WorldWideScience

Sample records for hole masses determined

  1. Determining Central Black Hole Masses in Distant Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    An empirical relationship, of particular interest for studies of high redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars, between the masses of their central black-holes and rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) parameters measured in single-epoch AGN spectra is presented. This relationship is calibrated...... black-hole demographics at high redshift as well as to statistically study the fundamental properties of AGNs. The broad line region size - luminosity relationship is key to the calibrations presented here. The fact that its intrinsic scatter is also the main source of uncertainty in the calibrations...

  2. The effect of nuclear gas distribution on the mass determination of supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Restrepo, J. E.; Lira, P.; Netzer, H.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Capellupo, D. M.

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes reside in the nuclei of most galaxies. During their active episodes, black holes are powered by accretion discs where gravitational energy is converted into radiation1. Accurately determining black hole masses is key to understand how the population evolves over time and how the black holes relate to their host galaxies2-4. Beyond the local universe, z ≳ 0.2, the mass is commonly estimated assuming a virialized motion of gas in the close vicinity of the active black holes, traced through broad emission lines5,6. However, this procedure has uncertainties associated with the unknown distribution of the gas clouds. Here, we show that the black hole masses derived from the properties of the accretion disk and virial mass estimates differ by a factor that is inversely proportional to the width of the broad emission lines. This leads to virial mass misestimations up to a factor of six. Our results suggest that a planar gas distribution that is inclined with respect to the line of sight may account for this effect. However, radiation pressure effects on the distribution of gas can also reproduce our results. Regardless of the physical origin, our findings contribute to mitigating the uncertainties in current black hole mass estimations and, in turn, will help us to better understand the evolution of distant supermassive black holes and their host galaxies.

  3. Systematic Uncertainties in Black Hole Masses Determined from Single Epoch Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Dietrich, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    We explore the nature of systematic errors that can arise in measurement of black hole masses from single-epoch spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by utilizing the many epochs available for NGC 5548 and PG1229+204 from reverberation mapping databases. In particular, we examine systematics due...

  4. Black-hole masses of distant quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview of the methods commonly used to determine or estimate the black hole mass in quiescent or active galaxies is presented and it is argued that the use of mass-scaling relations is both a reliable and the preferred method to apply to large samples of distant quasars. The method uses...... that the black hole masses are very large, of order 1 to 10 billion solar masses, even at the highest redshifts of 4 to 6. The black holes must build up their mass very fast in the early universe. Yet they do not grow much larger than that: a maximum mass of about 10 billion solar masses is also observed....... Preliminary mass functions of active black holes are presented for several quasar samples, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Finally, common concerns related to the application of the mass scaling relations, especially for high redshift quasars, are briefly discussed....

  5. SIMULTANEOUS ULTRAVIOLET AND OPTICAL EMISSION-LINE PROFILES OF QUASARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR BLACK HOLE MASS DETERMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Luis C.; Dong Xiaobo; Goldoni, Paolo; Ponti, Gabriele; Greene, Jenny E.

    2012-01-01

    The X-shooter instrument on the Very Large Telescope was used to obtain spectra of seven moderate-redshift quasars simultaneously covering the spectral range ∼3000 Å to 2.5 μm. At z ≈ 1.5, most of the prominent broad emission lines in the ultraviolet to optical region are captured in their rest frame. We use this unique data set, which mitigates complications from source variability, to intercompare the line profiles of C IV λ1549, C III] λ1909, Mg II λ2800, and Hα and evaluate their implications for black hole (BH) mass estimation. We confirm that Mg II and the Balmer lines share similar kinematics and that they deliver mutually consistent BH mass estimates with minimal internal scatter (∼<0.1 dex) using the latest virial mass estimators. Although no virial mass formalism has yet been calibrated for C III], this line does not appear promising for such an application because of the large spread of its velocity width compared to lines of both higher and lower ionization; part of the discrepancy may be due to the difficulty of deblending C III] from its neighboring lines. The situation for C IV is complex and, because of the limited statistics of our small sample, inconclusive. On the one hand, slightly more than half of our sample (4/7) have C IV line widths that correlate reasonably well with Hα line widths, and their respective BH mass estimates agree to within ∼0.15 dex. The rest, on the other hand, exhibit exceptionally broad C IV profiles that overestimate virial masses by factors of 2-5 compared to Hα. As C IV is widely used to study BH demographics at high redshifts, we urgently need to revisit our analysis with a larger sample.

  6. Black-Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....

  7. SYSTEMATIC UNCERTAINTIES IN BLACK HOLE MASSES DETERMINED FROM SINGLE-EPOCH SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Dietrich, Matthias; Bentz, Misty C.; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We explore the nature of systematic errors that can arise in measurement of black hole masses from single-epoch (SE) spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by utilizing the many epochs available for NGC 5548 and PG1229+204 from reverberation mapping (RM) databases. In particular, we examine systematics due to AGN variability, contamination due to constant spectral components (i.e., narrow lines and host galaxy flux), data quality (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)), and blending of spectral features. We investigate the effect that each of these systematics has on the precision and accuracy of SE masses calculated from two commonly used line width measures by comparing these results to recent RM studies. We calculate masses by characterizing the broad Hβ emission line by both the full width at half maximum and the line dispersion, and demonstrate the importance of removing narrow emission-line components and host starlight. We find that the reliability of line width measurements rapidly decreases for S/N lower than ∼ 10-20 (per pixel), and that fitting the line profiles instead of direct measurement of the data does not mitigate this problem but can, in fact, introduce systematic errors. We also conclude that a full spectral decomposition to deblend the AGN and galaxy spectral features is unnecessary, except to judge the contribution of the host galaxy to the luminosity and to deblend any emission lines that may inhibit accurate line width measurements. Finally, we present an error budget which summarizes the minimum observable uncertainties as well as the amount of additional scatter and/or systematic offset that can be expected from the individual sources of error investigated. In particular, we find that the minimum observable uncertainty in SE mass estimates due to variability is ∼ 20 pixel -1 ) spectra.

  8. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (M~3 20 M⊙), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (M~106 1010 M⊙), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with M~102 104 M⊙. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work that will help clarify numerous outstanding questions about these objects.

  9. Determining Central Black Hole Masses in Distant Active Galaxies and Quasars. II. Improved Optical and UV Scaling Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Peterson, B. M.

    2006-01-01

    We present four improved empirical relationships useful for estimating the central black hole mass in nearby AGNs and distant luminous quasars alike using either optical or UV single-epoch spectroscopy. These mass-scaling relationships between line widths and luminosity are based on recently...

  10. Black Hole Area Quantization rule from Black Hole Mass Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the black hole mass distribution function that follows from the random emission of quanta by Hawking radiation and with this function we calculate the black hole mass fluctuation. From a complete different perspective we regard the black hole as quantum mechanical system with a quantized event horizon area and transition probabilities among the various energy levels and then calculate the mass dispersion. It turns out that there is a perfect agreement between the statistical and ...

  11. DETERMINING QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTIONS FROM THEIR BROAD EMISSION LINES: APPLICATION TO THE BRIGHT QUASAR SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Fan Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian approach to estimating quasar black hole mass functions (BHMF) using the broad emission lines to estimate black hole mass. We show how using the broad-line mass estimates in combination with statistical techniques developed for luminosity function estimation (e.g., the 1/V a correction) leads to statistically biased results. We derive the likelihood function for the BHMF based on the broad-line mass estimates, and derive the posterior distribution for the BHMF, given the observed data. We develop our statistical approach for a flexible model where the BHMF is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian functions. Statistical inference is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, and we describe a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to perform the MCMC. The MCMC simulates random draws from the probability distribution of the BHMF parameters, given the data, and we use a simulated data set to show how these random draws may be used to estimate the probability distribution for the BHMF. In addition, we show how the MCMC output may be used to estimate the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF, such as the peak in the space density of quasars. Our method has the advantage that it is able to constrain the BHMF even beyond the survey detection limits at the adopted confidence level, accounts for measurement errors and the intrinsic uncertainty in broad-line mass estimates, and provides a natural way of estimating the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF. We conclude by using our method to estimate the local active BHMF using the z BH ∼> 10 8 M sun . Our analysis implies that at a given M BH , z < 0.5 broad-line quasars have a typical Eddington ratio of ∼0.4 and a dispersion in Eddington ratio of ∼<0.5 dex.

  12. Determination of the hole effective mass in thin silicon dioxide film by means of an analysis of characteristics of a MOS tunnel emitter transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vexler, M I; Tyaginov, S E; Shulekin, A F

    2005-01-01

    The value of m h = 0.33 m 0 has been experimentally obtained for hole effective mass in a tunnel-thin (2-3 nm) SiO 2 film. The use of this value ensures the adequate modelling of a direct-tunnelling hole current in MOS devices. For the first time, in order to determine m h , the characteristics of a MOS tunnel emitter transistor have been mathematically processed, that allows for the precise estimation of the effective oxide thickness, as the electron effective mass in SiO 2 is independently known from the literature. The formulae for simulation of currents in a tunnel MOS structure are listed along with the necessary parameter values

  13. Mass formula for quasi-black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-black hole, either nonextremal or extremal, can be broadly defined as the limiting configuration of a body when its boundary approaches the body's quasihorizon. We consider the mass contributions and the mass formula for a static quasi-black hole. The analysis involves careful scrutiny of the surface stresses when the limiting configuration is reached. It is shown that there exists a strict correspondence between the mass formulas for quasi-black holes and pure black holes. This perfect parallelism exists in spite of the difference in derivation and meaning of the formulas in both cases. For extremal quasi-black holes the finite surface stresses give zero contribution to the total mass. This leads to a very special version of Abraham-Lorentz electron in general relativity in which the total mass has pure electromagnetic origin in spite of the presence of bare stresses.

  14. On the Mass Distribution of Stellar-Mass Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkov O. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The observational stellar-mass black hole mass distribution exhibits a maximum at about 8 M⊙. It can be explained via the details of the massive star evolution, supernova explosions, or consequent black hole evolution. We propose another explanation, connected with an underestimated influence of the relation between the initial stellar mass and the compact remnant mass. We show that an unimodal observational mass distribution of black holes can be produced by a power-law initial mass function and a monotonic “remnant mass versus initial mass” relation.

  15. Mass inflation in the loop black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Eric G.; Mann, Robert; Modesto, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    In classical general relativity the Cauchy horizon within a two-horizon black hole is unstable via a phenomenon known as mass inflation, in which the mass parameter (and the spacetime curvature) of the black hole diverges at the Cauchy horizon. Here we study this effect for loop black holes - quantum gravitationally corrected black holes from loop quantum gravity - whose construction alleviates the r=0 singularity present in their classical counterparts. We use a simplified model of mass inflation, which makes use of the generalized Dray-'t Hooft relation, to conclude that the Cauchy horizon of loop black holes indeed results in a curvature singularity similar to that found in classical black holes. The Dray-'t Hooft relation is of particular utility in the loop black hole because it does not directly rely upon Einstein's field equations. We elucidate some of the interesting and counterintuitive properties of the loop black hole, and corroborate our results using an alternate model of mass inflation due to Ori.

  16. Mass of a Black Hole Firewall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, M. A.; Kluźniak, W.; Lasota, J.-P.

    2014-03-01

    Quantum entanglement of Hawking radiation has been supposed to give rise to a Planck density "firewall" near the event horizon of old black holes. We show that Planck density firewalls are excluded by Einstein's equations for black holes of mass exceeding the Planck mass. We find an upper limit of 1/(8πM) to the surface density of a firewall in a Schwarzschild black hole of mass M, translating for astrophysical black holes into a firewall density smaller than the Planck density by more than 30 orders of magnitude. A strict upper limit on the firewall density is given by the Planck density times the ratio MPl/(8πM).

  17. Mass inflation inside black holes revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav I

    2014-01-01

    The mass inflation phenomenon implies that black hole interiors are unstable due to a back-reaction divergence of the perturbed black hole mass function at the Cauchy horizon. The mass inflation was initially derived by using the generalized Dray–’t Hooft–Redmount (DTR) relation in the linear approximation of the Einstein equations near the perturbed Cauchy horizon of the Reissner–Nordström black hole. However, this linear approximation for the DTR relation is improper for the highly nonlinear behavior of back-reaction perturbations at the black hole horizons. An additional weak point in the standard mass inflation calculations is in a fallacious using of the global Cauchy horizon as a place for the maximal growth of the back-reaction perturbations instead of the local inner apparent horizon. It is derived the new spherically symmetric back-reaction solution for two counter-streaming light-like fluxes near the inner apparent horizon of the charged black hole by taking into account its separation from the Cauchy horizon. In this solution the back-reaction perturbations of the background metric are truly the largest at the inner apparent horizon, but, nevertheless, remain small. The back reaction, additionally, removes the infinite blue-shift singularity at the inner apparent horizon and at the Cauchy horizon. (paper)

  18. Rotating black holes at future colliders. III. Determination of black hole evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Daisuke; Oda, Kin-ya; Park, Seong Chan

    2006-01-01

    TeV scale gravity scenario predicts that the black hole production dominates over all other interactions above the scale and that the Large Hadron Collider will be a black hole factory. Such higher-dimensional black holes mainly decay into the standard model fields via the Hawking radiation whose spectrum can be computed from the greybody factor. Here we complete the series of our work by showing the greybody factors and the resultant spectra for the brane-localized spinor and vector field emissions for arbitrary frequencies. Combining these results with the previous works, we determine the complete radiation spectra and the subsequent time evolution of the black hole. We find that, for a typical event, well more than half a black hole mass is emitted when the hole is still highly rotating, confirming our previous claim that it is important to take into account the angular momentum of black holes

  19. The mass formula for an exotic BTZ black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Baocheng, E-mail: zhangbc.zhang@yahoo.com

    2016-04-15

    An exotic Bañados–Teitelboim–Zanelli (BTZ) black hole has an angular momentum larger than its mass in three dimension (3D), which suggests the possibility that cosmic censorship could be violated if angular momentum is extracted by the Penrose process. In this paper, we propose a mass formula for the exotic BTZ black hole and show no violation of weak cosmic censorship in the gedanken process above by understanding properly its mass formula. Unlike the other black holes, the total energy of the exotic BTZ black hole is represented by the angular momentum instead of the mass, which supports a basic point of view that the same geometry should be determined by the same energy in 3D general relativity whose equation of motion can be given either by normal 3D Einstein gravity or by exotic 3D Einstein gravity. However, only the mass of the exotic black hole is related to the thermodynamics and other forms of energy are “dumb”, which is consistent with the earlier thermodynamic analysis about exotic black holes.

  20. The mass formula for an exotic BTZ black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Baocheng

    2016-01-01

    An exotic Bañados–Teitelboim–Zanelli (BTZ) black hole has an angular momentum larger than its mass in three dimension (3D), which suggests the possibility that cosmic censorship could be violated if angular momentum is extracted by the Penrose process. In this paper, we propose a mass formula for the exotic BTZ black hole and show no violation of weak cosmic censorship in the gedanken process above by understanding properly its mass formula. Unlike the other black holes, the total energy of the exotic BTZ black hole is represented by the angular momentum instead of the mass, which supports a basic point of view that the same geometry should be determined by the same energy in 3D general relativity whose equation of motion can be given either by normal 3D Einstein gravity or by exotic 3D Einstein gravity. However, only the mass of the exotic black hole is related to the thermodynamics and other forms of energy are “dumb”, which is consistent with the earlier thermodynamic analysis about exotic black holes.

  1. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, Will M.; Sravan, Niharika; Kalogera, Vicky; Cantrell, Andrew; Kreidberg, Laura; Bailyn, Charles D.; Mandel, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    We perform a Bayesian analysis of the mass distribution of stellar-mass black holes using the observed masses of 15 low-mass X-ray binary systems undergoing Roche lobe overflow and 5 high-mass, wind-fed X-ray binary systems. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo calculations, we model the mass distribution both parametrically—as a power law, exponential, Gaussian, combination of two Gaussians, or log-normal distribution—and non-parametrically—as histograms with varying numbers of bins. We provide confidence bounds on the shape of the mass distribution in the context of each model and compare the models with each other by calculating their relative Bayesian evidence as supported by the measurements, taking into account the number of degrees of freedom of each model. The mass distribution of the low-mass systems is best fit by a power law, while the distribution of the combined sample is best fit by the exponential model. This difference indicates that the low-mass subsample is not consistent with being drawn from the distribution of the combined population. We examine the existence of a 'gap' between the most massive neutron stars and the least massive black holes by considering the value, M 1% , of the 1% quantile from each black hole mass distribution as the lower bound of black hole masses. Our analysis generates posterior distributions for M 1% ; the best model (the power law) fitted to the low-mass systems has a distribution of lower bounds with M 1% >4.3 M sun with 90% confidence, while the best model (the exponential) fitted to all 20 systems has M 1% >4.5 M sun with 90% confidence. We conclude that our sample of black hole masses provides strong evidence of a gap between the maximum neutron star mass and the lower bound on black hole masses. Our results on the low-mass sample are in qualitative agreement with those of Ozel et al., although our broad model selection analysis more reliably reveals the best-fit quantitative description of the underlying mass

  2. Black Hole Mass Determination In the X-Ray Binary 4U 1630-47: Scaling of Spectral and Variability Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifina, Elena; Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive investigation on the evolution of spectral and timing properties of the Galactic black hole candidate 4U 1630-47 during its spectral transitions. In particular, we show how a scaling of the correlation of the photon index of the Comptonized spectral component gamma with low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), ?(sub L), and mass accretion rate, M, can be applied to the black hole mass and the inclination angle estimates.We analyze the transition episodes observed with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and BeppoSAX satellites.We find that the broadband X-ray energy spectra of 4U 1630-47 during all spectral states can be modeled by a combination of a thermal component, a Comptonized component, and a red-skewed iron-line component. We also establish that gamma monotonically increases during transition from the low-hard state to the high-soft state and then saturates for high mass accretion rates. The index saturation levels vary for different transition episodes. Correlations of gamma versus ?(sub L) also show saturation at gamma (is) approximately 3. Gamma -M and gamma -?(sub L) correlations with their index saturation revealed in 4U 1630-47 are similar to those established in a number of other black hole candidates and can be considered as an observational evidence for the presence of a black hole in these sources. The scaling technique, which relies on XTE J1550-564, GRO 1655-40, and H1743-322 as reference sources, allows us to evaluate a black hole mass in 4U 1630-47 yielding M(sub BH) (is) approximately 10 +/- 0.1 solar masses and to constrain the inclination angle of i (is) approximately less than 70 deg.

  3. Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jenny E

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the gap between the approximately ten solar mass 'stellar mass' black holes and the 'supermassive' black holes of millions to billions of solar masses are the elusive 'intermediate-mass' black holes. Their discovery is key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth soon after the Big Bang. Currently, tentative evidence suggests that the progenitors of supermassive black holes were formed as ∼10(4)-10(5) M(⊙) black holes via the direct collapse of gas. Ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes at galaxy centres will help shed light on this formation mechanism.

  4. Stellar-Mass Black Holes and their Progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.; Uttley, [No Value; Nandra, [No Value; Barret, [No Value; Matt, [No Value; Paerels, [No Value; Mendez, [No Value; Diaz-Trigo, [No Value; Cappi, [No Value; Kitamoto, [No Value; Nowak, [No Value; Wilms, [No Value; Rothschild, [No Value; Smith, [No Value; Weisskopf, [No Value; Terashima, [No Value; Ueda, [No Value

    2009-01-01

    If a black hole has a low spin value, it must double its mass to reach a high spin parameter (Volonteri et al. 2005). Although this is easily accomplished through mergers or accretion in the case of supermassive black holes in galactic centers, it is impossible for stellar-mass black holes in X-ray

  5. Accretion onto stellar mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    I present work on the accretion onto stellar mass black holes in several scenarios. Due to dynamical friction stellar mass black holes are expected to form high density cusps in the inner parsec of our Galaxy. These compact remnants may be accreting cold dense gas present there, and give rise to potentially observable X-ray emission. I build a simple but detailed time-dependent model of such emission. Future observations of the distribution and orbits of the gas in the inner parsec of Sgr A* will put tighter constraints on the cusp of compact remnants. GRS 1915+105 is an LMXB, whose large orbital period implies a very large accretion disc and explains the extraordinary duration of its current outburst. I present smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of the accretion disc. The models includes the thermo-viscous instability, irradiation from the central object and wind loss. I find that the outburst of GRS 1915+105 should last a minimum of 20 years and up to ˜ 100 years if the irradiation is playing a significant role in this system. The predicted recurrence times are of the order of 104 years, making the duty cycle of GRS 1915+105 to be a few 0.1%. I present a simple analytical method to describe the observable behaviour of long period black hole LMXBs, similar to GRS 1915+105. Constructing two simple models for the surface density in the disc, outburst and quiescence times are calculated as a function of orbital period. LMXBs are an important constituent of the X-ray light function (XLF) of giant elliptical galaxies. I find that the duty cycle can vary considerably with orbital period, with implications for modelling the XLF.

  6. Two stellar-mass black holes in the globular cluster M22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J; Miller-Jones, James C A; Seth, Anil C

    2012-10-04

    Hundreds of stellar-mass black holes probably form in a typical globular star cluster, with all but one predicted to be ejected through dynamical interactions. Some observational support for this idea is provided by the lack of X-ray-emitting binary stars comprising one black hole and one other star ('black-hole/X-ray binaries') in Milky Way globular clusters, even though many neutron-star/X-ray binaries are known. Although a few black holes have been seen in globular clusters around other galaxies, the masses of these cannot be determined, and some may be intermediate-mass black holes that form through exotic mechanisms. Here we report the presence of two flat-spectrum radio sources in the Milky Way globular cluster M22, and we argue that these objects are black holes of stellar mass (each ∼10-20 times more massive than the Sun) that are accreting matter. We find a high ratio of radio-to-X-ray flux for these black holes, consistent with the larger predicted masses of black holes in globular clusters compared to those outside. The identification of two black holes in one cluster shows that ejection of black holes is not as efficient as predicted by most models, and we argue that M22 may contain a total population of ∼5-100 black holes. The large core radius of M22 could arise from heating produced by the black holes.

  7. Einstein's Gift: Stellar Mass Black Holes in the LIGO Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadonati, Laura; Georgia Institute of Technology, LIGO-Virgo Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational waves from the coalescence of black hole binary systems in LIGO has provided the first evidence for heavy stellar mass black holes. In this talk, I will review the observational evidence for black holes in LIGO data, its astrophysical implications and the plans for the near and long term future of ground based gravitational wave detection of black hole binary coalescences.

  8. Measuring the Binary Black Hole Mass Spectrum with an Astrophysically Motivated Parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Colm; Thrane, Eric

    2018-04-01

    Gravitational-wave detections have revealed a previously unknown population of stellar mass black holes with masses above 20 M ⊙. These observations provide a new way to test models of stellar evolution for massive stars. By considering the astrophysical processes likely to determine the shape of the binary black hole mass spectrum, we construct a parameterized model to capture key spectral features that relate gravitational-wave data to theoretical stellar astrophysics. In particular, we model the signature of pulsational pair-instability supernovae, which are expected to cause all stars with initial mass 100 M ⊙ ≲ M ≲ 150 M ⊙ to form ∼40 M ⊙ black holes. This would cause a cutoff in the black hole mass spectrum along with an excess of black holes near 40 M ⊙. We carry out a simulated data study to illustrate some of the stellar physics that can be inferred using gravitational-wave measurements of binary black holes and demonstrate several such inferences that might be made in the near future. First, we measure the minimum and maximum stellar black hole mass. Second, we infer the presence of a peak due to pair-instability supernovae. Third, we measure the distribution of black hole mass ratios. Finally, we show how inadequate models of the black hole mass spectrum lead to biased estimates of the merger rate and the amplitude of the stochastic gravitational-wave background.

  9. LOW-MASS AGNs AND THEIR RELATION TO THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE OF BLACK HOLE ACCRETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gültekin, Kayhan; King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Cackett, Edward M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 West Hancock Street, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Pinkney, Jason, E-mail: kayhan@umich.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio Northern University, 525 S. Main St., Ada, OH 45810 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    We put active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with low-mass black holes on the fundamental plane of black hole accretion—the plane that relates X-ray emission, radio emission, and mass of an accreting black hole—to test whether or not the relation is universal for both stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. We use new Chandra X-ray and Very Large Array radio observations of a sample of black holes with masses less than 10{sup 6.3} M {sub ☉}, which have the best leverage for determining whether supermassive black holes and stellar-mass black holes belong on the same plane. Our results suggest that the two different classes of black holes both belong on the same relation. These results allow us to conclude that the fundamental plane is suitable for use in estimating supermassive black hole masses smaller than ∼10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, in testing for intermediate-mass black holes, and in estimating masses at high accretion rates.

  10. Black hole masses in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Kelly D.

    2010-11-01

    We present the complete results from two, high sampling-rate, multi-month, spectrophotometric reverberation mapping campaigns undertaken to obtain either new or improved Hbeta reverberation lag measurements for several relatively low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have reliably measured the time delay between variations in the continuum and Hbeta emission line in seven local Seyfert 1 galaxies. These measurements are used to calculate the mass of the supermassive black hole at the center of each of these AGNs. We place our results in context to the most current calibration of the broad-line region (BLR) RBLR-L relationship, where our results remove many outliers and significantly reduce the scatter at the low-luminosity end of this relationship. A detailed analysis of the data from our high sampling rate, multi-month reverberation mapping campaign in 2007 reveals that the Hbeta emission region within the BLRs of several nearby AGNs exhibit a variety of kinematic behaviors. Through a velocity-resolved reverberation analysis of the broad Hbeta emission-line flux variations in our sample, we reconstruct velocity-resolved kinematic signals for our entire sample and clearly see evidence for outflowing, infalling, and virialized BLR gas motions in NGC 3227, NGC 3516, and NGC 5548, respectively. Finally, we explore the nature of systematic errors that can arise in measurements of black hole masses from single-epoch spectra of AGNs by utilizing the many epochs available for NGC 5548 and PG1229+204 from reverberation mapping databases. In particular, we examine systematics due to AGN variability, contamination due to constant spectral components (i.e., narrow lines and host galaxy flux), data quality (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio, S/N), and blending of spectral features. We investigate the effect that each of these systematics has on the precision and accuracy of single-epoch masses calculated from two commonly-used line-width measures by comparing these

  11. Asteroids mass determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Basic methods for asteroid mass determinations and their errors are discussed. New results and some current developments in the astrometric method are reviewed. New methods and techniques, such as electronic imaging, radar ranging and space probes are becoming important for asteroid mass determinations. Mass and density estimations on rotational properties and possible satelites are also discussed

  12. EDDINGTON-LIMITED ACCRETION AND THE BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION AT REDSHIFT 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willott, Chris J.; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Schade, David; Albert, Loic; Arzoumanian, Doris; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain; Delorme, Philippe; Reyle, Celine

    2010-01-01

    We present discovery observations of a quasar in the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS) at redshift z = 6.44. We also use near-infrared spectroscopy of nine CFHQS quasars at z ∼ 6 to determine black hole masses. These are compared with similar estimates for more luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars to investigate the relationship between black hole mass and quasar luminosity. We find a strong correlation between Mg II FWHM and UV luminosity and that most quasars at this early epoch are accreting close to the Eddington limit. Thus, these quasars appear to be in an early stage of their life cycle where they are building up their black hole mass exponentially. Combining these results with the quasar luminosity function, we derive the black hole mass function at z = 6. Our black hole mass function is ∼10 4 times lower than at z = 0 and substantially below estimates from previous studies. The main uncertainties which could increase the black hole mass function are a larger population of obscured quasars at high redshift than is observed at low redshift and/or a low quasar duty cycle at z = 6. In comparison, the global stellar mass function is only ∼10 2 times lower at z = 6 than at z = 0. The difference between the black hole and stellar mass function evolution is due to either rapid early star formation which is not limited by radiation pressure as is the case for black hole growth or inefficient black hole seeding. Our work predicts that the black hole mass-stellar mass relation for a volume-limited sample of galaxies declines rapidly at very high redshift. This is in contrast to the observed increase at 4 < z < 6 from the local relation if one just studies the most massive black holes.

  13. Supermassive Black Holes in Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Calibration of the Black Hole Mass-Velocity Dispersion Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onken, Christopher A.; Ferrarese, Laura; Merritt, David

    2004-01-01

    We calibrate reverberation-based black hole masses in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by using the correlation between black hole mass, M, and bulge/spheroid stellar velocity dispersion, sigma. We use new measurements of sigma for 6 AGNs and published velocity dispersions for 10 others......, in conjunction with improved reverberation mapping results, to determine the scaling factor required to bring reverberation-based black hole masses into agreement with the quiescent galaxy M-sigma relationship. The scatter in the AGN black hole masses is found to be less than a factor of 3. The current...

  14. Can the graviton have a large mass near black holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2018-04-01

    The mass of the graviton, if nonzero, is usually considered to be very small, e.g., of the Hubble scale, from several observational constraints. In this paper, we propose a gravity model where the graviton mass is very small in the usual weak gravity environments, below all the current graviton mass bounds, but becomes much larger in the strong gravity regime such as a black hole's vicinity. For black holes in this model, significant deviations from general relativity emerge very close to the black hole horizon and alter the black hole quasinormal modes, which can be extracted from the ringdown wave form of black hole binary mergers. Also, the enhancement of the graviton mass near the horizon can result in echoes in the late-time ringdown, which can be verified in the upcoming gravitational wave observations of higher sensitivity.

  15. Black hole mass and angular momentum in topologically massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchareb, Adel; Clement, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    We extend the Abbott-Deser-Tekin approach to the computation of the Killing charge for a solution of topologically massive gravity (TMG) linearized around an arbitrary background. This is then applied to evaluate the mass and angular momentum of black hole solutions of TMG with non-constant curvature asymptotics. The resulting values, together with the appropriate black hole entropy, fit nicely into the first law of black hole thermodynamics

  16. Black hole mass and angular momentum in topologically massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchareb, Adel; Clement, Gerard [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique LAPTH (CNRS), BP 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux cedex (France)

    2007-11-21

    We extend the Abbott-Deser-Tekin approach to the computation of the Killing charge for a solution of topologically massive gravity (TMG) linearized around an arbitrary background. This is then applied to evaluate the mass and angular momentum of black hole solutions of TMG with non-constant curvature asymptotics. The resulting values, together with the appropriate black hole entropy, fit nicely into the first law of black hole thermodynamics.

  17. PRECISE BLACK HOLE MASSES FROM MEGAMASER DISKS: BLACK HOLE-BULGE RELATIONS AT LOW MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Kim, Minjin; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Condon, James J.; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Reid, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of efforts to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M BH ∼>10 8 M sun ) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L 2 O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al., yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B and C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point. We also perform bulge-to-disk decomposition of a subset of five of these galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. The maser galaxies as a group fall below the M BH -σ * relation defined by elliptical galaxies. We show, now with very precise BH mass measurements, that the low-scatter power-law relation between M BH and σ * seen in elliptical galaxies is not universal. The elliptical galaxy M BH -σ * relation cannot be used to derive the BH mass function at low mass or the zero point for active BH masses. The processes (perhaps BH self-regulation or minor merging) that operate at higher mass have not effectively established an M BH -σ * relation in this low-mass regime.

  18. From X-ray binaries to quasars black holes on all mass scales black holes on all mass scales

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, L C; Maccarone, T J

    2005-01-01

    This volume brings together contributions from many of the world's leading authorities on black hole accretion. The papers within represent part of a new movement to make use of the relative advantages of studying stellar mass and supermassive black holes and to bring together the knowledge gained from the two approaches. The topics discussed here run the gamut of the state of the art in black hole observational and theoretical work-variability, spectroscopy, disk-jet connections, and multi-wavelength campaigns on black holes are all covered. Reprinted from ASTROPHYSICS AND SPACE SCIENCE, 300:1-3 (2005)

  19. Ion Mass Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (100) is described for determining the mass of ions, the apparatus configured to hold a plasma (101 ) having a plasma potential. The apparatus (100) comprises an electrode (102) having a surface extending in a surface plane and an insulator (104) interfacing with the electrode (102......, and a processing unit (108) configured to interpret the detected impact locations in terms of the mass of the impacting ions....

  20. Feedback Limits to Maximum Seed Masses of Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Ferrara, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The most massive black holes observed in the universe weigh up to ∼10 10 M ⊙ , nearly independent of redshift. Reaching these final masses likely required copious accretion and several major mergers. Employing a dynamical approach that rests on the role played by a new, relevant physical scale—the transition radius—we provide a theoretical calculation of the maximum mass achievable by a black hole seed that forms in an isolated halo, one that scarcely merged. Incorporating effects at the transition radius and their impact on the evolution of accretion in isolated halos, we are able to obtain new limits for permitted growth. We find that large black hole seeds ( M • ≳ 10 4 M ⊙ ) hosted in small isolated halos ( M h ≲ 10 9 M ⊙ ) accreting with relatively small radiative efficiencies ( ϵ ≲ 0.1) grow optimally in these circumstances. Moreover, we show that the standard M • – σ relation observed at z ∼ 0 cannot be established in isolated halos at high- z , but requires the occurrence of mergers. Since the average limiting mass of black holes formed at z ≳ 10 is in the range 10 4–6 M ⊙ , we expect to observe them in local galaxies as intermediate-mass black holes, when hosted in the rare halos that experienced only minor or no merging events. Such ancient black holes, formed in isolation with subsequent scant growth, could survive, almost unchanged, until present.

  1. A 400-solar-mass black hole in the galaxy M82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R; Strohmayer, Tod E; Mushotzky, Richard F

    2014-09-04

    M82 X-1, the brightest X-ray source in the galaxy M82, has been thought to be an intermediate-mass black hole (100 to 10,000 solar masses) because of its extremely high luminosity and variability characteristics, although some models suggest that its mass may be only about 20 solar masses. The previous mass estimates were based on scaling relations that use low-frequency characteristic timescales which have large intrinsic uncertainties. For stellar-mass black holes, we know that the high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (100-450 hertz) in the X-ray emission that occur in a 3:2 frequency ratio are stable and scale in frequency inversely with black hole mass with a reasonably small dispersion. The discovery of such stable oscillations thus potentially offers an alternative and less ambiguous means of mass determination for intermediate-mass black holes, but has hitherto not been realized. Here we report stable, twin-peak (3:2 frequency ratio) X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations from M82 X-1 at frequencies of 3.32 ± 0.06 hertz and 5.07 ± 0.06 hertz. Assuming that we can extrapolate the inverse-mass scaling that holds for stellar-mass black holes, we estimate the black hole mass of M82 X-1 to be 428 ± 105 solar masses. In addition, we can estimate the mass using the relativistic precession model, from which we get a value of 415 ± 63 solar masses.

  2. Black hole fusion in the extreme mass ratio limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emparan, Roberto; Martínez, Marina; Zilhão, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    We present a simple, general, and accurate construction of the event horizons for the fusion of two neutral, rotating black holes with arbitrary orientation and values of their spins, in the extreme mass ratio limit where one black hole is much larger than the other. We compute several parameters that characterize the fusion and investigate their dependence on the black hole spin and orientation axis. We also exhibit and study the appearance of transient toroidal topology of the horizon. An earlier conjecture about universal critical exponents before and after an axisymmetric pinch is proven.

  3. Black hole mass formula in the membrane paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, José P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2018-03-01

    The membrane paradigm approach adopts a timelike surface, stretched out off the null event horizon, to study several important black hole properties. We use this powerful tool to give a direct derivation of the black hole mass formula in the static and stationary cases without and with electric field. Since here the membrane is a self-gravitating material system, we go beyond the usual applicability on test particles and test fields of the paradigm.

  4. Black hole constraints on the running-mass inflation model

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Samuel M; Grivell, Ian J; Liddle, Andrew R

    2000-01-01

    The running-mass inflation model, which has strong motivation from particle physics, predicts density perturbations whose spectral index is strongly scale-dependent. For a large part of parameter space the spectrum rises sharply to short scales. In this paper we compute the production of primordial black holes, using both analytic and numerical calculation of the density perturbation spectra. Observational constraints from black hole production are shown to exclude a large region of otherwise...

  5. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-21

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day 'dormant' descendants of this population of 'active' black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall--the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600--a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes.

  6. Magnetic Origin of Black Hole Winds Across the Mass Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Tombesi, Francesco; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Black hole accretion disks appear to produce invariably plasma outflows that result in blue-shifted absorption features in their spectra. The X-ray absorption-line properties of these outflows are quite diverse, ranging in velocity from non-relativistic (approx. 300 km/sec) to sub-relativistic (approx. 0.1c where c is the speed of light) and a similarly broad range in the ionization states of the wind plasma. We report here that semi-analytic, self-similar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind models that have successfully accounted for the X-ray absorber properties of supermassive black holes, also fit well the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the accreting stellar-mass black hole, GRO J1655-40. This provides an explicit theoretical argument of their MHD origin (aligned with earlier observational claims) and supports the notion of a universal magnetic structure of the observed winds across all known black hole sizes.

  7. Mass accretion rate fluctuations in black hole X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapisarda, S.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is about the first systematic and quantitative application of propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations models to black hole X-ray binaries. Black hole X-ray binaries are systems consisting of a solar mass star orbiting around a stellar mass black hole. Eventually, the black hole

  8. REDSHIFT EVOLUTION IN BLACK HOLE-BULGE RELATIONS: TESTING C IV-BASED BLACK HOLE MASSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Ludwig, Randi R.

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine claims for redshift evolution in black hole-bulge scaling relations based on lensed quasars. In particular, we refine the black hole (BH) mass estimates using measurements of Balmer lines from near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with Triplespec at Apache Point Observatory. In support of previous work, we find a large scatter between Balmer and UV line widths, both Mg IIλλ2796, 2803 and C IVλλ1548, 1550. There is tentative evidence that C III]λ1909, despite being a blend of multiple transitions, may correlate well with Mg II, although a larger sample is needed for a real calibration. Most importantly, we find no systematic changes in the estimated BH masses for the lensed sample based on Balmer lines, providing additional support to the interpretation that black holes were overly massive compared to their host galaxies at high redshift.

  9. Effective photon mass from black-hole formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slava Emelyanov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We compute the value of effective photon mass mγ at one-loop level in QED in the background of small (1010 g≲M≪1016 g spherically symmetric black hole in asymptotically flat spacetime. This effect is associated with the modification of electron/positron propagator in presence of event horizon. Physical manifestations of black-hole environment are compared with those of hot neutral plasma. We estimate the distance to the nearest black hole from the upper bound on mγ obtained in the Coulomb-law test. We also find that corrections to electron mass me and fine structure constant α at one-loop level in QED are negligible in the weak gravity regime.

  10. Feedback Limits to Maximum Seed Masses of Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Natarajan, Priyamvada [Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Ferrara, Andrea [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2017-02-01

    The most massive black holes observed in the universe weigh up to ∼10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}, nearly independent of redshift. Reaching these final masses likely required copious accretion and several major mergers. Employing a dynamical approach that rests on the role played by a new, relevant physical scale—the transition radius—we provide a theoretical calculation of the maximum mass achievable by a black hole seed that forms in an isolated halo, one that scarcely merged. Incorporating effects at the transition radius and their impact on the evolution of accretion in isolated halos, we are able to obtain new limits for permitted growth. We find that large black hole seeds ( M {sub •} ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ⊙}) hosted in small isolated halos ( M {sub h} ≲ 10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙}) accreting with relatively small radiative efficiencies ( ϵ ≲ 0.1) grow optimally in these circumstances. Moreover, we show that the standard M {sub •}– σ relation observed at z ∼ 0 cannot be established in isolated halos at high- z , but requires the occurrence of mergers. Since the average limiting mass of black holes formed at z ≳ 10 is in the range 10{sup 4–6} M {sub ⊙}, we expect to observe them in local galaxies as intermediate-mass black holes, when hosted in the rare halos that experienced only minor or no merging events. Such ancient black holes, formed in isolation with subsequent scant growth, could survive, almost unchanged, until present.

  11. Tidal disruption of white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling ultra-close encounters between a white dwarf and a spinning, intermediate mass black hole requires a full general relativistic treatment of gravity. This paper summarizes results from such a study. Our results show that the disruption process and prompt accretion of the debris strongly depend on the magnitude and orientation of the black hole spin. On the other hand, the late-time accretion onto the black hole follows the same decay, Ṁ ∝  t−5/3, estimated from Newtonian gravity disruption studies. The spectrum of the fallback material peaks in the soft X-rays and sustains Eddington luminosity for 1–3 yrs after the disruption. The orientation of the black hole spin has also a profound effect on how the outflowing debris obscures the central region. The disruption produces a burst of gravitational radiation with characteristic frequencies of ∼3.2 Hz and strain amplitudes of ∼10−18 for galactic intermediate mass black holes.

  12. Mass and free energy of Lovelock black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie; Ray, Sourya

    2011-01-01

    An explicit formula for the ADM mass of an asymptotically AdS black hole in a generic Lovelock gravity theory is presented, identical in form to that in Einstein gravity, but multiplied by a function of the Lovelock coupling constants and the AdS curvature radius. A Gauss' law-type formula relates the mass, which is an integral at infinity, to an expression depending instead on the horizon radius. This and other thermodynamic quantities, such as the free energy, are then analyzed in the limits of small and large horizon radius, yielding results that are independent of the detailed choice of Lovelock couplings. In even dimensions, the temperature diverges in both limits, implying the existence of a minimum temperature for black holes. The negative free energy of sufficiently large black holes implies the existence of a Hawking-Page transition. In odd dimensions, the temperature still diverges for large black holes, which again have negative free energy. However, the temperature vanishes as the horizon radius tends to zero and sufficiently small black holes have positive specific heat.

  13. A SCALING RELATION BETWEEN MEGAMASER DISK RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardle, Mark; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditions conducive to the formation of 22 GHz H 2 O masers. For initial cloud column densities ∼ 23.5 cm –2 the disk is non-self-gravitating, consistent with the ordered kinematics of the edge-on megamaser disks; for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic center.

  14. A Global Spectral Study of Stellar-Mass Black Holes with Unprecedented Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garci, Javier

    There are two well established populations of black holes: (i) stellar-mass black holes with masses in the range 5 to 30 solar masses, many millions of which are present in each galaxy in the universe, and (ii) supermassive black holes with masses in the range millions to billions of solar masses, which reside in the nucleus of most galaxies. Supermassive black holes play a leading role in shaping galaxies and are central to cosmology. However, they are hard to study because they are dim and they scarcely vary on a human timescale. Luckily, their variability and full range of behavior can be very effectively studied by observing their stellar-mass cousins, which display in miniature the full repertoire of a black hole over the course of a single year. The archive of data collected by NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) during its 16 year mission is of first importance for the study of stellar-mass black holes. While our ultimate goal is a complete spectral analysis of all the stellar-mass black hole data in the RXTE archive, the goal of this proposal is the global study of six of these black holes. The two key methodologies we bring to the study are: (1) Our recently developed calibration tool that increases the sensitivity of RXTE's detector by up to an order of magnitude; and (2) the leading X-ray spectral "reflection" models that are arguably the most effective means currently available for probing the effects of strong gravity near the event horizon of a black hole. For each of the six black holes, we will fit our models to all the archived spectral data and determine several key parameters describing the black hole and the 10-million-degree gas that surrounds it. Of special interest will be our measurement of the spin (or rate of rotation) of each black hole, which can be as high as tens of thousands of RPM. Profoundly, all the properties of an astronomical black hole are completely defined by specifying its spin and its mass. The main goal of this

  15. Testing the blazar sequence and black hole mass scaling with BL Lac objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Markoff, Sera; Anderson, Scott F.; Kelly, Brandon C.; Körding, Elmar; Trager, Scott C.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Belloni, Tomaso

    Jets from accreting black holes appear remarkably similar over eight orders of magnitude in black hole mass, with more massive black holes generally launching more powerful jets. For example, there is an observed correlation, termed the fundamental plane of black hole accretion, between black hole

  16. Testing the blazar sequence and black hole mass scaling with BL Lac objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, R.M.; Markoff, S.; Anderson, S.F.; Kelly, B.C.; Körding, E.; Trager, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Jets from accreting black holes appear remarkably similar over eight orders of magnitude in black hole mass, with more massive black holes generally launching more powerful jets. For example, there is an observed correlation, termed the fundamental plane of black hole accretion, between black hole

  17. Stellar-Mass Black Holes in the Solar Neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, J S R; Kolb, Edward W; Chisholm, James R.; Dodelson, Scott; Kolb, Edward W.

    2003-01-01

    We search for nearby, isolated, accreting, ``stellar-mass'' (3 to $100M_\\odot$) black holes. Models suggest a synchrotron spectrum in visible wavelengths and some emission in X-ray wavelengths. Of 3.7 million objects in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Early Data Release, about 150,000 have colors and properties consistent with such a spectrum, and 47 of these objects are X-ray sources from the ROSAT All Sky Survey. Optical spectra exclude seven of these. We give the positions and colors of these 40 black-hole candidates, as well as a measure of their distances from the stellar loci in color--color space. We discuss uncertainties the expected number of sources, and the contribution of black holes to local dark matter.

  18. Search for Gravitational Waves from Intermediate Mass Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of non-spinning intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in the total mass range 100-450 solar Mass and with the component mass ratios between 1:1 and 4:1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the IMBH mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88 + 88 solar Mass , for non-spinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc(exp 3) per Myr at the 90% confidence level.

  19. Searching for intermediate-mass black holes via optical variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Levine, Ryan; Moran, Edward C.; Kay, Laura

    2018-01-01

    A handful of nearby dwarf galaxies with intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in their nuclei display significant optical variability on short timescales. To investigate whether dwarf galaxy AGNs as a class exhibit similar variability, we have monitored a sample of low-mass galaxies that possess spectroscopically confirmed type 1 AGNs. However, because of the variations in seeing, focus, and guiding errors that occur in images taken at different epochs, analyses based on aperture photometry are ineffective. We have thus developed a new method for matching point-spread functions in images that permits use of image subtraction photometry techniques. Applying this method to our photometric data, we have confirmed that several galaxies with IMBHs are indeed variable, which suggests that variability can be used to search for IMBHs in low-mass galaxies whose emission-line properties are ambiguous.

  20. Radio Detections During Two State Transitions of the Intermediate-Mass Black Hole HLX-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Natalie; Cseh, David; Lenc, Emil; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Corbel, Stephane; Farrell, Sean; Fender, Robert; Gehrels, Neil; Heywood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic jets are streams of plasma moving at appreciable fractions of the speed of light. They have been observed from stellar-mass black holes (approx. 3 to 20 solar masses) as well as supermassive black holes (approx.. 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 9) Solar Mass) found in the centers of most galaxies. Jets should also be produced by intermediate-mass black holes (approx. 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) Solar Mass), although evidence for this third class of black hole has, until recently, been weak. We report the detection of transient radio emission at the location of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which is consistent with a discrete jet ejection event. These observations also allow us to refine the mass estimate of the black hole to be between approx. 9 × 10(exp 3) Solar Mass and approx. 9 × 10(exp 4) Solar Mass.

  1. LISA extreme-mass-ratio inspiral events as probes of the black hole mass function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gair, Jonathan R.; Tang, Christopher; Volonteri, Marta

    2010-01-01

    One of the sources of gravitational waves for the proposed space-based gravitational wave detector, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), are the inspirals of compact objects into supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies--extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs). Using LISA observations, we will be able to measure the parameters of each EMRI system detected to very high precision. However, the statistics of the set of EMRI events observed by LISA will be more important in constraining astrophysical models than extremely precise measurements for individual systems. The black holes to which LISA is most sensitive are in a mass range that is difficult to probe using other techniques, so LISA provides an almost unique window onto these objects. In this paper we explore, using Bayesian techniques, the constraints that LISA EMRI observations can place on the mass function of black holes at low redshift. We describe a general framework for approaching inference of this type--using multiple observations in combination to constrain a parametrized source population. Assuming that the scaling of the EMRI rate with the black-hole mass is known and taking a black-hole distribution given by a simple power law, dn/dlnM=A 0 (M/M * ) α 0 , we find that LISA could measure the parameters to a precision of Δ(lnA 0 )∼0.08, and Δ(α 0 )∼0.03 for a reference model that predicts ∼1000 events. Even with as few as 10 events, LISA should constrain the slope to a precision ∼0.3, which is the current level of observational uncertainty in the low-mass slope of the black-hole mass function. We also consider a model in which A 0 and α 0 evolve with redshift, but find that EMRI observations alone do not have much power to probe such an evolution.

  2. Extreme mass ratio inspiral rates: dependence on the massive black hole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopman, Clovis

    2009-01-01

    We study the rate at which stars spiral into a massive black hole (MBH) due to the emission of gravitational waves (GWs), as a function of the mass M . of the MBH. In the context of our model, it is shown analytically that the rate approximately depends on the MBH mass as M -1/4 . . Numerical simulations confirm this result, and show that for all MBH masses, the event rate is highest for stellar black holes, followed by white dwarfs, and lowest for neutron stars. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is expected to see hundreds of these extreme mass ratio inspirals per year. Since the event rate derived here formally diverges as M . → 0, the model presented here cannot hold for MBHs of masses that are too low, and we discuss what the limitations of the model are.

  3. The mass of the central black hole in the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 5273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Horenstein, Daniel; Bazhaw, Craig; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Ou-Yang, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Matthew; Jones, Jeremy; Norris, Ryan P.; Parks, J. Robert; Saylor, Dicy; Teems, Katherine G.; Turner, Clay, E-mail: bentz@astro.gsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Suite 600, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    We present the results of a reverberation-mapping program targeting NGC 5273, a nearby early-type galaxy with a broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN). Over the course of the monitoring program, NGC 5273 showed strong variability that allowed us to measure time delays in the responses of the broad optical recombination lines to changes in the continuum flux. A weighted average of these measurements results in a black hole mass determination of M {sub BH} = (4.7 ± 1.6) × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. An estimate of the size of the black hole sphere of influence in NGC 5273 puts it just at the limit of the resolution achievable with current ground-based large aperture telescopes. NGC 5273 is therefore an important future target for a black hole mass determination from stellar dynamical modeling, especially because it is the only nearby early-type galaxy hosting an AGN with a reverberation-based mass, allowing the best comparison for the masses determined from these two techniques.

  4. ADM mass and quasilocal energy of black hole in the deformed Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole, we introduce the isolated horizon to study the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) black hole in the deformed Horava-Lifshitz gravity. This is because the KS black hole is more close to the Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole than the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. We find the horizon and ADM masses by using the first law of thermodynamics and the area-law entropy. The mass parameter m is identified with the quasilocal energy at infinity. Accordingly, we discuss the phase transition between the KS and Schwarzschild black holes by considering the heat capacity and free energy.

  5. Running-mass inflation model and primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drees, Manuel; Erfani, Encieh

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the question whether the running-mass inflation model allows the formation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) that are sufficiently long-lived to serve as candidates for Dark Matter. We incorporate recent cosmological data, including the WMAP 7-year results. Moreover, we include ''the running of the running'' of the spectral index of the power spectrum, as well as the renormalization group ''running of the running'' of the inflaton mass term. Our analysis indicates that formation of sufficiently heavy, and hence long-lived, PBHs still remains possible in this scenario. As a by-product, we show that the additional term in the inflaton potential still does not allow significant negative running of the spectral index

  6. THE BLACK HOLE MASS, STELLAR MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIO, AND DARK HALO IN M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, Karl; Thomas, Jens

    2009-01-01

    We model the dynamical structure of M87 (NGC4486) using high spatial resolution long-slit observations of stellar light in the central regions, two-dimensional stellar light kinematics out to half of the effective radius, and globular cluster velocities out to eight effective radii. We simultaneously fit for four parameters: black hole mass, dark halo core radius, dark halo circular velocity, and stellar mass-to-light (M/L) ratio. We find a black hole mass of 6.4(±0.5) x 10 9 M sun (the uncertainty is 68% confidence marginalized over the other parameters). The stellar M/L V = 6.3 ± 0.8. The best-fit dark halo core radius is 14 ± 2 kpc, assuming a cored logarithmic potential. The best-fit dark halo circular velocity is 715 ± 15 km s -1 . Our black hole mass is over a factor of 2 larger than previous stellar dynamical measures, and our derived stellar M/L ratio is two times lower than previous dynamical measures. When we do not include a dark halo, we measure a black hole mass and stellar M/L ratio that is consistent with previous measures, implying that the major difference is in the model assumptions. The stellar M/L ratio from our models is very similar to that derived from stellar population models of M87. The reason for the difference in the black hole mass is because we allow the M/L ratio to change with radius. The dark halo is degenerate with the stellar M/L ratio, which is subsequently degenerate with the black hole mass. We argue that dynamical models of galaxies that do not include the contribution from a dark halo may produce a biased result for the black hole mass. This bias is especially large for a galaxy with a shallow light profile such as M87, and may not be as severe in galaxies with steeper light profiles unless they have a large stellar population change with radius.

  7. Electromagnetic Signals Following Stellar-mass Black Hole Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mink, S. E. de; King, A., E-mail: S.E.deMink@uva.nl, E-mail: ark@leicester.ac.uk [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-04-10

    It is often assumed that gravitational-wave (GW) events resulting from the merger of stellar-mass black holes are unlikely to produce electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. We point out that the progenitor binary has probably shed a mass ≳10 M {sub ⊙} during its prior evolution. If even a tiny fraction of this gas is retained in a circumbinary disk, the sudden mass loss and recoil of the merged black hole shocks and heats it within hours of the GW event. Whether the resulting EM signal is detectable is uncertain. The optical depth through the disk is likely to be high enough that the prompt emission consists only of photons from its optically thin skin, while the majority may take years to emerge. However, if some mechanism can release more photons in a time comparable to the few-hour energy production time, the peak luminosity of the EM signal could be detectable. For a disk retaining only ∼10{sup −3} of the mass shed in the earlier binary evolution, medium-energy X-rays to infrared emission would be observable hours after the GW event for source distances of ∼500 Mpc. Events like this may already have been observed, but ascribed to unidentified active galactic nuclei. Improved sky localization should eventually allow identification based on spatial coincidence. A detection would provide unique constraints on formation scenarios and potentially offer tests of strong-field general relativity. Accordingly, we argue that the high scientific payoff of an EM detection fully justifies search campaigns.

  8. ON THE MAXIMUM MASS OF STELLAR BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Fryer, Chris L.; Bulik, Tomasz; Ruiter, Ashley; Valsecchi, Francesca; Vink, Jorick S.; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2010-01-01

    We present the spectrum of compact object masses: neutron stars and black holes (BHs) that originate from single stars in different environments. In particular, we calculate the dependence of maximum BH mass on metallicity and on some specific wind mass loss rates (e.g., Hurley et al. and Vink et al.). Our calculations show that the highest mass BHs observed in the Galaxy M bh ∼ 15 M sun in the high metallicity environment (Z = Z sun = 0.02) can be explained with stellar models and the wind mass loss rates adopted here. To reach this result we had to set luminous blue variable mass loss rates at the level of ∼10 -4 M sun yr -1 and to employ metallicity-dependent Wolf-Rayet winds. With such winds, calibrated on Galactic BH mass measurements, the maximum BH mass obtained for moderate metallicity (Z = 0.3 Z sun = 0.006) is M bh,max = 30 M sun . This is a rather striking finding as the mass of the most massive known stellar BH is M bh = 23-34 M sun and, in fact, it is located in a small star-forming galaxy with moderate metallicity. We find that in the very low (globular cluster-like) metallicity environment the maximum BH mass can be as high as M bh,max = 80 M sun (Z = 0.01 Z sun = 0.0002). It is interesting to note that X-ray luminosity from Eddington-limited accretion onto an 80 M sun BH is of the order of ∼10 40 erg s -1 and is comparable to luminosities of some known ultra-luminous X-ray sources. We emphasize that our results were obtained for single stars only and that binary interactions may alter these maximum BH masses (e.g., accretion from a close companion). This is strictly a proof-of-principle study which demonstrates that stellar models can naturally explain even the most massive known stellar BHs.

  9. Calculating the mass fraction of primordial black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Sam; Byrnes, Christian T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, North-South Road, Brighton (United Kingdom); Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: sy81@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: ctb22@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We reinspect the calculation for the mass fraction of primordial black holes (PBHs) which are formed from primordial perturbations, finding that performing the calculation using the comoving curvature perturbation R{sub c} in the standard way vastly overestimates the number of PBHs, by many orders of magnitude. This is because PBHs form shortly after horizon entry, meaning modes significantly larger than the PBH are unobservable and should not affect whether a PBH forms or not—this important effect is not taken into account by smoothing the distribution in the standard fashion. We discuss alternative methods and argue that the density contrast, Δ, should be used instead as super-horizon modes are damped by a factor k{sup 2}. We make a comparison between using a Press-Schechter approach and peaks theory, finding that the two are in close agreement in the region of interest. We also investigate the effect of varying the spectral index, and the running of the spectral index, on the abundance of primordial black holes.

  10. Calculating the mass fraction of primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Sam; Byrnes, Christian T.; Sasaki, Misao

    2014-01-01

    We reinspect the calculation for the mass fraction of primordial black holes (PBHs) which are formed from primordial perturbations, finding that performing the calculation using the comoving curvature perturbation R c in the standard way vastly overestimates the number of PBHs, by many orders of magnitude. This is because PBHs form shortly after horizon entry, meaning modes significantly larger than the PBH are unobservable and should not affect whether a PBH forms or not—this important effect is not taken into account by smoothing the distribution in the standard fashion. We discuss alternative methods and argue that the density contrast, Δ, should be used instead as super-horizon modes are damped by a factor k 2 . We make a comparison between using a Press-Schechter approach and peaks theory, finding that the two are in close agreement in the region of interest. We also investigate the effect of varying the spectral index, and the running of the spectral index, on the abundance of primordial black holes

  11. Establishing a relation between the mass and the spin of stellar-mass black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2013-08-09

    Stellar mass black holes (SMBHs), forming by the core collapse of very massive, rapidly rotating stars, are expected to exhibit a high density accretion disk around them developed from the spinning mantle of the collapsing star. A wide class of such disks, due to their high density and temperature, are effective emitters of neutrinos and hence called neutrino cooled disks. Tracking the physics relating the observed (neutrino) luminosity to the mass, spin of black holes (BHs) and the accretion rate (M) of such disks, here we establish a correlation between the spin and mass of SMBHs at their formation stage. Our work shows that spinning BHs are more massive than nonspinning BHs for a given M. However, slowly spinning BHs can turn out to be more massive than spinning BHs if M at their formation stage was higher compared to faster spinning BHs.

  12. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-12-08

    Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes.

  13. Further evidence for a supermassive black hole mass-pitch angle relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.; Hartley, Matthew; Lacy, Claud H. S. [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, 825 West Dickson Street, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Davis, Benjamin L.; Barrows, Robert Scott; Shields, Doug [Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, University of Arkansas, 202 Old Field House, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Seigar, Marc S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Bentz, Misty C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We present new and stronger evidence for a previously reported relationship between galactic spiral arm pitch angle P (a measure of the tightness of spiral structure) and the mass M {sub BH} of a disk galaxy's nuclear supermassive black hole (SMBH). We use an improved method to accurately measure the spiral arm pitch angle in disk galaxies to generate quantitative data on this morphological feature for 34 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses. We find a relation of log (M/M {sub ☉}) = (8.21 ± 0.16) – (0.062 ± 0.009)P. This method is compared with other means of estimating black hole mass to determine its effectiveness and usefulness relative to other existing relations. We argue that such a relationship is predicted by leading theories of spiral structure in disk galaxies, including the density wave theory. We propose this relationship as a tool for estimating SMBH masses in disk galaxies. This tool is potentially superior when compared to other methods for this class of galaxy and has the advantage of being unambiguously measurable from imaging data alone.

  14. Value and Anisotropy of the Electron and Hole Mass in Pure Wurtzite InP Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, D; De Luca, M; Granados Del Águila, A; Gao, Q; Ambrosio, G; Capizzi, M; Tan, H H; Christianen, P C M; Jagadish, C; Polimeni, A

    2016-10-12

    The effective mass of electrons and holes in semiconductors is pivotal in determining the dynamics of carriers and their confinement energy in nanostructured materials. Surprisingly, this quantity is still unknown in wurtzite (WZ) nanowires (NWs) made of III-V compounds (e.g., GaAs, InAs, GaP, InP), where the WZ phase has no bulk counterpart. Here, we investigate the magneto-optical properties of InP WZ NWs grown by selective-area epitaxy that provides perfectly ordered NWs featuring high-crystalline quality. The combined analysis of the energy of free exciton states and impurity levels under magnetic field (B up to 29 T) allows us to disentangle the dynamics of oppositely charged carriers from the Coulomb interaction and thus to determine the values of the electron and hole effective mass. By application of B⃗ along different crystallographic directions, we also assess the dependence of the transport properties with respect to the NW growth axis (namely, the WZ ĉ axis). The effective mass of electrons along ĉ is m e ∥ = (0.078 ± 0.002) m 0 (m 0 is the electron mass in vacuum) and perpendicular to ĉ is m e ⊥ = (0.093 ± 0.001) m 0 , resulting in a 20% mass anisotropy. Holes exhibit a much larger (∼320%) and opposite mass anisotropy with their effective mass along and perpendicular to ĉ equal to m h ∥ = (0.81 ± 0.18) m 0 and m h ⊥ = (0.250 ± 0.016) m 0 , respectively. While no full consensus is found with current theoretical results on WZ InP, our findings show trends remarkably similar to the experimental data available in WZ bulk materials, such as InN, GaN, and ZnO.

  15. Investigating a Possible New Heavyweight Champion for Stellar Mass Black Holes with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Robin

    luminosities > 3E+37 erg/s (10% Eddington for the most massive known neutron star) then we classify the XB as a BHC. XBo 135 is associated with the globular cluster Bo 135 in M31, making it a very likely XB. The highest quality XMM-Newton spectrum to date revealed a low state spectrum at a luminosity of 4.4 E+38 erg/s, while Chandra observations suggest low state emission up to 6 E+38 erg/s (0.3-10 keV). We infer from these results a black hole mass >50 solar masses; the current champion is IC10 X-1, which is a dynamically confirmed BH + Wolf-Rayet binary with a 33 solar mass BH. We have been granted a 120 ks XMM-Newton observation of XBo 135 in order to test theoretical scenarios for creating such a monster. In particular, we will be estimating the metallicity of the environs of XBo 135, to determine whether direct collapse of a metal poor, high mass star is feasible. Stars with metallicity 40 solar masses are expected to form 30-80 solar mass black holes via direct collapse, because the low metallicity prevents significant mass loss from the stellar wind over the stars lifetimes. We will follow a published method that was used to determine the metallicities of several so-called ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs), which have X-ray luminosities that exceed the Eddington limit for typical stellar mass black holes ( 2 E+39 erg/s). The key parameters to measure are the hydrogen abundance, a 542 eV oxygen K absorption edge, and an 851 eV iron L absorption edge. We will fit CCD (pn + MOS) and grating (RGS) spectra simultaneously to get the best measurements of these features. If XBo 135 were found to be a 50 solar mass BH formed in a globular cluster via direct collapse, then its importance would exceed that of just being the heaviest known stellar mass black hole- similar systems could form intermediate mass black holes, and possibly even supermassive black holes.

  16. The Quasar Accretion Disk Size-Black Hole Mass Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Christopher W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Morgan, Nicholas D.; Falco, Emilio E.

    2010-04-01

    We use the microlensing variability observed for 11 gravitationally lensed quasars to show that the accretion disk size at a rest-frame wavelength of 2500 Å is related to the black hole mass by log(R 2500/cm) = (15.78 ± 0.12) + (0.80 ± 0.17)log(M BH/109 M sun). This scaling is consistent with the expectation from thin-disk theory (R vprop M 2/3 BH), but when interpreted in terms of the standard thin-disk model (T vprop R -3/4), it implies that black holes radiate with very low efficiency, log(η) = -1.77 ± 0.29 + log(L/L E), where η =L/(\\dot{M}c^2). Only by making the maximum reasonable shifts in the average inclination, Eddington factors, and black hole masses can we raise the efficiency estimate to be marginally consistent with typical efficiency estimates (η ≈ 10%). With one exception, these sizes are larger by a factor of ~4 than the size needed to produce the observed 0.8 μm quasar flux by thermal radiation from a thin disk with the same T vprop R -3/4 temperature profile. While scattering a significant fraction of the disk emission on large scales or including a large fraction of contaminating line emission can reduce the size discrepancy, resolving it also appears to require that accretion disks have flatter temperature/surface brightness profiles. Based on observations obtained with the Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) 1.3 m, which is operated by the SMARTS Consortium, the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium, the WIYN Observatory which is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope, which is a collaboration between the observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (OCIW), University of Arizona, Harvard University, University of Michigan, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and observations made

  17. An intermediate-mass black hole in the centre of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kızıltan, Bülent; Baumgardt, Holger; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-02-08

    Intermediate-mass black holes should help us to understand the evolutionary connection between stellar-mass and super-massive black holes. However, the existence of intermediate-mass black holes is still uncertain, and their formation process is therefore unknown. It has long been suspected that black holes with masses 100 to 10,000 times that of the Sun should form and reside in dense stellar systems. Therefore, dedicated observational campaigns have targeted globular clusters for many decades, searching for signatures of these elusive objects. All candidate signatures appear radio-dim and do not have the X-ray to radio flux ratios required for accreting black holes. Based on the lack of an electromagnetic counterpart, upper limits of 2,060 and 470 solar masses have been placed on the mass of a putative black hole in 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) from radio and X-ray observations, respectively. Here we show there is evidence for a central black hole in 47 Tucanae with a mass of solar masses when the dynamical state of the globular cluster is probed with pulsars. The existence of an intermediate-mass black hole in the centre of one of the densest clusters with no detectable electromagnetic counterpart suggests that the black hole is not accreting at a sufficient rate to make it electromagnetically bright and therefore, contrary to expectations, is gas-starved. This intermediate-mass black hole might be a member of an electromagnetically invisible population of black holes that grow into supermassive black holes in galaxies.

  18. Wave function, spectrum and effective mass of holes in 2 D quantum antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhao-bin; Ll, Yan-min; Lai, Wu-yan; Yu, Lu

    1989-12-01

    A new quantum Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdeG) formalism is developed to study the self-consistent motion of holes on an quantum antiferromagnetic (QAFM) background within the generalized t- J model. The local distortion of spin configurations and the renormalization of the hole motion due to virtual excitations of the distorted spin background are treated on an equal footing. The hole wave function and its spectrum, as well as the effective mass for a propagating hole are calculated explicitly.

  19. RETENTION OF STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morscher, Meagan; Umbreit, Stefan; Farr, Will M.; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2013-01-01

    Globular clusters should be born with significant numbers of stellar-mass black holes (BHs). It has been thought for two decades that very few of these BHs could be retained through the cluster lifetime. With masses ∼10 M ☉ , BHs are ∼20 times more massive than an average cluster star. They segregate into the cluster core, where they may eventually decouple from the remainder of the cluster. The small-N core then evaporates on a short timescale. This is the so-called Spitzer instability. Here we present the results of a full dynamical simulation of a globular cluster containing many stellar-mass BHs with a realistic mass spectrum. Our Monte Carlo simulation code includes detailed treatments of all relevant stellar evolution and dynamical processes. Our main finding is that old globular clusters could still contain many BHs at present. In our simulation, we find no evidence for the Spitzer instability. Instead, most of the BHs remain well mixed with the rest of the cluster, with only the innermost few tens of BHs segregating significantly. Over the 12 Gyr evolution, fewer than half of the BHs are dynamically ejected through strong binary interactions in the cluster core. The presence of BHs leads to long-term heating of the cluster, ultimately producing a core radius on the high end of the distribution for Milky Way globular clusters (and those of other galaxies). A crude extrapolation from our model suggests that the BH-BH merger rate from globular clusters could be comparable to the rate in the field.

  20. Towards the theory of mini black holes with subplanckian mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Y.B.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter phenomenologically examines the question of the decay (evaporation) and formation of mini black holes. Neutral black holes are considered, having neither electrical charge, nor color and weak charge, so that no long range vector field is present beyond gravitational radius. Topics considered include thermodynamic equilibrium and the formation of light black holes, the formation and decay of light black holes in the big bang, and the difficulties of the theory. It is emphasized that the existence of mini black holes has not yet been proven

  1. ON THE MASS RADIATED BY COALESCING BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barausse, E.; Morozova, V.; Rezzolla, L.

    2012-01-01

    We derive an analytic phenomenological expression that predicts the final mass of the black hole (BH) remnant resulting from the merger of a generic binary system of BHs on quasi-circular orbits. Besides recovering the correct test-particle limit for extreme mass-ratio binaries, our formula reproduces well the results of all the numerical-relativity simulations published so far, both when applied at separations of a few gravitational radii and when applied at separations of tens of thousands of gravitational radii. These validations make our formula a useful tool in a variety of contexts ranging from gravitational-wave (GW) physics to cosmology. As representative examples, we first illustrate how it can be used to decrease the phase error of the effective-one-body waveforms during the ringdown phase. Second, we show that, when combined with the recently computed self-force correction to the binding energy of nonspinning BH binaries, it provides an estimate of the energy emitted during the merger and ringdown. Finally, we use it to calculate the energy radiated in GWs by massive BH binaries as a function of redshift, using different models for the seeds of the BH population.

  2. A single hole tracer test to determine longitudinal dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noy, D.J.; Holmes, D.C.

    1986-03-01

    The paper concerns a single hole tracer test to determine longitudinal dispersion, which is an important parameter in assessing the suitability of a site for radioactive waste disposal. The theory, equipment and procedure for measuring longitudinal dispersion in a single borehole is described. Results are presented for field trials conducted in an aquifer, where the technique produced good results. The measured value of longitudinal dispersion, from a single hole test, relates only to a limited volume of rock immediately adjacent to the borehole. (U.K.)

  3. Study of high energy emissions from stellar mass accreting holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadolle-Bel, Marion

    2006-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to the study of various X-ray binary Systems harbouring accreting stellar mass black holes (or candidates) associated in X-ray binary Systems mainly through the spectral and timing properties of the high energy 3 keV"-"1 MeV emission, sometimes completed by observations performed in radio, near-infrared and optical. The first part is devoted to accretion physics phenomena and the challenges of understanding the X-ray/gamma emission produced with the modeling of such high energy processes. Then I will define in a second part the instruments on board INTEGRAL and the way coded masked aperture is employed. In a third part, I will develop the standard data reduction analysis and my own contribution in improving the usual software before detailing the specific informatics tools I have developed for my own analysis. In the fourth part I will turn towards the deep analysis and interpretations I have performed on several black hole X-ray binary Systems chosen properly: the persistent black hole source Cygnus X-1 which has been studied since several years and surprised us by a high-energy excess detected; two new transient sources which provide interesting information, XTE J1720-318 located in the galactic bulge and SWIFT J1753.5-0127, probably situated in the halo. I will also detail my work on H 1743-322, recently identified by INTEGRAL as the HEAO source discovered in 1977, and on three (almost) persistent micro-quasars with superluminal jets, 1E 1740.7-2942, GRS 1758-258 and GRS 1915+105. I will analyze for each source spectral parameter evolutions and their links with each other during state transitions. I will then discuss the presence of two different X/gamma-ray emitting media with a relatively changing geometry. While establishing a cyclic order for the different variability classes of GRS 1915+105 observed during ten years, I will propose an interpretation for such behaviour, compatible with the theoretical predictions of the

  4. Stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fender, Rob; Belloni, Tomaso

    2012-08-03

    We review the likely population, observational properties, and broad implications of stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources. We focus on the clear empirical rules connecting accretion and outflow that have been established for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems in the past decade and a half. These patterns of behavior are probably the keys that will allow us to understand black hole feedback on the largest scales over cosmological time scales.

  5. Dynamical Black Hole Masses of BL Lac Objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Markoff, Sera; Trager, Scott C.; Anderson, Scott F.

    2012-01-01

    We measure black hole masses for 71 BL Lac objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with redshifts out to z ∼ 0.4. We perform spectral decompositions of their nuclei from their host galaxies and measure their stellar velocity dispersions. Black hole masses are then derived from the black

  6. BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES AND RAPID GROWTH OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN LUMINOUS z ∼ 3.5 QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Wenwen; Wu, Xue-Bing [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fan, Xiaohui; Green, Richard [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wang, Ran [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Bian, Fuyan [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2015-02-01

    We present new near-infrared (IR) observations of the Hβ λ4861 and Mg II λ2798 lines for 32 luminous quasars with 3.2 < z < 3.9 using the Palomar Hale 200 inch telescope and the Large Binocular Telescope. We find that the Mg II FWHM is well correlated with the Hβ FWHM, confirming itself as a good substitute for the Hβ FWHM in the black hole mass estimates. The continuum luminosity at 5100 Å well correlates with the continuum luminosity at 3000 Å and the broad emission line luminosities (Hβ and Mg II). With simultaneous near-IR spectroscopy of the Hβ and Mg II lines to exclude the influences of flux variability, we are able to evaluate the reliability of estimating black hole masses based on the Mg II line for high redshift quasars. With the reliable Hβ line based black hole mass and Eddington ratio estimates, we find that the z ∼ 3.5 quasars in our sample have black hole masses 1.90 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} ≲ M {sub BH} ≲ 1.37 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, with a median of ∼5.14 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} and are accreting at Eddington ratios between 0.30 and 3.05, with a median of ∼1.12. Assuming a duty cycle of 1 and a seed black hole mass of 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, we show that the z ∼ 3.5 quasars in this sample can grow to their estimated black hole masses within the age of the universe at their redshifts.

  7. GW170608: Observation of a 19 Solar-mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Biscans, S; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.

    2017-01-01

    On 2017 June 8 at 02:01:16.49 UTC, a gravitational-wave (GW) signal from the merger of two stellar-mass black holes was observed by the two Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory detectors with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13. This system is the lightest black hole binary so far observed, with component masses of 12^(+7)_(-2) M⊙ and 7^(+2)_(-2) M⊙ (90% credible intervals). These lie in the range of measured black hole masses in low-mass X-ray binaries, thus allowi...

  8. Observational Constraints on Quasar Black Hole Mass Distributions, Eddington Ratio Distributions, and Lifetimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan, X.

    2010-01-01

    I will present the black hole mass function (BHMF) of broad line quasars in the SDSS DR3. We employ a powerful Bayesian statistical technique that corrects for incompleteness and the statistical uncertainty in the mass estimates. We find evidence that the most massive black hole appeared as quasars...... earlier in the universe, and that most quasars are not radiating at or near the Eddington limit. I will also present constraints on the quasar lifetime and maximum black hole mass, derived from the mass functions....

  9. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan, X.; Tremonti, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    We present the mass functions of actively accreting supermassive black holes over the redshift range 0.3......We present the mass functions of actively accreting supermassive black holes over the redshift range 0.3...

  10. A REVERBERATION-BASED BLACK HOLE MASS FOR MCG-06-30-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Ou-Yang, Benjamin; Cackett, Edward M.; Horne, Keith; Street, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a reverberation campaign targeting MGC-06-30-15. Spectrophotometric monitoring and broad-band photometric monitoring over the course of four months in spring 2012 allowed a determination of a time delay in the broad H β emission line of τ = 5.3 ± 1.8 days in the rest frame of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Combined with the width of the variable portion of the emission line, we determine a black hole mass of M BH = (1.6 ± 0.4) × 10 6 M ⊙ . Both the H β time delay and the black hole mass are in good agreement with expectations from the R BLR – L and M BH – σ ⋆ relationships for other reverberation-mapped AGNs. The H β time delay is also in good agreement with the relationship between H β and broad-band near-IR delays, in which the effective size of the broad-line region is ∼4–5 times smaller than the inner edge of the dust torus. Additionally, the reverberation-based mass is in good agreement with estimates from the scaling relationship of the break in the X-ray power spectral density, and with constraints based on stellar kinematics derived from integral field spectroscopy of the inner ∼0.5 kpc of the galaxy.

  11. A REVERBERATION-BASED BLACK HOLE MASS FOR MCG-06-30-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Ou-Yang, Benjamin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Cackett, Edward M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock St., Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Street, Rachel, E-mail: bentz@astro.gsu.edu [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740B Cortona Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    We present the results of a reverberation campaign targeting MGC-06-30-15. Spectrophotometric monitoring and broad-band photometric monitoring over the course of four months in spring 2012 allowed a determination of a time delay in the broad H β emission line of τ = 5.3 ± 1.8 days in the rest frame of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Combined with the width of the variable portion of the emission line, we determine a black hole mass of M {sub BH} = (1.6 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙}. Both the H β time delay and the black hole mass are in good agreement with expectations from the R {sub BLR}– L and M {sub BH}– σ {sub ⋆} relationships for other reverberation-mapped AGNs. The H β time delay is also in good agreement with the relationship between H β and broad-band near-IR delays, in which the effective size of the broad-line region is ∼4–5 times smaller than the inner edge of the dust torus. Additionally, the reverberation-based mass is in good agreement with estimates from the scaling relationship of the break in the X-ray power spectral density, and with constraints based on stellar kinematics derived from integral field spectroscopy of the inner ∼0.5 kpc of the galaxy.

  12. Does the mass of a black hole decrease due to the accretion of phantom energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Changjun; Chen Xuelei; Faraoni, Valerio; Shen Yougen

    2008-01-01

    According to Babichev et al., the accretion of a phantom test fluid onto a Schwarzschild black hole will induce the mass of the black hole to decrease, however the backreaction was ignored in their calculation. Using new exact solutions describing black holes in a background Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, we find that the physical black hole mass may instead increase due to the accretion of phantom energy. If this is the case, and the future universe is dominated by phantom dark energy, the black hole apparent horizon and the cosmic apparent horizon will eventually coincide and, after that, the black hole singularity will become naked in finite comoving time before the big rip occurs, violating the cosmic censorship conjecture.

  13. Active galactic nucleus black hole mass estimates in the era of time domain astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Treu, Tommaso; Pancoast, Anna [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Malkan, Matthew [Department of Astronomy, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Woo, Jong-Hak [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-20

    We investigate the dependence of the normalization of the high-frequency part of the X-ray and optical power spectral densities (PSDs) on black hole mass for a sample of 39 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with black hole masses estimated from reverberation mapping or dynamical modeling. We obtained new Swift observations of PG 1426+015, which has the largest estimated black hole mass of the AGNs in our sample. We develop a novel statistical method to estimate the PSD from a light curve of photon counts with arbitrary sampling, eliminating the need to bin a light curve to achieve Gaussian statistics, and we use this technique to estimate the X-ray variability parameters for the faint AGNs in our sample. We find that the normalization of the high-frequency X-ray PSD is inversely proportional to black hole mass. We discuss how to use this scaling relationship to obtain black hole mass estimates from the short timescale X-ray variability amplitude with precision ∼0.38 dex. The amplitude of optical variability on timescales of days is also anticorrelated with black hole mass, but with larger scatter. Instead, the optical variability amplitude exhibits the strongest anticorrelation with luminosity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our results for estimating black hole mass from the amplitude of AGN variability.

  14. The mass of the black hole in LMC X-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosz, Jerome A. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182-1221 (United States); Steiner, James F.; McClintock, Jeffrey E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Buxton, Michelle M.; Bailyn, Charles D. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Steeghs, Danny [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK and Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Guberman, Alec [Byram Hills High School, 12 Tripp Lane, Armonk, NY 10504 (United States); Torres, Manuel A. P., E-mail: jorosz@mail.sdsu.edu, E-mail: jsteiner@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jem@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: michelle.buxton@yale.edu, E-mail: charles.bailyn@yale.edu, E-mail: D.T.H.Steeghs@warwick.ac.uk, E-mail: alec.guberman@stonybrook.edu, E-mail: M.Torres@sron.nl [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-10-20

    We analyze a large set of new and archival photometric and spectroscopic observations of LMC X-3 to arrive at a self-consistent dynamical model for the system. Using echelle spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle instrument on the 6.5 m Magellan Clay telescope and the UVES instrument on the second 8.2 m Very Large Telescope, we find a velocity semiamplitude for the secondary star of K {sub 2} = 241.1 ± 6.2 km s{sup –1}, where the uncertainty includes an estimate of the systematic error caused by X-ray heating. Using the spectra, we also find a projected rotational velocity of V {sub rot}sin i = 118.5 ± 6.6 km s{sup –1}. From an analysis of archival B and V light curves as well as new B and V light curves from the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope, we find an inclination of i = 69.°84 ± 0.°37 for models that do not include X-ray heating and an inclination of i = 69.°24 ± 0.°72 for models that incorporate X-ray heating. Adopting the latter inclination measurement, we find masses of 3.63 ± 0.57 M {sub ☉} and 6.98 ± 0.56 M {sub ☉} for the companion star and the black hole, respectively. We briefly compare our results with earlier work and discuss some of their implications.

  15. THE BLACK HOLE MASS IN THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY NGC 6086

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, Nicholas J.; Ma, Chung-Pei; Graham, James R.; Wright, Shelley A.; Gebhardt, Karl; Lauer, Tod R.; Richstone, Douglas O.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first direct measurement of the central black hole mass, M . , in NGC 6086, the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) in A2162. Our investigation demonstrates for the first time that stellar-dynamical measurements of M . in BCGs are possible beyond the nearest few galaxy clusters. We observed NGC 6086 with laser guide star adaptive optics and the integral-field spectrograph (IFS) OSIRIS at the W. M. Keck Observatory and with the seeing-limited IFS GMOS-N at Gemini Observatory North. We combined the IFS data sets with existing major-axis kinematics and used axisymmetric stellar orbit models to determine M . and the R-band stellar mass-to-light ratio, M * /L R . We find M . = 3.6 +1.7 -1.1 x 10 9 M sun and M * /L R = 4.6 +0.3 -0.7 M sun L sun -1 (68% confidence) from models using the most massive dark matter halo allowed within the gravitational potential of the host cluster. Models fitting only IFS data confirm M . ∼ 3 x 10 9 M sun and M * /L R ∼ 4 M sun L sun -1 , with weak dependence on the assumed dark matter halo structure. When data out to 19 kpc are included, the unrealistic omission of dark matter causes the best-fit black hole mass to decrease dramatically, to 0.6 x 10 9 M sun , and the best-fit stellar mass-to-light ratio to increase to 6.7 M sun L -1 sun,R . The latter value is at further odds with stellar population studies favoring M * /L R ∼ 2 M sun L -1 sun . Biases from dark matter omission could extend to dynamical models of other galaxies with stellar cores, and revised measurements of M . could steepen the empirical scaling relationships between black holes and their host galaxies.

  16. Determination of the neutron mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador V, P.; Chacon R, A.; Arcos P, A.; Rodriguez N, S.; Pinedo S, A.; Vega C, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    The binding energy of the deuteron was measured and it was determined the neutron mass starting from the nuclear reaction, 1 0 n + 1 1 H → 2 1 D + γ. The produced photon is soon a gamma ray that is emitted when the hydrogen captures a thermal neutron. The photon energy was measured using two spectrometric systems for gamma rays. A system with a detector of NaI(TI) of 3'' x 3'' and the other one with a High-purity Germanium detector. The first detector has a bigger efficiency and a smaller resolution in comparison with the second detector. The energy of the measured photon is the binding energy of the deuteron. With the measurement of the photon energy and the masses of the proton and of the deuterium it was determined the neutron mass. The value of the mass obtained with both systems it was compared with the value reported in the literature. The nuclear reaction was induced in a volume of paraffin that it was bombing with a source 239 PuBe whose activity is of 3.7 x 10 10 Bq. (Author)

  17. Black Holes: Physics and Astrophysics - Stellar-mass, supermassive and primordial black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.

    2004-01-01

    I present an elementary primer of black hole physics, including its general relativity basis, all peppered with astrophysical illustrations. Following a brief review of the process stellar collapse to a black hole, I discuss the gravitational redshift, particle trajectories in gravitational fields, the Schwarzschild and Kerr solutions to Einstein's equations, orbits in Schwarzschild and in Kerr geometry, and the dragging of inertial frames. I follow with a brief review of galactic X-ray binar...

  18. A black-hole mass measurement from molecular gas kinematics in NGC4526.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy A; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo

    2013-02-21

    The masses of the supermassive black holes found in galaxy bulges are correlated with a multitude of galaxy properties, leading to suggestions that galaxies and black holes may evolve together. The number of reliably measured black-hole masses is small, and the number of methods for measuring them is limited, holding back attempts to understand this co-evolution. Directly measuring black-hole masses is currently possible with stellar kinematics (in early-type galaxies), ionized-gas kinematics (in some spiral and early-type galaxies) and in rare objects that have central maser emission. Here we report that by modelling the effect of a black hole on the kinematics of molecular gas it is possible to fit interferometric observations of CO emission and thereby accurately estimate black-hole masses. We study the dynamics of the gas in the early-type galaxy NGC 4526, and obtain a best fit that requires the presence of a central dark object of 4.5(+4.2)(-3.1) × 10(8) solar masses (3σ confidence limit). With the next-generation millimetre-wavelength interferometers these observations could be reproduced in galaxies out to 75 megaparsecs in less than 5 hours of observing time. The use of molecular gas as a kinematic tracer should thus allow one to estimate black-hole masses in hundreds of galaxies in the local Universe, many more than are accessible with current techniques.

  19. Higgs mass determination in supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Javier Pardo [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); SISSA International School for Advanced Studies and INFN Trieste, Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); Villadoro, Giovanni [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-07-29

    We present the state-of-the-art of the effective field theory computation of the MSSM Higgs mass, improving the existing ones by including extra threshold corrections. We show that, with this approach, the theoretical uncertainty is within 1 GeV in most of the relevant parameter space. We confirm the smaller value of the Higgs mass found in the EFT computations, which implies a slightly heavier SUSY scale. We study the large tan β region, finding that sbottom thresholds might relax the upper bound on the scale of SUSY. We present SUSYHD, a fast computer code that computes the Higgs mass and its uncertainty for any SUSY scale, from the TeV to the Planck scale, even in Split SUSY, both in the (DR)-bar and in the on-shell schemes. Finally, we apply our results to derive bounds on some well motivated SUSY models, in particular we show how the value of the Higgs mass allows to determine the complete spectrum in minimal gauge mediation.

  20. Absorption of mass and angular momentum by a black hole: Time-domain formalisms for gravitational perturbations, and the small-hole or slow-motion approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poisson, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The first objective of this work is to obtain practical prescriptions to calculate the absorption of mass and angular momentum by a black hole when external processes produce gravitational radiation. These prescriptions are formulated in the time domain (in contrast with the frequency-domain formalism of Teukolsky and Press) within the framework of black-hole perturbation theory. Two such prescriptions are presented. The first is based on the Teukolsky equation and it applies to general (rotating) black holes. The second is based on the Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli equations and it applies to nonrotating black holes. The second objective of this work is to apply the time-domain absorption formalisms to situations in which the black hole is either small or slowly moving; the mass of the black hole is then assumed to be much smaller than the radius of curvature of the external spacetime in which the hole moves. In the context of this small-hole/slow-motion approximation, the equations of black-hole perturbation theory can be solved analytically, and explicit expressions can be obtained for the absorption of mass and angular momentum. The changes in the black-hole parameters can then be understood in terms of an interaction between the tidal gravitational fields supplied by the external universe and the hole's tidally-induced mass and current quadrupole moments. For a nonrotating black hole the quadrupole moments are proportional to the rate of change of the tidal fields on the hole's world line. For a rotating black hole they are proportional to the tidal fields themselves. When placed in identical environments, a rotating black hole absorbs more energy and angular momentum than a nonrotating black hole

  1. An intermediate-mass black hole in the darf galaxy Pox 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    Do dwarf elliptical and dwarf spiral galaxies contain central black holes with masses below 106 solar masses? Beyond the Local Group dynamical searches for black holes in this mass range are very difficult but the detection of accretion-powered nuclear activity could be used to infer the presence of a black hole. The nearby dwarf spiral galaxy NGC 4395 hosts a faint Seyfert 1 nucleus with a likely black hole mass in the range 104-105 solar masses and for more than a decade it has been the only known example of a Seyfert 1 nucleus in a dwarf galaxy. I will present new Keck spectra of the dwarf galaxy POX 52 which demonstrate that it has a Seyfert 1 spectrum nearly identical to that of NGC 4395. Its velocity dispersion is 37 km/s suggesting a possible black hole mass of order 105 solar masses. I will discuss the prospects for systematic searches for nuclear activity in dwarf galaxies and the implications for black hole demographics.

  2. An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Dwarf Galaxy Pox 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron

    Do dwarf elliptical and dwarf spiral galaxies contain central black holes with masses below 106 solar masses? Beyond the Local Group dynamical searches for black holes in this mass range are very difficult but the detection of accretion-powered nuclear activity could be used to infer the presence of a black hole. The nearby dwarf spiral galaxy NGC 4395 hosts a faint Seyfert 1 nucleus with a likely black hole mass in the range 104-105 solar masses and for more than a decade it has been the only known example of a Seyfert 1 nucleus in a dwarf galaxy. I will present new Keck spectra of the dwarf galaxy POX 52 which demonstrate that it has a Seyfert 1 spectrum nearly identical to that of NGC 4395. Its velocity dispersion is 37 km/s suggesting a possible black hole mass of order 105 solar masses. I will discuss the prospects for systematic searches for nuclear activity in dwarf galaxies and the implications for black hole demographics.

  3. THE M BH-L SPHEROID RELATION AT HIGH AND LOW MASSES, THE QUADRATIC GROWTH OF BLACK HOLES, AND INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Alister W.; Scott, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    From a sample of 72 galaxies with reliable supermassive black hole masses M bh , we derive the M bh -(host spheroid luminosity, L) relation for (1) the subsample of 24 core-Sérsic galaxies with partially depleted cores, and (2) the remaining subsample of 48 Sérsic galaxies. Using K s -band Two Micron All Sky Survey data, we find the near-linear relation M bh ∝L 1.10±0.20 K s for the core-Sérsic spheroids thought to be built in additive dry merger events, while we find the relation M bh ∝L 2.73±0.55 K s for the Sérsic spheroids built from gas-rich processes. After converting literature B-band disk galaxy magnitudes into inclination- and dust-corrected bulge magnitudes, via a useful new equation presented herein, we obtain a similar result. Unlike with the M bh -(velocity dispersion) diagram, which is also updated here using the same galaxy sample, it remains unknown whether barred and non-barred Sérsic galaxies are offset from each other in the M bh -L diagram. While black hole feedback has typically been invoked to explain what was previously thought to be a nearly constant M bh /M Spheroid mass ratio of ∼0.2%, we advocate that the near-linear M bh -L and M bh -M Spheroid relations observed at high masses may have instead arisen largely from the additive dry merging of galaxies. We argue that feedback results in a dramatically different scaling relation, such that black hole mass scales roughly quadratically with the spheroid mass in Sérsic galaxies. We therefore introduce a revised cold-gas 'quasar' mode feeding equation for semi-analytical models to reflect what we dub the quadratic growth of black holes in Sérsic galaxies built amidst gas-rich processes. Finally, we use our new Sérsic M bh -L equations to predict the masses of candidate intermediate mass black holes in almost 50 low-luminosity spheroids containing active galactic nuclei, finding many masses between that of stellar mass black holes and supermassive black holes.

  4. Mass-induced instability of SAdS black hole in Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2018-05-01

    We perform the stability analysis of Schwarzschild-AdS (SAdS) black hole in the Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity. It shows that the Ricci tensor perturbations exhibit unstable modes for small black holes. We call this the mass-induced instability of SAdS black hole because the instability of small black holes arises from the massiveness in the linearized Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity, but not a feature of higher-order derivative theory giving ghost states. Also, we point out that the correlated stability conjecture holds for the SAdS black hole by computing the Wald entropy of SAdS black hole in Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity.

  5. Search for intermediate mass black hole binaries in the first observing run of Advanced LIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.

    2017-01-01

    During their first observational run, the two Advanced LIGO detectors attained an unprecedented sensitivity, resulting in the first direct detections of gravitational-wave signals produced by stellar-mass binary black hole systems. This paper reports on an all-sky search for gravitational waves (GWs) from merging intermediate mass black hole binaries (IMBHBs). The combined results from two independent search techniques were used in this study: the first employs a matched-filter algorithm that...

  6. The mass of the black hole in 1A 0620-00, revisiting the ellipsoidal light curve modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grunsven, Theo F. J.; Jonker, Peter G.; Verbunt, Frank W. M.; Robinson, Edward L.

    2017-12-01

    The mass distribution of stellar-mass black holes can provide important clues to supernova modelling, but observationally it is still ill constrained. Therefore, it is of importance to make black hole mass measurements as accurate as possible. The X-ray transient 1A 0620-00 is well studied, with a published black hole mass of 6.61 ± 0.25 M⊙, based on an orbital inclination i of 51.0° ± 0.9°. This was obtained by Cantrell et al. (2010) as an average of independent fits to V-, I- and H-band light curves. In this work, we perform an independent check on the value of i by re-analysing existing YALO/SMARTS V-, I- and H-band photometry, using different modelling software and fitting strategy. Performing a fit to the three light curves simultaneously, we obtain a value for i of 54.1° ± 1.1°, resulting in a black hole mass of 5.86 ± 0.24 M⊙. Applying the same model to the light curves individually, we obtain 58.2° ± 1.9°, 53.6° ± 1.6° and 50.5° ± 2.2° for V-, I- and H-band, respectively, where the differences in best-fitting i are caused by the contribution of the residual accretion disc light in the three different bands. We conclude that the mass determination of this black hole may still be subject to systematic effects exceeding the statistical uncertainty. Obtaining more accurate masses would be greatly helped by continuous phase-resolved spectroscopic observations simultaneous with photometry.

  7. A mass of less than 15 solar masses for the black hole in an ultraluminous X-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motch, C; Pakull, M W; Soria, R; Grisé, F; Pietrzyński, G

    2014-10-09

    Most ultraluminous X-ray sources have a typical set of properties not seen in Galactic stellar-mass black holes. They have luminosities of more than 3 × 10(39) ergs per second, unusually soft X-ray components (with a typical temperature of less than about 0.3 kiloelectronvolts) and a characteristic downturn in their spectra above about 5 kiloelectronvolts. Such puzzling properties have been interpreted either as evidence of intermediate-mass black holes or as emission from stellar-mass black holes accreting above their Eddington limit, analogous to some Galactic black holes at peak luminosity. Recently, a very soft X-ray spectrum was observed in a rare and transient stellar-mass black hole. Here we report that the X-ray source P13 in the galaxy NGC 7793 is in a binary system with a period of about 64 days and exhibits all three canonical properties of ultraluminous sources. By modelling the strong optical and ultraviolet modulations arising from X-ray heating of the B9Ia donor star, we constrain the black hole mass to be less than 15 solar masses. Our results demonstrate that in P13, soft thermal emission and spectral curvature are indeed signatures of supercritical accretion. By analogy, ultraluminous X-ray sources with similar X-ray spectra and luminosities of up to a few times 10(40) ergs per second can be explained by supercritical accretion onto massive stellar-mass black holes.

  8. Coulomb drag in electron-hole bilayer: Mass-asymmetry and exchange correlation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Priya; Singh, Gurvinder; Moudgil, R. K.

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment by Zheng et al. [App. Phys. Lett. 108, 062102 (2016)] on coulomb drag in electron-hole and hole-hole bilayers based on GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor heterostructure, we investigate theoretically the influence of mass-asymmetry and temperature-dependence of correlations on the drag rate. The correlation effects are dealt with using the Vignale-Singwi effective inter-layer interaction model which includes correlations through local-field corrections to the bare coulomb interactions. However, in this work, we have incorporated only the intra-layer correlations using the temperature-dependent Hubbard approximation. Our results display a reasonably good agreement with the experimental data. However, it is crucial to include both the electron-hole mass-asymmetry and temperature-dependence of correlations. Mass-asymmetry and correlations are found to result in a substantial enhancement of drag resistivity.

  9. On the accuracy of mass measurement for microlensing black holes as seen by Gaia and OGLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, Krzysztof A.; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Klencki, Jakub; de Bruijne, Jos; Belczyński, Krzysztof; Chruślińska, Martyna

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the impact of combining Gaia astrometry from space with precise, high cadence OGLE photometry from the ground. For the archival event OGLE3-ULENS-PAR-02, which is likely a black hole, we simulate a realistic astrometric time series of Gaia measurements and combine it with the real photometric data collected by the OGLE project. We predict that at the end of the nominal 5 yr of the Gaia mission, for the events brighter than G ≈ 15.5 mag at the baseline, caused by objects heavier than 10 M⊙, it will be possible to unambiguously derive masses of the lenses, with accuracy between a few and 15 per cent. We find that fainter events (G < 17.5) can still have their lens masses determined, provided that they are heavier than 30 M⊙. We estimate that the rate of astrometric microlensing events caused by the stellar-origin black holes is ≈ 4 × 10- 7 yr- 1, which implies, that after 5 yr of Gaia operation and ≈5 × 106 bright sources in Gaia, it will be possible to identify few such events in the Gaia final catalogues.

  10. Calibration and Limitations of the Mg II Line-based Black Hole Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Le, Huynh Anh N.; Karouzos, Marios; Park, Dawoo; Park, Daeseong; Malkan, Matthew A.; Treu, Tommaso; Bennert, Vardha N.

    2018-06-01

    We present single-epoch black hole mass ({M}BH}) calibrations based on the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) and optical measurements of Mg II 2798 Å and Hβ 4861 Å lines and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) continuum, using a sample of 52 moderate-luminosity AGNs at z ∼ 0.4 and z ∼ 0.6 with high-quality Keck spectra. We combine this sample with a large number of luminous AGNs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to increase the dynamic range for a better comparison of UV and optical velocity and luminosity measurements. With respect to the reference {M}BH} based on the line dispersion of Hβ and continuum luminosity at 5100 Å, we calibrate the UV and optical mass estimators by determining the best-fit values of the coefficients in the mass equation. By investigating whether the UV estimators show a systematic trend with Eddington ratio, FWHM of Hβ, Fe II strength, or UV/optical slope, we find no significant bias except for the slope. By fitting the systematic difference of Mg II-based and Hβ-based masses with the L 3000/L 5100 ratio, we provide a correction term as a function of the spectral index as ΔC = 0.24 (1 + α λ ) + 0.17, which can be added to the Mg II-based mass estimators if the spectral slope can be well determined. The derived UV mass estimators typically show >∼0.2 dex intrinsic scatter with respect to the Hβ-based {M}BH}, suggesting that the UV-based mass has an additional uncertainty of ∼0.2 dex, even if high-quality rest-frame UV spectra are available.

  11. Evolution of the Black Hole Mass Function in Star Clusters from Multiple Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Pierre; Mocz, Philip; Loeb, Abraham

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the effects of black hole (BH) mergers in star clusters on the black hole mass function (BHMF). As BHs are not produced in pair-instability supernovae, it is suggested that there is a dearth of high-mass stellar BHs. This dearth generates a gap in the upper end of the BHMF. Meanwhile, parameter fitting of X-ray binaries suggests the existence of a gap in the mass function under 5 solar masses. We show, through evolving a coagulation equation, that BH mergers can appreciably fill the upper mass gap, and that the lower mass gap generates potentially observable features at larger mass scales. We also explore the importance of ejections in such systems and whether dynamical clusters can be formation sites of intermediate-mass BH seeds.

  12. Production of high stellar-mass primordial black holes in trapped inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Shu-Lin; Lee, Wolung [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University,Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Ng, Kin-Wang [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica,Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica,Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2017-02-01

    Trapped inflation has been proposed to provide a successful inflation with a steep potential. We discuss the formation of primordial black holes in the trapped inflationary scenario. We show that primordial black holes are naturally produced during inflation with a steep trapping potential. In particular, we have given a recipe for an inflaton potential with which particle production can induce large non-Gaussian curvature perturbation that leads to the formation of high stellar-mass primordial black holes. These primordial black holes could be dark matter observed by the LIGO detectors through a binary black-hole merger. At the end, we have given an attempt to realize the required inflaton potential in the axion monodromy inflation, and discussed the gravitational waves sourced by the particle production.

  13. Dynamics of Dwarf Galaxies Disfavor Stellar-Mass Black Holes as Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushiappas, Savvas M; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-07-28

    We study the effects of black hole dark matter on the dynamical evolution of stars in dwarf galaxies. We find that mass segregation leads to a depletion of stars in the center of dwarf galaxies and the appearance of a ring in the projected stellar surface density profile. Using Segue 1 as an example we show that current observations of the projected surface stellar density rule out at the 99.9% confidence level the possibility that more than 6% of the dark matter is composed of black holes with a mass of few tens of solar masses.

  14. Can Planck-mass relics of evaporating black holes close the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGibbon, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors propose that the cosmological dark matter consists of the Planck-mass remnants of evaporating primordial black holes. Such remnants would be expected to have close to the critical density if the black holes evaporating at the present epoch have the maximum density consistent with cosmic-ray constraints. Primordial black holes of the required density may form naturally at the end of an inflationary epoch. Planck-mass relics would behave dynamically just like 'cold dark matter' and would therefore share the attractions of other 'cold' candidates. In addition, because the baryonic matter in black holes cannot participate in nucleosynthesis the limits on the baryonic content of the Universe set by primordial nucleosynthesis are circumvented. (author)

  15. Black holes evaporation and big mass particle (maximon, intermediate boson) creation in nonstationary universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man'ko, V.I.; Markov, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter considers the process of creation of particles with maximally big masses (maximons, intermediate bosons) in the nonstationary Universe within the framework of neutral and charged scalar field theory. The conclusions of the matter creation model for real particles (resonances) and hypothetical particles (maximons, friedmons, intermediate bosons) are analyzed. It is determined that if the mechanism of maximon's creation exists, then these particles must be stable. The maximons could be the final states of decaying black holes. A possible mechanism of cosmic ray creation as a result of ''vacuum'' generation of known unstable particles is discussed. The limits upon the mass and the life time of intermediate bosons are calculated. It is demonstrated that the creation of masses greater than 10 GeV, and with life times less than 10- 24 sec and quantity of elementary particles greater than 100 are in contradiction with the particle creation mechanism and the experimental mass density in the Universe. The formalism of the examined method and its vacuum properties are discussed in an appendix

  16. Effect of scalar field mass on gravitating charged scalar solitons and black holes in a cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponglertsakul, Supakchai, E-mail: supakchai.p@gmail.com; Winstanley, Elizabeth, E-mail: E.Winstanley@sheffield.ac.uk

    2017-01-10

    We study soliton and black hole solutions of Einstein charged scalar field theory in cavity. We examine the effect of introducing a scalar field mass on static, spherically symmetric solutions of the field equations. We focus particularly on the spaces of soliton and black hole solutions, as well as studying their stability under linear, spherically symmetric perturbations of the metric, electromagnetic field, and scalar field.

  17. On detection of black hole quasinormal ringdowns: Detection efficiency and waveform parameter determination in matched filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ando, Masaki; Sasaki, Misao; Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Hirotaka

    2005-01-01

    Gravitational radiation from a slightly distorted black hole with ringdown waveform is well understood in general relativity. It provides a probe for direct observation of black holes and determination of their physical parameters, masses and angular momenta (Kerr parameters). For ringdown searches using data of gravitational wave detectors, matched filtering technique is useful. In this paper, we describe studies on problems in matched filtering analysis in realistic gravitational wave searches using observational data. Above all, we focus on template constructions, matches or signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), detection probabilities for Galactic events, and accuracies in evaluation of waveform parameters or black hole hairs. In template design for matched filtering, search parameter ranges and template separations are determined by requirements from acceptable maximum loss of SNRs, detection efficiencies, and computational costs. In realistic searches using observational data, however, effects of nonstationary noises cause decreases of SNRs, and increases of errors in waveform parameter determinations. These problems will potentially arise in any matched filtering searches for any kind of waveforms. To investigate them, we have performed matched filtering analysis for artificial ringdown signals which are generated with Monte-Carlo technique and injected into the TAMA300 observational data. We employed an efficient method to construct a bank of ringdown filters recently proposed by Nakano et al., and use a template bank generated from a criterion such that losses of SNRs of any signals do not exceed 2%. We found that this criterion is fulfilled in ringdown searches using TAMA300 data, by examining distribution of SNRs of simulated signals. It is also shown that with TAMA300 sensitivity, the detection probability for Galactic ringdown events is about 50% for black holes of masses greater than 20M · with SNR>10. The accuracies in waveform parameter estimations are

  18. Mass spectrometric 230Th-234U-238U dating of the Devils Hole calcite vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, K.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Szabo, B.J.; Riggs, A.C.; Winograd, I.J.; Landwehr, J.M.; Hoffman, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Devils Hole calcite vein contains a long-term climatic record, but requires accurate chronologic control for its interpretation. Mass-spectrometric U-series ages for samples from core DH-11 yielding 230 Th ages with precisions ranging from less than 1,000 years (2σ) for samples younger than ∼140 ka (thousands of years ago) to less than 50,000 years for the oldest samples (∼566 ka). The 234 U/ 238 U ages could be determined to a precision of ∼20,000 years for all ages. Calcite accumulated continuously from 566 ka until ∼60 ka at an average rate of 0.7 millimeter per 10 3 years. The precise agreement between replicate analyses and the concordance of the 230 Th/ 238 U and 234 U/ 238 U ages for the oldest samples indicate that the DH-11 samples were closed systems and validate the dating technique in general

  19. The Dynamical Evolution of Stellar-Mass Black Holes in Dense Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Maggie

    Globular clusters are gravitationally bound systems containing up to millions of stars, and are found ubiquitously in massive galaxies, including the Milky Way. With densities as high as a million stars per cubic parsec, they are one of the few places in the Universe where stars interact with one another. They therefore provide us with a unique laboratory for studying how gravitational interactions can facilitate the formation of exotic systems, such as X-ray binaries containing black holes, and merging double black hole binaries, which are produced much less efficiently in isolation. While telescopes can provide us with a snapshot of what these dense clusters look like at present, we must rely on detailed numerical simulations to learn about their evolution. These simulations are quite challenging, however, since dense star clusters are described by a complicated set of physical processes occurring on many different length and time scales, including stellar and binary evolution, weak gravitational scattering encounters, strong resonant binary interactions, and tidal stripping by the host galaxy. Until very recently, it was not possible to model the evolution of systems with millions of stars, the actual number contained in the largest clusters, including all the relevant physics required describe these systems accurately. The Northwestern Group's Henon Monte Carlo code, CMC, which has been in development for over a decade, is a powerful tool that can be used to construct detailed evolutionary models of large star clusters. With its recent parallelization, CMC is now capable of addressing a particularly interesting unsolved problem in astrophysics: the dynamical evolution of stellar black holes in dense star clusters. Our current understanding of the stellar initial mass function and massive star evolution suggests that young globular clusters may have formed hundreds to thousands of stellar-mass black holes, the remnants of stars with initial masses from 20 - 100

  20. Limits on the Mass and Abundance of Primordial Black Holes from Quasar Gravitational Microlensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Calderón-Infante, J. [Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Muñoz, J. A.; Vives-Arias, H. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-02-20

    The idea that dark matter can be made of intermediate-mass primordial black holes (PBHs) in the 10 M {sub ⊙} ≲ M ≲ 200 M {sub ⊙} range has recently been reconsidered, particularly in the light of the detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO experiment. The existence of even a small fraction of dark matter in black holes should nevertheless result in noticeable quasar gravitational microlensing. Quasar microlensing is sensitive to any type of compact objects in the lens galaxy, to their abundance, and to their mass. We have analyzed optical and X-ray microlensing data from 24 gravitationally lensed quasars to estimate the abundance of compact objects in a very wide range of masses. We conclude that the fraction of mass in black holes or any type of compact objects is negligible outside of the 0.05 M {sub ⊙} ≲ M ≲ 0.45 M {sub ⊙} mass range and that it amounts to 20% ± 5% of the total matter, in agreement with the expected masses and abundances of the stellar component. Consequently, the existence of a significant population of intermediate-mass PBHs appears to be inconsistent with current microlensing observations. Therefore, primordial massive black holes are a very unlikely source of the gravitational radiation detected by LIGO.

  1. Orbit of the OJ287 black hole binary as determined from the General Relativity centenary flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Mauri; Gopakumar, Achamveedu; Mikkola, Seppo; Zola, Staszek; Ciprini, Stefano; Matsumoto, Katsura; Sadakane, Kozo; Kidger, Mark; Gazeas, Kosmas; Nilsson, Kari; Berdyugin, Andrei; Piirola, Vilppu; Jermak, Helen; Baliyan, Kiran; Hudec, Rene; Reichart, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    OJ287 goes through large optical flares twice each 12 years. The times of these flares have been predicted successfully now 5 times using a black hole binary model. In this model a secondary black hole goes around a primary black hole, impacting the accretion disk of the latter twice per orbital period, creating a thermal flare. Together with 6 flares from the historical data base, the set of flare timings determines uniquely the 7 parameters of the model: the two masses, the primary spin, the major axis, eccentricity and the phase of the orbit, plus a time delay parameter that gives the extent of time between accretion disk impacts and the related optical flares. Based on observations by the OJ287-15/16 Collaboration, OJ287 went into the phase of rapid flux rise on November 25, on the centenary of Einstein’s General Relativity, and peaked on December 5. At that time OJ287 was the brightest in over 30 years in optical wavelengths. The flare was of low polarization, and did not extend beyond the optical/UV region of the spectrum. On top of the main flare there were a number of small flares; their excess brightness correlates well with the simultaneous X-ray data. With these properties the main flare qualifies as the marker of the orbit of the secondary going around the primary black hole. Since the orbit solution is strongly over-determined, its parameters are known very accurately, at better than one percent level for the masses and the spin. The next flare is predicted to peak on July 28, 2019.Detailed monitoring of this event should allow us to test, for the first time, the celebrated black hole no-hair theorem for a massive black hole at the 10% level. The present data is consistent with the theorem only at a 30% level. The main difficulty in observing OJ287 from Earth at our predicted epoch is its closeness to the sun. Therefore, it is desirable to monitor OJ287 from a space-based telescope not in the vicinity of Earth. Unfortunately, this unique opportunity

  2. Revisiting the ADT mass of the five-dimensional rotating black holes with squashed horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jun-Jin [Guizhou Normal University, Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy and Data Processing, Guiyang (China)

    2017-10-15

    We evaluate the Abbott-Deser-Tekin (ADT) mass of the five-dimensional rotating black holes with squashed horizons on two different on-shell reference backgrounds, which are the flat background and the boundary matched Kaluza-Klein (KK) monopole. The mass on the former, identified with the one on the background of the asymptotic geometry, differs from the mass on the latter by that of the KK monopole. However, each mass satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics. To test the results in five dimensions, we compute the mass in the context of the dimensionally reduced theory. Finally, in contrast with the original ADT formulation, its off-shell generalisation is applied to calculate the mass as well. (orig.)

  3. Revisiting the ADT mass of the five-dimensional rotating black holes with squashed horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Jun-Jin

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the Abbott-Deser-Tekin (ADT) mass of the five-dimensional rotating black holes with squashed horizons on two different on-shell reference backgrounds, which are the flat background and the boundary matched Kaluza-Klein (KK) monopole. The mass on the former, identified with the one on the background of the asymptotic geometry, differs from the mass on the latter by that of the KK monopole. However, each mass satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics. To test the results in five dimensions, we compute the mass in the context of the dimensionally reduced theory. Finally, in contrast with the original ADT formulation, its off-shell generalisation is applied to calculate the mass as well. (orig.)

  4. Revisiting the ADT mass of the five-dimensional rotating black holes with squashed horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun-Jin

    2017-10-01

    We evaluate the Abbott-Deser-Tekin (ADT) mass of the five-dimensional rotating black holes with squashed horizons on two different on-shell reference backgrounds, which are the flat background and the boundary matched Kaluza-Klein (KK) monopole. The mass on the former, identified with the one on the background of the asymptotic geometry, differs from the mass on the latter by that of the KK monopole. However, each mass satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics. To test the results in five dimensions, we compute the mass in the context of the dimensionally reduced theory. Finally, in contrast with the original ADT formulation, its off-shell generalisation is applied to calculate the mass as well.

  5. Ultra-luminous X-ray sources and intermediate-mass black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cseh, David

    2012-01-01

    More than ten years ago, the discovery of Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) has opened up an entirely new field in astrophysics. Many ideas were developed to explain the nature of these sources, like their emission mechanism, mass, and origin, without any strong conclusions. Their discovery boosted the fields of X-ray binaries, accretion physics, stellar evolution, cosmology, black hole formation and growth, due to the concept of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). Since their discovery is related to the domain of X-ray astrophysics, there have been very few studies made in other wavelengths. This thesis focuses on the multiwavelength nature of Ultra-luminous X-ray sources and intermediate-mass black holes from various aspects, which help to overcome some difficulties we face today. First, I investigated the accretion signatures of a putative intermediate-mass black hole in a particular globular cluster. To this purpose, I characterized the nature of the innermost X-ray sources in the cluster. Then I calculated an upper limit on the mass of the black hole by studying possible accretion efficiencies and rates based on the dedicated X-ray and radio observations. The accreting properties of the source was described with standard spherical accretion and in the context of inefficient accretion. Secondly, I attempted to dynamically measure the mass of the black hole in a particular ULX via optical spectroscopy. I discovered that a certain emission line has a broad component that markedly shifts in wavelength. I investigated the possibility whether this line originates in the accretion disk, and thus might trace the orbital motion of the binary system. I also characterized the parameters of the binary system, such as the mass function, possible orbital separation, the size of the line-emitting region, and an upper limit on the mass of the black hole. Then I studied the environment of a number of ULXs that are associated with large-scale optical and radio nebulae. I

  6. A note on physical mass and the thermodynamics of AdS-Kerr black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInnes, Brett [Department of Mathematics, National University of Singapore, 10, Lower Kent Ridge Road, 119076 (Singapore); Ong, Yen Chin, E-mail: matmcinn@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: yenchin.ong@nordita.org [Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    As with any black hole, asymptotically anti-de Sitter Kerr black holes are described by a small number of parameters, including a ''mass parameter'' M that reduces to the AdS-Schwarzschild mass in the limit of vanishing angular momentum. In sharp contrast to the asymptotically flat case, the horizon area of such a black hole increases with the angular momentum parameter a if one fixes M; this appears to mean that the Penrose process in this case would violate the Second Law of black hole thermodynamics. We show that the correct procedure is to fix not M but rather the ''physical'' mass E=M/(1−a{sup 2}/L{sup 2}){sup 2}; this is motivated by the First Law. For then the horizon area decreases with a. We recommend that E always be used as the mass in physical processes: for example, in attempts to ''over-spin'' AdS-Kerr black holes.

  7. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Camp, Jordan B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5(sigma). The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of 3.4(+0.7/-0.9) x 10(exp -22). The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are 14.2(+8.3/-3.7 Stellar Mass and 7.5(+2.3/-2.3) Stellar Mass, and the final black hole mass is 20.8(+6.1/-1.7) Stellar Mass. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2. This source is located at a luminosity distance of 440(+180/-190) Mpc corresponding to a redshift of 0.090(+.030/-0.04). All uncertainties define a 90% credible interval. This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity.

  8. The Hunt for Low-Mass Black Holes in the JWST Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Jenna; Satyapal, Shobita; Abel, Nicholas; Ricci, Claudio; Gliozzi, Mario; Blecha, Laura; Secrest, Nathan

    2018-01-01

    Most, if not all, massive galaxies have a central supermassive black hole (SMBH) millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun. While the properties of SMBHs and their host galaxies have been well-studied in massive galaxies, very few SMBHs have been found in galaxies with low masses and those with small bulges. This is a significant deficiency, because the study of this population allows us to gain an understanding of merger-free pathways to black hole growth, and to gain insight into the origin and growth of SMBH ‘seeds’, thought to have formed at high redshift. Most studies aimed at finding SMBHs have been conducted using optical spectroscopic studies, where active SMBHs (active galactic nuclei or AGNs) display distinctive optical emission lines indicative of accreting SMBHs. However, in low mass (dwarf) galaxies, the SMBHs will likely be less massive, and can be energetically weak and possibly deeply embedded in their host galaxies. As a result, the optical emission lines may be dominated by star formation regions, severely limiting the diagnostic power of optical surveys in finding and characterizing the properties of the AGN in dwarf galaxies. In such galaxies, infrared coronal lines provide a robust method of finding AGNs. Furthermore, as the black hole mass decreases, the Schwarzschild radius of the black hole decreases, and in response, the temperature of the surrounding accretion disk increases. The shape of the ionizing radiation spectral energy distribution therefore changes with black hole mass, which will affect the emission line spectrum from the surrounding gas. In this work, we investigate the diagnostic power of infrared coronal lines and the effect of black hole mass on the emission line spectra from AGNs, with a particular focus on the emission lines accessible by JWST.

  9. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...... of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ~0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH vprop L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall...

  10. Can we improve C IV-based single epoch black hole mass estimations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Restrepo, J. E.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Lira, P.; Netzer, H.

    2018-05-01

    In large optical surveys at high redshifts (z > 2), the C IV broad emission line is the most practical alternative to estimate the mass (MBH) of active super-massive black holes (SMBHs). However, mass determinations obtained with this line are known to be highly uncertain. In this work we use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 and 12 quasar catalogues to statistically test three alternative methods put forward in the literature to improve C IV-based MBH estimations. These methods are constructed from correlations between the ratio of the C IV line-width to the low ionization line-widths (Hα, Hβ and Mg II) and several other properties of rest-frame UV emission lines. Our analysis suggests that these correction methods are of limited applicability, mostly because all of them depend on correlations that are driven by the linewidth of the C IV profile itself and not by an interconnection between the linewidth of the C IV line with the linewidth of the low ionization lines. Our results show that optical C IV-based mass estimates at high redshift cannot be a proper replacement for estimates based on IR spectroscopy of low ionization lines like Hα, Hβ and Mg II.

  11. The mass of the black hole in the X-ray binary LMC X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubekerov, M. K.; Antokhina, E. A.; Gostev, N. Yu.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.; Shimansky, V. V.

    2016-12-01

    A dynamical estimate of the mass of the black hole in the LMC X-1 binary system is obtained in the framework of a Roche model for the optical star, based on fitting of the He I 4471 Å and He II 4200 Å absorption lines assuming LTE. The mass of the black hole derived from the radial-velocity curve for the He II 4200 Å line is m x = 10.55 M ⊙, close to the value found earlier based on a model with two point bodies [1].

  12. THE MEGAMASER COSMOLOGY PROJECT. III. ACCURATE MASSES OF SEVEN SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN ACTIVE GALAXIES WITH CIRCUMNUCLEAR MEGAMASER DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, C. Y.; Braatz, J. A.; Condon, J. J.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Lo, K. Y.; Zaw, I.; Schenker, M.; Henkel, C.; Reid, M. J.; Greene, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of H 2 O masers from circumnuclear disks in active galaxies for the Megamaser Cosmology Project (MCP) allow accurate measurement of the mass of supermassive black holes (BH) in these galaxies. We present the Very Long Baseline Interferometry images and kinematics of water maser emission in six active galaxies: NGC 1194, NGC 2273, NGC 2960 (Mrk 1419), NGC 4388, NGC 6264 and NGC 6323. We use the Keplerian rotation curves of these six megamaser galaxies, plus a seventh previously published, to determine accurate enclosed masses within the central ∼0.3 pc of these galaxies, smaller than the radius of the sphere of influence of the central mass in all cases. We also set lower limits to the central mass densities of between 0.12 x 10 10 and 61 x 10 10 M sun pc -3 . For six of the seven disks, the high central densities rule out clusters of stars or stellar remnants as the central objects, and this result further supports our assumption that the enclosed mass can be attributed predominantly to a supermassive BH. The seven BHs have masses ranging between 0.75 x 10 7 and 6.5 x 10 7 M sun , with the mass errors dominated by the uncertainty of the Hubble constant. We compare the megamaser BH mass determination with BH mass measured from the virial estimation method. The virial estimation BH mass in four galaxies is consistent with the megamaser BH mass, but the virial mass uncertainty is much greater. Circumnuclear megamaser disks allow the best mass determination of the central BH mass in external galaxies and significantly improve the observational basis at the low-mass end of the M-σ * relation. The M-σ * relation may not be a single, low-scatter power law as originally proposed. MCP observations continue and we expect to obtain more maser BH masses in the future.

  13. EXPLORING THE UNUSUALLY HIGH BLACK-HOLE-TO-BULGE MASS RATIOS IN NGC 4342 AND NGC 4291: THE ASYNCHRONOUS GROWTH OF BULGES AND BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdán, Ákos; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Li, Zhiyuan; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Jones, Christine; Zhuravleva, Irina; Churazov, Eugene; Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul; Guo, Qi; Schindler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    We study two nearby early-type galaxies, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, that host unusually massive black holes relative to their low stellar mass. The observed black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are 6.9 +3.8 –2.3 % and 1.9% ± 0.6%, respectively, which significantly exceed the typical observed ratio of ∼0.2%. As a consequence of the exceedingly large black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are ≈5.1σ and ≈3.4σ outliers from the M . -M bulge scaling relation, respectively. In this paper, we explore the origin of the unusually high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratio. Based on Chandra X-ray observations of the hot gas content of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, we compute gravitating mass profiles, and conclude that both galaxies reside in massive dark matter halos, which extend well beyond the stellar light. The presence of dark matter halos around NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 and a deep optical image of the environment of NGC 4342 indicate that tidal stripping, in which ∼> 90% of the stellar mass was lost, cannot explain the observed high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios. Therefore, we conclude that these galaxies formed with low stellar masses, implying that the bulge and black hole did not grow in tandem. We also find that the black hole mass correlates well with the properties of the dark matter halo, suggesting that dark matter halos may play a major role in regulating the growth of the supermassive black holes.

  14. Contribution of High-Mass Black Holes to Mergers of Compact Binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.; Brown, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the merging of compact binaries consisting of a high-mass black hole and a neutron star. From stellar evolutionary calculations that include mass loss, we estimate that a zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass of approx-gt 80 M circle-dot is necessary before a high-mass black hole can result from a massive O star progenitor. We first consider how Cyg X-1, with its measured orbital radius of ∼17 R circle-dot , might evolve. Although this radius is substantially less than the initial distance of two O stars, it is still so large that the resulting compact objects will merge only if an eccentricity close to unity results from a high kick velocity of the neutron star in the final supernova explosion. We estimate the probability of the necessary eccentricity to be ∼1%; i.e., 99% of the time the explosion of a Cyg X-1 endash type object will end as a binary of compact stars, which will not merge in Hubble time (unless the orbit is tightened in common envelope evolution, which we discuss later). Although we predict ∼7 massive binaries of Cyg X-1 type, we argue that only Cyg X-1 is narrow enough to be observed, and that only Cyg X-1 has an appreciable chance of merging in Hubble time. This gives us a merging rate of ∼3x10 -8 yr -1 in the galaxy, the order of magnitude of the merging rate found by computer-driven population syntheses, if extrapolated to our mass limit of 80 M circle-dot ZAMS mass for high-mass black hole formation. Furthermore, in both our calculation and in those of population syntheses, almost all of the mergings involve an eccentricity close to unity in the final explosion of the O star. From this first part of our development we obtain only a negligible contribution to our final results for mergers, and it turns out to be irrelevant for our final results. In our main development, instead of relying on observed binaries, we consider the general evolution of binaries of massive stars. The critical stage is when the more massive star A has

  15. Fermi-edge exciton-polaritons in doped semiconductor microcavities with finite hole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenov, Dimitri; von Delft, Jan; Glazman, Leonid; Goldstein, Moshe

    2017-10-01

    The coupling between a 2D semiconductor quantum well and an optical cavity gives rise to combined light-matter excitations, the exciton-polaritons. These were usually measured when the conduction band is empty, making the single polariton physics a simple single-body problem. The situation is dramatically different in the presence of a finite conduction-band population, where the creation or annihilation of a single exciton involves a many-body shakeup of the Fermi sea. Recent experiments in this regime revealed a strong modification of the exciton-polariton spectrum. Previous theoretical studies concerned with nonzero Fermi energy mostly relied on the approximation of an immobile valence-band hole with infinite mass, which is appropriate for low-mobility samples only; for high-mobility samples, one needs to consider a mobile hole with large but finite mass. To bridge this gap, we present an analytical diagrammatic approach and tackle a model with short-ranged (screened) electron-hole interaction, studying it in two complementary regimes. We find that the finite hole mass has opposite effects on the exciton-polariton spectra in the two regimes: in the first, where the Fermi energy is much smaller than the exciton binding energy, excitonic features are enhanced by the finite mass. In the second regime, where the Fermi energy is much larger than the exciton binding energy, finite mass effects cut off the excitonic features in the polariton spectra, in qualitative agreement with recent experiments.

  16. Further Rehabilitating CIV-based Black Hole Mass Estimates in Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Michael S.; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Shang, Zhaohui; Varju, Melinda

    2016-06-01

    Virial black hole masses are routinely estimated for high-redshift quasars using the C IV lambda 1549 emission line using single-epoch spectra that provide a gas velocity and a continuum luminosity. Such masses are very uncertain, however, especially because C IV likely possesses a non-virial component that varies with the Eddington ratio. We have previously used the 1400 feature, a blend of S i IV and O IV] emission that does not suffer the problems of C IV, to rehabilitate C IV-based mases by providing a correction term. The C IV profile itself, however, provides enough information to correct the black hole masses and remove the effects of the non-virial component. We use Mg II-based black hole masses to calibrate and test a new C IV-based black hole mass formula using only C IV and continuum measurements superior to existing formulations, as well as to test for additional dependencies on luminosity.

  17. Black-hole bremsstrahlung and the efficiency of mass-energy radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, H. P. de; Soares, I. Damiao; Tonini, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from numerical evolution of a boosted black hole, perturbed nonlinearly by an axisymmetric distribution of matter in the realm of Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. Characteristic initial data for the system were constructed and the Robinson-Trautmann equation was integrated for these data using a numerical code based on the Galerkin-collocation method. The emission of gravitational waves by the system is typical of bremsstrahlung at early times, a consequence of the deceleration of the black hole as it interacts with the perturbation; part of the perturbation is radiated away and another part is absorbed into the hole. The angular pattern evolves to the quadrupole form for later times. The final configuration is a black hole in motion with larger (Bondi) rest mass and smaller boost parameter. The efficiency Δ of mass-energy extraction by gravitational wave emission was also computed. The relation of Δ to the mass of the remnant black hole satisfies a nonextensive thermostatistics distribution with entropic index q≅1/2. The result extends analytical evaluations based on the linearized theory of gravitational wave emission. For each initial boost parameter, there always exists a (large) value of the perturbation parameter A 0 for which the momentum of the remnant black hole has opposite sign to that of the unperturbed black hole, due to the strong deceleration during the process of gravitational wave emission. The temporal wave form is that of an initial burst and we evaluate that for a large range of A 0 the process corresponds to a high power output in the initial dominant pulse.

  18. Investigation of dynamic characteristics of shells with holes and added mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seregin Sergey Valer’evich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thin cylindrical shells are widely used in construction, engineering and other industries. In case of designing a reservoir for the isothermal storage of liquefied gases such cases are inevitable, when housing requires various technical holes. A point wise added mass can appear into practice in the form of suspended spotlights, radar, architectural inclusions in buildings and structures of various purposes. It is known, that the dynamic asymmetry as an initial irregular geometric shape, including holes, and the added mass leads to specific effects in shells. In the paper the impact of a cut on the frequency and form of its own vibrations of thin circular cylindrical shells is theoretically examined with the help of the equations of linear shallow shell theory. For modal equations with Nav’e boundary conditions, we used the Bubnov - Galerkin method. The authors have expressed a formula for finding the lowest of the split-frequency vibrations of a shell with a cutout. It is stated, that in case of an appropriate choice of added mass value the lower frequencies are comparable with the case of vibrations of a shell with a hole. By numerical and experimental modeling and finite element method in the environment of MSC "Nastran" oscillation frequencies a shell supporting a concentrated mass and a shell with a cutout were compared. It is shown, that the results of the dynamic analysis of shells with holes with a suitable choice of the attached mass values are comparable with the results of the analysis of shells carrying a point mass. It was concluded that the edges in the holes, significantly affect the reduction in the lowest frequency, and need to be strengthened.

  19. A Multiwavelength Study of POX 52, a Dwarf Seyfert Galaxy with an Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron

    2004-09-01

    POX 52 is a Seyfert 1 galaxy with unprecedented properties: its host galaxy is a dwarf elliptical, and its stellar velocity dispersion is only 36 km/s. The stellar velocity dispersion and the broad emission-line widths both suggest a black hole mass of order 10^5 solar masses. We request HST ACS/HRC imaging to perform a definitive measurement of the host galaxy structure; STIS UV and optical spectroscopy to study the nonstellar continuum and the structure of the broad-line region; and Chandra ACIS imaging to investigate the spectral and variability properties of the X-ray emission. The results of this program will give a detailed understanding of the host galaxy and accretion properties of one of the very few known black holes in the mass range around 10^5 solar masses.

  20. Search for intermediate mass black hole binaries in the first observing run of Advanced LIGO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allen, G; Allocca, A.; Almoubayyed, H.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bawaj, M.; Bazzan, M.; Becsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, D J; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, H. -P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Deelman, E; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Alvarez, M. Dovale; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Duncan, J.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fong, H.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gabel, M.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.J.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, A.S.P.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.E.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, W.; Kim, S.W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kraemer, H.C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang-Cheol, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, W. H.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lueck, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Hernandez, I. Magana; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mayani, R.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P.G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Castro-Perez, J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Rynge, M.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shao, L.P.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahi, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y. -F.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, G.W.K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y. -H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2017-01-01

    During their first observational run, the two Advanced LIGO detectors attained an unprecedented sensitivity, resulting in the first direct detections of gravitational-wave signals produced by stellar-mass binary black hole systems. This paper reports on an all-sky search for gravitational waves

  1. Accretion and jets from stellar-mass to supermassive black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connors, R.M.T.

    2017-01-01

    Accretion and jets occur in many astrophysical systems across a multitude of size and mass scales, and environments. As such, the study of accretion and jet physics has for decades been, and still remains, a hot topic in astrophysics. Accretion onto black holes has particular significance for many

  2. A near-infrared relationship for estimating black hole masses in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landt, Hermine; Ward, Martin J.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Bentz, Misty C.; Elvis, Martin; Korista, Kirk T.; Karovska, Margarita

    2013-06-01

    Black hole masses for samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are currently estimated from single-epoch optical spectra using scaling relations anchored in reverberation mapping results. In particular, the two quantities needed for calculating black hole masses, namely the velocity and the radial distance of the orbiting gas are derived from the widths of the Balmer hydrogen broad emission lines and the optical continuum luminosity, respectively. We have recently presented a near-infrared (near-IR) relationship for estimating AGN black hole masses based on the widths of the Paschen hydrogen broad emission lines and the total 1 μm continuum luminosity. The near-IR offers several advantages over the optical: it suffers less from dust extinction, the AGN continuum is observed only weakly contaminated by the host galaxy and the strongest Paschen broad emission lines Paα and Paβ are unblended. Here, we improve the calibration of the near-IR black hole mass relationship by increasing the sample from 14 to 23 reverberation-mapped AGN using additional spectroscopy obtained with the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph. The additional sample improves the number statistics in particular at the high-luminosity end.

  3. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fong, H.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton-Ayers, M.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Hemberger, D.; Kidder, L. E.; Lovelace, G.; Ossokine, S.; Scheel, M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was

  4. Nuclear Gas Dynamics of NGC2110: A Black Hole Offset from the Host Galaxy Mass Center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the central regions of many galaxies are unlikely to be in a static steady state, with instabilities caused by sinking satellites, the influence of a supermassive black hole or residuals of galaxy formation, resulting in the nuclear black hole orbiting the galaxy center. The observational signature of such an orbiting black hole is an offset of the active nucleus (AGN) from the kinematic center defined by the galaxy rotation curve. This orbital motion may provide fuel for the AGN, as the hole 'grazes' on the ISM, and bent radio jets, due to the motion of their source. The early type (E/SO) Seyfert galaxy, NGC2210, with its striking twin, 'S'-shaped radio jets, is a unique and valuable test case for the offset-nucleus phenomenon since, despite its remarkably normal rotation curve, its kinematically-measured mass center is displaced both spatially (260 pc) and kinematically (170 km/s) from the active nucleus located in optical and radio studies. However, the central kinematics, where the rotation curve rises most steeply, have been inaccessible with ground-based resolutions. We present new, high resolution WFPC2 imaging and long-slit STIS spectroscopy of the central 300 pc of NGC2110. We discuss the structure and kinematics of gas moving in the galactic potential on subarcsecond scales and the reality of the offset between the black hole and the galaxy mass center.

  5. Use of neutron capture gamma radiation for determining grade of iron ore in blast holes and exploration holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisler, P.L.; Huppert, P.; Mathew, P.J.; Wylie, A.W.; Youl, S.F.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron radiative capture and neutron-neutron logging have been applied to determining the grade of ore in dry blast holes and a dry exploration hole drilled into a layered iron deposit. Both thermal and epithermal neutron responses were measured as well as the gamma-ray responses due to neutron capture by iron and by hydrogen present in hydrated minerals. The results were fitted by a stepwise multiple linear regression technique to give expressions for mean grade of ore in the drill hole and 95% confidence intervals for estimation of this mean. For an overall range of ore grades of 20-68% Fe and a mean grade of 63% Fe, the confidence interval for prediction of mean grade for the neutron-gamma technique was 0.3% Fe for pooled data from all five blast holes and 0.8% Fe for a single hole. It was also shown that for this type of layered deposit a simpler neutron-neutron log incorporating simultaneous measurement of both thermal and epithermal neutron responses gave almost as good a grade prediction result for pooled results from five drill holes, namely 63+-0.4% Fe, as that obtained by the neutron-gamma technique. The results of both types of log are compared with those obtained by the spectral gamma-ray backscattering [Psub(z)] technique, or by logging of natural gamma radiations from the shale component of the ore. From this comparison conclusions are drawn regarding the most suitable technique to employ for determining grade of iron ore in various practical logging situations. (author)

  6. Measuring Intermediate-Mass Black-Hole Binaries with Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, John; Pürrer, Michael; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-10-02

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger, and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50M(⊙) and 500M(⊙) and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ∼200M(⊙), where the signal-to-noise ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; and (iv) spin cannot be accurately measured for our injection set with nonspinning components. Most importantly, we find that for binaries with nonspinning components at all values of the mass ratio in the considered range and at a network signal-to-noise ratio of 15, analyzed with spin-aligned templates, the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >100M(⊙) can be confirmed with 95% confidence in any binary that includes a component with a mass of 130M(⊙) or greater.

  7. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. 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D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. 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M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, H.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Hemberger, D.; Kidder, L. E.; Lovelace, G.; Ossokine, S.; Scheel, M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; VIRGO Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5 σ . The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of 3. 4-0.9+0.7×10-22 . The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are 14.2-3.7+8.3 M⊙ and 7. 5-2.3+2.3 M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 20.8-1.7+6.1 M⊙. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2. This source is located at a luminosity distance of 44 0-190+180 Mpc corresponding to a redshift of 0.0 9-0.04+0.03. All uncertainties define a 90% credible interval. This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity.

  8. A population of relic intermediate-mass black holes in the halo of the Milky Way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashkov, Valery; Madau, Piero

    2014-01-01

    If 'seed' central black holes were common in the subgalactic building blocks that merged to form present-day massive galaxies, then relic intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) should be present in the Galactic bulge and halo. We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate the N-body Via Lactea II high-resolution simulation with black holes, and assess the size, properties, and detectability of the leftover population. The method assigns a black hole to the most tightly bound central particle of each subhalo at infall according to an extrapolation of the M BH -σ * relation, and self-consistently follows the accretion and disruption of Milky Way progenitor dwarfs and their holes in a cosmological 'live' host from high redshift to today. We show that, depending on the minimum stellar velocity dispersion, σ m , below which central black holes are assumed to be increasingly rare, as many as ∼2000 (σ m = 3 km s –1 ) or as few as ∼70 (σ m = 12 km s –1 ) IMBHs may be left wandering in the halo of the Milky Way today. The fraction of IMBHs forced from their hosts by gravitational recoil is ≲ 20%. We identify two main Galactic subpopulations, 'naked' IMBHs, whose host subhalos were totally destroyed after infall, and 'clothed' IMBHs residing in dark matter satellites that survived tidal stripping. Naked IMBHs typically constitute 40%-50% of the total and are more centrally concentrated. We show that, in the σ m = 12 km s –1 scenario, the clusters of tightly bound stars that should accompany naked IMBHs would be fainter than m V = 16 mag, spatially resolvable, and have proper motions of 0.1-10 mas yr –1 . Their detection may provide an observational tool to constrain the formation history of massive black holes in the early universe.

  9. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT: BROAD-LINE REGION RADII AND BLACK HOLE MASSES FROM REVERBERATION MAPPING OF Hβ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Barth, Aaron J.; Baliber, Nairn; Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Greene, Jenny E.; Hidas, Marton G.; Canalizo, Gabriela; Hiner, Kyle D.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Lee, Nicholas; Li, Weidong; Serduke, Frank J. D.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Steele, Thea N.; Gates, Elinor L.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Minezaki, Takeo; Sakata, Yu

    2009-01-01

    We have recently completed a 64-night spectroscopic monitoring campaign at the Lick Observatory 3-m Shane telescope with the aim of measuring the masses of the black holes in 12 nearby (z 6 -10 7 M sun and also the well-studied nearby active galactic nucleus (AGN) NGC 5548. Nine of the objects in the sample (including NGC 5548) showed optical variability of sufficient strength during the monitoring campaign to allow for a time lag to be measured between the continuum fluctuations and the response to these fluctuations in the broad Hβ emission. We present here the light curves for all the objects in this sample and the subsequent Hβ time lags for the nine objects where these measurements were possible. The Hβ lag time is directly related to the size of the broad-line region (BLR) in AGNs, and by combining the Hβ lag time with the measured width of the Hβ emission line in the variable part of the spectrum, we determine the virial mass of the central supermassive black hole in these nine AGNs. The absolute calibration of the black hole masses is based on the normalization derived by Onken et al., which brings the masses determined by reverberation mapping into agreement with the local M BH -σ * relationship for quiescent galaxies. We also examine the time lag response as a function of velocity across the Hβ line profile for six of the AGNs. The analysis of four leads to rather ambiguous results with relatively flat time lags as a function of velocity. However, SBS 1116+583A exhibits a symmetric time lag response around the line center reminiscent of simple models for circularly orbiting BLR clouds, and Arp 151 shows an asymmetric profile that is most easily explained by a simple gravitational infall model. Further investigation will be necessary to fully understand the constraints placed on the physical models of the BLR by the velocity-resolved response in these objects.

  10. Gravitational-wave localization alone can probe origin of stellar-mass black hole mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, I; Haiman, Z; Marka, Z; Metzger, B D; Stone, N C; Marka, S

    2017-10-10

    The recent discovery of gravitational waves from stellar-mass binary black hole mergers by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory opened the door to alternative probes of stellar and galactic evolution, cosmology and fundamental physics. Probing the origin of binary black hole mergers will be difficult due to the expected lack of electromagnetic emission and limited localization accuracy. Associations with rare host galaxy types-such as active galactic nuclei-can nevertheless be identified statistically through spatial correlation. Here we establish the feasibility of statistically proving the connection between binary black hole mergers and active galactic nuclei as hosts, even if only a sub-population of mergers originate from active galactic nuclei. Our results are the demonstration that the limited localization of gravitational waves, previously written off as not useful to distinguish progenitor channels, can in fact contribute key information, broadening the range of astrophysical questions probed by binary black hole observations.Binary black hole mergers have recently been observed through the detection of gravitational wave signatures. The authors demonstrate that their association with active galactic nuclei can be made through a statistical spatial correlation.

  11. X-ray constraints on the number of stellar mass black holes in the inner parsec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, Patrick; Nayakshin, Sergei [University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LEI 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    Due to dynamical friction stellar mass black holes should form a cusp in the inner parsec. Calculations [5, 6] show that approximately 20 thousand black holes would be present in a sphere with radius of about a parsec around Sgr A*. The presence of these objects opens up the possibility that they might be accreting ''cool'' gas (i.e. the Minispiral) as discussed by Morris [6]. Here we calculate the X-ray emission expected from these black holes as a method to constrain their population. We find that the data limits the total number of such black holes to around 10 - 20 thousand. Even a much smaller number of such black holes, i.e. 5 thousand, is sufficient to produce several sources with X-ray luminosity above L{sub x} {approx} 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} at any one time. We suggest that some of the discrete X-ray sources observed by Muno [7] with Chandra in the inner parsec may be such ''fake X-ray binaries''.

  12. X-ray constraints on the number of stellar mass black holes in the inner parsec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Patrick; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2006-12-01

    Due to dynamical friction stellar mass black holes should form a cusp in the inner parsec. Calculations [5, 6] show that approximately 20 thousand black holes would be present in a sphere with radius of about a parsec around Sgr A*. The presence of these objects opens up the possibility that they might be accreting ''cool'' gas (i.e. the Minispiral) as discussed by Morris [6]. Here we calculate the X-ray emission expected from these black holes as a method to constrain their population. We find that the data limits the total number of such black holes to around 10 - 20 thousand. Even a much smaller number of such black holes, i.e. 5 thousand, is sufficient to produce several sources with X-ray luminosity above Lx ~ 1033 erg s-1 at any one time. We suggest that some of the discrete X-ray sources observed by Muno [7] with Chandra in the inner parsec may be such ''fake X-ray binaries''.

  13. X-ray constraints on the number of stellar mass black holes in the inner parsec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deegan, Patrick; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2006-01-01

    Due to dynamical friction stellar mass black holes should form a cusp in the inner parsec. Calculations [5, 6] show that approximately 20 thousand black holes would be present in a sphere with radius of about a parsec around Sgr A*. The presence of these objects opens up the possibility that they might be accreting ''cool'' gas (i.e. the Minispiral) as discussed by Morris [6]. Here we calculate the X-ray emission expected from these black holes as a method to constrain their population. We find that the data limits the total number of such black holes to around 10 - 20 thousand. Even a much smaller number of such black holes, i.e. 5 thousand, is sufficient to produce several sources with X-ray luminosity above L x ∼ 10 33 erg s -1 at any one time. We suggest that some of the discrete X-ray sources observed by Muno [7] with Chandra in the inner parsec may be such ''fake X-ray binaries''

  14. POX 52: A Dwarf Seyfert 1 Galaxy with an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Ho, Luis C.; Rutledge, Robert E.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    2004-05-01

    We describe new optical images and spectra of POX 52, a dwarf galaxy with an active nucleus that was originally detected in the POX objective-prism survey. While POX 52 was originally thought to be a Seyfert 2 galaxy, the new data reveal an emission-line spectrum very similar to that of the dwarf Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4395, with broad components to the permitted line profiles, and we classify POX 52 as a Seyfert 1 galaxy. The host galaxy appears to be a dwarf elliptical, and its brightness profile is best fit by a Sérsic model with an index of 3.6+/-0.2 and a total magnitude of MV=-17.6. Applying mass-luminosity-line width scaling relations to estimate the black hole mass from the broad Hβ line width and nonstellar continuum luminosity, we find MBH~1.6×105Msolar. The stellar velocity dispersion in the host galaxy, measured from the Ca II λ8498, 8542 lines, is 36+/-5 km s-1, also suggestive of a black hole mass of order 105Msolar. Further searches for active nuclei in dwarf galaxies can provide unique constraints on the demographics of black holes in the mass range below 106Msolar.

  15. Universal charge-mass relation: From black holes to atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic censorship hypothesis, introduced by Penrose forty years ago, is one of the corner stones of general relativity. This conjecture asserts that spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. The elimination of a black-hole horizon is ruled out by this principle because that would expose naked singularities to distant observers. We test the consistency of this prediction in a gedanken experiment in which a charged object is swallowed by a charged black hole. We find that the validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture requires the existence of a charge-mass bound of the form q≤μ 2/3 E c -1/3 , where q and μ are the charge and mass of the physical system respectively, and E c is the critical electric field for pair-production. Applying this bound to charged atomic nuclei, one finds an upper limit on the number Z of protons in a nucleus of given mass number A: Z≤Z * =α -1/3 A 2/3 , where α=e 2 /h is the fine structure constant. We test the validity of this novel bound against the (Z,A)-relation of atomic nuclei as deduced from the Weizsaecker semi-empirical mass formula.

  16. Universal charge-mass relation: From black holes to atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar, E-mail: shaharhod@gmail.co [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem 91010 (Israel)

    2010-10-04

    The cosmic censorship hypothesis, introduced by Penrose forty years ago, is one of the corner stones of general relativity. This conjecture asserts that spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. The elimination of a black-hole horizon is ruled out by this principle because that would expose naked singularities to distant observers. We test the consistency of this prediction in a gedanken experiment in which a charged object is swallowed by a charged black hole. We find that the validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture requires the existence of a charge-mass bound of the form q{<=}{mu}{sup 2/3}E{sub c}{sup -1/3}, where q and {mu} are the charge and mass of the physical system respectively, and E{sub c} is the critical electric field for pair-production. Applying this bound to charged atomic nuclei, one finds an upper limit on the number Z of protons in a nucleus of given mass number A: Z{<=}Z{sup *}={alpha}{sup -1/3}A{sup 2/3}, where {alpha}=e{sup 2}/h is the fine structure constant. We test the validity of this novel bound against the (Z,A)-relation of atomic nuclei as deduced from the Weizsaecker semi-empirical mass formula.

  17. Accretion Disks Around Binary Black Holes of Unequal Mass: GRMHD Simulations Near Decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Roman; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Pfeiffer, Harald, P.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simulations in general relativity of magnetized disks onto black hole binaries. We vary the binary mass ratio from 1:1 to 1:10 and evolve the systems when they orbit near the binary disk decoupling radius. We compare (surface) density profiles, accretion rates (relative to a single, non-spinning black hole), variability, effective alpha-stress levels and luminosities as functions of the mass ratio. We treat the disks in two limiting regimes: rapid radiative cooling and no radiative cooling. The magnetic field lines clearly reveal jets emerging from both black hole horizons and merging into one common jet at large distances. The magnetic fields give rise to much stronger shock heating than the pure hydrodynamic flows, completely alter the disk structure, and boost accretion rates and luminosities. Accretion streams near the horizons are among the densest structures; in fact, the 1:10 no-cooling evolution results in a refilling of the cavity. The typical effective temperature in the bulk of the disk is approx. 10(exp5) (M / 10(exp 8)M solar mass (exp -1/4(L/L(sub edd) (exp 1/4K) yielding characteristic thermal frequencies approx. 10 (exp 15) (M /10(exp 8)M solar mass) (exp -1/4(L/L (sub edd) (1+z) (exp -1)Hz. These systems are thus promising targets for many extragalactic optical surveys, such as LSST, WFIRST, and PanSTARRS.

  18. UPDATED MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND A COMPARISON TO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether or not nuclear star clusters and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) follow a common set of mass scaling relations with their host galaxy's properties, and hence can be considered to form a single class of central massive object (CMO). We have compiled a large sample of galaxies with measured nuclear star cluster masses and host galaxy properties from the literature and fit log-linear scaling relations. We find that nuclear star cluster mass, M NC , correlates most tightly with the host galaxy's velocity dispersion: log M NC = (2.11 ± 0.31)log (σ/54) + (6.63 ± 0.09), but has a slope dramatically shallower than the relation defined by SMBHs. We find that the nuclear star cluster mass relations involving host galaxy (and spheroid) luminosity and stellar and dynamical mass, intercept with but are in general shallower than the corresponding black hole scaling relations. In particular, M NC ∝M 0.55±0.15 Gal,dyn ; the nuclear cluster mass is not a constant fraction of its host galaxy or spheroid mass. We conclude that nuclear stellar clusters and SMBHs do not form a single family of CMOs.

  19. The Mass of the Black Hole in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 4593 from Reverberation Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.

    2006-01-01

    We present new observations leading to an improved black hole mass estimate for the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593 as part of a reverberation-mapping campaign conducted at the MDM Observatory. Cross-correlation analysis of the H_beta emission-line light curve with the optical continuum light curve...... reveals an emission-line time delay of 3.73 (+-0.75) days. By combining this time delay with the H_beta line width, we derive a central black hole mass of M_BH = 9.8(+-2.1)x10^6 M_sun, an improvement in precision of a factor of several over past results....

  20. Constructing binary black hole initial data with high mass ratios and spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossokine, Serguei; Foucart, Francois; Pfeiffer, Harald; Szilagyi, Bela; Simulating Extreme Spacetimes Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Binary black hole systems have now been successfully modelled in full numerical relativity by many groups. In order to explore high-mass-ratio (larger than 1:10), high-spin systems (above 0.9 of the maximal BH spin), we revisit the initial-data problem for binary black holes. The initial-data solver in the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) was not able to solve for such initial data reliably and robustly. I will present recent improvements to this solver, among them adaptive mesh refinement and control of motion of the center of mass of the binary, and will discuss the much larger region of parameter space this code can now address.

  1. τ lepton mass determination at KEDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidelman, S.I.; Anashin, V.V.; Aulchenko, V.M.; Baldin, E.M.; Barladyan, A.K.; Barnyakov, A.Yu.; Barnyakov, M.Yu.; Baru, S.E.; Basok, I.Yu.; Bedny, I.V.; Beloborodova, O.L.; Blinov, A.E.; Blinov, V.E.; Bobrov, A.V.; Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Bogomyagkov, A.V.; Bondar, A.E.; Buzykaev, A.R.; Eidelman, S.I.; Glukhovchenko, Yu.M.

    2011-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a new high-precision determination of the τ lepton mass performed with the KEDR detector at the VEPP-4M e + e - collider. These results are compared to two recent τ lepton mass measurements at Belle and BaBar.

  2. An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Dwarf Seyfert 1 Galaxy POX 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A.; Ho, L.; Sargent, W.

    2004-06-01

    We describe new observations of POX 52, a previously known but nearly forgotten example of a dwarf galaxy with an active nucleus. While POX 52 was originally thought to be a Seyfert 2 galaxy, the new data reveal an emission-line spectrum very similar to that of the dwarf Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4395, with clear broad components to the permitted line profiles. The host galaxy appears to be a dwarf elliptical; this is the only known case of a Seyfert nucleus in a galaxy of this type. Applying scaling relations to estimate the black hole mass from the broad Hβ linewidth and continuum luminosity, we find MBH ≈ 1.6×105 M⊙. The stellar velocity dispersion in the host galaxy is 36 km s-1, also suggestive of a black hole mass of order 105 M⊙. Further searches for AGNs in dwarf galaxies can provide crucial constraints on the demographics of black holes in the mass range below 106 M⊙.

  3. THE BLACK HOLE MASS-GALAXY LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salviander, S.; Shields, G. A.; Bonning, E. W.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the mass of the central supermassive black hole, M BH , and the host galaxy luminosity, L gal , in a sample of quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We use composite quasar spectra binned by black hole mass and redshift to assess galaxy features that would otherwise be overwhelmed by noise in individual spectra. The black hole mass is calculated using the photoionization method, and the host galaxy luminosity is inferred from the depth of the Ca II H+K features in the composite spectra. We evaluate the evolution in the M BH -L gal relationship by examining the redshift dependence of Δ log M BH , the offset in M BH from the local M BH -L gal relationship. There is little systematic trend in Δ log M BH out to z = 0.8. Using the width of the [O III] emission line as a proxy for the stellar velocity dispersion, σ * , we find agreement of our derived host luminosities with the locally observed Faber-Jackson relation. This supports the utility of the width of the [O III] line as a proxy for σ * in statistical studies

  4. Jetted tidal disruptions of stars as a flag of intermediate mass black holes at high redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-11-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) of stars by single or binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) brighten galactic nuclei and reveal a population of otherwise dormant black holes. Adopting event rates from the literature, we aim to establish general trends in the redshift evolution of the TDE number counts and their observable signals. We pay particular attention to (I) jetted TDEs whose luminosity is boosted by relativistic beaming and (II) TDEs around binary black holes. We show that the brightest (jetted) TDEs are expected to be produced by massive black hole binaries if the occupancy of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in low-mass galaxies is high. The same binary population will also provide gravitational wave sources for the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. In addition, we find that the shape of the X-ray luminosity function of TDEs strongly depends on the occupancy of IMBHs and could be used to constrain scenarios of SMBH formation. Finally, we make predictions for the expected number of TDEs observed by future X-ray telescopes finding that a 50 times more sensitive instrument than the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board the Swift satellite is expected to trigger ˜10 times more events than BAT, while 6-20 TDEs are expected in each deep field observed by a telescope 50 times more sensitive than the Chandra X-ray Observatory if the occupation fraction of IMBHs is high. Because of their long decay times, high-redshift TDEs can be mistaken for fixed point sources in deep field surveys and targeted observations of the same deep field with year-long intervals could reveal TDEs.

  5. Evidence for Broad-Line Region Outflows and Their Impact on Black Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, K. D.; Assef, R. J.; Horne, K.

    2012-01-01

    could not be fully and accurately interpreted from the 1D velocity-resolved reverberation signal. From the VDM, an outflow component to the emission remains possible but appears to be in addition to an underlying, disk-like BLR structure consistent in size with the measured reverberation lag. The black...... hole (BH) mass derived from this data is therefore secure from any uncertainties possibly derived from gravitationally unbound gas contributing to the emission. Additionally, we demonstrate that BLR emission from the C IV ¿1549 broad emission line can reliably be used as a virial BH mass estimator...

  6. How fast can a black hole eat. [Equation stationary spherically symmetric solutions, Thompson scattering, mass flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, P; Meszaros, P [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.)

    1976-11-01

    Stationary spherically symmetric solutions of the equations for accretion of large mass flows onto a black hole, including the interaction of matter and radiation due to Thomson scattering in diffusion approximation are constructed. The relevance of these solutions is discussed with respect to the question of whether the limitation of the luminosity (Eddington limit) also implies an upper bound to the possible rate of mass flow. The question remains open until all instabilities have been studied. At the moment a negative answer is favoured.

  7. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dasgupta, A; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Fenyvesi, E; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Fournier, J-D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Geng, P; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hamilton, H; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Henry, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jian, L; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Johnson-McDaniel, N K; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kapadia, S J; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, W; Kim, Y-M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kissel, J S; Klein, B; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Lewis, J B; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lousto, C O; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magaña Zertuche, L; Magee, R M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, A; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Pfeiffer, H P; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Qiu, S; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Sakellariadou, M; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O E S; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Setyawati, Y; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D V; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J; Boyle, M; Hemberger, D; Kidder, L E; Lovelace, G; Ossokine, S; Scheel, M; Szilagyi, B; Teukolsky, S

    2016-06-17

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5σ. The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of 3.4_{-0.9}^{+0.7}×10^{-22}. The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are 14.2_{-3.7}^{+8.3}M_{⊙} and 7.5_{-2.3}^{+2.3}M_{⊙}, and the final black hole mass is 20.8_{-1.7}^{+6.1}M_{⊙}. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2. This source is located at a luminosity distance of 440_{-190}^{+180}  Mpc corresponding to a redshift of 0.09_{-0.04}^{+0.03}. All uncertainties define a 90% credible interval. This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity.

  8. Observations of Intermediate-mass Black Holes and Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.

    2003-12-01

    I will review various observations that suggest that intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses ˜102-104 M⊙ exist in our Universe. I will also discuss some of the limitations of these observations. HST Observations of excess dark mass in globular cluster cores suggest IMBHs may be responsible, and some mass estimates from lensing experiments are nearly in the IMBH range. The intriguing Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs, or IXOs) are off-nuclear X-ray point sources with X-ray luminosities LX ≳ 1039 erg s-1. ULXs are typically rare (1 in every 5 galaxies), and the nature of their ultra-luminous emission is currently debated. I will discuss the evidence for IMBHs in some ULXs, and briefly outline some phenomenology. Finally, I will discuss future observations that can be made to search for IMBHs.

  9. The effect of stellar-mass black holes on the central kinematics of ω Cen: a cautionary tale for IMBH interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Alice; Gieles, Mark; Hénault-Brunet, Vincent

    2018-06-01

    The search for intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in the centre of globular clusters is often based on the observation of a central cusp in the surface brightness profile and a rise towards the centre in the velocity dispersion profiles. Similar signatures, however, could result from other effects, that need to be taken into account in order to determine the presence (or the absence) of an IMBH in these stellar systems. Following our previous exploration of the role of radial anisotropy in shaping these observational signatures, we analyse here the effects produced by the presence of a population of centrally concentrated stellar-mass black holes. We fit dynamical models to ω Cen data, and we show that models with ˜5% of their mass in black holes (consistent with ˜100% retention fraction after natal kicks) can reproduce the data. When simultaneously considering both radial anisotropy and mass segregation, the best-fit model includes a smaller population of remnants, and a less extreme degree of anisotropy with respect to the models that include only one of these features. These results underline that before conclusions about putative IMBHs can be made, the effects of stellar-mass black holes and radial anisotropy need to be properly accounted for.

  10. CONSTRAINTS ON BLACK HOLE GROWTH, QUASAR LIFETIMES, AND EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTIONS FROM THE SDSS BROAD-LINE QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Hernquist, Lars; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan Xiaohui; Hopkins, Philip

    2010-01-01

    We present an estimate of the black hole mass function of broad-line quasars (BLQSOs) that self-consistently corrects for incompleteness and the statistical uncertainty in the mass estimates, based on a sample of 9886 quasars at 1 1 it is highly incomplete at M BH ∼ 9 M sun and L/L Edd ∼ BL > 150 ± 15 Myr for black holes at z = 1 with a mass of M BH = 10 9 M sun , and we constrain the maximum mass of a black hole in a BLQSO to be ∼3 x 10 10 M sun . Our estimated distribution of BLQSO Eddington ratios peaks at L/L Edd ∼ 0.05 and has a dispersion of ∼0.4 dex, implying that most BLQSOs are not radiating at or near the Eddington limit; however, the location of the peak is subject to considerable uncertainty. The steep increase in number density of BLQSOs toward lower Eddington ratios is expected if the BLQSO accretion rate monotonically decays with time. Furthermore, our estimated lifetime and Eddington ratio distributions imply that the majority of the most massive black holes spend a significant amount of time growing in an earlier obscured phase, a conclusion which is independent of the unknown obscured fraction. These results are consistent with models for self-regulated black hole growth, at least for massive systems at z > 1, where the BLQSO phase occurs at the end of a fueling event when black hole feedback unbinds the accreting gas, halting the accretion flow.

  11. Gravitational Waves and Intermediate-mass Black Hole Retention in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragione, Giacomo; Ginsburg, Idan; Kocsis, Bence

    2018-04-01

    The recent discovery of gravitational waves (GWs) has opened new horizons for physics. Current and upcoming missions, such as LIGO, VIRGO, KAGRA, and LISA, promise to shed light on black holes of every size from stellar mass (SBH) sizes up to supermassive black holes. The intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) family has not been detected beyond any reasonable doubt. Recent analyses suggest observational evidence for the presence of IMBHs in the centers of two Galactic globular clusters (GCs). In this paper, we investigate the possibility that GCs were born with a central IMBH, which undergoes repeated merger events with SBHs in the cluster core. By means of a semi-analytical method, we follow the evolution of the primordial cluster population in the galactic potential and the mergers of the binary IMBH-SBH systems. Our models predict ≈1000 IMBHs within 1 kpc from the galactic center and show that the IMBH-SBH merger rate density changes from { \\mathcal R }≈ 1000 Gpc‑3 yr‑1 beyond z ≈ 2 to { \\mathcal R }≈ 1{--}10 Gpc‑3 yr‑1 at z ≈ 0. The rates at low redshifts may be significantly higher if young massive star clusters host IMBHs. The merger rates are dominated by IMBHs with masses between 103 and 104 M ⊙. Currently, there are no LIGO/VIRGO upper limits for GW sources in this mass range, but our results show that at design sensitivity, these instruments will detect IMBH-SBH mergers in the coming years. LISA and the Einstein Telescope will be best suited to detect these events. The inspirals of IMBH-SBH systems may also generate an unresolved GW background.

  12. A numerical study of transient mass transport through a circular hole connecting two semi-infinite media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Scott, T.C.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical model of transient diffusive mass transfer through a circular hole that connects two semi-infinite media was used as a means of determining potential effects of waste container penetrations on the release of immobilized contaminants into the environment. The finite difference model as developed necessarily includes treatment of mass transport in both the waste and surrounding medium and allows calculation of release rates for cases with and without preferential adsorption and differing diffusivities of the two media. The dimensionless contaminant release rate was found to vary over several orders of magnitude depending on the product of the ratio of the distribution coefficient and the media diffusivities only. As would be intuitively expected, partitioning favoring the surrounding medium and higher relative waste medium diffusivity cause higher transport rates. There was definitely no unexpected enhancement in the release rate in the case of perforations over that of an uncontained waste form

  13. The maximal-density mass function for primordial black hole dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Benjamin V.; Profumo, Stefano; Yant, Jackson

    2018-04-01

    The advent of gravitational wave astronomy has rekindled interest in primordial black holes (PBH) as a dark matter candidate. As there are many different observational probes of the PBH density across different masses, constraints on PBH models are dependent on the functional form of the PBH mass function. This complicates general statements about the mass functions allowed by current data, and, in particular, about the maximum total density of PBH. Numerical studies suggest that some forms of extended mass functions face tighter constraints than monochromatic mass functions, but they do not preclude the existence of a functional form for which constraints are relaxed. We use analytical arguments to show that the mass function which maximizes the fraction of the matter density in PBH subject to all constraints is a finite linear combination of monochromatic mass functions. We explicitly compute the maximum fraction of dark matter in PBH for different combinations of current constraints, allowing for total freedom of the mass function. Our framework elucidates the dependence of the maximum PBH density on the form of observational constraints, and we discuss the implications of current and future constraints for the viability of the PBH dark matter paradigm.

  14. Magnetic massive stars as progenitors of `heavy' stellar-mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, V.; Keszthelyi, Z.; MacInnis, R.; Cohen, D. H.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Wade, G. A.; Thomas, S. L.; Owocki, S. P.; Puls, J.; ud-Doula, A.

    2017-04-01

    The groundbreaking detection of gravitational waves produced by the inspiralling and coalescence of the black hole (BH) binary GW150914 confirms the existence of 'heavy' stellar-mass BHs with masses >25 M⊙. Initial characterization of the system by Abbott et al. supposes that the formation of BHs with such large masses from the evolution of single massive stars is only feasible if the wind mass-loss rates of the progenitors were greatly reduced relative to the mass-loss rates of massive stars in the Galaxy, concluding that heavy BHs must form in low-metallicity (Z ≲ 0.25-0.5 Z⊙) environments. However, strong surface magnetic fields also provide a powerful mechanism for modifying mass-loss and rotation of massive stars, independent of environmental metallicity. In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that some heavy BHs, with masses >25 M⊙ such as those inferred to compose GW150914, could be the natural end-point of evolution of magnetic massive stars in a solar-metallicity environment. Using the MESA code, we developed a new grid of single, non-rotating, solar-metallicity evolutionary models for initial zero-age main sequence masses from 40 to 80 M⊙ that include, for the first time, the quenching of the mass-loss due to a realistic dipolar surface magnetic field. The new models predict terminal-age main-sequence (TAMS) masses that are significantly greater than those from equivalent non-magnetic models, reducing the total mass lost by a strongly magnetized 80 M⊙ star during its main-sequence evolution by 20 M⊙. This corresponds approximately to the mass-loss reduction expected from an environment with metallicity Z = 1/30 Z⊙.

  15. X-Ray Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei with Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, G. C.; Mathur, S.; Griffiths, R. E.; Rao, A. R.

    2008-12-01

    We present a systematic X-ray study of eight active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with intermediate-mass black holes (MBH ~ 8-95 × 104 M⊙) based on 12 XMM-Newton observations. The sample includes the two prototype AGNs in this class—NGC 4395 and POX 52 and six other AGNs discovered with the Sloan Digitized Sky Survey. These AGNs show some of the strongest X-ray variability, with the normalized excess variances being the largest and the power density break timescales being the shortest observed among radio-quiet AGNs. The excess-variance-luminosity correlation appears to depend on both the BH mass and the Eddington luminosity ratio. The break timescale-black hole mass relations for AGN with IMBHs are consistent with that observed for massive AGNs. We find that the FWHM of the Hβ/Hα line is uncorrelated with the BH mass, but shows strong anticorrelation with the Eddington luminosity ratio. Four AGNs show clear evidence for soft X-ray excess emission (kTin ~ 150-200 eV). X-ray spectra of three other AGNs are consistent with the presence of the soft excess emission. NGC 4395 with lowest L/LEdd lacks the soft excess emission. Evidently small black mass is not the primary driver of strong soft X-ray excess emission from AGNs. The X-ray spectral properties and optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions of these AGNs are similar to those of Seyfert 1 galaxies. The observed X-ray/UV properties of AGNs with IMBHs are consistent with these AGNs being low-mass extensions of more massive AGNs, those with high Eddington luminosity ratio looking more like narrow-line Seyfert 1 s and those with low L/LEdd looking more like broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  16. Simultaneous Mass Determination for Gravitationally Coupled Asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, James [Private address, 3210 Apache Road, Pittsburgh, PA 15241 (United States); Chesley, Steven R., E-mail: jimbaer1@earthlink.net [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The conventional least-squares asteroid mass determination algorithm allows us to solve for the mass of a large subject asteroid that is perturbing the trajectory of a smaller test asteroid. However, this algorithm is necessarily a first approximation, ignoring the possibility that the subject asteroid may itself be perturbed by the test asteroid, or that the encounter’s precise geometry may be entangled with encounters involving other asteroids. After reviewing the conventional algorithm, we use it to calculate the masses of 30 main-belt asteroids. Compared to our previous results, we find new mass estimates for eight asteroids (11 Parthenope, 27 Euterpe, 51 Neimausa, 76 Freia, 121 Hermione, 324 Bamberga, 476 Hedwig, and 532 Herculina) and significantly more precise estimates for six others (2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 9 Metis, 16 Psyche, and 88 Thisbe). However, we also find that the conventional algorithm yields questionable results in several gravitationally coupled cases. To address such cases, we describe a new algorithm that allows the epoch state vectors of the subject asteroids to be included as solve-for parameters, allowing for the simultaneous solution of the masses and epoch state vectors of multiple subject and test asteroids. We then apply this algorithm to the same 30 main-belt asteroids and conclude that mass determinations resulting from current and future high-precision astrometric sources (such as Gaia ) should conduct a thorough search for possible gravitational couplings and account for their effects.

  17. Simultaneous Mass Determination for Gravitationally Coupled Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, James; Chesley, Steven R.

    2017-08-01

    The conventional least-squares asteroid mass determination algorithm allows us to solve for the mass of a large subject asteroid that is perturbing the trajectory of a smaller test asteroid. However, this algorithm is necessarily a first approximation, ignoring the possibility that the subject asteroid may itself be perturbed by the test asteroid, or that the encounter’s precise geometry may be entangled with encounters involving other asteroids. After reviewing the conventional algorithm, we use it to calculate the masses of 30 main-belt asteroids. Compared to our previous results, we find new mass estimates for eight asteroids (11 Parthenope, 27 Euterpe, 51 Neimausa, 76 Freia, 121 Hermione, 324 Bamberga, 476 Hedwig, and 532 Herculina) and significantly more precise estimates for six others (2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 9 Metis, 16 Psyche, and 88 Thisbe). However, we also find that the conventional algorithm yields questionable results in several gravitationally coupled cases. To address such cases, we describe a new algorithm that allows the epoch state vectors of the subject asteroids to be included as solve-for parameters, allowing for the simultaneous solution of the masses and epoch state vectors of multiple subject and test asteroids. We then apply this algorithm to the same 30 main-belt asteroids and conclude that mass determinations resulting from current and future high-precision astrometric sources (such as Gaia) should conduct a thorough search for possible gravitational couplings and account for their effects.

  18. Simultaneous Mass Determination for Gravitationally Coupled Asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, James; Chesley, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    The conventional least-squares asteroid mass determination algorithm allows us to solve for the mass of a large subject asteroid that is perturbing the trajectory of a smaller test asteroid. However, this algorithm is necessarily a first approximation, ignoring the possibility that the subject asteroid may itself be perturbed by the test asteroid, or that the encounter’s precise geometry may be entangled with encounters involving other asteroids. After reviewing the conventional algorithm, we use it to calculate the masses of 30 main-belt asteroids. Compared to our previous results, we find new mass estimates for eight asteroids (11 Parthenope, 27 Euterpe, 51 Neimausa, 76 Freia, 121 Hermione, 324 Bamberga, 476 Hedwig, and 532 Herculina) and significantly more precise estimates for six others (2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 9 Metis, 16 Psyche, and 88 Thisbe). However, we also find that the conventional algorithm yields questionable results in several gravitationally coupled cases. To address such cases, we describe a new algorithm that allows the epoch state vectors of the subject asteroids to be included as solve-for parameters, allowing for the simultaneous solution of the masses and epoch state vectors of multiple subject and test asteroids. We then apply this algorithm to the same 30 main-belt asteroids and conclude that mass determinations resulting from current and future high-precision astrometric sources (such as Gaia ) should conduct a thorough search for possible gravitational couplings and account for their effects.

  19. Stellar mass black holes in star clusters: gravitational wave emission and detection rates

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Sambaran

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of stellar-mass black holes (BH) in star clusters focusing on the dynamical formation of BH-BH binaries, which are very important sources of gravitational waves (GW). We examine the properties of these BH-BH binaries through direct N-body computations of Plummer clusters, having initially N(0) = 5 X 10^4, typically a few of them dynamically harden to the extent that they can merge via GW emission within the cluster. Also, for each of such clusters, there are a few ...

  20. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Anderson, S. B.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Brunett, S.; Cahillane, C.

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a signifi...

  1. Evolution of the central black hole in an active galactic nucleus. I. Evolution with a constant mass influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.J.; Vishniac, E.T.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term evolution of the central black hole in an active galactic nucleus (AGN), whose rotational energy is being extracted by the Blandford-Znajek process, was analyzed. The model is based on previous axisymmetric, stationary descriptions of the black hole and its magnetosphere, but includes the secular effects of the mass accretion rate. The properties of the black hole and the nonthermal radiation from its environment are calculated under the assumption that the mass influx is constant. It is noted that this model fails to explain the correlation of evolutionary time scale with luminosity or the extremely rapid evolution required for the most luminous sources. It is concluded that the evolution of AGNs is driven by a rapid decrease in mass accretion rate. Since the nature of an AGN is dependent on the ratio mass accretion/total mass, this leads to a conclusion that AGNs evolve from QSOs into the nuclei of Seyfert or radio galaxies. 20 references

  2. UNDERSTANDING BLACK HOLE MASS ASSEMBLY VIA ACCRETION AND MERGERS AT LATE TIMES IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulier, Andrea; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Lackner, Claire N.; Cen, Renyue; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2015-01-01

    Accretion is thought to primarily contribute to the mass accumulation history of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) throughout cosmic time. While this may be true at high redshifts, at lower redshifts and for the most massive black holes (BHs) mergers themselves might add significantly to the mass budget. We explore this in two disparate environments—a massive cluster and a void region. We evolve SMBHs from 4 > z > 0 using merger trees derived from hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of these two regions, scaled to the observed value of the stellar mass fraction to account for overcooling. Mass gains from gas accretion proportional to bulge growth and BH-BH mergers are tracked, as are BHs that remain ''orbiting'' due to insufficient dynamical friction in a merger remnant, as well as those that are ejected due to gravitational recoil. We find that gas accretion remains the dominant source of mass accumulation in almost all SMBHs; mergers contribute 2.5% ± 0.1% for all SMBHs in the cluster and 1.0% ± 0.1% in the void since z = 4. However, mergers are significant for massive SMBHs. The fraction of mass accumulated from mergers for central BHs generally increases for larger values of the host bulge mass: in the void, the fraction is 2% at M *, bul = 10 10 M ☉ , increasing to 4% at M *, bul ≳ 10 11 M ☉ , and in the cluster it is 4% at M *, bul = 10 10 M ☉ and 23% at 10 12 M ☉ . We also find that the total mass in orbiting SMBHs is negligible in the void, but significant in the cluster, in which a potentially detectable 40% of SMBHs and ≈8% of the total SMBH mass (where the total includes central, orbiting, and ejected SMBHs) is found orbiting at z = 0. The existence of orbiting and ejected SMBHs requires modification of the Soltan argument. We estimate this correction to the integrated accreted mass density of SMBHs to be in the range 6%-21%, with a mean value of 11% ± 3%. Quantifying the growth due to mergers at these late times

  3. The physics of the relativistic counter-streaming instability that drives mass inflation inside black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Andrew J.S.; Avelino, Pedro P.

    2010-01-01

    If you fall into a real astronomical black hole (choosing a supermassive black hole, to make sure that the tidal forces do not get you first), then you will probably meet your fate not at a central singularity, but rather in the exponentially growing, relativistic counter-streaming instability at the inner horizon first pointed out by Poisson and Israel (1990), who called it mass inflation. The chief purpose of this paper is to present a clear exposition of the physical cause and consequence of inflation in spherical, charged black holes. Inflation acts like a particle accelerator in that it accelerates cold ingoing and outgoing streams through each other to prodigiously high energies. Inflation feeds on itself: the acceleration is powered by the gravity produced by the streaming energy. The paper: (1) uses physical arguments to develop simple approximations that follow the evolution of inflation from ignition, through inflation itself, to collapse; (2) confirms that the simple approximations capture accurately the results of fully nonlinear one- and two-fluid self-similar models; (3) demonstrates that, counter-intuitively, the smaller the accretion rate, the more rapidly inflation exponentiates; (4) shows that in single perfect fluid models, inflation occurs only if the sound speed equals the speed of light, supporting the physical idea that inflation in single fluids is driven by relativistic counter-streaming of waves; (5) shows that what happens during inflation up to the Planck curvature depends not on the distant past or future, but rather on events happening only a few hundred black hole crossing times into the past or future; (6) shows that, if quantum gravity does not intervene, then the generic end result of inflation is not a general relativistic null singularity, but rather a spacelike singularity at zero radius.

  4. POWERFUL RADIO EMISSION FROM LOW-MASS SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES FAVORS DISK-LIKE BULGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Xu, Y.; Xu, D. W.; Wei, J. Y., E-mail: wj@bao.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Space Astronomy and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2016-12-10

    The origin of spin of low-mass supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is still a puzzle at present. We report here a study on the host galaxies of a sample of radio-selected nearby ( z < 0.05) Seyfert 2 galaxies with a BH mass of 10{sup 6–7} M{sub ⊙}. By modeling the SDSS r -band images of these galaxies through a two-dimensional bulge+disk decomposition, we identify a new dependence of SMBH's radio power on host bulge surface brightness profiles, in which more powerful radio emission comes from an SMBH associated with a more disk-like bulge. This result means low-mass and high-mass SMBHs are spun up by two entirely different modes that correspond to two different evolutionary paths. A low-mass SMBH is spun up by a gas accretion with significant disk-like rotational dynamics of the host galaxy in the secular evolution, while a high-mass one by a BH–BH merger in the merger evolution.

  5. WISDOM project - I. Black hole mass measurement using molecular gas kinematics in NGC 3665

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kyoko; Iguchi, Satoru; Davis, Timothy A.; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo

    2017-07-01

    As a part of the mm-Wave Interferometric Survey of Dark Object Masses (WISDOM) project, we present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby fast-rotator early-type galaxy NGC 3665. We obtained the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) B and C array observations of the 12CO(J = 2 - 1) emission line with a combined angular resolution of 0.59 arcsec. We analysed and modelled the three-dimensional molecular gas kinematics, obtaining a best-fitting SMBH mass M_BH=5.75^{+1.49}_{-1.18} × 108 M⊙, a mass-to-light ratio at H-band (M/L)H = 1.45 ± 0.04 (M/L)⊙,H and other parameters describing the geometry of the molecular gas disc (statistical errors, all at 3σ confidence). We estimate the systematic uncertainties on the stellar M/L to be ≈0.2 (M/L)⊙,H, and on the SMBH mass to be ≈0.4 × 108 M⊙. The measured SMBH mass is consistent with that estimated from the latest correlations with galaxy properties. Following our older works, we also analysed and modelled the kinematics using only the major-axis position-velocity diagram, and conclude that the two methods are consistent.

  6. Prospects for detection of intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters using integrated-light spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vita, R.; Trenti, M.; Bianchini, P.; Askar, A.; Giersz, M.; van de Ven, G.

    2017-06-01

    The detection of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in Galactic globular clusters (GCs) has so far been controversial. In order to characterize the effectiveness of integrated-light spectroscopy through integral field units, we analyse realistic mock data generated from state-of-the-art Monte Carlo simulations of GCs with a central IMBH, considering different setups and conditions varying IMBH mass, cluster distance and accuracy in determination of the centre. The mock observations are modelled with isotropic Jeans models to assess the success rate in identifying the IMBH presence, which we find to be primarily dependent on IMBH mass. However, even for an IMBH of considerable mass (3 per cent of the total GC mass), the analysis does not yield conclusive results in one out of five cases, because of shot noise due to bright stars close to the IMBH line of sight. This stochastic variability in the modelling outcome grows with decreasing BH mass, with approximately three failures out of four for IMBHs with 0.1 per cent of total GC mass. Finally, we find that our analysis is generally unable to exclude at 68 per cent confidence an IMBH with mass of 103 M⊙ in snapshots without a central BH. Interestingly, our results are not sensitive to GC distance within 5-20 kpc, nor to misidentification of the GC centre by less than 2 arcsec (<20 per cent of the core radius). These findings highlight the value of ground-based integral field spectroscopy for large GC surveys, where systematic failures can be accounted for, but stress the importance of discrete kinematic measurements that are less affected by stochasticity induced by bright stars.

  7. A new determination of the pion mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnastopoulos, D.; Belmiloud, D.; El-Khoury, P.; Indelicato, P.; Borchert, G.; Gorke, H.; Gotta, D.; Lenz, S.; Siems, T.; Daum, M.; Frosch, R.; Hauser, P.; Kirch, K.; Simons, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    Initial measurements concerning the feasibility of a new pion mass determination are described. In a first step, a high-resolution crystal spectrometer was coupled to a cyclotron trap which provides a high pion stopping density, sufficient to check predictions for the cascade process and to measure the stability of the apparatus. A comparison with the measured Cu K α fluorescence line resolves an ambiguity in the value of the pion mass. The preliminary result from this experiment is m π -=(139.57040±0.00045) MeV/c 2 . (orig.)

  8. : Nuclear Spirals and Mass Accretion to Supermassive Black Holes in Weakly-Barred Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Elmegreen, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Disk galaxies, especially barred-spiral galaxies, abound with rings and spirals in their nuclear regions. Nuclear spirals existing even in weakly barred galaxies are thought to channel gas inflows to supermassive black holes residing at the centers. We use high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of nuclear gas spirals driven by weak bar-like or oval potentials. The amplitude of the spirals increases toward the center by a geometric effect, readily developing into shocks at small radii even for very weak potentials. The shape of the spirals and shocks depends rather sensitively on the background shear. When shear is low, the nuclear spirals are loosely wound and the shocks are almost straight, resulting in large mass inflows toward the center. When shear is high, on the other hand, the spirals are tightly wound and the shocks are oblique, forming a circumnuclear disk through which gas flows inward at a relatively lower rate. The induced mass inflow rates are enough to power black hole accretion in various types of Seyfert galaxies.

  9. Easily doped p-type, low hole effective mass, transparent oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadian, Nasrin; Saniz, Rolando; Partoens, Bart; Lamoen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Fulfillment of the promise of transparent electronics has been hindered until now largely by the lack of semiconductors that can be doped p-type in a stable way, and that at the same time present high hole mobility and are highly transparent in the visible spectrum. Here, a high-throughput study based on first-principles methods reveals four oxides, namely X2SeO2, with X = La, Pr, Nd, and Gd, which are unique in that they exhibit excellent characteristics for transparent electronic device applications - i.e., a direct band gap larger than 3.1 eV, an average hole effective mass below the electron rest mass, and good p-type dopability. Furthermore, for La2SeO2 it is explicitly shown that Na impurities substituting La are shallow acceptors in moderate to strong anion-rich growth conditions, with low formation energy, and that they will not be compensated by anion vacancies VO or VSe.

  10. Quasar Black Hole Mass Estimates from High-Ionization Lines: Breaking a Taboo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marziani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Can high ionization lines such as CIV λ 1549 provide useful virial broadening estimators for computing the mass of the supermassive black holes that power the quasar phenomenon? The question has been dismissed by several workers as a rhetorical one because blue-shifted, non-virial emission associated with gas outflows is often prominent in CIV λ 1549 line profiles. In this contribution, we first summarize the evidence suggesting that the FWHM of low-ionization lines like H β and MgII λ 2800 provide reliable virial broadening estimators over a broad range of luminosity. We confirm that the line widths of CIV λ 1549 is not immediately offering a virial broadening estimator equivalent to the width of low-ionization lines. However, capitalizing on the results of Coatman et al. (2016 and Sulentic et al. (2017, we suggest a correction to FWHM CIV λ 1549 for Eddington ratio and luminosity effects that, however, remains cumbersome to apply in practice. Intermediate ionization lines (IP ∼ 20–30 eV; AlIII λ 1860 and SiIII] λ 1892 may provide a better virial broadening estimator for high redshift quasars, but larger samples are needed to assess their reliability. Ultimately, they may be associated with the broad-line region radius estimated from the photoionization method introduced by Negrete et al. (2013 to obtain black hole mass estimates independent from scaling laws.

  11. Correlation between the Total Gravitating Mass of Groups and Clusters and the Supermassive Black Hole Mass of Brightest Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdán, Ákos; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Volonteri, Marta; Dubois, Yohan

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) residing in the brightest cluster galaxies are over-massive relative to the stellar bulge mass or central stellar velocity dispersion of their host galaxies. As BHs residing at the bottom of the galaxy cluster’s potential well may undergo physical processes that are driven by the large-scale characteristics of the galaxy clusters, it is possible that the growth of these BHs is (indirectly) governed by the properties of their host clusters. In this work, we explore the connection between the mass of BHs residing in the brightest group/cluster galaxies (BGGs/BCGs) and the virial temperature, and hence total gravitating mass, of galaxy groups/clusters. To this end, we investigate a sample of 17 BGGs/BCGs with dynamical BH mass measurements and utilize XMM-Newton X-ray observations to measure the virial temperatures and infer the {M}500 mass of the galaxy groups/clusters. We find that the {M}{BH}{--}{kT} relation is significantly tighter and exhibits smaller scatter than the {M}{BH}{--}{M}{bulge} relations. The best-fitting power-law relations are {{log}}10({M}{BH}/{10}9 {M}ȯ )=0.20+1.74{{log}}10({kT}/1 {keV}) and {{log}}10({M}{BH}/{10}9 {M}ȯ ) = -0.80+1.72{{log}}10({M}{bulge}/{10}11 {M}ȯ ). Thus, the BH mass of BGGs/BCGs may be set by physical processes that are governed by the properties of the host galaxy group/cluster. These results are confronted with the Horizon-AGN simulation, which reproduces the observed relations well, albeit the simulated relations exhibit notably smaller scatter.

  12. WISDOM Project - II. Molecular gas measurement of the supermassive black hole mass in NGC 4697

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy A.; Bureau, Martin; Onishi, Kyoko; Cappellari, Michele; Iguchi, Satoru; Sarzi, Marc

    2017-07-01

    As part of the mm-Wave Interferometric Survey of Dark Object Masses (WISDOM) project, we present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby fast-rotating early-type galaxy NGC 4697. This estimate is based on Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-3 observations of the 12CO(2-1) emission line with a linear resolution of 29 pc (0.53 arcsec). We find that NGC 4697 hosts a small relaxed central molecular gas disc with a mass of 1.6 × 107 M⊙, co-spatial with the obscuring dust disc visible in optical Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We also resolve thermal 1 mm continuum emission from the dust in this disc. NGC 4697 is found to have a very low molecular gas velocity dispersion, σgas = 1.65^{+0.68}_{-0.65} km s-1. This seems to be partially because the giant molecular cloud mass function is not fully sampled, but other mechanisms such as chemical differentiation in a hard radiation field or morphological quenching also seem to be required. We detect a Keplerian increase of the rotation of the molecular gas in the very centre of NGC 4697, and use forward modelling of the ALMA data cube in a Bayesian framework with the KINematic Molecular Simulation (kinms) code to estimate an SMBH mass of (1.3_{-0.17}^{+0.18}) × 108 M⊙ and an I-band mass-to-light ratio of 2.14_{-0.05}^{+0.04} M⊙/L⊙ (at the 99 per cent confidence level). Our estimate of the SMBH mass is entirely consistent with previous measurements from stellar kinematics. This increases confidence in the growing number of SMBH mass estimates being obtained in the ALMA era.

  13. Neutrino mass matrices with vanishing determinant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Bhag C.; Pulido, Joao; Picariello, Marco

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the prospects for neutrinoless double beta decay, texture zeros. and equalities between neutrino mass matrix elements in scenarios with vanishing determinant mass matrices for vanishing and finite θ 13 mixing angles in normal and inverse mass hierarchies. For normal hierarchy and both zero and finite θ 13 it is found that neutrinoless double beta decay cannot be observed by any of the present or next generation experiments, while for inverse hierarchy it is, on the contrary, accessible to experiments. Regarding texture zeros and equalities between mass matrix elements, we find that in both normal and inverse hierarchies with θ 13 =0 no texture zeros nor any such equalities can exist apart from the obvious ones. For θ 13 ≠0 some texture zeros become possible. In normal hierarchy two texture zeros occur if 8.1x10 -2 ≤sinθ 13 ≤9.1x10 -2 while in inverse hierarchy three are possible, one with sinθ 13 ≥7x10 -3 and two others with sinθ 13 ≥0.18. All equalities between mass matrix elements are impossible with θ 13 ≠0

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-TYPE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST BULGE PROPERTIES AND BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Erika; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Martinez, Benoni; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Lopez-Martin, Luis [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM-IPN), U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Leon-Tavares, Jonathan, E-mail: erika@astro.unam.mx [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, 02540 Kylmaelae (Finland)

    2013-02-15

    We present a study of the host bulge properties and their relations with the black hole mass for a sample of 10 intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our sample consists mainly of early-type spirals, four of them hosting a bar. For 70{sup +10} {sub -17}% of the galaxies, we have been able to determine the type of the bulge, and find that these objects probably harbor a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge, suggesting that pseudobulges might be frequent in intermediate-type AGNs. In our sample, 50% {+-} 14% of the objects show double-peaked emission lines. Therefore, narrow double-peaked emission lines seem to be frequent in galaxies harboring a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge. Depending on the bulge type, we estimated the black hole mass using the corresponding M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation and found them within a range of 5.69 {+-} 0.21 < log M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} < 8.09 {+-} 0.24. Comparing these M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} values with masses derived from the FWHM of H{beta} and the continuum luminosity at 5100 A from their SDSS-DR7 spectra (M {sub BH}), we find that 8 out of 10 (80{sup +7} {sub -17}%) galaxies have black hole masses that are compatible within a factor of 3. This result would support that M {sub BH} and M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} are the same for intermediate-type AGNs, as has been found for type 1 AGNs. However, when the type of the bulge is taken into account, only three out of the seven (43{sup +18} {sub -15}%) objects of the sample have their M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} and M {sub BH} compatible within 3{sigma} errors. We also find that estimations based on the M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation for pseudobulges are not compatible in 50% {+-} 20% of the objects.

  15. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  16. Black hole mass measurement using molecular gas kinematics: what ALMA can do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ilsang

    2017-04-01

    We study the limits of the spatial and velocity resolution of radio interferometry to infer the mass of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic centres using the kinematics of circum-nuclear molecular gas, by considering the shapes of the galaxy surface brightness profile, signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of the position-velocity diagram (PVD) and systematic errors due to the spatial and velocity structure of the molecular gas. We argue that for fixed galaxy stellar mass and SMBH mass, the spatial and velocity scales that need to be resolved increase and decrease, respectively, with decreasing Sérsic index of the galaxy surface brightness profile. We validate our arguments using simulated PVDs for varying beam size and velocity channel width. Furthermore, we consider the systematic effects on the inference of the SMBH mass by simulating PVDs including the spatial and velocity structure of the molecular gas, which demonstrates that their impacts are not significant for a PVD with good S/N unless the spatial and velocity scale associated with the systematic effects are comparable to or larger than the angular resolution and velocity channel width of the PVD from pure circular motion. Also, we caution that a bias in a galaxy surface brightness profile owing to the poor resolution of a galaxy photometric image can largely bias the SMBH mass by an order of magnitude. This study shows the promise and the limits of ALMA observations for measuring SMBH mass using molecular gas kinematics and provides a useful technical justification for an ALMA proposal with the science goal of measuring SMBH mass.

  17. THE L∝σ8 CORRELATION FOR ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES WITH CORES: RELATION WITH BLACK HOLE MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    We construct the Faber-Jackson correlation between velocity dispersion σ and total galaxy luminosity L V separately for elliptical galaxies with and without cores. The coreless ellipticals show the well-known, steep relationship dlog σ/dlog L V = 0.268 or L V ∝σ 3.74 . This corresponds to dlog σ/dlog M = 0.203, where M is the stellar mass and we use M/L∝L 0.32 . In contrast, the velocity dispersions of core ellipticals increase much more slowly with L V and M: dlog σ/dlog L V = 0.120, L V ∝σ 8.33 , and dlog σ/dlog M = 0.091. Dissipationless major galaxy mergers are expected to preserve σ according to the simplest virial-theorem arguments. However, numerical simulations show that σ increases slowly in dry major mergers, with dlog σ/dlog M ≅ +0.15. In contrast, minor mergers cause σ to decrease, with dlog σ/dlog M ≅ –0.05. Thus, the observed relation argues for dry major mergers as the dominant growth mode of the most massive ellipticals. This is consistent with what we know about the formation of cores. We know no viable way to explain galaxy cores except through dissipationless mergers of approximately equal-mass galaxies followed by core scouring by binary supermassive black holes. The observed, shallow σ∝L V +0.12 relation for core ellipticals provides further evidence that they formed in dissipationless and predominantly major mergers. Also, it explains the observation that the correlation of supermassive black hole mass with velocity dispersion, M . ∝σ 4 , ''saturates'' at high M . such that M . becomes almost independent of σ.

  18. Orbit classification in an equal-mass non-spinning binary black hole pseudo-Newtonian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.; Dubeibe, F. L.; González, Guillermo A.

    2018-04-01

    The dynamics of a test particle in a non-spinning binary black hole system of equal masses is numerically investigated. The binary system is modeled in the context of the pseudo-Newtonian circular restricted three-body problem, such that the primaries are separated by a fixed distance and move in a circular orbit around each other. In particular, the Paczyński-Wiita potential is used for describing the gravitational field of the two non-Newtonian primaries. The orbital properties of the test particle are determined through the classification of the initial conditions of the orbits, using several values of the Jacobi constant, in the Hill's regions of possible motion. The initial conditions are classified into three main categories: (i) bounded, (ii) escaping and (iii) displaying close encounters. Using the smaller alignment index (SALI) chaos indicator, we further classify bounded orbits into regular, sticky or chaotic. To gain a complete view of the dynamics of the system, we define grids of initial conditions on different types of two-dimensional planes. The orbital structure of the configuration plane, along with the corresponding distributions of the escape and collision/close encounter times, allow us to observe the transition from the classical Newtonian to the pseudo-Newtonian regime. Our numerical results reveal a strong dependence of the properties of the considered basins with the Jacobi constant as well as with the Schwarzschild radius of the black holes.

  19. What was the Initial Mass of Merging Black Holes in GW150914 ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Hiromichi; Umemura, Masayuki

    Recently, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has detected the gravitational wave (GW) event, GW150914, as a result of the merger of a ~30 M ⊙ black hole (BH) binary. So far, the merger of stellar-mass BHs has been thought to result from the evolution of binary stars. Here, we propose a novel path of the merger stemming from non-binary isolated stars. In our previous studies, we have found that multiple non-binary stellar-mass BHs whose separations are larger than 1000 AU can merge with each other under the gas-rich environments through the gas dynamical friction and three-body interaction. In this case, a considerable amount of gas can accrete onto BHs before the merger, that is, the initial mass of BHs can be lower than 30 M ⊙. To explore this possibility, we perform post-Newtonian N-body simulations on mergers of accreting stellar-mass BHs. Based on our simulations, we find that the BH merger in GW150914 from smaller seed BHs is likely to occur in galactic nuclear regions or dense interstellar cloud cores. Furthermore, we roughly estimate event rates to be ~0.4 yr-1 in galactic nuclear regions and ~8 yr-1 in dense interstellar cloud cores.

  20. Radio Observations of Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources ---Microblazars or Intermediate-Mass Black Holes?---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körding, E.; Colbert, E.; Falcke, H.

    In recent years Ultra-Luminous X-Ray sources (ULXs) received wide attention, however, their true nature is not yet understood. Many explanations have been suggested, including intermediate-mass black holes, super-Eddington accretion flows, anisotropic emission, and relativistic beaming of microquasars. We model the logN-logS distribution of ULXs assuming that each neutron star or black hole XRB can be described by an accretion disk plus jet model, where the jet is relativistically beamed. The distribution can be either fit by intermediate-mass black holes or by stellar mass black holes with mildly relativistic jets. Even though the jet is intrinsically weaker than the accretion disk, relativistic beaming can in the latter approach lead to the high fluxes observed. To further explore the possibility of microblazars contributing to the ULX phenomenon, we have embarked on a radio-monitoring study of ULXs in nearby galaxies with the VLA. However, up to now no radio flare has been detected. Using the radio/X-ray correlation the upper limits on the radio flux can be converted into upper limits for the black hole masses of MBH ≲ 10^3 M⊙.

  1. Prompt emission from tidal disruptions of white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laguna P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a qualitative picture of prompt emission from tidal disruptions of white dwarfs (WD by intermediate mass black holes (IMBH. The smaller size of an IMBH compared to a supermassive black hole and a smaller tidal radius of a WD disruption lead to a very fast event with high peak luminosity. Magnetic field is generated in situ following the tidal disruption, which leads to effective accretion. Since large-scale magnetic field is also produced, geometrically thick super-Eddington inflow leads to a relativistic jet. The dense jet possesses a photosphere, which emits quasi-thermal radiation in soft X-rays. The source can be classified as a long low-luminosity gamma-ray burst (ll-GRB. Tidal compression of a WD causes nuclear ignition, which is observable as an accompanying supernova. We suggest that GRB060218 and SN2006aj is such a pair of ll-GRB and supernova. We argue that in a flux-limited sample the disruptions of WDs by IMBHs are more frequent then the disruptions of other stars by IMBHs.

  2. Dynamical Formation of Low-mass Merging Black Hole Binaries like GW151226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Rodriguez, Carl L.; Kalogera, Vicky; Rasio, Frederic A., E-mail: sourav.chatterjee@northwestern.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60202 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    Using numerical models for star clusters spanning a wide range in ages and metallicities (Z) we study the masses of binary black holes (BBHs) produced dynamically and merging in the local universe ( z ≲ 0.2). After taking into account cosmological constraints on star formation rate and metallicity evolution, which realistically relate merger delay times obtained from models with merger redshifts, we show here for the first time that while old, metal-poor globular clusters can naturally produce merging BBHs with heavier components, as observed in GW150914, lower-mass BBHs like GW151226 are easily formed dynamically in younger, higher-metallicity clusters. More specifically, we show that the mass of GW151226 is well within 1 σ of the mass distribution obtained from our models for clusters with Z/Z{sub ⊙} ≳ 0.5. Indeed, dynamical formation of a system like GW151226 likely requires a cluster that is younger and has a higher metallicity than typical Galactic globular clusters. The LVT151012 system, if real, could have been created in any cluster with Z/Z{sub ⊙} ≲ 0.25. On the other hand, GW150914 is more massive (beyond 1 σ ) than typical BBHs from even the lowest-metallicity (Z/Z{sub ⊙} = 0.005) clusters we consider, but is within 2 σ of the intrinsic mass distribution from our cluster models with Z/Z{sub ⊙} ≲ 0.05; of course, detection biases also push the observed distributions toward higher masses.

  3. Limits on runaway growth of intermediate mass black holes from advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovetz, Ely D.; Cholis, Ilias; Kamionkowski, Marc; Silk, Joseph

    2018-06-01

    There is growing evidence that intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), defined here as having a mass in the range M =500 -105 M⊙ , are present in the dense centers of certain globular clusters (GCs). Gravitational waves from their mergers with other IMBHs or with stellar BHs in the cluster are mostly emitted in frequencies ≲10 Hz , which unfortunately is out of reach for current ground-based observatories such as advanced LIGO (aLIGO). Nevertheless, we show that aLIGO measurements can be used to efficiently probe one of the possible formation mechanisms of IMBHs in GCs, namely a runaway merger process of stellar seed BHs. In this case, aLIGO will be sensitive to the lower-mass rungs of the merger ladder, ranging from the seed BH mass to masses ≳50 - 300 M⊙ , where the background from standard mergers is expected to be very low. Assuming this generic IMBH formation scenario, we calculate the mass functions that correspond to the limiting cases of possible merger trees. Based on estimates for the number density of GCs and taking into account the instrumental sensitivity, we show that current observations do not effectively limit the occupation fraction focc of IMBHs formed by runaway mergers of stellar BHs in GCs. However, we find that if runaway mergers occur steadily throughout the lifetimes of GCs (as opposed to happening mainly early in their lifetimes), then a six-year run of aLIGO at design sensitivity will be able to probe down to focc≲3 % at a 99.9% confidence level, either finding evidence for this formation mechanism, or necessitating others if the fraction of GCs that harbor IMBHs is higher.

  4. REVERBERATION MAPPING MEASUREMENTS OF BLACK HOLE MASSES IN SIX LOCAL SEYFERT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, K. D.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Atlee, D. W.; Bentz, M. C.; Bird, J. C.; Comins, M. L.; Dietrich, M.; Eastman, J. D.; Adair, A.; Au-Yong, K.; Chisholm, E.; Ewald, S.; Ferbey, S.; Jackson, K.; Brokofsky, D. J.; Gaskell, C. M.; Hedrick, C. H.; Doroshenko, V. T.; Efimov, Y. S.

    2010-01-01

    We present the final results from a high sampling rate, multi-month, spectrophotometric reverberation mapping campaign undertaken to obtain either new or improved Hβ reverberation lag measurements for several relatively low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have reliably measured the time delay between variations in the continuum and Hβ emission line in six local Seyfert 1 galaxies. These measurements are used to calculate the mass of the supermassive black hole at the center of each of these AGNs. We place our results in context to the most current calibration of the broad-line region (BLR) R BLR -L relationship, where our results remove outliers and reduce the scatter at the low-luminosity end of this relationship. We also present velocity-resolved Hβ time-delay measurements for our complete sample, though the clearest velocity-resolved kinematic signatures have already been published.

  5. NO EVIDENCE FOR INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: STRONG CONSTRAINTS FROM THE JVLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Seth, Anil C.; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    With a goal of searching for accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we report the results of ultra-deep Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the cores of three Galactic globular clusters: M15, M19, and M22. We reach rms noise levels of 1.5-2.1 μJy beam –1 at an average frequency of 6 GHz. No sources are observed at the center of any of the clusters. For a conservative set of assumptions about the properties of the accretion, we set 3σ upper limits on IMBHs from 360 to 980 M ☉ . These limits are among the most stringent obtained for any globular cluster. They add to a growing body of work that suggests either (1) IMBHs ∼> 1000 M ☉ are rare in globular clusters or (2) when present, IMBHs accrete in an extraordinarily inefficient manner.

  6. No Evidence for Intermediate-mass Black Holes in Globular Clusters: Strong Constraints from the JVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Seth, Anil C.; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

    2012-05-01

    With a goal of searching for accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we report the results of ultra-deep Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the cores of three Galactic globular clusters: M15, M19, and M22. We reach rms noise levels of 1.5-2.1 μJy beam-1 at an average frequency of 6 GHz. No sources are observed at the center of any of the clusters. For a conservative set of assumptions about the properties of the accretion, we set 3σ upper limits on IMBHs from 360 to 980 M ⊙. These limits are among the most stringent obtained for any globular cluster. They add to a growing body of work that suggests either (1) IMBHs >~ 1000 M ⊙ are rare in globular clusters or (2) when present, IMBHs accrete in an extraordinarily inefficient manner.

  7. New calibration and some predictions of the scaling relations between the mass of supermassive black holes and the properties of the host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, E.; Fallarino, M. T.; Feoli, A.

    2013-10-01

    We present a new determination of the slope and normalization of three popular scaling laws between the mass of supermassive black holes and stellar velocity dispersion, bulge mass and kinetic energy of the host galaxies. To this aim we have collected 72 objects taken from three different samples and we have used three fitting methods applying the statistical analysis also to the subset of early type galaxies and spirals separately. We find that the relation involving kinetic energy has a slightly better χ2 and linear correlation coefficient than the other two laws. Furthermore, its Hertzsprung-Russell-like behavior is confirmed by the location of young and old galaxies in two different parts of the diagram. A test of its predictive power with the two giant galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 shows that the mass of the black hole inferred using the kinetic energy law is the closest to the experimental value. The subset of early type galaxies satisfies the theoretical models regarding the black hole mass vs stellar velocity dispersion relation, better than the full sample. Tables 1 and 7 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSION MEASUREMENTS IN HIGH-LUMINOSITY QUASAR HOSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE AGN BLACK HOLE MASS SCALE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Martini, P.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Zu, Y. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Watson, L. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Dasyra, K. M. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA (CNRS:UMR8112), 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014, Paris (France); Dietrich, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45601 (United States); Ferrarese, L. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria BV V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2013-08-20

    We present new stellar velocity dispersion measurements for four luminous quasars with the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer instrument and the ALTAIR laser guide star adaptive optics system on the Gemini North 8 m telescope. Stellar velocity dispersion measurements and measurements of the supermassive black hole (BH) masses in luminous quasars are necessary to investigate the coevolution of BHs and galaxies, trace the details of accretion, and probe the nature of feedback. We find that higher-luminosity quasars with higher-mass BHs are not offset with respect to the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation exhibited by lower-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with lower-mass BHs, nor do we see correlations with galaxy morphology. As part of this analysis, we have recalculated the virial products for the entire sample of reverberation-mapped AGNs and used these data to redetermine the mean virial factor (f) that places the reverberation data on the quiescent M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation. With our updated measurements and new additions to the AGN sample, we obtain (f) = 4.31 {+-} 1.05, which is slightly lower than, but consistent with, most previous determinations.

  9. GW170104: Observation of a 50-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence at Redshift 0.2

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Billingsley, G.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.

    2017-01-01

    We describe the observation of GW170104, a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of a pair of stellar-mass black holes. The signal was measured on January 4, 2017 at 10∶11:58.6 UTC by the twin advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory during their second observing run, with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a false alarm rate less than 1 in 70 000 years. The inferred component black hole masses are 31.2^(8.4) _(−6.0)M_⊙ and 19.4^(5.3...

  10. PAIRING OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN UNEQUAL-MASS GALAXY MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callegari, Simone; Mayer, Lucio; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Colpi, Monica; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas; Wadsley, James

    2009-01-01

    We examine the pairing process of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) down to scales of 20-100 pc using a set of N-body/SPH simulations of binary mergers of disk galaxies with mass ratios of 1:4 and 1:10. Our numerical experiments are designed to represent merger events occurring at various cosmic epochs. The initial conditions of the encounters are consistent with the ΛCDM paradigm of structure formation, and the simulations include the effects of radiative cooling, star formation (SF), and supernovae feedback. We find that the pairing of SMBHs depends sensitively on the amount of baryonic mass preserved in the center of the companion galaxies during the last phases of the merger. In particular, due to the combination of gasdynamics and SF, we find that a pair of SMBHs can form efficiently in 1:10 minor mergers, provided that galaxies are relatively gas-rich (gas fractions of 30% of the disk mass) and that the mergers occur at relatively high redshift (z ∼ 3), when dynamical friction timescales are shorter. Since 1:10 mergers are most common events during the assembly of galaxies, and mergers are more frequent at high redshift when galaxies are also more gas-rich, our results have positive implications for future gravitational wave experiments such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna.

  11. Can We Distinguish Low-mass Black Holes in Neutron Star Binaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; East, William E.; Lehner, Luis

    2018-04-01

    The detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from coalescing binary neutron stars (NS) represents another milestone in gravitational-wave astronomy. However, since LIGO is currently not as sensitive to the merger/ringdown part of the waveform, the possibility that such signals are produced by a black hole (BH)–NS binary can not be easily ruled out without appealing to assumptions about the underlying compact object populations. We review a few astrophysical channels that might produce BHs below 3 M ⊙ (roughly the upper bound on the maximum mass of an NS), as well as existing constraints for these channels. We show that, due to the uncertainty in the NS equation of state, it is difficult to distinguish GWs from a binary NS system from those of a BH–NS system with the same component masses, assuming Advanced LIGO sensitivity. This degeneracy can be broken by accumulating statistics from many events to better constrain the equation of state, or by third-generation detectors with higher sensitivity to the late-spiral to post-merger signal. We also discuss the possible differences in electromagnetic (EM) counterparts between binary NS and low-mass BH–NS mergers, arguing that it will be challenging to definitively distinguish the two without better understanding of the underlying astrophysical processes.

  12. BL Lacertae: X-ray spectral evolution and a black-hole mass estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Seifina, Elena

    2017-06-01

    We present an analysis of the spectral properties observed in X-rays from active galactic nucleus BL Lacertae using RXTE, Suzaku, ASCA, BeppoSAX, and Swift observations. The total time covered by these observations is approximately 20 yr. We show strong observational evidence that this source undergoes X-ray spectral transitions from the low hard state (LHS) through the intermediate state (IS) to the high soft state (HSS) during these observations. During the RXTE observations (1997-2001, 180 ks, for a total 145 datasets), the source was approximately 75%, 20% and only 5% of the time in the IS, LHS, and HSS, respectively. We also used Swift observations (470 datasets, for a total 800 ks), which occurred during 12 yr (2005-2016), the broadband (0.3-200 keV) data of BeppoSAX (1997-2000, 160 ks), and the low X-ray energy (0.3-10 keV) data of ASCA (1995-1999, 160 ks). Two observations of Suzaku (2006, 2013; 50 ks) in combinations with long-term RXTE and Swift data-sets fortunately allow us to describe all spectral states of BL Lac. The spectra of BL Lac are well fitted by the so-called bulk motion Comptonization (BMC) model for all spectral states. We have established the photon index saturation level, Γsat = 2.2 ± 0.1, in the Γ versus mass accretion rate (Ṁ) correlation. This Γ - Ṁ correlation allows us to estimate the black-hole (BH) mass in BL Lac to be MBH 3 × 107M⊙ for a distance of 300 Mpc. For the BH mass estimate, we use the scaling method taking stellar-mass Galactic BHs 4U 1543-47 and GX 339-4 as reference sources. The Γ - Ṁ correlation revealed in BL Lac is similar to those in a number of stellar-mass Galactic BHs and two recently studied intermediate-mass extragalactic BHs. It clearly shows the correlation along with the very extended Γ saturation at 2.2. This is robust observational evidence for the presence of a BH in BL Lac. We also reveal that the seed (disk) photon temperatures are relatively low, of order of 100 eV, which are consistent

  13. EVIDENCE FOR AN INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLE IN NGC 5408 X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery with XMM-Newton of correlated spectral and timing behavior in the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1. An ∼100 ks pointing with XMM/Newton obtained in 2008 January reveals a strong 10 mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the >1 keV flux, as well as flat-topped, band-limited noise breaking to a power law. The energy spectrum is again dominated by two components, a 0.16 keV thermal disk and a power law with an index of ∼2.5. These new measurements, combined with results from our previous 2006 January pointing in which we first detected QPOs, show for the first time in a ULX a pattern of spectral and temporal correlations strongly analogous to that seen in Galactic black hole (BH) sources, but at much higher X-ray luminosity and longer characteristic timescales. We find that the QPO frequency is proportional to the inferred disk flux, while the QPO and broadband noise amplitude (rms) are inversely proportional to the disk flux. Assuming that QPO frequency scales inversely with the BH mass at a given power-law spectral index we derive mass estimates using the observed QPO frequency-spectral index relations from five stellar-mass BH systems with dynamical mass constraints. The results from all sources are consistent with a mass range for NGC 5408 X-1 from 1000 to 9000 M sun . We argue that these are conservative limits, and a more likely range is from 2000 to 5000 M sun . Moreover, the recent relation from Gierlinski et al. that relates the BH mass to the strength of variability at high frequencies (above the break in the power spectrum) is also indicative of such a high mass for NGC 5408 X-1. Importantly, none of the above estimates appears consistent with a BH mass less than ∼1000 M sun for NGC 5408 X-1. We argue that these new findings strongly support the conclusion that NGC 5408 X-1 harbors an intermediate-mass BH.

  14. A SEARCH FOR STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES VIA ASTROMETRIC MICROLENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J. R. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sinukoff, E. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Ofek, E. O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel); Udalski, A.; Kozlowski, S. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-10-10

    While dozens of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) have been discovered in binary systems, isolated BHs have eluded detection. Their presence can be inferred when they lens light from a background star. We attempt to detect the astrometric lensing signatures of three photometrically identified microlensing events, OGLE-2011-BLG-0022, OGLE-2011-BLG-0125, and OGLE-2012-BLG-0169 (OB110022, OB110125, and OB120169), located toward the Galactic Bulge. These events were selected because of their long durations, which statistically favors more massive lenses. Astrometric measurements were made over one to two years using laser-guided adaptive optics observations from the W. M. Keck Observatory. Lens model parameters were first constrained by the photometric light curves. The OB120169 light curve is well fit by a single-lens model, while both OB110022 and OB110125 light curves favor binary lens models. Using the photometric fits as prior information, no significant astrometric lensing signal was detected and all targets were consistent with linear motion. The significant lack of astrometric signal constrains the lens mass of OB110022 to 0.05–1.79 M {sub ⊙} in a 99.7% confidence interval, which disfavors a BH lens. Fits to OB110125 yielded a reduced Einstein crossing time and insufficient observations during the peak, so no mass limits were obtained. Two degenerate solutions exist for OB120169, which have a lens mass between 0.2–38.8 M {sub ⊙} and 0.4–39.8 M {sub ⊙} for a 99.7% confidence interval. Follow-up observations of OB120169 will further constrain the lens mass. Based on our experience, we use simulations to design optimal astrometric observing strategies and show that with more typical observing conditions the detection of BHs is feasible.

  15. The effects of baryon physics, black holes and active galactic nucleus feedback on the mass distribution in clusters of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martizzi, Davide; Teyssier, Romain; Moore, Ben; Wentz, Tina

    2012-06-01

    The spatial distribution of matter in clusters of galaxies is mainly determined by the dominant dark matter component; however, physical processes involving baryonic matter are able to modify it significantly. We analyse a set of 500 pc resolution cosmological simulations of a cluster of galaxies with mass comparable to Virgo, performed with the AMR code RAMSES. We compare the mass density profiles of the dark, stellar and gaseous matter components of the cluster that result from different assumptions for the subgrid baryonic physics and galaxy formation processes. First, the prediction of a gravity-only N-body simulation is compared to that of a hydrodynamical simulation with standard galaxy formation recipes, and then all results are compared to a hydrodynamical simulation which includes thermal active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback from supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We find the usual effects of overcooling and adiabatic contraction in the run with standard galaxy formation physics, but very different results are found when implementing SMBHs and AGN feedback. Star formation is strongly quenched, producing lower stellar densities throughout the cluster, and much less cold gas is available for star formation at low redshifts. At redshift z= 0 we find a flat density core of radius 10 kpc in both the dark and stellar matter density profiles. We speculate on the possible formation mechanisms able to produce such cores and we conclude that they can be produced through the coupling of different processes: (I) dynamical friction from the decay of black hole orbits during galaxy mergers; (II) AGN-driven gas outflows producing fluctuations of the gravitational potential causing the removal of collisionless matter from the central region of the cluster; (III) adiabatic expansion in response to the slow expulsion of gas from the central region of the cluster during the quiescent mode of AGN activity.

  16. Standard test method for determining residual stresses by the hole-drilling strain-gage method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 Residual Stress Determination: 1.1.1 This test method specifies a hole-drilling procedure for determining residual stress profiles near the surface of an isotropic linearly elastic material. The test method is applicable to residual stress profile determinations where in-plane stress gradients are small. The stresses may remain approximately constant with depth (“uniform” stresses) or they may vary significantly with depth (“non-uniform” stresses). The measured workpiece may be “thin” with thickness much less than the diameter of the drilled hole or “thick” with thickness much greater than the diameter of the drilled hole. Only uniform stress measurements are specified for thin workpieces, while both uniform and non-uniform stress measurements are specified for thick workpieces. 1.2 Stress Measurement Range: 1.2.1 The hole-drilling method can identify in-plane residual stresses near the measured surface of the workpiece material. The method gives localized measurements that indicate the...

  17. A Catalog Sample of Low-mass Galaxies Observed in X-Rays with Central Candidate Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nucita, A. A.; Manni, L.; Paolis, F. De; Giordano, M.; Ingrosso, G., E-mail: nucita@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via per Arnesano, CP 193, I-73100, Lecce (Italy)

    2017-03-01

    We present a sample of X-ray-selected candidate black holes in 51 low-mass galaxies with z ≤ 0.055 and masses up to 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙} obtained by cross-correlating the NASA-SLOAN Atlas with the 3XMM catalog. We have also searched in the available catalogs for radio counterparts of the black hole candidates and find that 19 of the previously selected sources also have a radio counterpart. Our results show that about 37% of the galaxies of our sample host an X-ray source (associated with a radio counterpart) spatially coincident with the galaxy center, in agreement with other recent works. For these nuclear sources, the X-ray/radio fundamental plane relation allows one to estimate the mass of the (central) candidate black holes, which are in the range of 10{sup 4}–2 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ⊙} (with a median value of ≃3 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} and eight candidates having masses below 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙}). This result, while suggesting that X-ray emitting black holes in low-mass galaxies may have had a key role in the evolution of such systems, makes it even more urgent to explain how such massive objects formed in galaxies. Of course, dedicated follow-up observations both in the X-ray and radio bands, as well as in the optical, are necessary in order to confirm our results.

  18. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-26

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-α emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ∼1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate.

  19. Hangup effect in unequal mass binary black hole mergers and further studies of their gravitational radiation and remnant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, James; Lousto, Carlos O.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of 74 new simulations of nonprecessing spinning black hole binaries with mass ratios q =m1/m2 in the range 1 /7 ≤q ≤1 and individual spins covering the parameter space -0.95 ≤α1 ,2≤0.95 . We supplement those runs with 107 previous simulations to study the hangup effect in black hole mergers, i.e. the delay or prompt merger of spinning holes with respect to nonspinning binaries. We perform the numerical evolution for typically the last ten orbits before the merger and down to the formation of the final remnant black hole. This allows us to study the hangup effect for unequal mass binaries leading us to identify the spin variable that controls the number of orbits before merger as S→ hu.L ^ , where S→ hu=(1 +1/2 m/2 m1 )S→ 1+(1 +1/2 m/1 m2 )S→ 2 . We also combine the total results of those 181 simulations to obtain improved fitting formulas for the remnant final black hole mass, spin and recoil velocity as well as for the peak luminosity and peak frequency of the gravitational strain, and find new correlations among them. This accurate new set of simulations enhances the number of available numerical relativity waveforms available for parameter estimation of gravitational wave observations.

  20. A 3.5-million Solar Masses Black Hole in the Centre of the Ultracompact Dwarf Galaxy Fornax UCD3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, Anton V.; Chilingarian, Igor V.; Mieske, Steffen; Voggel, Karina T.; Picotti, Arianna; Hilker, Michael; Seth, Anil; Neumayer, Nadine; Frank, Matthias; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Hau, George; Baumgardt, Holger; Ahn, Christopher; Strader, Jay; den Brok, Mark; McDermid, Richard; Spitler, Lee; Brodie, Jean; Walsh, Jonelle L.

    2018-04-01

    The origin of ultracompact dwarfs (UCDs), a class of compact stellar systems discovered two decades ago, still remains a matter of debate. Recent discoveries of central supermassive black holes in UCDs likely inherited from their massive progenitor galaxies provide support for the tidal stripping hypothesis. At the same time, on statistical grounds, some massive UCDs might be representatives of the high luminosity tail of the globular cluster luminosity function. Here we present a detection of a 3.3^{+1.4}_{-1.2}× 10^6 M_{⊙} black hole (1σ uncertainty) in the centre of the UCD3 galaxy in the Fornax cluster, that corresponds to 4 per cent of its stellar mass. We performed isotropic Jeans dynamical modelling of UCD3 using internal kinematics derived from adaptive optics assisted observations with the SINFONI spectrograph and seeing limited data collected with the FLAMES spectrograph at the ESO VLT. We rule out the zero black hole mass at the 3σ confidence level when adopting a mass-to-light ratio inferred from stellar populations. This is the fourth supermassive black hole found in a UCD and the first one in the Fornax cluster. Similarly to other known UCDs that harbour black holes, UCD3 hosts metal rich stars enhanced in α-elements that supports the tidal stripping of a massive progenitor as its likely formation scenario. We estimate that up to 80 per cent of luminous UCDs in galaxy clusters host central black holes. This fraction should be lower for UCDs in groups, because their progenitors are more likely to be dwarf galaxies, which do not tend to host central black holes.

  1. Detection of Enhanced Central Mass-to-light Ratios in Low-mass Early-type Galaxies: Evidence for Black Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechetti, Renuka; Seth, Anil; Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard; den Brok, Mark; Mieske, Steffen; Strader, Jay

    2017-11-01

    We present dynamical measurements of the central mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of a sample of 27 low-mass early-type {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} galaxies. We consider all {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} galaxies with 9.7 text{}}M/L{{s}} are higher than dynamical {\\text{}}M/L{{s}} derived at larger radii and stellar population estimates of the galaxy centers in ˜80% of galaxies, with a median enhancement of ˜14% and a statistical significance of 3.3σ. We show that the enhancement in the central M/L is best described either by the presence of black holes in these galaxies or by radial initial mass function variations. Assuming a black hole model, we derive black hole masses for the sample of galaxies. In two galaxies, NGC 4458 and NGC 4660, the data suggest significantly overmassive black holes, while in most others only upper limits are obtained. We also show that the level of M/L enhancements we see in these early-type galaxy nuclei are consistent with the larger enhancements seen in ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs), supporting the scenario where massive UCDs are created by stripping galaxies of these masses.

  2. New template family for the detection of gravitational waves from comparable-mass black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Edward K.

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the phasing of the comparable-mass waveform as we approach the last stable orbit for a system, various resummation methods have been used to improve the standard post-Newtonian waveforms. In this work we present a new family of templates for the detection of gravitational waves from the inspiral of two comparable-mass black hole binaries. These new adiabatic templates are based on reexpressing the derivative of the binding energy and the gravitational wave flux functions in terms of shifted Chebyshev polynomials. The Chebyshev polynomials are a useful tool in numerical methods as they display the fastest convergence of any of the orthogonal polynomials. In this case they are also particularly useful as they eliminate one of the features that plagues the post-Newtonian expansion. The Chebyshev binding energy now has information at all post-Newtonian orders, compared to the post-Newtonian templates which only have information at full integer orders. In this work, we compare both the post-Newtonian and Chebyshev templates against a fiducially exact waveform. This waveform is constructed from a hybrid method of using the test-mass results combined with the mass dependent parts of the post-Newtonian expansions for the binding energy and flux functions. Our results show that the Chebyshev templates achieve extremely high fitting factors at all post-Newtonian orders and provide excellent parameter extraction. We also show that this new template family has a faster Cauchy convergence, gives a better prediction of the position of the last stable orbit and in general recovers higher Signal-to-Noise ratios than the post-Newtonian templates

  3. FORMATION OF BLACK HOLE LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN HIERARCHICAL TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoz, Smadar; Stephan, Alexander P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Fragos, Tassos [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Geller, Aaron; Rasio, Frederic A., E-mail: snaoz@astro.ucla.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60201 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The formation of black hole (BH) low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB) poses a theoretical challenge, as low-mass companions are not expected to survive the common-envelope scenario with the BH progenitor. Here we propose a formation mechanism that skips the common-envelope scenario and relies on triple-body dynamics. We study the evolution of hierarchical triples following the secular dynamical evolution up to the octupole-level of approximation, including general relativity, tidal effects, and post-main-sequence evolution such as mass loss, changes to stellar radii, and supernovae. During the dynamical evolution of the triple system the “eccentric Kozai-Lidov” mechanism can cause large eccentricity excitations in the LMXB progenitor, resulting in three main BH-LMXB formation channels. Here we define BH-LMXB candidates as systems where the inner BH-companion star crosses its Roche limit. In the “eccentric” channel (∼81% of the LMXBs in our simulations) the donor star crosses its Roche limit during an extreme eccentricity excitation while still on a wide orbit. Second, we find a “giant” LMXB channel (∼11%), where a system undergoes only moderate eccentricity excitations but the donor star fills its Roche-lobe after evolving toward the giant branch. Third, we identify a “classical” channel (∼8%), where tidal forces and magnetic braking shrink and circularize the orbit to short periods, triggering mass-transfer. Finally, for the giant channel we predict an eccentric (∼0.3–0.6) preferably inclined (∼40°, ∼140°) tertiary, typically on a wide enough orbit (∼10{sup 4} au) to potentially become unbound later in the triple evolution. While this initial study considers only one representative system and neglects BH natal kicks, we expect our scenario to apply across a broad region of parameter space for triple-star systems.

  4. Formation of the black-hole binary M33 X-7 through mass exchange in a tight massive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, Francesca; Glebbeek, Evert; Farr, Will M; Fragos, Tassos; Willems, Bart; Orosz, Jerome A; Liu, Jifeng; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2010-11-04

    The X-ray source M33 X-7 in the nearby galaxy Messier 33 is among the most massive X-ray binary stellar systems known, hosting a rapidly spinning, 15.65M(⊙) black hole orbiting an underluminous, 70M(⊙) main-sequence companion in a slightly eccentric 3.45-day orbit (M(⊙), solar mass). Although post-main-sequence mass transfer explains the masses and tight orbit, it leaves unexplained the observed X-ray luminosity, the star's underluminosity, the black hole's spin and the orbital eccentricity. A common envelope phase, or rotational mixing, could explain the orbit, but the former would lead to a merger and the latter to an overluminous companion. A merger would also ensue if mass transfer to the black hole were invoked for its spin-up. Here we report simulations of evolutionary tracks which reveal that if M33 X-7 started as a primary body of 85M(⊙)-99M(⊙) and a secondary body of 28M(⊙)-32M(⊙), in a 2.8-3.1-d orbit, its observed properties can be consistently explained. In this model, the main-sequence primary transfers part of its envelope to the secondary and loses the rest in a wind; it ends its life as a ∼16M(⊙) helium star with an iron-nickel core that collapses to a black hole (with or without an accompanying supernova). The release of binding energy, and possibly collapse asymmetries, 'kick' the nascent black hole into an eccentric orbit. Wind accretion explains the X-ray luminosity, and the black-hole spin can be natal.

  5. A Tidal Disruption Event in a Nearby Galaxy Hosting an Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, D; Cenko, S. B.; Covino, S.; Troja, E.; Pursimo, T.; Cheung, C. C.; Fox, O.; Kutyrev, A.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a bright point source flare in the Abell cluster A1795 with archival EUVE and Chandra observations. Assuming the EUVE emission is associated with the Chandra source, the X-ray 0.5-7 kiloelectronvolt flux declined by a factor of approximately 2300 over a time span of 6 years, following a power-law decay with index approximately equal to 2.44 plus or minus 0.40. The Chandra data alone vary by a factor of approximately 20. The spectrum is well fit by a blackbody with a constant temperature of kiloteslas approximately equal to 0.09 kiloelectronvolts (approximately equal to 10 (sup 6) Kelvin). The flare is spatially coincident with the nuclear region of a faint, inactive galaxy with a photometric redshift consistent at the 1 sigma level with the cluster (redshift = 0.062476).We argue that these properties are indicative of a tidal disruption of a star by a black hole (BH) with log(M (sub BH) / M (sub 1 solar mass)) approximately equal to 5.5 plus or minus 0.5. If so, such a discovery indicates that tidal disruption flares may be used to probe BHs in the intermediate mass range, which are very difficult to study by other means.

  6. Low-mass X-ray binaries from black hole retaining globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, Matthew; Clausen, Drew; Ott, Christian D.

    2018-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that globular clusters (GCs) may retain a substantial population of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), in contrast to the long-held belief of a few to zero BHs. We model the population of BH low-mass X-ray binaries (BH-LMXBs), an ideal observable proxy for elusive single BHs, produced from a representative group of Milky Way GCs with variable BH populations. We simulate the formation of BH binaries in GCs through exchange interactions between binary and single stars in the company of tens to hundreds of BHs. Additionally, we consider the impact of the BH population on the rate of compact binaries undergoing gravitational wave driven mergers. The characteristics of the BH-LMXB population and binary properties are sensitive to the GCs structural parameters as well as its unobservable BH population. We find that GCs retaining ˜1000 BHs produce a galactic population of ˜150 ejected BH-LMXBs, whereas GCs retaining only ˜20 BHs produce zero ejected BH-LMXBs. Moreover, we explore the possibility that some of the presently known BH-LMXBs might have originated in GCs and identify five candidate systems.

  7. Low-mass X-ray binaries from black-hole retaining globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, Matthew; Clausen, Drew; Ott, Christian D.

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that globular clusters (GCs) may retain a substantial population of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), in contrast to the long-held belief of a few to zero BHs. We model the population of BH low-mass X-ray binaries (BH-LMXBs), an ideal observable proxy for elusive single BHs, produced from a representative group of Milky Way GCs with variable BH populations. We simulate the formation of BH-binaries in GCs through exchange interactions between binary and single stars in the company of tens to hundreds of BHs. Additionally, we consider the impact of the BH population on the rate of compact binaries undergoing gravitational wave driven mergers. The characteristics of the BH-LMXB population and binary properties are sensitive to the GCs structural parameters as well as its unobservable BH population. We find that GCs retaining ˜1000 BHs produce a galactic population of ˜150 ejected BH-LMXBs whereas GCs retaining only ˜20 BHs produce zero ejected BH-LMXBs. Moreover, we explore the possibility that some of the presently known BH-LMXBs might have originated in GCs and identify five candidate systems.

  8. Faithful effective-one-body waveforms of small-mass-ratio coalescing black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Nagar, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    We address the problem of constructing high-accuracy, faithful analytic waveforms describing the gravitational wave signal emitted by inspiralling and coalescing binary black holes. We work within the effective-one-body (EOB) framework and propose a methodology for improving the current (waveform) implementations of this framework based on understanding, element by element, the physics behind each feature of the waveform and on systematically comparing various EOB-based waveforms with exact waveforms obtained by numerical relativity approaches. The present paper focuses on small-mass-ratio nonspinning binary systems, which can be conveniently studied by Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli-type methods. Our results include (i) a resummed, 3 PN-accurate description of the inspiral waveform, (ii) a better description of radiation reaction during the plunge, (iii) a refined analytic expression for the plunge waveform, (iv) an improved treatment of the matching between the plunge and ring-down waveforms. This improved implementation of the EOB approach allows us to construct complete analytic waveforms which exhibit a remarkable agreement with the exact ones in modulus, frequency, and phase. In particular, the analytic and numerical waveforms stay in phase, during the whole process, within ±1.1% of a cycle. We expect that the extension of our methodology to the comparable-mass case will be able to generate comparably accurate analytic waveforms of direct use for the ground-based network of interferometric detectors of gravitational waves

  9. GW170104: Observation of a 50-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence at Redshift 0.2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bawaj, M.; Bazzan, M.; Becsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Chatziioannou, K.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, H. -P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Deelman, E; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Alvarez, M. Dovale; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Duncan, J.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fong, H.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gabel, M.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.J.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, A.S.P.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.E.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, W.; Kim, S.W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kraemer, H.C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang-Cheol, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, W. H.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Fokkema, R.L.K.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lueck, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Hernandez, I. Magana; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mayani, R.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P.G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Castro-Perez, J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Rynge, M.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shao, L.P.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahi, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Wald, R. M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y. -F.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, G.W.K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y. -H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zimmerman, A.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2017-01-01

    We describe the observation of GW170104, a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of a pair of stellar-mass black holes. The signal was measured on January 4, 2017 at 10: 11: 58.6 UTC by the twin advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory during

  10. A Revised Broad-line Region Radius and Black Hole Mass for the Narrow-line Seyfert 1 NGC 4051

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, K. D.; Watson, L. C.; Peterson, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    ) radius and the optical continuum luminosity—the R BLR-L relationship. Our new measurements of the lag time between variations in the continuum and Hß emission line made from spectroscopic monitoring of NGC 4051 lead to a measured BLR radius of R BLR = 1.87+0.54 -0.50 light days and black hole mass of M...

  11. THE BLACK HOLE MASS-BULGE LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM REVERBERATION MAPPING AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ∼0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH ∝ L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall scaling factor that brings the AGN M BH -σ * relationship into agreement with that of quiescent galaxies. We discuss biases that may be inherent to the AGN and quiescent galaxy samples and could cause the apparent inconsistency in the forms of their M BH -L bulge relationships. Recent work by Graham, however, presents a similar slope of ∼0.8 for the quiescent galaxies and may bring the relationship for AGNs and quiescent galaxies into agreement.

  12. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT: RECALIBRATING SINGLE-EPOCH VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Daeseong; Woo, Jong-Hak [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Treu, Tommaso; Bennert, Vardha N. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Barth, Aaron J.; Walsh, Jonelle [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Bentz, Misty C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Canalizo, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave., Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Gates, Elinor [Lick Observatory, P.O. Box 85, Mount Hamilton, CA 95140 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Malkan, Matthew A., E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the calibration and uncertainties of black hole (BH) mass estimates based on the single-epoch (SE) method, using homogeneous and high-quality multi-epoch spectra obtained by the Lick Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) Monitoring Project for nine local Seyfert 1 galaxies with BH masses <10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }. By decomposing the spectra into their AGNs and stellar components, we study the variability of the SE H{beta} line width (full width at half-maximum intensity, FWHM{sub H{beta}} or dispersion, {sigma}{sub H{beta}}) and of the AGN continuum luminosity at 5100 A (L{sub 5100}). From the distribution of the 'virial products' ({proportional_to} FWHM{sub H{beta}}{sup 2} L{sup 0.5}{sub 5100} or {sigma}{sub H{beta}}{sup 2} L{sup 0.5}{sub 5100}) measured from SE spectra, we estimate the uncertainty due to the combined variability as {approx}0.05 dex (12%). This is subdominant with respect to the total uncertainty in SE mass estimates, which is dominated by uncertainties in the size-luminosity relation and virial coefficient, and is estimated to be {approx}0.46 dex (factor of {approx}3). By comparing the H{beta} line profile of the SE, mean, and root-mean-square (rms) spectra, we find that the H{beta} line is broader in the mean (and SE) spectra than in the rms spectra by {approx}0.1 dex (25%) for our sample with FWHM{sub H{beta}} <3000 km s{sup -1}. This result is at variance with larger mass BHs where the difference is typically found to be much less than 0.1 dex. To correct for this systematic difference of the H{beta} line profile, we introduce a line-width dependent virial factor, resulting in a recalibration of SE BH mass estimators for low-mass AGNs.

  13. Inspiral, merger, and ring-down of equal-mass black-hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, Alessandra; Cook, Gregory B.; Pretorius, Frans

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics and gravitational-wave (GW) emission in the binary merger of equal-mass black holes as obtained from numerical relativity simulations. The simulations were performed with an evolution code based on generalized harmonic coordinates developed by Pretorius, and used quasiequilibrium initial-data sets constructed by Cook and Pfeiffer. Results from the evolution of three sets of initial data are explored in detail, corresponding to different initial separations of the black holes, and exhibit between 2-8 GW cycles before coalescence. We find that to a good approximation the inspiral phase of the evolution is quasicircular, followed by a 'blurred, quasicircular plunge' lasting for about 1-1.5 GW cycles. After this plunge the GW frequency decouples from the orbital frequency, and we define this time to be the start of the merger phase. Roughly 10-15 M separates the time between the beginning of the merger phase and when we are able to extract quasinormal ring-down modes from gravitational waves emitted by the newly formed black hole. This suggests that the merger lasts for a correspondingly short amount of time, approximately 0.5-0.75 of a full GW cycle. We present first-order comparisons between analytical models of the various stages of the merger and the numerical results--more detailed and accurate comparisons will need to await numerical simulations with higher accuracy, better control of systemic errors (including coordinate artifacts), and initial configurations where the binaries are further separated. During the inspiral, we find that if the orbital phase is well modeled, the leading order Newtonian quadrupole formula is able to match both the amplitude and phase of the numerical GW quite accurately until close to the point of merger. We provide comparisons between the numerical results and analytical predictions based on the adiabatic post-Newtonian (PN) and nonadiabatic resummed-PN models (effective-one-body and Pade models). For all

  14. A luminous X-ray outburst from an intermediate-mass black hole in an off-centre star cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dacheng; Strader, Jay; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Page, Dany; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Homan, Jeroen; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Godet, Olivier; Webb, Natalie A.; Baumgardt, Holger; Wijnands, Rudy; Barret, Didier; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Brodie, Jean P.; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.

    2018-06-01

    A unique signature for the presence of massive black holes in very dense stellar regions is occasional giant-amplitude outbursts of multi-wavelength radiation from tidal disruption and subsequent accretion of stars that make a close approach to the black holes1. Previous strong tidal disruption event (TDE) candidates were all associated with the centres of largely isolated galaxies2-6. Here, we report the discovery of a luminous X-ray outburst from a massive star cluster at a projected distance of 12.5 kpc from the centre of a large lenticular galaxy. The luminosity peaked at 1043 erg s-1 and decayed systematically over 10 years, approximately following a trend that supports the identification of the event as a TDE. The X-ray spectra were all very soft, with emission confined to be ≲3.0 keV, and could be described with a standard thermal disk. The disk cooled significantly as the luminosity decreased—a key thermal-state signature often observed in accreting stellar-mass black holes. This thermal-state signature, coupled with very high luminosities, ultrasoft X-ray spectra and the characteristic power-law evolution of the light curve, provides strong evidence that the source contains an intermediate-mass black hole with a mass tens of thousand times that of the solar mass. This event demonstrates that one of the most effective means of detecting intermediate-mass black holes is through X-ray flares from TDEs in star clusters.

  15. Measuring the black hole mass in ultraluminous X-ray sources with the X-ray scaling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, I.; Gliozzi, M.; Satyapal, S.; Titarchuk, L.

    2018-01-01

    In our recent work, we demonstrated that a novel X-ray scaling method, originally introduced for Galactic black holes (BH), could be reliably extended to estimate the mass of supermassive black holes accreting at moderate to high level. Here, we apply this X-ray scaling method to ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) to constrain their MBH. Using 49 ULXs with multiple XMM-Newton observations, we infer that ULXs host both stellar mass BHs and intermediate mass BHs. The majority of the sources of our sample seem to be consistent with the hypothesis of highly accreting massive stellar BHs with MBH ∼ 100 M⊙. Our results are in general agreement with the MBH values obtained with alternative methods, including model-independent variability methods. This suggests that the X-ray scaling method is an actual scale-independent method that can be applied to all BH systems accreting at moderate-high rate.

  16. MEASURING THE LUMINOSITY AND VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS DEPENDENCE OF QUASAR–GALAXY CLUSTERING AT z ∼ 0.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolewski, Alex G.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    We study the dependence of quasar clustering on quasar luminosity and black hole mass by measuring the angular overdensity of photometrically selected galaxies imaged by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) about z ∼ 0.8 quasars from SDSS. By measuring the quasar–galaxy cross-correlation function and using photometrically selected galaxies, we achieve a higher density of tracer objects and a more sensitive detection of clustering than measurements of the quasar autocorrelation function. We test models of quasar formation and evolution by measuring the luminosity dependence of clustering amplitude. We find a significant overdensity of WISE galaxies about z ∼ 0.8 quasars at 0.2–6.4 h −1 Mpc in projected comoving separation. We find no appreciable increase in clustering amplitude with quasar luminosity across a decade in luminosity, and a power-law fit between luminosity and clustering amplitude gives an exponent of −0.01 ± 0.06 (1 σ error). We also fail to find a significant relationship between clustering amplitude and black hole mass, although our dynamic range in true mass is suppressed due to the large uncertainties in virial black hole mass estimates. Our results indicate that a small range in host dark matter halo mass maps to a large range in quasar luminosity

  17. MEASURING THE LUMINOSITY AND VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS DEPENDENCE OF QUASAR–GALAXY CLUSTERING AT z ∼ 0.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krolewski, Alex G.; Eisenstein, Daniel J., E-mail: akrolewski@college.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-04-10

    We study the dependence of quasar clustering on quasar luminosity and black hole mass by measuring the angular overdensity of photometrically selected galaxies imaged by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) about z ∼ 0.8 quasars from SDSS. By measuring the quasar–galaxy cross-correlation function and using photometrically selected galaxies, we achieve a higher density of tracer objects and a more sensitive detection of clustering than measurements of the quasar autocorrelation function. We test models of quasar formation and evolution by measuring the luminosity dependence of clustering amplitude. We find a significant overdensity of WISE galaxies about z ∼ 0.8 quasars at 0.2–6.4 h{sup −1} Mpc in projected comoving separation. We find no appreciable increase in clustering amplitude with quasar luminosity across a decade in luminosity, and a power-law fit between luminosity and clustering amplitude gives an exponent of −0.01 ± 0.06 (1 σ error). We also fail to find a significant relationship between clustering amplitude and black hole mass, although our dynamic range in true mass is suppressed due to the large uncertainties in virial black hole mass estimates. Our results indicate that a small range in host dark matter halo mass maps to a large range in quasar luminosity.

  18. A Uniformly Selected Sample of Low-mass Black Holes in Seyfert 1 Galaxies. II. The SDSS DR7 Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-Yang; Yuan, Weimin; Dong, Xiao-Bo; Zhou, Hongyan; Liu, Wen-Juan

    2018-04-01

    A new sample of 204 low-mass black holes (LMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is presented with black hole masses in the range of (1–20) × 105 M ⊙. The AGNs are selected through a systematic search among galaxies in the Seventh Data Release (DR7) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and careful analyses of their optical spectra and precise measurement of spectral parameters. Combining them with our previous sample selected from SDSS DR4 makes it the largest LMBH sample so far, totaling over 500 objects. Some of the statistical properties of the combined LMBH AGN sample are briefly discussed in the context of exploring the low-mass end of the AGN population. Their X-ray luminosities follow the extension of the previously known correlation with the [O III] luminosity. The effective optical-to-X-ray spectral indices α OX, albeit with a large scatter, are broadly consistent with the extension of the relation with the near-UV luminosity L 2500 Å. Interestingly, a correlation of α OX with black hole mass is also found, with α OX being statistically flatter (stronger X-ray relative to optical) for lower black hole masses. Only 26 objects, mostly radio loud, were detected in radio at 20 cm in the FIRST survey, giving a radio-loud fraction of 4%. The host galaxies of LMBHs have stellar masses in the range of 108.8–1012.4 M ⊙ and optical colors typical of Sbc spirals. They are dominated by young stellar populations that seem to have undergone continuous star formation history.

  19. A tidal disruption event in a nearby galaxy hosting an intermediate mass black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donato, D.; Troja, E. [CRESST and Astroparticle Physics Laboratory NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cenko, S. B.; Fox, O. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/GSFC, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Covino, S. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Pursimo, T. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Apartado 474, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma (Spain); Cheung, C. C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Kutyrev, A. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771-2400 (United States); Campana, S.; Fugazza, D. [Joint Space Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Landt, H. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Butler, N. R., E-mail: davide.donato-1@nasa.gov [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a bright point source flare in the Abell cluster A1795 with archival EUVE and Chandra observations. Assuming the EUVE emission is associated with the Chandra source, the X-ray 0.5-7 keV flux declined by a factor of ∼2300 over a time span of 6 yr, following a power-law decay with index ∼2.44 ± 0.40. The Chandra data alone vary by a factor of ∼20. The spectrum is well fit by a blackbody with a constant temperature of kT ∼ 0.09 keV (∼10{sup 6} K). The flare is spatially coincident with the nuclear region of a faint, inactive galaxy with a photometric redshift consistent at the 1σ level with the cluster (z = 0.062476). We argue that these properties are indicative of a tidal disruption of a star by a black hole (BH) with log (M {sub BH}/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 5.5 ± 0.5. If so, such a discovery indicates that tidal disruption flares may be used to probe BHs in the intermediate mass range, which are very difficult to study by other means.

  20. A tidal disruption event in a nearby galaxy hosting an intermediate mass black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donato, D.; Troja, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Fox, O.; Covino, S.; Pursimo, T.; Cheung, C. C.; Kutyrev, A.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; Landt, H.; Butler, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a bright point source flare in the Abell cluster A1795 with archival EUVE and Chandra observations. Assuming the EUVE emission is associated with the Chandra source, the X-ray 0.5-7 keV flux declined by a factor of ∼2300 over a time span of 6 yr, following a power-law decay with index ∼2.44 ± 0.40. The Chandra data alone vary by a factor of ∼20. The spectrum is well fit by a blackbody with a constant temperature of kT ∼ 0.09 keV (∼10 6 K). The flare is spatially coincident with the nuclear region of a faint, inactive galaxy with a photometric redshift consistent at the 1σ level with the cluster (z = 0.062476). We argue that these properties are indicative of a tidal disruption of a star by a black hole (BH) with log (M BH /M ☉ ) ∼ 5.5 ± 0.5. If so, such a discovery indicates that tidal disruption flares may be used to probe BHs in the intermediate mass range, which are very difficult to study by other means.

  1. On the Theoretical Framework of Magnetized Outflows from Stellar-Mass Black Holes and Related Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, D. M.; Contopoulos, I.; Kazanas, D.; Steiner, J. F.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Laycock, S. G. T.

    2016-01-01

    The spins of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and the power outputs of their jets are measurable quantities. Unfortunately, the currently employed methods do not agree and the results are controversial. Two major issues concern the measurements of BH spin and beam (jet) power. The former issue can be resolved by future observations. But the latter issue can be resolved now, if we pay attention to what is expected from theoretical considerations. The question of whether a correlation has been found between the power outputs of few objects and the spins of their BHs is moot because BH beam power does not scale with the square of the spin of the BH. We show that the theoretical BH beam power is a strongly nonlinear function of spin that cannot be approximated by a quadratic relation, as is generally stated when the influence of the magnetic field is not accounted for in the Blandford & Znajek model. The BH beam power of ballistic jets should scale a lot more steeply with BH spin irrespective of the magnetic field assumed to thread the horizon and the spin range considered. This behavior may already be visible in the analyses of radio observations by Narayan & McClintock and Russell et al. In agreement with previous studies, we also find that the power output that originates in the inner regions of the surrounding accretion disks is higher than that from the BHs and it cannot be ignored in investigations of continuous compact jets from these systems.

  2. Mass Determination of Entire Amyloid Fibrils by Using Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doussineau, Tristan; Mathevon, Carole; Altamura, Lucie; Vendrely, Charlotte; Dugourd, Philippe; Forge, Vincent; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2016-02-12

    Amyloid fibrils are self-assembled protein structures with important roles in biology (either pathogenic or physiological), and are attracting increasing interest in nanotechnology. However, because of their high aspect ratio and the presence of some polymorphism, that is, the possibility to adopt various structures, their characterization is challenging and basic information such as their mass is unknown. Here we show that charge-detection mass spectrometry, recently developed for large self-assembled systems such as viruses, provides such information in a straightforward manner. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Does Explosive Nuclear Burning Occur in Tidal Disruption Events of White Dwarfs by Intermediate-mass Black Holes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanikawa, Ataru; Sato, Yushi; Hachisu, Izumi [Department of Earth Science and Astronomy, College of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Nomoto, Ken’ichi; Maeda, Keiichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Nakasato, Naohito, E-mail: tanikawa@ea.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Aizu, Tsuruga Ikki-machi Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8580 (Japan)

    2017-04-20

    We investigate nucleosynthesis in tidal disruption events (TDEs) of white dwarfs (WDs) by intermediate-mass black holes. We consider various types of WDs with different masses and compositions by means of three-dimensional (3D) smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations. We model these WDs with different numbers of SPH particles, N , from a few 10{sup 4} to a few 10{sup 7} in order to check mass resolution convergence, where SPH simulations with N > 10{sup 7} (or a space resolution of several 10{sup 6} cm) have unprecedentedly high resolution in this kind of simulation. We find that nuclear reactions become less active with increasing N and that these nuclear reactions are excited by spurious heating due to low resolution. Moreover, we find no shock wave generation. In order to investigate the reason for the absence of a shock wave, we additionally perform one-dimensional (1D) SPH and mesh-based simulations with a space resolution ranging from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 7} cm, using a characteristic flow structure extracted from the 3D SPH simulations. We find shock waves in these 1D high-resolution simulations, one of which triggers a detonation wave. However, we must be careful of the fact that, if the shock wave emerged in an outer region, it could not trigger the detonation wave due to low density. Note that the 1D initial conditions lack accuracy to precisely determine where a shock wave emerges. We need to perform 3D simulations with ≲10{sup 6} cm space resolution in order to conclude that WD TDEs become optical transients powered by radioactive nuclei.

  4. Post-Newtonian templates for binary black-hole inspirals: the effect of the horizon fluxes and the secular change in the black-hole masses and spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoyama, Soichiro; Nakano, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    Black holes (BHs) in an inspiraling compact binary system absorb the gravitational-wave (GW) energy and angular-momentum fluxes across their event horizons and this leads to the secular change in their masses and spins during the inspiral phase. The goal of this paper is to present ready-to-use, 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) template families for spinning, non-precessing, binary BH inspirals in quasicircular orbits, including the 2.5 PN and 3.5 PN horizon-flux contributions as well as the correction due to the secular change in the BH masses and spins through 3.5 PN order, respectively, in phase. We show that, for binary BHs observable by Advanced LIGO with high mass ratios (larger than  ∼10) and large aligned-spins (larger than  ∼ 0.7 ), the mismatch between the frequency-domain template with and without the horizon-flux contribution is typically above the 3% mark. For (supermassive) binary BHs observed by LISA, even a moderate mass-ratios and spins can produce a similar level of the mismatch. Meanwhile, the mismatch due to the secular time variations of the BH masses and spins is well below the 1% mark in both cases, hence this is truly negligible. We also point out that neglecting the cubic-in-spin, point-particle phase term at 3.5 PN order would deteriorate the effect of BH absorption in the template.

  5. Black hole algorithm for determining model parameter in self-potential data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkono; Warnana, Dwa Desa

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of self-potential (SP) data is increasingly popular in geophysical method due to its relevance in many cases. However, the inversion of SP data is often highly nonlinear. Consequently, local search algorithms commonly based on gradient approaches have often failed to find the global optimum solution in nonlinear problems. Black hole algorithm (BHA) was proposed as a solution to such problems. As the name suggests, the algorithm was constructed based on the black hole phenomena. This paper investigates the application of BHA to solve inversions of field and synthetic self-potential (SP) data. The inversion results show that BHA accurately determines model parameters and model uncertainty. This indicates that BHA is highly potential as an innovative approach for SP data inversion.

  6. Probing gravitational parity violation with gravitational waves from stellar-mass black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yang, Huan

    2018-05-01

    The recent discovery of gravitational-wave events has offered us unique test beds of gravity in the strong and dynamical field regime. One possible modification to General Relativity is the gravitational parity violation that arises naturally from quantum gravity. Such parity violation gives rise to the so-called amplitude birefringence in gravitational waves, in which one of the circularly polarized modes is amplified while the other one is suppressed during their propagation. In this paper, we study how well one can measure gravitational parity violation via the amplitude birefringence effect of gravitational waves sourced by stellar-mass black hole binaries. We choose Chern-Simons gravity as an example and work within an effective field theory formalism to ensure that the approximate theory is well posed. We consider gravitational waves from both individual sources and stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds. Regarding bounds from individual sources, we estimate such bounds using a Fisher analysis and carry out Monte Carlo simulations by randomly distributing sources over their sky location and binary orientation. We find that the bounds on the scalar field evolution in Chern-Simons gravity from the recently discovered gravitational-wave events are too weak to satisfy the weak Chern-Simons approximation, while aLIGO with its design sensitivity can place meaningful bounds. Regarding bounds from stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds, we set the threshold signal-to-noise ratio for detection of the parity-violation mode as 5 and estimate projected bounds with future detectors assuming that signals are consistent with no parity violation. In an ideal situation in which all the source parameters and binary black hole merger-rate history are known a priori, we find that a network of two third-generation detectors is able to place bounds that are comparable to or slightly stronger than binary pulsar bounds. In a more realistic situation in which one does not have

  7. 100y DASCH Search for historical outbursts of Black Hole Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Miller, George; Gomez, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Black Hole Low mass X-ray binaries (BH-LMXBs) are all transients, although several (e.g. GRS1915+109 and GX339-4) are quasi-persistent. All of the now 22 dynamically confirmed BH-LMXBs were discovered by their luminous outbursts, reaching Lx ~10^37 ergs/s, with outburst durations of typically ~1-3 months. These systems then (with few exceptions) return to a deep quiescent state, with Lx reduced by factors ~10^5-6 and hard X-ray spectra. The X-ray outbursts are accompanied by optical outbursts (if not absorbed by Galactic extinction) with ~6-9 magnitude increases and similar lightcurve shapes and durations as the X-ray (discovery) outburst. Prior to this work, only 3 BH-LMXBs have had historical (before the X-ray discovery) outbursts found in the archival data: A0620-00, the first BH-LMXB to be so identified, V404 Cyg (discoverd as "Nova Cyg" in 1938 and regarded as a classical nova), and V4641-Sgr which was given its variable star name when first noted in 1975. We report on the historical outbursts now discovered from the DASCH (Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard) data from scanning and digitizing the now ~210,000 glass plates in the northern Galactic Hemisphere. This was one of the primary motivations for the DASCH project: to use the detection (or lack threof) of historic outbursts to measure or constrain the Duty Cycle of the accreting black holes in these systems. This, in turn, allows the total population of BH-LMXBs to be estimated and compared with that for the very similar systems containing neutron stars as the accretor (NS-LMXBs). Whereas the ratio of BHs/NSs from stellar evolution and IMFs is expected to be <<1, the DASCH results on half the sky point to an excess of BH-LMXBs. This must constrain the formation process for these systems, of importance for understanding both BH formation and compact binary evolution.

  8. REVERBERATION MAPPING OF THE INTERMEDIATE-MASS NUCLEAR BLACK HOLE IN SDSS J114008.71+030711.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafter, Stephen E.; Kaspi, Shai; Behar, Ehud; Kollatschny, Wolfram; Zetzl, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a reverberation mapping (RM) campaign on the black hole (BH) associated with the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in SDSS J114008.71+030711.4 (hereafter GH08). This object is selected from a sample of 19 candidate intermediate-mass BHs (M BH 6 M sun ) found by Greene and Ho in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We used the Hobby-Eberly Telescope to obtain 30 spectra over a period of 178 days in an attempt to resolve the reverberation time lag (τ) between the continuum source and the broad-line region (BLR) in order to determine the radius of the BLR (R BLR ) in GH08. We measure τ to be two days with an upper limit of six days. We estimate the AGN luminosity at 5100 Å to be λL 5100 ≈ 1.1 × 10 43 erg s –1 after deconvolution from the host galaxy. The most well-calibrated R BLR –L relation predicts a time lag that is four times larger than what we measure. Using the measured Hβ full width at half-maximum of 703 ± 110 km s –1 and an upper limit for R BLR =6 light days, we find M BH ∼ 5 M sun as an upper limit to the BH virial mass in GH08, which implies super-Eddington accretion. Based on our measured M BH we propose that GH08 may be another candidate to add to the very short list of AGNs with M BH 6 M sun determined using RM.

  9. Burnup determination of mass spectrometry for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunhua.

    1987-01-01

    The various methods currently being used in burnup determination of nuclear fuels are studied and reviewed. The mass spectrometry method of destructive testing is discussed emphatically. The burnup determination of mass spectrometry includes heavy isotopic abundance ratio method and isotope dilution mass spectrometry used as burnup indicator for the fission products. The former is applied to high burnup level, but the later to various burnup level. According to experiences, some problems which should be noticed in burnup determination of mass spectrometry are presented

  10. Contour entropy: a new determinant of perceiving ground or a hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, Barbara J; Grove, Philip M

    2011-06-01

    Figure-ground perception is typically described as seeing one surface occluding another. Figure properties, not ground properties, are considered the significant factors. In scenes, however, a near surface will often occlude multiple contours and surfaces, often at different depths, producing alignments that are improbable except under conditions of occlusion. We thus hypothesized that unrelated (high entropy) lines would tend to appear as ground in a figure-ground paradigm more often than similarly aligned ordered (low entropy) lines. We further hypothesized that for lines spanning a closed area, high line entropy should increase the hole-like appearance of that area. These predictions were confirmed in three experiments. The probability that patterned rectangles were seen as ground when alternated with blank rectangles increased with pattern entropy. A single rectangular shape appeared more hole-like when the entropy of the enclosed contours increased. Furthermore, these same contours, with the outline shape removed, gave rise to bounding illusory contours whose strength increased with contour entropy. We conclude that figure-ground and hole perception can be determined by properties of ground in the absence of any figural shape, or surround, factors.

  11. Mass determination of Hercules X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahcall, J.N.; Chester, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    The allowed range of masses for Hercules X-1 is calculated using the optical pulsation data of Middleditch and Nelson, a simple geometrical model for the optical pulsations, and Uhuru X-ray observations of the mass function and eclipse duration. For a specific set of assumptions, we obtain 0.6M/sub sun/ 1 < or =2.0M/sub sun/

  12. Gamma-ray evidence for a stellar-mass black hole near the Galatic Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Observations at 511 keV and higher energies have provided evidence for a variable, compact source of annihilation radiation and >511-keV continuum emission at the Galactic Center or in its vicinity. The authors have reviewed this evidence. The strongest argument for the existence of this compact source is the time variation of the 511-keV line flux, inferred from observations at different times for over a decade. These observations include a recent detection of the 511-keV line showing that the compact source, after not being seen for nine years, has become active again. In addition to this compact source, there also is evidence for a distributed source of galactic 511-keV line emission. This is based on the comparison of observations with broad and narrow field- of-view detectors, as well as on a direct observation with a narrow field-of-view instrument pointing in the galactic plane away from the Galactic Center. Much remains to be learned about this emission from observations with improved angular and energy resolution. Such observations will provide new information on nucleosynthesis, supernovae, galactic structure, and the interstellar medium. However, in the present paper, the authors deal mainly with the compact source in an attempt to clarify the arguments that have led us to suggest that this object is a stellar-mass black hole. The authors review the technique that they have used to separate the compact and distributed sources, emphasizing the uncertainties caused by data obtained with very poor angular resolution. They show the time dependence of the 511-keV line emission and the >511-keV continuum and summarize the evidence that these two emissions are correlated

  13. An 800-million-solar-mass black hole in a significantly neutral Universe at a redshift of 7.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañados, Eduardo; Venemans, Bram P; Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Farina, Emanuele P; Walter, Fabian; Wang, Feige; Decarli, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Fan, Xiaohui; Davies, Frederick B; Hennawi, Joseph F; Simcoe, Robert A; Turner, Monica L; Rix, Hans-Walter; Yang, Jinyi; Kelson, Daniel D; Rudie, Gwen C; Winters, Jan Martin

    2018-01-25

    Quasars are the most luminous non-transient objects known and as a result they enable studies of the Universe at the earliest cosmic epochs. Despite extensive efforts, however, the quasar ULAS J1120 + 0641 at redshift z = 7.09 has remained the only one known at z > 7 for more than half a decade. Here we report observations of the quasar ULAS J134208.10 + 092838.61 (hereafter J1342 + 0928) at redshift z = 7.54. This quasar has a bolometric luminosity of 4 × 10 13 times the luminosity of the Sun and a black-hole mass of 8 × 10 8 solar masses. The existence of this supermassive black hole when the Universe was only 690 million years old-just five per cent of its current age-reinforces models of early black-hole growth that allow black holes with initial masses of more than about 10 4 solar masses or episodic hyper-Eddington accretion. We see strong evidence of absorption of the spectrum of the quasar redwards of the Lyman α emission line (the Gunn-Peterson damping wing), as would be expected if a significant amount (more than 10 per cent) of the hydrogen in the intergalactic medium surrounding J1342 + 0928 is neutral. We derive such a significant fraction of neutral hydrogen, although the exact fraction depends on the modelling. However, even in our most conservative analysis we find a fraction of more than 0.33 (0.11) at 68 per cent (95 per cent) probability, indicating that we are probing well within the reionization epoch of the Universe.

  14. Search for gravitational wave ringdowns from perturbed intermediate mass black holes in LIGO-Virgo data from 2005-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O.

    2014-01-01

    We report results from a search for gravitational waves produced by perturbed intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in data collected by LIGO and Virgo between 2005 and 2010. The search was sensitive to astrophysical sources that produced damped sinusoid gravitational wave signals, also known as ringdowns, with frequency $50\\le f_{0}/\\mathrm{Hz} \\le 2000$ and decay timescale $0.0001\\lesssim \\tau/\\mathrm{s} \\lesssim 0.1$ characteristic of those produced in mergers of IMBH pairs. No significant ...

  15. Determining the neutrino mass hierarchy with cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Kitching, Thomas D.; Heavens, Alan; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    The combination of current large-scale structure and cosmic microwave background anisotropies data can place strong constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses. Here we show that future cosmic shear experiments, in combination with cosmic microwave background constraints, can provide the statistical accuracy required to answer questions about differences in the mass of individual neutrino species. Allowing for the possibility that masses are nondegenerate we combine Fisher matrix forecasts for a weak lensing survey like Euclid with those for the forthcoming Planck experiment. Under the assumption that neutrino mass splitting is described by a normal hierarchy we find that the combination Planck and Euclid will possibly reach enough sensitivity to put a constraint on the mass of a single species. Using a Bayesian evidence calculation we find that such future experiments could provide strong evidence for either a normal or an inverted neutrino hierarchy. Finally we show that if a particular neutrino hierarchy is assumed then this could bias cosmological parameter constraints, for example, the dark energy equation of state parameter, by > or approx. 1σ, and the sum of masses by 2.3σ. We finally discuss the impact of uncertainties on the theoretical modeling of nonlinearities. The results presented in this analysis are obtained under an approximation to the nonlinear power spectrum. This significant source of uncertainty needs to be addressed in future work.

  16. A direct gravitational lensing test for 10 exp 6 solar masses black holes in halos of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambsganss, Joachim; Paczynski, Bohdan

    1992-01-01

    We propose a method that will be able to detect or exclude the existence of 10 exp 6 solar masses black holes in the halos of galaxies. VLBA radio maps of two milliarcsecond jets of a gravitationally lensed quasar will show the signature of these black holes - if they exist. If there are no compact objects in this mass range along the line of sight, the two jets should be linear mappings of each other. If they are not, there must be compact objects of about 10 exp 6 solar masses in the halo of the galaxy that deform the images by gravitational deflection. We present numerical simulations for the two jets A and B of the double quasar 0957 + 561, but the method is valid for any gravitationally lensed quasar with structure on milliarcsecond scales. As a by-product from high-quality VLBA maps of jets A and B, one will be able to tell which features in the maps are intrinsic in the original jet and which are only an optical illusion, i.e., gravitational distortions by black holes along the line of sight.

  17. Irreducible mass, unincreasable angular momentum and isoareal transformations for black hole physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; Francaviglia, M [Turin Univ. (Italy)

    1978-01-01

    The concept of unincreasable angular momentum for a Kerr black hole is introduced and related to the isoareal transformations of the horizons. A thermodynamical interpretation is proposed for the new parameter.

  18. Irreducible mass, unincreasable angular momentum and isoareal transformations for black hole physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvani, M.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of unincreasable angular momentum for a Kerr black hole is introduced and related to the isoareal transformations of the horizons. A thermodynamical interpretation is proposed for the new parameter. (author)

  19. Determination of charge carrier mobility of hole transporting polytriarylamine-based diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barea, Eva M.; Garcia-Belmonte, Germa; Sommer, Michael; Huettner, Sven; Bolink, Henk J.; Thelakkat, Mukundan

    2010-01-01

    Hole transport properties of three different side chain poly(triarylamines) have been determined by means of the analysis of steady-state current-voltage characteristics using co-planar diode structures. The interpretation is based on space-charge limited models with field-dependent mobility. Mobilities between ∼ 10 -8 and 10 -6 cm 2 V -1 s -1 are obtained. The highest mobility is achieved for poly(tetraphenylbenzidine) devices and the lowest for poly(triphenylamine) devices. Electron-rich methoxy substituents increase the mobility of poly(triphenylamine)s. A comparison of the mobility values with those obtained using organic field-effect transistors is also given.

  20. Position and mass determination of multiple particles using cantilever based mass sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohn, Soeren; Schmid, Silvan; Boisen, Anja; Amiot, Fabien

    2010-01-01

    Resonant microcantilevers are highly sensitive to added masses and have the potential to be used as mass-spectrometers. However, making the detection of individual added masses quantitative requires the position determination for each added mass. We derive expressions relating the position and mass of several added particles to the resonant frequencies of a cantilever, and an identification procedure valid for particles with different masses is proposed. The identification procedure is tested by calculating positions and mass of multiple microparticles with similar mass positioned on individual microcantilevers. Excellent agreement is observed between calculated and measured positions and calculated and theoretical masses.

  1. The black hole mass of NGC 4151. II. Stellar dynamical measurement from near-infrared integral field spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onken, Christopher A.; Ferrarese, Laura; Valluri, Monica; Brown, Jonathan S.; McGregor, Peter J.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.; Bentz, Misty C.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogemar A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a revised measurement of the mass of the central black hole (M BH ) in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. The new stellar dynamical mass measurement is derived by applying an axisymmetric orbit-superposition code to near-infrared integral field data obtained using adaptive optics with the Gemini Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS). When our models attempt to fit both the NIFS kinematics and additional low spatial resolution kinematics, our results depend sensitively on how χ 2 is computed—probably a consequence of complex bar kinematics that manifest immediately outside the nuclear region. The most robust results are obtained when only the high spatial resolution kinematic constraints in the nuclear region are included in the fit. Our best estimates for the black hole mass and H-band mass-to-light ratio are M BH ∼ 3.76 ± 1.15 × 10 7 M ☉ (1σ error) and Y H ∼ 0.34 ± 0.03 M ☉ /L ☉ (3σ error), respectively (the quoted errors reflect the model uncertainties). Our black hole mass measurement is consistent with estimates from both reverberation mapping (3.57 −0.37 +0.45 ×10 7 M ⊙ ) and gas kinematics (3.0 −2.2 +0.75 ×10 7 M ⊙ ; 1σ errors), and our best-fit mass-to-light ratio is consistent with the photometric estimate of Y H = 0.4 ± 0.2 M ☉ /L ☉ . The NIFS kinematics give a central bulge velocity dispersion σ c = 116 ± 3 km s –1 , bringing this object slightly closer to the M BH -σ relation for quiescent galaxies. Although NGC 4151 is one of only a few Seyfert 1 galaxies in which it is possible to obtain a direct dynamical black hole mass measurement—and thus, an independent calibration of the reverberation mapping mass scale—the complex bar kinematics makes it less than ideally suited for this purpose.

  2. The black hole mass of NGC 4151. II. Stellar dynamical measurement from near-infrared integral field spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onken, Christopher A.; Ferrarese, Laura [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Valluri, Monica; Brown, Jonathan S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); McGregor, Peter J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bentz, Misty C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Office 610, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Vestergaard, Marianne [Dark Cosmology Centre, The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Física, CP 15051, Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS (Brazil); Riffel, Rogemar A., E-mail: christopher.onken@anu.edu.au, E-mail: mvalluri@umich.edu [Departamento de Física, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-08-10

    We present a revised measurement of the mass of the central black hole (M{sub BH} ) in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. The new stellar dynamical mass measurement is derived by applying an axisymmetric orbit-superposition code to near-infrared integral field data obtained using adaptive optics with the Gemini Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS). When our models attempt to fit both the NIFS kinematics and additional low spatial resolution kinematics, our results depend sensitively on how χ{sup 2} is computed—probably a consequence of complex bar kinematics that manifest immediately outside the nuclear region. The most robust results are obtained when only the high spatial resolution kinematic constraints in the nuclear region are included in the fit. Our best estimates for the black hole mass and H-band mass-to-light ratio are M{sub BH} ∼ 3.76 ± 1.15 × 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉} (1σ error) and Y{sub H} ∼ 0.34 ± 0.03 M{sub ☉}/L{sub ☉} (3σ error), respectively (the quoted errors reflect the model uncertainties). Our black hole mass measurement is consistent with estimates from both reverberation mapping (3.57{sub −0.37}{sup +0.45}×10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}) and gas kinematics (3.0{sub −2.2}{sup +0.75}×10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}; 1σ errors), and our best-fit mass-to-light ratio is consistent with the photometric estimate of Y{sub H} = 0.4 ± 0.2 M{sub ☉}/L{sub ☉}. The NIFS kinematics give a central bulge velocity dispersion σ{sub c} = 116 ± 3 km s{sup –1}, bringing this object slightly closer to the M{sub BH}-σ relation for quiescent galaxies. Although NGC 4151 is one of only a few Seyfert 1 galaxies in which it is possible to obtain a direct dynamical black hole mass measurement—and thus, an independent calibration of the reverberation mapping mass scale—the complex bar kinematics makes it less than ideally suited for this purpose.

  3. Precision Determination of the Top Quark Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movilla Fernandez, Pedro A.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2007-05-01

    The CDF and D0 collaborations have updated their measurements of the mass of the top quark using proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV produced at the Tevatron. The uncertainties in each of the top-antitop decay channels have been reduced. The new Tevatron average for the mass of the top quark based on about 1 fb{sup -1} of data per experiment is 170.9 {+-} 1.8 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  4. On the Mass and Luminosity Functions of Tidal Disruption Flares: Rate Suppression due to Black Hole Event Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, S.

    2018-01-01

    The tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole is expected to yield a luminous flare of thermal emission. About two dozen of these stellar tidal disruption flares (TDFs) may have been detected in optical transient surveys. However, explaining the observed properties of these events within the tidal disruption paradigm is not yet possible. This theoretical ambiguity has led some authors to suggest that optical TDFs are due to a different process, such as a nuclear supernova or accretion disk instabilities. Here we present a test of a fundamental prediction of the tidal disruption event scenario: a suppression of the flare rate due to the direct capture of stars by the black hole. Using a recently compiled sample of candidate TDFs with black hole mass measurements, plus a careful treatment of selection effects in this flux-limited sample, we confirm that the dearth of observed TDFs from high-mass black holes is statistically significant. All the TDF impostor models we consider fail to explain the observed mass function; the only scenario that fits the data is a suppression of the rate due to direct captures. We find that this suppression can explain the low volumetric rate of the luminous TDF candidate ASASSN-15lh, thus supporting the hypothesis that this flare belongs to the TDF family. Our work is the first to present the optical TDF luminosity function. A steep power law is required to explain the observed rest-frame g-band luminosity, {dN}/{{dL}}g\\propto {L}g-2.5. The mean event rate of the flares in our sample is ≈ 1× {10}-4 galaxy‑1 yr‑1, consistent with the theoretically expected tidal disruption rate.

  5. A Photo-Ionization Method for Black Hole Mass Estimation in Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziani Paola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the masses of the central compact object believed to power all active galactic nuclei is relevant to our understanding of their evolution and of their inner workings. Keys to present-day mass estimates are: (1 the assumption of line broadening due to virial motion of the emitting gas, (2 an estimate of the distance of broad-line emitting gas from the central compact object, and (3 a measure of the AGN luminosity. We discuss the merits and the limitations of an alternative method based on estimates of physical conditions in the broad line emitting region derived from an appropriate multi-component analysis of emission line profiles. This ‘photo-ionization method’, applied to UV intermediate-ionization lines appears to be promising for at least a sizable population of high-z quasars.

  6. Determination of crack size around rivet hole through neural network using ultrasonic Lamb wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Woo; Lee, Joon Hyun

    1998-01-01

    Rivets are typical structural features that are potential initiation sites for fatigue crack due to combination of local stress concentration around rivet hole and moisture trapping. For the viewpoint of structural assurance, it is crucial to evaluate the size of crack around rivets by appropriate nondestructive techniques. Guided waves, which direct wave energy along the plate, carry information about the material in their path and offer a potentially more efficient tool for nondestructive inspection of structural material. Neural network that is considered to be the most suitable for pattern recognition and has been used by researchers in NDE field to classify different types of flaws and flaw size. In this study, crack size determination around rivet through a neural network based on the back-propagation algorithm has been done by extracting some feature from time-domain waveforms of ultrasonic Lamb wave for Al 2024-T3 skin panel of aircraft. Special attention was paid to reduce the coupling effect between transducer and specimen by extracting some features related to only time component data in ultrasonic waveform. It was demonstrated clearly that features extraction based on time component data of the time-domain waveform of Lamb wave was very useful to determine crack size initiated from rivet hole through neural network.

  7. A Multiwavelength Study of POX 52, a Dwarf Seyfert Galaxy with an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron

    2004-07-01

    We propose a comprehensive optical, UV, and X-ray investigation of the unique galaxy POX 52. POX 52 is a Seyfert 1 galaxy with unprecedented properties: its host galaxy appears to be a dwarf elliptical, and its stellar velocity dispersion is only 36 km/s. The stellar velocity dispersion and the broad emission-line widths both suggest a black hole mass of order 10^5 solar masses, placing POX 52 in a region of AGN parameter space that is almost completely unexplored at present. We request ACS/HRC imaging to perform a definitive measurement of the host galaxy structure; STIS UV and optical spectroscopy to study the nonstellar continuum and the structure of the broad-line region; and Chandra ACS imaging to detect the X-ray emission from the nucleus and investigate its spectral and variability properties. The results of this program will give a detailed understanding of the host galaxy and accretion properties of one of the very few known black holes in the mass range around 10^5 solar masses.

  8. Statistical black-hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Traditional methods from statistical thermodynamics, with appropriate modifications, are used to study several problems in black-hole thermodynamics. Jaynes's maximum-uncertainty method for computing probabilities is used to show that the earlier-formulated generalized second law is respected in statistically averaged form in the process of spontaneous radiation by a Kerr black hole discovered by Hawking, and also in the case of a Schwarzschild hole immersed in a bath of black-body radiation, however cold. The generalized second law is used to motivate a maximum-entropy principle for determining the equilibrium probability distribution for a system containing a black hole. As an application we derive the distribution for the radiation in equilibrium with a Kerr hole (it is found to agree with what would be expected from Hawking's results) and the form of the associated distribution among Kerr black-hole solution states of definite mass. The same results are shown to follow from a statistical interpretation of the concept of black-hole entropy as the natural logarithm of the number of possible interior configurations that are compatible with the given exterior black-hole state. We also formulate a Jaynes-type maximum-uncertainty principle for black holes, and apply it to obtain the probability distribution among Kerr solution states for an isolated radiating Kerr hole

  9. GW170104: Observation of a 50-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence at Redshift 0.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Henry, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Horst, C; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Intini, G; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Johnson-McDaniel, N K; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Junker, J; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katolik, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kawabe, K; Kéfélian, F; Keitel, D; Kemball, A J; Kennedy, R; Kent, C; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J C; Kim, W; Kim, W S; Kim, Y-M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kirchhoff, R; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koch, P; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Krämer, C; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kumar, S; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwang, S; Lackey, B D; Lai, K H; Landry, M; Lang, R N; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lanza, R K; Lartaux-Vollard, A; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, H W; Lee, K; Lehmann, J; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Liu, J; Lo, R K L; Lockerbie, N A; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lovelace, G; Lück, H; Lumaca, D; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macfoy, S; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña Hernandez, I; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magaña Zertuche, L; Magee, R M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Man, N; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markakis, C; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matas, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mayani, R; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McCuller, L; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Mejuto-Villa, E; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, A; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minazzoli, O; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Muniz, E A M; Murray, P G; Napier, K; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Neri, M; Nery, M; Neunzert, A; Newport, J M; Newton, G; Ng, K K Y; Nguyen, T T; Nichols, D; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Noack, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; Ormiston, R; Ortega, L F; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pace, A E; Page, J; Page, M A; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pang, B; Pang, P T H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perez, C J; 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Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sampson, L M; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Scheuer, J; Schmidt, E; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schulte, B W; Schutz, B F; Schwalbe, S G; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Seidel, E; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T J; Shah, A A; Shahriar, M S; Shao, L; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, B; Smith, J R; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sonnenberg, J A; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Spencer, A P; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Stratta, G; Strigin, S E; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Taracchini, A; Taylor, J A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Trinastic, J; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tsang, K W; Tse, M; Tso, R; Tuyenbayev, D; Ueno, K; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahi, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Varma, V; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Venugopalan, G; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Viets, A D; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D V; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Wald, R M; Walet, R; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J Z; Wang, M; Wang, Y-F; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Watchi, J; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessel, E K; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whiting, B F; Whittle, C; Williams, D; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Wofford, J; Wong, K W K; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wu, G; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zelenova, T; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, T; Zhang, Y-H; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zimmerman, A; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J

    2017-06-02

    We describe the observation of GW170104, a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of a pair of stellar-mass black holes. The signal was measured on January 4, 2017 at 10∶11:58.6 UTC by the twin advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory during their second observing run, with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a false alarm rate less than 1 in 70 000 years. The inferred component black hole masses are 31.2_{-6.0}^{+8.4}M_{⊙} and 19.4_{-5.9}^{+5.3}M_{⊙} (at the 90% credible level). The black hole spins are best constrained through measurement of the effective inspiral spin parameter, a mass-weighted combination of the spin components perpendicular to the orbital plane, χ_{eff}=-0.12_{-0.30}^{+0.21}. This result implies that spin configurations with both component spins positively aligned with the orbital angular momentum are disfavored. The source luminosity distance is 880_{-390}^{+450}  Mpc corresponding to a redshift of z=0.18_{-0.07}^{+0.08}. We constrain the magnitude of modifications to the gravitational-wave dispersion relation and perform null tests of general relativity. Assuming that gravitons are dispersed in vacuum like massive particles, we bound the graviton mass to m_{g}≤7.7×10^{-23}  eV/c^{2}. In all cases, we find that GW170104 is consistent with general relativity.

  10. Features of solar wind streams on June 21-28, 2015 as a result of interactions between coronal mass ejections and recurrent streams from coronal holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugay, Yu. S.; Slemzin, V. A.; Rod'kin, D. G.

    2017-11-01

    Coronal sources and parameters of solar wind streams during a strong and prolonged geomagnetic disturbance in June 2015 have been considered. Correspondence between coronal sources and solar wind streams at 1 AU has been determined using an analysis of solar images, catalogs of flares and coronal mass ejections, solar wind parameters including the ionic composition. The sources of disturbances in the considered period were a sequence of five coronal mass ejections that propagated along the recurrent solar wind streams from coronal holes. The observed differences from typical in magnetic and kinetic parameters of solar wind streams have been associated with the interactions of different types of solar wind. The ionic composition has proved to be a good additional marker for highlighting components in a mixture of solar wind streams, which can be associated with different coronal sources.

  11. Search for Gravitational Wave Ringdowns from Perturbed Intermediate Mass Black Holes in LIGO-Virgo Data from 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Blackburn, Lindy L.; Camp, J. B.; Gehrels, N.; Graff, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    We report results from a search for gravitational waves produced by perturbed intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in data collected by LIGO and Virgo between 2005 and 2010. The search was sensitive to astrophysical sources that produced damped sinusoid gravitational wave signals, also known as ringdowns, with frequency 50 less than or equal to italic f0/Hz less than or equal to 2000 and decay timescale 0.0001 approximately less than t/s approximately less than 0.1 characteristic of those produced in mergers of IMBH pairs. No significant gravitational wave candidate was detected. We report upper limits on the astrophysical coalescence rates of IMBHs with total binary mass 50 less than or equal to M/solar mass less than or equal to 450 and component mass ratios of either 1:1 or 4:1. For systems with total mass 100 less than or equal to M/solar mass 150, we report a 90%-confidence upper limit on the rate of binary IMBH mergers with non-spinning and equal mass components of 6:9 x 10(exp 8) Mpc(exp -3)yr(exp -1). We also report a rate upper limit for ringdown waveforms from perturbed IMBHs, radiating 1% of their mass as gravitational waves in the fundamental, l=m=2, oscillation mode, that is nearly three orders of magnitude more stringent than previous results.

  12. Searching for intermediate-mass black holes in galaxies with low-luminosity AGN: a multiple-method approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliopanos, F.; Ciambur, B.; Graham, A.; Webb, N.; Coriat, M.; Mutlu-Pakdil, B.; Davis, B.; Godet, O.; Barret, D.; Seigar, M.

    2017-10-01

    Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBHs) are predicted by a variety of models and are the likely seeds for super massive BHs (SMBHs). However, we have yet to establish their existence. One method, by which we can discover IMBHs, is by measuring the mass of an accreting BH, using X-ray and radio observations and drawing on the correlation between radio luminosity, X-ray luminosity and the BH mass, known as the fundamental plane of BH activity (FP-BH). Furthermore, the mass of BHs in the centers of galaxies, can be estimated using scaling relations between BH mass and galactic properties. We are initiating a campaign to search for IMBH candidates in dwarf galaxies with low-luminosity AGN, using - for the first time - three different scaling relations and the FP-BH, simultaneously. In this first stage of our campaign, we measure the mass of seven LLAGN, that have been previously suggested to host central IMBHs, investigate the consistency between the predictions of the BH scaling relations and the FP-BH, in the low mass regime and demonstrate that this multiple method approach provides a robust average mass prediction. In my talk, I will discuss our methodology, results and next steps of this campaign.

  13. Mass and position determination in MEMS mass sensors: a theoretical and an experimental investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.; Nayfeh, Ali H.; Jaber, Nizar; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to determine accurately the position and mass of an entity attached to the surface of an electrostatically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam implemented as a mass sensor. In the theoretical investigation, the microbeam

  14. The disk wind in the rapidly spinning stellar-mass black hole 4U 1630-472 observed with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Ashley L.; Walton, Dominic J.; Miller, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of a short NuSTAR observation of the stellar-mass black hole and low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1630-472. Reflection from the inner accretion disk is clearly detected for the first time in this source, owing to the sensitivity of NuSTAR. With fits to the reflection spectrum, we...... find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, (1σ statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also...

  15. Charged black holes in phantom cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Qadir, Asghar; Rashid, Muneer Ahmad [National University of Sciences and Technology, Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2008-11-15

    In the classical relativistic regime, the accretion of phantom-like dark energy onto a stationary black hole reduces the mass of the black hole. We have investigated the accretion of phantom energy onto a stationary charged black hole and have determined the condition under which this accretion is possible. This condition restricts the mass-to-charge ratio in a narrow range. This condition also challenges the validity of the cosmic-censorship conjecture since a naked singularity is eventually produced due to accretion of phantom energy onto black hole. (orig.)

  16. Top quark kinematics and mass determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.H.

    1994-10-01

    An analysis is presented of 10 W + ≥ 3 jet events, each with evidence for the presence of a b quark, that were recently observed by the CDF collaboration. Seven of these events include a fourth jet and can be explicitly reconstructed as t bar t production. The best estimate of the top quark mass is M t = 174 ± 10 -12 +13 GeV/c 2 . A study has also been performed to see if the kinematical properties of events with W + ≥ 3 jets gives evidence for top production. An excess of events with large jet energies, compared to that expected from direct production of W + ≥ 3 jets, is observed. A large fraction of these events also contain a b-quark and a fourth jet

  17. Precision determination of the top-quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch, Sven-Olaf

    2014-08-01

    Precision determinations of the top-quark mass require theory predictions with a well-defined mass parameter in a given renormalization scheme. The top-quark's running mass in the MS scheme can be extracted with good precision from the total cross section at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD. The Monte Carlo top-quark mass parameter measured from comparison to events with top-quark decay products is not identical with the pole mass. Its translation to the pole mass scheme introduces an additional uncertainty of the order of 1 GeV.

  18. AS ABOVE, SO BELOW: EXPLOITING MASS SCALING IN BLACK HOLE ACCRETION TO BREAK DEGENERACIES IN SPECTRAL INTERPRETATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markoff, Sera; Silva, Catia V.; Nowak, Michael A.; Gallo, Elena; Plotkin, Richard M.; Hynes, Robert; Wilms, Jörn; Maitra, Dipankar; Drappeau, Samia

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidence has mounted that several aspects of black hole (BH) accretion physics proceed in a mass-invariant way. One of the best examples of this scaling is the empirical “fundamental plane of BH accretion” relation linking mass, radio, and X-ray luminosity over eight orders of magnitude in BH mass. The currently favored theoretical interpretation of this relation is that the physics governing power output in weakly accreting BHs depends more on relative accretion rate than on mass. In order to test this theory, we explore whether a mass-invariant approach can simultaneously explain the broadband spectral energy distributions from two BHs at opposite ends of the mass scale but that are at similar Eddington accretion fractions. We find that the same model, with the same value of several fitted physical parameters expressed in mass-scaling units to enforce self-similarity, can provide a good description of two data sets from V404 Cyg and M81*, a stellar and supermassive BH, respectively. Furthermore, only one of several potential emission scenarios for the X-ray band is successful, suggesting it is the dominant process driving the fundamental plane relation at this accretion rate. This approach thus holds promise for breaking current degeneracies in the interpretation of BH high-energy spectra and for constructing better prescriptions of BH accretion for use in various local and cosmological feedback applications

  19. New probe of dark-matter properties: gravitational waves from an intermediate-mass black hole embedded in a dark-matter minispike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, Kazunari; Itoh, Yousuke; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Silk, Joseph

    2013-05-31

    An intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) may have a dark-matter (DM) minihalo around it and develop a spiky structure within less than a parsec from the IMBH. When a stellar mass object is captured by the minihalo, it eventually infalls into such an IMBH due to gravitational wave backreaction which in turn could be observed directly by future space-borne gravitational wave experiments such as eLISA and NGO. In this Letter, we show that the gravitational wave (GW) detectability strongly depends on the radial profile of the DM distribution. So if the GW is detected, the power index, that is, the DM density distribution, would be determined very accurately. The DM density distribution obtained would make it clear how the IMBH has evolved from a seed black hole and whether the IMBH has experienced major mergers in the past. Unlike the γ-ray observations of DM annihilation, GW is just sensitive to the radial profile of the DM distribution and even to noninteracting DM. Hence, the effect we demonstrate here can be used as a new and powerful probe into DM properties.

  20. Event Rates of Gravitational Waves from merging Intermediate mass Black Holes: based on a Runaway Path to a SMBH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkai, Hisaaki

    2018-01-01

    Based on a dynamical formation model of a supermassive black hole (SMBH), we estimate the expected observational profile of gravitational wave at ground-based detectors, such as KAGRA or advanced LIGO/VIRGO. Noting that the second generation of detectors have enough sensitivity from 10 Hz and up, we are able to detect the ring-down gravitational wave of a BH with the mass M 1 per year for ρ = 10. Thus, if we observe a BH with more than 100M⊙ in future gravitational-wave observations, our model naturally explains its source.

  1. GW151226: observation of gravitational waves from a 22-solar-mass binary black hole \\ud coalescence

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a signifi...

  2. The Relation between Coronal Holes and Coronal Mass Ejections during the Rise, Maximum, and Declining Phases of Solar Cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A. A.; Gopalswamy, N; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Jung, H.

    2012-01-01

    We study the interaction between coronal holes (CHs) and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) using a resultant force exerted by all the coronal holes present on the disk and is defined as the coronal hole influence parameter (CHIP). The CHIP magnitude for each CH depends on the CH area, the distance between the CH centroid and the eruption region, and the average magnetic field within the CH at the photospheric level. The CHIP direction for each CH points from the CH centroid to the eruption region. We focus on Solar Cycle 23 CMEs originating from the disk center of the Sun (central meridian distance =15deg) and resulting in magnetic clouds (MCs) and non-MCs in the solar wind. The CHIP is found to be the smallest during the rise phase for MCs and non-MCs. The maximum phase has the largest CHIP value (2.9 G) for non-MCs. The CHIP is the largest (5.8 G) for driverless (DL) shocks, which are shocks at 1 AU with no discernible MC or non-MC. These results suggest that the behavior of non-MCs is similar to that of the DL shocks and different from that of MCs. In other words, the CHs may deflect the CMEs away from the Sun-Earth line and force them to behave like limb CMEs with DL shocks. This finding supports the idea that all CMEs may be flux ropes if viewed from an appropriate vantage point.

  3. Baryons in the relativistic jets of the stellar-mass black-hole candidate 4U 1630-47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, María Díaz; Miller-Jones, James C A; Migliari, Simone; Broderick, Jess W; Tzioumis, Tasso

    2013-12-12

    Accreting black holes are known to power relativistic jets, both in stellar-mass binary systems and at the centres of galaxies. The power carried away by the jets, and, hence, the feedback they provide to their surroundings, depends strongly on their composition. Jets containing a baryonic component should carry significantly more energy than electron-positron jets. Energetic considerations and circular-polarization measurements have provided conflicting circumstantial evidence for the presence or absence of baryons in jets, and the only system in which they have been unequivocally detected is the peculiar X-ray binary SS 433 (refs 4, 5). Here we report the detection of Doppler-shifted X-ray emission lines from a more typical black-hole candidate X-ray binary, 4U 1630-47, coincident with the reappearance of radio emission from the jets of the source. We argue that these lines arise from baryonic matter in a jet travelling at approximately two-thirds the speed of light, thereby establishing the presence of baryons in the jet. Such baryonic jets are more likely to be powered by the accretion disk than by the spin of the black hole, and if the baryons can be accelerated to relativistic speeds, the jets should be strong sources of γ-rays and neutrino emission.

  4. Determination of charge carrier mobility of hole transporting polytriarylamine-based diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barea, Eva M. [Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castello (Spain); Garcia-Belmonte, Germa, E-mail: garciag@uji.e [Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castello (Spain); Sommer, Michael; Huettner, Sven [Applied Functional Polymers, Universitaet Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Bolink, Henk J. [Molecular Science Institute-Universitat de Valencia, Poligon La Coma s/n, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Thelakkat, Mukundan, E-mail: mukundan.thelakkat@uni-bayreuth.d [Applied Functional Polymers, Universitaet Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2010-04-02

    Hole transport properties of three different side chain poly(triarylamines) have been determined by means of the analysis of steady-state current-voltage characteristics using co-planar diode structures. The interpretation is based on space-charge limited models with field-dependent mobility. Mobilities between {approx} 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} are obtained. The highest mobility is achieved for poly(tetraphenylbenzidine) devices and the lowest for poly(triphenylamine) devices. Electron-rich methoxy substituents increase the mobility of poly(triphenylamine)s. A comparison of the mobility values with those obtained using organic field-effect transistors is also given.

  5. Determination of stress multipliers for thin perforated plates with square array of holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Murli, B.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    The peak stress multipliers are required to determine the maximum stresses in perforated plates for the realistic evaluation of their fatigue life. The Section III of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code does not provide any information about such multipliers to be used in thin perforated plates with square penetration pattern. Although such multipliers for membrane loadings are available in literature, they were obtained either by classical analysis or by photoelastic experiments and there is no significant finite element analysis in this area. Also it has been a common practice among designers to apply the same multipliers for loads producing bending type of stress. The stress multipliers in bending are lower than those in membrane. Therefore a reduction of resultant peak stress occurs if proper stress multipliers are used for bending. The present paper is aimed at developing a finite element technique which can be used for determining the peak stress multipliers in thin plates for membrane as well as bending loads. A quarter symmetric part of a 3 x 3 square array was chosen for the analysis. The results were obtained by computer programs PAFEC and COSMOS/M using 2-D plane stress elements for the membrane and degenerated 3-D shell element for the bending part. The results for the membrane are compared with Bailey, Hicks and Hulbert and with Meijers' finite element results for the bending part. A study was made at the initial stage by analysing a 6 x 6 square array to see the effect of holes beyond one pitch, which were left out by the 3 x 3 array and the effect of additional holes was found to be negligible. Therefore it was decided to carry out further analysis with 3 x 3 square array. Photoelastic experiments were also performed to validate the results obtained by theoretical analysis. (author)

  6. A Black Hole in Our Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    An introductory approach to black holes is presented along with astronomical observational data pertaining to the presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Concepts of conservation of energy and Kepler's third law are employed so students can apply formulas from their physics class to determine the mass of the black hole…

  7. Orbital evolution of a test particle around a black hole: indirect determination of the self-force in the post-Newtonian approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burko, Lior M

    2006-01-01

    Comparing the corrections to Kepler's law with orbital evolution under a self-force, we extract the finite, already regularized part of the latter in a specific gauge. We apply this method to a quasi-circular orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole of an extreme mass ratio binary, and determine the first- and second-order conservative gravitational self-force in a post-Newtonian expansion. We use these results in the construction of the gravitational waveform, and revisit the question of the relative contribution of the self-force and spin-orbit coupling

  8. Charged topological black hole pair creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    I examine the pair creation of black holes in space-times with a cosmological constant of either sign. I consider cosmological C-metrics and show that the conical singularities in this metric vanish only for three distinct classes of black hole metric, two of which have compact event horizons on each spatial slice. One class is a generalization of the Reissner-Nordstroem (anti-)de Sitter black holes in which the event horizons are the direct product of a null line with a 2-surface with topology of genus g. The other class consists of neutral black holes whose event horizons are the direct product of a null conoid with a circle. In the presence of a domain wall, black hole pairs of all possible types will be pair created for a wide range of mass and charge, including even negative mass black holes. I determine the relevant instantons and Euclidean actions for each case. (orig.)

  9. Perturbation of a slowly rotating black hole by a stationary axisymmetric ring of matter. II. Penrose processes, circular orbits, and differential mass formulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will, C.M.

    1975-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the phenomenon of energy extraction (''Penrose'') from a slowly rotating black hole perturbed by a stationary axisymmetric ring of matter, and show that the gravitational interaction between the ring and the particles used in the Penrose process must be taken into account. For the case of a black-hole-ring configuration of ''minimum enregy'' we show that a Penrose process can extract further energy, but that by measns of their gravitational forces, the particles used in the process cause the radius of the ring to change, releasing precisely sufficient gravitational potential energy to make up for that extracted. By analyzing the properties of circular test-particle orbits in black-hole-ring spacetimes, we show quantitatively how this change in radius is produced. A ''differential mass formula'' relating the total masses of neighboring black-hole-ring configurations is also derived

  10. A Method To Determine Adhesion Of Suppository Mass On Excised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method to determine adhesion of suppository mass to intestinal tissue was developed using excised pig intestine. The method which employs the principe of drainage unto and subsequent detachment from the mucosa, of an adherent suppository mass is simple, inexpensive and accurate. Fully optimised, it can be used ...

  11. Primary Black Hole Spin in OJ 287 as Determined by the General Relativity Centenary Flare

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valtonen, M.J.; Zola, H.; Ciprini, S.; Gopakumar, A.; Matsumoto, K.; Sadakane, K.; Kidger, M.; Gazeas, K.; Nilsson, K.; Berdyugin, A.; Hudec, René; Jelínek, Martin; Štrobl, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 819, č. 2 (2016), L37 /1- L37 /6 ISSN 2041-8205 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-33324S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : black hole physics * quasars * supermassive black holes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.522, year: 2016

  12. Host Galaxy Properties and Black Hole Mass of Swift J164449.3+573451 from Multi-wavelength Long-term Monitoring and HST Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yongmin; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Lee, Seong-Kook; Choi, Philip; Gehrels, Neil; Pak, Soojong; Sakamoto, Takanori; Urata, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    We study the host galaxy properties of the tidal disruption object Swift J164449.3+573451 using long-term optical to near-infrared (NIR) data. First, we decompose the galaxy surface brightness distribution and analyze the morphology of the host galaxy using high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 images. We conclude that the host galaxy is bulge-dominant and well described by a single Sérsic model with Sérsic index n=3.43+/- 0.05. Adding a disk component, the bulge to total host galaxy flux ratio (B/ T) is 0.83 ± 0.03, which still indicates a bulge-dominant galaxy. Second, we estimate multi-band fluxes of the host galaxy through long-term light curves. Our long-term NIR light curves reveal the pure host galaxy fluxes ˜500 days after the burst. We fit spectral energy distribution models to the multi-band fluxes from the optical to NIR of the host galaxy and determine its properties. The stellar mass, the star formation rate, and the age of the stellar population are {log}({M}\\star /{M}⊙ )={9.14}-0.10+0.13, {0.03}-0.03+0.28 {M}⊙ yr-1, and {0.63}-0.43+0.95 Gyr. Finally, we estimate the mass of the central super massive black hole which is responsible for the tidal disruption event. The black hole mass is estimated to be {10}6.7+/- 0.4 {M}⊙ from {M}{BH}-{M}\\star ,{bul} and {M}{BH}-{L}{bul} relations for the K band, although a smaller value of ˜ {10}5 {M}⊙ cannot be excluded convincingly if the host galaxy harbors a pseudobulge.

  13. Measuring the spins of accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, Jeffrey E; Narayan, Ramesh; Gou, Lijun; Kulkarni, Akshay; Penna, Robert F; Steiner, James F; Davis, Shane W; Orosz, Jerome A; Remillard, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    A typical galaxy is thought to contain tens of millions of stellar-mass black holes, the collapsed remnants of once massive stars, and a single nuclear supermassive black hole. Both classes of black holes accrete gas from their environments. The accreting gas forms a flattened orbiting structure known as an accretion disk. During the past several years, it has become possible to obtain measurements of the spins of the two classes of black holes by modeling the x-ray emission from their accretion disks. Two methods are employed, both of which depend upon identifying the inner radius of the accretion disk with the innermost stable circular orbit, whose radius depends only on the mass and spin of the black hole. In the Fe Kα method, which applies to both classes of black holes, one models the profile of the relativistically broadened iron line with a special focus on the gravitationally redshifted red wing of the line. In the continuum-fitting (CF) method, which has so far only been applied to stellar-mass black holes, one models the thermal x-ray continuum spectrum of the accretion disk. We discuss both methods, with a strong emphasis on the CF method and its application to stellar-mass black holes. Spin results for eight stellar-mass black holes are summarized. These data are used to argue that the high spins of at least some of these black holes are natal, and that the presence or absence of relativistic jets in accreting black holes is not entirely determined by the spin of the black hole.

  14. Electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid at p-phenylenediamine film-holes modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olana Bikila Nagasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the determination of ascorbic acid (AA at glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with a perforated film produced by reduction of diazonium generated in situ from p-phenylenediamine (PD is reported. Holes were intentionally created in the modifier film by stripping a pre-deposited gold nanoparticles. The modified electrodes were electrochemically characterized by common redox probes: hydroquinone, ferrocyanide and hexamineruthenium(III. The cyclic voltammetric and amperometric response of AA using the modified electrodes was compared with that of bare GCE. The bare GCE showed a linear response to AA in the concentration range of 5 mM to 45 mM with detection limit of 1.656 mM and the modified GCE showed a linear response to AA in the concentration range of 5 μM to 45 μM with detection limit of 0.123 μM. The effect of potential intereferents on amperometric signal of AA at the modified GCE was examined and found to be minimal. The inter-electrode reproducibility, stability, and accuracy were determined. The modified electrode showed excellent inter-electrode reproducibility, accuracy and stability. The modified electrode reported is a promising candidate for use in electroanalysis of AA.

  15. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  16. Binary black hole coalescence in the large-mass-ratio limit: The hyperboloidal layer method and waveforms at null infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Nagar, Alessandro; Zenginoglu, Anil

    2011-01-01

    We compute and analyze the gravitational waveform emitted to future null infinity by a system of two black holes in the large-mass-ratio limit. We consider the transition from the quasiadiabatic inspiral to plunge, merger, and ringdown. The relative dynamics is driven by a leading order in the mass ratio, 5PN-resummed, effective-one-body (EOB), analytic-radiation reaction. To compute the waveforms, we solve the Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli equations in the time-domain on a spacelike foliation, which coincides with the standard Schwarzschild foliation in the region including the motion of the small black hole, and is globally hyperboloidal, allowing us to include future null infinity in the computational domain by compactification. This method is called the hyperboloidal layer method, and is discussed here for the first time in a study of the gravitational radiation emitted by black hole binaries. We consider binaries characterized by five mass ratios, ν=10 -2,-3,-4,-5,-6 , that are primary targets of space-based or third-generation gravitational wave detectors. We show significative phase differences between finite-radius and null-infinity waveforms. We test, in our context, the reliability of the extrapolation procedure routinely applied to numerical relativity waveforms. We present an updated calculation of the final and maximum gravitational recoil imparted to the merger remnant by the gravitational wave emission, v kick end /(cν 2 )=0.04474±0.00007 and v kick max /(cν 2 )=0.05248±0.00008. As a self-consistency test of the method, we show an excellent fractional agreement (even during the plunge) between the 5PN EOB-resummed mechanical angular momentum loss and the gravitational wave angular momentum flux computed at null infinity. New results concerning the radiation emitted from unstable circular orbits are also presented. The high accuracy waveforms computed here could be considered for the construction of template banks or for calibrating analytic models such

  17. Structural determination of intact proteins using mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruppa, Gary [San Francisco, CA; Schoeniger, Joseph S [Oakland, CA; Young, Malin M [Livermore, CA

    2008-05-06

    The present invention relates to novel methods of determining the sequence and structure of proteins. Specifically, the present invention allows for the analysis of intact proteins within a mass spectrometer. Therefore, preparatory separations need not be performed prior to introducing a protein sample into the mass spectrometer. Also disclosed herein are new instrumental developments for enhancing the signal from the desired modified proteins, methods for producing controlled protein fragments in the mass spectrometer, eliminating complex microseparations, and protein preparatory chemical steps necessary for cross-linking based protein structure determination.Additionally, the preferred method of the present invention involves the determination of protein structures utilizing a top-down analysis of protein structures to search for covalent modifications. In the preferred method, intact proteins are ionized and fragmented within the mass spectrometer.

  18. Black-hole astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bloom, E. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cominsky, L. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.

  19. Black Hole Growth Is Mainly Linked to Host-galaxy Stellar Mass Rather Than Star Formation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Vito, F.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Luo, B.; Sun, M. Y.; Xue, Y. Q.; Bauer, F. E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Liu, T.; Schneider, D. P.; Shemmer, O.; Trump, J. R.; Vignali, C.; Wang, J.-X.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the dependence of black hole accretion rate (BHAR) on host-galaxy star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass (M *) in the CANDELS/GOODS-South field in the redshift range of 0.5≤slant zteam through spectral energy distribution fitting. The average BHAR is correlated positively with both SFR and M *, and the BHAR-SFR and BHAR-M * relations can both be described acceptably by linear models with a slope of unity. However, BHAR appears to be correlated more strongly with M * than SFR. This result indicates that M * is the primary host-galaxy property related to supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth, and the apparent BHAR-SFR relation is largely a secondary effect due to the star-forming main sequence. Among our sources, massive galaxies ({M}* ≳ {10}10{M}⊙ ) have significantly higher BHAR/SFR ratios than less massive galaxies, indicating that the former have higher SMBH fueling efficiency and/or higher SMBH occupation fraction than the latter. Our results can naturally explain the observed proportionality between {M}{BH} and M * for local giant ellipticals and suggest that their {M}{BH}/{M}* is higher than that of local star-forming galaxies. Among local star-forming galaxies, massive systems might have higher {M}{BH}/{M}* compared to dwarfs.

  20. Wandering off the centre: a characterization of the random motion of intermediate-mass black holes in star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vita, Ruggero; Trenti, Michele; MacLeod, Morgan

    2018-04-01

    Despite recent observational efforts, unequivocal signs for the presence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in globular clusters (GCs) have not been found yet. Especially when the presence of IMBHs is constrained through dynamical modelling of stellar kinematics, it is fundamental to account for the displacement that the IMBH might have with respect to the GC centre. In this paper, we analyse the IMBH wandering around the stellar density centre using a set of realistic direct N-body simulations of star cluster evolution. Guided by the simulation results, we develop a basic yet accurate model that can be used to estimate the average IMBH radial displacement (〈rbh〉) in terms of structural quantities as the core radius (rc), mass (Mc), and velocity dispersion (σc), in addition to the average stellar mass (mc) and the IMBH mass (Mbh). The model can be expressed by the equation /r_c=A(m_c/M_bh)^α [σ _c^2r_c/(GM_c)]^β, in which the free parameters A, α, and β are calculated through comparison with the numerical results on the IMBH displacement. The model is then applied to Galactic GCs, finding that for an IMBH mass equal to 0.1 per cent of the GC mass, the typical expected displacement of a putative IMBH is around 1 arcsec for most Galactic GCs, but IMBHs can wander to larger angular distances in some objects, including a prediction of a 2.5 arcsec displacement for NGC 5139 (ω Cen), and >10 arcsec for NGC5053, NGC6366, and ARP2.

  1. WISDOM Project - III. Molecular gas measurement of the supermassive black hole mass in the barred lenticular galaxy NGC4429

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy A.; Bureau, Martin; Onishi, Kyoko; van de Voort, Freeke; Cappellari, Michele; Iguchi, Satoru; Liu, Lijie; North, Eve V.; Sarzi, Marc; Smith, Mark D.

    2018-01-01

    As part of the mm-Wave Interferometric Survey of Dark Object Masses project we present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby fast-rotating early-type galaxy NGC4429, that is barred and has a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge. This estimate is based on Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-2 observations of the 12CO(3-2) emission line with a linear resolution of ≈13 pc (0.18 arcsec × 0.14 arcsec). NGC4429 has a relaxed, flocculent nuclear disc of molecular gas that is truncated at small radii, likely due to the combined effects of gas stability and tidal shear. The warm/dense 12CO(3-2) emitting gas is confined to the inner parts of this disc, likely again because the gas becomes more stable at larger radii, preventing star formation. The gas disc has a low velocity dispersion of 2.2^{+0.68}_{-0.65} km s-1. Despite the inner truncation of the gas disc, we are able to model the kinematics of the gas and estimate a mass of (1.5 ± 0.1^{+0.15}_{-0.35}) × 108 M⊙ for the SMBH in NGC4429 (where the quoted uncertainties reflect the random and systematic uncertainties, respectively), consistent with a previous upper limit set using ionized gas kinematics. We confirm that the V-band mass-to-light ratio changes by ≈30 per cent within the inner 400 pc of NGC4429, as suggested by other authors. This SMBH mass measurement based on molecular gas kinematics, the sixth presented in the literature, once again demonstrates the power of ALMA to constrain SMBH masses.

  2. Black holes with Yang-Mills hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleihaus, B.; Kunz, J.; Sood, A.; Wirschins, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Einstein-Maxwell theory black holes are uniquely determined by their mass, their charge and their angular momentum. This is no longer true in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. We discuss sequences of neutral and charged SU(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes, which are static spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat, and which carry Yang-Mills hair. Furthermore, in Einstein-Maxwell theory static black holes are spherically symmetric. We demonstrate that, in contrast, SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory possesses a sequence of black holes, which are static and only axially symmetric

  3. THE DEMOGRAPHICS OF BROAD-LINE QUASARS IN THE MASS-LUMINOSITY PLANE. II. BLACK HOLE MASS AND EDDINGTON RATIO FUNCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Brandon C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93107 (United States); Shen, Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    We employ a flexible Bayesian technique to estimate the black hole (BH) mass and Eddington ratio functions for Type 1 (i.e., broad line) quasars from a uniformly selected data set of {approx}58, 000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7. We find that the SDSS becomes significantly incomplete at M {sub BH} {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun} or L/L {sub Edd} {approx}< 0.07, and that the number densities of Type 1 quasars continue to increase down to these limits. Both the mass and Eddington ratio functions show evidence of downsizing, with the most massive and highest Eddington ratio BHs experiencing Type 1 quasar phases first, although the Eddington ratio number densities are flat at z < 2. We estimate the maximum Eddington ratio of Type 1 quasars in the observable universe to be L/L {sub Edd} {approx} 3. Consistent with our results in Shen and Kelly, we do not find statistical evidence for a so-called sub-Eddington boundary in the mass-luminosity plane of broad-line quasars, and demonstrate that such an apparent boundary in the observed distribution can be caused by selection effect and errors in virial BH mass estimates. Based on the typical Eddington ratio in a given mass bin, we estimate growth times for the BHs in Type 1 quasars and find that they are comparable to or longer than the age of the universe, implying an earlier phase of accelerated (i.e., with higher Eddington ratios) and possibly obscured growth. The large masses probed by our sample imply that most of our BHs reside in what are locally early-type galaxies, and we interpret our results within the context of models of self-regulated BH growth.

  4. Black Hole Mass Estimation in Type 1 AGN: Hβ vs. Mg II Lines and the Role of Balmer Continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovačević-Dojčinović, Jelena [Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade (Serbia); Marčeta-Mandić, Sladjana; Popović, Luka Č., E-mail: sladjana@aob.rs [Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade (Serbia); Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2017-07-24

    Here we investigate the Hβ and Mg II spectral line parameters used for the black hole mass (M{sub BH}) estimation for a sample of Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) spectra selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database. We have analyzed and compared the virialization of the Hβ and Mg II emission lines, and found that the Hβ line is more confident virial estimator than Mg II. We have investigated the influence of the Balmer continuum emission to the M{sub BH} estimation from the UV parameters, and found that the Balmer continuum emission can contribute to the overestimation of the M{sub BH} on average for ~5% (up to 10%).

  5. Three-particle one-hole multiple scattering contribution to the nuclear effective interaction in mass-18 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, H.; Krenciglowa, E.M.; Ando, K.

    1979-01-01

    Within the systematic framework of the double partition approach, the three-particle one-hole multiple scattering and Q-box formalisms are combined to give the valence-linked and connected energy-independent effective interaction. All low-lying [2p+3p1h] contributions to the mass-18 effective interaction are evaluated using an essentially exact energy-dependent reaction matrix based on the Reid SC potential. The low-lying one-body field of the core nucleus is treated consistently with the underlying reaction matrix G through particle- and hole-line self-energy insertions. Center-of-mass motion, folded diagrams and starting energy dependence are properly taken into account throughout. The low-lying [2p+3p1h] correlations are strongly damped by self-energy insertions. By incorporating only the folded diagram contributions with origins in the low-lying space, the net effect of all low-lying [2p+3p1h] correlations is to give back the bare-G plus second-order core-polarization spectra which are found to be in respectable agreement with the experimental spectra. However, including the full folded diagram contribution, which has additional contributions from the high-lying space through the energy dependence of G, leads to final spectra which deviate sizably from experiment. The present results are conclusive in the sense that the treatment is essentially exact for low-lying [2p+3p1h] correlations which originate from the high-lying two-particle correlations through the reaction matrix G. (Auth.)

  6. Testing the Paradigm that Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources as a Class Represent Accreting Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghea, C. T.; Weaver, K. A.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Roberts, T. P.

    2008-11-01

    To test the idea that ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in external galaxies represent a class of accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we have undertaken a program to identify ULXs and a lower luminosity X-ray comparison sample with the highest quality data in the Chandra archive. We establish as a general property of ULXs that the most X-ray-luminous objects possess the flattest X-ray spectra (in the Chandra bandpass). No prior sample studies have established the general hardening of ULX spectra with luminosity. This hardening occurs at the highest luminosities (absorbed luminosity >=5 × 1039 erg s-1) and is in line with recent models arguing that ULXs are actually stellar mass black holes. From spectral modeling, we show that the evidence originally taken to mean that ULXs are IMBHs—i.e., the "simple IMBH model"—is nowhere near as compelling when a large sample of ULXs is looked at properly. During the last couple of years, XMM-Newton spectroscopy of ULXs has to a large extent begun to negate the simple IMBH model based on fewer objects. We confirm and expand these results, which validates the XMM-Newton work in a broader sense with independent X-ray data. We find that (1) cool-disk components are present with roughly equal probability and total flux fraction for any given ULX, regardless of luminosity, and (2) cool-disk components extend below the standard ULX luminosity cutoff of 1039 erg s-1, down to our sample limit of 1038.3 erg s-1. The fact that cool-disk components are not correlated with luminosity damages the argument that cool disks indicate IMBHs in ULXs, for which strong statistical support was never found.

  7. Charged black holes in string-inspired gravity II. Mass inflation and dependence on parameters and potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jakob [KISTI,Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Dong-han [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University,Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-07

    We investigate the relation between the existence of mass inflation and model parameters of string-inspired gravity models. In order to cover various models, we investigate a Brans-Dicke theory that is coupled to a U(1) gauge field. By tuning a model parameter that decides the coupling between the Brans-Dicke field and the electromagnetic field, we can make both of models such that the Brans-Dicke field is biased toward strong or weak coupling directions after gravitational collapses. We observe that as long as the Brans-Dicke field is biased toward any (strong or weak) directions, there is no Cauchy horizon and no mass inflation. Therefore, we conclude that to induce a Cauchy horizon and mass inflation inside a charged black hole, either there is no bias of the Brans-Dicke field as well as no Brans-Dicke hair outside the horizon or such a biased Brans-Dicke field should be well trapped and controlled by a potential.

  8. Determination of absolute neutrino masses from Z-bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.

    2001-05-01

    Ultrahigh energy neutrinos (UHEν) scatter on cosmological relic neutrinos (Rν) producing Z bosons, which can decay hadronically producing protons (Z-burst). We compare the predicted proton spectrum with the observed ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHECR) spectrum and determine the mass of the heaviest Rν via a maximum likelihood analysis. Our mass prediction depends on the origin of the power-like part of the UHECR spectrum: m ν = 2.34 -0.84 +1.29 eV for Galactic halo and 0.26 -0.14 +0.20 eV for extragalactic (EG) origin. The second mass, with a lower bound of 0.06 eV on the 95% confidence level (CL), is compatible with a hierarchical ν mass scenario with the largest mass suggested by the atmospheric ν oscillation. The necessary UHEν flux is compatible with present upper limits and should be detected in the near future. (orig.)

  9. Workshop on Top mass: challenges in definition and determination

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The top-quark mass definition and determination is a major subject of debate in both theoretical and experimental communities. Different strategies to relate the measured and theoretical quantities have been envisaged. The aim of this 3-day meeting is to convene experts on this topic to stimulate an informal discussion on different aspects of the issue. We plan to have only three or four talks each day, and plenty of time to discuss the connection between the experimentally reconstructed top mass relying on Monte Carlo generators and different theoretical mass definitions, including the most advanced strategies. Implications of the top-mass determination for physics beyond the standard model will be also covered. The general approach and format will be pedagogical, the audience ranging from top-quark physics experts to graduate students, and should favour extended discussion among participants.

  10. High-accuracy mass determination of unstable nuclei with a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The mass of a nucleus is its most fundamental property. A systematic study of nuclear masses as a function of neutron and proton number allows the observation of collective and single-particle effects in nuclear structure. Accurate mass data are the most basic test of nuclear models and are essential for their improvement. This is especially important for the astrophysical study of nuclear synthesis. In order to achieve the required high accuracy, the mass of ions captured in a Penning trap is determined via their cyclotron frequency $ \

  11. Mass, angular momentum and thermodynamics in four-dimensional Kerr-AdS black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea, Rodrigo [Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, the connection between the Lorentz-covariant counterterms that regularize the four-dimensional AdS gravity action and topological invariants is explored. It is shown that demanding the spacetime to have a negative constant curvature in the asymptotic region permits the explicit construction of such series of boundary terms. The orthonormal frame is adapted to appropriately describe the boundary geometry and, as a result, the boundary term can be expressed as a functional of the boundary metric, extrinsic curvature and intrinsic curvature. This choice also allows to write down the background-independent Noether charges associated to asymptotic symmetries in standard tensorial formalism. The absence of the Gibbons-Hawking term is a consequence of an action principle based on a boundary condition different than Dirichlet on the metric. This argument makes plausible the idea of regarding this approach as an alternative regularization scheme for AdS gravity in all even dimensions, different than the standard counterterms prescription. As an illustration of the finiteness of the charges and the euclidean action in this framework, the conserved quantities and black hole entropy for four-dimensional Kerr-AdS are computed.

  12. Determining the dark matter mass with DeepCore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Chitta R. [Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas, Instituto Superior Técnico (CFTP), Universidade Tćnica de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Mena, Olga [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.palomares.ruiz@ist.utl.pt [Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas, Instituto Superior Técnico (CFTP), Universidade Tćnica de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Pascoli, Silvia [IPPP, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    Cosmological and astrophysical observations provide increasing evidence of the existence of dark matter in our Universe. Dark matter particles with a mass above a few GeV can be captured by the Sun, accumulate in the core, annihilate, and produce high energy neutrinos either directly or by subsequent decays of Standard Model particles. We investigate the prospects for indirect dark matter detection in the IceCube/DeepCore neutrino telescope and its capabilities to determine the dark matter mass.

  13. Volumetric determination of tumor size abdominal masses. Problems -feasabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmberger, H.; Bautz, W.; Sendler, A.; Fink, U.; Gerhardt, P.

    1995-01-01

    The most important indication for clinically reliable volumetric determination of tumor size in the abdominal region is monitoring liver metastases during chemotherapy. Determination of volume can be effectively realized using 3D reconstruction. Therefore, the primary data set must be complete and contiguous. The mass should be depicted strongly enhanced and free of artifacts. At present, this prerequisite can only be complied with using thin-slice spiral CT. Phantom studies have proven that a semiautomatic reconstruction algorithm is recommendable. The basic difficulties involved in volumetric determination of tumor size are the problems in differentiating active malignant mass and changes in the surrounding tissue, as well as the lack of histomorphological correlation. Possible indications for volumetry of gastrointestinal masses in the assessment of neoadjuvant therapeutic concepts are under scientific evaluation. (orig./MG) [de

  14. VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES FOR 280,000 AGNs FROM THE SDSS BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY AND SINGLE-EPOCH SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozłowski, Szymon, E-mail: simkoz@astrouw.edu.pl [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie, 4 00-478 Warszawa (Poland)

    2017-01-01

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Quasar Data Release 12 (DR12Q), containing nearly 300,000 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), to calculate the monochromatic luminosities at 5100, 3000, and 1350 Å, derived from the broadband extinction-corrected SDSS magnitudes. After matching these sources to their counterparts from the SDSS Quasar Data Release 7 (DR7Q), we find very high correlations between our luminosities and DR7Q spectra-based luminosities with minute mean offsets (∼0.01 dex) and dispersions of differences of 0.11, 0.10, and 0.12 dex, respectively, across a luminosity range of 2.5 dex. We then estimate the black hole (BH) masses of the AGNs using the broad line region radius–disk luminosity relations and the FWHM of the Mg ii and C iv emission lines, to provide a catalog of 283,033 virial BH mass estimates (132,451 for Mg ii, 213,071 for C iv, and 62,489 for both) along with the estimates of the bolometric luminosity and Eddington ratio for 0.1 <  z  < 5.5 and for roughly a quarter of the sky covered by SDSS. The BH mass estimates from Mg ii turned out to be closely matched to the ones from DR7Q with a dispersion of differences of 0.34 dex across a BH mass range of ∼2 dex. We uncovered a bias in the derived C iv FWHMs from DR12Q as compared to DR7Q, which we correct empirically. The C iv BH mass estimates should be used with caution because the C iv line is known to cause problems in the estimation of BH mass from single-epoch spectra. Finally, after the FWHM correction, the AGN BH mass estimates from C iv closely match the DR7Q ones (with a dispersion of 0.28 dex), and more importantly the Mg ii and C iv BH masses agree internally with a mean offset of 0.07 dex and a dispersion of 0.39 dex.

  15. Determination of iodine to compliment mass spectrometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, F.A.

    1994-11-01

    The dose of iodine-129 to facility personnel and the general public as a result of past, present, and future activities at DOE sites is of continuing interest, WINCO received about 160 samples annually in a variety of natural matrices, including snow, milk, thyroid tissue, and sagebrush, in which iodine-129 is determined in order to evaluate this dose, Currently, total iodine and the isotopic ratio of iodine-127 to iodine-129 are determined by mass spectrometry. These two measurements determine the concentration of iodine-129 in each sample, These measurements require at least 16 h of mass spectrometer operator time for each sample. A variety of methods are available which concentrate and determine small quantities of iodine. Although useful, these approaches would increase both time and cost. The objective of this effort was to determine total iodine by an alternative method in order to decrease the load on mass spectrometry by 25 to 50%. The preparation of each sample for mass spectrometric analysis involves a common step--collection of iodide on an ion exchange bed. This was the focal point of the effort since the results would be applicable to all samples

  16. A new method of determining the ejected mass of novae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, W.M.

    1994-12-31

    A new method of determining the ejected mass of novae based on simple, reasonable assumptions is presented. This method assumes that the remnant mass on the white dwarf is the same as that from the previous nova outburst. The hydrogen, helium, and metal abundances of the accreted material from the secondary must also be known or assumed. The white dwarf`s mass has a small effect because the amount of hydrogen consumed during the thermonuclear runaway only depends weakly upon this mass. If the composition of the ejecta and the time of the remnant shell burnout are determined from observations, then the ejected and remnant masses can be deduced. At present only a sharp decrease in the X-rays observed by ROSAT has been attributed to this remnant burnout and only for two novae: GQ Mus and V1974 Cyg. The ejected and remnant masses for these two novae are calculated. If other indicators of nova remnant burnout, such as a rapid decrease in high-ionization lines, can be identified, then this method could be applied to additional novae.

  17. BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES BASED ON C IV ARE CONSISTENT WITH THOSE BASED ON THE BALMER LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assef, R. J.; Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, B. M.; Kozlowski, S.; Dietrich, M.; Grier, C. J.; Khan, R. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ageorges, N.; Buschkamp, P.; Gemperlein, H.; Hofmann, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Barrows, R. S. [Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Falco, E.; Kilic, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Feiz, C.; Germeroth, A. [Landessternwarte, ZAH, Koenigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Juette, M.; Knierim, V. [Astron. Institut der Ruhr Univ. Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Laun, W., E-mail: rjassef@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2011-12-01

    Using a sample of high-redshift lensed quasars from the CASTLES project with observed-frame ultraviolet or optical and near-infrared spectra, we have searched for possible biases between supermassive black hole (BH) mass estimates based on the C IV, H{alpha}, and H{beta} broad emission lines. Our sample is based upon that of Greene, Peng, and Ludwig, expanded with new near-IR spectroscopic observations, consistently analyzed high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) optical spectra, and consistent continuum luminosity estimates at 5100 A. We find that BH mass estimates based on the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of C IV show a systematic offset with respect to those obtained from the line dispersion, {sigma}{sub l}, of the same emission line, but not with those obtained from the FWHM of H{alpha} and H{beta}. The magnitude of the offset depends on the treatment of the He II and Fe II emission blended with C IV, but there is little scatter for any fixed measurement prescription. While we otherwise find no systematic offsets between C IV and Balmer line mass estimates, we do find that the residuals between them are strongly correlated with the ratio of the UV and optical continuum luminosities. This means that much of the dispersion in previous comparisons of C IV and H{beta} BH mass estimates are due to the continuum luminosities rather than to any properties of the lines. Removing this dependency reduces the scatter between the UV- and optical-based BH mass estimates by a factor of approximately two, from roughly 0.35 to 0.18 dex. The dispersion is smallest when comparing the C IV {sigma}{sub l} mass estimate, after removing the offset from the FWHM estimates, and either Balmer line mass estimate. The correlation with the continuum slope is likely due to a combination of reddening, host contamination, and object-dependent SED shapes. When we add additional heterogeneous measurements from the literature, the results are unchanged. Moreover, in a trial observation of a

  18. A NEW CLASS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS FROM STELLAR DISRUPTIONS BY INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, H.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that the long gamma-ray burst (GRB) of GRB 060614 without an associated supernova (SN) has challenged the current classification and fuel model for long GRBs, and thus a tidal disruption model has been proposed to account for such an event. Since it is difficult to detect SNe for long GRBs at high redshift, the absence of an SN association cannot be regarded as the solid criterion for a new classification of long GRBs similar to GRB 060614, called GRB 060614-type bursts. Fortunately, we now know that there is an obvious periodic substructure observed in the prompt light curve of GRB 060614. We thus use such periodic substructure as a potential criterion to categorize some long GRBs into a new class of bursts, which might have been fueled by an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) gulping a star, rather than a massive star collapsing to form a black hole. Therefore, the second criterion to recognize for this new class of bursts is whether they fit the tidal disruption model. From a total of 328 Swift GRBs with accurately measured durations and without SN association, we find 25 GRBs satisfying the criteria for GRB 060614-type bursts: seven of them are with known redshifts and 18 with unknown redshifts. These new bursts are ∼6% of the total Swift GRBs, which are clustered into two subclasses: Type I and Type II with considerably different viscous parameters of accretion disks formed by tidally disrupting their different progenitor stars. We suggest that the two different kinds of progenitors are solar-type stars and white dwarfs: the progenitors for four Type I bursts with viscous parameter of around 0.1 are solar-type stars, and the progenitors for 21 Type II bursts with viscous parameter of around 0.3 are white dwarfs. The potential applications of this new class of GRBs as cosmic standard candles are discussed briefly.

  19. Between-hole acoustic surveying and monitoring of a granitic rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsson, B.N.P.; King, M.S.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to present preliminary results of an acoustic monitoring study performed as part of a comprehensive rock mechanic and geophysics research program (Ref.20) associated with large-scale heater tests in an abandoned iron-ore mine in central Sweden. The investigation was performed in a fractured granitic rock mass at a sub-surface depth of 340 m, in a drift adjacent to the original iron-ore mine workings. Acoustic monitoring took place between four empty, dry, vertical boreholes of 10 m depth spaced in the vicinity of a vertical heater borehole in the floor of a drift

  20. The charged black-hole bomb: A lower bound on the charge-to-mass ratio of the explosive scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Shahar

    2016-04-01

    The well-known superradiant amplification mechanism allows a charged scalar field of proper mass μ and electric charge q to extract the Coulomb energy of a charged Reissner-Nordström black hole. The rate of energy extraction can grow exponentially in time if the system is placed inside a reflecting cavity which prevents the charged scalar field from escaping to infinity. This composed black-hole-charged-scalar-field-mirror system is known as the charged black-hole bomb. Previous numerical studies of this composed physical system have shown that, in the linearized regime, the inequality q / μ > 1 provides a necessary condition for the development of the superradiant instability. In the present paper we use analytical techniques to study the instability properties of the charged black-hole bomb in the regime of linearized scalar fields. In particular, we prove that the lower bound q/μ>√{rm /r- - 1/ rm /r+ - 1 } provides a necessary condition for the development of the superradiant instability in this composed physical system (here r± are the horizon radii of the charged Reissner-Nordström black hole and rm is the radius of the confining mirror). This analytically derived lower bound on the superradiant instability regime of the composed black-hole-charged-scalar-field-mirror system is shown to agree with direct numerical computations of the instability spectrum.

  1. Mass and Position Determination in MEMS Resonant Mass Sensors: Theoretical and Experimental Investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.; Nayfeh, Ali H.; Jaber, Nizar; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to determine accurately the position and mass of an entity attached to the surface of an electrostatically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam implemented as a mass sensor. In the theoretical investigation, the microbeam is modeled as a nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam and a perturbation technique is used to develop a closed-form expression for the frequency shift due to an added mass at a specific location on the microbeam surface. The experimental investigation was conducted on a microbeam made of Polyimide with a special lower electrode to excite both of the first and second modes of vibration. Using an ink-jet printer, we deposited droplets of polymers with a defined mass and position on the surface of the microbeam and we measured the shifts in its resonance frequencies. The theoretical predictions of the mass and position of the deposited droplets match well with the experimental measurements.

  2. Mass and Position Determination in MEMS Resonant Mass Sensors: Theoretical and Experimental Investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-12-05

    We present a method to determine accurately the position and mass of an entity attached to the surface of an electrostatically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam implemented as a mass sensor. In the theoretical investigation, the microbeam is modeled as a nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam and a perturbation technique is used to develop a closed-form expression for the frequency shift due to an added mass at a specific location on the microbeam surface. The experimental investigation was conducted on a microbeam made of Polyimide with a special lower electrode to excite both of the first and second modes of vibration. Using an ink-jet printer, we deposited droplets of polymers with a defined mass and position on the surface of the microbeam and we measured the shifts in its resonance frequencies. The theoretical predictions of the mass and position of the deposited droplets match well with the experimental measurements.

  3. Mass and position determination in MEMS mass sensors: a theoretical and an experimental investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-08-31

    We present a method to determine accurately the position and mass of an entity attached to the surface of an electrostatically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam implemented as a mass sensor. In the theoretical investigation, the microbeam is modeled as a nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam and a perturbation technique is used to develop a closed-form expression for the frequency shift due to an added mass at a specific location on the microbeam surface. The experimental investigation was conducted on a microbeam made of Polyimide with a special lower electrode to excite both of the first and second modes of vibration. Using an ink-jet printer, we deposited droplets of polymers with a defined mass and position on the surface of the microbeam and we measured the shifts in its resonance frequencies. The theoretical predictions of the mass and position of the deposited droplets match well with the experimental measurements.

  4. Lean body mass as a determinant of thyroid size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesche, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Smits, N. J.

    1998-01-01

    Males have a larger thyroid gland than females, and this has been related to the difference in body weight. In view of the different body composition of men and women, we hypothesized that lean body mass is a better determinant of thyroid volume than body weight. A cross-sectional study in an area

  5. Estimatining biases in the stellar dynamical black hole mass measurements in barred galaxies and prospects for measuring SMBH masses with JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluri, Monica; Vasiliev, Eugene; Bentz, Misty; Shen, Juntai

    2018-04-01

    Although 60% of disk galaxies are barred, stellar dynamical measurements of the masses of supermassive black holes (SMBH) in barred galaxies have always been obtained under the assumption that the bulges are axisymmetric. We use N-body simulations with self-consistently grown SMBHs in barred and unbarred galaxies to create a suite of mock Integral Field Spectrographic (IFS) datasets for galaxies with various observed orientations. We then apply an axisymmetric orbit superposition code to these mock IFS datasets to assess the reliability with which SMBH masses can be recovered. We also assess which disk and bar orientations give rise to biases. We use these simulations to assess whether or not existing SMBH measurements in barred galaxies are likely to be biased. We also present a brief preview of our JWST Early Release Science proposal to study the nuclear dynamics of nearby Seyfert I galaxy NGC 4151 with the NIRSpec Integral Field Spectrograph and describe how simulations of disk galaxies will used to create mock NIRSpec data to prepare for the real data.

  6. A Dancing Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge

    2002-04-01

    Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.

  7. Determination of balloon gas mass and revised estimates of drag and virtual mass coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, E.; Martone, M.

    1993-01-01

    In support of the NASA Balloon Program, small-scale balloons were flown with varying lifting gas and total system mass. Instrument packages were developed to measure and record acceleration and temperature data during these tests. Top fitting and instrument payload accelerations were measured from launch to steady state ascent and through ballast drop transients. The development of the small lightweight self-powered Stowaway Special instrument packages is discussed along with mathematical models developed to determine gas mass, drag and virtual mass coefficients.

  8. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  9. Linking black hole growth with host galaxies: the accretion-stellar mass relation and its cosmic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Brandt, W. N.; Vito, F.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Trump, J. R.; Luo, B.; Sun, M. Y.; Xue, Y. Q.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Schneider, D. P.; Vignali, C.; Wang, J.-X.

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) may be fundamentally related to host-galaxy stellar mass (M⋆). To investigate this SMBH growth-M⋆ relation in detail, we calculate long-term SMBH accretion rate as a function of M⋆ and redshift [\\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z)] over ranges of log (M⋆/M⊙) = 9.5-12 and z = 0.4-4. Our \\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z) is constrained by high-quality survey data (GOODS-South, GOODS-North and COSMOS), and by the stellar mass function and the X-ray luminosity function. At a given M⋆, \\overlineBHAR is higher at high redshift. This redshift dependence is stronger in more massive systems [for log (M⋆/M⊙) ≈ 11.5, \\overlineBHAR is three decades higher at z = 4 than at z = 0.5], possibly due to AGN feedback. Our results indicate that the ratio between \\overlineBHAR and average star formation rate (\\overlineSFR) rises towards high M⋆ at a given redshift. This \\overlineBHAR/\\overlineSFR dependence on M⋆ does not support the scenario that SMBH and galaxy growth are in lockstep. We calculate SMBH mass history [MBH(z)] based on our \\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z) and the M⋆(z) from the literature, and find that the MBH-M⋆ relation has weak redshift evolution since z ≈ 2. The MBH/M⋆ ratio is higher towards massive galaxies: it rises from ≈1/5000 at log M⋆ ≲ 10.5 to ≈1/500 at log M⋆ ≳ 11.2. Our predicted MBH/M⋆ ratio at high M⋆ is similar to that observed in local giant ellipticals, suggesting that SMBH growth from mergers is unlikely to dominate over growth from accretion.

  10. Precision and accuracy of β gauge for aerosol mass determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, W.J.; Shaw, R.W.; Dzabay, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results of an experimental determination of the precision and the accuracy of a β-ray attenuation method for measurement of aerosol mass are presented. The instrumental precision for a short-term experiment was 25 μg for a 6.5-cm 2 deposit collected on approximately 1 mg/cm 2 Teflon filters; for a longer-term experiment the precision was 27 μg. The precision of the gravimetric determinations of aerosol deposits was 22 μg for Teflon filters weighed to 1 μg. Filter reorientation and air density changes that were able adversely to affect the β-ray attenuation results are discussed. β-ray attenuation results are in good agreement with gravimetric measurements on the same filter-collected aerosols. Using dichotomous samplers in Durham, NC, we collected 136 aerosol samples on Teflon filters in two size ranges. A regression line was calculated implicitly assuming errors in both measurements of mass. The 90% confidence intervals lay within 21 μg of the regression line for mean fine fraction aerosol mass loadings of 536 μg and within 19 μg of the regression line for mean coarse fraction aerosol mass loadings of 349 μg. Any bias between gravimetric and β-gauge mass measurements was found to be less than 5%

  11. High-Precision Direct Mass Determination of Unstable Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The extension of systematic high-precision measurements of the nuclear mass to nuclei far from the valley of $\\beta$ stability is of great interest in nuclear physics and astrophysics. The mass, or binding energy, is a fundamental gross property and a key input parameter for nuclear matter calculations. It is also a sensitive probe for collective and single-particle effects in nuclear structure. \\\\ \\\\ For such purposes, nuclear masses need to be known to an accuracy of about 10$^{-7}$ (i.e. $\\Delta$M~$\\leq$~10~keV for A~=~100). To resolve a particular mass from its nuclear isomers and isobars, resolving power of 10$^6$ are often required. To achieve this, the ions delivered by the on-line mass separator ISOLDE are confined in a Penning quadrupole trap. This trap is placed in the very homogeneous and stable magnetic field of a superconducting magnet. Here, the cyclotron frequency and hence the mass are determined. \\\\ \\\\ The first measurements using this new technique have been completed for a long chain of Cs ...

  12. SPIN DETERMINATION OF VALENCE AND INNER HOLE STATES VIA THE PB-208((D)OVER-RIGHT-ARROW,T)PB-207 REACTION AT ED=200 MEV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LANGEVINJOLIOT, H; VANDEWIELE, J; GUILLOT, J; GERLIC, E; ROSIER, LH; WILLIS, A; MORLET, M; DUHAMELCHRETIEN, G; TOMASIGUSTAFSSON, E; BLASI, N; MICHELETTI, S; VANDERWERF, SY

    Highly excited neutron hole states in Pb-207 have been studied via the (d, over arrow pointing right, t) reaction at E(d) = 200 MeV using for the first time a polarized beam, with both vector and tensor components. The determination of overlapping neutron hole response functions takes advantage of

  13. Saponification reaction system: a detailed mass transfer coefficient determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, Darja; Goršek, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The saponification of an aromatic ester with an aqueous sodium hydroxide was studied within a heterogeneous reaction medium in order to determine the overall kinetics of the selected system. The extended thermo-kinetic model was developed compared to the previously used simple one. The reaction rate within a heterogeneous liquid-liquid system incorporates a chemical kinetics term as well as mass transfer between both phases. Chemical rate constant was obtained from experiments within a homogeneous medium, whilst the mass-transfer coefficient was determined separately. The measured thermal profiles were then the bases for determining the overall reaction-rate. This study presents the development of an extended kinetic model for considering mass transfer regarding the saponification of ethyl benzoate with sodium hydroxide within a heterogeneous reaction medium. The time-dependences are presented for the mass transfer coefficient and the interfacial areas at different heterogeneous stages and temperatures. The results indicated an important role of reliable kinetic model, as significant difference in k(L)a product was obtained with extended and simple approach.

  14. Orbital circularisation of white dwarfs and the formation of gravitational radiation sources in star clusters containing an intermediate mass black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, P. B.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    2007-01-01

    (abbreviated) We consider how tight binaries consisting of a super-massive black hole of mass $M=10^{3}-10^{4}M_{\\odot}$ and a white dwarf can be formed in a globular cluster. We point out that a major fraction of white dwarfs tidally captured by the black hole may be destroyed by tidal inflation during ongoing circularisation, and the formation of tight binaries is inhibited. However, some stars may survive being spun up to high rotation rates. Then the energy loss through gravitational wave...

  15. LIGO Finds Lightest Black-Hole Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    of the components have all been estimated at 20 solar masses or more. This has made it difficult to compare these black holes to those detected by electromagnetic means which are mostly under 10 solar masses in size.GW170608 is the lowest-mass of the LIGO/Virgo black-hole mergers shown in blue. The primary mass is comparable to the masses of black holes we have measured by electromagnetic means (purple detections). [LIGO-Virgo/Frank Elavsky/Northwestern]One type of electromagnetically detected black hole are those in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). LMXBs consist of a black hole and a non-compact companion: a low-mass donor star that overflows its Roche lobe, feeding material onto the black hole. It is thought that these black holes form without significant spin, and are later spun up as a result of the mass accretion. Before LIGO, however, we didnt have any non-accreting black holes of this size to observe for comparison.Now, detections like GW170608 and the Boxing Day event (which was also on the low end of the mass scale) are allowing us to start exploring spin distributions of non-accreting black holes to determine if were right in our understanding of black-hole spins. We dont yet have a large enough comparison sample to make a definitive statement, but GW170608 is indicative of a wealth of more discoveries we can hope to find in LIGOs next observing run, after a series of further design upgrades scheduled to conclude in 2018. The future of gravitational wave astronomy continues to look promising!CitationLIGO collaboration, submitted to ApJL. https://arxiv.org/abs/1711.05578

  16. Determining mass-to-light ratios in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    If the endstate of cooling hot gas in elliptical galaxies is a population of optically dark, low-mass stars near the galactic cores, the mass-to-light ratio could be expected to vary significantly with projected radius. No strong variation in M/L is observed. To investigate the sensitivity and reliability of observational mass-to-light determinations for a variety of galactic parameters, model galaxies having de Vaucouleurs profiles (but with central cores and outer cutoffs), variable velocity ellipsoid structure, and extended dark halos are constructed. Spurious radial variations in M/L can occur when none are present if the properties of the galactic models are processed similar to observational data. Conversely, when a population of diffuse dark stellar matter is added near the galactic cores, large gradients in M/L can escape detection. However, the magnitude of the central velocity dispersion and its variation with projected radius within the effective radius both suggest that a component of dark stars is unlikely to be more massive than about 30 times the core mass of luminous stars. This restriction is important in establishing the initial mass function of stars in elliptical galaxies and the history of winds and cooling inflows in the interstellar medium. 35 references

  17. High-resolution Hydrodynamic Simulation of Tidal Detonation of a Helium White Dwarf by an Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Ataru

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate tidal detonation during a tidal disruption event (TDE) of a helium (He) white dwarf (WD) with 0.45 M ⊙ by an intermediate mass black hole using extremely high-resolution simulations. Tanikawa et al. have shown tidal detonation in results of previous studies from unphysical heating due to low-resolution simulations, and such unphysical heating occurs in three-dimensional (3D) smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations even with 10 million SPH particles. In order to avoid such unphysical heating, we perform 3D SPH simulations up to 300 million SPH particles, and 1D mesh simulations using flow structure in the 3D SPH simulations for 1D initial conditions. The 1D mesh simulations have higher resolutions than the 3D SPH simulations. We show that tidal detonation occurs and confirm that this result is perfectly converged with different space resolution in both 3D SPH and 1D mesh simulations. We find that detonation waves independently arise in leading parts of the WD, and yield large amounts of 56Ni. Although detonation waves are not generated in trailing parts of the WD, the trailing parts would receive detonation waves generated in the leading parts and would leave large amounts of Si group elements. Eventually, this He WD TDE would synthesize 56Ni of 0.30 M ⊙ and Si group elements of 0.08 M ⊙, and could be observed as a luminous thermonuclear transient comparable to SNe Ia.

  18. Revealing the Formation of Stellar-mass Black Hole Binaries: The Need for Deci-Hertz Gravitational-wave Observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xian [Astronomy Department, School of Physics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Amaro-Seoane, Pau, E-mail: xian.chen@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: pau@ice.cat [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC) at Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans s/n, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-06-10

    The formation of compact stellar-mass binaries is a difficult, but interesting problem in astrophysics. There are two main formation channels: in the field via binary star evolution, or in dense stellar systems via dynamical interactions. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) has detected black hole binaries (BHBs) via their gravitational radiation. These detections provide us with information about the physical parameters of the system. It has been claimed that when the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is operating, the joint observation of these binaries with LIGO will allow us to derive the channels that lead to their formation. However, we show that for BHBs in dense stellar systems dynamical interactions could lead to high eccentricities such that a fraction of the relativistic mergers are not audible to LISA. A non-detection by LISA puts a lower limit of about 0.005 on the eccentricity of a BHB entering the LIGO band. On the other hand, a deci-Hertz observatory, like DECIGO or Tian Qin, would significantly enhance the chances of a joint detection and shed light on the formation channels of these binaries.

  19. A REVISED BROAD-LINE REGION RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS FOR THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 NGC 4051

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, K. D.; Watson, L. C.; Peterson, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    We present the first results from a high sampling rate, multimonth reverberation mapping campaign undertaken primarily at MDM Observatory with supporting observations from telescopes around the world. The primary goal of this campaign was to obtain either new or improved Hβ reverberation lag measurements for several relatively low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We feature results for NGC 4051 here because, until now, this object has been a significant outlier from AGN scaling relationships, e.g., it was previously a ∼2-3σ outlier on the relationship between the broad-line region (BLR) radius and the optical continuum luminosity-the R BLR -L relationship. Our new measurements of the lag time between variations in the continuum and Hβ emission line made from spectroscopic monitoring of NGC 4051 lead to a measured BLR radius of R BLR = 1.87 +0.54 -0.50 light days and black hole mass of M BH = (1.73 +0.55 -0.52 ) x 10 6 M sun . This radius is consistent with that expected from the R BLR -L relationship, based on the present luminosity of NGC 4051 and the most current calibration of the relation by Bentz et al.. We also present a preliminary look at velocity-resolved Hβ light curves and time delay measurements, although we are unable to reconstruct an unambiguous velocity-resolved reverberation signal.

  20. The secular tidal disruption of stars by low-mass Super Massive Black Holes secondaries in galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragione, Giacomo; Leigh, Nathan

    2018-06-01

    Stars passing too close to a super massive black hole (SMBH) can produce tidal disruption events (TDEs). Since the resulting stellar debris can produce an electromagnetic flare, TDEs are believed to probe the presence of single SMBHs in galactic nuclei, which otherwise remain dark. In this paper, we show how stars orbiting an IMBH secondary are perturbed by an SMBH primary. We find that the evolution of the stellar orbits are severely affected by the primary SMBH due to secular effects and stars orbiting with high inclinations with respect to the SMBH-IMBH orbital plane end their lives as TDEs due to Kozai-Lidov oscillations, hence illuminating the secondary SMBH/IMBH. Above a critical SMBH mass of ≈1.15 × 108 M⊙, no TDE can occur for typical stars in an old stellar population since the Schwarzschild radius exceeds the tidal disruption radius. Consequently, any TDEs due to such massive SMBHs will remain dark. It follows that no TDEs should be observed in galaxies more massive than ≈4.15 × 1010 M⊙, unless a lower-mass secondary SMBH or IMBH is also present. The secular mechanism for producing TDEs considered here therefore offers a useful probe of SMBH-SMBH/IMBH binarity in the most massive galaxies. We further show that the TDE rate can be ≈10-4 - 10-3 yr-1, and that most TDEs occur on ≈0.5 Myr. Finally, we show that stars may be ejected with velocities up to thousands of km s-1, which could contribute to the observed population of Galactic hypervelocity stars.

  1. Myofiber metabolic type determination by mass spectrometry imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Théron, Laetitia; Vénien, Annie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Astruc, Thierry; Chambon, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    In muscle imaging, myofiber type determination is of great importance to better understand biological mechanisms related to skeletal muscle changes associated with pathologies. However, reference methods (histo-enzymology and immunohistochemistry) require serial-cross sections, and several days from the sampling to the results of image analysis. In this work, a strategy based on MALDI-Mass Spectrometry Imaging was developed as an alternative to the classical methods for myofiber metabolic typ...

  2. Nuclear equipment to determine soil and water mass attenuation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchi, O.L.A.D.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of substituting the monochannel gamma spectrometer, traditionally used in the gamma ray attenuation technique, for a less sophisticated and less expensive system of integral counting is studied. The proposed system can be operated by a non-specialized person. Three detection systems were used in the determination of the mass attenuation coefficients for different types of soil and for water. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Determining the minimum mass and cost of a magnetic refrigerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2011-01-01

    An expression is determined for the mass of the magnet and magnetocaloric material needed for a magnetic refrigerator and these are determined using numerical modeling for both parallel plate and packed sphere bed regenerators as function of temperature span and cooling power. As magnetocaloric......, respectively, the cheapest 100 W parallel plate refrigerator with a temperature span of 20 K using Gd and a Halbach magnet has 0.8 kg of magnet, 0.3 kg of Gd and a cost of $35. Using the constant material reduces this cost to $25. A packed sphere bed refrigerator with the constant material costs $7. It is also...

  4. Isotope determination of sulfur by mass spectrometry in soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexssandra Luiza Rodrigues Molina Rossete

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur plays an essential role in plants and is one of the main nutrients in several metabolic processes. It has four stable isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S, and 36S with a natural abundance of 95.00, 0.76, 4.22, and 0.014 in atom %, respectively. A method for isotopic determination of S by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS in soil samples is proposed. The procedure involves the oxidation of organic S to sulphate (S-SO4(2-, which was determined by dry combustion with alkaline oxidizing agents. The total S-SO4(2- concentration was determined by turbidimetry and the results showed that the conversion process was adequate. To produce gaseous SO2 gas, BaSO4 was thermally decomposed in a vacuum system at 900 ºC in the presence of NaPO3. The isotope determination of S (atom % 34S atoms was carried out by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS. In this work, the labeled material (K2(34SO4 was used to validate the method of isotopic determination of S; the results were precise and accurate, showing the viability of the proposed method.

  5. Neutrino mass hierarchy determination for θ13 = 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Raj; Ghoshal, Pomita; Goswami, Srubabati; Sankar, S. Uma

    2010-01-01

    We examine the possibility of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy in the limit θ 13 = 0 using atmospheric neutrinos as the source. In this limit, θ 13 driven matter effects are absent so independent measurements of Δ 31 and Δ 32 can, in principle, lead to hierarchy determination. Since their difference is Δ 21 , one needs an experimental arrangement where Δ 21 L/E > or approx. 1 can be achieved. This can be satisfied by atmospheric neutrinos which have a large range of L and E. Still, we find that hierarchy determination in the θ 13 = 0 limit with atmospheric neutrinos is not a realistic possibility, even in conjunction with a beam experiment like T2K or NOνA. We discuss why, and also reiterate the general conditions for hierarchy determination if θ 13 = 0.

  6. Are Nuclear Star Clusters the Precursors of Massive Black Holes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Neumayer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new upper limits for black hole masses in extremely late type spiral galaxies. We confirm that this class of galaxies has black holes with masses less than 106M⊙, if any. We also derive new upper limits for nuclear star cluster masses in massive galaxies with previously determined black hole masses. We use the newly derived upper limits and a literature compilation to study the low mass end of the global-to-nucleus relations. We find the following. (1 The MBH-σ relation cannot flatten at low masses, but may steepen. (2 The MBH-Mbulge relation may well flatten in contrast. (3 The MBH-Sersic n relation is able to account for the large scatter in black hole masses in low-mass disk galaxies. Outliers in the MBH-Sersic n relation seem to be dwarf elliptical galaxies. When plotting MBH versus MNC we find three different regimes: (a nuclear cluster dominated nuclei, (b a transition region, and (c black hole-dominated nuclei. This is consistent with the picture, in which black holes form inside nuclear clusters with a very low-mass fraction. They subsequently grow much faster than the nuclear cluster, destroying it when the ratio MBH/MNC grows above 100. Nuclear star clusters may thus be the precursors of massive black holes in galaxy nuclei.

  7. Thermo-mechanical analysis for determining the optimum design of a deposition hole using FLAC3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Ki; Park, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Jong Won; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the vertical location of canister in a deposition hole was determined from the thermo-mechanical coupling analysis using the three-dimensional finite difference code, FLAC3D. A FISH program was made and used for the modeling for different conditions. The following conclusions could be drawn from the study. (1) The canister moves downward initially, but moves upward with time due to the thermal expansion of buffer. (2) The tunnel floor above the deposition hole remains elastic until 100 years after the emplacement of the canister if the top buffer thickness is more than 1.5 m. (3) It was found that the peak temperature decreases with the increase of the buffer and backfill thickness, when backfilling is done immediately after the emplacement. (4) Without swelling pressure, the maximum tensile stress is up to 18 MPa at 100 days after the emplacement. Since the swelling pressure from the buffer confines the thermal expansion of the canister, the mechanical stability of canister is improved with the swelling pressure. (5) When the air temperature in the tunnels is maintained at 27 .deg. C by ventilation, the peak temperature with delayed backfilling for 50 years is about 75 .deg. while it is over 90 .deg. with immediately backfilling. (6) The buffer and backfill thickness above the canister in a deposition hole should be at least 2 m based on literature review and the computer simulations

  8. Search for narrow resonances and quantum black holes in inclusive and b-tagged dijet mass spectra from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Selvaggi, Michele; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; 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Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Kuotb Awad, Alaa Metwaly; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brochet, Sébastien; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Gosselink, Martijn; Haller, Johannes; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sibille, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Saxena, Pooja; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; 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Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Pazzini, Jacopo; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Wolszczak, Weronika; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Shreyber, Irina; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Kilminster, Benjamin; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Asavapibhop, Burin; Simili, Emanuele; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Bahtiyar, Hüseyin; Barlas, Esra; Cankocak, Kerem; Günaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Yücel, Mete; Levchuk, Leonid; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Caulfield, Matthew; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Nelson, Randy; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Wan, Zongru; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Lusito, Letizia; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Koay, Sue Ann; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Walker, Matthew; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2013-01-02

    A search for narrow resonances and quantum black holes is performed in inclusive and b-tagged dijet mass spectra measured with the CMS detector at the LHC. The data set corresponds to 5 inverse femtobarns of integrated luminosity collected in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. No narrow resonances or quantum black holes are observed. Model-independent upper limits at the 95% confidence level are obtained on the product of the cross section, branching fraction into dijets, and acceptance for three scenarios: decay into quark-quark, quark-gluon, and gluon-gluon pairs. Specific lower limits are set on the mass of string resonances (4.31 TeV), excited quarks (3.32 TeV), axi-gluons and colorons (3.36 TeV), scalar color-octet resonances (2.07 TeV), E(6) diquarks (3.75 TeV), and on the masses of W' (1.92 TeV) and Z' (1.47 TeV) bosons. The limits on the minimum mass of quantum black holes range from 4 to 5.3 TeV. In addition, b-quark tagging is applied to the two leading jets and upper limits are set on the product...

  9. OPTICAL VARIABILITY OF THE ACCRETION DISK AROUND THE INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLE ESO 243-49 HLX-1 DURING THE 2012 OUTBURST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, N. A.; Godet, O.; Barret, D. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Wiersema, K. [University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Lasota, J.-P. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS, UPMC Université Paris 06, 98bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Farrell, S. A. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Maccarone, T. J. [Department of Physics, Box 41051, Texas Tech University, Lubbock TX 79409-1051 (United States); Servillat, M., E-mail: natalie.webb@irap.omp.eu [Laboratoire AIM (CEA/DSM/IRFU/SAp, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot), CEA Saclay, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-01-01

    We present dedicated quasi-simultaneous X-ray (Swift) and optical (Very Large Telescope, V-, and R-band) observations of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate HLX-1 before and during the 2012 outburst. We show that the V-band magnitudes vary with time, thus proving that a portion of the observed emission originates in the accretion disk. Using the first quiescent optical observations of HLX-1, we show that the stellar population surrounding HLX-1 is fainter than V ∼ 25.1 and R ∼ 24.2. We show that the optical emission may increase before the X-ray emission consistent with the scenario proposed by Lasota et al. in which the regular outbursts could be related to the passage at periastron of a star circling the intermediate-mass black hole in an eccentric orbit, which triggers mass transfer into a quasi-permanent accretion disk around the black hole. Further, if there is indeed a delay in the X-ray emission we estimate the mass-transfer delivery radius to be ∼10{sup 11} cm.

  10. Search for narrow resonances and quantum black holes in inclusive and b-tagged dijet mass spectra from pp collisions at $ \\sqrt{s}=7 $ TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Gonzalez, J. Suarez; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D’Hondt, J.; Suarez, R. Gonzalez; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Velde, C. Vander; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Rios, A. A. Ocampo; Ryckbosch, D.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Selvaggi, M.; Garcia, J. M. Vizan; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins, M.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; De Souza, S. Fonseca; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Figueiredo, D. Matos; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Da Silva, W. L. Prado; Santoro, A.; Jorge, L. 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C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Tikvica, L.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Kamel, A. Ellithi; Awad, A. M. Kuotb; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; de Cassagnac, R. Granier; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. -L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J. -M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J. -C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A. -C.; Van Hove, P.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Brochet, S.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pieta, H.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Bontenackels, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Ahmad, W. Haj; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Sauerland, P.; Stahl, A.; Martin, M. Aldaya; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Castro, E.; Costanza, F.; Dammann, D.; Pardos, C. Diez; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Knutsson, A.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Marienfeld, M.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, F.; Olzem, J.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Cipriano, P. M. Ribeiro; Riedl, C.; Ron, E.; Rosin, M.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sen, N.; Spiridonov, A.; Stein, M.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Gebbert, U.; Görner, M.; Gosselink, M.; Haller, J.; Hermanns, T.; Höing, R. S.; Kaschube, K.; Kaussen, G.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Lange, J.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schröder, M.; Schum, T.; Seidel, M.; Sibille, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Thomsen, J.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hackstein, C.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Heinrich, M.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Pardo, P. Lobelle; Martschei, D.; Mueller, S.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Oehler, A.; Ott, J.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Ratnikova, N.; Röcker, S.; Schilling, F. -P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Troendle, D.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Zeise, M.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Manolakos, I.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Ntomari, E.; Gouskos, L.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Evangelou, I.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Saxena, P.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Aziz, T.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Hashemi, M.; Hesari, H.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Najafabadi, M. Mohammadi; Mehdiabadi, S. Paktinat; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. 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M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellan, P.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Nespolo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; s, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Taroni, S.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; D’Agnolo, R. T.; Dell’Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Fanelli, C.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Ricca, G. Della; Gobbo, B.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Chang, S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kong, D. J.; Park, H.; Son, D. C.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Moon, D. H.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, M. 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P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Peterman, A.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Ceballos, G. Gomez; Goncharov, M.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Krajczar, K.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Wan, Z.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Lusito, L.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Smith, G.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Koay, S. A.; Pegna, D. Lopes; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zenz, S. C.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Vargas, J. E. Ramirez; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Marono, M. Vidal; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Walker, M.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Don, C. Kottachchi Kankanamge; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, D. A.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Mozer, M. U.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2013-01-01

    A search for narrow resonances and quantum black holes is performed in inclusive and b-tagged dijet mass spectra measured with the CMS detector at the LHC. The data set corresponds to 5 inverse femtobarns of integrated luminosity collected in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV. No narrow resonances or quantum black holes are observed. Model-independent upper limits at the 95% confidence level are obtained on the product of the cross section, branching fraction into dijets, and acceptance for three scenarios: decay into quark-quark, quark-gluon, and gluon-gluon pairs. Specific lower limits are set on the mass of string resonances (4.31 TeV), excited quarks (3.32 TeV), axigluons and colorons (3.36 TeV), scalar color-octet resonances (2.07 TeV), E(6) diquarks (3.75 TeV), and on the masses of W' (1.92 TeV) and Z' (1.47 TeV) bosons. The limits on the minimum mass of quantum black holes range from 4 to 5.3 TeV. In addition, b-quark tagging is applied to the two leading jets and upper limits are set on the production of narrow dijet resonances in a model-independent fashion as a function of the branching fraction to b-jet pairs.

  11. Sensitivity of gravitational wave searches to the full signal of intermediate-mass black hole binaries during the first observing run of Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Bustillo, Juan; Salemi, Francesco; Dal Canton, Tito; Jani, Karan P.

    2018-01-01

    The sensitivity of gravitational wave searches for binary black holes is estimated via the injection and posterior recovery of simulated gravitational wave signals in the detector data streams. When a search reports no detections, the estimated sensitivity is then used to place upper limits on the coalescence rate of the target source. In order to obtain correct sensitivity and rate estimates, the injected waveforms must be faithful representations of the real signals. Up to date, however, injected waveforms have neglected radiation modes of order higher than the quadrupole, potentially biasing sensitivity and coalescence rate estimates. In particular, higher-order modes are known to have a large impact in the gravitational waves emitted by intermediate-mass black holes binaries. In this work, we evaluate the impact of this approximation in the context of two search algorithms run by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration in their search for intermediate-mass black hole binaries in the O1 LIGO Science Run data: a matched filter-based pipeline and a coherent unmodeled one. To this end, we estimate the sensitivity of both searches to simulated signals for nonspinning binaries including and omitting higher-order modes. We find that omission of higher-order modes leads to biases in the sensitivity estimates which depend on the masses of the binary, the search algorithm, and the required level of significance for detection. In addition, we compare the sensitivity of the two search algorithms across the studied parameter space. We conclude that the most recent LIGO-Virgo upper limits on the rate of coalescence of intermediate-mass black hole binaries are conservative for the case of highly asymmetric binaries. However, the tightest upper limits, placed for nearly equal-mass sources, remain unchanged due to the small contribution of higher modes to the corresponding sources.

  12. Primary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.; Polnarev, A.

    1981-01-01

    Proves are searched for of the formation of the so-called primary black holes at the very origin of the universe. The black holes would weigh less than 10 13 kg. The formation of a primary black hole is conditional on strong fluctuations of the gravitational field corresponding roughly to a half of the fluctuation maximally permissible by the general relativity theory. Only big fluctuations of the gravitational field can overcome the forces of the hot gas pressure and compress the originally expanding matter into a black hole. Low-mass black holes have a temperature exceeding that of the black holes formed from stars. A quantum process of particle formation, the so-called evaporation takes place in the strong gravitational field of a black hole. The lower the mass of the black hole, the shorter the evaporation time. The analyses of processes taking place during the evaporation of low-mass primary black holes show that only a very small proportion of the total mass of the matter in the universe could turn into primary black holes. (M.D.)

  13. SPECTRAL INDEX AS A FUNCTION OF MASS ACCRETION RATE IN BLACK HOLE SOURCES: MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS AND AN ANALYTICAL DESCRIPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Philippe; Titarchuk, Lev

    2011-01-01

    We present herein a theoretical study of correlations between spectral indexes of X-ray emergent spectra and mass accretion rate ( m-dot ) in black hole (BH) sources, which provide a definitive signature for BHs. It has been firmly established, using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in numerous BH observations during hard-soft state spectral evolution, that the photon index of X-ray spectra increases when m-dot increases and, moreover, the index saturates at high values of m-dot . In this paper, we present theoretical arguments that the observationally established index saturation effect versus mass accretion rate is a signature of the bulk (converging) flow onto the BH. Also, we demonstrate that the index saturation value depends on the plasma temperature of converging flow. We self-consistently calculate the Compton cloud (CC) plasma temperature as a function of mass accretion rate using the energy balance between energy dissipation and Compton cooling. We explain the observable phenomenon, index- m-dot correlations using a Monte Carlo simulation of radiative processes in the innermost part (CC) of a BH source and we account for the Comptonization processes in the presence of thermal and bulk motions, as basic types of plasma motion. We show that, when m-dot increases, BH sources evolve to high and very soft states (HSS and VSS, respectively), in which the strong blackbody(BB)-like and steep power-law components are formed in the resulting X-ray spectrum. The simultaneous detections of these two components strongly depends on sensitivity of high-energy instruments, given that the relative contribution of the hard power-law tail in the resulting VSS spectrum can be very low, which is why, to date RXTE observations of the VSS X-ray spectrum have been characterized by the presence of the strong BB-like component only. We also predict specific patterns for high-energy e-fold (cutoff) energy (E fold ) evolution with m-dot for thermal and dynamical (bulk

  14. Cosmological production of noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, Robert B.; Nicolini, Piero

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the pair creation of noncommutative black holes in a background with a positive cosmological constant. As a first step we derive the noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution. By varying the mass and the cosmological constant parameters, we find several spacetimes compatible with the new solution: positive-mass spacetimes admit one cosmological horizon and two, one, or no black hole horizons, while negative-mass spacetimes have just a cosmological horizon. These new black holes share the properties of the corresponding asymptotically flat solutions, including the nonsingular core and thermodynamic stability in the final phase of the evaporation. As a second step we determine the action which generates the matter sector of gravitational field equations and we construct instantons describing the pair production of black holes and the other admissible topologies. As a result we find that for current values of the cosmological constant the de Sitter background is quantum mechanically stable according to experience. However, positive-mass noncommutative black holes and solitons would have plentifully been produced during inflationary times for Planckian values of the cosmological constant. As a special result we find that, in these early epochs of the Universe, Planck size black holes production would have been largely disfavored. We also find a potential instability for production of negative-mass solitons.

  15. Neutrino mass hierarchy determination via atmospheric neutrinos with future detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Raj; Ghoshal, Pomita; Goswami, Srubabati; Mehta, Poonam; Sankar, S Uma; Shalgar, Shashank

    2008-01-01

    The issue of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the outstanding questions in neutrino physics. We consider the potential of hierarchy determination using atmospheric neutrinos as the source in three different proposed future detectors: A large Iron Calorimeter detector, a megaton Water Cerenkov detector and a large-mass Liquid Argon detector. If the mixing angle θ 13 is about 10 deg. (close to CHOOZ upper bound), the hierarchy sensitivity is essentially determined by resonant matter effects. To maximize the potential of these effects in atmospheric neutrinos, charge discrimination capability in the detector is desirable. Hence, detectors with this capability have an advantage in hierarchy determination. We compare and contrast the performance of the above three detectors in this respect. We perform a realistic analysis of the above future detectors for atmospheric neutrinos and show that it is possible to achieve a significant hierarchy sensitivity if the detector characteristics are favourable. Note: The abstract has been modified from its original form to incorporate suggestions received during the conference. The poster is being submitted in its original form.

  16. Determination of plutonium in soils by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storms, H.A.; Carlson, D.C.; Hunter, F.F.

    1974-01-01

    A procedure is described in which mass spectrometry is utilized for the determination of plutonium in soils. Using this procedure we have measured plutonium isotopic compositions at concentrations as low as 2 x 10 -14 grams Pu per gram soil. A thermal ionization source with canoe-shaped rhenium filament, is utilized in the mass spectrometer. The plutonium, when loaded onto the filament, is contained in a single Dowex-1 resin bead which is about 350 micrometers in diameter. Concentrating the plutonium within this single bead is a key step in the procedure and produces a relatively clean plutonium fraction. The resin bead also serves as an effective diffusion barrier such that the plutonium is prevented from being removed with the lower boiling impurities. The Pu remains in the bead until the temperature is sufficiently high for efficient production of Pu + ions. Plutonium ionization efficiencies as high as 2.5 percent have been measured

  17. Shaping Globular Clusters with Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    How many black holes lurk within the dense environments of globular clusters, and how do these powerful objects shape the properties of the cluster around them? One such cluster, NGC 3201, is now helping us to answer these questions.Hunting Stellar-Mass Black HolesSince the detection of merging black-hole binaries by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), the dense environments of globular clusters have received increasing attention as potential birthplaces of these compact binary systems.The central region of the globular star cluster NGC 3201, as viewed by Hubble. The black hole is in orbit with the star marked by the blue circle. [NASA/ESA]In addition, more and more stellar-mass black-hole candidates have been observed within globular clusters, lurking in binary pairs with luminous, non-compact companions. The most recent of these detections, found in the globular cluster NGC 3201, stands alone as the first stellar-mass black hole candidate discovered via radial velocity observations: the black holes main-sequence companion gave away its presence via a telltale wobble.Now a team of scientists led by Kyle Kremer (CIERA and Northwestern University) is using models of this system to better understand the impact that black holes might have on their host clusters.A Model ClusterThe relationship between black holes and their host clusters is complicated. Though the cluster environment can determine the dynamical evolution of the black holes, the retention rate of black holes in a globular cluster (i.e., how many remain in the cluster when they are born as supernovae, rather than being kicked out during the explosion) influences how the host cluster evolves.Kremer and collaborators track this complex relationship by modeling the evolution of a cluster similar to NGC 3201 with a Monte Carlo code. The code incorporates physics relevant to the evolution of black holes and black-hole binaries in globular clusters, such as two-body relaxation

  18. Analysis of displacement and strain data for the determination of the in-situ deformability of rock masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de la Cruz, R.V.; Karfakis, M.; Kim, K.

    1981-01-01

    The in-situ deformability of a highly jointed basalt rock mass was determined by two distinctly different methods: one, by the NX-borehole jack method where the displacements of opposing curved platens were related to the applied hydraulic pressures, and; two, by the modified Goodman jack method where the tangential strains on the borehole walls were related to the induced tangential stresses. The modulus obtained by the modified Goodman jack method were much higher than those obtained by the NX-borehole jack method. To explain the discrepancy, the influence of fractures and test variables such as depth, orientation, hole number and applied pressure on the calculated modulus of the rock mass were analyzed by factorial analysis and it was found that the orientations and depths of measurement has statistically significant effects. The in-situ deformability values obtained by non-linear regression analysis were also found comparable with other measurements and empirically predicted values for the basalt rock mass

  19. Electron and hole photoemission detection for band offset determination of tunnel field-effect transistor heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Qin; Kirillov, Oleg A.; Levin, Igor; Richter, Curt A.; Gundlach, David J.; Nguyen, N. V.; Bijesh, R.; Datta, S.; Liang, Yiran; Peng, Lian-Mao; Liang, Xuelei

    2014-01-01

    We report experimental methods to ascertain a complete energy band alignment of a broken-gap tunnel field-effect transistor based on an InAs/GaSb hetero-junction. By using graphene as an optically transparent electrode, both the electron and hole barrier heights at the InAs/GaSb interface can be quantified. For a Al 2 O 3 /InAs/GaSb layer structure, the barrier height from the top of the InAs and GaSb valence bands to the bottom of the Al 2 O 3 conduction band is inferred from electron emission whereas hole emissions reveal the barrier height from the top of the Al 2 O 3 valence band to the bottom of the InAs and GaSb conduction bands. Subsequently, the offset parameter at the broken gap InAs/GaSb interface is extracted and thus can be used to facilitate the development of predicted models of electron quantum tunneling efficiency and transistor performance

  20. Equation of State Dependent Dynamics and Multi-messenger Signals from Stellar-mass Black Hole Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Liebendörfer, Matthias; Couch, Sean M.; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    2018-04-01

    We investigate axisymmetric black hole (BH) formation and its gravitational wave (GW) and neutrino signals with self-consistent core-collapse supernova simulations of a non-rotating 40 M ⊙ progenitor star using the isotropic diffusion source approximation for the neutrino transport and a modified gravitational potential for general relativistic effects. We consider four different neutron star (NS) equations of state (EoS): LS220, SFHo, BHBΛϕ, and DD2, and study the impact of the EoS on BH formation dynamics and GW emission. We find that the BH formation time is sensitive to the EoS from 460 to >1300 ms and is delayed in multiple dimensions for ∼100–250 ms due to the finite entropy effects. Depending on the EoS, our simulations show the possibility that shock revival can occur along with the collapse of the proto-neutron star (PNS) to a BH. The gravitational waveforms contain four major features that are similar to previous studies but show extreme values: (1) a low-frequency signal (∼300–500 Hz) from core-bounce and prompt convection, (2) a strong signal from the PNS g-mode oscillation among other features, (3) a high-frequency signal from the PNS inner-core convection, and (4) signals from the standing accretion shock instability and convection. The peak frequency at the onset of BH formation reaches to ∼2.3 kHz. The characteristic amplitude of a 10 kpc object at peak frequency is detectable but close to the noise threshold of the Advanced LIGO and KAGRA, suggesting that the next-generation GW detector will need to improve the sensitivity at the kHz domain to better observe stellar-mass BH formation from core-collapse supernovae or failed supernovae.

  1. Magnetic charge, black holes, and cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of converting a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole into a naked singularity by means of test particle accretion is considered. The dually charged Reissner-Nordstroem metric describes a black hole only when M 2 >Q 2 +P 2 . The test particle equations of motion are shown to allow test particles with arbitrarily large magnetic charge/mass ratios to fall radially into electrically charged black holes. To determine the nature of the final state (black hole or naked singularity) an exact solution of Einstein's equations representing a spherical shell of magnetically charged dust falling into an electrically charged black hole is studied. Naked singularities are never formed so long as the weak energy condition is obeyed by the infalling matter. The differences between the spherical shell model and an infalling point test particle are examined and discussed

  2. NASA Observatory Confirms Black Hole Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The very largest black holes reach a certain point and then grow no more, according to the best survey to date of black holes made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Scientists have also discovered many previously hidden black holes that are well below their weight limit. These new results corroborate recent theoretical work about how black holes and galaxies grow. The biggest black holes, those with at least 100 million times the mass of the Sun, ate voraciously during the early Universe. Nearly all of them ran out of 'food' billions of years ago and went onto a forced starvation diet. Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North On the other hand, black holes between about 10 and 100 million solar masses followed a more controlled eating plan. Because they took smaller portions of their meals of gas and dust, they continue growing today. "Our data show that some supermassive black holes seem to binge, while others prefer to graze", said Amy Barger of the University of Wisconsin in Madison and the University of Hawaii, lead author of the paper describing the results in the latest issue of The Astronomical Journal (Feb 2005). "We now understand better than ever before how supermassive black holes grow." One revelation is that there is a strong connection between the growth of black holes and the birth of stars. Previously, astronomers had done careful studies of the birthrate of stars in galaxies, but didn't know as much about the black holes at their centers. DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole "These galaxies lose material into their central black holes at the same time that they make their stars," said Barger. "So whatever mechanism governs star formation in galaxies also governs black hole growth." Astronomers have made an accurate census of both the biggest, active black holes in the distance, and the relatively smaller, calmer ones closer by. Now, for the first

  3. Black hole mass estimates and emission-line properties of a sample of redshift z > 6.5 quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, Gisella; Peterson, Bradley M.; Frank, Stephan [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Venemans, Bram P.; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gennaro, Mario [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Simcoe, Robert A. [MIT-Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Dietrich, Matthias [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Clippinger Lab 251B, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); McMahon, Richard G.; Hewett, Paul C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Mortlock, Daniel J. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Simpson, Chris [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    We present the analysis of optical and near-infrared spectra of the only four z > 6.5 quasars known to date, discovered in the UKIDSS-LAS and VISTA-VIKING surveys. Our data set consists of new Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter and Magellan/FIRE observations. These are the best optical/NIR spectroscopic data that are likely to be obtained for the z > 6.5 sample using current 6-10 m facilities. We estimate the black hole (BH) mass, the Eddington ratio, and the Si IV/C IV, C III]/C IV, and Fe II/Mg II emission-line flux ratios. We perform spectral modeling using a procedure that allows us to derive a probability distribution for the continuum components and to obtain the quasar properties weighted upon the underlying distribution of continuum models. The z > 6.5 quasars show the same emission properties as their counterparts at lower redshifts. The z > 6.5 quasars host BHs with masses of ∼10{sup 9} M{sub ☉} that are accreting close to the Eddington luminosity ((log(L{sub Bol}/L{sub Edd})) = –0.4 ± 0.2), in agreement with what has been observed for a sample of 4.0 < z < 6.5 quasars. By comparing the Si IV/C IV and C III]/C IV flux ratios with the results obtained from luminosity-matched samples at z ∼ 6 and 2 ≤ z ≤ 4.5, we find no evidence of evolution of the line ratios with cosmic time. We compare the measured Fe II/Mg II flux ratios with those obtained for a sample of 4.0 < z < 6.4 sources. The two samples are analyzed using a consistent procedure. There is no evidence that the Fe II/Mg II flux ratio evolves between z = 7 and z = 4. Under the assumption that the Fe II/Mg II traces the Fe/Mg abundance ratio, this implies the presence of major episodes of chemical enrichment in the quasar hosts in the first ∼0.8 Gyr after the Big Bang.

  4. Black holes without firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2013-05-01

    The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.

  5. Determination of trace elements by resonant ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruster, W.; Ames, F.; Rehklau, D.; Mang, M.; Muehleck, C.; Rimke, H.; Sattelberger, P.; Herrmann, G.; Trautmann, N.; Kluge, H.J.; Otten, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    A resonant ionization mass spectrometer has been developed as an analytical tool for the detection of trace elements, especially of plutonium and other radionuclides. The sample, deposited on a rhenium filament, is evaporated by electrical heating and the atoms of the element under investigation are selectively ionized by laser light delivered from three dye lasers pumped by a copper vapour laser. The resulting photoions are detected in a time-of-flight spectrometer with a channelplate detector. For plutonium a mass resolution of M/ΔM=1500 was obtained and an overall detection efficiency of 4x10 -6 was determined for stepwise excitation and ionization via autoionizing states. With a laser light bandwidth of 3-5 GHz neighbouring isotopes could be suppressed by a factor of 20 due to isotope shifts in the excitation transitions. The isotope composition of synthetic samples was measured and good agreement was found with mass spectroscopic results. The influence of the hyperfine structure on the isotope ratios is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Characterization of the fracturation of rock masses for determining flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.

    1984-02-01

    Flow in a rock mass is the consequence of the permeability of the rock, which can be roughly separated into matrix permeability and fissure permeability. In crystalline rocks fissure permeability is dominant, especially where the rocks are extensively fractured. It is thus essential, by means of studies either at the surface or underground, to characterize the volume fracturation in the mass considered. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the methodology for analysing fracturation at a site by the studies performed on the granite mass of Auriat in the French Massif Central. A number of geology laboratories have participated in this study and a broad spectrum of observations has been made which can be used for determining the various stages of a study with a view to selection of a site, the advantages and limitations of each method or study plan and additional methods which need to be used for gaining as complete a picture as possible of the fracturation. A brief examination of the results obtained at Auriat enables the relative advantages of using these various methods at a particular site to be compared

  7. Design of Experiments to Determine Causes of Flex Cable Solder Wicking, Discoloration and Hole Location Defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Larry

    2009-04-22

    Design of Experiments (DoE) were developed and performed in an effort to discover and resolve the causes of three different manufacturing issues; large panel voids after Hot Air Solder Leveling (HASL), cable hole locations out of tolerance after lamination and delamination/solder wicking around flat flex cable circuit lands after HASL. Results from a first DoE indicated large panel voids could be eliminated by removing the pre-HASL cleaning. It also revealed eliminating the pre-HASL bake would not be detrimental when using a hard press pad lamination stackup. A second DoE indicated a reduction in hard press pad stackup lamination pressure reduced panel stretch in the y axis approximately 70%. A third DoE illustrated increasing the pre-HASL bake temperature could reduce delamination/solder wicking when using a soft press pad lamination stackup.

  8. Image resolution influence on determination of resin injection rock mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixing; Hakami, Eva

    2006-01-01

    In the context of nuclear waste repositories, an important approach to understanding brittle rock mass behavior to integrate new and powerful observational and numerical methods with multi-functional 3-D imaging and visualization techniques. Since 1994, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) have identified the need for a better understanding of radionuclide transport and retention processes in fractured rock. As a cooperation project between Sweden and China, we sampled a number of rock specimens for analyze rock fracture network by optical image technique. The samples are resin injected, in which way; opened fractures can be seen clearly by means of UV (Ultraviolet) light illumination. In the study period, we used different optical focuses to obtain the images from the same samples; we found that Image resolution influences on porosity determination of resin injected rock mass. This paper presents and discusses the six issues based on our research results: (1) Fracture porosity increases as camera focus distance decreases; (2) Porosity increases as illumination increases in resin injected fracture images; (3) To roughly estimate the porosity, the low resolution image can be used; (4) To collect more details of fracture information, the high resolution image is needed; (5) The resolution of image should be determined based on the aim of fracture analysis; (6) To acquire high resolution image, constructing a special illumination (standard) box maybe helpful to avoid light reflection and diffusion.

  9. Black holes and cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the complete gravitational collapse of a body always yields a black hole, and that naked singularities are never produced (the cosmic censorship hypothesis). The local (or strong) cosmic censorship hypothesis states that singularities which are even locally naked (e.g., to an observer inside a black hole) are never produced. This dissertation studies the validity of these two conjectures. The Kerr-Newman metrics describes the black holes only when M 2 greater than or equal to Q 2 + P 2 , where M is the mass of the black hole, a = J/M its specific angular momentum, Q its electric charge, and P its magnetic charge. In the first part of this dissertation, the possibility of converting an extreme Kerr-Newman black hole (M 2 = a 2 + Q 2 + P 2 ) into a naked singularity by the accretion of test particles is considered. The motion of test particles is studied with a large angular momentum to energy ratio, and also test particles with a large charge to energy ratio. The final state is always found to be a black hole if the angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the black hole are all much greater than the corresponding angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the test particle. In Part II of this dissertation possible black hole interior solutions are studied. The Cauchy horizons and locally naked timelike singularities of the charged (and/or rotating) solutions are contrasted with the spacelike all-encompassing singularity of the Schwarzschild solution. It is determined which portions of the analytic extension of the Reissner-Nordstroem solution are relevant to realistic gravitational collapse

  10. CO-Dark Star Formation and Black Hole Activity in 3C 368 at z = 1.131: Coeval Growth of Stellar and Supermassive Black Hole Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamarche, C.; Stacey, G.; Riechers, D.; Vishwas, A. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Brisbin, D. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Diego Portales, Avenida Ejército 441, 8370191 Santiago (Chile); Ferkinhoff, C. [Department of Physics, Winona State University, Winona, MN, 55987 (United States); Hailey-Dunsheath, S. [California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 301-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nikola, T.; Spoon, H. [Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Sharon, C. E., E-mail: cjl272@cornell.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L85-4M1 (Canada)

    2017-02-10

    We present the detection of four far-infrared fine-structure oxygen lines, as well as strong upper limits for the CO(2–1) and [N ii] 205 μ m lines, in 3C 368, a well-studied radio-loud galaxy at z = 1.131. These new oxygen lines, taken in conjunction with previously observed neon and carbon fine-structure lines, suggest a powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN), accompanied by vigorous and extended star formation. A starburst dominated by O8 stars, with an age of ∼6.5 Myr, provides a good fit to the fine-structure line data. This estimated age of the starburst makes it nearly concurrent with the latest episode of AGN activity, suggesting a link between the growth of the supermassive black hole and stellar population in this source. We do not detect the CO(2–1) line, down to a level twelve times lower than the expected value for star-forming galaxies. This lack of CO line emission is consistent with recent star formation activity if the star-forming molecular gas has low metallicity, is highly fractionated (such that CO is photodissociated throughout much of the clouds), or is chemically very young (such that CO has not yet had time to form). It is also possible, although we argue it is unlikely, that the ensemble of fine-structure lines is emitted from the region heated by the AGN.

  11. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  12. The Disk Wind in the Rapidly Spinning Stellar-mass Black Hole 4U 1630-472 Observed with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley L.; Walton, Dominic J.; Miller, Jon M.; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Fabian, Andy C.; Furst, Felix; Hailey, Charles J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of a short NuSTAR observation of the stellar-mass black hole and low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1630-472. Reflection from the inner accretion disk is clearly detected for the first time in this source, owing to the sensitivity of NuSTAR. With fits to the reflection spectrum, we find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, a* = 0.985(+0.005/-0.014) (1 sigma statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also report the clear detection of an absorption feature at 7.03 +/- 0.03 keV, likely signaling a disk wind. If this line arises in dense, moderately ionized gas (log xi = 3.6(+0.2/-0.3) and is dominated by He-like Fe xxv, the wind has a velocity of v/c = 0.043(+0.002/-0.007) (12900(+600/-2100) km s(exp -1)). If the line is instead associated with a more highly ionized gas (log xi = 6.1(+0.7/-0.6)), and is dominated by Fe xxvi, evidence of a blueshift is only marginal, after taking systematic errors into account. Our analysis suggests the ionized wind may be launched within 200-1100 Rg, and may be magnetically driven.

  13. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Color-Selected Sample of the SDSS Fall Equatorial Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Osmer, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    We present mass functions of distant actively accreting supermassive black holes residing in luminous quasars discovered in the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Fall Equatorial Stripe of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The quasars cover a wide range of redshifts (0...... functions at similar redshifts based on the SDSS Data Release 3 quasar catalog presented by Vestergaard et al. We see clear evidence of cosmic downsizing in the comoving space density distribution of active black holes in the LBQS sample alone. In forthcoming papers, further analysis, comparison......, and discussion of these mass functions will be made with other existing black hole mass functions, notably that based on the SDSS DR3 quasar catalog. We present the relationships used to estimate the black hole mass based on the MgII emission line; the relations are calibrated to the Hbeta and CIV relations...

  14. A precise determination of the top-quark pole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sheng-Quan; Wu, Xing-Gang; Si, Zong-Guo; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2018-01-01

    The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) provides a systematic way to eliminate the renormalization scheme and renormalization scale uncertainties for high-energy processes. We have observed that by applying PMC scale setting, one obtains comprehensive and self-consistent pQCD predictions for the top-quark pair total cross section and the top-quark pair forward-backward asymmetry in agreement with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. As a step forward, in the present paper, we determine the top-quark pole mass via a detailed comparison of the top-quark pair cross section with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. The results for the top-quark pole mass are m t = 174.6 +3.1 -3.2 GeV for the Tevatron with √(S) = 1.96 TeV, m t = 173.7 ± 1.5 and 174.2 ± 1.7 GeV for the LHC with √(S) = 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. Those predictions agree with the average, 173.34 ± 0.76 GeV, obtained from various collaborations via direct measurements. The consistency of the pQCD predictions using the PMC with all of the collider measurements at different energies provides an important verification of QCD. (orig.)

  15. A precise determination of the top-quark pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Quan; Wu, Xing-Gang; Si, Zong-Guo; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2018-03-01

    The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) provides a systematic way to eliminate the renormalization scheme and renormalization scale uncertainties for high-energy processes. We have observed that by applying PMC scale setting, one obtains comprehensive and self-consistent pQCD predictions for the top-quark pair total cross section and the top-quark pair forward-backward asymmetry in agreement with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. As a step forward, in the present paper, we determine the top-quark pole mass via a detailed comparison of the top-quark pair cross section with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. The results for the top-quark pole mass are m_t=174.6^{+3.1}_{-3.2} GeV for the Tevatron with √{S}=1.96 TeV, m_t=173.7± 1.5 and 174.2± 1.7 GeV for the LHC with √{S} = 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. Those predictions agree with the average, 173.34± 0.76 GeV, obtained from various collaborations via direct measurements. The consistency of the pQCD predictions using the PMC with all of the collider measurements at different energies provides an important verification of QCD.

  16. Attenuation-corrected radionuclide differential glomerular filtration: Using a bilateral slant hole collimator for determining depth of kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasher, J.C.; Kopp, D.T.; Lancaster, J.L.; Blumhardt, R.

    1986-01-01

    There has recently been considerable interest in measuring differential renal function utilizing radionuclide attenuation correction techniques. One popular method is that of estimating kidney depth from the patient's weight-to-height ratio. A recent publication showed that renal depth can also be accurately determined using measurements from lateral views of each kidney. The authors have developed a third radionculide method using a bilateral slant-hole collimator (SHC) that is capable of obtaining the depth of both kidneys without repositioning the camera. This method makes use of the fact that two unique projections of each kidney are simultaneously acquired along spatial angles. The depth of each kidney used in the attenuation correction calculation can be easily obtained trigometrically using this known angle and the distance of the collimator from the patient

  17. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  18. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  19. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES: ACCRETION DISK CONTAMINATION AND COMPACT OBJECT MASS DETERMINATION IN V404 Cyg AND Cen X-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khargharia, Juthika; Froning, Cynthia S.; Robinson, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    We present near-infrared (NIR) broadband (0.80-2.42 μm) spectroscopy of two low-mass X-ray binaries: V404 Cyg and Cen X-4. One important parameter required in the determination of the mass of the compact objects in these systems is the binary inclination. We can determine the inclination by modeling the ellipsoidal modulations of the Roche-lobe filling donor star, but the contamination of the donor star light from other components of the binary, particularly the accretion disk, must be taken into account. To this end, we determined the donor star contribution to the infrared flux by comparing the spectra of V404 Cyg and Cen X-4 to those of various field K-stars of known spectral type. For V404 Cyg, we determined that the donor star has a spectral type of K3 III. We determined the fractional donor contribution to the NIR flux in the H and K bands as 0.98 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.09, respectively. We remodeled the H-band light curve from Sanwal et al. after correcting for the donor star contribution to obtain a new value for the binary inclination. From this, we determined the mass of the black hole in V404 Cyg to be M BH = 9.0 +0.2 -0.6 M sun . We performed the same spectral analysis for Cen X-4 and found the spectral type of the donor star to be in the range K5-M1 V. The donor star contribution in Cen X-4 is 0.94 ± 0.14 in the H band while in the K band, the accretion disk can contribute up to 10% of the infrared flux. We remodeled the H-band light curve from Shahbaz et al., again correcting for the fractional contribution of the donor star to obtain the inclination. From this, we determined the mass of the neutron star as M NS = 1.5 +0.1 -0.4 M sun . However, the masses obtained for both systems should be viewed with some caution since contemporaneous light curve and spectral data are required to obtain definitive masses.

  20. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS WITH A HOT NUCLEAR EQUATION OF STATE: OUTFLOW AND NEUTRINO-COOLED DISK FOR A LOW-MASS, HIGH-SPIN CASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D.; Foucart, Francois; O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Muhlberger, Curran D.

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino emission significantly affects the evolution of the accretion tori formed in black hole-neutron star mergers. It removes energy from the disk, alters its composition, and provides a potential power source for a gamma-ray burst. To study these effects, simulations in general relativity with a hot microphysical equation of state (EOS) and neutrino feedback are needed. We present the first such simulation, using a neutrino leakage scheme for cooling to capture the most essential effects and considering a moderate mass (1.4 M ☉ neutron star, 5.6 M ☉ black hole), high-spin (black hole J/M 2 = 0.9) system with the K 0 = 220 MeV Lattimer-Swesty EOS. We find that about 0.08 M ☉ of nuclear matter is ejected from the system, while another 0.3 M ☉ forms a hot, compact accretion disk. The primary effects of the escaping neutrinos are (1) to make the disk much denser and more compact, (2) to cause the average electron fraction Y e of the disk to rise to about 0.2 and then gradually decrease again, and (3) to gradually cool the disk. The disk is initially hot (T ∼ 6 MeV) and luminous in neutrinos (L ν ∼ 10 54 erg s –1 ), but the neutrino luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude over 50 ms of post-merger evolution

  1. Determining the maximum diameter for holes in the shoe without compromising shoe integrity when using a multi-segment foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Rebecca; Jenkyn, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Measuring individual foot joint motions requires a multi-segment foot model, even when the subject is wearing a shoe. Each foot segment must be tracked with at least three skin-mounted markers, but for these markers to be visible to an optical motion capture system holes or 'windows' must be cut into the structure of the shoe. The holes must be sufficiently large avoiding interfering with the markers, but small enough that they do not compromise the shoe's structural integrity. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum size of hole that could be cut into a running shoe upper without significantly compromising its structural integrity or changing the kinematics of the foot within the shoe. Three shoe designs were tested: (1) neutral cushioning, (2) motion control and (3) stability shoes. Holes were cut progressively larger, with four sizes tested in all. Foot joint motions were measured: (1) hindfoot with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (2) forefoot twist with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (3) the height-to-length ratio of the medial longitudinal arch and (4) the hallux angle with respect to first metatarsal in the sagittal plane. A single subject performed level walking at her preferred pace in each of the three shoes with ten repetitions for each hole size. The largest hole that did not disrupt shoe integrity was an oval of 1.7cm×2.5cm. The smallest shoe deformations were seen with the motion control shoe. The least change in foot joint motion was forefoot twist in both the neutral shoe and stability shoe for any size hole. This study demonstrates that for a hole smaller than this size, optical motion capture with a cluster-based multi-segment foot model is feasible for measure foot in shoe kinematics in vivo. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Quantitative interpretation of tracks for determination of body mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Schanz

    Full Text Available To better understand the biology of extinct animals, experimentation with extant animals and innovative numerical approaches have grown in recent years. This research project uses principles of soil mechanics and a neoichnological field experiment with an African elephant to derive a novel concept for calculating the mass (i.e., the weight of an animal from its footprints. We used the elephant's footprint geometry (i.e., vertical displacements, diameter in combination with soil mechanical analyses (i.e., soil classification, soil parameter determination in the laboratory, Finite Element Analysis (FEA and gait analysis for the back analysis of the elephant's weight from a single footprint. In doing so we validated the first component of a methodology for calculating the weight of extinct dinosaurs. The field experiment was conducted under known boundary conditions at the Zoological Gardens Wuppertal with a female African elephant. The weight of the elephant was measured and the walking area was prepared with sediment in advance. Then the elephant was walked across the test area, leaving a trackway behind. Footprint geometry was obtained by laser scanning. To estimate the dynamic component involved in footprint formation, the velocity the foot reaches when touching the subsoil was determined by the Digital Image Correlation (DIC technique. Soil parameters were identified by performing experiments on the soil in the laboratory. FEA was then used for the backcalculation of the elephant's weight. With this study, we demonstrate the adaptability of using footprint geometry in combination with theoretical considerations of loading of the subsoil during a walk and soil mechanical methods for prediction of trackmakers weight.

  3. Analyzing Black Hole Super-Radiance Emission of Particles/Energy from a Black Hole as a Gedankenexperiment to Get Bounds on the Mass of a Graviton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beckwith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of super-radiance in BH physics, so dE/dt<0 specifies conditions for a mass of a graviton being less than or equal to 1065 grams, allows for determing what role additional dimensions may play in removing the datum that massive gravitons lead to 3/4th the bending of light past the planet Mercury. The present document makes a given differentiation between super-radiance in the case of conventional BHs and Braneworld BH super-radiance, which may delineate whether Braneworlds contribute to an admissible massive graviton in terms of removing the usual problem of the 3/4th the bending of light past the planet Mercury which is normally associated with massive gravitons. This leads to a fork in the road between two alternatives with the possibility of needing a multiverse containment of BH structure or embracing what Hawkings wrote up recently, namely, a redo of the event horizon hypothesis as we know it.

  4. Multiscalar black holes with contingent primary hair: Mechanics and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignemi, Salvatore; Wiltshire, David L.

    2004-01-01

    We generalize a class of magnetically charged black holes nonminimally coupled to two scalar fields previously found by one of us to the case of multiple scalar fields. The black holes possess a novel type of primary scalar hair, which we call a contingent primary hair: although the solutions possess degrees of freedom which are not completely determined by the other charges of the theory, the charges necessarily vanish in the absence of the magnetic monopole. Only one constraint relates the black hole mass to the magnetic charge and scalar charges of the theory. We obtain a Smarr-type thermodynamic relation, and the first law of black hole thermodynamics for the system. We further explicitly show in the two-scalar-field case that, contrary to the case of many other hairy black holes, the black hole solutions are stable to radial perturbations

  5. JUNO. Determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy using reactor neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonsak, Bjoern [Hamburg University, Inst. Exp. Phys., Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a medium-baseline reactor neutrino experiment located in China. Its aim is to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy at more than 3 sigma significance after six years of data taking by using a 20kt liquid scintillator detector. To achieve this goal, an energy resolution of less than 3%/√(E) is necessary, creating strict requirements on the detector design and the liquid scintillator. Moreover, JUNO will be the only experiment in the near future able to measure the solar mixing parameters with a precision of better than 1%. This is at the same level as our current knowledge on flavour mixing in the quark sector, marking an important milestone of neutrino physics. In addition, supernova neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, sterile neutrinos as well as solar and atmospheric neutrinos can be studied. JUNO was approved in 2013 and the construction of the underground facility started early this year. In this talk the status of the experiment and its prospects is discussed.

  6. Determinism and mass-media portrayals of genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, C M; Ofulue, N; Sheedy, K M

    1998-01-01

    Scholars have expressed concern that the introduction of substantial coverage of "medical genetics" in the mass media during the past 2 decades represents an increase in biological determinism in public discourse. To test this contention, we analyzed the contents of a randomly selected, structured sample of American public newspapers (n=250) and magazines (n=722) published during 1919-95. Three coders, using three measures, all with intercoder reliability >85%, were employed. Results indicate that the introduction of the discourse of medical genetics is correlated with both a statistically significant decrease in the degree to which articles attribute human characteristics to genetic causes (P<.001) and a statistically significant increase in the differentiation of attributions to genetic and other causes among various conditions or outcomes (P<. 016). There has been no statistically significant change in the relative proportions of physical phenomena attributed to genetic causes, but there has been a statistically significant decrease in the number of articles assigning genetic causes to mental (P<.002) and behavioral (P<.000) characteristics. These results suggest that the current discourse of medical genetics is not accurately described as more biologically deterministic than its antecedents. PMID:9529342

  7. Black-hole production from ultrarelativistic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezzolla, Luciano; Takami, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    Determining the conditions under which a black hole can be produced is a long-standing and fundamental problem in general relativity. We use numerical simulations of colliding self-gravitating fluid objects to study the conditions of black-hole formation when the objects are boosted to ultrarelativistic speeds. Expanding on the previous work, we show that the collision is characterized by a type-I critical behaviour, with a black hole being produced for masses above a critical value, M c , and a partially bound object for masses below the critical one. More importantly, we show for the first time that the critical mass varies with the initial effective Lorentz factor 〈γ〉 following a simple scaling of the type M c ∼ K〈γ〉 −1.0 , thus indicating that a black hole of infinitesimal mass is produced in the limit of a diverging Lorentz factor. Furthermore, because a scaling is present also in terms of the initial stellar compactness, we provide a condition for black-hole formation in the spirit of the hoop conjecture. (fast track communication)

  8. Determinants of abundance and effects of blood-sucking flying insects in the nest of a hole-nesting bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Gustavo; Merino, Santiago; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa

    2008-05-01

    Compared to non-flying nest-dwelling ectoparasites, the biology of most species of flying ectoparasites and its potential impact on avian hosts is poorly known and rarely, if ever, reported. In this study we explore for the first time the factors that may affect biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) abundances in the nest cavity of a bird, the hole-nesting blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, and report their effects on adults and nestlings during reproduction. The abundance of biting midges was positively associated with nest mass, parental provisioning effort and abundance of blowflies and black flies, while negatively associated with nestling condition. Furthermore, a medication treatment to reduce blood parasitaemias in adult birds revealed that biting midges were more abundant in nests of females whose blood parasitaemias were experimentally reduced. This finding would be in accordance with these insect vectors attacking preferentially uninfected or less infected hosts to increase their own survival. The abundance of black flies in the population was lower than that of biting midges and increased in nests with later hatching dates. No significant effect of black fly abundance on adult or nestling condition was detected. Blood-sucking flying insects may impose specific, particular selection pressures on their hosts and more research is needed to better understand these host-parasite associations.

  9. Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  10. Very Broad [O III] λλ4959, 5007 Emission from the NGC 4472 Globular Cluster RZ 2109 and Implications for the Mass of Its Black Hole X-Ray Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Stern, Daniel; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kundu, Arunav; Kamionkowski, Marc; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl

    2008-08-01

    We present Keck LRIS spectroscopy of the black hole-hosting globular cluster RZ 2109 in the Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4472. We find that this object has extraordinarily broad [O III] λ5007 and [O III] λ4959 emission lines, with velocity widths of approximately 2000 km s-1. This result has significant implications for the nature of this accreting black hole system and the mass of the globular cluster black hole. We show that the broad [O III] λ5007 emission must arise from material driven at high velocity from the black hole system. This is because the volume available near the black hole is too small by many orders of magnitude to have enough [O III]-emitting atoms to account for the observed L([O III] λ5007) at high velocities, even if this volume is filled with oxygen at the critical density for [O III] λ5007. The Balmer emission is also weak, indicating the observed [O III] is not due to shocks. We therefore conclude that the [O III] λλ4959, 5007 is produced by photoionization of material driven across the cluster. The only known way to drive significant material at high velocity is for a system accreting mass near or above its Eddington limit, which indicates a stellar-mass black hole. Since it is dynamically implausible to form an accreting stellar-mass black hole system in a globular cluster with an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH), it appears this massive globular cluster does not have an IMBH. We discuss further tests of this conclusion, and its implications for the MBH - Mstellar and MBH - σ relations. Based on observations made at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  11. Black hole decay as geodesic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha

    2003-01-01

    We show that a formalism for analyzing the near-horizon conformal symmetry of Schwarzschild black holes using a scalar field probe is capable of describing black hole decay. The equation governing black hole decay can be identified as the geodesic equation in the space of black hole masses. This provides a novel geometric interpretation for the decay of black holes. Moreover, this approach predicts a precise correction term to the usual expression for the decay rate of black holes

  12. THE DISK WIND IN THE RAPIDLY SPINNING STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLE 4U 1630–472 OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Walton, Dominic J.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, Andy C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Natalucci, Lorenzo [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, INAF-IAPS, via del Fosso del Cavaliere, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William W., E-mail: ashking@umich.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We present an analysis of a short NuSTAR observation of the stellar-mass black hole and low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1630–472. Reflection from the inner accretion disk is clearly detected for the first time in this source, owing to the sensitivity of NuSTAR. With fits to the reflection spectrum, we find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, a{sub ∗}=0.985{sub −0.014}{sup +0.005} (1σ statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also report the clear detection of an absorption feature at 7.03 ± 0.03 keV, likely signaling a disk wind. If this line arises in dense, moderately ionized gas (log ξ=3.6{sub −0.3}{sup +0.2}) and is dominated by He-like Fe XXV, the wind has a velocity of v/c=0.043{sub −0.007}{sup +0.002} (12900{sub −2100}{sup +600} km s{sup –1}). If the line is instead associated with a more highly ionized gas (log ξ=6.1{sub −0.6}{sup +0.7}), and is dominated by Fe XXVI, evidence of a blueshift is only marginal, after taking systematic errors into account. Our analysis suggests the ionized wind may be launched within 200-1100 Rg, and may be magnetically driven.

  13. Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The biggest black holes may feed just like the smallest ones, according to data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ground-based telescopes. This discovery supports the implication of Einstein's relativity theory that black holes of all sizes have similar properties, and will be useful for predicting the properties of a conjectured new class of black holes. The conclusion comes from a large observing campaign of the spiral galaxy M81, which is about 12 million light years from Earth. In the center of M81 is a black hole that is about 70 million times more massive than the Sun, and generates energy and radiation as it pulls gas in the central region of the galaxy inwards at high speed. In contrast, so-called stellar mass black holes, which have about 10 times more mass than the Sun, have a different source of food. These smaller black holes acquire new material by pulling gas from an orbiting companion star. Because the bigger and smaller black holes are found in different environments with different sources of material to feed from, a question has remained about whether they feed in the same way. Using these new observations and a detailed theoretical model, a research team compared the properties of M81's black hole with those of stellar mass black holes. The results show that either big or little, black holes indeed appear to eat similarly to each other, and produce a similar distribution of X-rays, optical and radio light. AnimationMulti-wavelength Images of M81 One of the implications of Einstein's theory of General Relativity is that black holes are simple objects and only their masses and spins determine their effect on space-time. The latest research indicates that this simplicity manifests itself in spite of complicated environmental effects. "This confirms that the feeding patterns for black holes of different sizes can be very similar," said Sera Markoff of the Astronomical Institute, University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands, who led the study

  14. THE X-RAY POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY FUNCTION AND BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATE FOR THE SEYFERT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS IC 4329a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowitz, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present the X-ray broadband power spectral density function (PSD) of the X-ray-luminous Seyfert IC 4329a, constructed from light curves obtained via Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring and an XMM-Newton observation. Modeling the 3-10 keV PSD using a broken power-law PSD shape, a break in power-law slope is significantly detected at a temporal frequency of 2.5 +2.5 -1.7 x 10 -6 Hz, which corresponds to a PSD break timescale T b of 4.6 +10.1 -2.3 days. Using the relation between T b , black hole mass M BH , and bolometric luminosity as quantified by McHardy and coworkers, we infer a black hole mass estimate of M BH = 1.3 +1.0 -0.3 x 10 8 M sun and an accretion rate relative to Eddington of 0.21 +0.06 -0.10 for this source. Our estimate of M BH is consistent with other estimates, including that derived by the relation between M BH and stellar velocity dispersion. We also present PSDs for the 10-20 and 20-40 keV bands; they lack sufficient temporal frequency coverage to reveal a significant break, but are consistent with the same PSD shape and break frequency as in the 3-10 keV band.

  15. Ranking of factors determining potassium mass balance in bicarbonate haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Teutonico, Annalisa; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Lomonte, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    One of the most important pathogenetic factors involved in the onset of intradialysis arrhytmias is the alteration in electrolyte concentration, particularly potassium (K(+)). Two studies were performed: Study A was designed to investigate above all the isolated effect of the factor time t on intradialysis K(+) mass balance (K(+)MB): 11 stable prevalent Caucasian anuric patients underwent one standard (∼4 h) and one long-hour (∼8 h) bicarbonate haemodialysis (HD) session. The latter were pair-matched as far as the dialysate and blood volume processed (90 L) and volume of ultrafiltration are concerned. Study B was designed to identify and rank the other factors determining intradialysis K(+)MB: 63 stable prevalent Caucasian anuric patients underwent one 4-h standard bicarbonate HD session. Dialysate K(+) concentration was 2.0 mmol/L in both studies. Blood samples were obtained from the inlet blood tubing immediately before the onset of dialysis and at t60, t120, t180 min and at end of the 4- and 8-h sessions for the measurement of plasma K(+), blood bicarbonates and blood pH. Additional blood samples were obtained at t360 min for the 8 h sessions. Direct dialysate quantification was utilized for K(+)MBs. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for K(+) measurements. Study A: mean K(+)MBs were significantly higher in the 8-h sessions (4 h: -88.4 ± 23.2 SD mmol versus 8 h: -101.9 ± 32.2 mmol; P = 0.02). Bivariate linear regression analyses showed that only mean plasma K(+), area under the curve (AUC) of the hourly inlet dialyser diffusion concentration gradient of K(+) (hcgAUCK(+)) and AUC of blood bicarbonates and mean blood bicarbonates were significantly related to K(+)MB in both 4- and 8-h sessions. A multiple linear regression output with K(+)MB as dependent variable showed that only mean plasma K(+), hcgAUCK(+) and duration of HD sessions per se remained statistically significant. Study B: mean K(+)MBs were -86.7 ± 22.6 mmol

  16. Determination of the electron-hole pair creation energy for semiconductors from the spectral responsivity of photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Scholze, F; Kuschnerus, P; Rabus, H; Richter, M; Ulm, G

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be detected by the measurement of the charge carriers produced in a detector. The improved semiconductor technology now allows detectors operating near the physical limits of the detector materials to be designed. The mean energy required for producing an electron-hole pair, W, is a material property of the semiconductor. Here, the determination of W from the spectral responsivity of photodiodes is demonstrated. Using spectrally dispersed synchrotron radiation, different types of semiconductor photodiodes have been examined in the UV-, VUV-, and soft X-ray spectral range. Their spectral responsivity was determined with relative uncertainties between 0.4% and 1% using a cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer as primary detector standard. Results are presented for silicon n-on-p junction photodiodes and for GaAsP/Au Schottky diodes at room temperature. The investigations for silicon covered the complete spectral range from 3 to 1500 eV, yielding a constant value W=(3.66+-0.03) eV fo...

  17. Discovery and Monitoring of a New Black Hole Candidate XTE J1752-223 with RXTE: RMS Spectrum Evolution, BH Mass and the Source Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaposhinikov, Nikolai; Markwardt, Craig; Swank, Jean; Krimm, Hans

    2010-01-01

    We report on the discovery and monitoring observations of a new galactic black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The new source appeared on the X-ray sky on October 21 2009 and was active for almost 8 months. Phenomenologically, the source exhibited the low-hard/highsoft spectral state bi-modality and the variability evolution during the state transition that matches standard behavior expected from a stellar mass black hole binary. We model the energy spectrum throughout the outburst using a generic Comptonization model assuming that part of the input soft radiation in the form of a black body spectrum gets reprocessed in the Comptonizing medium. We follow the evolution of fractional root-mean-square (RMS) variability in the RXTE/PCA energy band with the source spectral state and conclude that broad band variability is strongly correlated with the source hardness (or Comptonized fraction). We follow changes in the energy distribution of rms variability during the low-hard state and the state transition and find further evidence that variable emission is strongly concentrated in the power-law spectral component. We discuss the implication of our results to the Comptonization regimes during different spectral states. Correlations of spectral and variability properties provide measurements of the BH mass and distance to the source. The spectral-timing correlation scaling technique applied to the RXTE observations during the hardto- soft state transition indicates a mass of the BH in XTE J1752-223 between 8 and 11 solar masses and a distance to the source about 3.5 kiloparsec.

  18. Precise determination of W anfd Z masses in UA2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, M.

    1990-01-01

    The UA2 experiment has collected large samples of W and Z events during the 1988 and 1989 runs at the CERN antipp Collider at √s = 630 GeV. These samples have been used to perform precise measurements of the masses of the W and Z bosons. After a careful analysis of systematic errors, an improved result is obtained for the mass ratio M W /M Z . This provides a new value for the weak mixing parameter sin 2 θ W . Furthermore, it can be combined with recent measurements of the Z mass from e + e - colliders to give an absolute measurement of the W mass, leading to the result m W = 80.49 ± 0.43(stat) ± 0.24(syst) GeV

  19. Curvature invariant characterization of event horizons of four-dimensional black holes conformal to stationary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, David D.

    2017-11-01

    We introduce three approaches to generate curvature invariants that transform covariantly under a conformal transformation of a four-dimensional spacetime. For any black hole conformally related to a stationary black hole, we show how a set of conformally covariant invariants can be combined to produce a conformally covariant invariant that detects the event horizon of the conformally related black hole. As an application we consider the rotating dynamical black holes conformally related to the Kerr-Newman-Unti-Tamburino-(anti)-de Sitter spacetimes and construct an invariant that detects the conformal Killing horizon along with a second invariant that detects the conformal stationary limit surface. In addition, we present necessary conditions for a dynamical black hole to be conformally related to a stationary black hole and apply these conditions to the ingoing Kerr-Vaidya and Vaidya black hole solutions to determine if they are conformally related to stationary black holes for particular choices of the mass function. While two of the three approaches cannot be generalized to higher dimensions, we discuss the existence of a conformally covariant invariant that will detect the event horizon for any higher dimensional black hole conformally related to a stationary black hole which admits at least two conformally covariant invariants, including all vacuum spacetimes.

  20. Black hole state evolution, final state and Hawking radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D

    2012-01-01

    The effect of a black hole state evolution on the Hawking radiation is studied using the final state boundary condition. It is found that the thermodynamic or statistical mechanical properties of a black hole depend strongly on the unitary evolution operator S, which determines the black hole state evolution. When the operator S is random unitary or pseudo-random unitary, a black hole emits thermal radiation as predicted by Hawking three decades ago. In particular, when the black hole mass of the final state vanishes, Hawking’s original result is retrieved. On the other hand, it is found that the emission of the Hawking radiation could be suppressed when the evolution of a black hole state is determined by the generator of the coherent state. Such a case can occur for some primordial black holes with Planck scale mass formed by primordial density fluctuations through the process of squeezing the zero-point quantum fluctuation of a scalar field. Those primordial black holes can survive until the present time and can contribute to cold dark matter. (paper)

  1. Thermodynamic stability of warped AdS3 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmingham, Danny; Mokhtari, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic stability of warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity. The spacelike stretched black hole is parametrized by its mass and angular momentum. We determine the local and global stability properties in the canonical and grand canonical ensembles. The presence of a Hawking-Page type transition is established, and the critical temperature is determined. The thermodynamic metric of Ruppeiner is computed, and the curvature is shown to diverge in the extremal limit. The consequences of these results for the classical stability properties of warped black holes are discussed within the context of the correlated stability conjecture.

  2. La Freccia Rossa: An IR-dark cloud hosting the Milky Way intermediate-mass black hole candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Vikram; Vedantham, Harish; Phinney, E. Sterl

    2018-05-01

    The dynamics of the high-velocity compact molecular cloud CO-0.40-0.22 have been interpreted as evidence for a ˜105M⊙ black hole within 60 pc of Sgr A*. Recently, Oka et al. have identified a compact millimetre-continuum source, CO-0.40-0.22*, with this candidate black hole. Here we present a collation of radio and infrared data at this location. ATCA constraints on the radio spectrum, and the detection of a mid-infrared counterpart, are in tension with an Sgr A*-like model for CO-0.40-0.22* despite the comparable bolometric to Eddington luminosity ratios under the IMBH interpretation. A protostellar-disk scenario is, however, tenable. CO-0.40-0.22(*) is positionally coincident with an arrowhead-shaped infrared-dark cloud (which we call the Freccia Rossa). If the VLSR ≈ 70 km s-1 systemic velocity of CO-0.40-0.22 is common to the entire Freccia Rossa system, we hypothesise that it is the remnant of a high-velocity cloud that has plunged into the Milky Way from the Galactic halo.

  3. Implicit Priors in Galaxy Cluster Mass and Scaling Relation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, A.; Allen, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Deriving the total masses of galaxy clusters from observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) generally requires some prior information, in addition to the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Often, this information takes the form of particular parametrized functions used to describe the cluster gas density and temperature profiles. In this paper, we investigate the implicit priors on hydrostatic masses that result from this fully parametric approach, and the implications of such priors for scaling relations formed from those masses. We show that the application of such fully parametric models of the ICM naturally imposes a prior on the slopes of the derived scaling relations, favoring the self-similar model, and argue that this prior may be influential in practice. In contrast, this bias does not exist for techniques which adopt an explicit prior on the form of the mass profile but describe the ICM non-parametrically. Constraints on the slope of the cluster mass-temperature relation in the literature show a separation based the approach employed, with the results from fully parametric ICM modeling clustering nearer the self-similar value. Given that a primary goal of scaling relation analyses is to test the self-similar model, the application of methods subject to strong, implicit priors should be avoided. Alternative methods and best practices are discussed.

  4. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS AND SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: A RELATIVISTIC TOY MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE MASS OF THE TORUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannarale, Francesco; Tonita, Aaryn; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    The merger of a binary system composed of a black hole (BH) and a neutron star (NS) may leave behind a torus of hot, dense matter orbiting around the BH. While numerical-relativity simulations are necessary to simulate this process accurately, they are also computationally expensive and unable at present to cover the large space of possible parameters, which include the relative mass ratio, the stellar compactness, and the BH spin. To mitigate this and provide a first reasonable coverage of the space of parameters, we have developed a method for estimating the mass of the remnant torus from BH-NS mergers. The toy model makes use of an improved relativistic affine model to describe the tidal deformations of an extended tri-axial ellipsoid orbiting around a Kerr BH and measures the mass of the remnant torus by considering which of the fluid particles composing the star are on bound orbits at the time of the tidal disruption. We tune the toy model by using the results of fully general-relativistic simulations obtaining relative precisions of a few percent and use it to investigate the space of parameters extensively. In this way, we find that the torus mass is largest for systems with highly spinning BHs, small stellar compactnesses, and large mass ratios. As an example, tori as massive as M b,tor ≅ 1.33 M sun can be produced for a very extended star with compactness C ≅ 0.1 inspiralling around a BH with dimensionless spin parameter a = 0.85 and mass ratio q ≅ 0.3. However, for a more astrophysically reasonable mass ratio q ≅ 0.14 and a canonical value of the stellar compactness C ≅ 0.145, the toy model sets a considerably smaller upper limit of M b,tor ∼ sun .

  5. Determination of {sup 135}Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, C.M.; Charles, C.R.J. [Andre. E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Zhao, X.-L.; Kieser, W.E. [Andre. E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Cornett, R.J. [Andre. E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Litherland, A.E. [IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    The ratio of anthropogenic {sup 135}Cs and {sup 137}Cs isotopes is characteristic of a uranium fission source. This research evaluates the technique of isotope dilution (yield tracing) for the purpose of quantifying {sup 135}Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry with on-line isobar separation. Interferences from Ba, Zn{sub 2}, and isotopes of equal mass to charge ratios were successfully suppressed. However, some sample crosstalk from source contamination remains. The transmission and di-fluoride ionization efficiencies of Cs isotopes were found to be 8 × 10{sup −3} and 1.7 × 10{sup −7} respectively. This quantification of {sup 135}Cs using yield tracing by accelerator mass spectrometry shows promise for future environmental sample analysis once the issues of sample crosstalk and low efficiency can be resolved.

  6. Direct gravimetric determination of aerosol mass concentration in central antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    In Antarctica, experimental difficulties due to extreme conditions have meant that aerosol mass has rarely been measured directly by gravimetry, and only in coastal areas where concentrations were in the range of 1-7 μg m(-3). The present work reports on a careful differential weighing methodology carried out for the first time on the plateau of central Antarctica (Dome C, East Antarctica). To solve problems of accurate aerosol mass measurements, a climatic room was used for conditioning and weighing filters. Measurements were carried out in long stages of several hours of readings with automatic recording of temperature/humidity and mass. This experimental scheme allowed us to sample from all the measurements (up to 2000) carried out before and after exposure, those which were recorded under the most stable humidity conditions and, even more importantly, as close to each other as possible. The automatic reading of the mass allowed us in any case to obtain hundreds of measurements from which to calculate average values with uncertainties sufficiently low to meet the requirements of the differential weighing procedure (±0.2 mg in filter weighing, between ±7% and ±16% both in aerosol mass and concentration measurements). The results show that the average summer aerosol mass concentration (aerodynamic size ≤10 μm) in central Antarctica is about 0.1 μg m(-3), i.e., about 1/10 of that of coastal Antarctic areas. The concentration increases by about 4-5 times at a site very close to the station.

  7. Determining neutrino mass from the cosmic microwave background alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplinghat, Manoj; Knox, Lloyd; Song, Yong-Seon

    2003-12-12

    Distortions of cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization maps caused by gravitational lensing, observable with high angular resolution and high sensitivity, can be used to measure the neutrino mass. Assuming two massless species and one with mass m(nu), we forecast sigma(m(nu))=0.15 eV from the Planck satellite and sigma(m(nu))=0.04 eV from observations with twice the angular resolution and approximately 20 times the sensitivity. A detection is likely at this higher sensitivity since the observation of atmospheric neutrino oscillations requires Deltam(2)(nu) greater, similar (0.04 eV)(2).

  8. Incorporating Biological Mass Spectrometry into Undergraduate Teaching Labs, Part 2: Peptide Identification via Molecular Mass Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnquist, Isaac J.; Beussman, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has become a routine analytical tool in the undergraduate curriculum in the form of GC-MS. While relatively few undergraduate programs have incorporated biological mass spectrometry into their programs, the importance of these techniques, as demonstrated by their recognition with the 2002 Nobel Prize, will hopefully lead to…

  9. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS WITH A HOT NUCLEAR EQUATION OF STATE: OUTFLOW AND NEUTRINO-COOLED DISK FOR A LOW-MASS, HIGH-SPIN CASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Foucart, Francois; O' Connor, Evan [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada); Ott, Christian D.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela [TAPIR, MC 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kidder, Lawrence E.; Muhlberger, Curran D., E-mail: mbdeaton@wsu.edu, E-mail: m.duez@wsu.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    Neutrino emission significantly affects the evolution of the accretion tori formed in black hole-neutron star mergers. It removes energy from the disk, alters its composition, and provides a potential power source for a gamma-ray burst. To study these effects, simulations in general relativity with a hot microphysical equation of state (EOS) and neutrino feedback are needed. We present the first such simulation, using a neutrino leakage scheme for cooling to capture the most essential effects and considering a moderate mass (1.4 M{sub ☉} neutron star, 5.6 M{sub ☉} black hole), high-spin (black hole J/M {sup 2} = 0.9) system with the K{sub 0} = 220 MeV Lattimer-Swesty EOS. We find that about 0.08 M{sub ☉} of nuclear matter is ejected from the system, while another 0.3 M{sub ☉} forms a hot, compact accretion disk. The primary effects of the escaping neutrinos are (1) to make the disk much denser and more compact, (2) to cause the average electron fraction Y{sub e} of the disk to rise to about 0.2 and then gradually decrease again, and (3) to gradually cool the disk. The disk is initially hot (T ∼ 6 MeV) and luminous in neutrinos (L{sub ν} ∼ 10{sup 54} erg s{sup –1}), but the neutrino luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude over 50 ms of post-merger evolution.

  10. N-body modeling of globular clusters: detecting intermediate-mass black holes by non-equipartition in HST proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenti, Michele

    2010-09-01

    Intermediate Mass Black Holes {IMBHs} are objects of considerable astrophysical significance. They have been invoked as possible remnants of Population III stars, precursors of supermassive black holes, sources of ultra-luminous X-ray emission, and emitters of gravitational waves. The centers of globular clusters, where they may have formed through runaway collapse of massive stars, may be our best chance of detecting them. HST studies of velocity dispersions have provided tentative evidence, but the measurements are difficult and the results have been disputed. It is thus important to explore and develop additional indicators of the presence of an IMBH in these systems. In a Cycle 16 theory project we focused on the fingerprints of an IMBH derived from HST photometry. We showed that an IMBH leads to a detectable quenching of mass segregation. Analysis of HST-ACS data for NGC 2298 validated the method, and ruled out an IMBH of more than 300 solar masses. We propose here to extend the search for IMBH signatures from photometry to kinematics. The velocity dispersion of stars in collisionally relaxed stellar systems such as globular clusters scales with main sequence mass as sigma m^alpha. A value alpha = -0.5 corresponds to equipartition. Mass-dependent kinematics can now be measured from HST proper motion studies {e.g., alpha = -0.21 for Omega Cen}. Preliminary analysis shows that the value of alpha can be used as indicator of the presence of an IMBH. In fact, the quenching of mass segregation is a result of the degree of equipartition that the system attains. However, detailed numerical simulations are required to quantify this. Therefore we propose {a} to carry out a new, larger set of realistic N-body simulations of star clusters with IMBHs, primordial binaries and stellar evolution to predict in detail the expected kinematic signatures and {b} to compare these predictions to datasets that are {becoming} available. Considerable HST resources have been invested in

  11. Determination of SB2 masses and age: introduction of the mass ratio in the Bayesian analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarrusso, M.; Leone, F.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Prada Moroni, P. G.

    2018-04-01

    Stellar age assignment still represents a difficult task in Astrophysics. This unobservable fundamental parameter can be estimated only through indirect methods, as well as generally the mass. Bayesian analysis is a statistical approach largely used to derive stellar properties by taking into account the available information about the quantities we are looking for. In this paper we propose to apply the method to the double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2), for which the only available information about masses is the observed mass ratio of the two components. We validated the method on a synthetic sample of Pre-Main Sequence (PMS) SB2 systems showing the capability of the technique to recover the simulated age and masses. Then, we applied our procedure to the PMS eclipsing binaries Parenago 1802 and RX J0529.4+0041 A, whose masses of both components are known, by treating them as SB2 systems. The estimated masses are in agreement with those dynamically measured. We conclude that the method, if based on high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, represents a robust way to infer the masses of the very numerous SB2 systems together with their age, allowing to date the hosting astrophysical environments.

  12. Determination of SB2 masses and age: introduction of the mass ratio in the Bayesian analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarrusso, M.; Leone, F.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Prada Moroni, P. G.

    2018-07-01

    Stellar age assignment still represents a difficult task in Astrophysics. This unobservable fundamental parameter can be estimated only through indirect methods, as well as generally the mass. Bayesian analysis is a statistical approach largely used to derive stellar properties by taking into account the available information about the quantities we are looking for. In this paper, we propose to apply the method to the double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2), for which the only available information about masses is the observed mass ratio of the two components. We validated the method on a synthetic sample of pre-main-sequence (PMS) SB2 systems showing the capability of the technique to recover the simulated age and masses. Then, we applied our procedure to the PMS eclipsing binaries Parenago 1802 and RX J0529.4+0041 A, whose masses of both components are known, by treating them as SB2 systems. The estimated masses are in agreement with those dynamically measured. We conclude that the method, if based on high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, represents a robust way to infer the masses of the very numerous SB2 systems together with their age, allowing to date the hosting astrophysical environments.

  13. Neutrino constraints that transform black holes into grey holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderfer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Existing black hole theory is found to be defective in its neglect of the physical properties of matter and radiation at superhigh densities. Nongravitational neutrino effects are shown to be physically relevant to the evolution of astronomical black holes and their equations of state. Gravitational collapse to supernovae combined with the Davis and Ray vacuum solution for neutrinos limit attainment of a singularity and require black holes to evolve into ''grey holes''. These allow a better justification than do black holes for explaining the unique existence of galactic masses. (Auth.)

  14. Search for Quantum Black-Hole Production in High-Invariant-Mass Lepton+Jet Final States Using Proton–Proton Collisions at √s = 8TeV and the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Back