simulation of adsorption and transport in hierarchical porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coasne, Benoit; Galarneau, Anne; Gerardin, Corine; Fajula, François; Villemot, François

    2013-06-25

    Adsorption and transport in hierarchical porous solids with micro- (~1 nm) and mesoporosities (>2 nm) are investigated by molecular simulation. Two models of hierarchical solids are considered: microporous materials in which mesopores are carved out (model A) and mesoporous materials in which microporous nanoparticles are inserted (model B). Adsorption isotherms for model A can be described as a linear combination of the adsorption isotherms for pure mesoporous and microporous solids. In contrast, adsorption in model B departs from adsorption in pure microporous and mesoporous solids; the inserted microporous particles act as defects, which help nucleate the liquid phase within the mesopore and shift capillary condensation toward lower pressures. As far as transport under a pressure gradient is concerned, the flux in hierarchical materials consisting of microporous solids in which mesopores are carved out obeys the Navier-Stokes equation so that Darcy's law is verified within the mesopore. Moreover, the flow in such materials is larger than in a single mesopore, due to the transfer between micropores and mesopores. This nonzero velocity at the mesopore surface implies that transport in such hierarchical materials involves slippage at the mesopore surface, although the adsorbate has a strong affinity for the surface. In contrast to model A, flux in model B is smaller than in a single mesopore, as the nanoparticles act as constrictions that hinder transport. By a subtle effect arising from fast transport in the mesopores, the presence of mesopores increases the number of molecules in the microporosity in hierarchical materials and, hence, decreases the flow in the micropores (due to mass conservation). As a result, we do not observe faster diffusion in the micropores of hierarchical materials upon flow but slower diffusion, which increases the contact time between the adsorbate and the surface of the microporosity.

  12. DC-sputtered MoO{sub x} thin-films as hole transport layer in organic photovoltaic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauduro, Andre L.F.; Ahmadpour, Mehrad; Rubahn, Horst-Guenter; Madsen, Morten, E-mail: cauduro@mci.sdu.dk [NanoSYD, University of Southern Denmark (Denmark); Reis, Roberto dos; Chen, Gong; Schmid, Andreas [National Center for Electron Microscopy, The Molecular Foundry, LBNL, Berkeley, CA (United States); Methivier, Christophe [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS UMR, Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface (LRS) (France); Witkowski, Nadine [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR CNRS, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris (INSP) (France); Fichtner, Paulo F.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Molybdenum-oxide (MoO{sub x}) thin-films have attracted a lot of attention in the past years due to their unique ability to act as interfacial layers in novel electronics and energy applications. In the work presented here, large tuning possibilities in the electronic and optoelectronic properties of MoO{sub x} thin-films deposited by reactive sputtering using different oxygen partial pressures and annealing conditions are demonstrated along with the implementation of the films in organic photovoltaic. MoO{sub x} thin-films deposited under low oxygen partial pressure present a high conductivity of around 3.22 S.cm{sup -1}, however, as the oxygen partial pressure increases, the conductivity of the resulting films drops by up to around 10 orders of magnitude as the [O]/[Mo] ratio changes from 2.57 to beyond 3.00. Optical absorption measurements also show drastic changes mostly within the 0.60 eV - 2.50 eV spectral region for the same increase in oxygen concentration in [1]. UPS and XPS studies are conducted for accessing information about the work function and surface composition of the thin-films. The XPS spectra registered on the Mo 3d core level reveal how the oxidation state of Mo is affected by the partial pressure of oxygen during film growth. The work function of the films increase with annealing temperature and oxygen content, and span a tuning range of about 2 eV. To extract the spatially resolved work function values from the sputtered films, we use in addition Low Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM). Finally, the application of the MoO{sub x} thin-films in organic optoelectronic devices is investigated by employing them as hole transport layers in small molecule photovoltaic, here based on DBP and C70. The work thus demonstrates a viable method for tuning the electronic and optoelectronic properties of MoO{sub x} thin-films, which can be applied in combination with a wide range of materials in e.g. organic photovoltaic. [1] A.L. Fernandes Cauduro

  13. Hole transport and photoluminescence in Mg-doped InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.; Ager III, J. W.; Smith III, H. M.; Mayer, M. A.; Yu, K. M.; Haller, E. E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Schaff, W. J.; Gallinat, C.; Koblmuller, G.; Speck, J. S.

    2010-03-24

    Hole conductivity and photoluminescence were studied in Mg-doped InN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Because surface electron accumulation interferes with carrier type determination by electrical measurements, the nature of the majority carriers in the bulk of the films was determined using thermopower measurements. Mg concentrations in a"window" from ca. 3 x 1017 to 1 x 1019 cm-3 produce hole-conducting, p-type films as evidenced by a positive Seebeck coecient. This conclusion is supported by electrolyte-based capacitance voltage measurements and by changes in the overall mobility observed by Hall effect, both of which are consistent with a change from surface accumulation on an n-type film to surface inversion on a p-type film. The observed Seebeck coefficients are understood in terms of a parallel conduction model with contributions from surface and bulk regions. In partially compensated films with Mg concentrations below the window region, two peaks are observed in photoluminescence at 672 meV and at 603 meV. They are attributed to band-to-band and band-to-acceptor transitions, respectively, and an acceptor binding energy of ~;;70 meV is deduced. In hole-conducting films with Mg concentrations in the window region, no photoluminescence is observed; this is attributed to electron trapping by deep states which are empty for Fermi levels close to the valence band edge.

  14. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik; Werth, Charles J.; Schaeffer, David; Yoon, Hongkyu; Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive, nationwide risk assessment of hazardous material rail transportation. • Application of a novel environmental (i.e. soil and groundwater) consequence model. • Cleanup cost and total shipment distance are the most significant risk factors. • Annual risk varies from $20,000 to $560,000 for different products. • Provides information on the risk cost associated with specific product shipments. -- Abstract: An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials

  15. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1243 Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Werth, Charles J.; Schaeffer, David [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1243 Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Yoon, Hongkyu [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87123 (United States); Barkan, Christopher P.L. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1243 Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Comprehensive, nationwide risk assessment of hazardous material rail transportation. • Application of a novel environmental (i.e. soil and groundwater) consequence model. • Cleanup cost and total shipment distance are the most significant risk factors. • Annual risk varies from $20,000 to $560,000 for different products. • Provides information on the risk cost associated with specific product shipments. -- Abstract: An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials.

  16. Determination of standards for transportation of radioactive material by aircrafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of the Enforcement Regulation for the Law on Aviation. Terms are explained, such as exclusive loading and containers. Spontaneously ignitable liquid radioactive materials and the radioactive substances required to be contained in special vessels and others particularly operated during the transport, are excluded from the radioactive materials permissible for transport. The radioactive substances required to be transported as radioactive loadings don't include empty vessels used to contain radioactive materials and other things contaminated by such materials, when they conform to the prescriptions. The technical standards on radioactive loadings are defined, such as maximum radiation dose rate of 0.5 millirem per hour on the surface of L type loadings, 200 millirem per hour for A, and 1000 millirem per hour at the distance of 1 m for BM and BU types, respectively. Confirmation of the safeness of radioactive loadings may be made through the written documents prepared by the competent persons acknowledged by the Minister of Transport. The requisite of fissile loadings is that such loadings shall not reach critical state during the transport in the specified cases. Radioactive loadings or the containers with such loadings shall be loaded so that the safeness of such loadings is not injured by movement, overturn and fall during the transport. The maximum radiation dose rate of the containers with radioactive loadings shall not be more than 200 millirem per hour on the surface. The written documents describing the handling method and other matters for attention and the measures to be taken on accidents shall be carried with for the transport of radioactive loadings. (Okada, K.)

  17. Influence of nanoinclusions on scattering of holes and phonons and transport coefficients in BixSb1−xTe3 bulk nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, Lev P.; Osvenskii, Vladimir B.; Parkhomenko, Yurii N.; Pshenay-Severin, Dmitry A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the possible ways to increase the thermoelectric figure of merit is the use of bulk nanostructured materials fabricated by melt spinning with subsequent hot pressing or spark plasma sintering. Among a variety of nanostructure types these materials contain regions of initial solid solution with nanometer sized inclusions of different compositions. In the present work the scattering of holes and phonons on nanoinclusions in such p-Bi x Sb 1−x Te 3 based materials is considered. The change of transport coefficients due to this scattering mechanism is theoretically estimated. The estimations showed that the reduction of lattice thermal conductivity (about 12–13%) for nanoinclusions of Bi 2 Te 3 –Sb 2 Te 3 solid solution with different compositions is much greater than the change in power factor. Therefore the corresponding increase of the thermoelectric figure of merit for this case is determined mainly by phonon scattering. Also it is shown that the results of estimations depend on phonon spectrum approximation, e.g. in the case of sine-shaped instead of linear phonon spectrum the estimations give two times higher thermal conductivity reduction. - Graphical abstract: Relative phonon thermal conductivity κ ph change (black line) due to nanoinclusion scattering versus nanoinclusion radius a, and relative thermoelectric power factor change (red line) due to nanoinclusion scattering versus chemical potential μ at nanoinclusion size a=1.5 nm and U 0 =−0.146 eV. Highlights: ► p-Bi x Sb 1−x Te 3 solid solutions with nanosized inclusions were considered. ► Selective hole scattering can increase power factor at high carrier concentrations. ► Lattice thermal conductivity estimations depend on phonon spectrum approximation. ► Phonon scattering can reduce lattice thermal conductivity by about 12–13%. ► The latter factor mainly determines the increase of thermoelectric efficiency.

  18. Urban risks of truck transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Truck transport of radioactive material (RAM), e.g., spent nuclear fuel (SNF), normally maximizes use of Interstate highways, which are safer and more efficient for truck transport in general. In the estimation of transportation risks, population bordering a route is a direct factor in determining consequences and an indirect factor in determining exposure times, accident probabilities and severities, and other parameters. Proposals to transport RAM may draw intense resistance from stakeholders based on concern for population concentrations along urban segments but the length of a route segment is also a determinative factor in estimating the transport risks. To quantify the relative importance of these two factors, a potential route for transport of SNF (strict use of Interstate highways) was selected and compared with a modified version that bypassed urban areas. The RADTRAN 4 code for transportation risk assessment, which was developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was used in the present study to assess the relative risks of SNF transportation for alternative routes. The results suggest that emphasis on Interstate highways minimizes total route and urban segment risks

  19. Efficient hole-transporting layer MoO{sub 3}:CuI deposited by co-evaporation in organic photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkat, L.; Khelil, A. [Universite d' Oran 1 - Ahmed Ben Bella, LPCM2E, Oran (Algeria); Hssein, M. [Universite de Nantes, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), CNRS, UMR 6502, Nantes (France); Laboratoire Optoelectronique et Physico-chimie des Materiaux, Universite Ibn Tofail, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); El Jouad, Z. [Laboratoire Optoelectronique et Physico-chimie des Materiaux, Universite Ibn Tofail, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Universite de Nantes, MOLTECH-Anjou, CNRS, UMR 6200, Nantes (France); Cattin, L.; Louarn, G.; Stephant, N. [Universite de Nantes, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), CNRS, UMR 6502, Nantes (France); Ghamnia, M. [Universite d' Oran 1 - Ahmed Ben Bella, Laboratoire des Sciences de la Matiere Condensee (LSMC), Oran (Algeria); Addou, M. [Laboratoire Optoelectronique et Physico-chimie des Materiaux, Universite Ibn Tofail, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Morsli, M. [Universite de Nantes, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, Nantes (France); Bernede, J.C. [Universite de Nantes, MOLTECH-Anjou, CNRS, UMR 6200, Nantes (France)

    2017-01-15

    In order to improve hole collection at the interface anode/electron donor in organic photovoltaic cells, it is necessary to insert a hole-transporting layer. CuI was shown to be a very efficient hole-transporting layer. However, its tendency to be quite rough tends to induce leakage currents and it is necessary to use a very slow deposition rate for CuI to avoid such negative effect. Herein, we show that the co-deposition of MoO{sub 3} and CuI avoids this difficulty and allows deposition of a homogeneous efficient hole-collecting layer at an acceptable deposition rate. Via an XPS study, we show that blending MoO{sub 3}:CuI improves the hole collection efficiency through an increase of the gap state density. This increase is due to the formation of Mo{sup 5+} following interaction between MoO{sub 3} and CuI. Not only does the co-evaporation process allow for decreasing significantly the deposition time of the hole-transporting layer, but also it increases the efficiency of the device based on the planar heterojunction, CuPc/C{sub 60}. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Efficient hole-transporting layer MoO_3:CuI deposited by co-evaporation in organic photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkat, L.; Khelil, A.; Hssein, M.; El Jouad, Z.; Cattin, L.; Louarn, G.; Stephant, N.; Ghamnia, M.; Addou, M.; Morsli, M.; Bernede, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve hole collection at the interface anode/electron donor in organic photovoltaic cells, it is necessary to insert a hole-transporting layer. CuI was shown to be a very efficient hole-transporting layer. However, its tendency to be quite rough tends to induce leakage currents and it is necessary to use a very slow deposition rate for CuI to avoid such negative effect. Herein, we show that the co-deposition of MoO_3 and CuI avoids this difficulty and allows deposition of a homogeneous efficient hole-collecting layer at an acceptable deposition rate. Via an XPS study, we show that blending MoO_3:CuI improves the hole collection efficiency through an increase of the gap state density. This increase is due to the formation of Mo"5"+ following interaction between MoO_3 and CuI. Not only does the co-evaporation process allow for decreasing significantly the deposition time of the hole-transporting layer, but also it increases the efficiency of the device based on the planar heterojunction, CuPc/C_6_0. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. First response to transportation emergencies involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This FEMA/DOE/DOT videocourse describes the basis for procedures to be used by emergency first responders for transportation accidents which involve radioactive materials. Various commercial and government sector radioactive materials shipment programs will be described and will include information about hazards and the elements of safety, proper first response actions, notification procedures, and state or federal assistance during emergencies. Primary audience: fire service and emergency management personnel

  2. United States experience in the transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, A.M.; Rhoads, R.E.; Hall, R.J.; Williams, L.D.; Brobst, W.A.; Shappert, L.B.; Jefferson, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The transport of radioactive material forms a vital link in the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States. Actual U.S. experience and practice with such systems for the packaging and transport of uranium ore concentrates, uranium hexafluoride, fresh fuel, irradiated fuel, non-high-level waste, and plutonium with low heat generation rates are described. Specific shipping systems in current use for these services are illustrated. A comparison will be made of shipping requirements for nuclear parks versus dispersed facilities. Shipping systems for other fuel cycle materials (e.g., high-level waste and cladding hulls) have not been developed because there has been no need to transport these materials commercially. However, conceptual designs for packaging and transport of such materials have been developed. Selected systems are reviewed and summarized. Transport safety in the U.S. is regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Key regulations defining packaging requirements, allowable radiation dose rates, and handling procedures are reviewed. Although the radioactive material shipping industry has an outstanding safety record, opposition to nuclear fuel cycle shipments has surfaced in several areas. The U.S. congressional ban on the shipment of plutonium by air, the actions of New York City to prohibit certain shipments within the city limits, and the requirement of U.S. railroads to ship spent fuel casks only in dedicated trains are reviewed. In an attempt to provide information on the safety margins inherent in the design of radioactive materials packages, ERDA has undertaken a series of accident studies and full scale crash tests that stress the packages beyond the levels expected in severe accidents. In addition, the level of total risk associated with radioactive materials shipments is being evaluated. Current ERDA crash test and transportation risk assessment studies are reviewed. Concern about the possibility of

  3. Transportation of radioactive materials: legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Heiskell, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The transportation of radioactive materials, as well as hazardous materials in general, has been an issue of ever-increasing concern and an object of numerous regulations and legislative actions worldwide. The Transportation Technology Center of the US Department of Energy's Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is currently involved in developing a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this overall effort is being supported in a specialized manner. As part of the Logistics Modeling program at ORNL, the Ecological Sciences Information Center has developed comprehensive data bases containing legislative and regulatory actions relevant to the transportation of hazardous materials. The data bases are separated according to status level of the legislation. The Current Legislation Data Base includes all new legislative actions introduced during the present year (1980) or those bills carried over from the previous year's sessions. The second data file, Historical Legislation Data Base, consists of all legislative actions since 1976 that have passed and become public laws, as well as those actions that were unsuccessful and were classified as denied by law. Currently the data bases include state-, local-, and federal, level legislation, with emphasis on the transportation of radioactive materials. Because of their relevance to the transportation issues, actions involving related subject areas such as, disposal and storage of radioactive wastes, moratoriums on power plant construction, and remedial actions studies, special agencies to regulate shipment of radioactive materials, and requirements of advanced notification, permits and escorts are also included in the data bases

  4. Light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed nontoxic quantum dots: oxides as carrier-transport layers and introducing molybdenum oxide nanoparticles as a hole-inject layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Saikat; Pal, Amlan J

    2014-07-23

    We report fabrication and characterization of solution-processed quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QDLEDs) based on a layer of nontoxic and Earth-abundant zinc-diffused silver indium disulfide (AIZS) nanoparticles as an emitting material. In the QDLEDs fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates, we use layers of oxides, such as graphene oxide (GO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as a hole- and electron-transport layer, respectively. In addition, we introduce a layer of MoO3 nanoparticles as a hole-inject one. We report a comparison of the characteristics of different device architectures. We show that an inverted device architecture, ITO/ZnO/AIZS/GO/MoO3/Al, yields a higher electroluminescence (EL) emission, compared to direct ones, for three reasons: (1) the GO/MoO3 layers introduce barriers for electrons to reach the Al electrode, and, similarly, the ZnO layers acts as a barrier for holes to travel to the ITO electrode; (2) the introduction of a layer of MoO3 nanoparticles as a hole-inject layer reduces the barrier height for holes and thereby balances charge injection in the inverted structure; and (3) the wide-bandgap zinc oxide next to the ITO electrode does not absorb the EL emission during its exit from the device. In the QDLEDs with oxides as carrier inject and transport layers, the EL spectrum resembles the photoluminescence emission of the emitting material (AIZS), implying that excitons are formed in the quaternary nanocrystals and decay radiatively.

  5. Risk analysis methodologies for the transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffen, C.A.

    1983-05-01

    Different methodologies have evolved for consideration of each of the many steps required in performing a transportation risk analysis. Although there are techniques that attempt to consider the entire scope of the analysis in depth, most applications of risk assessment to the transportation of nuclear fuel cycle materials develop specific methodologies for only one or two parts of the analysis. The remaining steps are simplified for the analyst by narrowing the scope of the effort (such as evaluating risks for only one material, or a particular set of accident scenarios, or movement over a specific route); performing a qualitative rather than a quantitative analysis (probabilities may be simply ranked as high, medium or low, for instance); or assuming some generic, conservative conditions for potential release fractions and consequences. This paper presents a discussion of the history and present state-of-the-art of transportation risk analysis methodologies. Many reports in this area were reviewed as background for this presentation. The literature review, while not exhaustive, did result in a complete representation of the major methods used today in transportation risk analysis. These methodologies primarily include the use of severity categories based on historical accident data, the analysis of specifically assumed accident sequences for the transportation activity of interest, and the use of fault or event tree analysis. Although the focus of this work has generally been on potential impacts to public groups, some effort has been expended in the estimation of risks to occupational groups in transportation activities

  6. Nuclear materials transportation workshops: USDOE outreach to local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    To provide direct outreach to local governments, the Transportation Management Division of the United States Department of Energy asked the Urban Consortium and its Energy Task Force to assemble representatives for two workshops focusing on the transport of nuclear materials. The first session, for jurisdictions east of the Mississippi River, was held in New Orleans on May 5--6, 1988; the second was conducted on June 6--7, 1988 in Denver for jurisdictions to the west. Twenty local government professionals with management or operational responsibility for hazardous materials transportation within their jurisdictions were selected to attend each workshop. The discussions identified five major areas of concern to local government professionals; coordination; training; information resources; marking and placarding; and responder resources. Integrated federal, state, and local levels of government emerged as a priority coordination issue along with the need for expanded availability of training and training resources for first-reponders

  7. Non-isothermal Moisture Transport Through Insulation Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in order to draw some conclusions on the magnitude of moisture transport due to temperature gradient on a range of porous light-weight building materials. A special constructed non-isothermal set-up allowed the creation of a temperature gradient of 10K...... and given humidity gradient over the sample. The resulting moisture ux as well as the hygrothermal states around and within the material were monitored. The hypothesis of relative humidity being a driving force for non-isothermal moisture transport already in the hygroscopic range could not be confirmed....... On the contrary, indications exist that the temperature gradient itself is driving the moisture from the warm side towards the cold side. An attempt to identify and quantify the single contributions of the different transport forms involved is also presented. The diferent results gave, however, diverging...

  8. Requirements applied in Cuba to the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouevedo Garcia, J.R.; Lopez Forteza, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to comment the supplementary requirements imposed by the Competent Authority to the operations of the main importing/delivering enterprise of unsealed sources for approvals and administration since the establishment, in 1987, of the legal framework on transport of radioactive materials. The paper summarizes the achieved results in this field in over 11 years operation. (author)

  9. Qualification test of packages for transporting radioactive materials and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Santos, P. de; Miaw, S.T.W.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1979 the Waste Treatment Division of Nuclear Tecnology Development Center has been developed and tested packagings for transporting radioactive materials and wastes. The Division has designed facilities for testing Type A packages in accordance with the adopted regulations. The Division has tested several packages for universities, research centers, industries, INB, FURNAS, etc. (author) [pt

  10. Prediction of Thermal Transport Properties of Materials with Microstructural Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Youping

    2017-10-10

    This project aims at overcoming the major obstacle standing in the way of progress in dynamic multiscale simulation, which is the lack of a concurrent atomistic-continuum method that allows phonons, heat and defects to pass through the atomistic-continuum interface. The research has led to the development of a concurrent atomistic-continuum (CAC) methodology for multiscale simulations of materials microstructural, mechanical and thermal transport behavior. Its efficacy has been tested and demonstrated through simulations of dislocation dynamics and phonon transport coupled with microstructural evolution in a variety of materials and through providing visual evidences of the nature of phonon transport, such as showing the propagation of heat pulses in single and polycrystalline solids is partially ballistic and partially diffusive. In addition to providing understanding on phonon scattering with phase interface and with grain boundaries, the research has contributed a multiscale simulation tool for understanding of the behavior of complex materials and has demonstrated the capability of the tool in simulating the dynamic, in situ experimental studies of nonequilibrium transient transport processes in material samples that are at length scales typically inaccessible by atomistically resolved methods.

  11. Japan's regulatory and safety issues regarding nuclear materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.; Yamanaka, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the regulatory and safety issues on nuclear materials transport which the Government of Japan (GOJ) faces and needs to well handle. Background information about the status of nuclear power plants (NPP) and nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) facilities in Japan will promote a better understanding of what this paper addresses

  12. 75 FR 1302 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... transportation of lithium cells and batteries, including lithium cells and batteries packed with or contained in equipment. The proposed changes are intended to enhance safety by ensuring that all lithium batteries are...

  13. Regulatory philosophy and intent of radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the 1990 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference. Included are the following papers: Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials, Collapse analysis of toroidal shell, Decision process involved in preparing the Shippingport reactor pressure vessel for transport

  14. Radioactive materials transportation by motorbike in entire Brazil territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    This Regulation refers to the interpretation of the term vehicle in the Chapter 3 of the CNEN-NE.5.01 'Vehicle: road vehicle (including articulated vehicle, i.e., combination of tractor and semi-trailer), car or railway wagon. Each wagon should be considered a separate vehicle'. This definition does not include the possibility of radioactive material transportation by motorbike

  15. Program strategy document for the Nuclear Materials Transportation Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1979-07-01

    A multiyear program plan is presented which describes the program of the Nuclear Materials Transportation Technology Center (TIC) at Sandia Laboratories. The work element plans, along with their corresponding work breakdown structures, are presented for TTC activities in the areas of Technology and Information Center, Systems Development, Technology, and Institutional Issues for the years from 1979 to 1985

  16. Ductile fracture behaviour of primary heat transport piping material ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Design of primary heat transport (PHT) piping of pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) has to ensure implementation of leak-before-break con- cepts. In order to be able to do so, the ductile fracture characteristics of PHT piping material have to be quantified. In this paper, the fracture resistance of SA333, Grade.

  17. Transportation of fissile materials and the danger of criticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haon, D.; Leclerc, J.; Maubert, L.

    1981-01-01

    The authors examine the risk of criticity that can arise during the transportation of fissile matter. They then outline the regulations and studies made in the field of criticity-safety and the computation methods used. They discuss the applications that are reflected in the concept and design of fissile material packagings [fr

  18. Subthreshold electrical transport in amorphous phase-change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, Manuel Le; Kaes, Matthias; Sebastian, Abu; Krebs, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Chalcogenide-based phase-change materials play a prominent role in information technology. In spite of decades of research, the details of electrical transport in these materials are still debated. In this article, we present a unified model based on multiple-trapping transport together with 3D Poole–Frenkel emission from a two-center Coulomb potential. With this model, we are able to explain electrical transport both in as-deposited phase-change material thin films, similar to experimental conditions in early work dating back to the 1970s, and in melt-quenched phase-change materials in nanometer-scale phase-change memory devices typically used in recent studies. Experimental measurements on two widely different device platforms show remarkable agreement with the proposed mechanism over a wide range of temperatures and electric fields. In addition, the proposed model is able to seamlessly capture the temporal evolution of the transport properties of the melt-quenched phase upon structural relaxation. (paper)

  19. Compendium of Material Composition Data for Radiation Transport Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Ralph G.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Pagh, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    Computational modeling of radiation transport problems including homeland security, radiation shielding and protection, and criticality safety all depend upon material definitions. This document has been created to serve two purposes: (1) to provide a quick reference of material compositions for analysts and (2) a standardized reference to reduce the differences between results from two independent analysts. Analysts are always encountering a variety of materials for which elemental definitions are not readily available or densities are not defined. This document provides a location where unique or hard to define materials will be located to reduce duplication in research for modeling purposes. Additionally, having a common set of material definitions helps to standardize modeling across PNNL and provide two separate researchers the ability to compare different modeling results from a common materials basis.

  20. Contribution to fissile materials transportation in transit storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Teresinha de Moraes da

    2005-01-01

    The national and international standards for the transportation of fissile materials establish two indexes: Transport Index (Tl) and Criticality Safety Index (ISC). Besides, in non-exclusive transit, the largest of these indexes cannot overtake the value 50. Considering several groups to be transported, the sum of the transportation indexes cannot overtake 200 and the distance between them should be 6 meters This work aimed, as a primary target, to verify when an index is superior to another, in relation to the fissile materials studied, i.e., uranium oxides UO 2 , U 3 O 8 and uranium silicide U 3 Si 2 , taking into account the different enrichment grades. The result found is that the criticality safety index is always greater. As a second goal, it was tried to verify if there is any alteration in the case of these compounds aging process, i.e., alteration in transport index (Tl) due to gamma radiation of daughters radioisotopes in secular equilibrium. No alteration, was verified as the daughters contribution although considerable related to the transport index is very small concerning the criticality safety index. As a third target, it was tried to justify a distance equal to 6 meters, between each group of fissile material. The result showed that, in air media, the distance of 1 meter is sufficient, except for the UO 2 compound at 100% of enrichment, which reaches 2 meter while in the water means the distance of 40cm is enough for the compounds studied. This fact is of great importance when the cost of the necessary area in the transportation and storage is taken into consideration. (author)

  1. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan-Warren, E.

    2004-01-01

    Response arrangements are required for the transport of radioactive materials, under both transport and health and safety legislation, to safeguard persons, property and the environment in the event of incidents and emergencies. Responsibilities fall on both government and industry: government is responsible for ensuring public safety and providing information and reassurance. This responsibility is discharged for each type of incident by a nominated ''lead department'', supported as appropriate by other government departments and agencies; for their part, operators are obliged to have arrangements in place for dealing with the practicalities of any reasonably foreseeable incident, including recovery and onward transport of a package, and any required clean-up or restoration of the environment. This paper outlines both the government and industry arrangements in Great Britain. The principles of response and intervention are discussed, together with the lead department concept, regulatory requirements, and the plans developed by the transport industry to ensure a nation-wide response capability

  2. Ordinance concerning the filing of transport of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Order provides provisions concerning nuclear fuel substances requiring notification (nuclear fuel substance, material contaminated with nuclear fuel substances, fissionable substances, etc.), procedure for notification (to prefectural public safety commission), certificate of transpot (issued via public safety commission), instructions (speed of vehicle for transporting nuclear fuel substances, parking of vehicle, place for loading and unloading of nuclear fuel substances, method for loading and unloading, report to police, measures for disaster prevention during transport, etc.), communication among members of public safety commission (for smooth transport), notification of alteration of data in transport certificate (application to be submitted to public safety commission), application of reissue of transport certificate, return of transport certificate, inspection concerning transport (to be performed by police), submission of report (to be submitted by refining facilities manager, processing facilities manager, nuclear reactor manager, master of foreign nuclear powered ship, reprocessing facilities manager, waste disposal facilities manager; concerning stolen or missing nuclear fuel substances, traffic accident, unusual leakage of nuclear fuel substances, etc.). (Nogami, K.)

  3. Bioinspired one-dimensional materials for directional liquid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jie; Zheng, Yongmei; Jiang, Lei

    2014-08-19

    One-dimensional materials (1D) capable of transporting liquid droplets directionally, such as spider silks and cactus spines, have recently been gathering scientists' attention due to their potential applications in microfluidics, textile dyeing, filtration, and smog removal. This remarkable property comes from the arrangement of the micro- and nanostructures on these organisms' surfaces, which have inspired chemists to develop methods to prepare surfaces with similar directional liquid transport ability. In this Account, we report our recent progress in understanding how this directional transport works, as well our advances in the design and fabrication of bioinspired 1D materials capable of transporting liquid droplets directionally. To begin, we first discuss some basic theories on droplet directional movement. Then, we discuss the mechanism of directional transport of water droplets on natural spider silks. Upon contact with water droplets, the spider silk undergoes what is known as a wet-rebuilt, which forms periodic spindle-knots and joints. We found that the resulting gradient of Laplace pressure and surface free energy between the spindle-knots and joints account for the cooperative driving forces to transport water droplets directionally. Next, we discuss the directional transport of water droplets on desert cactus. The integration of multilevel structures of the cactus and the resulting integration of multiple functions together allow the cactus spine to transport water droplets continuously from tip to base. Based on our studies of natural spider silks and cactus spines, we have prepared a series of artificial spider silks (A-SSs) and artificial cactus spines (A-CSs) with various methods. By changing the surface roughness and chemical compositions of the artificial spider silks' spindle-knots, or by introducing stimulus-responsive molecules, such as thermal-responsive and photoresponsive molecules, onto the spindle-knots, we can reversibly manipulate

  4. Space Transportation Materials and Structures Technology Workshop. Volume 2: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazier, F.W. Jr.; Gardner, J.E.

    1993-02-01

    The Space Transportation Materials and Structures Technology Workshop was held on September 23-26, 1991, in Newport News, Virginia. The workshop, sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Flight and the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology, was held to provide a forum for communication within the space materials and structures technology developer and user communities. Workshop participants were organized into a Vehicle Technology Requirements session and three working panels: Materials and Structures Technologies for Vehicle Systems, Propulsion Systems, and Entry Systems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report

  5. Effect of hole geometry and Electric-Discharge Machining (EDM) on airflow rates through small diameter holes in turbine blade material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Cochran, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of two design parameters, electrode diameter and hole angle, and two machine parameters, electrode current and current-on time, on air flow rates through small-diameter (0.257 to 0.462 mm) electric-discharge-machined holes were measured. The holes were machined individually in rows of 14 each through 1.6 mm thick IN-100 strips. The data showed linear increase in air flow rate with increases in electrode cross sectional area and current-on time and little change with changes in hole angle and electrode current. The average flow-rate deviation (from the mean flow rate for a given row) decreased linearly with electrode diameter and increased with hole angle. Burn time and finished hole diameter were also measured.

  6. Expert systems for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, C.E.; Clover, J.C.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Under the supervision of the Transportation Technologies Group which is in the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, an expert system prototype for the transportation and packaging of hazardous and radioactive materials has been designed and developed. The development of the expert system prototype focused on using the combination of hypermedia elements and the Visual Basic trademark programming language. Hypermedia technology uses software that allows the user to interact with the computing environment through many formats: text, graphics, audio, and full-motion video. With the use of hypermedia, a user-friendly prototype has been developed to sort through numerous transportation regulations, thereby leading to the proper packaging for the materials. The expert system performs the analysis of regulations that an expert in shipping information would do; only the expert system performs the work more quickly. Currently, enhancements in a variety of categories are being made to the prototype. These include further expansion of non-radioactive materials, which includes any material that is hazardous but not radioactive; and the addition of full-motion video, which will depict regulations in terms that are easy to understand and which will show examples of how to handle the materials when packaging them

  7. Dust prevention in bulk material transportation and handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, A. V.; Kuznetsov, A. L.; Pogodin, V. A.

    2017-10-01

    The environmental problem of territory and atmosphere pollution caused by transportation and handling of dust-generating bulk cargo materials is quite common for the whole world. The reducing of weight of fine class coal caused by air blowing reaches the level of 0.5-0.6 t per railcar over the 500 km transportation distance, which is equal to the loss of 1 % of the total weight. The studies showed that all over the country in the process of the railroad transportation, the industry loses 3-5 metric tonnes of coal annually. There are several common tactical measurers to prevent dust formation: treating the dust-producing materials at dispatch point with special liquid solutions; watering the stacks and open handling points of materials; frequent dust removing and working area cleaning. Recently there appeared several new radical measures for pollution prevention in export of ore and coal materials via sea port terminals, specifically: wind-dust protection screens, the container cargo handling system of delivery materials to the hold of the vessels. The article focuses on the discussion of these measures.

  8. Mockup of an automated material transport system for remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The automated material transport system (AMTS) was conceived for the transport of samples within the material and process control laboratory (MPCL), located in the plutonium processing building of the special isotope separation (SIS) facility. The MPCL was designed with a dry sample handling laboratory and a wet chemistry analysis laboratory. Each laboratory contained several processing glove boxes. The function of the AMTS was to automate the handling of materials, multiple process samples, and bulky items between process stations with a minimum of operator intervention and with a minimum of waiting periods and nonproductive activities. The AMTS design requirements, design verification mockup plan, and AMTS mockup procurement specification were established prior to cancellation of the SIS project. Due to the AMTS's flexibility, the need for technology development, and applicability to other US Department of Energy facilities, mockup of the AMTS continued. This paper discusses the system design features, capabilities, and results of initial testing

  9. Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haq, E.; Banerjee, T.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to study nanoscale spin transport of holes is presented: ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is used to inject hot electrons into a ferromagnetic heterostructure, where inelastic decay creates a distribution of electron-hole pairs.

  10. Radioactive materials and nuclear fuel transport requirements in Poland in the light of international regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musialowicz, T.

    1977-01-01

    National regulations for the transport of radioactive materials and nuclear fuel in Poland are discussed. Basic transport requirements and regulations, transport experience including transport accidents and emergency service are described. The comparison with international regulations is given

  11. Compendium of federal and state radioactive materials transportation laws and regulations: Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB) is an on-line information service containing detailed information on legislation and regulations regarding the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The system is dedicated to serving the legislative and regulatory information needs of the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies; state, tribal, and local governments; the hazardous materials transportation industry; and interested members of the general public. In addition to the on-line information service, quarterly and annual Legal Developments Reports are produced using information from the TLDB. These reports summarize important changes in federal and state legislation, regulations, administrative agency rulings, and judicial decisions over the reporting period. Information on significant legal developments at the tribal and local levels is also included on an as-available basis. Battelle's Office of Transportation Systems and Planning (OTSP) will also perform customized searches of the TLDB and produce formatted printouts in response to specific information requests

  12. Management system for regulating transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vietri, Jorge; Capadona, Nancy; Barenghi, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this paper is to describe the main characteristics and fundamentals of the Nuclear regulatory Authority's (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, ARN) management system applied to the regulation of transport of radioactive material, in Argentina. In the frame of ARN's quality policy, 'Protection against ionizing radiation on transport of radioactive materials' was selected as one of the regulatory processes, named TRM process from now on. ARN's quality management system is integrally based on ISO 9000 system addressed to help organizations in designing and implementing their quality management systems. TRM process was split into five sub processes in order to facilitate the implementation of quality system. Such sub processes were defined taking account of the main functions developed by ARN in the branch of safe transport of radioactive materials and are listed below: 1) Development and updating of standards and regulatory guides; 2) Licensing of packages, special radioactive materials and consignments of radioactive materials; 3) Compliance assurance during the transport of radioactive materials, and 4) Training, advising and communications. For each of these sub processes were specified their objectives, inputs, activities and outputs, the clients and stakeholders, responsibilities, supporting documents, control of documents and records, control of non-conformances, monitoring and measurements, audits, feedback and improvement. It was decided to develop a quality plan to organize and manage activities to meet quality requirements, to optimize the use of limited resources of the organization and to be used as a basis for monitoring and assessing compliance with the requirements, both internal and external. Supporting documents for sub processes were issued, validated, reviewed and improved as an essential point to implement continuous improving. Simultaneously, some indexes were defined to monitor and measure the sub processes as a way to show

  13. A transport-based model of material trends in nonproportionality of scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Grim, Joel Q.; Williams, R. T.; Bizarri, G. A.; Moses, W. W.

    2011-01-01

    Electron-hole pairs created by the passage of a high-energy electron in a scintillator radiation detector find themselves in a very high radial concentration gradient of the primary electron track. Since nonlinear quenching that is generally regarded to be at the root of nonproportional response depends on the fourth or sixth power of the track radius in a cylindrical track model, radial diffusion of charge carriers and excitons on the ∼10 picosecond duration typical of nonlinear quenching can compete with and thereby modify that quenching. We use a numerical model of transport and nonlinear quenching to examine trends affecting local light yield versus excitation density as a function of charge carrier and exciton diffusion coefficients. Four trends are found: (1) nonlinear quenching associated with the universal 'roll-off' of local light yield versus dE/dx is a function of the lesser of mobilities μ e and μ h or of D EXC as appropriate, spanning a broad range of scintillators and semiconductor detectors; (2) when μ e ≅μ h , excitons dominate free carriers in transport, the corresponding reduction of scattering by charged defects and optical phonons increases diffusion out of the track in competition with nonlinear quenching, and a rise in proportionality is expected; (3) when μ h e as in halide scintillators with hole self-trapping, the branching between free carriers and excitons varies strongly along the track, leading to a 'hump' in local light yield versus dE/dx; (4) anisotropic mobility can promote charge separation along orthogonal axes and leads to a characteristic shift of the 'hump' in halide local light yield. Trends 1 and 2 have been combined in a quantitative model of nonlinear local light yield which is predictive of empirical nonproportionality for a wide range of oxide and semiconductor radiation detector materials where band mass or mobility data are the determinative material parameters.

  14. Piezo-Phototronic Effect on Selective Electron or Hole Transport through Depletion Region of Vis-NIR Broadband Photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Haiyang; Li, Xiaogan; Peng, Wenbo; Wu, Wenzhuo; Yu, Ruomeng; Wu, Changsheng; Ding, Wenbo; Hu, Fei; Liu, Ruiyuan; Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-08-01

    Silicon underpins nearly all microelectronics today and will continue to do so for some decades to come. However, for silicon photonics, the indirect band gap of silicon and lack of adjustability severely limit its use in applications such as broadband photodiodes. Here, a high-performance p-Si/n-ZnO broadband photodiode working in a wide wavelength range from visible to near-infrared light with high sensitivity, fast response, and good stability is reported. The absorption of near-infrared wavelength light is significantly enhanced due to the nanostructured/textured top surface. The general performance of the broadband photodiodes can be further improved by the piezo-phototronic effect. The enhancement of responsivity can reach a maximum of 78% to 442 nm illumination, the linearity and saturation limit to 1060 nm light are also significantly increased by applying external strains. The photodiode is illuminated with different wavelength lights to selectively choose the photogenerated charge carriers (either electrons or holes) passing through the depletion region, to investigate the piezo-phototronic effect on electron or hole transport separately for the first time. This is essential for studying the basic principles in order to develop a full understanding about piezotronics and it also enables the development of the better performance of optoelectronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Route selection for the transport of hazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, F A

    1988-12-01

    The factors governing the risk-weighted selection of routes for transport of hazardous materials are analyzed. Starting from a formulation for the total risk of these transports that assumes complete information, approximations for the more realistic case of partial and uncertain information are discussed. These approximations involve well-known risk assessment techniques and mathematical methods; among the latter, Monte Carlo calculations hold the most promise. The actual route selection is based on an index of total societal cost, evaluated for a set of potential routes. (author)

  16. Analytical and numerical models of transport in porous cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garboczi, E.J.; Bentz, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    Most chemical and physical processes that degrade cementitious materials are dependent on an external source of either water or ions or both. Understanding the rates of these processes at the microstructural level is necessary in order to develop a sound scientific basis for the prediction and control of the service life of cement-based materials, especially for radioactive-waste containment materials that are required to have service lives on the order of hundreds of years. An important step in developing this knowledge is to understand how transport coefficients, such as diffusivity and permeability, depend on the pore structure. Fluid flow under applied pressure gradients and ionic diffusion under applied concentration gradients are important transport mechanisms that take place in the pore space of cementitious materials. This paper describes: (1) a new analytical percolation-theory-based equation for calculating the permeability of porous materials, (2) new computational methods for computing effective diffusivities of microstructural models or digitized images of actual porous materials, and (3) a new digitized-image mercury intrusion simulation technique

  17. Transporting radioactive materials: Q ampersand A to your questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Over 2 million packages of radioactive materials are shipped each year in the United States. These shipments are carried by trucks, trains, ships, and airplanes every day just like other commodities. Compliance with Federal regulations ensures that radioactive materials are transported safely. Proper packaging is the key to safe shipment. Package designs for radioactive materials must protect the public and the environment even in case of an accident. As the level of radioactivity increases, packaging design requirements become more stringent. Radioactive materials have been shipped in this country for more than 40 years. As with other commodities, vehicles carrying these materials have been involved in accidents. However, no deaths or serious injuries have resulted from exposure to the radioactive contents of these shipments. People are concerned about how radioactive shipments might affect them and the environment. This booklet briefly answers some of the commonly asked questions about the transport of radioactive materials. More detailed information is available from the sources listed at the end of this booklet

  18. Formation of BaSi2 heterojunction solar cells using transparent MoOx hole transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W.; Takabe, R.; Baba, M.; Takeuchi, H.; Hara, K. O.; Toko, K.; Usami, N.; Suemasu, T.

    2015-03-01

    Heterojunction solar cells that consist of 15 nm thick molybdenum trioxide (MoOx, x < 3) as a hole transport layer and 600 nm thick unpassivated or passivated n-BaSi2 layers were demonstrated. Rectifying current-voltage characteristics were observed when the surface of BaSi2 was exposed to air. When the exposure time was decreased to 1 min, an open circuit voltage of 200 mV and a short circuit current density of 0.5 mA/cm2 were obtained under AM1.5 illumination. The photocurrent density under a reverse bias voltage of -1 V reached 25 mA/cm2, which demonstrates the significant potential of BaSi2 for solar cell applications.

  19. 78 FR 60755 - Hazardous Materials: Enhanced Enforcement Procedures-Resumption of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... material,'' we envisioned etiological agents, such as biological products, infectious substances, medical... accidents or incidents involving the transportation of hazardous material. In order to achieve a uniform... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part...

  20. The impact of the new IAEA transport regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials on package design and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.

    1989-01-01

    In April 1985 the 1985 Edition of the IAEA Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, was issued. This is a completely revised edition which shall come into force internationally in the late eighties. This edition will supersede the 1973 (As Amended, 1979) edition. A paragraph by paragraph comparison is carried through, followed by a consideration on the impact on general requirements for packaging and transport. A detailed estimate on packaging design and transport is performed for typical products of the nuclear fuel cycle. The major practical consequences likely to be encountered are presented

  1. Charge transport in metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnerstrom, Evan Lars

    There is probably no class of materials more varied, more widely used, or more ubiquitous than metal oxides. Depending on their composition, metal oxides can exhibit almost any number of properties. Of particular interest are the ways in which charge is transported in metal oxides: devices such as displays, touch screens, and smart windows rely on the ability of certain metal oxides to conduct electricity while maintaining visible transparency. Smart windows, fuel cells, and other electrochemical devices additionally rely on efficient transport of ionic charge in and around metal oxides. Colloidal synthesis has enabled metal oxide nanocrystals to emerge as a relatively new but highly tunable class of materials. Certain metal oxide nanocrystals, particularly highly doped metal oxides, have been enjoying rapid development in the last decade. As in myriad other materials systems, structure dictates the properties of metal oxide nanocrystals, but a full understanding of how nanocrystal synthesis, the processing of nanocrystal-based materials, and the structure of nanocrystals relate to the resulting properties of nanocrystal-based materials is still nascent. Gaining a fundamental understanding of and control over these structure-property relationships is crucial to developing a holistic understanding of metal oxide nanocrystals. The unique ability to tune metal oxide nanocrystals by changing composition through the introduction of dopants or by changing size and shape affords a way to study the interplay between structure, processing, and properties. This overall goal of this work is to chemically synthesize colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, process them into useful materials, characterize charge transport in materials based on colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, and develop ways to manipulate charge transport. In particular, this dissertation characterizes how the charge transport properties of metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials depend on their processing and

  2. Compendium of Material Composition Data for Radiation Transport Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConn, Ronald J.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Pagh, Richard T.; Rucker, Robert A.; Williams III, Robert

    2011-03-04

    Introduction Meaningful simulations of radiation transport applications require realistic definitions of material composition and densities. When seeking that information for applications in fields such as homeland security, radiation shielding and protection, and criticality safety, researchers usually encounter a variety of materials for which elemental compositions are not readily available or densities are not defined. Publication of the Compendium of Material Composition Data for Radiation Transport Modeling, Revision 0, in 2006 was the first step toward mitigating this problem. Revision 0 of this document listed 121 materials, selected mostly from the combined personal libraries of staff at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and thus had a scope that was recognized at the time to be limited. Nevertheless, its creation did provide a well-referenced source of some unique or hard-to-define material data in a format that could be used directly in radiation transport calculations being performed at PNNL. Moreover, having a single common set of material definitions also helped to standardize at least one aspect of the various modeling efforts across the laboratory by providing separate researchers the ability to compare different model results using a common basis of materials. The authors of the 2006 compendium understood that, depending on its use and feedback, the compendium would need to be revised to correct errors or inconsistencies in the data for the original 121 materials, as well as to increase (per users suggestions) the number of materials listed. This 2010 revision of the compendium has accomplished both of those objectives. The most obvious change is the increased number of materials from 121 to 372. The not-so-obvious change is the mechanism used to produce the data listed here. The data listed in the 2006 document were compiled, evaluated, entered, and error-checked by a group of individuals essentially by hand, providing no library

  3. Transport of nuclear used fuel and waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neau, H.J. [World Nuclear Transport Institute, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    20 millions consignments of radioactive materials are routinely transported annually on public roads, railways and ships. 5% of these are nuclear fuel cycle related. International Atomic Energy Agency Regulations have been in force since 1961. The sector has an excellent safety record spanning over 50 years. Back end transport covers the operations concerned with spent fuel that leaves reactors and wastes. Since 1971, there have been 70,000 shipments of used fuel (i.e. over 80,000 tonnes) with no damage to property or person. The excellent safety record spanning over 50 years praised every year by the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency. More than 200 sea voyages over a distance of more than 8 million kilometres of transport of used fuel or high-level wastes.

  4. Plasma Interactions with Mixed Materials and Impurity Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rognlien, T. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beiersdorfer, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chernov, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frolov, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Magee, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rudd, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Umansky, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-28

    The project brings together three discipline areas at LLNL to develop advanced capability to predict the impact of plasma/material interactions (PMI) on metallic surfaces in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) devices. These areas are (1) modeling transport of wall impurity ions through the edge plasma to the core plasma, (2) construction of a laser blow-off (LBO) system for injecting precise amounts of metallic atoms into a tokamak plasma, and (3) material science analysis of fundamental processes that modify metallic surfaces during plasma bombardment. The focus is on tungsten (W), which is being used for the ITER divertor and in designs of future MFE devices. In area (1), we have worked with the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) on applications of the UEDGE/DUSTT coupled codes to predict the influx of impurity ions from W dust through the edge plasma, including periodic edge-plasma oscillations, and revived a parallel version of UEDGE to speed up these simulations. In addition, the impurity transport model in the 2D UEDGE code has been implemented into the 3D BOUT++ turbulence/transport code to allow fundamental analysis of the impact of strong plasma turbulence on the impurity transport. In area (2), construction and testing of the LBO injection system has been completed. The original plan to install the LBO on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) at Princeton and its use to validate the impurity transport simulations is delayed owing to NSTX-U being offline for substantial magnetic coil repair period. In area (3), an analytic model has been developed to explain the growth of W tendrils (or fuzz) observed for helium-containing plasmas. Molecular dynamics calculations of W sputtering by W and deuterium (D) ions shows that a spatial blending of interatomic potentials is needed to describe the near-surface and deeper regions of the material.

  5. Plasma Interactions with Mixed Materials and Impurity Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognlien, T. D.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Chernov, A.; Frolov, T.; Magee, E.; Rudd, R.; Umansky, M.

    2016-01-01

    The project brings together three discipline areas at LLNL to develop advanced capability to predict the impact of plasma/material interactions (PMI) on metallic surfaces in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) devices. These areas are (1) modeling transport of wall impurity ions through the edge plasma to the core plasma, (2) construction of a laser blow-off (LBO) system for injecting precise amounts of metallic atoms into a tokamak plasma, and (3) material science analysis of fundamental processes that modify metallic surfaces during plasma bombardment. The focus is on tungsten (W), which is being used for the ITER divertor and in designs of future MFE devices. In area (1), we have worked with the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) on applications of the UEDGE/DUSTT coupled codes to predict the influx of impurity ions from W dust through the edge plasma, including periodic edge-plasma oscillations, and revived a parallel version of UEDGE to speed up these simulations. In addition, the impurity transport model in the 2D UEDGE code has been implemented into the 3D BOUT++ turbulence/transport code to allow fundamental analysis of the impact of strong plasma turbulence on the impurity transport. In area (2), construction and testing of the LBO injection system has been completed. The original plan to install the LBO on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) at Princeton and its use to validate the impurity transport simulations is delayed owing to NSTX-U being offline for substantial magnetic coil repair period. In area (3), an analytic model has been developed to explain the growth of W tendrils (or fuzz) observed for helium-containing plasmas. Molecular dynamics calculations of W sputtering by W and deuterium (D) ions shows that a spatial blending of interatomic potentials is needed to describe the near-surface and deeper regions of the material.

  6. IUTAM Symposium on Lubricated Transport of Viscous Materials

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of the First International Symposium on Lubricated Transport of Viscous Materials was to bring together scientists and engineers from academia and industryto discuss current research work and exchange ideas in this newly emerging field. It is an area offluid dynamics devoted to laying bare the principlesofthe lubricated transport of viscous materials such as crude oil, concentrated oil/water emulsion, slurries and capsules. It encompasses several types of problem. Studies of migration of particulates away from walls, Segre-Silverberg effects, lubrication versus lift and shear-induced migration belong to one category. Some of the technological problems are the fluid dynamics ofcore flows emphasizing studies ofstability, problems of start-up, lift-off and eccentric flow where gravity causes the core flow to stratify. Another category of problems deals with the fouling of pipe walls with oil, with undesirable increases in pressure gradients and even blocking. This study involves subjects like ...

  7. Advisory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Since the first edition in 1961, the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material of the IAEA (IAEA Regulations) have served as the basis of safety for the transport of radioactive material worldwide. In the discussions leading to the first edition of the IAEA Regulations, it was realized that there was need for a publication to supplement the Regulations which could give information of individual provisions as to their purpose, their scientific background and how to apply them in practice. In response, the Agency published Safety Series No. 7, entitled, in its first edition in 1961, 'Notes on Certain Aspects of the Regulations'. An additional source of information on the Regulations, providing advice on 'how' the user should comply with them which could be augmented from time to time in the light of latest experience, was provided by the Agency, initially in relation to the 1973 edition of the Regulations. This was entitled 'Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material' and designated Safety Series No. 37. This document is the result of combining the two Safety Series in a single publication. Thus the primary purpose of this publication is to provide guidance to users on proven and acceptable ways of complying with the Regulations. This Advisory Material is not a stand-alone text and it only has significance when used as a companion to the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. ST-1, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (1996 edition)

  8. Trasmar: automated vehicle for transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia R, J.A.; Martinez J, L.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally robots have been used for industrial applications, even though area in which these devices had a deep impact is in the nuclear industry. The ININ is an Institute that must to manage and to work with radioactive substances. The ININ is also responsible of the storage and supervision of radioactive wastes in the country, therefore the applications of the automated systems in the Institute have as the main objective to reduce the exposure and the contact of personnel with the radioactive material. Here to, it has been proposed the project called Assisted Transportation of Radioactive Material (TRASMAR). (Author)

  9. Risk assessment for transportation of radioactive materials and nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.; Wilson, R.K.; Hartman, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has the lead technical role for probabilistic risk assessments of transportation of nuclear weapons, components, and special nuclear material in support of the US Department of Energy. The emphasis of the risk assessments is on evaluating the probability of inadvertent disposal of radioactive material and the consequences of such a release. This paper will provide an overview of the methodology being developed for the risk assessment and will discuss the interpretation and use of the results. The advantages and disadvantages of using risk assessment as an alternative to performance-based criteria for packaging will be described. 2 refs., 1 fig

  10. Effect of CoFe magnetic nanoparticles on the hole transport in poly(2-methoxy, 5-(2-ethylhexiloxy) 1,4-phenylenevinylene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Kumar, Hemant; Chand, Suresh; Jain, S C; Kumar, Vikram; Kumar, Vinod; Pant, R P; Tandon, R P

    2008-01-01

    The effect of doping of CoFe magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on the hole transport in poly(2-methoxy,5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene)(MEH-PPV) thin films has been investigated in the temperature range 280-120 K. Hole transport in MEH-PPV is found to be governed by space-charge-limited-conduction (SCLC) with exponential distribution of traps in energy space. Doping of CoFe MNPs in MEH-PPV reduces the hole mobility from 1 x 10 -5 to 6 x 10 -6 cm 2 V -1 s -1 by introducing new trap sites causing their net density increase from 1 x 10 18 to 2.1 x 10 18 cm -3 , which is likely to result in balanced injection and efficient recombination of charge carriers to improve the performance of polymer light emitting diodes

  11. 49 CFR 176.76 - Transport vehicles, freight containers, and portable tanks containing hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles, freight containers, and... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.76 Transport... paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, hazardous materials authorized to be transported by vessel may be...

  12. Emergency response planning for transport accidents involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The document presents a basic discussion of the various aspects and philosophies of emergency planning and preparedness along with a consideration of the problems which might be encountered in a transportation accident involving a release of radioactive materials. Readers who are responsible for preparing emergency plans and procedures will have to decide on how best to apply this guidance to their own organizational structures and will also have to decide on an emergency planning and preparedness philosophy suitable to their own situations

  13. Tuning the Transport Properties of Layered Materials for Thermoelectric Applications using First-Principles Calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Yasir

    2014-05-11

    Thermoelectric materials can convert waste heat into electric power and thus provide a way to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. Our aim is to model the underlying materials properties and, in particular, the transport as controlled by electrons and lattice vibrations. The goal is to develop an understanding of the thermoelectric properties of selected materials at a fundamental level. The structural, electronic, optical, and phononic properties are studied in order to tune the transport, focusing on KxRhO2, NaxRhO2, PtSb2 and Bi2Se3. The investigations are based on density functional theory as implemented in the all electron linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals WIEN2k and pseudo potential Quantum-ESPRESSO codes. The thermoelectric properties are derived from Boltzmann transport theory under the constant relaxation time approximation, using the BoltzTraP code. We will discuss first the changes in the electronic band structure under variation of the cation concentration in layered KxRhO2 in the 2H phase and NaxRhO2 in the 3R phase. We will also study the hydrated phase. The deformations of the RhO6 octahedra turn out to govern the thermoelectric properties, where the high Seebeck coefficient results from ”pudding mold" bands. We investigate the thermoelectric properties of electron and hole doped PtSb2, which is not a layered material but shares “pudding mold" bands. PtSb2 has a high Seebeck coefficient at room temperature, which increases significantly under As alloying by bandgap opening and reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity. Bi2Se3 (bulk and thin film) has a larger bandgap then the well-known thermoelectric material Bi2Te3, which is important at high temperature. The structural stability, electronic structure, and transport properties of one to six quintuple layers of Bi2Se3 will be discussed. We also address the effect of strain on a single quintuple layer by phonon band structures. We will analyze the electronic and transport

  14. 49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on....166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels. (a) Only the following Class 1 (explosive) materials may be transported as cargo on passenger vessels: (1) Division 1.4 (explosive...

  15. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers. (a...

  16. 49 CFR 176.174 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in shipborne barges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.174 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in shipborne barges. (a...

  17. Management System for Regulating Transport of Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vietri, J.R.; Capadona, N.M.; Barenghi, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the main characteristics of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN) management system applied to the transport of radioactive material, in Argentina. In the frame of ARN's quality policy, 'Protection against ionizing radiation on transport of radioactive materials' was selected as one of the regulatory processes, named TMR from now on. ARN's management system is integrally based on ISO 9000 system addressed to help organizations in designing and implementing their quality management systems. TMR process was split into five sub processes in order to facilitate the implementation of the system. Such sub processes were defined taking into account of the main functions developed by ARN in the branch of safe transport of radioactive materials. For each of this processes were specified their objectives, inputs, activities and outputs, clients and stakeholders, responsibilities, supporting documents, control of documents and records, control of non-conformances, monitoring and measurements, audits, feedback and improvement. Supporting documents for sub processes were issued, validated, reviewed and improved as an essential point to achieve continuous improving. Simultaneously, some indexes were defined to monitor and measures sub processes as a way to show objective evidence of conformity with objectives. Finally, as conclusions of this paper, they will be showed the main obstacles and troubleshooting found in the design and implementation of management system as well as their solutions and state of advance. (authors)

  18. Experimental and Theoretical Demonstration on the Transport Properties of Fused Ring Host Materials for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, S. C.; So, S. K.; Yeung, M. Y.; Lo, C. F.; Wen, S. W.; Chen, C. H.

    2006-01-01

    The charge transport properties of three tertiary-butyl (t-Bu) substituted anthracene derivatives (ADN), critical blue host materials for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), have been investigated experimentally and computationally. From time-of-flight (TOF) measurements, all ADN compounds exhibit ambipolar characters. The hole and electron mobilities are in the range (1--5)× 10-7 cm2 V-1 s-1 under an external applied field of about 1 MV cm-1. Un-substituted ADN has the highest carrier mobilities while heavily t-Bu substituted ADN has the least. The electron and hole conducting properties of are consistent with ab initio calculation, which indicates that the frontier orbitals are localized mainly on the anthracene moiety. t-Bu substitutions in ADN increase the hopping path lengths among the molecules and hence reduce the electron and hole mobilities. The results demonstrate that t-Bu substitution is an effective means of engineering the conductivity of organic charge transporter for OLED applications.

  19. Materials with engineered mesoporosity for programmed mass transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Dara V.

    Transport in nanostructured materials is of great interest for scientists in various fields, including molecular sequestration, catalysis, artificial photosynthesis and energy storage. This thesis will present work on the transport of molecular and ionic species in mesoporous materials (materials with pore sizes between 2 and 50 nm). Initially, discussion will focus on the synthesis of mesoporous ZnS nanorattles and the size selected mass transport of small molecules through the mesopores. Discussion will then shift of exploration of cation exchange and electroless plating of metals to alter the mesoporous hollow sphere (MHS) materials and properties. The focus of discussion will then shift to the transport of ions into and out of a hierarchically structured gold electrode. Finally, a model gamma-bactiophage was developed to study the electromigration of charged molecules into and out of a confined geometry. A catalytically active biomolecular species was encapsulated within the central cavity of ZnS MHS. Both the activity of the encapsulated enzyme and the size-selective transport through the wall of the MHS were verified through the use of a common fluorogen, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium azide. Additionally, the protection of the enzyme was shown through size-selected blocking of a protease. The mesoporous hollow sphere system introduces size-selectivity to catalyzed chemical reactions; future work may include variations in pore sizes, and pore wall chemical functionalization. The pore size in ZnS mesoporous hollow spheres is controlled between 2.5 and 4.1 nm through swelling of the lyotropic liquid crystal template. The incorporation of a swelling agent is shown to linearly vary the hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystalline phase, which templates the mesopores, while allowing the high fidelity synthesis of mesoporous hollow spheres. Fluorescnently labeled ssDNA was utilized as a probe to explore the change in mesopore permeability afforded by the swollen template

  20. Flexible ITO-free organic solar cells applying aqueous solution-processed V2O5 hole transport layer: An outdoor stability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, F. Anderson S.; Beliatis, Michail J.; Roth, Bérenger

    2016-01-01

    Solution processable semiconductor oxides have opened a new paradigm for theenhancement of the lifetime of thin film solar cells. Their fabrication by low-costand environmentally friendly solution-processable methods makes them ideal barrier(hole and electron) transport layers. In this work, we f...

  1. Effects of the thickness of NiO hole transport layer on the performance of all-inorganic quantum dot light emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiao Li; Dai, Hai Tao; Zhao, Jun Liang; Li, Chen; Wang, Shu Guo; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    All-inorganic quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs) have recently gained great attention owing to their high stability under oxygenic, humid environment and higher operating currents. In this work, we fabricated all-inorganic CdSe/ZnS core-shell QLEDs composed of ITO/NiO/QDs/ZnO/Al, in which NiO and ZnO thin film deposited via all-solution method were employed as hole and electron transport layer, respectively. To achieve high light emitting efficiency, the balance transport between electrons and holes play a key role. In this work, the effects of the thickness of NiO film on the performance of QLEDs were explored experimentally in details. NiO layers with various thicknesses were prepared with different rotation speeds. Experimental results showed that thinner NiO layer deposited at higher rotation speed had higher transmittance and larger band gap. Four typical NiO thickness based QLEDs were fabricated to optimize the hole transport layer. Thinner NiO layer based device performs bright emission with high current injection, which is ascribed to the reduced barrier height between hole transport layer and quantum dot. - Highlights: • All-inorganic quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs) were fabricated. • Thinner NiO film can effectively enhance on–off properties of devices. • Improved performance of QLEDs is mainly attributed to energy barrier reduction

  2. A DPL model of photo-thermal interaction in an infinite semiconductor material containing a spherical hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobiny, Aatef D.; Abbas, Ibrahim A.

    2018-01-01

    The dual phase lag (DPL) heat transfer model is applied to study the photo-thermal interaction in an infinite semiconductor medium containing a spherical hole. The inner surface of the cavity was traction free and loaded thermally by pulse heat flux. By using the eigenvalue approach methodology and Laplace's transform, the physical variable solutions are obtained analytically. The numerical computations for the silicon-like semiconductor material are obtained. The comparison among the theories, i.e., dual phase lag (DPL), Lord and Shulman's (LS) and the classically coupled thermoelastic (CT) theory is presented graphically. The results further show that the analytical scheme can overcome mathematical problems by analyzing these problems.

  3. Solution-processed, molecular photovoltaics that exploit hole transfer from non-fullerene, n-type materials

    KAUST Repository

    Douglas, Jessica D.

    2014-05-12

    Solution-processed organic photovoltaic devices containing p-type and non-fullerene n-type small molecules obtain power conversion efficiencies as high as 2.4%. The optoelectronic properties of the n-type material BT(TTI-n12)2 allow these devices to display high open-circuit voltages (>0.85 V) and generate significant charge carriers through hole transfer in addition to the electron-transfer pathway, which is common in fullerene-based devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Transfer of radioactive materials in the fuel cycle. Transportation systems, transportation volume and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, G.

    1997-01-01

    No other aspect of the carriage of hazardous goods has been provoking such long-lived concern in the general public and in the press during the last few years as the transport of spent nuclear fuels and high-level radioactive wastes to the storage facility at Gorleben. One reason for this controversy, besides clear-cut opposition in principal against such transfer activities, is the fact that there is an information gap, so that large parts of the population are not well informed about the relevant legal safety requirements and obligations governing such transports. The article therefore tries to fill this gap, presenting information on the number and necessity of transports of radioactive materials in the nuclear fuel cycle, the relevant scenarios, the transportation systems and packing and shielding requirements, as well as information on the radiological classification and hazardousness of waste forms. (Orig.) [de

  5. Electric field-induced hole transport in copper(i) thiocyanate (CuSCN) thin-films processed from solution at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pattanasattayavong, Pichaya; Ndjawa, Guy Olivier Ngongang; Zhao, Kui; Chou, Kang Wei; Yaacobi-Gross, Nir; O'Regan, Brian C.; Amassian, Aram; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    The optical, structural and charge transport properties of solution-processed films of copper(i) thiocyanate (CuSCN) are investigated in this work. As-processed CuSCN films of ∼20 nm in thickness are found to be nano-crystalline, highly transparent and exhibit intrinsic hole transporting characteristics with a maximum field-effect mobility in the range of 0.01-0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. A guide to the suitability of elastomeric seal materials for use in radioactive material transport packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vince, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Elastomeric seals are a frequently favoured method of sealing Radioactive Material Transport (RMT) packages. The sealing technology has been proven for many years in a wide range of industrial applications. The requirements of the RMT package applications, however, are significantly different from those commonly found in other industries. This guide outlines the Regulatory performance requirements placed on an RMT package sealing system by TS-R-1, and then summarises the material, environment and geometry characteristics of elastomeric seals relevant to RMT applications. Tables in the guide list typical material properties for a range of elastomeric materials commonly used in RMT packages

  7. Nanoscale spin-dependent transport of electrons and holes in Si-ferromagnet structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ul Haq, E.

    Given the rapid development of magnetic data storage and spin-electronics into the realm of nanotechnology, the understanding of the spin-dependent electronic transport and switching behavior of magnetic structures at the nanoscale is an important issue. We have developed spin-sensitive techniques

  8. Assessing the potential of group 13 and 14 metal/metalloid phthalocyanines as hole transport layers in organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plint, Trevor; Lessard, Benoît H. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E5 (Canada); Bender, Timothy P. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E5 (Canada); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    In this study, we have assessed the potential application of group 13 and 14 metal and metalloid phthalocyanines ((X){sub n}-MPcs) and their axially substituted derivatives as hole-transporting layers in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). OLEDs studied herein have the generic structure of glass/ITO/(N,N′-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPB) or (X){sub n}-MPc)(50 nm)/Alq{sub 3} (60 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (80 nm), where X is an axial substituent group. OLEDs using chloro aluminum phthalocyanine (Cl-AlPc) showed good peak luminance values of 2620 ± 113 cd/m{sup 2} at 11 V. To our knowledge, Cl-AlPc has not previously been shown to work as a hole transport material (HTL) in OLEDs. Conversely, the di-chlorides of silicon, germanium, and tin phthalocyanine (Cl{sub 2}-SiPc, Cl{sub 2}-GePc, and Cl{sub 2}-SnPc, respectively) showed poor performance compared to Cl-AlPc, having peak luminances of only 38 ± 4 cd/m{sup 2} (12 V), 23 ± 1 cd/m{sup 2} (8.5 V), and 59 ± 5 cd/m{sup 2} (13.5 V), respectively. However, by performing a simple axial substitution of the chloride groups of Cl{sub 2}-SiPc with pentafluorophenoxy groups, the resulting bis(pentafluorophenoxy) silicon phthalocyanine (F{sub 10}-SiPc) containing OLED had a peak luminance of 5141 ± 941 cd/m{sup 2} (10 V), a two order of magnitude increase over its chlorinated precursor. This material showed OLED characteristics approaching those of a baseline OLED based on the well-studied triarylamine NPB. Attempts to attach the pentafluorophenoxy axial group to both SnPc and GePc were hindered by synthetic difficulties and low thermal stability, respectively. In light of the performance improvements observed by simple axial substitution of SiPc in OLEDs, the use of axially substituted MPcs in organic electronic devices remains of continuing interest to us and potentially the field in general.

  9. Assessing the potential of group 13 and 14 metal/metalloid phthalocyanines as hole transport layers in organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plint, Trevor; Lessard, Benoît H.; Bender, Timothy P.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have assessed the potential application of group 13 and 14 metal and metalloid phthalocyanines ((X)n-MPcs) and their axially substituted derivatives as hole-transporting layers in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). OLEDs studied herein have the generic structure of glass/ITO/(N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) or (X)n-MPc)(50 nm)/Alq3 (60 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (80 nm), where X is an axial substituent group. OLEDs using chloro aluminum phthalocyanine (Cl-AlPc) showed good peak luminance values of 2620 ± 113 cd/m2 at 11 V. To our knowledge, Cl-AlPc has not previously been shown to work as a hole transport material (HTL) in OLEDs. Conversely, the di-chlorides of silicon, germanium, and tin phthalocyanine (Cl2-SiPc, Cl2-GePc, and Cl2-SnPc, respectively) showed poor performance compared to Cl-AlPc, having peak luminances of only 38 ± 4 cd/m2 (12 V), 23 ± 1 cd/m2 (8.5 V), and 59 ± 5 cd/m2 (13.5 V), respectively. However, by performing a simple axial substitution of the chloride groups of Cl2-SiPc with pentafluorophenoxy groups, the resulting bis(pentafluorophenoxy) silicon phthalocyanine (F10-SiPc) containing OLED had a peak luminance of 5141 ± 941 cd/m2 (10 V), a two order of magnitude increase over its chlorinated precursor. This material showed OLED characteristics approaching those of a baseline OLED based on the well-studied triarylamine NPB. Attempts to attach the pentafluorophenoxy axial group to both SnPc and GePc were hindered by synthetic difficulties and low thermal stability, respectively. In light of the performance improvements observed by simple axial substitution of SiPc in OLEDs, the use of axially substituted MPcs in organic electronic devices remains of continuing interest to us and potentially the field in general.

  10. Mockup of an automated material transport system for remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    An Automated Material Transport System (AMTS) was identified for transport of samples within a Material and Process Control Laboratory (MPCL). The MPCL was designed with a dry sample handling laboratory and a wet chemistry analysis laboratory. Each laboratory contained several processing gloveboxes. The function of the AMTS was to automate the handling of materials, multiple process samples, and bulky items between process stations with a minimum of operator intervention and with minimum o[ waiting periods and nonproductive activities. This paper discusses the system design features, capabilities and results of initial testing. The overall performance of the AMTS is very good. No major problems or concerns were identified. System commands are simple and logical making the system user friendly. Operating principle and design of individual components is simple. With the addition of various track modules, the system can be configured in most any configuration. The AMTS lends itself very well for integration with other automated systems or products. The AMTS is suited for applications involving light payloads which require multiple sample and material handling, lot tracking, and system integration with other products

  11. Graphene oxide/PEDOT:PSS composite hole transport layer for efficient and stable planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Young; Na, Seok-In; Kim, Seok-Soon

    2016-01-21

    We investigated a graphene oxide (GO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) ( PSS) composite as a promising candidate for the practical application of a 2-D carbonaceous hole transport layer (HTL) to planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) consisting of a transparent electrode/HTL/perovskite/fullerene/metal electrode. Both the insulating properties of GO and the non-uniform coating of the transparent electrode with GO cause the poor morphology of perovskite induced low power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.4%. On the other hand, PeSCs with a GO/PEDOT:PSS composite HTL, exhibited a higher PCE of 9.7% than that of a device fabricated with conventional PSS showing a PCE of 8.2%. The higher performance is attributed to the decreased series resistance (RS) and increased shunt resistance (RSh). The well-matched work-function between GO (4.9 eV) and PSS (5.1 eV) probably results in more efficient charge transport and an overall decrease in RS. The existence of GO with a large bandgap of ∼3.6 eV might induce the effective blocking of electrons, leading to an increase of RSh. Moreover, improvement in the long-term stability under atmospheric conditions was observed.

  12. Molecular Doping of the Hole-Transporting Layer for Efficient, Single-Step Deposited Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Kirmani, Ahmad R.

    2017-07-31

    Employment of thin perovskite shells and metal halides as surface-passivants for colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have been important, recent developments in CQD optoelectronics. These have opened the route to single-step deposited high-performing CQD solar cells. These promising architectures employ a QD hole-transporting layer (HTL) whose intrinsically shallow Fermi level (EF) restricts band-bending at maximum power-point during solar cell operation limiting charge collection. Here, we demonstrate a generalized approach to effectively balance band-edge energy levels of the main CQD absorber and charge-transport layer for these high-performance solar cells. Briefly soaking the QD HTL in a solution of the metal-organic p-dopant, molybdenum tris(1-(trifluoroacetyl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)ethane-1,2-dithiolene), effectively deepens its Fermi level, resulting in enhanced band bending at the HTL:absorber junction. This blocks the back-flow of photo-generated electrons, leading to enhanced photocurrent and fill factor compared to undoped devices. We demonstrate 9.0% perovskite-shelled and 9.5% metal-halide-passivated CQD solar cells, both achieving ca. 10% relative enhancements over undoped baselines.

  13. Doses to road transport workers from radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, B.E.; van der Vooren, A.

    1988-12-01

    Each year approximately 750,000 packages of radioactive materials are shipped throughout Canada. Regulatory controls on these shipments are designed to keep radiation doses received by transport workers well within acceptable limits. Since many of these workers are not monitored for radiation exposure, however, little factual information has been available in Canada to support theoretical estimates. A study to document actual radiation doses received by a select group of transport workers that is actively involved in the shipment of radioactive materials, was carried out in 1987 and 1988. This study involved the monitoring of 31 candidates from nine transport companies from across the country that handle medical isotopes, industrial isotopes, uranium fuel cycle materials and associated radioactive wastes. Each of the candidates (consisting of driver, dock workers, sorters, and supervisors) was issued personal thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges that were worn each day during the six month monitoring period. Some of the candidates were also issued cab or area dosimeters that were left in the cabs of the vehicles or in work areas so that the dose received in these areas could be differentiated from total personal exposure. During the monitoring program, the candidates filled out reporting sheets at the end of each working day to document information such as the quantity of materials handled, handling times and vehicle size. This information and the dosimetry data were used in the development of correlations between materials handled and doses reported so that doses for other handling similar materials could be estimated. Based on the results of the study, it was learned that while most of the transport workers receive doses that are at or near background levels, other (particularly those handling medical isotopes) are exposed to levels of radiation that may result in their receiving doses above the 5 mSv per annum limit set for members of the general public. On

  14. Refuses and delays in the transportation by ship of radioactive material; Recusas e demoras no transporte maritimo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Clarice; Sobreira, Ana Celia [REM Industria e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    Some Class 7 materials can only be transported by ship, making that load and unload activities can be done in a port. In the Brazil, the port of Santos posses the most volume of cargo manipulation, and cargoes which contain radioactive material are always present with all manipulation requisites according to applicable regulations. The transport and manipulation operations of radioactive material are performed in accordance with national and international requisites but, some individuals posses yet a high risk perception according to our experience, involving members of Brazilian port authorities, the Navy and cargoes handlers at the ports. So, exist yet a high quantity of refuses and delays during the transport by ship. Therefore, a communication strategy was developed and applied, to inform the risk perception, supplying information on the very principles of ionizing radiation, legislation and uses of radiation, and so, diminishing the quantity of refuses and delays. From that initial communication strategy on, it becomes evident the necessity of training and conscience making a movement for the problem of refuses and delays be diminished

  15. Ontario Hydro's transportation of radioactive material and emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmali, N.

    1993-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has been transporting radioactive material for almost 30 years without any exposure to the public or release to the environment. However, there have been three accidents involving Hydro's shipments of radioactive material. In addition to the quality packaging and shipping program, Ontario Hydro has an Emergency Response Plan and capability to deal with an accident involving a shipment of radioactive material. The Corporation's ability to respond, to effectively control and contain the situation, site remediation, and to provide emergency public information in the event of a road accident minimizes the risk to the public and the environment. This emphasizes their commitment to worker safety, public safety and impact to the environment. Response capability is mandated under various legislation and regulations in Canada

  16. Hole-dominated transport in InSb nanowires grown on high-quality InSb films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algarni, Zaina; George, David; Singh, Abhay; Lin, Yuankun; Philipose, U., E-mail: usha.philipose@unt.edu [University of North Texas, Department of Physics (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We have developed an effective strategy for synthesizing p-type indium antimonide (InSb) nanowires on a thin film of InSb grown on glass substrate. The InSb films were grown by a chemical reaction between Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and In and were characterized by structural, compositional, and optical studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies reveal that the surface of the substrate is covered with a polycrystalline InSb film comprised of sub-micron sized InSb islands. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) results show that the film is stoichiometric InSb. The optical constants of the InSb film, characterized using a variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometer (VASE) shows a maximum value for refractive index at 3.7 near 1.8 eV, and the extinction coefficient (k) shows a maximum value 3.3 near 4.1 eV. InSb nanowires were subsequently grown on the InSb film with 20 nm sized Au nanoparticles functioning as the metal catalyst initiating nanowire growth. The InSb nanowires with diameters in the range of 40–60 nm exhibit good crystallinity and were found to be rich in Sb. High concentrations of anions in binary semiconductors are known to introduce acceptor levels within the band gap. This un-intentional doping of the InSb nanowire resulting in hole-dominated transport in the nanowires is demonstrated by the fabrication of a p-channel nanowire field effect transistor. The hole concentration and field effect mobility are estimated to be ≈1.3 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} and 1000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, respectively, at room temperature, values that are particularly attractive for the technological implications of utilizing p-InSb nanowires in CMOS electronics.

  17. Hole-dominated transport in InSb nanowires grown on high-quality InSb films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarni, Zaina; George, David; Singh, Abhay; Lin, Yuankun; Philipose, U.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed an effective strategy for synthesizing p-type indium antimonide (InSb) nanowires on a thin film of InSb grown on glass substrate. The InSb films were grown by a chemical reaction between S b 2 S 3 and I n and were characterized by structural, compositional, and optical studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies reveal that the surface of the substrate is covered with a polycrystalline InSb film comprised of sub-micron sized InSb islands. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) results show that the film is stoichiometric InSb. The optical constants of the InSb film, characterized using a variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometer (VASE) shows a maximum value for refractive index at 3.7 near 1.8 eV, and the extinction coefficient (k) shows a maximum value 3.3 near 4.1 eV. InSb nanowires were subsequently grown on the InSb film with 20 nm sized Au nanoparticles functioning as the metal catalyst initiating nanowire growth. The InSb nanowires with diameters in the range of 40-60 nm exhibit good crystallinity and were found to be rich in Sb. High concentrations of anions in binary semiconductors are known to introduce acceptor levels within the band gap. This un-intentional doping of the InSb nanowire resulting in hole-dominated transport in the nanowires is demonstrated by the fabrication of a p-channel nanowire field effect transistor. The hole concentration and field effect mobility are estimated to be ≈1.3 × 1017 cm-3 and 1000 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, at room temperature, values that are particularly attractive for the technological implications of utilizing p-InSb nanowires in CMOS electronics.

  18. Quality assurance requirements for packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, R.F.; MacDonald, C.E.; Doda, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the new quality assurance regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. These regulations became effective on October 18, 1977. Background information concerning these regulations and packaging and transportation history is included. The quality assurance program is described with indications of how it is composed of general (administrative) provisions which must meet the 18 quality assurance criteria and be approved by the NRC; specific provisions which appear in the DOT and NRC regulations and in the individual package design approval; and other specific procedures which are not required by regulations but which are necessary for the proper control of quality. The quality assurance program is to be developed using a graded approach for the application of pertinent criteria and optimizing the required degree of safety and control efforts involved in achieving this level of safety. The licensee-user is responsible for all phases of quality assurance for packaging activities including: design, manufacture, test, use, maintenance and repair. The package design phase is considered to be particularly important in producing adequate safety in operational activities concerning packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

  19. Route-specific analysis for radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report addresses a methodology for route-specific analysis, of which route-selection is one aspect. Identification and mitigation of specific hazards along a chosen route is another important facet of route-specific analysis. Route-selection and route-specific mitigation are two tools to be used in minimizing the risk of radioactive materials transportation and promoting public confidence. Other tools exist to improve the safety of transportation under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Selection of a transportation mode and other, non-route-specific measures, such as improved driver training and improved cask designs, are additional tools to minimize transportation risk and promote public confidence. This report addresses the route-specific analysis tool and does not attempt to evaluate its relative usefulness as compared to other available tools. This report represents a preliminary attempt to develop a route-specific analysis methodlogy. The Western Interstate Energy Board High-Level Waste Committee has formed a Route-Specific Analysis Task Force which will build upon the methodology proposed in this Staff Report. As western states continue to investigate route-specific analysis issues, it is expected that the methodology will evolve into a more refined product representing the views of a larger group of interested parties in the West

  20. Nonlinear Ballistic Transport in an Atomically Thin Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Mathias J; Sundararajan, Abhishek; Farrokhi, M Javad; Strachan, Douglas R

    2016-01-26

    Ultrashort devices that incorporate atomically thin components have the potential to be the smallest electronics. Such extremely scaled atomically thin devices are expected to show ballistic nonlinear behavior that could make them tremendously useful for ultrafast applications. While nonlinear diffusive electron transport has been widely reported, clear evidence for intrinsic nonlinear ballistic transport in the growing array of atomically thin conductors has so far been elusive. Here we report nonlinear electron transport of an ultrashort single-layer graphene channel that shows quantitative agreement with intrinsic ballistic transport. This behavior is shown to be distinctly different than that observed in similarly prepared ultrashort devices consisting, instead, of bilayer graphene channels. These results suggest that the addition of only one extra layer of an atomically thin material can make a significant impact on the nonlinear ballistic behavior of ultrashort devices, which is possibly due to the very different chiral tunneling of their charge carriers. The fact that we observe the nonlinear ballistic response at room temperature, with zero applied magnetic field, in non-ultrahigh vacuum conditions and directly on a readily accessible oxide substrate makes the nanogap technology we utilize of great potential for achieving extremely scaled high-speed atomically thin devices.